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Sample records for healthy control tissue

  1. Quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy findings in a population with connective tissue disease and in normal healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakal, Y; Elvins, D M; Ring, E F; McHugh, N J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and quantify the morphological characteristics of nailfold capillaries that distinguish different forms of connective tissue disease from healthy controls. METHODS: A CCD video microscope with fibreoptic illumination and PC based image processing was used to visualise nailfold capillaries and to quantify findings in 23 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), 22 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 21 patients with undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD), and 38 healthy controls. RESULTS: Capillary density was reduced in SSc (5.2 (SD 1.3) capillaries/mm) compared with other patient groups and controls. The average number of enlarged capillaries/finger was high in all disease groups (5.5-6.6) compared with controls (2). However, giant capillaries were most frequent in SSc (43%) and were not present in controls. Mild and moderate avascular areas were present in all groups (35%-68%), but severe avascularity was most frequent in SSc (44%) compared with other patients (18%-19%) and controls (0%). The greatest frequency of extensive haemorrhage was in SSc (35%). CONCLUSIONS: There is a range of abnormal capillary findings in patients with connective tissue disease and healthy controls. However, certain abnormalities such as a reduced number of capillaries, severe avascularity, giant capillaries, and haemorrhage are most commonly associated with SSc. Videomicroscopy with image processing offers many technical advantages that can be exploited in further studies of nailfold capillaries. Images PMID:8774177

  2. Feast and famine: Adipose tissue adaptations for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri Barbato, Daniele; Aquilano, Katia

    2016-07-01

    Proper adipose tissue function controls energy balance with favourable effects on metabolic health and longevity. The molecular and metabolic asset of adipose tissue quickly and dynamically readapts in response to nutrient fluctuations. Once delivered into cells, nutrients are managed by mitochondria that represent a key bioenergetics node. A persistent nutrient overload generates mitochondrial exhaustion and uncontrolled reactive oxygen species ((mt)ROS) production. In adipocytes, metabolic/molecular reorganization is triggered culminating in the acquirement of a hypertrophic and hypersecretory phenotype that accelerates aging. Conversely, dietary regimens such as caloric restriction or time-controlled fasting endorse mitochondrial functionality and (mt)ROS-mediated signalling, thus promoting geroprotection. In this perspective view, we argued some important molecular and metabolic aspects related to adipocyte response to nutrient stress. Finally we delineated hypothetical routes by which molecularly and metabolically readapted adipose tissue promotes healthy aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Catalase activity in healthy and inflamed pulp tissues of permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-02

    Nov 2, 2015 ... pulps, which is due to pulpitis in comparison to healthy dental pulp. Key words: .... human dental pulp cells by Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide. J Endod ... Biology of disease: Free radicals and tissue injury.

  4. Diurnal variation of connective tissue metabolites in early and long-standing rheumatoid arthritis and in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottenburger, T; Junker, P; Hørslev-Petersen, K

    2011-01-01

    To study the circadian variability of circulating connective tissue metabolites in patients with very early (VERA) and long-standing rheumatoid arthritis (LRA) and in healthy control individuals.......To study the circadian variability of circulating connective tissue metabolites in patients with very early (VERA) and long-standing rheumatoid arthritis (LRA) and in healthy control individuals....

  5. Identification of novel adipokines in the joint. Differential expression in healthy and osteoarthritis tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Conde

    Full Text Available Emerging data suggest that several metabolic factors, released mainly by white adipose tissue (WAT and joint tissues, and collectively named adipokines, might have a role in the pathophysiology of OA. Recently, novel adipokines such as SERPINE2, WISP2, GPNMB and ITIH5 have been identified in WAT. The main goal of this study was to analyse the expression of these novel adipokines in synovium, infrapatellar fat pad and chondrocytes and to compare the expression of these molecules in healthy and OA tissues.Synovial tissues, infrapatellar fat pad and chondrocytes were obtained from 36 OA patients (age 52-85; mean BMI 28.9 who underwent total knee replacement surgery. Healthy synovial tissues and infrapatellar fat pad were obtained from 15 traumatic knee patients (age 23-53; mean BMI 23.5. mRNA and protein expression were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis respectively.All the novel adipokines, matter of our study, are expressed in OA synovium, infrapatellar fat pad and chondrocytes. Moreover, we detected a differential expression of SERPINE2 and ITIH5 in OA synovial tissues as compared to healthy samples. Finally, we also observed an increased expression of WISP2 in OA infrapatellar fat pad in comparison to healthy controls.In this study we demonstrated for the first time the expression of four novel adipokines in different joint tissues and how these molecules are differentially expressed in healthy and OA joint tissues.

  6. Extracellular matrix fragmentation in young, healthy cartilaginous tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, R J; Hodson, N W; Ozols, M; Shearer, T; Hoyland, J A; Sherratt, M J

    2018-02-09

    Although the composition and structure of cartilaginous tissues is complex, collagen II fibrils and aggrecan are the most abundant assemblies in both articular cartilage (AC) and the nucleus pulposus (NP) of the intervertebral disc (IVD). Whilst structural heterogeneity of intact aggrecan ( containing three globular domains) is well characterised, the extent of aggrecan fragmentation in healthy tissues is poorly defined. Using young, yet skeletally mature (18-30 months), bovine AC and NP tissues, it was shown that, whilst the ultrastructure of intact aggrecan was tissue-dependent, most molecules (AC: 95 %; NP: 99.5 %) were fragmented (lacking one or more globular domains). Fragments were significantly smaller and more structurally heterogeneous in the NP compared with the AC (molecular area; AC: 8543 nm2; NP: 4625 nm2; p tissue-invariant. Molecular fragmentation is considered indicative of a pathology; however, these young, skeletally mature tissues were histologically and mechanically (reduced modulus: AC: ≈ 500 kPa; NP: ≈ 80 kPa) comparable to healthy tissues and devoid of notable gelatinase activity (compared with rat dermis). As aggrecan fragmentation was prevalent in neonatal bovine AC (99.5 % fragmented, molecular area: 5137 nm2) as compared with mature AC (95.0 % fragmented, molecular area: 8667 nm2), it was hypothesised that targeted proteolysis might be an adaptive process that modified aggrecan packing (as simulated computationally) and, hence, tissue charge density, mechanical properties and porosity. These observations provided a baseline against which pathological and/or age-related fragmentation of aggrecan could be assessed and suggested that new strategies might be required to engineer constructs that mimic the mechanical properties of native cartilaginous tissues.

  7. Extracellular matrix fragmentation in young, healthy cartilaginous tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RJ Craddock

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the composition and structure of cartilaginous tissues is complex, collagen II fibrils and aggrecan are the most abundant assemblies in both articular cartilage (AC and the nucleus pulposus (NP of the intervertebral disc (IVD. Whilst structural heterogeneity of intact aggrecan ( containing three globular domains is well characterised, the extent of aggrecan fragmentation in healthy tissues is poorly defined. Using young, yet skeletally mature (18-30 months, bovine AC and NP tissues, it was shown that, whilst the ultrastructure of intact aggrecan was tissue-dependent, most molecules (AC: 95 %; NP: 99.5 % were fragmented (lacking one or more globular domains. Fragments were significantly smaller and more structurally heterogeneous in the NP compared with the AC (molecular area; AC: 8543 nm2; NP: 4625 nm2; p < 0.0001. In contrast, fibrillar collagen appeared structurally intact and tissue-invariant. Molecular fragmentation is considered indicative of a pathology; however, these young, skeletally mature tissues were histologically and mechanically (reduced modulus: AC: ≈ 500 kPa; NP: ≈ 80 kPa comparable to healthy tissues and devoid of notable gelatinase activity (compared with rat dermis. As aggrecan fragmentation was prevalent in neonatal bovine AC (99.5 % fragmented, molecular area: 5137 nm2 as compared with mature AC (95.0 % fragmented, molecular area: 8667 nm2, it was hypothesised that targeted proteolysis might be an adaptive process that modified aggrecan packing (as simulated computationally and, hence, tissue charge density, mechanical properties and porosity. These observations provided a baseline against which pathological and/or age-related fragmentation of aggrecan could be assessed and suggested that new strategies might be required to engineer constructs that mimic the mechanical properties of native cartilaginous tissues.

  8. Quantitative assessment of optical properties in healthy cartilage and repair tissue by optical coherence tomography and histology (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Sanne M. A.; Cernohorsky, Paul; de Bruin, Daniel M.; van der Pol, Edwin; Savci-Heijink, Cemile D.; Strackee, Simon D.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2016-02-01

    Quantification of the OCT signal is an important step toward clinical implementation of a diagnostic tool in cartilage imaging. Discrimination of structural cartilage differences in patients with osteoarthritis is critical, yet challenging. This study assesses the variation in the optical attenuation coefficient (μOCT) between healthy cartilage, repair tissue, bone and layers within repair tissue in a controlled setting. OCT and histology was used to assess goat talus articular surfaces in which central osteochondral defects were created. Exact matches of OCT and histology were selected for research. μOCT measurements were taken from healthy cartilage, repair tissue and bone. Measured μOCT in healthy cartilage was higher compared to both repair tissue and bone tissue. Two possible mechanisms for the difference in attenuation were investigated. We studied morphological parameters in terms of nucleus count, nucleus size and inter-nucleus distance. Collagen content in healthy cartilage and repair tissue was assessed using polarization microscopy. Quantitative analysis of the nuclei did not demonstrate a difference in nucleus size and count between healthy cartilage and repair tissue. In healthy cartilage, cells were spaced farther apart and had a lower variation in local nuclear density compared to repair tissue. Polarization microscopy suggested higher collagen content in healthy cartilage compared to repair tissue. μOCT measurements can distinguish between healthy cartilage, repair tissue and bone. Results suggest that cartilage OCT attenuation measurements could be of great impact in clinical diagnostics of osteoarthritis.

  9. A novel multi-tissue RNA diagnostic of healthy ageing relates to cognitive health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Sanjana; Gallagher, Iain J; Lunnon, Katie; Rullman, Eric; Keohane, Aoife; Crossland, Hannah; Phillips, Bethan E; Cederholm, Tommy; Jensen, Thomas; van Loon, Luc J C; Lannfelt, Lars; Kraus, William E; Atherton, Philip J; Howard, Robert; Gustafsson, Thomas; Hodges, Angela; Timmons, James A

    2015-09-07

    Diagnostics of the human ageing process may help predict future healthcare needs or guide preventative measures for tackling diseases of older age. We take a transcriptomics approach to build the first reproducible multi-tissue RNA expression signature by gene-chip profiling tissue from sedentary normal subjects who reached 65 years of age in good health. One hundred and fifty probe-sets form an accurate classifier of young versus older muscle tissue and this healthy ageing RNA classifier performed consistently in independent cohorts of human muscle, skin and brain tissue (n = 594, AUC = 0.83-0.96) and thus represents a biomarker for biological age. Using the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men birth-cohort (n = 108) we demonstrate that the RNA classifier is insensitive to confounding lifestyle biomarkers, while greater gene score at age 70 years is independently associated with better renal function at age 82 years and longevity. The gene score is 'up-regulated' in healthy human hippocampus with age, and when applied to blood RNA profiles from two large independent age-matched dementia case-control data sets (n = 717) the healthy controls have significantly greater gene scores than those with cognitive impairment. Alone, or when combined with our previously described prototype Alzheimer disease (AD) RNA 'disease signature', the healthy ageing RNA classifier is diagnostic for AD. We identify a novel and statistically robust multi-tissue RNA signature of human healthy ageing that can act as a diagnostic of future health, using only a peripheral blood sample. This RNA signature has great potential to assist research aimed at finding treatments for and/or management of AD and other ageing-related conditions.

  10. Effect of cold compress application on tissue temperature in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Ralph P; Towle-Millard, Heather A; Rankin, David C; Roush, James K

    2013-03-01

    To measure the effect of cold compress application on tissue temperature in healthy dogs. 10 healthy mixed-breed dogs. Dogs were sedated with hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg, IV) and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, IV). Three 24-gauge thermocouple needles were inserted to a depth of 0.5 (superficial), 1.0 (middle), and 1.5 (deep) cm into a shaved, lumbar, epaxial region to measure tissue temperature. Cold (-16.8°C) compresses were applied with gravity dependence for periods of 5, 10, and 20 minutes. Tissue temperature was recorded before compress application and at intervals for up to 80 minutes after application. Control data were collected while dogs received identical sedation but with no cold compress. Mean temperature associated with 5 minutes of application at the superficial depth was significantly decreased, compared with control temperatures. Application for 10 and 20 minutes significantly reduced the temperature at all depths, compared with controls and 5 minutes of application. Twenty minutes of application significantly decreased temperature at only the middle depth, compared with 10 minutes of application. With this method of cold treatment, increasing application time from 10 to 20 minutes caused a further significant temperature change at only the middle tissue depth; however, for maximal cooling, the minimum time of application should be 20 minutes. Possible changes in tissue temperature and adverse effects of application > 20 minutes require further evaluation.

  11. Validity and interobserver agreement of lower extremity local tissue water measurements in healthy women using tissue dielectric constant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads R; Birkballe, Susanne; Nørregaard, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurement may become an important tool in the clinical evaluation of chronic lower extremity swelling in women; however, several factors are known to influence TDC measurements, and comparative data on healthy lower extremities are few.......Tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurement may become an important tool in the clinical evaluation of chronic lower extremity swelling in women; however, several factors are known to influence TDC measurements, and comparative data on healthy lower extremities are few....

  12. Effect of warm compress application on tissue temperature in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Ralph P; Towle-Millard, Heather A; Rankin, David C; Roush, James K

    2013-03-01

    To measure the effect of warm compress application on tissue temperature in healthy dogs. 10 healthy mixed-breed dogs. Dogs were sedated with hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg, IV) and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, IV). Three 24-gauge thermocouple needles were inserted to a depth of 0.5 cm (superficial), 1.0 cm (middle), and 1.5 cm (deep) into a shaved, lumbar, epaxial region to measure tissue temperature. Warm (47°C) compresses were applied with gravity dependence for periods of 5, 10, and 20 minutes. Tissue temperature was recorded before compress application and at intervals for up to 80 minutes after application. Control data were collected while dogs received identical sedation but with no warm compress. Mean temperature associated with 5 minutes of heat application at the superficial, middle, and deep depths was significantly increased, compared with the control temperature. Application for 10 minutes significantly increased the temperature at all depths, compared with 5 minutes of application. Mean temperature associated with 20 minutes of application was not different at the superficial or middle depths, compared with 10 minutes of application. Temperature at the deep depth associated with 10 minutes of application was significantly higher, compared with 20 minutes of application, but all temperature increases at this depth were minimal. Results suggested that application of a warm compress should be performed for 10 minutes. Changes in temperature at a tissue depth of 1.5 cm were minimal or not detected. The optimal compress temperature to achieve therapeutic benefits was not determined.

  13. Catalase activity in healthy and inflamed pulp tissues of permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To evaluate catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity in healthy and inflamed dental pulp of young patient's teeth and to investigate if an active defense system oxidizing agents is present as a response to bacterial invasion. Materials and Methods: Twenty young patients between 15 and 25 ages, who were diagnosed to be ...

  14. Side effects of ionizing radiation on healthy tissues and organs at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosset, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Ionizing radiations induce cell death, causing deterministic or stochastic side-effects. This paper briefly summarizes the biological mechanisms of early and late side-effects of ionizing radiations on healthy tissue. (author)

  15. A randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study on the effects of 2-L infusions of 0.9% saline and plasma-lyte® 148 on renal blood flow velocity and renal cortical tissue perfusion in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Abeed H; Cox, Eleanor F; Francis, Susan T; Lobo, Dileep N

    2012-07-01

    We compared the effects of intravenous infusions of 0.9% saline ([Cl] 154 mmol/L) and Plasma-Lyte 148 ([Cl] 98 mmol/L, Baxter Healthcare) on renal blood flow velocity and perfusion in humans using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Animal experiments suggest that hyperchloremia resulting from 0.9% saline infusion may affect renal hemodynamics adversely, a phenomenon not studied in humans. Twelve healthy adult male subjects received 2-L intravenous infusions over 1 hour of 0.9% saline or Plasma-Lyte 148 in a randomized, double-blind manner. Crossover studies were performed 7 to 10 days apart. MRI scanning proceeded for 90 minutes after commencement of infusion to measure renal artery blood flow velocity and renal cortical perfusion. Blood was sampled and weight recorded hourly for 4 hours. Sustained hyperchloremia was seen with saline but not with Plasma-Lyte 148 (P Blood volume changes were identical (P = 0.867), but there was greater expansion of the extravascular fluid volume after saline (P = 0.029). There was a significant reduction in mean renal artery flow velocity (P = 0.045) and renal cortical tissue perfusion (P = 0.008) from baseline after saline, but not after Plasma-Lyte 148. There was no difference in concentrations of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin after the 2 infusions (P = 0.917). This is the first human study to demonstrate that intravenous infusion of 0.9% saline results in reductions in renal blood flow velocity and renal cortical tissue perfusion. This has implications for intravenous fluid therapy in perioperative and critically ill patients. NCT01087853.

  16. Histochemical characterization of human osteochondral tissue: comparison between healthy cartilage, arthrotic tissues, and cartilage defect treated with MACI technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tessarolo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix-induced sutologous chondrocytes implantation (MACI is a promising technique for the treatment of articular cartilage lesions, but long time outcome have to be established. We developed and optimized specific techniques of histochemical staining to characterize healthy and pathologic osteochondral tissue. Seven different staining protocols were applied to assess tissue architecture, cells morphology, proteoglycan content, and collagen fibers distribution. Potentialities of histochemical staining and histomorphology of biopsies from second look arthroscopy will be presented.

  17. Ultrasonic wave transmission through healthy and diseased tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edee, M.K.A.

    1985-12-01

    We calculated the distribution of the spectral density of the ultrasonic energy transmitted by the reference specimen which was water. Let σsub(i0) 2 be this parameter for the frequency fsub(i). In the same manner, we evaluated σsub(i) 2 for the ultrasonic energy transmitted by the biological tissue. We superposed on the curve Log σsub(i0) 2 =F(fsub(i)), each of the curves Log σsub(i) 2 =F(fsub(i)), corresponding to the different kinds of tissues studied. By doing so, we brought into light a ''zone'' between those curves. The judicious exploitation of that ''zone'' by calculating the spectral density coefficients β, made it possible to differentiate one tissue from another. We compared the results so obtained using a probe vibrating at 1.5 MHz with those we obtained by another probe and another method. Both sets of results are in agreement within an approximation of 10%. (author)

  18. Lead, selenium and nickel concentrations in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline ovarian tumor and healthy ovarian tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaz, Emel; Kilinc, Metin; Sayar, Hamide; Kiran, Gurkan; Ozyurek, Eser

    2017-09-01

    Wide variation exists in ovarian cancer incidence rates suggesting the importance of environmental factors. Due to increasing environmental pollution, trace elements and heavy metals have drawn attention in studies defining the etiology of cancer, but scant data is available for ovarian cancer. Our aim was to compare the tissue concentrations of lead, selenium and nickel in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline tumor and healthy ovarian tissues. The levels of lead, selenium and nickel were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Tests were carried out in 20 malignant epithelial ovarian cancer, 15 epithelial borderline tumor and 20 non-neoplastic healthy ovaries. Two samples were collected for borderline tumors, one from papillary projection and one from the smooth surface of cyst wall. Pb and Ni concentrations were found to be higher both in malignant and borderline tissues than those in healthy ovaries. Concentrations of Pb and Ni in malignant tissues, borderline papillary projections and capsular tissue samples were not different. Comparison of Se concentrations of malignant, borderline and healthy ovarian tissues did not reveal statistical difference. Studied metal levels were not found to be different in either papillary projection or in cyst wall of the borderline tumors. This study revealed the accumulation of lead and nickel in ovarian tissue is associated with borderline and malignant proliferation of the surface epithelium. Accumulation of these metals in epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumor has not been demonstrated before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Catalase activity in healthy and inflamed pulp tissues of permanent teeth in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Kmc; Kırıcı, D Ö; Evcil, M S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity in healthy and inflamed dental pulp of young patient's teeth and to investigate if an active defense system oxidizing agents is present as a response to bacterial invasion. Twenty young patients between 15 and 25 ages, who were diagnosed to be healthy, were the source of the pulp tissue. The situation of the dental pulps was evaluated using clinical and radiographic assessments. The patients were divided two groups from healthy, and inflamed pulp tissues were obtained; each participant provided one pulp tissue specimens. The specimens were collected during endodontic treatment or by longitudinally grooving and splitting the teeth (if extracted). Catalase activity was determined through spectrophotometric methods and an independent sample t-test assessed the significance of differences between the groups. There was statistically a difference between healthy pulp tissue and inflamed pulp tissue (P catalase activity of healthy group was significantly lower than inflamed pulp groups. The present study has shown that a significant increase in catalase activity is determined in inflamed dental pulps, which is due to pulpitis in comparison to healthy dental pulp.

  20. Alternative Promoter Usage in Healthy and Inflamed Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilje, Berit

    and cell-lines covering the entire human body. This provides a unique dataset to study gene expression, with promoter level precision. Here we use this large collection of data to study alternative transcription start site usage throughout the human body. We find that many alternative transcription start...... with tumour necrosis factor alpha, and on tissue from mice subjected to carbon nanotubes. Both systems show a strong response, with especially alternative transcription start sites being differentially regulated. Taken together this shows that alternative transcription start sites add an important layer...

  1. Contributions of adipose tissue architectural and tensile properties toward defining healthy and unhealthy obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Denise E; Burk, David H; Ali, Mohamed R; Mostaedi, Rouzbeh; Smith, William H; Park, Jiyoung; Scherer, Philipp E; Seay, Shundra A; McCoin, Colin S; Bonaldo, Paolo; Adams, Sean H

    2014-02-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in the maintenance of white adipose tissue (WAT) architecture and function, and proper ECM remodeling is critical to support WAT malleability to accommodate changes in energy storage needs. Obesity and adipocyte hypertrophy place a strain on the ECM remodeling machinery, which may promote disordered ECM and altered tissue integrity and could promote proinflammatory and cell stress signals. To explore these questions, new methods were developed to quantify omental and subcutaneous WAT tensile strength and WAT collagen content by three-dimensional confocal imaging, using collagen VI knockout mice as a methods validation tool. These methods, combined with comprehensive measurement of WAT ECM proteolytic enzymes, transcript, and blood analyte analyses, were used to identify unique pathophenotypes of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese women, using multivariate statistical modeling and univariate comparisons with weight-matched healthy obese individuals. In addition to the expected differences in inflammation and glycemic control, approximately 20 ECM-related factors, including omental tensile strength, collagen, and enzyme transcripts, helped discriminate metabolically compromised obesity. This is consistent with the hypothesis that WAT ECM physiology is intimately linked to metabolic health in obese humans, and the studies provide new tools to explore this relationship.

  2. Controlled drug release for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambhia, Kunal J; Ma, Peter X

    2015-12-10

    Tissue engineering is often referred to as a three-pronged discipline, with each prong corresponding to 1) a 3D material matrix (scaffold), 2) drugs that act on molecular signaling, and 3) regenerative living cells. Herein we focus on reviewing advances in controlled release of drugs from tissue engineering platforms. This review addresses advances in hydrogels and porous scaffolds that are synthesized from natural materials and synthetic polymers for the purposes of controlled release in tissue engineering. We pay special attention to efforts to reduce the burst release effect and to provide sustained and long-term release. Finally, novel approaches to controlled release are described, including devices that allow for pulsatile and sequential delivery. In addition to recent advances, limitations of current approaches and areas of further research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Glucagon-like peptide-1 elicits vasodilation in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Asmar, Meena; Simonsen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    In healthy subjects, we recently demonstrated that during acute administration of GLP-1, cardiac output increased significantly, whereas renal blood flow remained constant. We therefore hypothesize that GLP-1 induces vasodilation in other organs, for example, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and....../or splanchnic tissues. Nine healthy men were examined twice in random order during a 2-hour infusion of either GLP-1 (1.5 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) or saline. Cardiac output was continuously estimated noninvasively concomitantly with measurement of intra-arterial blood pressure. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose...... and heart rate compared with the saline study. Subcutaneous, abdominal ATBF and leg blood flow increased significantly during the GLP-1 infusion compared with saline, whereas splanchnic blood flow response did not differ between the studies. We conclude that in healthy subjects, GLP-1 increases cardiac...

  4. DNA methylation age is elevated in breast tissue of healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehl, Mary E; Henry, Jill E; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Ganz, Patricia A; Horvath, Steve

    2017-07-01

    Limited evidence suggests that female breast tissue ages faster than other parts of the body according to an epigenetic biomarker of aging known as the "epigenetic clock." However, it is unknown whether breast tissue samples from healthy women show a similar accelerated aging effect relative to other tissues, and what could drive this acceleration. The goal of this study is to validate our initial finding of advanced DNA methylation (DNAm) age in breast tissue, by directly comparing it to that of peripheral blood tissue from the same individuals, and to do a preliminary assessment of hormonal factors that could explain the difference. We utilized n = 80 breast and 80 matching blood tissue samples collected from 40 healthy female participants of the Susan G. Komen Tissue Bank at the Indiana University Simon Cancer Center who donated these samples at two time points spaced at least a year apart. DNA methylation levels (Illumina 450K platform) were used to estimate the DNAm age. DNAm age was highly correlated with chronological age in both peripheral blood (r = 0.94, p < 0.0001) and breast tissues (r = 0.86, p < 0.0001). A measure of epigenetic age acceleration (age-adjusted DNAm Age) was substantially increased in breast relative to peripheral blood tissue (p = 1.6 × 10 -11 ). The difference between DNAm age of breast and blood decreased with advancing chronologic age (r = -0.53, p = 4.4 × 10 -4 ). Our data clearly demonstrate that female breast tissue has a higher epigenetic age than blood collected from the same subject. We also observe that the degree of elevation in breast diminishes with advancing age. Future larger studies will be needed to examine associations between epigenetic age acceleration and cumulative hormone exposure.

  5. Dose effect comparisons between HFR and BMRR irradiated dogs with respect to healthy tissue tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huiskamp, R.; Philipp, K.H.I.; Gavin, P.R.; Wheeler, F.J.; Siefert, A.

    1993-01-01

    Epithermal neutron beams are being developed for the application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of deep seated tumors, like glioblastoma and astrocytomas, through the intact skin. Epithermal neutrons will be moderated by the tissue mass between skin and tumour to produce the thermal neutrons necessary for the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction in the target tissue. Although the neutron capture cross-sections of elements in normal tissue are several orders of magnitude lower that for boron, the high abundance of hydrogen and nitrogen will cause a significant contribution to the total absorbed radiation dose through the 1 H(n,γ) 2 H and the 14 N(n,p) 14 C reaction, respectively. Due to inevitable incomplete filtration, an epithermal beam will also contain a fast neutron component, i.e. neutrons with energies ≥ 10 keV, and a γ-photon component originating from the reactor and produced in structural and filter materials. Therefore, the resultant radiation consists of a complex of low and high LET radiation of which the constitutents vary rapidly with depth in tissue. Based on the ongoing canine healthy tissue tolerance study at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) using the epithermal beam without BSH, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the fast neutron beam component has been determined for skin reactions. In addition, a open-quotes compound factorclose quotes, i.e geometry x RBE, for the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction was derived for dogs irradiated at the BMRR with the epithermal beam and BSH (Gavin et al.). Currently, a healthy tissue tolerance study with BSH is being carried out at the HB11 epithermal beam of the High Flux Reactor at Petten. The present paper describes preliminary dose effect comparisons between High Flux Reactor (HFR) and BMRR irradiated dogs with respect to healthy tissue tolerance in order to refine the BSH compound factors and the fast neutron RBE for skin and brain

  6. Quantitative tissue parameters of Achilles tendon and plantar fascia in healthy subjects using a handheld myotonometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orner, Sarah; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Schmidberger, Julian; Grüner, Beate

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the quantitative tissue properties of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia using a handheld, non-invasive MyotonPRO device, in order to generate normal values and examine the biomechanical relationship of both structures. Prospective study of a large, healthy sample population. The study sample included 207 healthy subjects (87 males and 120 females) for the Achilles tendon and 176 healthy subjects (73 males and 103 females) for the plantar fascia. For the correlations of the tissue parameters of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia an intersection of both groups was formed which included 150 healthy subjects (65 males and 85 females). All participants were measured in a prone position. Consecutive measurements of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia were performed by MyotonPRO device at defined sites. For the left and right Achilles tendons and plantar fasciae all five MyotonPRO parameters (Frequency [Hz], Decrement, Stiffness [N/m], Creep and Relaxation Time [ms]) were calculated of healthy males and females. The correlation of the tissue parameters of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia showed a significant positive correlation of all parameters on the left as well as on the right side. The MyotonPRO is a feasible device for easy measurement of passive tissue properties of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia in a clinical setting. The generated normal values of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia are important for detecting abnormalities in patients with Achilles tendinopathy or plantar fasciitis in the future. Biomechanically, both structures are positively correlated. This may provide new aspects in the diagnostics and therapy of plantar fasciitis and Achilles tendinopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polarimetry based partial least square classification of ex vivo healthy and basal cell carcinoma human skin tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Ahmad, Manzoor; Khan, Karim; Ikram, Masroor

    2016-06-01

    Optical polarimetry was employed for assessment of ex vivo healthy and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) tissue samples from human skin. Polarimetric analyses revealed that depolarization and retardance for healthy tissue group were significantly higher (ppolarimetry together with PLS statistics hold promise for automated pathology classification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee L. Dordevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD; body mass index (BMI 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water, carbohydrate (maltodextrin or lipid (dairy-cream. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h, as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03 and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001 decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  9. Characterization of in vitro healthy and pathological human liver tissue periodicity using backscattered ultrasound signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Christiano Bittencourt; Pereira, Wagner Coelho de Albuquerque; Meziri, Mahmoud; Laugier, Pascal

    2006-05-01

    This work studied the periodicity of in vitro healthy and pathologic liver tissue, using backscattered ultrasound (US) signals. It utilized the mean scatterer spacing (MSS) as a parameter of tissue characterization, estimated by three methods: the spectral autocorrelation (SAC), the singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and the quadratic transformation method (SIMON). The liver samples were classified in terms of tissue status using the METAVIR scoring system. Twenty tissue samples were classified in four groups: F0, F1, F3 and F4 (five samples for each). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (applied on group pairs) resulted as nonsignificant (p > 0.05) for two pairs only: F1/F3 (for SSA) and F3/F4 (for SAC). A discriminant analysis was applied using as parameters the MSS mean (MSS) and standard deviation (sigmaMSS), the estimates histogram mode (mMSS), and the speed of US (mc(foie)) in the medium, to evaluate the degree of discrimination among healthy and pathologic tissues. The better accuracy (Ac) with SAC (80%) was with parameter group (MSS, sigmaMSS, mc(foie)), achieving a sensitivity (Ss) of 92.3% and a specificity (Sp) of 57.1%. For SSA, the group with all four parameters showed an Ac of 75%, an Ss of 78.6% and an Sp of 66.70%. SIMON obtained the best Ac of all (85%) with group (MSS, mMSS, mc(foie)), an Ss of 100%, but with an Sp of 50%.

  10. Distribution of enrofloxacin in intestinal tissue and contents of healthy pigs after oral and intramuscular administrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiuff, C.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2002-01-01

    The concentration of enrofloxacin in plasma, intestinal tissue, lymph nodes and intestinal contents was investigated in healthy pigs after oral (p.o.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration of a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg bw. Tissue and content samples were collected from jejunum, ileum, caecum...... administration, and maximum concentrations in tissue and plasma were determined later than after i.m. administration. No difference between route of administration was observed in the intestinal content. Enrofloxacin concentrations in faeces during a 5-day dosing regimen with i.m. and p.o. administration were....... On the basis of these results it was concluded that in order to ensure an immediate high concentration of enrofloxacin, and thereby avoid an initial selection for resistant mutants, the intramuscular route seems to be preferable to the oral route....

  11. Alendronate treatment alters bone tissues at multiple structural levels in healthy canine cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Claire; Bale, Hrishikesh; Gludovatz, Bernd; Wat, Amy; Tang, Simon Y; Wang, Mingyue; Busse, Björn; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Schaible, Eric; Allen, Matthew R; Burr, David B; Ritchie, Robert O

    2015-12-01

    Bisphosphonates are widely used to treat osteoporosis, but have been associated with atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) in the long term, which raises a critical health problem for the aging population. Several clinical studies have suggested that the occurrence of AFFs may be related to the bisphosphonate-induced changes of bone turnover, but large discrepancies in the results of these studies indicate that the salient mechanisms responsible for any loss in fracture resistance are still unclear. Here the role of bisphosphonates is examined in terms of the potential deterioration in fracture resistance resulting from both intrinsic (plasticity) and extrinsic (shielding) toughening mechanisms, which operate over a wide range of length-scales. Specifically, we compare the mechanical properties of two groups of humeri from healthy beagles, one control group comprising eight females (oral doses of saline vehicle, 1 mL/kg/day, 3 years) and one treated group comprising nine females (oral doses of alendronate used to treat osteoporosis, 0.2mg/kg/day, 3 years). Our data demonstrate treatment-specific reorganization of bone tissue identified at multiple length-scales mainly through advanced synchrotron x-ray experiments. We confirm that bisphosphonate treatments can increase non-enzymatic collagen cross-linking at molecular scales, which critically restricts plasticity associated with fibrillar sliding, and hence intrinsic toughening, at nanoscales. We also observe changes in the intracortical architecture of treated bone at microscales, with partial filling of the Haversian canals and reduction of osteon number. We hypothesize that the reduced plasticity associated with BP treatments may induce an increase in microcrack accumulation and growth under cyclic daily loadings, and potentially increase the susceptibility of cortical bone to atypical (fatigue-like) fractures. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Effect of physical exercise on blood lipids and adipose tissue composition in young healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danner, S. A.; Wieling, W.; Havekes, L.; Leuven, J. G.; Smit, E. M.; Dunning, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    In a prospective, controlled study, the influence of strenuous physical exercise on plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, total triglycerides and fatty acid composition of adipose tissue was studied during 7 months of training in 15 senior oarsmen and 21 controls matched for

  13. Efficacy of hidden markov model over support vector machine on multiclass classification of healthy and cancerous cervical tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Kurmi, Indrajit; Pratiher, Sawon; Mukherjee, Sukanya; Barman, Ritwik; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a comparative study between SVM and HMM has been carried out for multiclass classification of cervical healthy and cancerous tissues. In our study, the HMM methodology is more promising to produce higher accuracy in classification.

  14. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium and nickel in cancerous and healthy tissues from patients with head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlifi, Rim; Olmedo, Pablo; Gil, Fernando; Hammami, Bouthaina; Chakroun, Amine; Rebai, Ahmed; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to heavy metals has long been recognized as being capable to increase head and neck cancer incidence among exposed human populations. Head and neck cancer is a significant public health issue in Tunisia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Ni in healthy and tumor tissues of head and neck cancer patients. Metal concentrations were determined in tumor and healthy tissues of 101 head and neck cancer patients, using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The As, Cd, Cr, and Ni levels in tumor tissues were 3.4, 2.5, 1.3 and 1.5 times higher than those of healthy tissues (p 60 years) in both never-smokers and ever-smokers (< 20 and ≥ 20 pack per year). Healthy tissue Cd levels were negatively associated with age in those three groups of smokers. The highest Cd and Cr concentrations among both workers and non-workers were observed in tumor tissues. The Cd and Cr in tissues of farmers, bricklayers and painters were all significantly higher among the workers as compared with the non-workers group. Tissue metal levels have increased due to smoking and occupational exposure. Heavy metal exposure via tobacco smoking and occupational exposures may increase the risk of head and neck in the Tunisian population. - Highlights: ► Heavy metal levels in tumor tissues were higher than those in healthy tissues. ► Tumor tissue Cd levels were positively associated with age in smokers. ► Tumor tissue metal levels were higher in men than in women. ► The highest Cd and Cr concentrations among workers were observed in tumor tissues. ► Heavy metal exposure via occupational exposures may increase the risk of HNC

  15. Diffuse Optical Characterization of the Healthy Human Thyroid Tissue and Two Pathological Case Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Lindner

    Full Text Available The in vivo optical and hemodynamic properties of the healthy (n = 22 and pathological (n = 2 human thyroid tissue were measured non-invasively using a custom time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS system. Medical ultrasound was used to guide the placement of the hand-held hybrid optical probe. TRS measured the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (μa, μs' at three wavelengths (690, 785 and 830 nm to derive total hemoglobin concentration (THC and oxygen saturation (StO2. DCS measured the microvascular blood flow index (BFI. Their dependencies on physiological and clinical parameters and positions along the thyroid were investigated and compared to the surrounding sternocleidomastoid muscle. The THC in the thyroid ranged from 131.9 μM to 144.8 μM, showing a 25-44% increase compared to the surrounding sternocleidomastoid muscle tissue. The blood flow was significantly higher in the thyroid (BFIthyroid = 16.0 × 10-9 cm2/s compared to the muscle (BFImuscle = 7.8 × 10-9 cm2/s, while StO2 showed a small (StO2, muscle = 63.8% to StO2, thyroid = 68.4%, yet significant difference. Two case studies with thyroid nodules underwent the same measurement protocol prior to thyroidectomy. Their THC and BFI reached values around 226.5 μM and 62.8 × 10-9 cm2/s respectively showing a clear contrast to the nodule-free thyroid tissue as well as the general population. The initial characterization of the healthy and pathologic human thyroid tissue lays the ground work for the future investigation on the use of diffuse optics in thyroid cancer screening.

  16. Evaluation of dose components for healthy tissue tolerance studies on dogs at the HFR Petten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, P.; Moss, R.L.; Siefert, A.; Huiskamp, R.; Gavin, P.; Konijnenberg, M.

    1993-01-01

    Before the start of clinical trails of BNCT on glioma patients at the Petten reactor, certain preconditions must be determined. In particular the tolerance of healthy brain tissue exposed to the epithermal neutron beam requires investigation. In these studies, beagle dogs have been subjected to different levels of irradiation and 10 B, the latter in the form of BSH. To support this work a treatment planning tool is being developed to predict the various dose components within the treatment volume. A Monte Carlo code, MCNP, has been used to simulate the particle transport and to predict the different dose rate distributions. The doses rates generated by MCNP are manipulated with a processing code, TREAT, to give irradiation times, peak dose positions and to display the required data in a graphical format. This paper explains the basic methodology used in the system and a practical case is presented for one of the healthy tissue tolerance dogs. Doses, both physical and RBE weighted, have been produced for pre-treatment planning studies

  17. CELLULAR CONTROL OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE MATRIX TENSION†

    OpenAIRE

    Langevin, Helene M.; Nedergaard, Maiken; Howe, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The biomechanical behavior of connective tissue in response to stretching is generally attributed to the molecular composition and organization of its extracellular matrix. It also is becoming apparent that fibroblasts play an active role in regulating connective tissue tension. In response to static stretching of the tissue, fibroblasts expand within minutes by actively remodeling their cytoskeleton. This dynamic change in fibroblast shape contributes to the drop in tissue tension that occur...

  18. Abdominal adipose tissue compartments vary with ethnicity in Asian neonates: Growing Up in Singapore Toward Healthy Outcomes birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tint, Mya Thway; Fortier, Marielle V; Godfrey, Keith M; Shuter, Borys; Kapur, Jeevesh; Rajadurai, Victor S; Agarwal, Pratibha; Chinnadurai, Amutha; Niduvaje, Krishnamoorthy; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Aris, Izzuddin Bin Mohd; Soh, Shu-E; Yap, Fabian; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kramer, Michael S; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap-Seng; Lee, Yung-Seng

    2016-05-01

    A susceptibility to metabolic diseases is associated with abdominal adipose tissue distribution and varies between ethnic groups. The distribution of abdominal adipose tissue at birth may give insights into whether ethnicity-associated variations in metabolic risk originate partly in utero. We assessed the influence of ethnicity on abdominal adipose tissue compartments in Asian neonates in the Growing Up in Singapore Toward Healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort. MRI was performed at ≤2 wk after birth in 333 neonates born at ≥34 wk of gestation and with birth weights ≥2000 g. Abdominal superficial subcutaneous tissue (sSAT), deep subcutaneous tissue (dSAT), and internal adipose tissue (IAT) compartment volumes (absolute and as a percentage of the total abdominal volume) were quantified. In multivariate analyses that were controlled for sex, age, and parity, the absolute and percentage of dSAT and the percentage of sSAT (but not absolute sSAT) were greater, whereas absolute IAT (but not the percentage of IAT) was lower, in Indian neonates than in Chinese neonates. Compared with Chinese neonates, Malay neonates had greater percentages of sSAT and dSAT but similar percentages of IAT. Marginal structural model analyses largely confirmed the results on the basis of volume percentages with controlled direct effects of ethnicity on abdominal adipose tissue; dSAT was significantly greater (1.45 mL; 95% CI: 0.49, 2.41 mL, P = 0.003) in non-Chinese (Indian or Malay) neonates than in Chinese neonates. However, ethnic differences in sSAT and IAT were NS [3.06 mL (95% CI:-0.27, 6.39 mL; P = 0.0712) for sSAT and -1.30 mL (95% CI: -2.64, 0.04 mL; P = 0.057) for IAT in non-Chinese compared with Chinese neonates, respectively]. Indian and Malay neonates have a greater dSAT volume than do Chinese neonates. This finding supports the notion that in utero influences may contribute to higher cardiometabolic risk observed in Indian and Malay persons in our population. If such

  19. Action of nitric oxide on healthy and inflamed human dental pulp tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Leopoldo Penteado Nucci; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Del Bel, Elaine Aparecida

    2008-10-01

    Irreversible pulpitis has been associated with pain and an increase in the number of pulp inflammatory cells. Based on the action of nitric oxide (NO) elsewhere, NO may possibly participate in the sensory and autonomic innervation of the dental pulp, and may influence local inflammatory responses. The purpose of this study was to analyze normal and inflamed human dental pulp for the presence of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d), as an index of NO system activity. Six non-carious second premolar pulp tissue samples were obtained from young patients who required extractions for orthodontic reasons and six inflamed samples were obtained from symptomatic carious second premolars clinically diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. Pulp tissue was carefully removed, fixed by immersion in a cold 4% PFA buffered solution for 120 min, rinsed in cold phosphate buffer, and quickly-frozen for cryostat sectioning. Pulp tissue was sectioned perpendicularly to the vertical axis of the tooth at 20 microm and processed for histochemistry. Sections of each specimen were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and other sections were subjected to histochemical NADPH-d detection. Results indicated the presence of NADPH reactivity within the pulps of both normal and carious teeth. In the normal teeth NADPH-d activity was detected in a small number of vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts. The inflammatory response of the pulp from carious premolars was detected in connective tissue by the presence of an increased number of fibroblasts, angioblasts and collagen fibers. It was possible to determine the extent of odontoblast reactivity since the odontoblast layer was usually absent in these split-peel preparations. There were no obvious signs of stained pulpal nerve fibers. Overall NADPH-d staining was significantly more intense within inflamed pulp tissues compared to normal healthy samples (Mann-Whitney test, pfunctions of NO in human dental pulp in pathophysiological situations.

  20. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium and nickel in cancerous and healthy tissues from patients with head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khlifi, Rim, E-mail: rimkhlifi@yahoo.fr [Marine Ecotoxicology, UR 09-03, Sfax University, IPEIS, BP 805, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Bioinformatics Unit, Centre of Biotechnology of Sfax, BP 1177, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Olmedo, Pablo; Gil, Fernando [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada (Spain); Hammami, Bouthaina; Chakroun, Amine [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, HUC Habib Borguiba Hospital, Sfax (Tunisia); Rebai, Ahmed [Bioinformatics Unit, Centre of Biotechnology of Sfax, BP 1177, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Hamza-Chaffai, Amel [Marine Ecotoxicology, UR 09-03, Sfax University, IPEIS, BP 805, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2013-05-01

    Chronic exposure to heavy metals has long been recognized as being capable to increase head and neck cancer incidence among exposed human populations. Head and neck cancer is a significant public health issue in Tunisia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Ni in healthy and tumor tissues of head and neck cancer patients. Metal concentrations were determined in tumor and healthy tissues of 101 head and neck cancer patients, using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The As, Cd, Cr, and Ni levels in tumor tissues were 3.4, 2.5, 1.3 and 1.5 times higher than those of healthy tissues (p < 0.05), respectively. Tumor tissue metal levels were higher in men than in women. As and Cd levels in tumor and healthy tissue samples of patients smokers are significantly higher than those of non-smokers (p < 0.05). A strong effect of cumulative smoking as expressed in the number of pack per year, and tumor tissue Cd levels were positively associated with three groups of age (< 40, 51–60 and > 60 years) in both never-smokers and ever-smokers (< 20 and ≥ 20 pack per year). Healthy tissue Cd levels were negatively associated with age in those three groups of smokers. The highest Cd and Cr concentrations among both workers and non-workers were observed in tumor tissues. The Cd and Cr in tissues of farmers, bricklayers and painters were all significantly higher among the workers as compared with the non-workers group. Tissue metal levels have increased due to smoking and occupational exposure. Heavy metal exposure via tobacco smoking and occupational exposures may increase the risk of head and neck in the Tunisian population. - Highlights: ► Heavy metal levels in tumor tissues were higher than those in healthy tissues. ► Tumor tissue Cd levels were positively associated with age in smokers. ► Tumor tissue metal levels were higher in men than in women. ► The highest Cd and Cr concentrations among workers were observed in tumor tissues

  1. The "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" randomized controlled trial for girls: study design, protocol, and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Ana Carolina Barco; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the study design, protocol, and baseline results of the "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" program. The intervention is being evaluated through a randomized controlled trial in 10 public schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data on the following variables were collected and assessed at baseline and will be reevaluated at 7 and 12 months: body mass index, waist circumference, dietary intake, nutrition, physical activity, social cognitive mediators, physical activity level, sedentary behaviors, self-rated physical status, and overall self-esteem. According to the baseline results, 32.4% and 23.4% of girls were overweight in the intervention and control groups, respectively, and in both groups a higher percentage failed to meet daily recommendations for moderate and vigorous physical activity and maximum screen time (TV, computer, mobile devices). There were no significant differences between the groups for most of the variables, except age (p = 0.000) and waist circumference (p = 0.014). The study showed a gap in the Brazilian literature on protocols for randomized controlled trials to prevent obesity among youth. The current study may thus be an important initial contribution to the field.

  2. CELLULAR CONTROL OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE MATRIX TENSION†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Helene M.; Nedergaard, Maiken; Howe, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The biomechanical behavior of connective tissue in response to stretching is generally attributed to the molecular composition and organization of its extracellular matrix. It also is becoming apparent that fibroblasts play an active role in regulating connective tissue tension. In response to static stretching of the tissue, fibroblasts expand within minutes by actively remodeling their cytoskeleton. This dynamic change in fibroblast shape contributes to the drop in tissue tension that occurs during viscoelastic relaxation. We propose that this response of fibroblasts plays a role in regulating extracellular fluid flow into the tissue, and protects against swelling when the matrix is stretched. This article reviews the evidence supporting possible mechanisms underlying this response including autocrine purinergic signaling. We also discuss fibroblast regulation of connective tissue tension with respect to lymphatic flow, immune function and cancer. PMID:23444198

  3. Cellular control of connective tissue matrix tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Helene M; Nedergaard, Maiken; Howe, Alan K

    2013-08-01

    The biomechanical behavior of connective tissue in response to stretching is generally attributed to the molecular composition and organization of its extracellular matrix. It also is becoming apparent that fibroblasts play an active role in regulating connective tissue tension. In response to static stretching of the tissue, fibroblasts expand within minutes by actively remodeling their cytoskeleton. This dynamic change in fibroblast shape contributes to the drop in tissue tension that occurs during viscoelastic relaxation. We propose that this response of fibroblasts plays a role in regulating extracellular fluid flow into the tissue, and protects against swelling when the matrix is stretched. This article reviews the evidence supporting possible mechanisms underlying this response including autocrine purinergic signaling. We also discuss fibroblast regulation of connective tissue tension with respect to lymphatic flow, immune function, and cancer. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Observation on changes of oxygen partial pressure in the deep tissues along the large intestine meridian during acupuncture in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Hu, Xiang-long; Wu, Zu-xing

    2010-06-01

    To observe changes of the partial oxygen pressure in the deep tissues along the Large Intestine Meridian (LIM) during acupuncture stimulation, so as to reveal the characteristics of energy metabolism in the tissues along the LIM. Thirty-one healthy volunteer subjects were enlisted in the present study. Partial oxygen pressure (POP) in the tissues (at a depth of about 1.5 cm) of acupoints Binao (LI 14), Shouwuli (LI 13), Shousanli (LI 10), 2 non-acupoints [the midpoints between Quchi (LI 11) and LI 14, and between Yangxi (LI 5) and LI 11) of the LIM, and 10 non-meridian points, 1.5-2.0 cm lateral and medial to each of the tested points of the LIM was detected before, during and after electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of Hegu (LI 4) by using a tissue oxygen tension needle-like sensor. In normal condition, the POP values in the deep tissues along the LIM were significantly higher than those of the non-meridian control points on its bilateral sides. During and after EA of Hegu (LI 4), the POP levels decreased significantly in the deep tissues along the LIM in comparison with pre-EA (P 0.05). POP is significantly higher in the deep tissues along the LIM of healthy subjects under normal conditions, which can be downregulated by EA of Hegu (LI 4), suggesting an increase of both the utilization rate of oxygen and energy metabolism after EA.

  5. Differentiation between healthy thyroid remnants and tumor tissue after radioiodine therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma using in-vitro phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moka, D.; Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H.; Raffelt, K.; Hahn, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In many tumors, tumor growth and spread is triggered by changes in cell membrane metabolism, which can lead to systemic alterations in levels of phospholipids. The aim of this study was to differentiate between healthy remnants of thyroid tissue and residual/recurrent tumor tissue or metastases in patients with thyroid carcinoma by measurement of plasma levels of various phospholipids. Phospholipid concentrations was measured by in-vitro phosphorus-31-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRS) in blood samples from 30 patients with thyroid cancer, who had been rendered hypothyroid in preparation for diagnostic/therapeutic administration of iodine-131. All patients were already thyroidectomized. 131 I-whole-body scintigraphy and measurements of thyroglobulin values in a 2-year-follow-up were used to distinguish between patients in remission, patients with only healthy thyroid remnants and patients with cancerous thyroid tissue and/or metastases. Significantly lower blood plasma levels of systemic sphingomyelin (0.33±0.06 vs. 0.46±0.03 (controls) mmol/l; p 31 P-MRS can be used to differentiate between the presence of tumor tissue, healthy remnants of thyroid tissue not requiring further treatment and remission in patients with thyroid cancer. In future, therefore, plasma 31 P-MRS could be developed as an additional diagnostic tool for the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer. (author)

  6. Quantification of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 in plasma from healthy donors and cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M. B.; Stephens, R. W.; Brünner, Nils

    2005-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-2 is a highly conserved molecule, which binds both active and latent matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. TIMP-2 is also involved in the activation of MMP-2 on the cell surface. A quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established...... and optimized for measurement of TIMP-2 in plasma. The capturing antibody in the ELISA was a monoclonal, while the detecting antibody was a chicken polyclonal antibody recognizing the native form of human TIMP-2. The levels of TIMP-2 were measured in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citrate plasma...... from healthy donors. The median values were determined as 163 ng/ml (n = 186) with a range of 109-253 ng/ml for EDTA plasma and 139 ng/ml (n = 77) with a range of 95-223 ng/ml for citrate plasma. The TIMP-2 concentration in citrate plasma from 15 patients with advanced, stage IV breast cancer had...

  7. Influence of length of interval between pulses in PDR brachytherapy (PDRBT on value of Biologically Equivalent Dose (BED in healthy tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Piotrowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Different PDR treatment schemas are used in clinical practice, however optimal length of interval between pulses still remains unclear. The aim of this work was to compare value of BED doses measured in surrounded healthy tissues according to different intervals between pulses in PDRBT. Influence of doses optimization on BED values was analyzed.Material and methods: Fifty-one patients treated in Greater Poland Cancer Centre were qualified for calculations.Calculations of doses were made in 51 patients with head and neck cancer, brain tumor, breast cancer, sarcoma, penis cancer and rectal cancer. Doses were calculated with the use of PLATO planning system in chosen critical points in surrounded healthy tissues. For all treatment plans the doses were compared using Biologically Equivalent Dose formula.Three interval lengths (1, 2 and 4 hours between pulses were chosen for calculations. For statistical analysis Friedman ANOVA test and Kendall ratio were used.Results: The median value of BED in chosen critical points in healthy tissues was statistically related to the length of interval between PDR pulses and decreased exponentially with 1 hour interval to 4 hours (Kendall = from 0.48 to 1.0; p = from 0.002 to 0.00001.Conclusions: Prolongation of intervals between pulses in PDR brachytherapy was connected with lower values of BED doses in healthy tissues. It seems that longer intervals between pulses reduced the risk of late complications, but also decreased the tumour control. Furthermore, optimization influenced the increase of doses in healthy tissues.

  8. Mapping of NKp46+ cells in healthy human lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eTomasello

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding Natural Killer (NK cell anatomical distribution is key to dissect the role of these unconventional lymphocytes in physiological and disease conditions. In mouse, NK cells have been detected in various lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, while in humans the current knowledge of NK cell distribution at steady state is mainly restricted to lymphoid tissues. The translation to humans of findings obtained in mice is facilitated by the identification of NK cell markers conserved between these two species. The Natural Cytotoxicity Receptor (NCR NKp46 is a marker of the NK cell lineage evolutionary conserved in mammals. In mice, NKp46 is also present on rare T cell subsets and on a subset of gut Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILCs expressing the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor t (RORt transcription factor. Here, we documented the distribution and the phenotype of human NKp46+ cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues isolated from healthy donors. Human NKp46+ cells were found in splenic red pulp, in lymph nodes, in lungs and gut lamina propria, thus mirroring mouse NKp46+ cell distribution. We also identified a novel cell subset of CD56dimNKp46low cells that includes RORt+ILCs with a lineage-CD94-CD117brightCD127bright phenotype. The use of NKp46 thus contributes to establish the basis for analyzing quantitative and qualitative changes of NK cell and ILC subsets in human diseases.

  9. Mapping of NKp46+ Cells in Healthy Human Lymphoid and Non-Lymphoid Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Elena; Yessaad, Nadia; Gregoire, Emilie; Hudspeth, Kelly; Luci, Carmelo; Mavilio, Domenico; Hardwigsen, Jean; Vivier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Understanding Natural Killer (NK) cell anatomical distribution is key to dissect the role of these unconventional lymphocytes in physiological and disease conditions. In mouse, NK cells have been detected in various lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, while in humans the current knowledge of NK cell distribution at steady state is mainly restricted to lymphoid tissues. The translation to humans of findings obtained in mice is facilitated by the identification of NK cell markers conserved between these two species. The Natural Cytotoxicity Receptor (NCR) NKp46 is a marker of the NK cell lineage evolutionary conserved in mammals. In mice, NKp46 is also present on rare T cell subsets and on a subset of gut Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILCs) expressing the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) transcription factor. Here, we documented the distribution and the phenotype of human NKp46+ cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues isolated from healthy donors. Human NKp46+ cells were found in splenic red pulp, in lymph nodes, in lungs, and gut lamina propria, thus mirroring mouse NKp46+ cell distribution. We also identified a novel cell subset of CD56dimNKp46low cells that includes RORγt+ ILCs with a lineage−CD94−CD117brightCD127bright phenotype. The use of NKp46 thus contributes to establish the basis for analyzing quantitative and qualitative changes of NK cell and ILC subsets in human diseases. PMID:23181063

  10. In vivo confocal microscopy of conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnifili, Luca; Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Fasanella, Vincenzo; Di Staso, Silvio; Mastropasqua, Alessandra; Brescia, Lorenza; Mastropasqua, Leonardo

    2014-07-29

    To investigate modifications with aging of the presence, distribution and morphologic features of conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) in healthy human subjects using laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). A total of 108 (age range, 17-75 years) subjects were enrolled. In vivo confocal microscopy of the tarsal and bulbar conjunctiva, and impression cytology (IC) with CD3 (intra-epithelial T-lymphocytes) and CD20 (intra-epithelial B-lymphocytes) antibody immunofluorescence staining were performed. The main outcomes were subepithelial lymphocyte density (LyD), follicular density (FD), and follicular area (FA). The secondary outcomes were follicular reflectivity (FR), and lymphocyte density (FLyD), and CD3 and CD20 positivity. Conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue was observed in all subjects (97% only superior and 3% in both superior and inferior tarsum). Lymphocyte density ranged from 7.8 to 165.8 cells/mm(2) (46.42 [18.37]; mean [SD]), FD from 0.5 to 19.4 follicles/mm(2) (5.3 [3.6]), and FA from 1110 to 96,280 mm(2) (26,440 [26,280]). All three parameters showed a highly significant inverse cubic relationship with age (P lymphoid structures. These modifications may account for the decrease of mucosal immune response and increase of ocular surface diseases in the elderly. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  11. Comparison of personality beliefs between depressed patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucens, Bengu; Kuru, Erkan; Safak, Yasir; Karadere, Mehmet Emrah; Turkcapar, Mehmet Hakan

    2014-11-01

    According to the cognitive model, the common mechanism underlying all psychological disorders is distorted or dysfunctional thoughts that affect mood and behaviors. Dysfunctional thoughts predispose an individual to depression and are among the processes that form the basis of personality traits. Elucidating the personality beliefs associated with depression and dysfunctional thoughts is important to understanding and treating depression. The aim of the present study is to determine whether depressed patients exhibited pathological personality beliefs compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, we investigated which personality beliefs were more common among such depressed patients. A total of 70 patients who were admitted to the Department of Psychiatry at Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital (Ankara, Turkey) and diagnosed with major depressive disorder according to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria were included in the study. Additionally, 70 healthy controls matched for age, marital status, and education were included in the study. The Sociodemographic Data Form and Personality Belief Questionnaire-Short form (PBQ-SF) were administered to the participants. A comparison of the depression group with the healthy controls revealed higher scores in dependent, passive-aggressive, obsessive-compulsive, antisocial, histrionic, paranoid, borderline, and avoidant personality subscales in the depressive group. These results suggest that personality beliefs at the pathological level are more common in depressive patients and that the detection of these beliefs would be useful for predicting the prognosis of the disease and determining appropriate treatment methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. MRI Brain Images Healthy and Pathological Tissues Classification with the Aid of Improved Particle Swarm Optimization and Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheejakumari, V.; Sankara Gomathi, B.

    2015-01-01

    The advantages of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over other diagnostic imaging modalities are its higher spatial resolution and its better discrimination of soft tissue. In the previous tissues classification method, the healthy and pathological tissues are classified from the MRI brain images using HGANN. But the method lacks sensitivity and accuracy measures. The classification method is inadequate in its performance in terms of these two parameters. So, to avoid these drawbacks, a new classification method is proposed in this paper. Here, new tissues classification method is proposed with improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) technique to classify the healthy and pathological tissues from the given MRI images. Our proposed classification method includes the same four stages, namely, tissue segmentation, feature extraction, heuristic feature selection, and tissue classification. The method is implemented and the results are analyzed in terms of various statistical performance measures. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed classification method in classifying the tissues and the achieved improvement in sensitivity and accuracy measures. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed technique is evaluated by comparing it with the other segmentation methods. PMID:25977706

  13. Ageing and chronic intermittent hypoxia mimicking sleep apnea do not modify local brain tissue stiffness in healthy mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorba, Ignasi; Menal, Maria José; Torres, Marta; Gozal, David; Piñol-Ripoll, Gerard; Colell, Anna; Montserrat, Josep M; Navajas, Daniel; Farré, Ramon; Almendros, Isaac

    2017-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may increase the risk of Alzheimer´s disease (AD), with the latter promoting alterations in brain tissue stiffness, a feature of ageing. Here, we assessed the effects of age and intermittent hypoxia (IH) on brain tissue stiffness in a mouse model of OSA. Two-month-old and 18-month-old mice (N=10 each) were subjected to IH (20% O 2 40s - 6% O 2 20s) for 8 weeks (6h/day). Corresponding control groups for each age were kept under normoxic conditions in room air (RA). After sacrifice, the brain was excised and 200-micron coronal slices were cut with a vibratome. Local stiffness of the cortex and hippocampus were assessed in brain slices placed in an Atomic Force Microscope. For both brain regions, the Young's modulus (E) in each animal was computed as the average values from 9 force-indentation curves. Cortex E mean (±SE) values were 442±122Pa (RA) and 455±120 (IH) for young mice and 433±44 (RA) and 405±101 (IH) for old mice. Hippocampal E values were 376±62 (RA) and 474±94 (IH) for young mice and 486±93 (RA) and 521±210 (IH) for old mice. For both cortex and hippocampus, 2-way ANOVA indicated no statistically significant effects of age or challenge (IH vs. RA) on E values. Thus, neither chronic IH mimicking OSA nor ageing up to late middle age appear to modify local brain tissue stiffness in otherwise healthy mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasma and salivary total antioxidant capacity in healthy controls compared with aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Ulku; Gamsiz-Isik, Hikmet; Cifcibasi, Emine; Ademoglu, Evin; Yalcin, Funda

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the plasma and salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) in patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (CP), generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP), and periodontally healthy controls. This cross-sectional study includes of 88 individuals seeking dental treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey between January 2011 and March 2012. Fifteen AgP patients were compared with 21 healthy controls (C1), while 36 CP patients were compared with 16 healthy controls (C2). Clinical periodontal measurements were recorded, and plasma and saliva samples were collected. The TAOC of the plasma and saliva samples were determined using a commercially available colorimetric kit. The plasma TAOC of both AgP and CP patients was significantly lower for C1 and C2. The salivary TAOC of CP patients was significantly lower for C2, but there was no significant difference between AgP patients and C1. Our results demonstrate that severe periodontitis may be associated with a lower plasma antioxidant capacity. The reduced antioxidant capacity in patients with severe periodontitis, especially with aggressive forms may be an important contributing factor to severe tissue destruction.

  15. HE4 Tissue Expression and Serum HE4 Levels in Healthy Individuals and Patients with Benign or Malignant Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Nikoline S; Karlsen, Mona A; Høgdall, Claus K

    2014-01-01

    , this review aims to systematically outline published results of HE4 tissue expression and serum HE4 levels in healthy individuals and patients with benign or malignant tumors. Our findings suggest scientific basis for a potential diagnostic ability of HE4 in gynecologic cancer and lung cancer, and further...

  16. Preliminary study of tissue concentrations of penicillin after local administration into the guttural pouches in four healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, A; Mayhew, I G; Petrovski, K

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of subclinical carriers of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi with a gelatine-penicillin formulation deposited in the guttural pouch has been empirically proposed, but data on local tissue penicillin concentrations after treatment are lacking. We analysed tissue levels of penicillin after administration into the guttural pouches of four healthy horses. Two horses received local treatment with gelatine-penicillin and two horses received local treatment with an intramammary formulation of penicillin. Tissues were harvested for analysis either 12 or 24 h later. Results indicate that local treatment may be effective, but more research on optimal drug formulations in a larger sample size is warranted. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. N-acetylcysteine Counteracts Adipose Tissue Macrophage Infiltration and Insulin Resistance Elicited by Advanced Glycated Albumin in Healthy Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolline S. da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advanced glycation endproducts elicit inflammation. However, their role in adipocyte macrophage infiltration and in the development of insulin resistance, especially in the absence of the deleterious biochemical pathways that coexist in diabetes mellitus, remains unknown. We investigated the effect of chronic administration of advanced glycated albumin (AGE-albumin in healthy rats, associated or not with N-acetylcysteine (NAC treatment, on insulin sensitivity, adipose tissue transcriptome and macrophage infiltration and polarization.Methods: Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with control (C or AGE-albumin alone, or, together with NAC in the drinking water. Biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation, gene expression and protein contents were, respectively, determined by enzymatic techniques, reactive thiobarbituric acid substances, RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry or immunoblot. Carboxymethyllysine (CML and pyrraline (PYR were determined by LC/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and ELISA.Results: CML and PYR were higher in AGE-albumin as compared to C. Food consumption, body weight, systolic blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, hepatic and renal function, adipose tissue relative weight and adipocyte number were similar among groups. In AGE-treated animals, insulin resistance, adipose macrophage infiltration and Col12a1 mRNA were increased with no changes in M1 and M2 phenotypes as compared to C-albumin-treated rats. Total GLUT4 content was reduced by AGE-albumin as compared to C-albumin. NAC improved insulin sensitivity, reduced urine TBARS, adipose macrophage number and Itgam and Mrc mRNA and increased Slc2a4 and Ppara. CD11b, CD206, Ager, Ddost, Cd36, Nfkb1, Il6, Tnf, Adipoq, Retn, Arg, and Il12 expressions were similar among groups.Conclusions: AGE-albumin sensitizes adipose tissue to inflammation due to macrophage infiltration and reduces GLUT4, contributing to insulin resistance in healthy rats. NAC antagonizes AGE

  18. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabianne; Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia; Forner-Cordero, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  19. Alexithymic trait and voluntary control in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosi Gu

    Full Text Available Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by deficiency in understanding, processing, or describing emotions. Recent studies have revealed that alexithymia is associated with less activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region shown to play a role in cognitive and emotional processing. However, few studies have directly investigated the cognitive domain in relation to alexithymia to examine whether alexithymic trait is related to less efficient voluntary control.We examined the relationship between alexithymic trait and voluntary control in a group of healthy volunteers. We used the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20 to measure alexithymic trait. Additionally, we examined state and trait voluntary control using the revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ, respectively. Alexithymic trait was positively correlated with the overall reaction time of the ANT-R, and negatively correlated with the Effortful Control factor of the ATQ.Our results suggest that alexithymic trait is associated with less efficient voluntary control.

  20. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabianne Furtado

    Full Text Available The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep. Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high. The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor and static (clinical test of sensory integration. The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  1. Gene Expression Profiles in Paired Gingival Biopsies from Periodontitis-Affected and Healthy Tissues Revealed by Massively Parallel Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Båge, Tove; Lagervall, Maria; Jansson, Leif; Lundeberg, Joakim; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the soft tissue and bone that surrounds the teeth. Despite extensive research, distinctive genes responsible for the disease have not been identified. The objective of this study was to elucidate transcriptome changes in periodontitis, by investigating gene expression profiles in gingival tissue obtained from periodontitis-affected and healthy gingiva from the same patient, using RNA-sequencing. Gingival biopsies were obtained from a disease-affected and a healthy site from each of 10 individuals diagnosed with periodontitis. Enrichment analysis performed among uniquely expressed genes for the periodontitis-affected and healthy tissues revealed several regulated pathways indicative of inflammation for the periodontitis-affected condition. Hierarchical clustering of the sequenced biopsies demonstrated clustering according to the degree of inflammation, as observed histologically in the biopsies, rather than clustering at the individual level. Among the top 50 upregulated genes in periodontitis-affected tissues, we investigated two genes which have not previously been demonstrated to be involved in periodontitis. These included interferon regulatory factor 4 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18, which were also expressed at the protein level in gingival biopsies from patients with periodontitis. In conclusion, this study provides a first step towards a quantitative comprehensive insight into the transcriptome changes in periodontitis. We demonstrate for the first time site-specific local variation in gene expression profiles of periodontitis-affected and healthy tissues obtained from patients with periodontitis, using RNA-seq. Further, we have identified novel genes expressed in periodontitis tissues, which may constitute potential therapeutic targets for future treatment strategies of periodontitis. PMID:23029519

  2. Healthy Nordic diet downregulates the expression of genes involved in inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue in individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Ulven, Stine M; Paananen, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previously, a healthy Nordic diet (ND) has been shown to have beneficial health effects close to those of Mediterranean diets. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore whether the ND has an impact on gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and whether changes...... in gene expression are associated with clinical and biochemical effects. DESIGN: Obese adults with features of the metabolic syndrome underwent an 18- to 24-wk randomized intervention study comparing the ND with the control diet (CD) (the SYSDIET study, carried out within Nordic Centre of Excellence...... sites for the nuclear transcription factor κB. CONCLUSION: A healthy Nordic diet reduces inflammatory gene expression in SAT compared with a control diet independently of body weight change in individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT...

  3. Improved classification and visualization of healthy and pathological hard dental tissues by modeling specular reflections in NIR hyperspectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-03-01

    Despite major improvements in dental healthcare and technology, dental caries remains one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of modern society. The initial stages of dental caries are characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals, commonly known as white spots, which are difficult to diagnose. Near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging is a new promising technique for early detection of demineralization which can classify healthy and pathological dental tissues. However, due to non-ideal illumination of the tooth surface the hyperspectral images can exhibit specular reflections, in particular around the edges and the ridges of the teeth. These reflections significantly affect the performance of automated classification and visualization methods. Cross polarized imaging setup can effectively remove the specular reflections, however is due to the complexity and other imaging setup limitations not always possible. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on modeling the specular reflections of hard dental tissues, which significantly improves the classification accuracy in the presence of specular reflections. The method was evaluated on five extracted human teeth with corresponding gold standard for 6 different healthy and pathological hard dental tissues including enamel, dentin, calculus, dentin caries, enamel caries and demineralized regions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for multivariate local modeling of healthy and pathological dental tissues. The classification was performed by employing multiple discriminant analysis. Based on the obtained results we believe the proposed method can be considered as an effective alternative to the complex cross polarized imaging setups.

  4. Sparing Healthy Tissue and Increasing Tumor Dose Using Bayesian Modeling of Geometric Uncertainties for Planning Target Volume Personalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herschtal, Alan; Te Marvelde, Luc; Mengersen, Kerrie; Foroudi, Farshad; Eade, Thomas; Pham, Daniel; Caine, Hannah; Kron, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop a mathematical tool that can update a patient's planning target volume (PTV) partway through a course of radiation therapy to more precisely target the tumor for the remainder of treatment and reduce dose to surrounding healthy tissue. Methods and Materials: Daily on-board imaging was used to collect large datasets of displacements for patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy for solid tumors. Bayesian statistical modeling of these geometric uncertainties was used to optimally trade off between displacement data collected from previously treated patients and the progressively accumulating data from a patient currently partway through treatment, to optimally predict future displacements for that patient. These predictions were used to update the PTV position and margin width for the remainder of treatment, such that the clinical target volume (CTV) was more precisely targeted. Results: Software simulation of dose to CTV and normal tissue for 2 real prostate displacement datasets consisting of 146 and 290 patients treated with a minimum of 30 fractions each showed that re-evaluating the PTV position and margin width after 8 treatment fractions reduced healthy tissue dose by 19% and 17%, respectively, while maintaining CTV dose. Conclusion: Incorporating patient-specific displacement patterns from early in a course of treatment allows PTV adaptation for the remainder of treatment. This substantially reduces the dose to healthy tissues and thus can reduce radiation therapy–induced toxicities, improving patient outcomes

  5. Pyrosequencing revealed shifts of prokaryotic communities between healthy and disease-like tissues of the Red Sea sponge Crella cyathophora

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Zhao-Ming

    2015-06-11

    Sponge diseases have been widely reported, yet the causal factors and major pathogenic microbes remain elusive. In this study, two individuals of the sponge Crella cyathophora in total that showed similar disease-like characteristics were collected from two different locations along the Red Sea coast separated by more than 30 kilometers. The disease-like parts of the two individuals were both covered by green surfaces, and the body size was much smaller compared with adjacent healthy regions. Here, using high-throughput pyrosequencing technology, we investigated the prokaryotic communities in healthy and disease-like sponge tissues as well as adjacent seawater. Microbes in healthy tissues belonged mainly to the Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and were much more diverse at the phylum level than reported previously. Interestingly, the disease-like tissues from the two sponge individuals underwent shifts of prokaryotic communities and were both enriched with a novel clade affiliated with the phylum Verrucomicrobia, implying its intimate connection with the disease-like Red Sea sponge C. cyathophora. Enrichment of the phylum Verrucomicrobia was also considered to be correlated with the presence of algae assemblages forming the green surface of the disease-like sponge tissues. This finding represents an interesting case of sponge disease and is valuable for further study.

  6. High-throughput sequencing approach uncovers the miRNome of peritoneal endometriotic lesions and adjacent healthy tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merli Saare

    Full Text Available Accumulating data have shown the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs in endometriosis pathogenesis. In this study, we used a novel approach to determine the endometriotic lesion-specific miRNAs by high-throughput small RNA sequencing of paired samples of peritoneal endometriotic lesions and matched healthy surrounding tissues together with eutopic endometria of the same patients. We found five miRNAs specific to epithelial cells--miR-34c, miR-449a, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-141 showing significantly higher expression in peritoneal endometriotic lesions compared to healthy peritoneal tissues. We also determined the expression levels of miR-200 family target genes E-cadherin, ZEB1 and ZEB2 and found that the expression level of E-cadherin was significantly higher in endometriotic lesions compared to healthy tissues. Further evaluation verified that studied miRNAs could be used as diagnostic markers for confirming the presence of endometrial cells in endometriotic lesion biopsy samples. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the miRNA profile of peritoneal endometriotic lesion biopsies is largely masked by the surrounding peritoneal tissue, challenging the discovery of an accurate lesion-specific miRNA profile. Taken together, our findings indicate that only particular miRNAs with a significantly higher expression in endometriotic cells can be detected from lesion biopsies, and can serve as diagnostic markers for endometriosis.

  7. Sparing Healthy Tissue and Increasing Tumor Dose Using Bayesian Modeling of Geometric Uncertainties for Planning Target Volume Personalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herschtal, Alan, E-mail: Alan.Herschtal@petermac.org [Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne (Australia); Te Marvelde, Luc [Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Mengersen, Kerrie [School of Mathematical Sciences, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Foroudi, Farshad [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Eade, Thomas [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Radiation Oncology Department, Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, Sydney (Australia); Northern Clinical School, University of Sydney (Australia); Pham, Daniel [Department of Radiation Therapy, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Caine, Hannah [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Radiation Oncology Department, Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, Sydney (Australia); Kron, Tomas [The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)

    2015-06-01

    Objective: To develop a mathematical tool that can update a patient's planning target volume (PTV) partway through a course of radiation therapy to more precisely target the tumor for the remainder of treatment and reduce dose to surrounding healthy tissue. Methods and Materials: Daily on-board imaging was used to collect large datasets of displacements for patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy for solid tumors. Bayesian statistical modeling of these geometric uncertainties was used to optimally trade off between displacement data collected from previously treated patients and the progressively accumulating data from a patient currently partway through treatment, to optimally predict future displacements for that patient. These predictions were used to update the PTV position and margin width for the remainder of treatment, such that the clinical target volume (CTV) was more precisely targeted. Results: Software simulation of dose to CTV and normal tissue for 2 real prostate displacement datasets consisting of 146 and 290 patients treated with a minimum of 30 fractions each showed that re-evaluating the PTV position and margin width after 8 treatment fractions reduced healthy tissue dose by 19% and 17%, respectively, while maintaining CTV dose. Conclusion: Incorporating patient-specific displacement patterns from early in a course of treatment allows PTV adaptation for the remainder of treatment. This substantially reduces the dose to healthy tissues and thus can reduce radiation therapy–induced toxicities, improving patient outcomes.

  8. Variation of mutational burden in healthy human tissues suggests non-random strand segregation and allows measuring somatic mutation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Benjamin; Sottoriva, Andrea

    2018-06-01

    The immortal strand hypothesis poses that stem cells could produce differentiated progeny while conserving the original template strand, thus avoiding accumulating somatic mutations. However, quantitating the extent of non-random DNA strand segregation in human stem cells remains difficult in vivo. Here we show that the change of the mean and variance of the mutational burden with age in healthy human tissues allows estimating strand segregation probabilities and somatic mutation rates. We analysed deep sequencing data from healthy human colon, small intestine, liver, skin and brain. We found highly effective non-random DNA strand segregation in all adult tissues (mean strand segregation probability: 0.98, standard error bounds (0.97,0.99)). In contrast, non-random strand segregation efficiency is reduced to 0.87 (0.78,0.88) in neural tissue during early development, suggesting stem cell pool expansions due to symmetric self-renewal. Healthy somatic mutation rates differed across tissue types, ranging from 3.5 × 10-9/bp/division in small intestine to 1.6 × 10-7/bp/division in skin.

  9. Variation of mutational burden in healthy human tissues suggests non-random strand segregation and allows measuring somatic mutation rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Werner

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The immortal strand hypothesis poses that stem cells could produce differentiated progeny while conserving the original template strand, thus avoiding accumulating somatic mutations. However, quantitating the extent of non-random DNA strand segregation in human stem cells remains difficult in vivo. Here we show that the change of the mean and variance of the mutational burden with age in healthy human tissues allows estimating strand segregation probabilities and somatic mutation rates. We analysed deep sequencing data from healthy human colon, small intestine, liver, skin and brain. We found highly effective non-random DNA strand segregation in all adult tissues (mean strand segregation probability: 0.98, standard error bounds (0.97,0.99. In contrast, non-random strand segregation efficiency is reduced to 0.87 (0.78,0.88 in neural tissue during early development, suggesting stem cell pool expansions due to symmetric self-renewal. Healthy somatic mutation rates differed across tissue types, ranging from 3.5 × 10-9/bp/division in small intestine to 1.6 × 10-7/bp/division in skin.

  10. Body composition in patients with schizophrenia: Comparison with healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Norio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 204, aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (% body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. Results In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Conclusions Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.

  11. Automated classification and visualization of healthy and pathological dental tissues based on near-infrared hyper-spectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Vrtovec, Tomaž; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2011-03-01

    Despite major improvements in dental healthcare and technology, dental caries remains one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of modern society. The initial stages of dental caries are characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals, commonly known as white spots which are difficult to diagnose. If detected early enough, such demineralization can be arrested and reversed by non-surgical means through well established dental treatments (fluoride therapy, anti-bacterial therapy, low intensity laser irradiation). Near-infrared (NIR) hyper-spectral imaging is a new promising technique for early detection of demineralization based on distinct spectral features of healthy and pathological dental tissues. In this study, we apply NIR hyper-spectral imaging to classify and visualize healthy and pathological dental tissues including enamel, dentin, calculus, dentin caries, enamel caries and demineralized areas. For this purpose, a standardized teeth database was constructed consisting of 12 extracted human teeth with different degrees of natural dental lesions imaged by NIR hyper-spectral system, X-ray and digital color camera. The color and X-ray images of teeth were presented to a clinical expert for localization and classification of the dental tissues, thereby obtaining the gold standard. Principal component analysis was used for multivariate local modeling of healthy and pathological dental tissues. Finally, the dental tissues were classified by employing multiple discriminant analysis. High agreement was observed between the resulting classification and the gold standard with the classification sensitivity and specificity exceeding 85 % and 97 %, respectively. This study demonstrates that NIR hyper-spectral imaging has considerable diagnostic potential for imaging hard dental tissues.

  12. CHANGES IN TOOTH HARD TISSUE MINERALI-ZATION AND BLOOD RHEOLOGY IN HEALTHY ADOLESCENTS AND THOSE WITH THYROID DYSFUNCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriashvili, S; Nikolaishvili, M; Mantskava, M; Momtsemlidze, N; Franchuk, K

    2016-11-01

    Thyroid dysfunction causes spreading and development of caries in the teeth and changes in periodontal tissues. In addition, it causes changes in peripheral blood flow and mineralization, local transcapillary metabolism causes changes in blood rheology. There are only few works in this direction and, therefore, the purpose of our research was to find out how the mineralization and the rheological properties of blood are changed in lesion of periodontal tissue on a background of thyroid dysfunction. Accordingly, the stomatological study was conducted in 75 adolescents aged 12-18 years by the standard method, recommended by the World Health Organization. According to the study, 45 patients out of them suffered from thyroid dysfunction, in particular from hypothyroidism. The comparator group consisted of 30 children of the same age without endocrine abnormalities. By the gained results it is noted that in spite of different type lesions due to dental caries, the caries incidence and intensiveness is higher in children with hypothyroidism as compared to healthy children. Decrease in saliva excretion rate and increase in oral fluid viscosity was found in children with thyroid and endocrine diseases as compared to healthy children. In children with endocrine disorders concurrent increase in calcium content (1,43±0,08 mmol/l) and decrease in inorganic phosphate concentrations (4,54±0,15 mmol/l) is reliably established. In children with thyroid disfunction and while periodontal tissue pathology, rheological features are disordered more dramatically than in healthy children. Therefore, it can be said that the changes in the adolescents' thyroid function is one of the reasons for formation of periodontal tissue diseases.Therefore, at detecting even the first signs of the periodontal tissue diseases, it is desirable in adolescents to assess the thyroid functional condition, since it will be the precondition for effective treatment and management of dental disease, in

  13. Tactile acuity and lumbopelvic motor control in patients with back pain and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luomajoki, H; Moseley, G L

    2011-04-01

    Voluntary lumbopelvic control is compromised in patients with back pain. Loss of proprioceptive acuity is one contributor to decreased control. Several reasons for decreased proprioceptive acuity have been proposed, but the integrity of cortical body maps has been overlooked. We investigated whether tactile acuity, a clear clinical signature of primary sensory cortex organisation, relates to lumbopelvic control in people with back pain. Forty-five patients with back pain and 45 age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Tactile acuity at the back was assessed using two-point discrimination (TPD) threshold in vertical and horizontal directions. Voluntary motor control was assessed using an established battery of clinical tests. Patients performed worse on the voluntary lumbopelvic tasks than healthy controls did (p<0.001). TPD threshold was larger in patients (mean (SD)=61 (13) mm) than in healthy controls (44 (10) mm). Moreover, larger TPD threshold was positively related to worse performance on the voluntary lumbopelvic tasks (Pearson's r=0.49; p<0.001). Tactile acuity, a clear clinical signature of primary sensory cortex organisation, relates to voluntary lumbopelvic control. This relationship raises the possibility that the former contributes to the latter, in which case training tactile acuity may aid recovery and assist in achieving normal motor performance after back injury.

  14. A randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study on the effects of 1-L infusions of 6% hydroxyethyl starch suspended in 0.9% saline (voluven) and a balanced solution (Plasma Volume Redibag) on blood volume, renal blood flow velocity, and renal cortical tissue perfusion in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Abeed H; Cox, Eleanor F; Francis, Susan T; Lobo, Dileep N

    2014-05-01

    We compared the effects of intravenous administration of 6% hydroxyethyl starch (maize-derived) in 0.9% saline (Voluven; Fresenius Kabi, Runcorn, United Kingdom) and a "balanced" preparation of 6% hydroxyethyl starch (potato-derived) [Plasma Volume Redibag (PVR); Baxter Healthcare, Thetford, United Kingdom] on renal blood flow velocity and renal cortical tissue perfusion in humans using magnetic resonance imaging. Hyperchloremia resulting from 0.9% saline infusion may adversely affect renal hemodynamics when compared with balanced crystalloids. This phenomenon has not been studied with colloids. Twelve healthy adult male subjects received 1-L intravenous infusions of Voluven or PVR over 30 minutes in a randomized, double-blind manner, with crossover studies 7 to 10 days later. Magnetic resonance imaging proceeded for 60 minutes after commencement of infusion to measure renal artery blood flow velocity and renal cortical perfusion. Blood was sampled, and weight was recorded at 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes. Mean peak serum chloride concentrations were 108 and 106 mmol/L, respectively, after Voluven and PVR infusion (P = 0.032). Changes in blood volume (P = 0.867), strong ion difference (P = 0.219), and mean renal artery flow velocity (P = 0.319) were similar. However, there was a significant increase in mean renal cortical tissue perfusion after PVR when compared with Voluven (P = 0.033). There was no difference in urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated liopcalin to creatinine ratios after the infusion (P = 0.164). There was no difference in the blood volume-expanding properties of the 2 preparations of 6% hydroxyethyl starch. The balanced starch produced an increase in renal cortical tissue perfusion, a phenomenon not seen with starch in 0.9% saline.

  15. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  16. Cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos-Moreno, Mirela P.; Bücker, Joana; Bürke, Kelen P.; Czepielewski, Leticia; Santos, Barbara T.; Fijtman, Adam; Passos, Ives C.; Kunz, Mauricio; Bonnín, Caterina del Mar; Vieta i Pascual, Eduard, 1963-; Kapczinski, Flávio; Rosa, Adriane R.; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), in unaffected siblings, and in healthy controls. Methods: Subjects were patients with BD (n=36), unaffected siblings (n=35), and healthy controls (n=44). Psychosocial functioning was accessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). A sub-group of patients with BD (n=21), unaffected siblings (n=14), and healthy controls (n=22) also underwent a battery of neuropsychologic...

  17. WJD 5th Anniversary Special Issues(1): Insulin Benefits of healthy adipose tissue in the treatment of diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhadra; C; Gunawardana

    2014-01-01

    The major malfunction in diabetes mellitus is severe perturbation of glucose homeostasis caused by deficiency of insulin.Insulin deficiency is either absolute due to destruction or failure of pancreaticβcells,or relative due to decreased sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin.The primary lesion being related to insulin,treatments for diabetes focus on insulin replacement and/or increasing sensitivity to insulin.These therapies have their own limitations and complications,some of which can be life-threatening.For example,exogenous insulin administration can lead to fatal hypoglycemic episodes;islet/pancreas transplantation requires life-long immunosuppressive therapy;and anti-diabetic drugs have dangerous side effects including edema,heart failure and lactic acidosis.Thus the need remains for better safer long term treatments for diabetes.The ultimate goal in treating diabetes is to re-establish glucose homeostasis,preferably through endogenously generated hormones.Recent studies increasingly show that extra-pancreatic hormones,particularly those arising from adipose tissue,can compensate for insulin,or entirely replace the function of insulin under appropriate circumstances.Adipose tissue is a versatile endocrine organ that secretes a variety of hormones with far-reaching effects on overall metabolism.While unhealthy adipose tissue can exacerbate diabetes through limiting circulation and secreting of pro-inflammatory cytokines,healthy uninflamed adipose tissue secretes beneficial adipokines with hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory properties,which can complement and/or compensate for the function of insulin.Administration of specific adipokines is known to alleviate both type 1 and 2 diabetes,and leptin mono-therapy is reported to reverse type 1 diabetes independent of insulin.Although specific adipokines may correct diabetes,administration of individual adipokines still carries risks similar to those of insulin monotherapy.Thus a better approach is to

  18. Genetic control of organ shape and tissue polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia A Green

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which genes control organ shape are poorly understood. In principle, genes may control shape by modifying local rates and/or orientations of deformation. Distinguishing between these possibilities has been difficult because of interactions between patterns, orientations, and mechanical constraints during growth. Here we show how a combination of growth analysis, molecular genetics, and modelling can be used to dissect the factors contributing to shape. Using the Snapdragon (Antirrhinum flower as an example, we show how shape development reflects local rates and orientations of tissue growth that vary spatially and temporally to form a dynamic growth field. This growth field is under the control of several dorsoventral genes that influence flower shape. The action of these genes can be modelled by assuming they modulate specified growth rates parallel or perpendicular to local orientations, established by a few key organisers of tissue polarity. Models in which dorsoventral genes only influence specified growth rates do not fully account for the observed growth fields and shapes. However, the data can be readily explained by a model in which dorsoventral genes also modify organisers of tissue polarity. In particular, genetic control of tissue polarity organisers at ventral petal junctions and distal boundaries allows both the shape and growth field of the flower to be accounted for in wild type and mutants. The results suggest that genetic control of tissue polarity organisers has played a key role in the development and evolution of shape.

  19. Pathology, physiologic parameters, tissue contaminants, and tissue thiamine in morbid and healthy central Florida adult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Ross, J.P.; Carbonneau, D.A.; Terrell, S.P.; Woodward, A.R.; Schoeb, T.R.; Perceval, H.F.; Hinterkopf, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of adult alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) mortalities in Lake Griffin, central Florida, was conducted from 1998-2004. Alligator mortality was highest in the months of April and May and annual death count peaked in 2000. Bacterial pathogens, heavy metals, and pesticides were not linked with the mortalities. Blood chemistry did not point to any clinical diagnosis, although differences between impaired and normal animals were noted. Captured alligators with signs of neurologic impairment displayed unresponsive and uncoordinated behavior. Three of 21 impaired Lake Griffin alligators were found to have neural lesions characteristic of thiamine deficiency in the telencephalon, particularly the dorsal ventricular ridge. In some cases, lesions were found in the thalamus, and parts of the midbrain. Liver and muscle tissue concentrations of thiamine (vitamin B"1) were lowest in impaired Lake Griffin alligators when compared to unimpaired alligators or to alligators from Lake Woodruff. The consumption of thiaminase-positive gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) is thought to have been the cause of the low tissue thiamine and resulting mortalities. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  20. Genetic response in masseter muscle after orthognathic surgery in comparison with healthy controls - A Microarray study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marewski, Maya; Petto, Carola; Schneider, Matthias; Harzer, Winfried

    2017-04-01

    One third of adult patients with orthognathic surgery of a prognathic or retrognathic mandible show relapse. The sagittal split osteotomy of the mandible leads to a displacement of both parts up to 10 mm without any changes of muscle attachment. Changed mandible length needs adaptation of muscle capacity because of changed force to moment ratio. The aim of this Microarray study was to analyze the general genetic response of masseter muscle in patients with retrognathism or prognathism of the mandible six months after surgery in comparison with healthy untreated controls. We found in tissue samples from masseter muscle a reduction of different entities between patients and controls but less in retrognathic than in prognathic patients (274/429). The different entities to controls in prognathia were reduced from 1862 to 1749 but increased in retrognathia from 1070 to 1563. We have to consider that the total amount of different entities to the controls is higher in patients with prognathic mandible (7364) because of their strong genetic controlled development compared with that in patients with retrognathic mandible (4126), which is more environmentally influenced. It can be concluded that function follows form after surgical change with high inheritance. In retrognathic patients the adaptation could be delayed or the capacity of regeneration potential is not sufficient. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The expression of syndecan-1, syndecan-4 and decorin in healthy human breast tissue during the menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naessén Tord

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to unravel the interactions between the epithelium and the extra cellular matrix (ECM in breast tissue progressing to cancer, it is necessary to understand the relevant interactions in healthy tissue under normal physiologic settings. Proteoglycans in the ECM play an important role in the signaling between the different tissue compartments. The proteoglycan decorin is abundant in the breast stroma. Decreased expression in breast cancer tissue is a sign of a poor tumor prognosis. The heparane sulphate proteoglycans syndecan-1 and syndecan-4 promote the integration of cellular adhesion and proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the gene expression and location of decorin, syndecan-1 and syndecan-4 in the healthy breast during the menstrual cycle. Methods Tissue from healthy women undergoing breast reduction plastic surgery was examined using immunohistochemistry (n = 38 and Real-Time RT-PCR (n = 20. Both parous and nulliparous women were eligible and the mean age of the women was 34(+/- 10 years with regular menstrual cycles (28 +/- 7 days. None of the women had used hormonal treatment the last three months. The women were randomized to needle biopsy two months before the operation in the follicular or luteal menstrual phase and for another biopsy at the operation in the opposite phase. Serum samples were obtained to characterize the menstrual phase. The Wilcoxon signed rank test and Mann Whitney test were used for statistical analyses. Results By real time-RT-PCR the gene signal for all three proteoglycans; decorin (p = 0.02 and syndecan-1 (p = 0.03 and syndecan-4 (p = 0.02 was significantly lower among parous women in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the identification of the proteins but no significant difference between menstrual phases was observed. Serum samples verified the menstrual phase. Conclusions Our study shows, for the first time in the

  2. Associations of physical activity and inactivity with body tissue composition among healthy Polish women and women after mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniak, U; Demuth, A; Skrzypczak, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between physical activity and body composition among healthy women and women who have had mastectomy. This is in order to establish whether physical activity of women after breast cancer treatment improves composition and distribution of body mass components to a degree which will allow to achieve the body composition of healthy women. Research material consists of anthropometric measurements (body height, weight) of women and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) of body composition (using Akern - BIA 101 composition analyzer). Intensity of activity was assessed using the Physical Activity International Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 76 healthy women (active 44.74%, inactive 55.26%) and 70 females after mastectomy (54.29% and 45.71%, respectively). Mean chronological age of women after mastectomy was 53.40 years, SD=7.55, and of the healthy ones 52.38 years SD=11.01). A significant difference in body composition was noted among active and inactive women after mastectomy; namely the active females had lower weight (by approximately 12 kg), body mass index (BMI), level of fat mass (by approximately 8%) and (by approximately 5%) total body water. The active healthy women had 6% less fat mass, almost 4% more body water and 6% more fat free mass. Programmed physical activity undertaken by women after mastectomy is recommended and produces good results in the form of reduction of excessive body fat tissue. Through physical activity these women are able to achieve the same level of fat mass as healthy women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. An optimal control problem by controlling heat source of the surface of tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, 1Rikhiya; Dhar, Ranajit; Dhar, Piyanka

    2013-01-01

    A distributed optimal control problem for a system described by bio-heat equation for a homogeneous plane tissue is analytically investigated such that a desired temperature of the tissue at a particular point of location of tumour in hyperthermia can be attained at the end of a total time of operation of the process due to induced microwave on the surface of the tissue which is taken as control. Here the temperature of the tissue along the length of the tissue at different times of operation...

  4. Expression and biochemical characteristics of two different aldosterone receptors in both healthy and dilated cardiomyopathy dog heart tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso Palomar, Alejandro R; Rodriguez Bravo, Moncerrat; Villa Mancera, Abel E; Mucha, Carlos J

    2017-03-01

    Recently, replicates of the aldosterone receptor expression have been done in healthy heart dog tissues through immunohistochemistry, showing an apparent heterogeneous distribution in the four chambers. Recent studies have also identified immediate effects of aldosterone, suggesting aldosterone also produces non-genomic effects caused by an unidentified receptor. In order to study the molecular and quantitative expression characteristics of aldosterone binding receptors in the canine heart, we conducted studies, using Western Blot, in the heart from both healthy animals and animals with dilated cardiomyopathy. The results show the presence and distribution of two aldosterone receptors; one of 110/120 kDa molecular weight, suggested as cytosolic/nuclear and the other of undetermined location with a 250 kDa molecular weight.

  5. Cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos-Moreno, Mirela P; Bücker, Joana; Bürke, Kelen P; Czepielewski, Leticia; Santos, Barbara T; Fijtman, Adam; Passos, Ives C; Kunz, Mauricio; Bonnín, Caterina Del Mar; Vieta, Eduard; Kapczinski, Flavio; Rosa, Adriane R; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    To assess cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), in unaffected siblings, and in healthy controls. Subjects were patients with BD (n=36), unaffected siblings (n=35), and healthy controls (n=44). Psychosocial functioning was accessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). A sub-group of patients with BD (n=21), unaffected siblings (n=14), and healthy controls (n=22) also underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests: California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Clinical and sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance or the chi-square test; multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine differences in neuropsychological variables. Patients with BD showed higher FAST total scores (23.90±11.35) than healthy controls (5.86±5.47; p siblings (12.60±11.83; p 0.001). Siblings and healthy controls also showed statistically significant differences in FAST total scores (p = 0.008). Patients performed worse than healthy controls on all CVLT sub-tests (p Siblings did not differ from healthy controls in cognitive tests. Unaffected siblings of patients with BD may show poorer functional performance compared to healthy controls. FAST scores may contribute to the development of markers of vulnerability and endophenotypic traits in at-risk populations.

  6. Distinct Ezrin Truncations Differentiate Metastases in Sentinel Lymph Nodes from Unaffected Lymph Node Tissues, from Primary Breast Tumors, and from Healthy Glandular Breast Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Röwer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lymph node metastasis status is a prognostic factor for further lymph node involvement and for patient survival in breast cancer patients. Frozen section analysis of lymph nodes is a reliable method for detection of macro-metastases. However, this method is far less effective in detecting micro-metastases, requesting improved diagnostic procedures. METHODS: We investigated expression and truncation of ezrin in (i sentinel lymph node metastases, (ii unaffected axillary lymph nodes, (iii primary breast tumors, and (iv healthy glandular breast tissues using 2D gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry in addition to Western blotting. RESULTS: Full-length ezrin (E1; amino acids 1–586 is present in all four investigated tissues. Two truncated ezrin forms, one missing about the first hundred amino acids (E2a and the other lacking about 150 C-terminal amino acids (E2b were detectable in primary tumor tissues and in sentinel lymph node metastases but not in glandular tissues. Strikingly, an ezrin truncation (E3 which consists approximately of amino acids 238–586 was found strongly expressed in all sentinel lymph node metastases. Moreover, an N-terminal ezrin fragment (E4 that consists approximately of amino acids 1–273 was identified in sentinel lymph node metastases as well. CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time the existence of tissue-dependent specific ezrin truncations. The distinguished strong Western blot staining of ezrin E3 in sentinel lymph node metastases underlines its capability to substantiate the occurrence of lymph node (micrometastases in breast cancer patients.

  7. A preliminary study of patient-specific mechanical properties of diabetic and healthy plantar soft tissue from gated magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Evan D; Stebbins, Michael J; Cavanagh, Peter R; Haynor, David R; Chu, Baocheng; Fassbind, Michael J; Isvilanonda, Vara; Ledoux, William R

    2017-07-01

    Foot loading rate, load magnitude, and the presence of diseases such as diabetes can all affect the mechanical properties of the plantar soft tissues of the human foot. The hydraulic plantar soft tissue reducer instrument was designed to gain insight into which variables are the most significant in determining these properties. It was used with gated magnetic resonance imaging to capture three-dimensional images of feet under dynamic loading conditions. Custom electronics controlled by LabVIEW software simultaneously recorded system pressure, which was then translated to applied force values based on calibration curves. Data were collected for two subjects, one without diabetes (Subject A) and one with diabetes (Subject B). For a 0.2-Hz loading rate, and strains 0.16, 0.18, 0.20, and 0.22, Subject A's average tangential heel pad stiffness was 10 N/mm and Subject B's was 24 N/mm. Maximum test loads were approximately 200 N. Loading rate and load magnitude limitations (both were lower than physiologic values) will continue to be addressed in the next version of the instrument. However, the current hydraulic plantar soft tissue reducer did produce a data set for healthy versus diabetic tissue stiffness that agrees with previous trends. These data are also being used to improve finite element analysis models of the foot as part of a related project.

  8. A diet enriched with Mugil cephalus processed roes modulates the tissue lipid profile in healthy rats: a biochemical and chemometric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, A; Atzeri, A; Putzu, D; Scano, P

    2016-01-01

    The effect of a diet enriched with mullet bottarga on the lipid profile (total lipids, total cholesterol, unsaturated fatty acids, α-tocopherol, and hydroperoxides) of plasma, liver, kidney, brain, and perirenal adipose tissues of healthy rats was investigated. Rats fed a 10% bottarga enriched-diet for 5 days showed body weights and tissue total lipid and cholesterol levels similar to those of animals fed control diet. Univariate and multivariate results showed that bottarga enriched-diet modified the fatty acid profile in all tissues, except brain. Significant increases of n-3 PUFA, particularly EPA, were observed together with a 20:4 n-6 decrease in plasma, liver, and kidney. Perirenal adipose tissue showed a fat accumulation that reflected the diet composition. The overall data suggest that mullet bottarga may be considered as a natural bioavailable source of n-3 PUFA and qualify it as a traditional food product with functional properties and a potential functional ingredient for preparation of n-3 PUFA enriched foods.

  9. Anthropometry, DXA and leptin reflect subcutaneous but not visceral abdominal adipose tissue by MRI in 197 healthy adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Hagen, Casper P; Christensen, Anders Nymark

    2017-01-01

    Background Abdominal fat distribution is associated with the development of cardio-metabolic disease independently of body mass index (BMI). We assessed anthropometry, serum adipokines, and DXA as markers of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) using...... to total abdominal volume. Results Girls had a higher SAT% than did boys in early and late puberty (16 vs. 13%, Pfat% (standard deviation score (SDS)), suprailiac skinfold...... magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods We performed a cross-sectional study that included 197 healthy adolescents (114 boys) aged 10–15 years nested within a longitudinal population-based cohort. Clinical examination, blood sampling, DXA, and abdominal MRI were performed. SAT% and VAT% were adjusted...

  10. Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Emelie; Edholm, Peter; Ponsot, Elodie; Wåhlin-Larsson, Britta; Hellmén, Erik; Nilsson, Andreas; Engfeldt, Peter; Cederholm, Tommy; Risérus, Ulf; Kadi, Fawzi

    2015-10-15

    The delivery of efficient nonpharmacological treatment to prevent the loss of muscle mass in older adults is a major challenge, and information on the combined effects of training and diet is particularly important. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy dietary approach (n-6/n-3 ratio healthy and physically active older women (65-70 years). The three-armed randomized controlled trial included a resistance training + healthy diet group (RT-HD), a resistance training group (RT), and controls (CON). All subjects included in the study were physically active and had low levels of serum inflammatory markers. In accordance with the dietary goals, the n-6/n-3 ratio dietary intake significantly decreased only in RT-HD by 42%. An increase in 1 repetition maximum in leg extension occurred in RT (+20.4%) and RT-HD (+20.8%), but not in CON. Interestingly, leg lean mass significantly increased only in RT-HD (+1.8%). While there were no changes in serum C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, a significant decrease in serum level of the pro-inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid (-5.3 ± 9.4%) together with an increase in serum n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (+8.3%) occurred only in RT-HD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of resistance training on muscle mass in healthy older adults can be optimized by the adoption of a healthy diet. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Acute exercise increases adipose tissue interstitial adiponectin concentration in healthy overweight and lean subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Rosenzweig, Mary; Dela, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    -) plasma concentration did not change during exercise in any of the groups, but SCAAT TNF- mRNA increased after exercise in both groups. Furthermore, exercise decreased SCAAT leptin mRNA with no change in resistin mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: Acute exercise increases adipose tissue interstitial adiponectin...

  12. GSK1265744 pharmacokinetics in plasma and tissue after single-dose long-acting injectable administration in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreen, William; Ford, Susan L; Chen, Shuguang; Wilfret, David; Margolis, David; Gould, Elizabeth; Piscitelli, Stephen

    2014-12-15

    GSK1265744 (744) is an HIV-1 integrase inhibitor in clinical development as a long-acting (LA) injectable formulation. This study evaluated plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics after single-dose administration of 744 LA administered by intramuscular (IM) or subcutaneous injections. This was a phase I, open-label, 9-cohort, parallel study of 744 in healthy subjects. 744 was administered as a 200 mg/mL nanosuspension at doses of 100-800 mg IM and 100-400 mg subcutaneous. Eight (6 active and 2 placebo) male and female subjects participated in each of the first 7 cohorts. All 8 subjects, 4 males and 4 females, received active 744 LA in cohorts 8 and 9 and underwent rectal and cervicovaginal tissue sampling, respectively. Plasma pharmacokinetic sampling was performed for a minimum of 12 weeks or until 744 concentrations were ≤0.1 μg/mL. Rectal and cervicovaginal tissue biopsies were performed at weeks 2 and 8 (cohort 8) and weeks 4 and 12 (cohort 9). 744 LA was generally safe and well tolerated after single injections. A majority of subjects reported injection site reactions, all graded as mild in intensity. Plasma concentration-time profiles were prolonged with measureable concentrations up to 52 weeks after dosing. 744 LA 800 mg IM achieved mean concentrations above protein adjusted-IC90 for approximately 16 weeks. Rectal and cervicovaginal tissue concentrations ranged from injection has potential application as a monthly or less frequent HIV treatment or prevention agent.

  13. Influence of enrofloxacin traces in drinking water to doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetics in healthy and infected by Mycoplasma gallisepticum broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbylik-Sikorska, Malgorzata; Posyniak, Andrzej; Sniegocki, Tomasz; Sell, Bartosz; Gajda, Anna; Sawicka, Anna; Olszewska-Tomczyk, Monika; Bladek, Tomasz; Tomczyk, Grzegorz; Zmudzki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Most of antibiotics, administrated in the treatment of poultry diseases are dissolved in drinking water, and it can lead to water supply systems contamination, especially when the regular cleaning is not using. This situation can lead to unconscious administration of low doses of antibiotics to untreated animals. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of the exposure of enrofloxacin traces (500 μg l(-1)) to doxycycline pharmacokinetics in healthy and experimentally Mycoplasma gallisepticum infected broiler chickens., Two experimental groups, received of enrofloxacin in water and all groups, received 20 mg kg(-1) bw of doxycycline. The compounds concentrations in muscles and livers were determined by LC-MS/MS. The maximum drug tissue concentration (Cmax) of doxycycline was highest in liver obtained from infected chickens which, received enrofloxacin traces (ENR + DC/MG). It was about 40% higher than in healthy chickens from group I which received only doxycycline. It was found that the concentration-time curve AUC(0-t) values in group ENR + DC/MG were almost 75% higher than in the group (DC) and 35% higher than in group (ENR + DC) which also received enrofloxacin traces. The constant exposure of broiler chickens on enrofloxacin traces as well as infection, may significantly influenced on doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetic profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Brown adipose tissue activation as measured by infrared thermography by mild anticipatory psychological stress in lean healthy females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lindsay J; Law, James M; Symonds, Michael E; Budge, Helen

    2016-04-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does psychological stress, which is known to promote cortisol secretion, simultaneously activate brown adipose tissue function in healthy adult females? What is the main finding and its importance? One explanation for the pronounced differences in brown adipose tissue function between individuals lies in their responsiveness to psychological stress and, as such, should be taken into account when examining its in vivo stimulation. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome and is a potential therapeutic target. Brown adipose tissue can have a significant impact on energy balance and glucose homeostasis through the action of uncoupling protein 1, dissipating chemical energy as heat following neuroendocrine stimulation. We hypothesized that psychological stress, which is known to promote cortisol secretion, would simultaneously activate BAT at thermoneutrality. Brown adipose tissue activity was measured using infrared thermography to determine changes in the temperature of the skin overlying supraclavicular BAT (TSCR ). A mild psychological stress was induced in five healthy, lean, female, Caucasian volunteers using a short mental arithmetic (MA) test. The TSCR was compared with a repeated assessment, in which the MA test was replaced with a period of relaxation. Although MA did not elicit an acute stress response, anticipation of MA testing led to an increase in salivary cortisol, indicative of an anticipatory stress response, that was associated with a trend towards higher absolute and relative TSCR . A positive correlation between TSCR and cortisol was found during the anticipatory phase, a relationship that was enhanced by increased cortisol linked to MA. Our findings suggest that subtle changes in the level of psychological stress can stimulate BAT, findings that may account for the high variability and inconsistency in reported BAT

  15. The Proteome of Ulcerative Colitis in Colon Biopsies from Adults - Optimized Sample Preparation and Comparison with Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schniers, Armin; Anderssen, Endre; Fenton, Christopher Graham; Goll, Rasmus; Pasing, Yvonne; Paulssen, Ruth Hracky; Florholmen, Jon; Hansen, Terkel

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to optimize the sample preparation and to further use an improved sample preparation to identify proteome differences between inflamed ulcerative colitis tissue from untreated adults and healthy controls. To optimize the sample preparation, we studied the effect of adding different detergents to a urea containing lysis buffer for a Lys-C/trypsin tandem digestion. With the optimized method, we prepared clinical samples from six ulcerative colitis patients and six healthy controls and analysed them by LC-MS/MS. We examined the acquired data to identify differences between the states. We improved the protein extraction and protein identification number by utilizing a urea and sodium deoxycholate containing buffer. Comparing ulcerative colitis and healthy tissue, we found 168 of 2366 identified proteins differently abundant. Inflammatory proteins are higher abundant in ulcerative colitis, proteins related to anion-transport and mucus production are lower abundant. A high proportion of S100 proteins is differently abundant, notably with both up-regulated and down-regulated proteins. The optimized sample preparation method will improve future proteomic studies on colon mucosa. The observed protein abundance changes and their enrichment in various groups improve our understanding of ulcerative colitis on protein level. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Healthy Nordic diet downregulates the expression of genes involved in inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue in individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Ulven, Stine M; Paananen, Jussi; de Mello, Vanessa; Schwab, Ursula; Carlberg, Carsten; Myhrstad, Mari; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Dungner, Elisabeth; Sjölin, Eva; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Akesson, Björn; Rosqvist, Fredrik; Hukkanen, Janne; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Dragsted, Lars O; Savolainen, Markku J; Brader, Lea; Hermansen, Kjeld; Risérus, Ulf; Thorsdottir, Inga; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Uusitupa, Matti; Arner, Peter; Dahlman, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Previously, a healthy Nordic diet (ND) has been shown to have beneficial health effects close to those of Mediterranean diets. The objective was to explore whether the ND has an impact on gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and whether changes in gene expression are associated with clinical and biochemical effects. Obese adults with features of the metabolic syndrome underwent an 18- to 24-wk randomized intervention study comparing the ND with the control diet (CD) (the SYSDIET study, carried out within Nordic Centre of Excellence of the Systems Biology in Controlled Dietary Interventions and Cohort Studies). The present study included participants from 3 Nordic SYSDIET centers [Kuopio (n = 20), Lund (n = 18), and Oulu (n = 18)] with a maximum weight change of ±4 kg, highly sensitive C-reactive protein concentration healthy Nordic diet reduces inflammatory gene expression in SAT compared with a control diet independently of body weight change in individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Reserve-building activities in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Ayandeh, Armon; Ramanathan, Murali; Benedict, Ralph; Dwyer, Michael G; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Zivadinov, Robert

    2015-08-12

    Cognitive reserve has been implicated as a possible protective factor in multiple sclerosis (MS) but to date no study has compared reserve-building activities across disease course or to healthy controls. This study aims to describe differences in reserve-building activities across the MS disease course and healthy controls. Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional cohort study that included 276 healthy controls, and subjects with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS; n = 67), relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS; n = 358) and secondary progressive MS (PMS; n = 109). Past reserve-building activities were operationalized as occupational attainment and education. Current activities comprised 6 strenuous and 6 non-strenuous activities, including 5 reserve-building activities and television-watching. Multivariate Analysis of Variance models examined group differences in past and current activities, after adjusting for covariates. There were group differences in past and current reserve-building activities. SPMS patients had lower past reserve-building activities than healthy controls. All forms of MS engaged in fewer strenuous current reserve-building pursuits than healthy controls. RRMS read less than healthy controls. SPMS engaged in fewer job-related non-strenuous activities. All MS groups watched more television than healthy controls. MS patients show significantly fewer past and present reserve-building activities. Although it is difficult to establish causality without future prospective studies, lifestyle-modifying interventions should prioritize expanding MS patients' repertoire of strenuous and non-strenuous activities.

  18. Quantification of differences in the effective atomic numbers of healthy and cancerous tissues: A discussion in the context of diagnostics and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M. L. [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovation Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000 (Australia); Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3001 (Australia) and Medical Physics, WBRC, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne 3000 (Australia)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: There are a range of genetic and nongenetic factors influencing the elemental composition of different human tissues. The elemental composition of cancerous tissues frequently differs from healthy tissue of the same organ, particularly in high-Z trace element concentrations. For this reason, one could suggest that this may be exploited in diagnostics and perhaps even influence dosimetry. Methods: In this work, for the first time, effective atomic numbers are computed for common cancerous and healthy tissues using a robust, energy-dependent approach between 10 keV and 100 MeV. These are then quantitatively compared within the context of diagnostics and dosimetry. Results: Differences between effective atomic numbers of healthy and diseased tissues are found to be typically less than 10%. Fibrotic tissues and calcifications of the breast exhibit substantial (tens to hundreds of percent) differences to healthy tissue. Expectedly, differences are most pronounced in the photoelectric regime and consequently most relevant for kV imaging/therapy and radionuclides with prominent low-energy peaks. Cancerous tissue of the testes and stomach have lower effective atomic numbers than corresponding healthy tissues, while diseased tissues of the other organ sites typically have higher values. Conclusions: As dose calculation approaches improve in accuracy, there may be an argument for the explicit inclusion of pathologies. This is more the case for breast, penile, prostate, nasopharyngeal, and stomach cancer, less so for testicular and kidney cancer. The calculated data suggest dual-energy computed tomography could potentially improve lesion identification in the aforementioned organs (with the exception of testicular cancer), with most import in breast imaging. Ultimately, however, the differences are very small. It is likely that the assumption of a generic 'tissue ramp' in planning will be sufficient for the foreseeable future, and that the Z differences do

  19. Quantification of differences in the effective atomic numbers of healthy and cancerous tissues: A discussion in the context of diagnostics and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There are a range of genetic and nongenetic factors influencing the elemental composition of different human tissues. The elemental composition of cancerous tissues frequently differs from healthy tissue of the same organ, particularly in high-Z trace element concentrations. For this reason, one could suggest that this may be exploited in diagnostics and perhaps even influence dosimetry. Methods: In this work, for the first time, effective atomic numbers are computed for common cancerous and healthy tissues using a robust, energy-dependent approach between 10 keV and 100 MeV. These are then quantitatively compared within the context of diagnostics and dosimetry. Results: Differences between effective atomic numbers of healthy and diseased tissues are found to be typically less than 10%. Fibrotic tissues and calcifications of the breast exhibit substantial (tens to hundreds of percent) differences to healthy tissue. Expectedly, differences are most pronounced in the photoelectric regime and consequently most relevant for kV imaging/therapy and radionuclides with prominent low-energy peaks. Cancerous tissue of the testes and stomach have lower effective atomic numbers than corresponding healthy tissues, while diseased tissues of the other organ sites typically have higher values. Conclusions: As dose calculation approaches improve in accuracy, there may be an argument for the explicit inclusion of pathologies. This is more the case for breast, penile, prostate, nasopharyngeal, and stomach cancer, less so for testicular and kidney cancer. The calculated data suggest dual-energy computed tomography could potentially improve lesion identification in the aforementioned organs (with the exception of testicular cancer), with most import in breast imaging. Ultimately, however, the differences are very small. It is likely that the assumption of a generic “tissue ramp” in planning will be sufficient for the foreseeable future, and that the Z differences do not

  20. Control of Scar Tissue Formation in the Cornea: Strategies in Clinical and Corneal Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L. Wilson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Corneal structure is highly organized and unified in architecture with structural and functional integration which mediates transparency and vision. Disease and injury are the second most common cause of blindness affecting over 10 million people worldwide. Ninety percent of blindness is permanent due to scarring and vascularization. Scarring caused via fibrotic cellular responses, heals the tissue, but fails to restore transparency. Controlling keratocyte activation and differentiation are key for the inhibition and prevention of fibrosis. Ophthalmic surgery techniques are continually developing to preserve and restore vision but corneal regression and scarring are often detrimental side effects and long term continuous follow up studies are lacking or discouraging. Appropriate corneal models may lead to a reduced need for corneal transplantation as presently there are insufficient numbers or suitable tissue to meet demand. Synthetic optical materials are under development for keratoprothesis although clinical use is limited due to implantation complications and high rejection rates. Tissue engineered corneas offer an alternative which more closely mimic the morphological, physiological and biomechanical properties of native corneas. However, replication of the native collagen fiber organization and retaining the phenotype of stromal cells which prevent scar-like tissue formation remains a challenge. Careful manipulation of culture environments are under investigation to determine a suitable environment that simulates native ECM organization and stimulates keratocyte migration and generation.

  1. Localized Tissue Surrogate Deformation due to Controlled Single Bubble Cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-27

    studies using ultrasound shock waves also support cavitation induced damage, e.g. hemorrhage and cellular membrane poration 26-28. In addition...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Cavitation -induced shock wave, as might occur in the head during exposure to blast waves, was investigated as a possible...damage mechanism for soft brain tissues. A novel experimental scheme was developed to visualize and control single bubble cavitation and its

  2. Detection of Acetaldehyde in the Esophageal Tissue among Healthy Male Subjects after Ethanol Drinking and Subsequent L-Cysteine Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okata, Hideki; Hatta, Waku; Iijima, Katsunori; Asanuma, Kiyotaka; Tsuruya, Atsuki; Asano, Naoki; Koike, Tomoyuki; Hamada, Shin; Nakayama, Toru; Masamune, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2018-04-01

    Ethanol is oxidized by alcohol dehydrogenase to acetaldehyde, a recognized carcinogen for the esophagus. However, no previous study has measured the acetaldehyde levels in the esophageal tissue. L-cysteine has been shown to reduce the acetaldehyde levels in the saliva; however, it is unknown whether L-cysteine intake affects the acetaldehyde concentration in the esophageal tissue. The aim of this study was to measure the acetaldehyde concentration in the esophageal tissue after ethanol drinking and evaluate the effect of L-cysteine intake on the acetaldehyde levels in the esophagus. We enrolled 10 male subjects with active acetaldehyde dehydrogenase-2*1/*1 (ALDH2*1/*1) genotype and 10 male subjects with the inactive acetaldehyde dehydrogenase-2*1/*2 (ALDH2*1/*2) genotype, the mean ages of whom were 25.6 and 27.9 years, respectively. In this prospective, single-blind, placebo-controlled study using L-cysteine and placebo lozenges (first and second examination), saliva and blood were collected before and after ethanol drinking. Esophageal tissue was obtained by endoscopic biopsy at 60 minutes after drinking, and the acetaldehyde and ethanol concentrations were measured. The acetaldehyde concentration of the saliva was significantly lower in those taking L-cysteine than in those taking the placebo. Acetaldehyde in the esophageal tissue was detected only in those taking L-cysteine lozenges. There were no correlations between the acetaldehyde concentrations in the esophageal tissue and saliva or blood. In conclusion, we detected acetaldehyde in the human esophageal tissue after ethanol drinking. Unexpectedly, intake of L-cysteine lozenges appears to contribute to detection of acetaldehyde in the esophageal tissue.

  3. Parent and child care provider partnerships: Protocol for the Healthy Me, Healthy We (HMHW) cluster randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennink-Kaminski, Heidi; Vaughn, Amber E; Hales, Derek; Moore, Reneé H; Luecking, Courtney T; Ward, Dianne S

    2018-01-01

    Formation of diet and physical activity habits begins during early childhood. However, many preschool-aged children in the United States do not achieve recommendations for a nutritious diet or active lifestyle. Two important spheres of influence, home and child care, could ensure that children receive consistent health messages. Innovative approaches that engage both parents and child care providers in a substantial way are needed. Social marketing, a promising approach for health promotion targeting children, uses principles that recognize the need to engage multiple stakeholders and to emphasize benefits and overcome barriers associated with behavior change. Yet, application of social marketing principles in interventions for preschool-age children is limited. Healthy Me, Healthy We (HMHW) is 2-arm, cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a 8-month social marketing campaign on the diet and physical activity behaviors of preschool children (3-4years old), their parents, and child care providers. The campaign is delivered by the child care center and includes branded classroom and at-home activities and materials. Primary outcomes are children's diet quality (assessed with Healthy Eating Index scores) and minutes of non-sedentary activity (measured via accelerometers). Secondary outcomes assess children's body mass index, nutrition and physical activity practices at the child care center and at home, and health behaviors of child care providers and parents. HMHW is an innovative approach to promoting healthy eating and physical activity in preschool children. The campaign targets children during a key developmental period and leverages a partnership between providers and parents to affect behavior change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Health on impulse: when low self-control promotes healthy food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Fennis, Bob M; de Ridder, Denise T D; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Vet, Emely

    2014-02-01

    Food choices are often made mindlessly, when individuals are not able or willing to exert self-control. Under low self-control, individuals have difficulties to resist palatable but unhealthy food products. In contrast to previous research aiming to foster healthy choices by promoting high self-control, this study exploits situations of low self-control, by strategically using the tendency under these conditions to rely on heuristics (simple decision rules) as quick guides to action. More specifically, the authors associated healthy food products with the social proof heuristic (i.e., normative cues that convey majority endorsement for those products). One hundred seventy-seven students (119 men), with an average age of 20.47 years (SD = 2.25) participated in the experiment. This study used a 2 (low vs. high self-control) × 2 (social proof vs. no heuristic) × 2 (trade-off vs. control choice) design, with the latter as within-subjects factor. The dependent variable was the number of healthy food choices in a food-choice task. In line with previous studies, people made fewer healthy food choices under low self-control. However, this negative effect of low self-control on food choice was reversed when the healthy option was associated with the social proof heuristic. In that case, people made more healthy choices under conditions of low self-control. Low self-control may be even more beneficial for healthy food choices than high self-control in the presence of a heuristic. Exploiting situations of low self-control is a new and promising method to promote health on impulse. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Similar properties of chondrocytes from osteoarthritis joints and mesenchymal stem cells from healthy donors for tissue engineering of articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton M Fernandes

    Full Text Available Lesions of hyaline cartilage do not heal spontaneously, and represent a therapeutic challenge. In vitro engineering of articular cartilage using cells and biomaterials may prove to be the best solution. Patients with osteoarthritis (OA may require tissue engineered cartilage therapy. Chondrocytes obtained from OA joints are thought to be involved in the disease process, and thus to be of insufficient quality to be used for repair strategies. Bone marrow (BM derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from healthy donors may represent an alternative cell source. We have isolated chondrocytes from OA joints, performed cell culture expansion and tissue engineering of cartilage using a disc-shaped alginate scaffold and chondrogenic differentiation medium. We performed real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR and fluorescence immunohistochemistry to evaluate mRNA and protein expression for a range of molecules involved in chondrogenesis and OA pathogenesis. Results were compared with those obtained by using BM-MSCs in an identical tissue engineering strategy. Finally the two populations were compared using genome-wide mRNA arrays. At three weeks of chondrogenic differentiation we found high and similar levels of hyaline cartilage-specific type II collagen and fibrocartilage-specific type I collagen mRNA and protein in discs containing OA and BM-MSC derived chondrocytes. Aggrecan, the dominant proteoglycan in hyaline cartilage, was more abundantly distributed in the OA chondrocyte extracellular matrix. OA chondrocytes expressed higher mRNA levels also of other hyaline extracellular matrix components. Surprisingly BM-MSC derived chondrocytes expressed higher mRNA levels of OA markers such as COL10A1, SSP1 (osteopontin, ALPL, BMP2, VEGFA, PTGES, IHH, and WNT genes, but lower levels of MMP3 and S100A4. Based on the results presented here, OA chondrocytes may be suitable for tissue engineering of articular cartilage.

  6. Hormone replacement therapy dependent changes in breast cancer-related gene expression in breast tissue of healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieuwerts, Anieta M; De Napoli, Giuseppina; van Galen, Anne; Kloosterboer, Helenius J; de Weerd, Vanja; Zhang, Hong; Martens, John W M; Foekens, John A; De Geyter, Christian

    2011-12-01

    Risk assessment of future breast cancer risk through exposure to sex steroids currently relies on clinical scorings such as mammographic density. Knowledge about the gene expression patterns in existing breast cancer tumors may be used to identify risk factors in the breast tissue of women still free of cancer. The differential effects of estradiol, estradiol together with gestagens, or tibolone on breast cancer-related gene expression in normal breast tissue samples taken from postmenopausal women may be used to identify gene expression profiles associated with a higher breast cancer risk. Breast tissue samples were taken from 33 healthy postmenopausal women both before and after a six month treatment with either 2mg micronized estradiol [E2], 2mg micronized estradiol and 1mg norethisterone acetate [E2+NETA], 2.5mg tibolone [T] or [no HRT]. Except for [E2], which was only given to women after hysterectomy, the allocation to each of the three groups was randomized. The expression of 102 mRNAs and 46 microRNAs putatively involved in breast cancer was prospectively determined in the biopsies of 6 women receiving [no HRT], 5 women receiving [E2], 5 women receiving [E2+NETA], and 6 receiving [T]. Using epithelial and endothelial markers genes, non-representative biopsies from 11 women were eliminated. Treatment of postmenopausal women with [E2+NETA] resulted in the highest number of differentially (pbreast tissue with a change in the expression of genes putatively involved in breast cancer. Our data suggest that normal mammary cells triggered by [E2+NETA] adjust for steroidogenic up-regulation through down-regulation of the estrogen-receptor pathway. This feasibility study provides the basis for whole genome analyses to identify novel markers involved in increased breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunohistochemistry of colorectal cancer biomarker phosphorylation requires controlled tissue fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey P Theiss

    Full Text Available Phosphorylated signaling molecules are biomarkers of cancer pathophysiology and resistance to therapy, but because phosphoprotein analytes are often labile, poorly controlled clinical laboratory practices could prevent translation of research findings in this area from the bench to the bedside. We therefore compared multiple biomarker and phosphoprotein immunohistochemistry (IHC results in 23 clinical colorectal carcinoma samples after either a novel, rapid tissue fixation protocol or a standard tissue fixation protocol employed by clinical laboratories, and we also investigated the effect of a defined post-operative "cold" ischemia period on these IHC results. We found that a one-hour cold ischemia interval, allowed by ASCO/CAP guidelines for certain cancer biomarker assays, is highly deleterious to certain phosphoprotein analytes, specifically the phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR, but shorter ischemic intervals (less than 17 minutes facilitate preservation of phosphoproteins. Second, we found that a rapid 4-hour, two temperature, formalin fixation yielded superior staining in several cases with select markers (pEGFR, pBAD, pAKT compared to a standard overnight room temperature fixation protocol, despite taking less time. These findings indicate that the future research and clinical utilities of phosphoprotein IHC for assessing colorectal carcinoma pathophysiology absolutely depend upon attention to preanalytical factors and rigorously controlled tissue fixation protocols.

  8. Cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela P. Vasconcelos-Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD, in unaffected siblings, and in healthy controls. Methods: Subjects were patients with BD (n=36, unaffected siblings (n=35, and healthy controls (n=44. Psychosocial functioning was accessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST. A sub-group of patients with BD (n=21, unaffected siblings (n=14, and healthy controls (n=22 also underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests: California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Clinical and sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance or the chi-square test; multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine differences in neuropsychological variables. Results: Patients with BD showed higher FAST total scores (23.90±11.35 than healthy controls (5.86±5.47; p < 0.001 and siblings (12.60±11.83; p 0.001. Siblings and healthy controls also showed statistically significant differences in FAST total scores (p = 0.008. Patients performed worse than healthy controls on all CVLT sub-tests (p < 0.030 and in the number of correctly completed categories on WCST (p = 0.030. Siblings did not differ from healthy controls in cognitive tests. Conclusion: Unaffected siblings of patients with BD may show poorer functional performance compared to healthy controls. FAST scores may contribute to the development of markers of vulnerability and endophenotypic traits in at-risk populations.

  9. Controlled cellular energy conversion in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Plant, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue serves as a model system for nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) since a) it has as a primary physiological function the conversion of chemical energy to heat; and b) preliminary data from other tissues involved in NST (e.g., muscle) indicate that parallel mechanisms may be involved. Now that biochemical pathways have been proposed for brown fat thermogenesis, cellular models consistent with a thermodynamic representation can be formulated. Stated concisely, the thermogenic mechanism in a brown fat cell can be considered as an energy converter involving a sequence of cellular events controlled by signals over the autonomic nervous system. A thermodynamic description for NST is developed in terms of a nonisothermal system under steady-state conditions using network thermodynamics. Pathways simulated include mitochondrial ATP synthesis, a Na+/K+ membrane pump, and ionic diffusion through the adipocyte membrane.

  10. Nanoscale tissue engineering: spatial control over cell-materials interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeldon, Ian; Farhadi, Arash; Bick, Alexander G; Khademhosseini, Ali; Jabbari, Esmaiel

    2011-01-01

    Cells interact with the surrounding environment by making tens to hundreds of thousands of nanoscale interactions with extracellular signals and features. The goal of nanoscale tissue engineering is to harness these interactions through nanoscale biomaterials engineering in order to study and direct cellular behavior. Here, we review two- and three-dimensional (2- and 3D) nanoscale tissue engineering technologies, and provide a holistic overview of the field. Techniques that can control the average spacing and clustering of cell adhesion ligands are well established and have been highly successful in describing cell adhesion and migration in 2D. Extension of these engineering tools to 3D biomaterials has created many new hydrogel and nanofiber scaffold technologies that are being used to design in vitro experiments with more physiologically relevant conditions. Researchers are beginning to study complex cell functions in 3D. However, there is a need for biomaterials systems that provide fine control over the nanoscale presentation of bioactive ligands in 3D. Additionally, there is a need for 2- and 3D techniques that can control the nanoscale presentation of multiple bioactive ligands and that can control the temporal changes in the cellular microenvironment. (topical review)

  11. Stem Cell Metabolism in Cancer and Healthy Tissues: Pyruvate in the Limelight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Corbet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal and cancer stem cells (CSCs share the remarkable potential to self-renew and differentiate into many distinct cell types. Although most of the stem cells remain under quiescence to maintain their undifferentiated state, they can also undergo cell divisions as required to regulate tissue homeostasis. There is now a growing evidence that cell fate determination from stem cells implies a fine-tuned regulation of their energy balance and metabolic status. Stem cells can shift their metabolic substrate utilization, between glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, during specification and/or differentiation, as well as in order to adapt their microenvironmental niche. Pyruvate appears as a key metabolite since it is at the crossroads of cytoplasmic glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. This Review describes how metabolic reprogramming, focusing on pyruvate utilization, drives the fate of normal and CSCs by modulating their capacity for self-renewal, clonal expansion/differentiation, as well as metastatic potential and treatment resistance in cancer. This Review also explores potential therapeutic strategies to restore or manipulate stem cell function through the use of small molecules targeting the pyruvate metabolism.

  12. Monochromatic Minibeams Radiotherapy: From Healthy Tissue-Sparing Effect Studies Toward First Experimental Glioma Bearing Rats Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deman, Pierre; Vautrin, Mathias; Edouard, Magali; Stupar, Vasile; Bobyk, Laure; Farion, Régine; Elleaume, Hélène; Rémy, Chantal; Barbier, Emmanuel L.; Estève, François; Adam, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate high-dose single fraction delivered with monochromatic X-rays minibeams for the radiotherapy of primary brain tumors in rats. Methods and Materials: Two groups of healthy rats were irradiated with one anteroposterior minibeam incidence (four minibeams, 123 Gy prescribed dose at 1 cm depth in the brain) or two interleaved incidences (54 Gy prescribed dose in a 5 × 5 × 4.8 mm 3 volume centered in the right hemisphere), respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up was performed over 1 year. T2-weighted (T2w) images, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and blood vessel permeability maps were acquired. F98 tumor bearing rats were also irradiated with interleaved minibeams to achieve a homogeneous dose of 54 Gy delivered to an 8 × 8 × 7.8 mm 3 volume centered on the tumor. Anatomic and functional MRI follow-up was performed every 10 days after irradiation. T2w images, ADC, and perfusion maps were acquired. Results: All healthy rats were euthanized 1 year after irradiation without any clinical alteration visible by simple examination. T2w and ADC measurements remain stable for the single incidence irradiation group. Localized Gd-DOTA permeability, however, was observed 9 months after irradiation for the interleaved incidences group. The survival time of irradiated glioma bearing rats was significantly longer than that of untreated animals (49 ± 12.5 days versus 23.3 ± 2 days, p < 0.001). The tumoral cerebral blood flow and blood volume tend to decrease after irradiation. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the sparing effect of minibeams on healthy tissue. The increased life span achieved for irradiated glioma bearing rats was similar to the one obtained with other radiotherapy techniques. This experimental tumor therapy study shows the feasibility of using X-ray minibeams with high doses in brain tumor radiotherapy.

  13. Monochromatic Minibeams Radiotherapy: From Healthy Tissue-Sparing Effect Studies Toward First Experimental Glioma Bearing Rats Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deman, Pierre [INSERM, Grenoble (France); Universite Joseph Fourier, Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Vautrin, Mathias [INSERM, Grenoble (France); Universite Joseph Fourier, Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); DOSIsoft, Cachan (France); Edouard, Magali [INSERM, Grenoble (France); Universite Joseph Fourier, Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Stupar, Vasile [INSERM, Grenoble (France); Universite Joseph Fourier, Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Bobyk, Laure; Farion, Regine [INSERM, Grenoble (France); Universite Joseph Fourier, Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Elleaume, Helene [INSERM, Grenoble (France); Universite Joseph Fourier, Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Grenoble University Hospital, Grenoble (France); Remy, Chantal; Barbier, Emmanuel L. [INSERM, Grenoble (France); Universite Joseph Fourier, Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Esteve, Francois [INSERM, Grenoble (France); Universite Joseph Fourier, Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Grenoble University Hospital, Grenoble (France); Adam, Jean-Francois, E-mail: adam@esrf.fr [INSERM, Grenoble (France); Universite Joseph Fourier, Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Grenoble University Hospital, Grenoble (France)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate high-dose single fraction delivered with monochromatic X-rays minibeams for the radiotherapy of primary brain tumors in rats. Methods and Materials: Two groups of healthy rats were irradiated with one anteroposterior minibeam incidence (four minibeams, 123 Gy prescribed dose at 1 cm depth in the brain) or two interleaved incidences (54 Gy prescribed dose in a 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 Multiplication-Sign 4.8 mm{sup 3} volume centered in the right hemisphere), respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up was performed over 1 year. T2-weighted (T2w) images, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and blood vessel permeability maps were acquired. F98 tumor bearing rats were also irradiated with interleaved minibeams to achieve a homogeneous dose of 54 Gy delivered to an 8 Multiplication-Sign 8 Multiplication-Sign 7.8 mm{sup 3} volume centered on the tumor. Anatomic and functional MRI follow-up was performed every 10 days after irradiation. T2w images, ADC, and perfusion maps were acquired. Results: All healthy rats were euthanized 1 year after irradiation without any clinical alteration visible by simple examination. T2w and ADC measurements remain stable for the single incidence irradiation group. Localized Gd-DOTA permeability, however, was observed 9 months after irradiation for the interleaved incidences group. The survival time of irradiated glioma bearing rats was significantly longer than that of untreated animals (49 {+-} 12.5 days versus 23.3 {+-} 2 days, p < 0.001). The tumoral cerebral blood flow and blood volume tend to decrease after irradiation. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the sparing effect of minibeams on healthy tissue. The increased life span achieved for irradiated glioma bearing rats was similar to the one obtained with other radiotherapy techniques. This experimental tumor therapy study shows the feasibility of using X-ray minibeams with high doses in brain tumor radiotherapy.

  14. Temperature-controlled radiofrequency ablation of cardiac tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H H; Chen, X; Pietersen, Adrian

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of basic factors such as electrode tip pressure, flow around the electrode and electrode orientation influence lesion size during radiofrequency ablation, but importantly is dependent on the chosen mode of ablation. However, only little information is available for the frequ......BACKGROUND: A variety of basic factors such as electrode tip pressure, flow around the electrode and electrode orientation influence lesion size during radiofrequency ablation, but importantly is dependent on the chosen mode of ablation. However, only little information is available...... for the frequently used temperature-controlled mode. The purpose of the present experimental study was to evaluate the impact during temperature-controlled radiofrequency ablation of three basic factors regarding electrode-tissue contact and convective cooling on lesion size. METHODS AND RESULTS: In vitro strips......-controlled radiofrequency ablation increased external cooling of the electrode tip due to either flow of the surrounding liquid or poor electrode tissue contact, as exemplified by perpendicular versus parallel electrode orientation, increases lesion size significantly. This is in contrast to the impact of these factors...

  15. Nanoscale tissue engineering: spatial control over cell-materials interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, Ian; Farhadi, Arash; Bick, Alexander G.; Jabbari, Esmaiel; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Cells interact with the surrounding environment by making tens to hundreds of thousands of nanoscale interactions with extracellular signals and features. The goal of nanoscale tissue engineering is to harness the interactions through nanoscale biomaterials engineering in order to study and direct cellular behaviors. Here, we review the nanoscale tissue engineering technologies for both two- and three-dimensional studies (2- and 3D), and provide a holistic overview of the field. Techniques that can control the average spacing and clustering of cell adhesion ligands are well established and have been highly successful in describing cell adhesion and migration in 2D. Extension of these engineering tools to 3D biomaterials has created many new hydrogel and nanofiber scaffolds technologies that are being used to design in vitro experiments with more physiologically relevant conditions. Researchers are beginning to study complex cell functions in 3D, however, there is a need for biomaterials systems that provide fine control over the nanoscale presentation of bioactive ligands in 3D. Additionally, there is a need for 2- and 3D techniques that can control the nanoscale presentation of multiple bioactive ligands and the temporal changes in cellular microenvironment. PMID:21451238

  16. Upper spine morphology in hypophosphatemic rickets and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Hans; Sonnesen, Liselotte; Beck-Nielsen, Signe S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe upper spine morphology in adult patients with hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) compared with controls to assess differences in spine morphology in terms of severity of skeletal impact and to study associations between spine morphology...

  17. Bioactive scaffolds for the controlled formation of complex skeletal tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, S.; Garcia-Fuentes, M.; Eberli, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue Engineering may offer new treatment alternatives for organ replacement or repair deteriorated organs. Among the clinical applications of Tissue Engineering are the production of artificial skin for burn patients, tissue engineered trachea, cartilage for knee-replacement procedures, urinary

  18. Carprofen pharmacokinetics in plasma and in control and inflamed canine tissue fluid using in vivo ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, K M; Wofford, J A; Papich, M G

    2016-02-01

    Measurement of unbound drug concentrations at their sites of action is necessary for accurate PK/PD modeling. The objective of this study was to determine the unbound concentration of carprofen in canine interstitial fluid (ISF) using in vivo ultrafiltration and to compare pharmacokinetic parameters of free carprofen concentrations between inflamed and control tissue sites. We hypothesized that active concentrations of carprofen would exhibit different dispositions in ISF between inflamed vs. normal tissues. Bilateral ultrafiltration probes were placed subcutaneously in six healthy Beagle dogs 12 h prior to induction of inflammation. Two milliliters of either 2% carrageenan or saline control was injected subcutaneously at each probe site, 12 h prior to intravenous carprofen (4 mg/kg) administration. Plasma and ISF samples were collected at regular intervals for 72 h, and carprofen concentrations were determined using HPLC. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) concentrations were quantified in ISF using ELISA. Unbound carprofen concentrations were higher in ISF compared with predicted unbound plasma drug concentrations. Concentrations were not significantly higher in inflamed ISF compared with control ISF. Compartmental modeling was used to generate pharmacokinetic parameter estimates, which were not significantly different between sites. Terminal half-life (T½) was longer in the ISF compared with plasma. PGE2 in ISF decreased following administration of carprofen. In vivo ultrafiltration is a reliable method to determine unbound carprofen in ISF, and that disposition of unbound drug into tissue is much higher than predicted from unbound drug concentration in plasma. However, concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameter estimates are not significantly different in inflamed vs. un-inflamed tissues. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Higher Ratio of Abdominal Subcutaneous to Visceral Adipose Tissue Related with Preservation of Islet β-Cell Function in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between abdominal adipose tissue distribution, β-cell function, and insulin sensitivity (IS in a Chinese population. Methods. One hundred and eighty-eight healthy subjects (healthy group, 239 with normal glucose, and 1~4 abnormal metabolic traits (metabolic dysfunction group, MD group and 125 with hyperglycemia (hyperglycemia group were studied. HOMA-IR, HOMA-B, Matsuda index, early- (I0–30/G0–30 and late-phase (I30–120/G30–120 insulin responses and the corresponding disposition indexes (DI were calculated. The area of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT and visceral adipose tissue (VAT was measured and the ratio of ASAT to VAT (SVR was calculated. Results. SVR was correlated positively with Matsuda index in healthy, MD, and hyperglycemia groups, and inversely with HOMA-IR. SVR positively related with both early- and late-phase DI in the healthy group only. In the healthy group, the hyperbolas of I0–30/G0–30 and I30–120/G30–120 versus Matsuda index in the highest quarter of SVR were significantly right shifted compared to those in the lowest (both P<0.05. Conclusions. In healthy adults, higher SVR was a protective factor for β-cell function and IS, while in those with glucometabolic abnormality, higher SVR contributed to a relative better IS, indicating SVR is possible to be an early predicator of type 2 diabetes development.

  20. Candy or apple? How self-control resources and motives impact dietary healthiness in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Strohbach, Stefanie; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2011-06-01

    People can choose between a virtually endless array of food items rising the question, which factors determine healthy or unhealthy food choice. The present study examines the impact of two contrasting motives for food choice (affect regulation and body weight control) and self-regulatory competences on healthy eating within a sample of women (N=761). The data show that a relative lack of self-regulatory resources combined with a high tendency to regulate negative affect through comfort eating was associated with an unfavorable dietary pattern. Accordingly, a healthy dietary pattern requires not only self-regulatory capacities but also a facilitating motive structure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The follicular skin microbiome in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Thorsen, Jonathan; Saunte, Ditte M.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Although the pathogenesis of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) remains enigmatic, several factors point to potential involvement of the cutaneous microbiome. Insight into the cutaneous microbiome in HS using next-generation sequencing may provide novel data on the microbiological diversity...... of the skin.  OBJECTIVE: To investigate the follicular skin microbiome in patients with HS and in healthy controls.  DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This case-control study obtained punch biopsy specimens from patients with HS (lesional and nonlesional) and healthy controls between October 1, 2014....... Biopsy specimens from healthy controls were obtained from the axilla only.  MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The different microbiomes were investigated using next-generation sequencing targeting 16S and 18S ribosomal RNA.  RESULTS: The skin microbiome was characterized in 30 patients with HS (mean [SD] age...

  2. iPad-assisted measurements of duration estimation in psychiatric patients and healthy control subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Preuschoff

    Full Text Available Handheld devices with touchscreen controls have become widespread in the general population. In this study, we examined the duration estimates (explicit timing made by patients in a major general hospital and healthy control subjects using a custom iPad application. We methodically assessed duration estimates using this novel device. We found that both psychiatric and non-psychiatric patients significantly overestimated time periods compared with healthy control subjects, who estimated elapsed time very precisely. The use of touchscreen-based methodologies can provide valuable information about patients.

  3. Ultrasound therapy applicators for controlled thermal modification of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, E. Clif; Lichtenstiger, Carol; Rund, Laurie; Keralapura, Mallika; Gossett, Chad; Stahlhut, Randy; Neubauer, Paul; Komadina, Bruce; Williams, Emery; Alix, Chris; Jensen, Tor; Schook, Lawrence; Diederich, Chris J.

    2011-03-01

    Heat therapy has long been used for treatments in dermatology and sports medicine. The use of laser, RF, microwave, and more recently, ultrasound treatment, for psoriasis, collagen reformation, and skin tightening has gained considerable interest over the past several years. Numerous studies and commercial devices have demonstrated the efficacy of these methods for treatment of skin disorders. Despite these promising results, current systems remain highly dependent on operator skill, and cannot effectively treat effectively because there is little or no control of the size, shape, and depth of the target zone. These limitations make it extremely difficult to obtain consistent treatment results. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility for using acoustic energy for controlled dose delivery sufficient to produce collagen modification for the treatment of skin tissue in the dermal and sub-dermal layers. We designed and evaluated a curvilinear focused ultrasound device for treating skin disorders such as psoriasis, stimulation of wound healing, tightening of skin through shrinkage of existing collagen and stimulation of new collagen formation, and skin cancer. Design parameters were examined using acoustic pattern simulations and thermal modeling. Acute studies were performed in 201 freshly-excised samples of young porcine underbelly skin tissue and 56 in-vivo treatment areas in 60- 80 kg pigs. These were treated with ultrasound (9-11MHz) focused in the deep dermis. Dose distribution was analyzed and gross pathology assessed. Tissue shrinkage was measured based on fiducial markers and video image registration and analyzed using NIH Image-J software. Comparisons were made between RF and focused ultrasound for five energy ranges. In each experimental series, therapeutic dose levels (60degC) were attained at 2-5mm depth. Localized collagen changes ranged from 1-3% for RF versus 8-15% for focused ultrasound. Therapeutic ultrasound applied at high

  4. Emotional intelligence in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Katrin; Driessen, Martin; Behnia, Behnoush; Wingenfeld, Katja; Roepke, Stefan

    2018-06-01

    Emotional intelligence as a part of social cognition has, to our knowledge, never been investigated in patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), though the disorder is characterized by aspects of emotional dysfunctioning. PTSD often occurs with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) as a common comorbidity. Studies about social cognition and emotional intelligence in patients with BPD propose aberrant social cognition, but produced inconsistent results regarding emotional intelligence. The present study aims to assess emotional intelligence in patients with PTSD without comorbid BPD, PTSD with comorbid BPD, and BPD patients without comorbid PTSD, as well as in healthy controls. 71 patients with PTSD (41 patients with PTSD without comorbid BPD, 30 patients with PTSD with comorbid BPD), 56 patients with BPD without PTSD, and 63 healthy controls filled in the Test of Emotional Intelligence (TEMINT). Patients with PTSD without comorbid BPD showed impairments in emotional intelligence compared to patients with BPD without PTSD, and compared to healthy controls. These impairments were not restricted to specific emotions. Patients with BPD did not differ significantly from healthy controls. This study provides evidence for an impaired emotional intelligence in PTSD without comorbid BPD compared to BPD and healthy controls, affecting a wide range of emotions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gratitude mediates quality of life differences between fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Loren; Sirois, Fuschia; Hirsch, Jameson; Weber, Annemarie; Vajda, Christian; Schelling, Jorg; Kohls, Niko; Offenbacher, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Despite a growing literature on the benefits of gratitude for adjustment to chronic illness, little is known about gratitude in medical populations compared to healthy populations, or the degree to which potential deficits in gratitude might impact quality of life. The purpose of the present study was to (1) examine levels of gratitude and quality of life in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls and (2) consider the role of gratitude in explaining quality of life differences between fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls. Participants were 173 fibromyalgia patients and 81 healthy controls. All participants completed measures of gratitude, quality of life, and socio-demographics. Although gratitude was positively associated with quality of life, levels of gratitude and quality of life were lower in the fibromyalgia sample relative to the healthy controls. This difference in gratitude partially mediated differences in quality of life between the two groups after controlling for socio-demographic variables. Our findings suggest that gratitude is a valuable positive psychological trait for quality of life in people with fibromyalgia. Interventions to improve gratitude in this patient population may also bring enhancement in quality of life.

  6. European multicentre database of healthy controls for [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT (ENC-DAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varrone, Andrea; Dickson, John C; Tossici-Bolt, Livia

    2013-01-01

    of quantification is the availability of normative data, considering possible age and gender effects on DAT availability. The aim of the European Normal Control Database of DaTSCAN (ENC-DAT) study was to generate a large database of [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls....

  7. Health on Impulse : When Low Self-Control Promotes Healthy Food Choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, S.J.; Fennis, B.M.; Ridder, D.T.D.; Adriaanse, M.A.; de Vet, E.

    Objective: Food choices are often made mindlessly, when individuals are not able or willing to exert self-control. Under low self-control, individuals have difficulties to resist palatable but unhealthy food products. In contrast to previous research aiming to foster healthy choices by promoting

  8. Health on impulse: when low self-control promotes healthy food choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, S.J.; Fennis, B.M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.; Adriaanse, M.A.; Vet, de E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Food choices are often made mindlessly, when individuals are not able or willing to exert self-control. Under low self-control, individuals have difficulties to resist palatable but unhealthy food products. In contrast to previous research aiming to foster healthy choices by promoting

  9. EEG spectral coherence data distinguish chronic fatigue syndrome patients from healthy controls and depressed patients--a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Frank H; McAnulty, Gloria B; McCreary, Michelle C; Cuchural, George J; Komaroff, Anthony L

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies suggest central nervous system involvement in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet there are no established diagnostic criteria. CFS may be difficult to differentiate from clinical depression. The study's objective was to determine if spectral coherence, a computational derivative of spectral analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), could distinguish patients with CFS from healthy control subjects and not erroneously classify depressed patients as having CFS. This is a study, conducted in an academic medical center electroencephalography laboratory, of 632 subjects: 390 healthy normal controls, 70 patients with carefully defined CFS, 24 with major depression, and 148 with general fatigue. Aside from fatigue, all patients were medically healthy by history and examination. EEGs were obtained and spectral coherences calculated after extensive artifact removal. Principal Components Analysis identified coherence factors and corresponding factor loading patterns. Discriminant analysis determined whether spectral coherence factors could reliably discriminate CFS patients from healthy control subjects without misclassifying depression as CFS. Analysis of EEG coherence data from a large sample (n = 632) of patients and healthy controls identified 40 factors explaining 55.6% total variance. Factors showed highly significant group differentiation (p EEG spectral coherence analysis identified unmedicated patients with CFS and healthy control subjects without misclassifying depressed patients as CFS, providing evidence that CFS patients demonstrate brain physiology that is not observed in healthy normals or patients with major depression. Studies of new CFS patients and comparison groups are required to determine the possible clinical utility of this test. The results concur with other studies finding neurological abnormalities in CFS, and implicate temporal lobe involvement in CFS pathophysiology.

  10. Radioimmunoassay of human calcitonin in serum and tissue from healthy individuals and patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautvik, K.M.; Normann, T.; Teig, V.; Wille, S.Oe.; Brennhovd, I.O.; Christensen, I.

    1976-01-01

    A specific radioimmunological method for measurement of immunoreactive calcitonin (iCT) in human serum and tissue is described. Of healthy individuals of both sexes, 85 % had measurable iCT in serum (mean, 0.23 ng/ml). Of 29 patients who had received treatment for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT), 19 had increased serum iCT (0-60 ng/ml to205 ng/ml). Elevated serum iCT was also found preoperatively in 2 MCT patients. Eleven of the patients with abnormal elevations of serum iCT were alive 4 to 13 years after the operation. Concentration of iCT in extracts from MCT varied from 0.5 to 540 ng/ml wet weight. The diagnostic value of this method and its importance for pre- and post-operative evaluation of these patients are improved by the use of selective venous catheterization in basal state and during stimulation of CT secretion. (Auth.)

  11. Dosimetric Comparison of Simulated Human Eye And Water Phantom in Investigation of Iodine Source Effects on Tumour And Healthy Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadi, A.S.; Masoudi, F.S. K.N.Toosi University of Technology

    2011-01-01

    For better clinical analysis in ophthalmic brachytherapy dosimetry, there is a need for the dose determination in different parts of the eye, so simulating the eye and defining the material of any parts of that, is helpful for better investigating dosimetry in human eye. However in brachytherapy dosimetry, it is common to consider the water phantom as human eye globe. In this work, a full human eye is simulated with MCNP-4C code by considering all parts of the eye like; lens, cornea, retina, choroid, sclera, anterior chamber, optic nerve, bulk of the eye comprising vitreous body and tumour. The average dose in different parts of this full model of human eye is determined and the results are compared with the dose calculated in water phantom. The central axes depth dose and the dose in whole of the tumour for these two simulated eye model are calculated too, and the results are compared. At long last, as the aim of this work is comparing the result of investigating dosimetry between two water phantom as human eye and simulated eye globe, the ratios of the absorbed dose by the healthy tissues to the absorbed dose by the tumour are calculated in these simulations and the comparison between results is done eventually.

  12. Can We Achieve Intuitive Prosthetic Elbow Control Based on Healthy Upper Limb Motor Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manelle Merad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most transhumeral amputees report that their prosthetic device lacks functionality, citing the control strategy as a major limitation. Indeed, they are required to control several degrees of freedom with muscle groups primarily used for elbow actuation. As a result, most of them choose to have a one-degree-of-freedom myoelectric hand for grasping objects, a myoelectric wrist for pronation/supination, and a body-powered elbow. Unlike healthy upper limb movements, the prosthetic elbow joint angle, adjusted prior to the motion, is not involved in the overall upper limb movements, causing the rest of the body to compensate for the lack of mobility of the prosthesis. A promising solution to improve upper limb prosthesis control exploits the residual limb mobility: like in healthy movements, shoulder and prosthetic elbow motions are coupled using inter-joint coordination models. The present study aims to test this approach. A transhumeral amputated individual used a prosthesis with a residual limb motion-driven elbow to point at targets. The prosthetic elbow motion was derived from IMU-based shoulder measurements and a generic model of inter-joint coordinations built from healthy individuals data. For comparison, the participant also performed the task while the prosthetic elbow was implemented with his own myoelectric control strategy. The results show that although the transhumeral amputated participant achieved the pointing task with a better precision when the elbow was myoelectrically-controlled, he had to develop large compensatory trunk movements. Automatic elbow control reduced trunk displacements, and enabled a more natural body behavior with synchronous shoulder and elbow motions. However, due to socket impairments, the residual limb amplitudes were not as large as those of healthy shoulder movements. Therefore, this work also investigates if a control strategy whereby prosthetic joints are automatized according to healthy individuals

  13. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Gene I/D Polymorphism in Pakistani Rheumatic Heart Disease Patients and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Rehman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Valve scarring and collagen deposition are crucial in pathogenesis of Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD, an autoimmune disorder of the heart. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE plays a major role in fibrous tissue formation. Objectives: The present research work aimed to assess the role of ACE Insertion/Deletion (I/D polymorphism in progress of RHD. Patients and Methods: DNA was pre pared from blood samples from 156 RHD patients (156 and 204 healthy ethnically-matched controls. Then, it was screened using sequence-specific Primers. Polymerase chain reaction and Agarose gel electrophoresis. The data were analyzed using Vassar stats (http://faculty.vassar.edu/lowry/VassarStats.html. Results: I allele (P = 0.024, OR = 1.42 and II genotype (P = 0.001, OR = 3.07 were significantly higher in Pakistani RHD patients compared to the healthy controls. Also, a significant difference was found between the female, but not male, patients and the controls regarding I allele and II genotype. Conclusions: The study results provided information about involvement of ACE I/D polymorphism in molecular mechanism of RHD. Thus, it can become one of the useful tools in risk assessment and help with designing strategies to combat the disease.

  14. Symptom Profiles in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome or Functional Abdominal Pain Compared With Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, James W; Shulman, Robert J; Self, Mariella M; Nurko, Samuel; Saps, Miguel; Saeed, Shehzad A; Bendo, Cristiane B; Patel, Ashish S; Dark, Chelsea Vaughan; Zacur, George M; Pohl, John F

    2015-09-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures of gastrointestinal symptoms are recommended to determine treatment effects for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional abdominal pain (FAP). Study objectives were to compare the symptom profiles of pediatric patients with IBS or FAP with healthy controls and with each other using the PedsQL Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Gastrointestinal Worry Scales, and to establish clinical interpretability of PRO scale scores through identification of minimal important difference (MID) scores. Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Worry Scales were completed in a 9-site study by 154 pediatric patients and 161 parents (162 families; IBS n = 46, FAP n = 119). Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales measuring stomach pain, stomach discomfort when eating, food and drink limits, trouble swallowing, heartburn and reflux, nausea and vomiting, gas and bloating, constipation, blood in poop, and diarrhea were administered along with Gastrointestinal Worry Scales. A matched sample of 447 families with healthy children completed the scales. Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Worry Scales distinguished between patients with IBS or FAP compared with healthy controls (P 1.50) for symptoms indicative of IBS or FAP, demonstrating a broad multidimensional gastrointestinal symptom profile and clinical interpretability with MID scores for individual PRO scales. Patients with IBS manifested more symptoms of constipation, gas and bloating, and diarrhea than patients with FAP. Patients with IBS or FAP manifested a broad gastrointestinal symptom profile compared with healthy controls with large differences, indicating the critical need for more effective interventions to bring patient functioning within the range of healthy functioning.

  15. Social Norms and Financial Incentives to Promote Employees’ Healthy Food Choices: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndike, Anne N.; Riis, Jason; Levy, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    Population-level strategies to improve healthy food choices are needed for obesity prevention. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 2,672 employees at Massachusetts General Hospital who were regular customers of the hospital cafeteria with all items labeled green (healthy), yellow (less healthy), or red (unhealthy) to determine if social norm (peer-comparison) feedback with or without financial incentives increased employees’ healthy food choices. Participants were randomized in 2012 to three arms: 1) monthly letter with social norm feedback about healthy food purchases, comparing employee to “all” and to “healthiest” customers (feedback-only); 2) monthly letter with social norm feedback plus small financial incentive for increasing green purchases (feedback-incentive); or 3) no contact (control). The main outcome was change in proportion of green-labeled purchases at end of 3-month intervention. Post-hoc analyses examined linear trends. At baseline, the proportion of green-labeled purchases (50%) did not differ between arms. At end of the 3-month intervention, the percentage increase in green-labeled purchases was larger in the feedback-incentive arm compared to control (2.2% vs. 0.1%, P=0.03), but the two intervention arms were not different. The rate of increase in green-labeled purchases was higher in both feedback-only (P=0.04) and feedback-incentive arms (P=0.004) compared to control. At end of a 3-month wash-out, there were no differences between control and intervention arms. Social norms plus small financial incentives increased employees’ healthy food choices over the short-term. Future research will be needed to assess the impact of this relatively low-cost intervention on employees’ food choices and weight over the long-term. Trial Registration: Clinical Trials.gov NCT01604499 PMID:26827617

  16. Comparison of T wave alternans in patients with cardiomyopathy and healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hira, A.; Khan, M. A.; Hayat, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare T wave alternans in patients with cardiomyopathy and healthy controls. Study Design: Cross-sectional comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology Rawalpindi, from Feb 2016 to Aug 2016. Material and Methods: Sixty patients with cardiomyopathy (any type) along with sixty healthy controls of matched age and gender were recruited through non-probability purposive sampling. Patients with diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular accident, heart failure, bundle branch block, systemic arterial hypertension and ongoing antiarrhythmic therapy were excluded from the study. DMS 300-4L Holters were used to obtain ambulatory ECG recordings. Cardio Scan premier 12 lux software was used for analysis of T wave alternans. Results: Total one twenty subjects were enrolled in the study. Cardiomyopathic patients with positive T wave alternans were 13 (21.7 percent) out of 60, while only 4 (6.7 percent) out of 60 healthy controls demonstrated positive T wave alternans. There was significant variation in frequency of patients with positive T wave alternans as compared to healthy controls with p-value of 0.02. In cases the mean value of T wave alternans was 55.10 µv ± 33.58 while 39.45 µv ± 13.53 in controls. The difference in mean value of T wave alternans between cases and controls was significant with p-value of 0.001. Conclusion: The frequency of patients with cardiomyopathy having positive T wave alternans was significantly higher as compared to the healthy controls. (author)

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among lung cancer-free smokers: The importance of healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpman, Michelle D; Eldridge, Ronald; Follis, Jack L; Etzel, Carol J; Shete, Sanjay; El-Zein, Randa A

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers enrolled as "healthy" controls in studies is 10-50%. The COPD status of ideal smoker populations for lung cancer case-control studies should be checked via spirometry; however, this is often not feasible, because no medical indications exist for asymptomatic smokers to undergo spirometry prior to study enrollment. Therefore, there is an unmet need for robust, cost effective assays for identifying undiagnosed lung disease among asymptomatic smokers. Such assays would help excluding unhealthy smokers from lung cancer case-control studies. We used the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay (a measure of genetic instability) to identify undiagnosed lung disease among asymptomatic smokers. We used a convenience population from an on-going lung cancer case-control study including smokers with lung cancer (n = 454), smoker controls (n = 797), and a self-reported COPD (n = 200) contingent within the smoker controls. Significant differences for all CBMN endpoints were observed when comparing lung cancer to All controls (which included COPD) and Healthy controls (with no COPD). The risk ratio (RR) was increased in the COPD group vs. Healthy controls for nuclear buds (RR 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.62), and marginally increased for micronuclei (RR 1.06, 0.98-1.89) and nucleoplasmic bridges (RR 1.07, 0.97-1.15). These findings highlight the importance of using truly healthy controls in studies geared toward assessment of lung cancer risk. Using genetic instability biomarkers would facilitate the identification of smokers susceptible to tobacco smoke carcinogens and therefore predisposed to either disease. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Patients suffering from restless legs syndrome have low internal locus of control and poor psychological functioning compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Hatzinger, Martin; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disturbing sensorimotor disorder negatively influencing both sleep and psychological functioning. The aim of the present study was to assess RLS patients with respect to locus of control, sleep-related personality traits, quality of life, and sleep as compared to healthy controls. Thirty-eight patients (18 females and 20 males; mean age: 56.06 years) diagnosed with RLS and an age- and gender-matched control group (n = 42) were recruited. Participants completed a series of questionnaires related to locus of control, personality traits, quality of life, and sleep. Compared to healthy controls, RLS patients had a lower internal locus of control, unfavourable sleep-related personality traits such as low self-confidence and higher mental arousal, poorer quality of life, and more depressive symptoms. Sleep was also affected. Multiple regression analyses showed that a low internal and a high external locus of control were predicted by RLS. The pattern of results suggests that RLS is associated with a low locus of control, negative personality traits, and poor quality of life as compared to healthy controls. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Changes of deep gray matter magnetic susceptibility over 2years in multiple sclerosis and healthy control brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Hagemeier

    Full Text Available In multiple sclerosis, pathological changes of both tissue iron and myelin occur, yet these factors have not been characterized in a longitudinal fashion using the novel iron- and myelin-sensitive quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM MRI technique. We investigated disease-relevant tissue changes associated with myelin loss and iron accumulation in multiple sclerosis deep gray matter (DGM over two years. One-hundred twenty (120 multiple sclerosis patients and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in this prospective study. Written informed consent and local IRB approval were obtained from all participants. Clinical testing and QSM were performed both at baseline and at follow-up. Brain magnetic susceptibility was measured in major DGM structures. Temporal (baseline vs. follow-up and cross-sectional (multiple sclerosis vs. controls differences were studied using mixed factorial ANOVA analysis and appropriate t-tests. At either time-point, multiple sclerosis patients had significantly higher susceptibility in the caudate and globus pallidus and lower susceptibility in the thalamus. Over two years, susceptibility increased significantly in the caudate of both controls and multiple sclerosis patients. Inverse thalamic findings among MS patients suggest a multi-phase pathology explained by simultaneous myelin loss and/or iron accumulation followed by iron depletion and/or calcium deposition at later stages. Keywords: Quantitative susceptibility mapping, QSM, Iron, Multiple sclerosis, Longitudinal study

  20. Gait impairment in cervical spondylotic myelopathy: comparison with age- and gender-matched healthy controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, Ailish

    2012-12-01

    Gait impairment is a primary symptom of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM); however, little is known about specific kinetic and kinematic gait parameters. The objectives of the study were: (1) to compare gait patterns of people with untreated CSM to those of age- and gender-matched healthy controls; (2) to examine the effect of gait speed on kinematic and kinetic parameters.

  1. Differences in Nutritional Status Between Very Mild Alzheimer's Disease Patients and Healthy Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Verhey, F. R.; Sijben, J.W.C.; Bouwman, F.H.; Dautzenberg, P.L.J.; Lansink, M.; Sipers, W.M.W.; van Asselt, D.Z.B.; van Hees, A.M.J.; Stevens, M.; Vellas, B.; Scheltens, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies on the systemic availability of nutrients and nutritional status in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are widely available, but the majority included patients in a moderate stage of AD. Objective: This study compares the nutritional status between mild AD outpatients and healthy controls.

  2. Vitamin D and Testosterone in Healthy Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Pilz, Stefan; Trummer, Christian; Schwetz, Verena; Pachernegg, Oliver; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Available evidence shows an association of vitamin D with androgen levels in men. However, results from preliminary randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conflicting. To evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation increases total testosterone (TT) levels in healthy men. The Graz Vitamin D&TT-RCT is

  3. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, C.M.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to

  4. Health Locus of Control in Indonesian Women with Breast Cancer: a Comparison with Healthy Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iskandarsyah, A.; de Klerk, C.; Suardi, D.R.; Sadarjoen, S.S.; Passchier, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess whether Indonesian women with breast cancer havea higher external health locus of control (HLC) than healthy women, and to explore the association between HLC and symptoms of anxiety and depression. In this study, 120 consecutive women with breast cancer were

  5. Comparison of Intelligibility Measures for Adults with Parkinson's Disease, Adults with Multiple Sclerosis, and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipancic, Kaila L.; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study obtained judgments of sentence intelligibility using orthographic transcription for comparison with previously reported intelligibility judgments obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS) for individuals with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis and healthy controls (K. Tjaden, J. E. Sussman, & G. E. Wilding, 2014).…

  6. Comparison between exercise performance in asthmatic children and healthy controls--Physical Activity Questionnaire application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Rita; Melo, Cláudia; Gonçalves, Daniel; Coelho, Janine; Carvalho, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    The PAQ questionnaire (Physical Activity Questionnaire - Kowalski, Crocker, Donen) is a self-administered 7-day recall validated questionnaire that measures physical activity levels in young people. A final activity score is obtained (1 indicates low and 5 indicates high physical activity level). Our aim was to determine whether there was any difference between the level of physical activity of children with controlled allergic disease and healthy children. We used the PAQ questionnaire with a group of asthmatic children attending hospital outpatient clinic and a group of healthy children matched for age. 155 children with allergic disease (median age of 11 years; 63% males) and 158 healthy controls (median age of 10 years; 46% males) answered the questionnaire. There were no differences in the overall level of physical activity, estimated by PAQ score, between allergic and healthy children (2,40±0,7 vs 2,48±0,62; p=0,32). Performance in physical education classes and after school sports activity was found to be different between the study groups; healthy children were more active (p=0,011) and did more sports between 6 and 10 pm (p=0,036). No other statistically significant differences were found between the study groups. Despite the fact that a majority of the parents of allergic children stated that their child's disease was a barrier to physical activity, in our study there seems to be no difference between the level of physical activity of controlled asthmatic children and their healthy peers. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of IL-4 Gene Polymorphisms on Cytokine Production in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis and in Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirina Bartova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic periodontitis (CP is an inflammatory disease of the teeth-supporting tissues in which genetic predisposition, dental plaque bacteria, and immune mechanisms all play important roles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of IL-4 gene polymorphisms in chronic periodontitis and to investigate the association between polymorphisms and cytokines production after bacterial stimulation. Sixty-two subjects (47 CP patients and 15 healthy controls with detected two polymorphisms in the IL-4 gene (-590C/T and intron 3 VNTR were examined. Production of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, TNFα, INFγ, and VEGF was studied after in vitro stimulation of isolated peripheral blood by mitogens (Pokeweed mitogen, Concanavalin A, dental plaque bacteria (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia, and Heat Shock Protein (HSP 70 by the Luminex multiplex cytokine analysis system. The results were correlated with IL-4 genotypes in patients with CP and healthy controls. The mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood of CP patients with selected IL-4 polymorphisms significantly altered the production of IFNγ, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-1α, TNFα, and IL-6 after stimulation by HSP 70 or selected bacteria (from P<0.001 to P<0.05. IL-4 gene polymorphisms may influence the function of mononuclear cells to produce not only interleukin-4 but also other cytokines, especially in patients with CP.

  8. The i148m Pnpla3 polymorphism influences serum adiponectin in patients with fatty liver and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenti Luca

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced adiponectin is implicated in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and steatohepatitis (NASH, and the I148M Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3 polymorphism predisposes to NAFLD and liver damage progression in NASH and chronic hepatitis C (CHC by still undefined mechanisms, possibly involving regulation of adipose tissue function. Aim of this study was to evaluate whether the I148M PNPLA3 polymorphism influences serum adiponectin in liver diseases and healthy controls. Methods To this end, we considered 144 consecutive Italian patients with NAFLD, 261 with CHC, 35 severely obese subjects, and 257 healthy controls with very low probability of steatosis, all with complete clinical and genetic characterization, including adiponectin (ADIPOQ genotype. PNPLA3 rs738409 (I148M and ADIPOQ genotypes were evaluated by Taqman assays, serum adiponectin by ELISA. Adiponectin mRNA levels were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT of 35 obese subjects undergoing bariatric surgery. Results Adiponectin levels were independently associated with the risk of NAFLD and with the histological severity of the disease. Adiponectin levels decreased with the number of 148 M PNPLA3 alleles at risk of NASH both in patients with NAFLD (p = 0.03, and in healthy subjects (p = 0.04. At multivariate analysis, PNPLA3 148 M alleles were associated with low adiponectin levels (ADIPOQ genotype (OR 1.67, 95% c.i. 1.07-2.1 for each 148 M allele. The p.148 M PNPLA3 variant was associated with decreased adiponectin mRNA levels in the VAT of obese patients (p PNPLA3 and ADIPOQ genotypes and viral features. Conclusions The I148M PNPLA3 variant is associated with adiponectin levels in patients with NAFLD and in healthy subjects, but in the presence of adiponectin resistance not in CHC patients. The I148M PNPLA3 genotype may represent a genetic determinant of serum

  9. The Hunger Games: Using hunger to promote healthy choices in self-control conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Tracy T L; Kroese, Floor M; Fennis, Bob M; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2017-09-01

    The majority of existing research and conventional wisdom would advise against shopping on an empty stomach as hunger is assumed to encourage impulsive choices that typically lead to self-control failure (i.e., favouring short-term gratifications at the expense of long-term goals). Nonetheless, through two studies the current research aims to demonstrate that hungry consumers would not always be disadvantaged when encountering a self-control conflict involving a trade-off choice between a healthy vs. a more palatable but unhealthy choice. Particularly we posit that the choice outcome of the self-control conflict is dependent on contextual cues, such that hungry consumers with the tendency to make fast decisions could benefit from following a social proof heuristic promoting the healthy options. In Study 1, we indeed observed participants' self-reported hunger to be negatively associated with state self-control, but as most participants generally experienced low levels of hunger we did not observe apparent effects of hunger on food choice (DV), and correspondingly the potential influence of the social proof heuristic in moderating the choice outcome. However, in Study 2 where hunger was manipulated, we found hungry participants making significantly less healthy choices than satiated participants, but a social proof heuristic mitigated this effect (i.e., in the presence of social proof heuristic hungry participants made just as many healthy food choices as satiated participants; and hungry participants made more healthy choices in the social proof condition than in the no heuristic condition). These findings support our approach of providing contextual cues in the environment in order to work with, rather than against, the impulsivity triggered by hunger to promote successful self-control behaviours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasma oxytocin concentrations are lower in depressed vs. healthy control women and are independent of cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kaeli W; Garner, Joseph P; Carson, Dean S; Keller, Jennifer; Lembke, Anna; Hyde, Shellie A; Kenna, Heather A; Tennakoon, Lakshika; Schatzberg, Alan F; Parker, Karen J

    2014-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) promotes social behavior and attenuates stress responsivity in mammals. Recent clinical evidence suggests OT concentrations may be dysregulated in major depression. This study extends previous research by testing whether: 1) OT concentrations vary systematically in depressive disorders with and without hypercortisolemia, 2) gender differences in OT concentrations are observed in depressed vs. healthy control participants, and 3) OT concentrations are predictive of clinical phenotypes. Plasma OT concentrations of psychotic major depressive (PMD; n = 14: 10 female, 4 male), non-psychotic major depressive (NPMD; n = 17: 12 female, 5 male), and non-depressed, healthy control (n = 19: 11 female, 8 male) participants were assayed at 2000, 2400, 0400, and 0800 h. Plasma cortisol concentrations were quantified at 2300 h, and clinical phenotypes were determined. As expected, PMD participants, compared to NPMD and healthy control participants, showed higher plasma cortisol concentrations. Although both depressed groups showed similar OT concentrations, a significant interaction effect between group and gender was observed. Specifically, depressed females exhibited lower mean OT concentrations than depressed males. Further, depressed vs. healthy control female participants exhibited lower mean OT concentrations, whereas depressed vs. healthy control male participants showed a trend in the opposite direction. OT concentrations were also predictive of desirability, drug dependence, and compulsivity scores as measured by the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. All findings were independent of cortisol. These data suggest that OT signaling may provide a mechanism by which to better understand female-biased risk to develop depressive disorders and that plasma OT concentrations may be a useful biomarker of certain clinical phenotypes. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Circulating and Tissue-Resident CD4+ T Cells With Reactivity to Intestinal Microbiota Are Abundant in Healthy Individuals and Function Is Altered During Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Ahmed N; West, Nathaniel R; Stubbington, Michael J T; Wendt, Emily; Suijker, Kim I M; Datsi, Angeliki; This, Sebastien; Danne, Camille; Campion, Suzanne; Duncan, Sylvia H; Owens, Benjamin M J; Uhlig, Holm H; McMichael, Andrew; Bergthaler, Andreas; Teichmann, Sarah A; Keshav, Satish; Powrie, Fiona

    2017-11-01

    Interactions between commensal microbes and the immune system are tightly regulated and maintain intestinal homeostasis, but little is known about these interactions in humans. We investigated responses of human CD4 + T cells to the intestinal microbiota. We measured the abundance of T cells in circulation and intestinal tissues that respond to intestinal microbes and determined their clonal diversity. We also assessed their functional phenotypes and effects on intestinal resident cell populations, and studied alterations in microbe-reactive T cells in patients with chronic intestinal inflammation. We collected samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and intestinal tissues from healthy individuals (controls, n = 13-30) and patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (n = 119; 59 with ulcerative colitis and 60 with Crohn's disease). We used 2 independent assays (CD154 detection and carboxy-fluorescein succinimidyl ester dilution assays) and 9 intestinal bacterial species (Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides vulgatus, Roseburia intestinalis, Ruminococcus obeum, Salmonella typhimurium, and Clostridium difficile) to quantify, expand, and characterize microbe-reactive CD4 + T cells. We sequenced T-cell receptor Vβ genes in expanded microbe-reactive T-cell lines to determine their clonal diversity. We examined the effects of microbe-reactive CD4 + T cells on intestinal stromal and epithelial cell lines. Cytokines, chemokines, and gene expression patterns were measured by flow cytometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Circulating and gut-resident CD4 + T cells from controls responded to bacteria at frequencies of 40-4000 per million for each bacterial species tested. Microbiota-reactive CD4 + T cells were mainly of a memory phenotype, present in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and intestinal tissue, and had a diverse T-cell receptor Vβ repertoire. These

  12. Intramuscular Connective Tissue Differences in Spastic and Control Muscle: A Mechanical and Histological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Marije; Smeulders, Mark J.; Kreulen, Michiel; Huijing, Peter A.; Jaspers, Richard T

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) of the spastic type is a neurological disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with exaggerated tendon jerks. Secondary to the spasticity, muscle adaptation is presumed to contribute to limitations in the passive range of joint motion. However, the mechanisms underlying these limitations are unknown. Using biopsies, we compared mechanical as well as histological properties of flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (FCU) from CP patients (n = 29) and healthy controls (n = 10). The sarcomere slack length (mean 2.5 µm, SEM 0.05) and slope of the normalized sarcomere length-tension characteristics of spastic fascicle segments and single myofibre segments were not different from those of control muscle. Fibre type distribution also showed no significant differences. Fibre size was significantly smaller (1933 µm2, SEM 190) in spastic muscle than in controls (2572 µm2, SEM 322). However, our statistical analyses indicate that the latter difference is likely to be explained by age, rather than by the affliction. Quantities of endomysial and perimysial networks within biopsies of control and spastic muscle were unchanged with one exception: a significant thickening of the tertiary perimysium (3-fold), i.e. the connective tissue reinforcement of neurovascular tissues penetrating the muscle. Note that this thickening in tertiary perimysium was shown in the majority of CP patients, however a small number of patients (n = 4 out of 23) did not have this feature. These results are taken as indications that enhanced myofascial loads on FCU is one among several factors contributing in a major way to the aetiology of limitation of movement at the wrist in CP and the characteristic wrist position of such patients. PMID:24977410

  13. Neural Control of Hemorrhage-Induced Tissue Cytokine Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Molina, Patrica E

    2007-01-01

    .... Opiate pathway activation favors hemodynamic instability and a pro-inflammatory tissue response while sympathetic nervous system activation counteracts the inflammatory response and contributes...

  14. Vitamin D deficiency in Crohn's disease and healthy controls: a prospective case-control study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruyn, Jessica R.; van Heeckeren, Rosanne; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; van den Brink, Gijs R.; Löwenberg, Mark; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Frijstein, Gerard; D'Haens, Geert R.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been observed in a wide range of medical conditions including Crohn's disease (CD). We aimed to assess whether CD patients have lower vitamin D levels than healthy controls, and to determine risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. 25(OH)D was measured by chemiluminescent

  15. Mobile phone SMS messages can enhance healthy behaviour: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Jayne A; King, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Healthy behaviour, such as smoking cessation and adherence to prescribed medications, mitigates illness risk factors but health behaviour change can be challenging. Mobile phone short-message service (SMS) messages are increasingly used to deliver interventions designed to enhance healthy behaviour. This meta-analysis used a random-effects model to synthesise 38 randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of SMS messages to enhance healthy behaviour. Participants (N = 19,641) lived in developed and developing countries and were diverse with respect to age, ethnicity, socioeconomic background and health behaviours targeted for change. SMS messages had a small, positive, significant effect (g = 0.291) on a broad range of healthy behaviour. This effect was maximised when multiple SMS messages per day were used (g = 0.395) compared to using lower frequencies (daily, multiple per week and once-off) (g = 0.244). The low heterogeneity in this meta-analysis (I (2) = 38.619) supports reporting a summary effect size and implies that the effect of SMS messaging is robust, regardless of population characteristics or healthy behaviour targeted. SMS messaging is a simple, cost-effective intervention that can be automated and can reach any mobile phone owner. While the effect size is small, potential health benefits are well worth achieving.

  16. Effects of nanotechnologies-based devices on postural control in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchiodi Albedi, Giovanna; Corna, Stefano; Aspesi, Valentina; Clerici, Daniela; Parisio, Cinzia; Seitanidis, Jonathan; Cau, Nicola; Brugliera, Luigia; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2017-09-05

    The aim of the present preliminary randomized controlled study was to ascertain whether the use of newly developed nanotechnologies-based patches can influence posture control of healthy subjects. Thirty healthy female subjects (age 39.4 years, BMI 22.74 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to two groups: one with active patches and a control group with sham patches. Two patches were applied with a tape: one on the subject's sternum and the other on the C7 apophysis. Body sway during quiet upright stance was recorded with a dynamometric platform. Each subject was tested under two visual conditions, eyes open and closed. We used a blocked stratified randomization procedure conducted by a third party. Subjects wearing the sham patches showed a significant increase of the centre of pressure sway area after 4 hours when they performed the habitual moderate-intensity work activities. In the active patch group, a decrease of the sway path was evident, providing evidence of an enhanced balance control. Our preliminary findings on healthy subjects indicate that nanotechnological devices generating ultra-low electromagnetic fields can improve posture control.

  17. Assessment of Parent Orientation towards Autonomy vs. Control in Promoting Children's Healthy Eating and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Evelyn S; Padilla, Miguel A

    2012-07-01

    Self-determination theory has been widely applied to understanding individuals' health-related behaviors such as eating healthy foods and exercising. Different reasons for engagement are associated with varying levels of personal agency or autonomy. Authority figures in the environment can be supportive of autonomy or, in contrast, controlling. Although researchers have assessed individuals' perceptions of the autonomy-support in their environments, studies have not directly examined the authority figures' orientations to autonomy with respect to health contexts. A new scale, Parent Orientations to Health, was created to investigate parent orientation to autonomy and control with respect to healthy eating and exercise in children. One hundred and forty-three parents of elementary school-aged children responded to the scale. Scale validation and reliability results indicate that the scale successfully assessed parent orientation towards autonomy for children in health contexts. Furthermore, parent autonomy orientation varied according to child weight status and the healthiness of the child's diet. Parent orientation towards autonomy can be evaluated through the use of the Parent Orientations to Health scale. In addition, parent autonomy orientation is associated with both the healthiness of the child's diet (as perceived by the parent) and the child's body mass index. © 2012 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2012 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  18. Sleep and circadian variability in people with delayed sleep-wake phase disorder versus healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Helen J; Park, Margaret; Wyatt, James K; Rizvydeen, Muneer; Fogg, Louis F

    2017-06-01

    To compare sleep and circadian variability in adults with delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD) to healthy controls. Forty participants (22 DSWPD, 18 healthy controls) completed a ten-day protocol, consisting of DLMO assessments on two consecutive nights, a five-day study break, followed by two more DLMO assessments. All participants were instructed to sleep within one hour of their self-reported average sleep schedule for the last four days of the study break. We analyzed the participants' wrist actigraphy data during these four days to examine intraindividual variability in sleep timing, duration and efficiency. We also examined shifts in the DLMO from before and after the study break. Under the same conditions, people with DSWPD had significantly more variable wake times and total sleep time than healthy controls (p ≤ 0.015). Intraindividual variability in sleep onset time and sleep efficiency was similar between the two groups (p ≥ 0.30). The DLMO was relatively stable across the study break, with only 11% of controls but 27% of DSWPDs showed more than a one hour shift in the DLMO. Only in the DSWPD sample was greater sleep variability associated with a larger shift in the DLMO (r = 0.46, p = 0.03). These results suggest that intraindividual variability in sleep can be higher in DSWPD versus healthy controls, and this may impact variability in the DLMO. DSWPD patients with higher intraindividual variability in sleep are more likely to have a shifting DLMO, which could impact sleep symptoms and the optimal timing of light and/or melatonin treatment for DSWPD. Circadian Phase Assessments at Home, http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01487252, NCT01487252. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Calcium Stone Growth in Urine from Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, Anita; Jones, Andrew M.; Webb, A. Kevin; Rao, P. Nagaraj; Kavanagh, John P.

    2007-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients have an increased risk of renal stone disease. There is some evidence that this may be related to a different excretory pattern of stone risk factors, but an alternative hypothesis, that the urine of cystic fibrosis patients is deficient in urinary inhibitors of crystallization and stone formation has not been tested. Here we have grown calcium stones, in vitro, in the presence of urine from healthy controls and compared this with growth in the presence of urine from cystic fibrosis patients. A stone farm was used to grow twelve calcium stones simultaneously, firstly in artificial urine for about 200 hours and then in 90% whole human urine for another 500 hours. Six of the stones received urine from healthy controls and six received urine from adult cystic fibrosis patients. There were no significant differences in stone mass at any of the key time points or in the overall growth pattern (p>0.05) between stones destined for, or treated with, urine from CF patients and the controls. Human urine greatly inhibited stone growth in vitro but there was no difference in the growth rate in urine from healthy controls and CF patients. This refutes the hypothesis that a tendency for a higher prevalence of urinary stones in CF patients is related to a deficiency in inhibitory activity.

  20. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a West African population of tuberculosis patients and unmatched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Olesen, Rikke; Rabna, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in African populations and in tuberculosis (TB) patients. VDD has been shown to be associated with TB. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the degree of vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) and VDD in TB patients and healthy adult controls...... in a West African population. DESIGN: An unmatched case-control study was performed at a Demographic Surveillance Site in Guinea-Bissau. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] concentrations were measured in 362 TB patients and in 494 controls. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D(3) Udgivelsesdato: 2007...

  1. Enhancing a sustainable healthy working life: design of a clustered randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koolhaas Wendy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve a sustainable healthy working life, we have developed the intervention 'Staying healthy at work', which endeavours to enhance work participation of employees aged 45 years and older by increasing their problem-solving capacity and stimulating their awareness of their role and responsibility towards a healthy working life. This research study aims to evaluate the process and the effectiveness of the intervention compared with care as usual. Methods/design The study is a cluster-randomized controlled trial design (randomized at the supervisor level, with a 1-year follow-up. Workers aged 45 years and older have been enrolled in the study. Workers in the intervention group are receiving the intervention 'Staying healthy at work'. The main focus of the intervention is to promote a healthy working life of ageing workers by: (1 changing workers awareness and behaviour, by emphasizing their own decisive role in attaining goals; (2 improving the supervisors' ability to support workers in taking the necessary action, by means of enhancing knowledge and competence; and (3 enhancing the use of the human resource professionals and the occupational health tools available within the organization. The supervisors in the intervention group have been trained how to present themselves as a source of support for the worker. Workers in the control group are receiving care as usual; supervisors in the control group have not participated in the training. Measurements have been taken at baseline and will be followed up at 3, 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome measures are vitality, work ability and productivity. The secondary outcomes measures include fatigue, job strain, work attitude, self-efficacy and work engagement. A process evaluation will be conducted at both the supervisor and the worker levels, and satisfaction with the content of the intervention will be assessed. Discussion The intervention 'Staying healthy at work' has the

  2. POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS WITH AND WITHOUT CHRONIC MOTION SENSITIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyahya D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postural control requires complex processing of peripheral sensory inputs from the visual, somatosensory and vestibular systems. Motion sensitivity and decreased postural control are influenced by visual-vestibular conflicts.The purpose of this study was to measure the difference between the postural control of healthy adults with and without history of sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity using a computerized dynamic posturography in a virtual reality environment. Sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity was operationally defined as a history of avoiding activities causing dizziness, nausea, imbalance, and/or blurred vision without having a related medical diagnosis. Methods: Twenty healthy adults between 22 and 33 years of age participated in the study. Eleven subjects had sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity and 9 subjects did not. Postural control was measured in both groups using the Bertec Balance Advantage-Dynamic Computerized Dynamic Posturography with Immersion Virtual Reality (CDP-IVR. The CDP-IVR reports an over-all equilibrium score based on subjects’ center of gravity displacement and postural sway while immersed in a virtual reality environment. Subjects were tested on stable (condition 1 and unstable (condition2 platform conditions. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean age, height, weight, body mass index in kg/m2, postural control scores for conditions 2, and average (p>0.05. However, significant differences were observed in mean postural control for condition 1 between groups (p=0.03. Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that healthy young adults without chronic sub-clinical motion sensitivity have better postural control than those with chronic sub-clinical motion sensitivity. Further investigation is warranted to explore wider age ranges with larger samples sizes as well as intervention strategies to improve postural control.

  3. Plasma luminescence feedback control system for precise ultrashort pulse laser tissue ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beop-Min; Feit, Michael D.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Gold, David M.; Darrow, Christopher B.; Marion, John E., II; Da Silva, Luiz B.

    1998-05-01

    Plasma luminescence spectroscopy was used for precise ablation of bone tissue without damaging nearby soft tissue using an ultrashort pulse laser. Strong contrast of the luminescence spectra between bone marrow and spinal cord provided the real time feedback control so bone tissue is selectively ablated while preserving the spinal cord.

  4. Differences Between Psoriasis Patients and Skin-healthy Controls Concerning Appraisal of Touching, Shame and Disgust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahousen, Theresa; Kupfer, Jörg; Gieler, Uwe; Hofer, Angelika; Linder, M Dennis; Schut, Christina

    2016-08-23

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease associated with high levels of psychological distress and considerable life impact. Feelings of shame and stigmatization can lead to avoidance of social activity and intimacy. In this study, the questionnaire TSD-Q was used to evaluate pleasure in touching oneself and in a partnership, parental touching during childhood and (skin-related) shame and disgust. Skin-related disgust and shame were significantly higher in psoriatic patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, psoriasis-patients scored significantly lower than skin-healthy controls concerning appraisal of self-touching and parental touching. In contrast, psoriasis-patients scored higher concerning appraisal of touching in a partnership. Due to the fact that low self-esteem might enhance the negative evaluation of touch and the feelings of shame and disgust, psychological interventions should be integrated in the treatment of psoriasis.

  5. Emotional Functioning in Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder: Comparison to Borderline Personality Disorder and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Maria M; Suvak, Michael K; Dickstein, Benjamin D; Shea, M Tracie; Litz, Brett T

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have investigated emotional functioning in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). To explore the nature and extent of emotion difficulties in OCPD, the authors examined four domains of self-reported emotional functioning--negative affectivity, anger, emotion regulation, and emotion expressivity--in women with OCPD and compared them to a borderline personality disorder (BPD) group and a healthy control group. Data were collected as part of a larger psychophysiological experimental study on emotion regulation and personality. Compared to healthy controls, participants with OCPD reported significantly higher levels of negative affectivity, trait anger, emotional intensity, and emotion regulation difficulties. Emotion regulation difficulties included lack of emotional clarity, nonacceptance of emotional responses, and limited access to effective emotion regulation strategies. Participants with OCPD scored similarly to participants with BPD on only one variable, namely, problems engaging in goal-directed behavior when upset. Results suggest that OCPD may be characterized by notable difficulties in several emotional domains.

  6. Inverse association between dopaminergic neurotransmission and Iowa Gambling Task performance in pathological gamblers and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Møller, Arne; Peterson, Ericka

    2010-01-01

    The dopamine system is believed to affect gambling behavior in pathological gambling. Particularly, dopamine release in the ventral striatum appears to affect decision-making in the disorder. This study investigated dopamine release in the ventral striatum in relation to gambling performance...... on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in 16 Pathological Gamblers (PG) and 14 Healthy Controls (HC). We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) to measure the binding potential of [(11)C] raclopride to dopamine D2/3 receptors during a baseline and gambling condition. We hypothesized that decreased raclopride...... binding potentials in the ventral striatum during gambling (indicating dopamine release) would be associated with higher IGT performance in Healthy Controls, but lower IGT performance in Pathological Gamblers. The results showed that Pathological Gamblers with dopamine release in the ventral striatum had...

  7. Four-Quadrant Facial Function in Dysphagic Patients after Stroke and in Healthy Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Hägg; Lita Tibbling

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine any motility disturbance in any quadrant of the face other than the quadrant innervated by the lower facial nerve contralateral to the cortical lesion after stroke. Thirty-one stroke-afflicted patients with subjective dysphagia, consecutively referred to a swallowing centre, were investigated with a facial activity test (FAT) in all four facial quadrants and with a swallowing capacity test (SCT). Fifteen healthy adult participants served as FAT controls. Sixteen pat...

  8. Suppression of Extinction with TMS in Humans: From Healthy Controls to Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveri, Massimiliano; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    We review a series of studies exemplifying some applications of single-pulse and paired-transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the study of spatial attention and of its deficits. We will focus primarily on sensory extinction, the failure to consciously perceive a contralesional sensory stimulus only during bilateral stimulation of homologous surfaces. TMS studies in healthy controls show that it is possible either to interfere or modulate the excitability of the parietal cortex during sen...

  9. The effects of oxytocin on fear recognition in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytal eFischer-Shofty

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who suffer from schizophrenia often show a marked deficit in recognition of emotional facial expressions, as part of broader impairment of social cognition. Research has shown that recognition of negative emotions, specifically fear recognition, is particularly impaired among patients with schizophrenia. Recently we reported that intranasal administration of OT (IN OT increased the ability to correctly recognize fear in a group of healthy men. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of IN OT administration on fear recognition among patients with schizophrenia. Based on previous research, we also sought to examine a possible selective effect of OT dependent on baseline performance, hypothesizing that IN OT would have a greater enhancement effect on less proficient individuals. It was thus hypothesized that patients will show more improvement in fear recognition following the administration of IN OT as compared to controls. Sixty six participants (31 schizophrenia patients, 35 healthy controls were enrolled in the current study. All participants received treatment of a single dose of 24 IU IN OT and an equivalent amount of placebo, one week apart. The participants’ ability to accurately recognize fear and happiness was evaluated using a face morphing task. Overall, as a group, both patients and healthy control participants were more accurate in recognizing fearful facial expressions, but not happy faces, following IN OT administration, as compared to their performance following placebo. IN OT did not differentially affect emotion recognition in patients and healthy controls. Yet, the results indicated a selective effect for IN OT, in which the hormone improves fear recognition only among individuals whose baseline performance was below the median, regardless of their psychiatric status.

  10. Association study between COMT 158Met and creativity scores in bipolar disorder and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Gerhardt Soeiro-de-Souza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Bipolar disorder (BD patients have been reported to be associated higher creativity abilities, and recent data tend to support the hypothesis that dopaminergic system that could be associated with creativity. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT is one of the major enzymes involved in the metabolic degradation of dopamine. The COMT gene polymorphism (rs4680 or Val158Met Met allele is reported to cause decreased activity of this enzyme in prefrontal cortex and improve performance in several cognitive domains. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Val158Met on creativity in BD type I and healthy controls. Methods Ninety-seven healthy volunteers and 120 BD type I were genotyped for COMT rs4680 and tested for creativity (Barrow Welsh Art Scale – BWAS and intelligence Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. Results COMT Met allele positively influenced creativity scores in healthy controls but not in BD subjects during mood episodes and euthymia. The presence of allele Met did not influence IQ scores. No influence of IQ total score on creativity was observed. Limitations control group presented higher IQ scores and euthymic group was under medication use. Discussion Our research suggests positive effect of COMT rs4680 (allele Met on creativity scores in healthy controls. One possible interpretation is that creativity is more likely to be associated with lesser degrees of bipolarity. The fact that the same results were not observed in BD may be associated to dysfunctions in the dopaminergic system that characterizes this disorder. Further studies with larger samples and other types of BD should explore the role of the dopaminergic system in creativity.

  11. Total antioxidants in plasma of hemodialysed patients and healthy controls measured by two commercial assays

    OpenAIRE

    Ruskovska, Tatjana; Jansen, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: As a result of an increased interest in oxidative stress research, in both basic and clinical studies, numerous commercial test kits became available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results for total antioxidants measured by two commercial assays in a complex clinical condition such as single hemodialysis session in patients on chronic hemodialysis treatment, in comparison to healthy controls. Methods: The level of plasma total antioxidants was measured by BAP ...

  12. Mildly disabled persons with multiple sclerosis use similar net joint power strategies as healthy controls when walking speed increases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincks, John; Sørensen, Henrik; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    flexors in mildly disabled persons with MS and healthy controls at different walking speeds. METHODS:Thirteen persons with MS and thirteen healthy controls participated and peak net joint power was calculated using 3D motion analysis. RESULTS:In general, no differences were found between speed......-matched healthy controls and persons with MS, but the fastest walking speed was significantly higher in healthy controls (2.42 m/s vs. 1.70 m/s). The net joint power increased in hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors and plantar flexors in both groups, when walking speed increased. Significant...... correlations between changes in walking speed and changes in net joint power of plantar flexors, hip extensors and hip flexors existed in healthy controls and persons with MS, and in net knee extensor absorption power of persons with MS only. CONCLUSION:In contrast to previous studies, these findings suggest...

  13. Salivary IgA concentration in diabetic patients compared to healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farimah Sardari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The alterations in salivary flow rate and its compositions could affect the development, symptoms, and severity of oral changes in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the concentration of salivary IgA in type I in comparison with type II diabetic patients and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 25 patients with type I diabetes, 25 patients with type II diabetes, and 25 control subjects (12 subjects for the type I and 13 subjects for the type II were enrolled. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected by spitting method and the concentration of salivary IgA was measured byenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Results: The mean of salivary IgA in type I diabetic patients was 148.3 ± 38.7 μg/ml and in their controls was 65.8 ± 17.4 μg/ml (P < 0.001. In type II diabetic patients the mean of salivary IgA was 67.3 ± 20.6 μg/ml and in their controls was 63.3 ± 15.2 μg/ml. There was no significant difference between patients with type II diabetes and controls (P = 0.54. The mean of salivary IgA in patients with type I diabetes was significantly higher than in patients with type II diabetes (148.3 ± 38.7 versus 67.3 ± 20.6 μg/ml, respectively, P < 0.001. Conclusions: Level of salivary IgA in type II diabetic patients in comparison with their healthy control did not show any significant difference, but in type I diabetic patients was higher than that of healthy controls and type II diabetic patients.

  14. Vitamin D status in psychotic disorder patients and healthy controls--The influence of ethnic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerhus, Mari; Berg, Akiah Ottesen; Dahl, Sandra Rinne; Holvik, Kristin; Gardsjord, Erlend Strand; Weibell, Melissa Authen; Bjella, Thomas Doug; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid

    2015-12-15

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among patients with psychotic disorders and could be due to unknown disease mechanisms or contingent factors. However most studies are performed in chronic patients and have often failed to address the influence of ethnicity on vitamin D levels in clinical samples. We investigated serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (S-25 OH D) in first episode patients compared to patients with multi episodes and healthy controls; with a specific focus on differences between visible ethnic minorities and participants from the majority population. A total of 284 participants were included in this cross-sectional study. First episode patients with a DSM-IV psychotic disorder were matched on age, gender and ethnicity to participants from a multi episode patient sample (1:1) and healthy controls (1:2). We did not find any differences between either patient groups or the healthy controls, but participants from visible ethnic minorities had significantly lower S-25 OH D than participants from the majority population. This implies that S-25 OH D should be routinely measured in persons from visible ethnic minorities since low levels are associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigating consummatory and anticipatory pleasure across motivation deficits in schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Susana; Saperia, Sarah; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Fervaha, Gagan; Agid, Ofer; Daskalakis, Z Jeff; Ravindran, Arun; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Remington, Gary; Foussias, George

    2017-08-01

    Anhedonia has traditionally been considered a characteristic feature of schizophrenia, but the true nature of this deficit remains elusive. This study sought to investigate consummatory and anticipatory pleasure as it relates to motivation deficits. Eighty-four outpatients with schizophrenia and 81 healthy controls were administered the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), as well as a battery of clinical and cognitive assessments. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to examine the experience of pleasure as a function of diagnosis, and across levels of motivation deficits (i.e. low vs. moderate. vs. high) in schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analyses were also conducted to evaluate the predictive value of amotivation in relation to the TEPS. There were no significant differences between schizophrenia and healthy control groups for either consummatory or anticipatory pleasure. Within the schizophrenia patients, only those with high levels of amotivation were significantly impaired in consummatory and anticipatory pleasure compared to low and moderate groups, and compared to healthy controls. Further, our results revealed that amotivation significantly predicts both consummatory and anticipatory pleasure, with no independent contribution of group. Utilizing study samples with a wide range of motivation deficits and incorporating objective paradigms may provide a more comprehensive understanding of hedonic deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Differences in tidal breathing between infants with chronic lung diseases and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilitzki S

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnostic value of tidal breathing (TB measurements in infants is controversially discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent the breathing pattern of sleeping infants with chronic lung diseases (CLD differ from healthy controls with the same postconceptional age and to assess the predictive value of TB parameters. Methods In the age of 36–42 postconceptional weeks TB measurements were performed in 48 healthy newborns (median age and weight 7d, 3100 g and 48 infants with CLD (80d, 2465 g using the deadspace-free flow-through technique. Once the infants had adapted to the mask and were sleeping quietly and breathing regularly, 20–60 breathing cycles were evaluated. Beside the shape of the tidal breathing flow-volume loop (TBFVL 18 TB parameters were analyzed using ANOVA with Bonferroni correction. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curves were calculated to investigate the discriminative ability of TB parameters. Results The incidence of concave expiratory limbs in CLD infants was 31% and significantly higher compared to controls (2% (p Conclusion The breathing pattern of CLD infants differs significantly from that of healthy controls. Concave TBFVL and an increased RR measured during quiet sleep and under standardized conditions may indicate diminished respiratory functions in CLD infants whereas most of the commonly used TB parameters are poorly predictive.

  17. Is the macromolecule signal tissue-specific in healthy human brain? A (1)H MRS study at 7 Tesla in the occipital lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Benoît; Xin, Lijing; Gruetter, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    The macromolecule signal plays a key role in the precision and the accuracy of the metabolite quantification in short-TE (1) H MR spectroscopy. Macromolecules have been reported at 1.5 Tesla (T) to depend on the cerebral studied region and to be age specific. As metabolite concentrations vary locally, information about the profile of the macromolecule signal in different tissues may be of crucial importance. The aim of this study was to investigate, at 7T for healthy subjects, the neurochemical profile differences provided by macromolecule signal measured in two different tissues in the occipital lobe, predominantly composed of white matter tissue or of grey matter tissue. White matter-rich macromolecule signal was relatively lower than the gray matter-rich macromolecule signal from 1.5 to 1.8 ppm and from 2.3 to 2.5 ppm with mean difference over these regions of 7% and 12% (relative to the reference peak at 0.9 ppm), respectively. The neurochemical profiles, when using either of the two macromolecule signals, were similar for 11 reliably quantified metabolites (CRLB occipital lobe at 7T in healthy human brain. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Pyrosequencing of the bacteria associated with Platygyra carnosus corals with skeletal growth anomalies reveals differences in bacterial community composition in apparently healthy and diseased tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Chun-Yee Ng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Corals are rapidly declining globally due to coral diseases. Skeletal growth anomalies (SGA or coral tumors are a group of coral diseases that affect coral reefs worldwide, including Hong Kong waters in the Indo-Pacific region. To better understand how bacterial communities may vary in corals with SGA, for the first time, we examined the bacterial composition associated with the apparently healthy and the diseased tissues of SGA-affected Platgyra carnosus using 16S ribosomal rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria as the main phyla in both the apparently healthy and the diseased tissues. A significant difference in the bacterial community composition was observed between the two conditions at the OTU level. Diseased tissues were associated with higher abundances of Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes, and a lower abundance of Spirochaetes. Several OTUs belonging to Rhodobacteraceae, Rhizobiales, Gammaproteobacteria, and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroidetes (CFB were strongly associated with the diseased tissues. These groups of bacteria may contain potential pathogens involved with the development of SGA or opportunistic secondary or tertiary colonizers that proliferated upon the health-compromised coral host. We suggest that these bacterial groups to be further studied based on inoculation experiments and testing of Koch’s postulates in efforts to understand the etiology and progression of SGA.

  19. Nutrition Facts Use in Relation to Eating Behaviors and Healthy and Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Mary J; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Haynos, Ann F; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2018-03-01

    Investigate the relationship between use of Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods and weight-related behaviors. Cross-sectional survey in 2015-2016. Young adult respondents (n = 1,817; 57% women; average age 31.0 ± 1.6 years) to the Project Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults-IV survey, the fourth wave of a longitudinal cohort study. Use of Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods; healthy, unhealthy, and extreme weight control behaviors; intuitive eating; binge eating. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for age, ethnicity/race, education, income, and weight status. In women, greater Nutrition Facts use was associated with a 23% and 10% greater likelihood of engaging in healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors, respectively, and a 17% greater chance of engaging in binge eating. In men, greater label use was associated with a 27% and 17% greater likelihood of engaging in healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors, respectively, and a lower level of intuitive eating. Professionals advising patients and clients on weight management may consider possible gender differences in response to weight loss and management guidance. Since label use was related to engagement in some unhealthy behaviors in addition to healthy behaviors, it is important to consider how individuals may use labels, particularly those at risk for, or engaging in, disordered eating behaviors. Future research investigating potential relationships between Nutrition Facts use, intuitive eating, and binge eating is needed. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effectiveness of a healthy lifestyle intervention for chronic low back pain: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amanda; Wiggers, John; OʼBrien, Kate M; Wolfenden, Luke; Yoong, Sze Lin; Hodder, Rebecca K; Lee, Hopin; Robson, Emma K; McAuley, James H; Haskins, Robin; Kamper, Steven J; Rissel, Chris; Williams, Christopher M

    2018-06-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of a 6-month healthy lifestyle intervention, on pain intensity in patients with chronic low back pain who were overweight or obese. We conducted a pragmatic randomised controlled trial, embedded within a cohort multiple randomised controlled trial of patients on a waiting list for outpatient orthopaedic consultation at a tertiary hospital in NSW, Australia. Eligible patients with chronic low back pain (>3 months in duration) and body mass index ≥27 kg/m and education and referral to a 6-month telephone-based healthy lifestyle coaching service, or usual care. The primary outcome was pain intensity measured using an 11-point numerical rating scale, at baseline, 2 weeks, and monthly for 6 months. Data analysis was by intention-to-treat according to a prepublished analysis plan. Between May 13, 2015, and October 27, 2015, 160 patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention or usual care. We found no difference between groups for pain intensity over 6 months (area under the curve, mean difference = 6.5, 95% confidence interval -8.0 to 21.0; P = 0.38) or any secondary outcome. In the intervention group, 41% (n = 32) of participants reported an adverse event compared with 56% (n = 45) in the control group. Our findings show that providing education and advice and telephone-based healthy lifestyle coaching did not benefit patients with low back pain who were overweight or obese, compared with usual care. The intervention did not influence the targeted healthy lifestyle behaviours proposed to improve pain in this patient group.

  1. Two-dimensional patterning of thin coatings for the control of tissue outgrowth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thissen, H.; Johnson, G.; Hartley, P.G.

    2006-01-01

    were used to provide evidence of successful surface modifications. Adsorption of the extracellular matrix protein collagen I followed by tissue outgrowth experiments with bovine corneal epithelial tissue for up to 21 days showed that two-dimensional control over tissue outgrowth is achievable with our......Control of the precise location and extent of cellular attachment and proliferation, and of tissue outgrowth is important in a number of biomedical applications, including biomaterials and tissue engineered medical devices. Here we describe a method to control and direct the location and define...... boundaries of tissue growth on surfaces in two dimensions. The method relies on the generation of a spatially defined surface chemistry comprising protein adsorbing and non-adsorbing areas that allow control over the adsorption of cell-adhesive glycoproteins. Surface modification was carried out...

  2. Comparative Analyses of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus C4 Protein-Interacting Host Proteins in Healthy and Infected Tomato Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namgyu Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, a member of the genus Begomovirus, is one of the most important viruses of cultivated tomatoes worldwide, mainly causing yellowing and curling of leaves with stunting in plants. TYLCV causes severe problems in sub-tropical and tropical countries, as well as in Korea. However, the mechanism of TYLCV infection remains unclear, although the function of each viral component has been identified. TYLCV C4 codes for a small protein involved in various cellular functions, including symptom determination, gene silencing, viral movement, and induction of the plant defense response. In this study, through yeast-two hybrid screenings, we identified TYLCV C4-interacting host proteins from both healthy and symptom-exhibiting tomato tissues, to determine the role of TYLCV C4 proteins in the infection processes. Comparative analyses of 28 proteins from healthy tissues and 36 from infected tissues showing interactions with TYLCV C4 indicated that TYLCV C4 mainly interacts with host proteins involved in translation, ubiquitination, and plant defense, and most interacting proteins differed between the two tissues but belong to similar molecular functional categories. Four proteins—two ribosomal proteins, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase, and 14-3-3 family protein—were detected in both tissues. Furthermore, the identified proteins in symptom-exhibiting tissues showed greater involvement in plant defenses. Some are key regulators, such as receptor-like kinases and pathogenesis-related proteins, of plant defenses. Thus, TYLCV C4 may contribute to the suppression of host defense during TYLCV infection and be involved in ubiquitination for viral infection.

  3. Differentiation of healthy and malignant tissue in colon cancer patients using optical spectroscopy: A tool for image-guided surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langhout, G.C.; Spliethoff, Jarich; Schmitz, S.J.; Aalbers, A.G.J.; van Velthuysen, M.L.; Hendriks, B.H.W.; Ruers, Theo J.M.; Kuhlmann, K.F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgery for colorectal cancer aims for complete tumor resection. Optical-based techniques can identify tumor and surrounding tissue through the tissue specific optical properties, absorption and scattering, which are both influenced by the biochemical and morphological composition of the

  4. Effects of Trait Self-Control on Response Conflict About Healthy and Unhealthy Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillebaart, Marleen; Schneider, Iris K; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-12-01

    Self-control leads to positive life outcomes, but it is poorly understood. While previous research has focused on self-control failure, self-control success remains unexplored. The current studies aim to shed more light on the mechanisms of self-control by focusing on the resolution of response conflict as a key component in self-control success. Trait self-control was measured, and participants reported on the magnitude of response conflict they experienced about healthy and unhealthy foods in Study 1 (N = 146; M age  = 33.03; 59 females, 83 males, 4 unknown). The response conflict process was assessed in Study 2 (N = 118; M age  = 21.45; 68 females, 41 males, 9 unknown). Outcomes showed that self-reported evaluative response conflict about food items was smaller for people high in trait self-control. Study 2 revealed that higher trait self-control predicted faster resolution of self-control conflict, and an earlier peak of the response conflict. Taken together, these results provide insight into what makes people with high trait self-control successful, namely, how they handle response conflict. Implications for self-control theories and future directions are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Convergence and divergence of neuroanatomic correlates and executive task performance in healthy controls and psychiatric participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Tak Chung, Dennis; Jerram, Matthew W; Lee, Jonathan K; Katz, Harvey; Gansler, David A

    2013-12-30

    The associations between brain matter volume in the cerebral cortex and set shifting and attentional control as operationalized by the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST) and Condition Three of the Delis-Kaplan version of the Color Word Interference Test (CWIT) were investigated in 15 healthy controls and 16 heterogeneously diagnosed psychiatric patients with self-control problems using voxel based morphometry. Both groups underwent standardized magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessment. WCST and CWIT variables, and a composite, were regressed across the whole brain. Although CWIT performance levels were the same in both groups, neuroanatomic correlates for the psychiatric participants invoked the left hemisphere language system, but the bilateral dorsal attention system in the healthy controls. On its own, no neuroanatomic correlates were observed for the WCST. But when part of a composite with CWIT, neuroanatomic correlates in the dorsal attention system emerged for the psychiatric participants. Psychometric combinations of manifest executive task variables may best represent higher level latent neuro-cognitive control systems. Factor analytic studies of neuropsychological test performances suggest the constructs being measured are the same across psychiatric and non-diagnosed participants, however, imaging modalities indicate the relevant neural architecture can vary by group. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oxygen Mapping within Healthy and Acutely Infarcted Brain Tissue in Humans Using the NMR Relaxation of Lipids: A Proof-Of-Concept Translational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliez, Florence; Safronova, Marta M; Magat, Julie; Joudiou, Nicolas; Peeters, André P; Jordan, Bénédicte F; Gallez, Bernard; Duprez, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    The clinical applicability of brain oxygenation mapping using the MOBILE (Mapping of Oxygen By Imaging Lipids relaxation Enhancement) magnetic resonance (MR) technique was assessed in the clinical setting of normal brain and of acute cerebral ischemia as a founding proof-of-concept translational study. Changes in the oxygenation level within healthy brain tissue can be detected by analyzing the spin-lattice proton relaxation ('Global T1' combining water and lipid protons) because of the paramagnetic properties of molecular oxygen. It was hypothesized that selective measurement of the relaxation of the lipid protons ('Lipids T1') would result in enhanced sensitivity of pO2 mapping because of higher solubility of oxygen in lipids than in water, and this was demonstrated in pre-clinical models using the MOBILE technique. In the present study, 12 healthy volunteers and eight patients with acute (48-72 hours) brain infarction were examined with the same clinical 3T MR system. Both Lipids R1 (R1 = 1/T1) and Global R1 were significantly different in the infarcted area and the contralateral unaffected brain tissue, with a higher statistical significance for Lipids R1 (median difference: 0.408 s-1; pbrain tissue of stroke patients were not significantly different from the R1 values calculated in the brain tissue of healthy volunteers. The main limitations of the present prototypic version of the MOBILE sequence are the long acquisition time (4 min), hampering robustness of data in uncooperative patients, and a 2 mm slice thickness precluding accurate measurements in small infarcts because of partial volume averaging effects.

  7. The ratio of Matriptase/HAI-1 mRNA is higher in colorectal cancer adenomas and carcinomas than corresponding tissue from control individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Lotte K; Saebø, Mona; Skjelbred, Camilla F

    2006-01-01

    .001) and severe (p ratio than corresponding normal tissue from healthy control individuals (p ... that the ratio of matriptase to HAI-1 influences the malignant progression. The aim of this study has been to determine the ratio of matriptase to HAI-1 mRNA expression in affected and normal tissue from individuals with colorectal cancer adenomas and carcinomas as well as in healthy individuals, in order...... to determine at which stages a dysregulated ratio of matriptase/HAI-1 mRNA is present during carcinogenesis. METHODS: Using quantitative RT-PCR, we have determined the mRNA levels for matriptase and HAI-1 in colorectal cancer tissue (n = 9), severe dysplasia (n = 15), mild/moderate dysplasia (n = 21...

  8. Theory of mind, insecure attachment and paranoia in adolescents with early psychosis and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Fett, Anne-Kathrin J; Meijer, Carin J; Koeter, Maarten W J; Shergill, Sukhi S; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2013-08-01

    Impaired Theory of Mind (ToM) is found in adults with schizophrenia and is associated with paranoid symptoms. Insecure attachment is proposed to underlie impaired ToM as well as paranoia. Insight into associations between insecure attachment and impaired ToM skills may help clinicians and patients to understand interpersonal difficulties and use this knowledge to improve recovery. This study used a visual perspective-taking task to investigate whether cognitive ToM is already impaired in adolescents with early psychosis as compared to controls. Also investigated was whether perspective-taking and paranoia are associated with insecure (adult) attachment. Thirty-two adolescent patients with early psychosis and 78 healthy controls participated in this cross-sectional study design and completed the level 1 perspective-taking task, psychopathology assessments (CAPE, PANSS), paranoid thoughts (GPTS), attachment style (PAM) and the WASI vocabulary. Patients did not significantly differ in level-1 perspective-taking behaviour compared to healthy controls. No significant associations were found between perspective-taking, paranoia and attachment. Insecure attachment was significantly related to paranoid thoughts, after controlling for illness-related symptoms. No impairment of level-1 perspective-taking was found in adolescent patients with early psychosis compared to healthy controls. Results indicate that level-1 perspective-taking is not impaired during the early stages of psychotic illness. The association between paranoia and attachment support previous findings and provide further insight into the nature of psychotic symptoms. Understanding the role of attachment in paranoia may help patients and their care workers to gain insight into the reasons for the development or persistence of symptoms. Future research should compare early psychosis samples with more chronic samples to explore whether perspective-taking deteriorates during the course of the illness.

  9. Jelly-type carbohydrate supplement in healthy subjects suppresses the catabolism of adipose tissue and muscle protein and improves their satisfactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuro Oyama

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background & aims: Many studies have reported the effects of preoperative clear fluid carbohydrate supplements; however, few studies have reported the effects of preoperative jelly-type carbohydrate supplements. This study aimed to assess the effect of a jelly-type oral nutritional supplement (ONS on metabolism, redox balance by using various surrogate markers and to evaluate its excretion from the stomach. Methods: This study was conducted according to a crossover design. Participants underwent a control experiment whereby they fasted after dinner and only ingested water until the experiment. The remaining participants underwent an ONS experiment whereby they ingested 400 g of ONS before bed and another 400 g at 7:00 am. Blood samples were collected at 9:00 am. After a break of at least 24 h, participants underwent the alternate experiment. Results: Thirty minutes after intake of jelly, the gastric antrum appeared flat (the same result as that at baseline on ultrasonography. The ONS group showed significantly lower serum free fatty acid levels (100 μEq/L, p = 0.027, vs. 327 μEq/L, n = 6, total ketone bodies levels, 3-MH/creatinine levels, and oxidative stress surrogate markers. Serum insulin levels were significantly higher and participant's satisfaction was improved in the ONS group. Conclusions: We have the limitations of our methodologies as surrogate markers, compared with direct measurement of lipolysis, proteolysis and redox balance regulation. But Jelly-type ONS suppresses the catabolism of adipose tissue and muscle protein, decreases oxidative stress and improves patient satisfaction in healthy participants, without any increased risk of aspiration. Keywords: Crossover design, Jelly-type oral nutritional supplement, Metabolism, Antioxidation, ERAS

  10. Sexual function and hormone profile in young adult men with idiopathic gynecomastia: Comparison with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sir, Emin; Üçer, Oktay; Aksoy, Alper; Güngör, Melike; Ceylan, Yasin

    2016-01-22

    To compare sexual function and hormone profile in male patients with gynecomastia with matched controls. Forty-seven male subjects with gynecomastia and thirty healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Serum free T3, free T4, TSH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol, total testosterone, free testosterone, DHEA-SO4, LH and total PSA were measured in the patients and controls. Sexual function of the patients and controls were evaluated using International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). The hormone values and IIEF scores of the patients were statistically compared with the controls'. The mean of age, body mass index, right and left testicular volume in the patient and control group were similar. The mean FSH and free T3 values of the patients were significantly lower than the controls (p = 0.007 and p = 0.03, respectively). The mean of the other hormone values in the both groups were found to be statistically similar (p > 0.05). The mean ±SD of total IIEF scores in the patient and control group were 60.14 ± 8.78 and 65.24 ± 5.52, respectively (p = 0.007). Although the mean IIEF-erectile function, orgasmic function and intercourse satisfaction scores in the patient group were significantly lower than the control group (p gynecomastia were similar with the controls. However, gynecomastia adversely affected male sexual function.

  11. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Thalassemia Major Patients with Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Chand Meena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hemoglobinopathies like thalassemia are associated with many osteopathies like osteoporosis. Methods. This observational study was carried out to compare the bone mineral density (BMD in transfusion dependent thalassemics with that of healthy controls. Thirty-two thalassemia patients, aged 2–18 years, and 32 age and sex matched controls were studied. The bone mineral concentration (BMC and BMD were assessed at lumbar spine, distal radius, and neck of femur. Biochemical parameters like serum calcium and vitamin D levels were also assessed. Results. The BMC of neck of femur was significantly low in cases in comparison to controls. We also observed significantly lower BMD at the lumbar spine in cases in comparison to controls. A significantly positive correlation was observed between serum calcium levels and BMD at neck of femur. Conclusion. Hence, low serum calcium may be used as a predictor of low BMD especially in populations where incidence of hypovitaminosis D is very high.

  12. Implication of endothelial to mesenchymal cell transition in the development of healthy digestive tissue injury following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintet, Elodie

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosis is identified as a chronic side effect occurring after radiotherapy for pelvic tumors in 5 to 10 % of patients. This pathological healing process is characterized by an accumulation of extracellular matrix synthesized by mesenchymal cells. Endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndoMT), is a processes during which endothelial cells express mesenchymal markers in response to stress. EndoMT is identified as a new source of mesenchymal cells taking part to fibrosis development in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases. Then, this study focused on the potential participation of EndoMT in radiation-induced intestinal fibrosis and tried to identify new therapeutics targets. Interestingly, our results showed for the first time EndoMT in rectal tissues from patients who developed radiation proctitis following radiotherapy. We used an in vivo approach to follow the mesenchymal cells having an endothelial origin in a mouse model expressing the GFP under the control of an endothelial promoter, Tie2 (Tie2-GFP). Thereby, our results confirmed the existence of radiation-induced EndoMT in our preclinical model of radiation proctitis. In vitro characterization showed that irradiation induced a modulation of the endothelial phenotype through a mesenchymal profile, a hallmark of EndoMT. This project also focused on a potential molecular actor, Hey2. In this context, we generated a transgenic mouse model in which Hey2 gene expression is repressed specifically in the endothelial compartment and observed a decrease in radiation-induced mucosal damages and EndoMT frequency. Consequently, inhibiting Hey2 expression could represent a new interesting therapeutic strategy. (author)

  13. Differences in nutritional status between very mild Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Verhey, Frans R; Sijben, John W C; Bouwman, Femke H; Dautzenberg, Paul L J; Lansink, Mirian; Sipers, Walther M W; van Asselt, Dieneke Z B; van Hees, Anneke M J; Stevens, Martijn; Vellas, Bruno; Scheltens, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the systemic availability of nutrients and nutritional status in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are widely available, but the majority included patients in a moderate stage of AD. This study compares the nutritional status between mild AD outpatients and healthy controls. A subgroup of Dutch drug-naïve patients with mild AD (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) ≥20) from the Souvenir II randomized controlled study (NTR1975) and a group of Dutch healthy controls were included. Nutritional status was assessed by measuring levels of several nutrients, conducting the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA®) questionnaire and through anthropometric measures. In total, data of 93 healthy cognitively intact controls (MMSE 29.0 [23.0-30.0]) and 79 very mild AD patients (MMSE = 25.0 [20.0-30.0]) were included. Plasma selenium (p < 0.001) and uridine (p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in AD patients, with a similar trend for plasma vitamin D (p = 0.094) levels. In addition, the fatty acid profile in erythrocyte membranes was different between groups for several fatty acids. Mean MNA screening score was significantly lower in AD patients (p = 0.008), but not indicative of malnutrition risk. No significant differences were observed for other micronutrient or anthropometric parameters. In non-malnourished patients with very mild AD, lower levels of some micronutrients, a different fatty acid profile in erythrocyte membranes and a slightly but significantly lower MNA screening score were observed. This suggests that subtle differences in nutrient status are present already in a very early stage of AD and in the absence of protein/energy malnutrition.

  14. Differential expression of proteomics models of colorectal cancer, colorectal benign disease and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shu-Jun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is often diagnosed at a late stage with concomitant poor prognosis. The hypersensitive analytical technique of proteomics can detect molecular changes before the tumor is palpable. The surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectra (SELDI-TOF-MS is a newly-developed technique of evaluating protein separation in recent years. The protein chips have established the expression of tumor protein in the serum specimens and become the newly discovered markers for tumor diagnosis. The objective of this study was to find new markers of the diagnosis among groups of CRC, colorectal benign diseases (CBD and healthy controls. The assay of SELDI-TOF-MS with analytical technique of protein-chip bioinformatics was used to detect the expression of protein mass peaks in the sera of patients or controls. One hundred serum samples, including 52 cases of colorectal cancer, 27 cases of colorectal benign disease, and 21 cases of healthy controls, were examined by SELDI-TOF-MS with WCX2 protein-chips. Results The diagnostic models (I, II and III were setup by analyzed the data and sieved markers using Ciphergen - Protein-Chip-Software 5.1. These models were combined with 3 protein mass peaks to discriminate CRC, CBD, and healthy controls. The accuracy, the sensitivity and the particularity of cross verification of these models are all highly over 80%. Conclusions The SELDI-TOF-MS is a useful tool to help diagnose colorectal cancer, especially during the early stage. However, identification of the significantly differentiated proteins needs further study.

  15. Sympathetic reflex control of blood flow in human peripheral tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O

    1991-01-01

    Sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are essential for the maintenance of arterial blood pressure in upright position. It has been generally believed that supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes elicited by changes in baroreceptor activity play an important role. Recent studies on human...... sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are blocked. Blood flow has been measure by the local 133Xe-technique. The results indicate the presence of spinal as well as supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes to human peripheral tissues. Especially is emphasized the presence of a local sympathetic veno...... skeletal muscle, cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues of the limbs indicate that the situation is more complex. Measurements have been carried out during acute as well as chronic sympathetic denervation. Spinal sympathetic reflex mechanisms have been evaluated in tetraplegic patients, where supraspinal...

  16. The Comparison of Alexithymia and Emotions Control among Substance Abusers and Healthy People

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    M.J Bagyan Kouleh Marz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare Alexithymia and emotional control among substance abusers and healthy people. Method: The research design was causal-comparative research design which is categorized as descriptive research method. The population included of all people who were referred to addiction treatment centers in Noor-Abad city (Delfan. The participants of the study comprised of 50 addicts under treatment and 50 healthy participants who were matched based on age, education level, social-economical status, and number of children selected by available sampling method. The alexithymia (TAS-20 and emotions control scales administered among both groups. Results: The results showed that there is a significant difference between addicts and non-addicts groups in terms of alexithymia and emotional control. In addition, difficulty in identifying of feelings, depression, anxiety and anger were the most important predictors of addiction severity. Conclusion: These results show that any difficulty in expressing emotions and disability in controlling of negative emotions (anger, depression, and anxiety are risk factors for substance abuse.

  17. Analysis of breath volatile organic compounds in children with chronic liver disease compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Katharine; Alkhouri, Naim; Cikach, Frank; Patel, Nishaben; Yan, Chen; Grove, David; Lopez, Rocio; Rome, Ellen; Dweik, Raed A

    2015-04-20

    Breath testing is increasingly being used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for disease states across medicine. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as measured by mass spectrometry in healthy children and children with chronic liver disease (CLD). Patients between the ages of 6 and 21 were recruited for the study. Control subjects were recruited from a general pediatric population during well-child visits, while patients with CLD were recruited from pediatric gastroenterology clinic visits. The diagnosis of CLD was confirmed by clinical, laboratory, and/or histologic data. A single exhaled breath was collected and analyzed by means of selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry per protocol. A total of 104 patients were included in the study (49 with CLD and 55 healthy controls). Of the patients with CLD, 20 had advanced liver fibrosis (F3-F4). In the CLD cohort, levels of exhaled 1-decene, 1-heptene, 1-octene and 3 methylhexane were found to be significantly higher when compared to the control population (p CLD patients when compared to controls (p CLD was excellent (AUROC = 0.97). Our study demonstrates that children with CLD have a unique pattern of exhaled VOCs. Utilization of a combination of these VOCs represents a promising non-invasive diagnostic tool and may provide further insight into the pathophysiologic processes and pathways leading to pediatric liver disease. Further analysis of these compounds in external cohorts are needed to validate our findings.

  18. Changed adipocytokine concentrations in colorectal tumor patients and morbidly obese patients compared to healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillenbrand Andreas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has been associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. Adipose tissue dysfunction accompanied with alterations in the release of adipocytokines has been proposed to contribute to cancer pathogenesis and progression. The aim of this study was to analyze plasma concentrations of several adipose tissue expressed hormones in colorectal cancer patients (CRC and morbidly obese (MO patients and to compare these concentrations to clinicopathological parameters. Methods Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, resistin, leptin, active plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, interleukin (IL-1 alpha, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha were determined in 67 patients operated on for CRC (31 rectal cancers, 36 colon cancers, 37 patients operated on for morbid obesity and 60 healthy blood donors (BD. Results Compared to BD, leptin concentrations were lowered in CRC patients whereas those of MO patients were elevated. Adiponectin concentrations were only lowered in MO patients. Concentrations of MCP-1, PAI-1, and IL-1 alpha were elevated in both CRC and MO patients, while resistin and TNF-alpha were similarly expressed in MO and CRC patients compared to BD. Resistin concentrations positively correlated with tumor staging (p Conclusions The results suggest that both MO and CRC have low-grade inflammation as part of their etiology.

  19. Changed adipocytokine concentrations in colorectal tumor patients and morbidly obese patients compared to healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillenbrand, Andreas; Fassler, Juliane; Huber, Nadine; Xu, Pengfei; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Templin, Markus; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Wolf, Anna Maria; Knippschild, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. Adipose tissue dysfunction accompanied with alterations in the release of adipocytokines has been proposed to contribute to cancer pathogenesis and progression. The aim of this study was to analyze plasma concentrations of several adipose tissue expressed hormones in colorectal cancer patients (CRC) and morbidly obese (MO) patients and to compare these concentrations to clinicopathological parameters. Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, resistin, leptin, active plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were determined in 67 patients operated on for CRC (31 rectal cancers, 36 colon cancers), 37 patients operated on for morbid obesity and 60 healthy blood donors (BD). Compared to BD, leptin concentrations were lowered in CRC patients whereas those of MO patients were elevated. Adiponectin concentrations were only lowered in MO patients. Concentrations of MCP-1, PAI-1, and IL-1 alpha were elevated in both CRC and MO patients, while resistin and TNF-alpha were similarly expressed in MO and CRC patients compared to BD. Resistin concentrations positively correlated with tumor staging (p<0.002) and grading (p=0.015) of rectal tumor patients. The results suggest that both MO and CRC have low-grade inflammation as part of their etiology

  20. Penetration and distribution of gadolinium-based contrast agents into the cerebrospinal fluid in healthy rats: a potential pathway of entry into the brain tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, Gregor; Frenzel, Thomas; Lohrke, Jessica; Pietsch, Hubertus [MR and CT Contrast Media Research, Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Lenhard, Diana Constanze [Charite, Institute of Vegetative Physiology, Berlin (Germany); Naganawa, Shinji [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    Signal hyperintensity on unenhanced MRI in certain brain regions has been reported after multiple administrations of some, but not all, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). One potential initial pathway of GBCA entry into the brain, infiltration from blood into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), was systematically evaluated in this preclinical study. GBCA infiltration and distribution in the CSF were investigated in healthy rats using repeated fluid-attenuated MRI up to 4 h after high-dose (1.8 mmol/kg) administration of six marketed and one experimental GBCA. Additionally, gadolinium measurements in CSF, blood and brain tissue samples (after 24 h) were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Enhanced MRI signals in the CSF spaces with similar distribution kinetics were observed for all GBCAs. No substantial differences in the gadolinium concentrations among the marketed GBCAs were found in the CSF, blood or brain tissue. After 4.5 h, the concentration in the CSF was clearly higher than in blood but was almost completely cleared and lower than the brain tissue concentration after 24 h. In contrast to the brain signal hyperintensities, no differences in penetration and distribution into the CSF of healthy rats exist among the marketed GBCAs. (orig.)

  1. Penetration and distribution of gadolinium-based contrast agents into the cerebrospinal fluid in healthy rats: a potential pathway of entry into the brain tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jost, Gregor; Frenzel, Thomas; Lohrke, Jessica; Pietsch, Hubertus; Lenhard, Diana Constanze; Naganawa, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Signal hyperintensity on unenhanced MRI in certain brain regions has been reported after multiple administrations of some, but not all, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). One potential initial pathway of GBCA entry into the brain, infiltration from blood into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), was systematically evaluated in this preclinical study. GBCA infiltration and distribution in the CSF were investigated in healthy rats using repeated fluid-attenuated MRI up to 4 h after high-dose (1.8 mmol/kg) administration of six marketed and one experimental GBCA. Additionally, gadolinium measurements in CSF, blood and brain tissue samples (after 24 h) were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Enhanced MRI signals in the CSF spaces with similar distribution kinetics were observed for all GBCAs. No substantial differences in the gadolinium concentrations among the marketed GBCAs were found in the CSF, blood or brain tissue. After 4.5 h, the concentration in the CSF was clearly higher than in blood but was almost completely cleared and lower than the brain tissue concentration after 24 h. In contrast to the brain signal hyperintensities, no differences in penetration and distribution into the CSF of healthy rats exist among the marketed GBCAs. (orig.)

  2. Relationship between healthy lifestyle behaviors and health locus of control and health-specific self-efficacy in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açıkgöz Çepni, Serap; Kitiş, Yeter

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between the healthy lifestyle behaviors and the health locus of control and health-specific self-efficacy in university students. The study included 572 undergraduate students of a university in the central Anatolia region of Turkey. The data were collected with the General Characteristics Form, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, and the Perceived Health Competence Scale and investigated with the structural equation model. Health-specific self-efficacy was an important predictor of healthy lifestyle behaviors. The Internal health locus of control influenced the healthy lifestyle behaviors through health-specific self-efficacy. The other dimension was the Powerful Others health locus of control that affected healthy lifestyle behaviors, both directly and indirectly, through health-specific self-efficacy. There was a chance that the health locus of control had a negative effect on healthy lifestyle behaviors through self-efficacy. Health-specific self-efficacy is an important prerequisite for changes in healthy lifestyle behaviors, which supports Pender's model. The subscales of the health locus of control vary in their effects on healthy lifestyle behaviors, which partly supports Pender's model. Nurses, by using this model, can examine ways of improving these cognitive-perceptual factors and implement health education programs that are directed towards improving them in young persons. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  3. Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf: protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Ha ND

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. Methods/design SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1 a skill-building intervention; (2 price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3 a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4 a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Discussion This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the

  4. EFFECTS OF AGE AND ACUTE MUSCLE FATIGUE ON REACTIVE POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V.; Foreman, K. Bo; Dibble, Lee E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. METHODS A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-minutes (T15) and 30-minutes (T30) of rest. FINDINGS Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. INTERPRETATION Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 minutes of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. PMID:26351001

  5. Effects of age and acute muscle fatigue on reactive postural control in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V; Foreman, K Bo; Dibble, Leland E

    2015-12-01

    Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-min (T15) and 30-min (T30) of rest. Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 min of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Incidental findings in healthy control research subjects using whole-body MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, S.H.X.; Cobbold, J.F.L.; Lim, A.K.P.; Eliahoo, J.; Thomas, E.L.; Mehta, S.R.; Durighel, G.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Bell, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful clinical tool used increasingly in the research setting. We aimed to assess the prevalence of incidental findings in a sequential cohort of healthy volunteers undergoing whole-body MRI as part of a normal control database for imaging research studies. Materials and methods: 148 healthy volunteers (median age 36 years, range 21-69 years; 63.5% males, 36.5% females) were enrolled into a prospective observational study at a single hospital-based MRI research unit in London, UK. Individuals with a clinical illness, treated or under investigation were excluded from the study. Results: 43 (29.1%) scans were abnormal with a total of 49 abnormalities detected. Of these, 20 abnormalities in 19 patients (12.8%) were of clinical significance. The prevalence of incidental findings increased significantly with both increasing age and body mass index (BMI). Obese subjects had a fivefold greater risk of having an incidental abnormality on MRI (OR 5.4, CI 2.1-14.0). Conclusions: This study showed that more than one quarter of healthy volunteers have MR-demonstrable abnormalities. There was an increased risk of such findings in obese patients. This has ethical and financial implications for future imaging research, particularly with respect to informed consent and follow-up of those with abnormalities detected during the course of imaging studies.

  7. Impact of Fibromyalgia in the Sit-to-Stand-to-Sit Performance Compared With Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Adsuar, Jose C; Dominguez-Muñoz, Francisco J; Olivares, Pedro R; Gusi, Narcis

    2017-06-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with a reduction in the ability to perform activities of daily living. Sit-to-stand-to-sit performance is one of the most common activities of daily living and often is evaluated by counting the number of repetitions of the 30-second chair-stand test. No study, however, has examined the performance over the 30 seconds of this test of female patients with fibromyalgia on a phase-by-phase basis. To evaluate the impact of fibromyalgia on performance of the 30-second chair-stand test and to analyze how the kinematic performance changed over the 30-second test period. A cross-sectional study. Local association of fibromyalgia. Fifteen females with fibromyalgia and nine healthy female controls. Participants performed the 30-second chair-stand test while wearing a motion capture device. Duration of each sit-to-stand-to-sit phase within the 30-second time limit was compared between groups using repeated measures analysis of variance. The association between duration of phases and scores from the revised version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire was tested using bivariate correlations. The duration of impulse and sit-to-stand phases were gradually increased over the 30 seconds of the chair-stand test for women with fibromyalgia compared with healthy controls (P = .04 and P = .02, respectively). The mean duration of these 2 phases was associated with symptom duration and the function domain of the revised version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (P fibromyalgia and healthy controls. Since sit-to-stand from a chair is a common daily activity, women with fibromyalgia may require specific exercises to improve performance of this task. Not applicable. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Pulmonary Hypertension with CMR: Pulmonary Hypertension 
Patients and Healthy Volunteers Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng WANG

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The clinical course of pulmonary hypertension (PH is one of progressive deterioration interspersed with episodes of acute decompensation. It is difficult to predict when patients will die because death may come either suddenly or slowly due to progressive heart failure. The aim of this study is to investigate morphology, function and hemodynamics in PH, compared with healthy people, and to investigate the clinical value of detection of PH by use of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR parameters. Methods CMR was performed in 56 PH patients collected from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014 and 22 healthy controls. The following parameters were calculated: right ventricle (RV end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, ejection fraction (EF, myocardial mass (MM, RV fractional area change (RVFAC, interventricular septal curvature (CIVS, left ventricular free wall curvature (CFW, and CIVS/CFW, main pulmonary artery (MPA positive peak velocity, maximal area, minimal area and distensibility. Comparisons of CMR measurements between PH patients and controls were analyzed by using the student t-tests. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to compare the PH diagnostic abilities for four parameters (MPA positive peak velocity, distensibility, curvature ratio, and RVFAC and combined CMR parameter. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results Compared with healthy controls, RV morphology, function and hemodynamics of PH group declined and deteriorate obviously. The ROC curve analysis showed that among the four parameters distensibility of MPA had the highest AUC value (AUC=0.95. Additionally, combined CMR parameter (positive peak velocity+distensibility+curvature ratio+RVFAC had even higher AUC (AUC=0.988. Conclusion Comprehensive CMR parameters is conducive to accurately reflect the overall state RV-pulmonary circulation in patients with PH.

  9. Cortisol Modulation by Ayahuasca in Patients With Treatment Resistant Depression and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. de Menezes Galvão

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Major depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder, affecting about 350 million people, and around 30% of the patients are resistant to currently available antidepressant medications. Recent evidence from a randomized controlled trial (RCT supports the rapid antidepressant effects of the psychedelic ayahuasca in treatment-resistant depression. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of ayahuasca on plasma cortisol and awakening salivary cortisol response, in the same group of treatment-resistant patients (MD and in healthy volunteers (C. Subjects received a single dose of ayahuasca or placebo (dosing session, and both plasma and awakening salivary cortisol response were measured at baseline (before dosing session and 48 h after the dosing session. Baseline assessment (D0 showed blunted awakening salivary cortisol response and hypocortisolemia in patients, with respect to healthy controls. Salivary cortisol was also measured during dosing session, and we observed higher increases for both C and MD that ingested ayahuasca than placebo. After 48 h from the dosing session with ayahuasca, patients' awakening salivary cortisol response is similar to the ones detected in controls. No significant changes in plasma cortisol levels were observed 48 h after the sessions. Therefore, these findings point to new evidence on the modulation of salivary cortisol levels as a result of an ayahuasca session, both in healthy and depressive volunteers. Considering that cortisol acts in regulation of distinct physiological pathways, emotional and cognitive processes, it is assumed to be critically involved to the etiology of depression and its regulation seems to be important for the treatment and remission of major depression, ayahuasca use as antidepressant should be further investigated. Moreover, this study highlights the importance of psychedelics in the treatment of human mental disorders.

  10. Brain responses to sound intensity changes dissociate depressed participants and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohonen, Elisa M; Astikainen, Piia

    2017-07-01

    Depression is associated with bias in emotional information processing, but less is known about the processing of neutral sensory stimuli. Of particular interest is processing of sound intensity which is suggested to indicate central serotonergic function. We tested weather event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to occasional changes in sound intensity can dissociate first-episode depressed, recurrent depressed and healthy control participants. The first-episode depressed showed larger N1 amplitude to deviant sounds compared to recurrent depression group and control participants. In addition, both depression groups, but not the control group, showed larger N1 amplitude to deviant than standard sounds. Whether these manifestations of sensory over-excitability in depression are directly related to the serotonergic neurotransmission requires further research. The method based on ERPs to sound intensity change is fast and low-cost way to objectively measure brain activation and holds promise as a future diagnostic tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of actions promoting healthy eating on students' lipid profile: A controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita De Cássia Ribeiro-Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of nutrition intervention actions on the lipid profile of children and adolescents enrolled in public elementary schools. METHODS: This nine-month, controlled, intervention study included 202 students aged 7 to 14 years attending two schools (intervention/control located in a poor neighborhood of the municipality of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Actions were implemented in the intervention school to promote healthy eating habits, presented as "Ten steps to healthy eating". The effect of these actions was assessed by subjecting the students at baseline and end of the follow-up to biochemical, maturation, and anthropometric measurements and a produce intake survey. The dependent variables were the changes in the study biochemical parameters: total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analysis of covariance assessed the changes that occurred over the study period. RESULTS: The mean total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides of the intervention students decreased 13.18 mg/dL (p=0.001, 7.41 mg/dL (p=0.038, and 12.37 mg/dL (p=0.029, respectively, compared with the control students. CONCLUSION: Actions of this nature have a positive impact on lipid profile. This study adds to those that use effective and viable public health strategies implementable at the primary care level.

  12. Neuropsychology, Social Cognition and Global Functioning Among Bipolar, Schizophrenic Patients and Healthy Controls: Preliminary Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eCaletti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD, schizophrenic patients (SKZ and healthy controls (HC. The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, it includes stabilized schizophrenic patients (n = 30, euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18 and healthy controls (n = 18. Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however the differences did not influence the results. Bipolar patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to schizophrenic patients, even in ecological tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p

  13. Motor excitability measurements: the influence of gender, body mass index, age and temperature in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, I; Diaz, A; Pinto, S; de Carvalho, M

    2014-04-01

    The technique of threshold tracking to test axonal excitability gives information about nodal and internodal ion channel function. We aimed to investigate variability of the motor excitability measurements in healthy controls, taking into account age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and small changes in skin temperature. We examined the left median nerve of 47 healthy controls using the automated threshold-tacking program, QTRAC. Statistical multiple regression analysis was applied to test relationship between nerve excitability measurements and subject variables. Comparisons between genders did not find any significant difference (P>0.2 for all comparisons). Multiple regression analysis showed that motor amplitude decreases with age and temperature, stimulus-response slope decreases with age and BMI, and that accommodation half-time decrease with age and temperature. The changes related to demographic features on TRONDE protocol parameters are small and less important than in conventional nerve conduction studies. Nonetheless, our results underscore the relevance of careful temperature control, and indicate that interpretation of stimulus-response slope and accommodation half-time should take into account age and BMI. In contrast, gender is not of major relevance to axonal threshold findings in motor nerves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Sexual Functioning, Desire, and Satisfaction in Women with TBI and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Strizzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI can substantially alter many areas of a person’s life and there has been little research published regarding sexual functioning in women with TBI. Methods. A total of 58 women (29 with TBI and 29 healthy controls from Neiva, Colombia, participated. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in sociodemographic characteristics. All 58 women completed the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire (SQoL, Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI, Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI, and the Sexual Satisfaction Index (ISS. Results. Women with TBI scored statistically significantly lower on the SQoL (p<0.001, FSFI subscales of desire (p<0.05, arousal (p<0.05, lubrication (p<0.05, orgasm (p<0.05, and satisfaction (p<0.05, and the ISS (p<0.001 than healthy controls. Multiple linear regressions revealed that age was negatively associated with some sexuality measures, while months since the TBI incident were positively associated with these variables. Conclusion. These results disclose that women with TBI do not fare as well as controls in these measures of sexual functioning and were less sexually satisfied. Future research is required to further understand the impact of TBI on sexual function and satisfaction to inform for rehabilitation programs.

  15. Evaluation of Salivary Vitamin C and Catalase in HIV Positive and Healthy HIV Negative Control Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Vaziri-Amjad, Samaneh; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2017-01-01

    Saliva is a complex oral biologic fluid secreted by major and minor salivary glands. Saliva has immunological, enzymatic and antioxidant defense mechanisms. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a life-threatening disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary vitamin C and catalase levels in HIV-positive patients in comparison to a healthy control group. Forty-nine HIV-infected individuals and 49 healthy subjects were selected. Five mL of unstimulated saliva was collected in 5 minutes using a sterilized Falcon tube with Navazesh method. Catalase and vitamin C levels were assessed by spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with STATA 12. Salivary catalase levels were 7.99±2.40 and 8.37±1.81 in the case and control groups, respectively. Catalase level was lower in the case group but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.380). Salivary vitamin C levels in the case and control groups were 3.76±1.92 and 4.87±2.20, respectively (P=0.009). HIV can alter salivary antioxidant capacity as well as vitamin C and catalase levels. Saliva may reflect serum antioxidative changes in these patients. Therefore, further research is necessary on salivary and serum oxidants and the antioxidant changes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Cortical control of gait in healthy humans: an fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ChiHong, Wang; YauYau, Wai; BoCheng, Kuo; Yei-Yu, Yeh; JiunJie Wang

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the cortical control of gait in healthy humans using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two block-designed fMRI sessions were conducted during motor imagery of a locomotor-related task. Subjects watched a video clip that showed an actor standing and walking in an egocentric perspective. In a control session, additional fMRI images were collected when participants observed a video clip of the clutch movement of a right hand. In keeping with previous studies using SPECT and NIRS, we detected activation in many motor-related areas including supplementary motor area, bilateral precentral gyrus, left dorsal premotor cortex, and cingulate motor area. Smaller additional activations were observed in the bilateral precuneus, left thalamus, and part of right putamen. Based on these findings, we propose a novel paradigm to study the cortical control of gait in healthy humans using fMRI. Specifically, the task used in this study - involving both mirror neurons and mental imagery - provides a new feasible model to be used in functional neuroimaging studies in this area of research. (author)

  17. Knee joint laxity and passive stiffness in meniscectomized patients compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlund, Jonas B; Creaby, Mark W; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Bennell, Kim L

    2014-10-01

    Passive mechanical behavior of the knee in the frontal plane, measured as angular laxity and mechanical stiffness, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Little is known about knee laxity and stiffness prior to knee OA onset. We investigated knee joint angular laxity and passive stiffness in meniscectomized patients at high risk of knee OA compared with healthy controls. Sixty patients meniscectomized for a medial meniscal tear (52 men, 41.4 ± 5.5 years, 175.3 ± 7.9 cm, 83.6 ± 12.8 kg, mean ± SD) and 21 healthy controls (18 men, 42.0 ± 6.7 years, 176.8 ± 5.7 cm, 77.8 ± 13.4 kg) had their knee joint angular laxity and passive stiffness assessed twice ~2.3 years apart. Linear regression models including age, sex, height and body mass as covariates in the adjusted model were used to assess differences between groups. Greater knee joint varus (-10.1 vs. -7.3°, pknee joint angular laxity and reduced passive stiffness ~3 months post surgery compared with controls. In addition, the results indicated that knee joint laxity may increase over time in meniscectomized patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prospective Study Validating Inter- and Intraobserver Variability of Tissue Compliance Meter in Breast Tissue of Healthy Volunteers: Potential Implications for Patients With Radiation-Induced Fibrosis of the Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernicke, A. Gabriella; Parashar, Bhupesh; Kulidzhanov, Fridon; Riley, Lillian; Christos, Paul J.; Fischer, Andrew; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, K.S. Clifford

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate detection of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is crucial in management of breast cancer survivors. Tissue compliance meter (TCM) has been validated in musculature. We validate TCM in healthy breast tissue with respect to interobserver and intraobserver variability before applying it in RIF. Methods and Materials: Three medical professionals obtained three consecutive TCM measurements in each of the four quadrants of the right and left breasts of 40 women with no breast disease or surgical intervention. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) assessed interobserver variability. The paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were used to assess intraobserver variability within each rater. Results: The median age was 45 years (range, 24-68 years). The median bra size was 35C (range, 32A-40DD). Of the participants, 27 were white (67%), 4 black (10%), 5 Asian (13%), and 4 Hispanic (10%). ICCs indicated excellent interrater reliability (low interobserver variability) among the three raters, by breast and quadrant (all ICC ≥0.99). The paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficient both indicated low intraobserver variability within each rater (right vs. left breast), stratified by quadrant (all r≥ 0.94, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The interobserver and intraobserver variability is small using TCM in healthy mammary tissue. We are now embarking on a prospective study using TCM in women with breast cancer at risk of developing RIF that may guide early detection, timely therapeutic intervention, and assessment of success of therapy for RIF.

  19. PR-39, a porcine host defence peptide, is prominent in mucosa and lymphatic tissue of the respiratory tract in healthy pigs and pigs infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig-Pauka, Isabel; Koch, Rüdiger; Hoeltig, Doris; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Blecha, Frank; Brauer, Carsten; Gasse, Hagen

    2012-09-28

    Host defence peptides are important components of mammalian innate immunity. We have previously shown that PR-39, a cathelicidin host defence peptide, is an important factor in porcine innate immune mechanisms as a first line of defence after infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. PR-39 interacts with bacterial and mammalian cells and is involved in a variety of processes such as killing of bacteria and promotion of wound repair. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of infected pigs PR-39 concentrations are elevated during the chronic but not during the acute stage of infection when polymorphonuclear neutrophils (known as the major source of PR-39) are highly increased. Thus it was assumed, that the real impact of PR-39 during infection might not be reflected by its concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Using immunohistochemistry this study demonstrates the actual distribution of PR-39 in tissue of the upper and lower respiratory tract of healthy pigs, and of pigs during the acute and chronic stage of experimental infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.During the acute stage of infection PR-39 accumulated adjacent to blood vessels and within bronchi. Immune reactions were mainly localized in the cytoplasm of cells with morphological characteristics of polymorphonuclear neutrophils as well as in extracellular fluids. During the chronic stage of infection pigs lacked clinical signs and lung alterations were characterized by reparation and remodelling processes such as tissue sequestration and fibroblastic pleuritis with a high-grade accumulation of small PR-39-positive cells resembling polymorphonuclear neutrophils. In healthy pigs, PR-39 was homogenously expressed in large single cells within the alveoli resembling alveolar macrophages or type 2 pneumocytes. PR-39 was found in all tissue samples of the upper respiratory tract in healthy and diseased pigs. Within the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, PR-39 dominated in the cytoplasm and nuclei of

  20. Comparison of serum lead level in oral opium addicts with healthy control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hossein; Sayadi, Ahmad Reza; Tashakori, Mahnaz; Yazdandoost, Rokhsareh; Soltanpoor, Narges; Sadeghi, Hossein; Aghaee-Afshar, Mahmood

    2009-11-01

    Drug abuse and its consequences are major health problems in Middle-East countries such as Iran. Salesmen and smugglers may add lead to opium during the process of opium preparation to increase the weight of opium for more profit. Several reports have found lead poisoning symptoms in opium addicted patients and there are many nonspecific symptoms mimicking lead poisoning in opium addicted patients. As far as the literature review is concerned, there is no comparative study about blood lead level (BLL) in addicted patients with healthy controls. Therefore, it seems evaluation of blood lead level in opium addicted patients to be important. In this study, the BLL of forty-four subjects in two patient and control groups was evaluated. The patient group (22 subjects) was comprised of patients who used oral opium. Control group (22 subjects) was matched with the patient group for age and sex, considering inclusion and exclusion criteria with a mean age of 38.8+/-6.7. For blood lead assay, 3 mL of whole blood was obtained from both groups by venipuncture and BLL was assessed immediately using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The BLL in patient group had a range of 7.2 to 69.9 g/dL with a mean of 21.9+/-13.2. In the healthy control group, BLL was between 4.1 to 17.4 g/dL with a mean of 8.6+/-3.5. The mean difference of both groups (t=4.56) was statistically significant (Popium ingested (r=0.65, Popium ingestion in the patient group. It would be concluded that opium addicts have an elevated BLL compared to healthy controls. Therefore, screening of blood lead concentration is helpful for opium addicted people especially with non-specific symptoms. In this regard, a similar investigation with a larger sample size of opium addicted patients (including both oral and inhaled) and a control group is suggested to confirm the findings of this research.

  1. Comparison of body composition between professional sportswomen and apparently healthy age- and sex-matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In view of the relationship between physical activity and nutrition on body composition, we assessed lean and fat mass and BMC (total and regional in professional Indian sportswomen and compared it with apparently healthy age- and sex-matched females. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 104 sportswomen and an equal number of age-matched normal healthy females (controls. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body composition (fat, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC by DXA. Results: Mean age (19.1 ± 1.3 vs. 19.4 ± 1.5 years and body mass index (21.34 ± 3.02 vs. 21.26 ± 4.05 kg/m 2 were comparable in both groups. Sportswomen had higher intake of energy, macronutrients, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Total lean mass (33.67 ± 3.49 vs. 31.14 ± 3.52 kg, P < 0.0001, appendicular skeletal muscle index (5.84 ± 0.57 vs. 5.46 ± 0.63 kg/m 2 ; P < 0.0001 and BMC (2.27 ± 0.32 vs. 2.13 ± 0.34 kg, P < 0.002 was significantly higher and percentage fat mass was significantly lower (33.1 ± 7.5 vs. 37.0 ± 8.3; P < 0.0001 among sportswomen when compared to controls. Conclusions: Indian sportswomen have a higher total and regional lean mass, BMC, and lower percentage fat mass when compared with healthy females. Physical activity, energy, protein and calcium intake were positively associated with lean mass and BMC.

  2.  Female fibromyalgia patients have the same ability to improve aerobic fitness as healthy sedentary controls

    OpenAIRE

    Hafstad, Arild

    2010-01-01

    Background: Several cross-sectional studies have reported lower aerobic fitness among fibromyalgia (FM) patients compared to healthy controls. At present it is unknown whether the inferior aerobic fitness is a cause or a consequence of the illness. Objective: To examine if female FM patients have the same ability to enhance their aerobic fitness as healthy sedentary controls matched on age and BMI. A second objective was to investigate whether the FM patients experience an increase in pre...

  3. Brain insulin controls adipose tissue lipolysis and lipogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Thomas; O’Hare, James; Diggs-Andrews, Kelly; Schweiger, Martina; Cheng, Bob; Lindtner, Claudia; Zielinski, Elizabeth; Vempati, Prashant; Su, Kai; Dighe, Shveta; Milsom, Thomas; Puchowicz, Michelle; Scheja, Ludger; Zechner, Rudolf; Fisher, Simon J.; Previs, Stephen F.; Buettner, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY White adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (DM2). Unrestrained WAT lipolysis results in increased fatty acid release leading to insulin resistance and lipotoxicity, while impaired de novo lipogenesis in WAT decreases the synthesis of insulin sensitizing fatty acid species like palmitoleate. Here we show that insulin infused into the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) of Sprague Dawley rats increases WAT lipogenic protein expression, and inactivates hormone sensitive lipase (Hsl) and suppresses lipolysis. Conversely, mice that lack the neuronal insulin receptor exhibit unrestrained lipolysis and decreased de novo lipogenesis in WAT. Thus, brain and in particular hypothalamic insulin action play a pivotal role in WAT functionality. PMID:21284985

  4. Changes in cytokine and chemokine expression distinguish dysthymic disorder from major depression and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pei-Shen; Yen, Che-Hung; Chen, Chun-Yen; Huang, San-Yuan; Liang, Chih-Sung

    2017-02-01

    An important area of uncertainty is the inflammatory degree to which depression occurring as part of dysthymic disorder may differ from major depression. Using a 27-plex cytokine assay, we analyzed the serum of 12 patients with dysthymic disorder, 12 with major depression, and an age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched control group of 20 healthy volunteers. We observed that patients with dysthymic disorder exhibited aberrant cytokine and chemokine expression compared with healthy controls and patients with major depression. The levels of interferon-γ-induced protein 10 highly predicted dysthymic disorder. Network analyses revealed that in patients with dysthymic disorder, the vertices were more sparsely connected and adopted a more hub-like architecture, and the connections from neighboring vertices of interleukin 2 and eotaxin-1 increased. After treatment with the same antidepressant, there was no difference between dysthymic disorder and major depression regarding any of the cytokines or chemokines analyzed. For dysthymic disorder, changes in the levels of interferon-γ-induced protein 10 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α correlated with depression improvement. The findings suggest that the cytokine milieu in dysthymic disorder differs either at the level of individual expression or in network patterns. Moreover, chemokines play an important role in driving the pathophysiology of dysthymic disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Decision making, cognitive distortions and emotional distress: A comparison between pathological gamblers and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Maria; Griffiths, Mark D; Nigro, Giovanna; Cosenza, Marina

    2017-03-01

    The etiology of problem gambling is multifaceted and complex. Among others factors, poor decision making, cognitive distortions (i.e., irrational beliefs about gambling), and emotional factors (e.g., negative mood states) appear to be among the most important factors in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. Although empirical evidence has suggested that cognitive distortions facilitate gambling and negative emotions are associated with gambling, the interplay between cognitive distortions, emotional states, and decision making in gambling remains unexplored. Pathological gamblers (N = 54) and healthy controls (N = 54) completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS), and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). Compared to healthy controls, pathological gamblers showed poorer decision making and reported higher scores on measures assessing cognitive distortions and emotional distress. All measures were positively associated with gambling severity. A significant negative correlation between decision making and cognitive distortions was also observed. No associations were found between poor decision making and emotional distress. Logistic regression analysis indicated that cognitive distortions, emotional distress, and poor decision making were significant predictors of problem gambling. The use of self-report measures and the absence of female participants limit the generalizability of the reported findings. The present study is the first to demonstrate the mutual influence between irrational beliefs and poor decision making, as well as the role of cognitive bias, emotional distress, and poor decision making in gambling disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intermittent use of an "anchor system" improves postural control in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Milena de Bem Zavanella; Mauerberg-deCastro, Eliane; Moraes, Renato

    2013-07-01

    Haptic information, provided by a non-rigid tool (i.e., an "anchor system"), can reduce body sway in individuals who perform a standing postural task. However, it was not known whether or not continuous use of the anchor system would improve postural control after its removal. Additionally, it was unclear as to whether or not frequency of use of the anchor system is related to improved control in older adults. The present study evaluated the effect of the prolonged use of the anchor system on postural control in healthy older individuals, at different frequencies of use, while they performed a postural control task (semi-tandem position). Participants were divided into three groups according to the frequency of the anchor system's use (0%, 50%, and 100%). Pre-practice phase (without anchor) was followed by a practice phase (they used the anchor system at the predefined frequency), and a post-practice phase (immediate and late-without anchor). All three groups showed a persistent effect 15min after the end of the practice phase (immediate post-practice phase). However, only the 50% group showed a persistent effect in the late post-practice phase (24h after finishing the practice phase). Older adults can improve their postural control by practicing the standing postural task, and use of the anchor system limited to half of their practice time can provide additional improvement in their postural control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mildly disabled persons with multiple sclerosis use similar net joint power strategies as healthy controls when walking speed increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brincks, John; Christensen, Lars Ejsing; Rehnquist, Mette Voigt; Petersen, Jesper; Sørensen, Henrik; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    To improve walking in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), it is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of walking. This study examined strategies in net joint power generated or absorbed by hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors, and plantar flexors in mildly disabled persons with MS and healthy controls at different walking speeds. Thirteen persons with MS and thirteen healthy controls participated and peak net joint power was calculated using 3D motion analysis. In general, no differences were found between speed-matched healthy controls and persons with MS, but the fastest walking speed was significantly higher in healthy controls (2.42 m/s vs. 1.70 m/s). The net joint power increased in hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors and plantar flexors in both groups, when walking speed increased. Significant correlations between changes in walking speed and changes in net joint power of plantar flexors, hip extensors and hip flexors existed in healthy controls and persons with MS, and in net knee extensor absorption power of persons with MS only. In contrast to previous studies, these findings suggest that mildly disabled persons with MS used similar kinetic strategies as healthy controls to increase walking speed.

  8. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase polymorphisms: relevance for kynurenic acid synthesis in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtze, Maria; Saetre, Peter; Engberg, Göran

    2012-01-01

    on the activity of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), the enzyme converting kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine. Methods: We analyzed the association between KMO gene polymorphisms and CSF concentrations of KYNA in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were...... selected covering KMO and were analyzed in UNPHASED. Results: We included 17 patients with schizophrenia and 33 controls in our study. We found an association between a KMO SNP (rs1053230), encoding an amino acid change of potential importance for substrate interaction, and CSF concentrations of KYNA....... Limitations: Given the limited sample size, the results are tentative until replication. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the nonsynonymous KMO SNP rs1053230 influences CSF concentrations of KYNA....

  9. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase polymorphisms: relevance for kynurenic acid synthesis in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtze, Maria; Saetre, Peter; Engberg, Göran; Schwieler, Lilly; Werge, Thomas; Andreassen, Ole A; Hall, Håkan; Terenius, Lars; Agartz, Ingrid; Jönsson, Erik G; Schalling, Martin; Erhardt, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia show increased brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA). This compound is an end-metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, and its formation indirectly depends on the activity of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), the enzyme converting kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine. We analyzed the association between KMO gene polymorphisms and CSF concentrations of KYNA in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected covering KMO and were analyzed in UNPHASED. We included 17 patients with schizophrenia and 33 controls in our study. We found an association between a KMO SNP (rs1053230), encoding an amino acid change of potential importance for substrate interaction, and CSF concentrations of KYNA. Given the limited sample size, the results are tentative until replication. Our results suggest that the nonsynonymous KMO SNP rs1053230 influences CSF concentrations of KYNA.

  10. Episodic memory and executive functioning in currently depressed patients compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2015-01-01

    At present, little is still known about the link between depression, memory and executive functioning. This study examined whether there are memory-related impairments in depressed patients and whether the size of such deficits depends on the age group and on specific types of cognitive measures. Memory performances of 215 clinically depressed patients were compared to the data of a matched control sample. Regression analyses were performed to determine the extent to which executive dysfunctions contributed to episodic memory impairments. When compared with healthy controls, significantly lower episodic memory and executive functioning performances were found for depressed patients of all age groups. Effect sizes appeared to vary across different memory and executive functioning measures. The extent to which executive dysfunctions could explain episodic memory impairments varied depending on the type of measure examined. These findings emphasise the need to consider memory-related functioning of depressed patients in the context of therapeutic treatments.

  11. Regional grey matter structure differences between transsexuals and healthy controls--a voxel based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lajos; Kozák, Lajos R; Simon, Viktória; Czobor, Pál; Unoka, Zsolt; Szabó, Ádám; Csukly, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF) transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM) transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM) obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17) and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females). We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM) structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri). These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender.

  12. Regional grey matter structure differences between transsexuals and healthy controls--a voxel based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos Simon

    Full Text Available Gender identity disorder (GID refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17 and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females. We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri. These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender.

  13. Mohs micrographic surgery in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans allows tumour clearance with smaller margins and greater preservation of healthy tissue compared with conventional surgery: a study of 74 primary cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Guillén, C; Llombart, B; Nagore, E; Guillén, C; Requena, C; Traves, V; Kindem, S; Alcalá, R; Rivas, N; Sanmartín, O

    2015-01-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is an uncommon skin tumour with aggressive local growth. Whether DFSP should be treated with conventional surgery (CS) or Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) has long been a topic of debate. To calculate, in a large series of DFSP treated by MMS, the minimum margin that would have been needed to achieve complete clearance by CS. Secondly, to calculate the percentage of healthy tissue that was preserved by MMS rather than CS with 2- and 3-cm margins. The minimum margin was calculated by measuring the largest distance from the visible edge of the tumour to the edge of the definitive surgical defect. Tumour and surgical defect areas for hypothetical CS with 2- and 3-cm margins were calculated using AutoCAD for Windows. A mean minimum margin of 1·34 cm was required to achieve complete clearance for the 74 tumours analysed. The mean percentages of skin spared using MMS rather than CS with 2- and 3-cm margins were 49·4% and 67·9%, respectively. MMS can achieve tumour clearance with smaller margins and greater preservation of healthy tissue than CS. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. A dual flow bioreactor with controlled mechanical stimulation for cartilage tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitters, Tim; Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Deus, F.D.; Costa, I.B.F.; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes

    2013-01-01

    In cartilage tissue engineering bioreactors can create a controlled environment to study chondrocyte behavior under mechanical stimulation or produce chondrogenic grafts of clinically relevant size. Here we present a novel bioreactor, which combines mechanical stimulation with a two compartment

  15. 1-D Wavelet Signal Analysis of the Actuators Nonlinearities Impact on the Healthy Control Systems Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Tudoroiu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the use of the 1-D wavelet analysis to extract several patterns from signals data sets collected from healthy and faulty input-output signals of control systems as a preliminary step in real-time implementation of fault detection diagnosis and isolation strategies. The 1-D wavelet analysis proved that is an useful tool for signals processing, design and analysis based on wavelet transforms found in a wide range of control systems industrial applications. Based on the fact that in the real life there is a great similitude between the phenomena, we are motivated to extend the applicability of these techniques to solve similar applications from control systems field, such is done in our research work. Their efficiency will be demonstrated on a case study mainly chosen to evaluate the impact of the uncertainties and the nonlinearities of the sensors and actuators on the overall performance of the control systems. The proposed techniques are able to extract in frequency domain some pattern features (signatures of interest directly from the signals data set collected by data acquisition equipment from the control system.

  16. ADIPONECTIN AND C-REACTIVE PROTEIN RELATIONSHIP IN PLASMA AND ADIPOSE TISSUE (STUDY AMONG HEALTHY OBESE EGYPTIAN FEMALES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SOLIMAN, S.E.T.

    2008-01-01

    The adipokine, adiponectin inhibits vascular inflammation and acts as an endogenous modulator of obesity - linked diseases. High - sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is recently debated as a risk factor and mediator for atherosclerosis. The present study investigated the association between adiponectin and hs-CRP in plasma and adipose tissue, and their relation to body composition and insulin sensitivity in a cohort of normal (30 subjects), obese (30 subjects) and morbidly - obese females (10 subjects). Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of CRP and adiponectin in human adipose tissue were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Plasma adiponectin and insulin were measured using radioimmunoassay methods, while, plasma hs-CRP was measured using ultrasensitive latex method.Results showed that adiponectin was negatively correlated with weight, BMI and insulin sensitivity index, and positively correlated with HDLc. The plasma hs-CRP levels were negatively correlated with plasma adiponectin. The plasma adiponectin levels being significantly lower and plasma hs-CRP being significantly higher in obese than normal females. Real- Time PCR analysis revealed the expression of CRP m-RNA in human adipose tissue and this was inversely correlated to adiponectin m RNA. These results suggest that elevation of CRP and reduction of adiponectin could emerge as mediators of atherogenesis and insulin resistance

  17. Paracetamol sharpens reflection and spatial memory: a double-blind randomized controlled study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Gisèle; Macian, Nicolas; Dubray, Claude; Pereira, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol) mechanism for analgesic and antipyretic outcomes has been largely addressed, but APAP action on cognitive function has not been studied in humans. Animal studies have suggested an improved cognitive performance but the link with analgesic and antipyretic modes of action is incomplete. This study aims at exploring cognitive tests in healthy volunteers in the context of antinociception and temperature regulation. A double-blind randomized controlled study (NCT01390467) was carried out from May 30, 2011 to July 12, 2011. Forty healthy volunteers were included and analyzed. Nociceptive thresholds, core temperature (body temperature), and a battery of cognitive tests were recorded before and after oral APAP (2 g) or placebo: Information sampling task for predecisional processing, Stockings of Cambridge for spatial memory, reaction time, delayed matching of sample, and pattern recognition memory tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adapted to crossover design was performed and a two-tailed type I error was fixed at 5%. APAP improved information sampling task (diminution of the number of errors, latency to open boxes, and increased number of opened boxes; all P memory initial thinking time were decreased ( P =0.04). All other tests were not modified by APAP. APAP had an antinociceptive effect ( P body temperature did not change. This study shows for the first time that APAP sharpens decision making and planning strategy in healthy volunteers and that cognitive performance and antinociception are independent of APAP effect on thermogenesis. We suggest that cognitive performance mirrors the analgesic rather than thermic cascade of events, with possibly a central role for serotonergic and cannabinoid systems that need to be explored further in the context of pain and cognition.

  18. Spatially and temporally controlled hydrogels for tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J., Leijten; Seo, Jungmok; Yue, Kan; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Tamayol, Ali; Ruiz-Esparza, Guillermo U.; Ryon Shin, Su; Sharifi, Roholah; Noshadi, Iman; Moises Alvarez, Mario; Shrike Zhang, Yu; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have seen tremendous advances in the field of hydrogel-based biomaterials. One of the most prominent revolutions in this field has been the integration of elements or techniques that enable spatial and temporal control over hydrogels’ properties and functions. Here, we critically review

  19. Increased frontal electroencephalogram theta amplitude in patients with anorexia nervosa compared to healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hestad KA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Knut A Hestad,1–3 Siri Weider,3,4 Kristian Bernhard Nilsen,5–7 Marit Sæbø Indredavik,8,9 Trond Sand7,10 1Department of Research, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Brumunddal, Norway; 2Department of Public Health, Hedmark University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway; 3Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 4Department of Psychiatry, Specialised Unit for Eating Disorder Patients, Levanger Hospital, Health Trust Nord-Trøndelag, Levanger, Norway; 5Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 6Department of Work Psychology and Physiology, National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway; 7Department of Neurology, Section for Clinical Neurophysiology, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway; 8Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 9Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 10Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway Objective: To conduct a blind study of quantitative electroencephalogram-band amplitudes in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN and healthy controls.Methods: Twenty-one patients with AN and 24 controls were examined with eyes-closed 16-channel electroencephalogram. Main variables were absolute alpha, theta, and delta amplitudes in frontal, temporal, and posterior regions.Results: There were no significant differences between the AN patients and controls regarding absolute regional band amplitudes in µV. Borderline significance was found for anterior theta (P=0.051. Significantly increased left and right frontal electrode theta amplitude was found in AN patients (F3, P=0.014; F4, P

  20. Strength of Structural and Functional Frontostriatal Connectivity Predicts Self-Control in the Healthy Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Lohrey, Corinna; Drobetz, Reinhard; Baetschmann, Hansruedi; Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation refers to the successful use of executive functions and initiation of top-down processes to control one's thoughts, behavior, and emotions, and it is crucial to perform self-control. Self-control is needed to overcome impulses and can be assessed by delay of gratification (DoG) and delay discounting (DD) paradigms. In children/adolescents, good DoG/DD ability depends on the maturity of frontostriatal connectivity, and its decline in strength with advancing age might adversely affect self-control because prefrontal brain regions are more prone to normal age-related atrophy than other regions. Here, we aimed at highlighting the relationship between frontostriatal connectivity strength and DoG performance in advanced age. We recruited 40 healthy elderly individuals (mean age 74.0 ± 7.7 years) and assessed the DoG ability using the German version of the DoG test for adults in addition to the delay discounting (DD) paradigm. Based on diffusion-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data, respectively, the structural and functional whole-brain connectome were reconstructed based on 90 different brain regions of interest in addition to a 12-node frontostriatal DoG-specific network and the resulting connectivity matrices were subjected to network-based statistics. The 90-nodes whole-brain connectome analyses revealed subnetworks significantly associated with DoG and DD with a preponderance of frontostriatal nodes involved suggesting a high specificity of the findings. Structural and functional connectivity strengths between the putamen, caudate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens on the one hand and orbitofrontal, dorsal, and ventral lateral prefrontal cortices on the other hand showed strong positive correlations with DoG and negative correlations with DD corrected for age, sex, intracranial volume, and head motion parameters. These associations cannot be explained by differences in impulsivity and executive functioning. This pattern

  1. Metaproteomics of saliva identifies human protein markers specific for individuals with periodontitis and dental caries compared to orally healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R; Lyon, David

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, dental caries and orally healthy individuals. To identify characteristics of diseased and healthy saliva we thus wanted to compare saliva metaproteomes from patients...... with periodontitis and dental caries to healthy individuals. METHODS: Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with periodontitis, 10 patients with dental caries and 10 orally healthy individuals. The proteins in the saliva samples were subjected to denaturing buffer and digested enzymatically...... and inflammatory markers in periodontitis and dental caries compared to healthy controls. Bacterial proteome profiles and functional annotation were very similar in health and disease. CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of proteins related to the complement system and inflammation seems to correlate with oral disease...

  2. Age differences in the motor control of speech: An fMRI study of healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pascale; Sato, Marc; Deschamps, Isabelle

    2017-05-01

    Healthy aging is associated with a decline in cognitive, executive, and motor processes that are concomitant with changes in brain activation patterns, particularly at high complexity levels. While speech production relies on all these processes, and is known to decline with age, the mechanisms that underlie these changes remain poorly understood, despite the importance of communication on everyday life. In this cross-sectional group study, we investigated age differences in the neuromotor control of speech production by combining behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Twenty-seven healthy adults underwent fMRI while performing a speech production task consisting in the articulation of nonwords of different sequential and motor complexity. Results demonstrate strong age differences in movement time (MT), with longer and more variable MT in older adults. The fMRI results revealed extensive age differences in the relationship between BOLD signal and MT, within and outside the sensorimotor system. Moreover, age differences were also found in relation to sequential complexity within the motor and attentional systems, reflecting both compensatory and de-differentiation mechanisms. At very high complexity level (high motor complexity and high sequence complexity), age differences were found in both MT data and BOLD response, which increased in several sensorimotor and executive control areas. Together, these results suggest that aging of motor and executive control mechanisms may contribute to age differences in speech production. These findings highlight the importance of studying functionally relevant behavior such as speech to understand the mechanisms of human brain aging. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2751-2771, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Changes to online control and eye-hand coordination with healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rielly, Jessica L; Ma-Wyatt, Anna

    2018-06-01

    Goal directed movements are typically accompanied by a saccade to the target location. Online control plays an important part in correction of a reach, especially if the target or goal of the reach moves during the reach. While there are notable changes to visual processing and motor control with healthy ageing, there is limited evidence about how eye-hand coordination during online updating changes with healthy ageing. We sought to quantify differences between older and younger people for eye-hand coordination during online updating. Participants completed a double step reaching task implemented under time pressure. The target perturbation could occur 200, 400 and 600 ms into a reach. We measured eye position and hand position throughout the trials to investigate changes to saccade latency, movement latency, movement time, reach characteristics and eye-hand latency and accuracy. Both groups were able to update their reach in response to a target perturbation that occurred at 200 or 400 ms into the reach. All participants demonstrated incomplete online updating for the 600 ms perturbation time. Saccade latencies, measured from the first target presentation, were generally longer for older participants. Older participants had significantly increased movement times but there was no significant difference between groups for touch accuracy. We speculate that the longer movement times enable the use of new visual information about the target location for online updating towards the end of the movement. Interestingly, older participants also produced a greater proportion of secondary saccades within the target perturbation condition and had generally shorter eye-hand latencies. This is perhaps a compensatory mechanism as there was no significant group effect on final saccade accuracy. Overall, the pattern of results suggests that online control of movements may be qualitatively different in older participants. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  4. Penetration and distribution of gadolinium-based contrast agents into the cerebrospinal fluid in healthy rats: a potential pathway of entry into the brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Gregor; Frenzel, Thomas; Lohrke, Jessica; Lenhard, Diana Constanze; Naganawa, Shinji; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2017-07-01

    Signal hyperintensity on unenhanced MRI in certain brain regions has been reported after multiple administrations of some, but not all, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). One potential initial pathway of GBCA entry into the brain, infiltration from blood into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), was systematically evaluated in this preclinical study. GBCA infiltration and distribution in the CSF were investigated in healthy rats using repeated fluid-attenuated MRI up to 4 h after high-dose (1.8 mmol/kg) administration of six marketed and one experimental GBCA. Additionally, gadolinium measurements in CSF, blood and brain tissue samples (after 24 h) were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Enhanced MRI signals in the CSF spaces with similar distribution kinetics were observed for all GBCAs. No substantial differences in the gadolinium concentrations among the marketed GBCAs were found in the CSF, blood or brain tissue. After 4.5 h, the concentration in the CSF was clearly higher than in blood but was almost completely cleared and lower than the brain tissue concentration after 24 h. In contrast to the brain signal hyperintensities, no differences in penetration and distribution into the CSF of healthy rats exist among the marketed GBCAs. • Gadolinium-based contrast agents can cross the blood-CSF barrier. • Fluid-attenuated MRI shows GBCA distribution with CSF flow. • GBCA structure and physicochemical properties do not impact CSF penetration and distribution. • GBCA clearance from CSF was almost complete within 24 h in rats. • CSF is a potential pathway of GBCA entry into the brain.

  5. Community Violence Exposure and Conduct Problems in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Linda; Vriends, Noortje; Steppan, Martin; Raschle, Nora M; Praetzlich, Martin; Oldenhof, Helena; Vermeiren, Robert; Jansen, Lucres; Ackermann, Katharina; Bernhard, Anka; Martinelli, Anne; Gonzalez-Madruga, Karen; Puzzo, Ignazio; Wells, Amy; Rogers, Jack C; Clanton, Roberta; Baker, Rosalind H; Grisley, Liam; Baumann, Sarah; Gundlach, Malou; Kohls, Gregor; Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel A; Sesma-Pardo, Eva; Dochnal, Roberta; Lazaratou, Helen; Kalogerakis, Zacharias; Bigorra Gualba, Aitana; Smaragdi, Areti; Siklósi, Réka; Dikeos, Dimitris; Hervás, Amaia; Fernández-Rivas, Aranzazu; De Brito, Stephane A; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Fairchild, Graeme; Freitag, Christine M; Popma, Arne; Kieser, Meinhard; Stadler, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD). Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also tend to live in more violent neighborhoods, i.e., an ecological fallacy. Hence, the aim of the present study was: (1) to investigate whether the association between recent CVE and current conduct problems holds true for healthy controls as well as adolescents with a diagnosis of CD; (2) to examine whether the association is stable in both groups when including effects of aggression subtypes (proactive/reactive aggression), age, gender, site and socioeconomic status (SES); and (3) to test whether proactive or reactive aggression mediate the link between CVE and conduct problems. Data from 1178 children and adolescents (62% female; 44% CD) aged between 9 years and 18 years from seven European countries were analyzed. Conduct problems were assessed using the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia diagnostic interview. Information about CVE and aggression subtypes was obtained using self-report questionnaires (Social and Health Assessment and Reactive-Proactive aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), respectively). The association between witnessing community violence and conduct problems was significant in both groups (adolescents with CD and healthy controls). The association was also stable after examining the mediating effects of aggression subtypes while including moderating effects of age, gender and SES and controlling for effects of site in both groups. There were no clear differences between the groups in the strength of the association between witnessing violence

  6. Community Violence Exposure and Conduct Problems in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Kersten

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD. Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also tend to live in more violent neighborhoods, i.e., an ecological fallacy. Hence, the aim of the present study was: (1 to investigate whether the association between recent CVE and current conduct problems holds true for healthy controls as well as adolescents with a diagnosis of CD; (2 to examine whether the association is stable in both groups when including effects of aggression subtypes (proactive/reactive aggression, age, gender, site and socioeconomic status (SES; and (3 to test whether proactive or reactive aggression mediate the link between CVE and conduct problems. Data from 1178 children and adolescents (62% female; 44% CD aged between 9 years and 18 years from seven European countries were analyzed. Conduct problems were assessed using the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia diagnostic interview. Information about CVE and aggression subtypes was obtained using self-report questionnaires (Social and Health Assessment and Reactive-Proactive aggression Questionnaire (RPQ, respectively. The association between witnessing community violence and conduct problems was significant in both groups (adolescents with CD and healthy controls. The association was also stable after examining the mediating effects of aggression subtypes while including moderating effects of age, gender and SES and controlling for effects of site in both groups. There were no clear differences between the groups in the strength of the association between witnessing

  7. Capture, learning, and classification of upper extremity movement primitives in healthy controls and stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Jorge; Uddin, Jasim; Nilsen, Dawn; Mclnerney, James; Fadoo, Ammarah; Omofuma, Isirame B; Hughes, Shatif; Agrawal, Sunil; Allen, Peter; Schambra, Heidi M

    2017-07-01

    There currently exist no practical tools to identify functional movements in the upper extremities (UEs). This absence has limited the precise therapeutic dosing of patients recovering from stroke. In this proof-of-principle study, we aimed to develop an accurate approach for classifying UE functional movement primitives, which comprise functional movements. Data were generated from inertial measurement units (IMUs) placed on upper body segments of older healthy individuals and chronic stroke patients. Subjects performed activities commonly trained during rehabilitation after stroke. Data processing involved the use of a sliding window to obtain statistical descriptors, and resulting features were processed by a Hidden Markov Model (HMM). The likelihoods of the states, resulting from the HMM, were segmented by a second sliding window and their averages were calculated. The final predictions were mapped to human functional movement primitives using a Logistic Regression algorithm. Algorithm performance was assessed with a leave-one-out analysis, which determined its sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for all classified primitives. In healthy control and stroke participants, our approach identified functional movement primitives embedded in training activities with, on average, 80% precision. This approach may support functional movement dosing in stroke rehabilitation.

  8. Effects of the "affectionless control" parenting style on personality traits in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Oshino, Shingo; Ishii, Genki; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-30

    The effects of the affectionless control (AC) parenting style on personality traits were studied in 414 Japanese healthy subjects. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which comprises care and protection factors, and personality traits were assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory, which has seven dimensions. Parental rearing was classified into four types, i.e., optimal parenting (high care/low protection), affectionate constraint (high care/high protection), neglectful parenting (low care/low protection), and AC (low care/high protection). Males with maternal AC showed significantly higher harm avoidance (HA) scores and lower scores of persistence and cooperativeness than those with maternal optimal parenting. Females with maternal AC showed significantly higher HA scores and lower self-directedness scores than those with maternal optimal parenting. Paternal AC was not significantly related to any personality score. In females, the interaction between paternal rearing and maternal rearing was significant; the effect of maternal AC on HA scores was strongest when combined with paternal neglectful parenting. The present study suggests that the AC type parenting by mothers is associated with specific personality traits, especially high HA, in healthy subjects.

  9. The response of social anxiety disorder patients to threat scenarios differs from that of healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C.V. Mesquita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the response of social anxiety disorder (SAD patients to threat scenarios. First-choice responses to 12 scenarios describing conspecific threatening situations and mean scores of defensive direction and defensive intensity dimensions were compared between 87 SAD patients free of medication and 87 matched healthy controls (HC. A significant gender difference in the first-choice responses was identified for seven scenarios among HCs but only for two scenarios among SAD patients. A significantly higher proportion of SAD patients chose "freezing" in response to "Bush" and "Noise" scenarios, whereas the most frequent response by HCs to these scenarios was "check out". SAD males chose "run away" and "yell" more often than healthy men in response to the scenarios "Park" and "Elevator", respectively. There was a positive correlation between the severity of symptoms and both defensive direction and defensive intensity dimensions. Factorial analysis confirmed the gradient of defensive reactions derived from animal studies. SAD patients chose more urgent defensive responses to threat scenarios, seeming to perceive them as more dangerous than HCs and tending to move away from the source of threat. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the physiopathology of anxiety disorders involves brain structures responsible for defensive behaviors.

  10. Carbohydrate intake and glycemic index affect substrate oxidation during a controlled weight cycle in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlhöfer, J; Lagerpusch, M; Enderle, J; Eggeling, B; Braun, W; Pape, D; Müller, M J; Bosy-Westphal, A

    2014-09-01

    Because both, glycemic index (GI) and carbohydrate content of the diet increase insulin levels and could thus impair fat oxidation, we hypothesized that refeeding a low GI, moderate-carbohydrate diet facilitates weight maintenance. Healthy men (n=32, age 26.0±3.9 years; BMI 23.4±2.0 kg/m(2)) followed 1 week of controlled overfeeding, 3 weeks of caloric restriction and 2 weeks of hypercaloric refeeding (+50, -50 and +50% energy requirement) with low vs high GI (41 vs 74) and moderate vs high CHO intake (50% vs 65% energy). We measured adaptation of fasting macronutrient oxidation and the capacity to supress fat oxidation during an oral glucose tolerance test. Changes in fat mass were measured by quantitative magnetic resonance. During overfeeding, participants gained 1.9±1.2 kg body weight, followed by a weight loss of -6.3±0.6 kg and weight regain of 2.8±1.0 kg. Subjects with 65% CHO gained more body weight compared with 50% CHO diet (Pfat oxidation when compared with a low-GI diet (Pfat oxidation was associated with regain in fat mass (r=0.43, Pcarbohydrate content affect substrate oxidation and thus the regain in body weight in healthy men. These results argue in favor of a lower glycemic load diet for weight maintenance after weight loss.

  11. Activation of the attachment system and mentalization in depressive and healthy individuals: An experimental control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fizke Ella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From a developmental and clinical point of view attachment theory and mentalization are closely connected and have become increasingly important to understand the origins of psychopathological development. However, very little is known about how exactly different inner working models of attachment are related to diverse mentalizing abilities and this is particularly true for adult populations - healthy as well as clinical populations. In the present study we investigated this relation with a sample of inpatients diagnosed with depression and a sample of healthy individuals. In an experimental setting the attachment system was activated using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Mentalization was assessed during activation and in comparison to a control condition using a modified version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET. We expected that an activation of the attachment system i diminishes the capacity to take another’s perspective in individuals with unresolved state of mind, ii has no impact in individuals with secure attachment representation and iii is dependent of clinical status in individuals with insecure (but organized working models of attachment. Overall, these hypotheses were confirmed. However, the impact of clinical status on mentalization in insecure attachment has to be further explored. We summarize that attachment state of mind has a mediating influence on mentalization basically in such situations where the attachment system is activated.

  12. Endurance exercise-induced changes in BNP concentrations in cardiovascular patients versus healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aengevaeren, Vincent L; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J; van Kimmenade, Roland R; de Boer, Menko-Jan; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H

    2017-01-15

    Healthy athletes demonstrated increased B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations following exercise, but it is unknown whether these responses are exaggerated in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) or disease (CVD). We compared exercise-induced increases in BNP between healthy controls (CON) and individuals with CVRF or CVD. Furthermore, we aimed to identify predictors for BNP responses. Serum BNP concentrations were measured in 191 participants (60±12yrs) of the Nijmegen Marches before (baseline) and immediately after 4 consecutive days of walking exercise (30-50km/day). CVRF (n=54) was defined as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity or smoking and CVD (n=55) was defined as a history of myocardial infarction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation or angina pectoris. Individuals walked 487±79min/day at 65±10% of their maximum heart rate. Baseline BNP concentrations were higher for CVD (median: 28.1pg/ml; interquartile range: 13-50, p0.05). Predictors for post-exercise BNP (R 2 =0.77) were baseline BNP, beta-blocker use and age. Prolonged moderate-intensity walking exercise increases BNP concentrations in CVD participants, but not in CVRF and CON. BNP increases were small, and did not accumulate across consecutive days of exercise. These findings suggest that prolonged walking exercise for multiple consecutive days is feasible with minimal effect on myocardial stretch, even for participants with CVD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of physical inactivity on subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism in healthy young male offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, MP; Alibegovic, AC

    2010-01-01

    . The best known environmental modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes are obesity and a low level of habitual physical activity (1). Even though there is substantial evidence that a change toward a healthy lifestyle halts the progression of type 2 diabetes (2), certain groups, including first......OBJECTIVE Physical inactivity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and may be more detrimental in first-degree relative (FDR) subjects, unmasking underlying defects of metabolism. Using a positive family history of type 2 diabetes as a marker of increased genetic risk, the aim of this study...... changes in CON subjects compared with FDR subjects. Physical inactivity per se is not more deleterious in FDR subjects as compared with CON subjects with respect to derangements in AT metabolism. Type 2 diabetes is the product of a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors...

  14. Personality styles in patients with fibromyalgia, major depression and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiles Tore C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is suggested to be a manifestation of depression or affective spectrum disorder. We measured the cognitive style of patients with FMS to assess personality styles in 44 patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS by comparing them with 43 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD and 41 healthy controls (HC. Methods Personality styles were measured by the Sociotropy and Autonomy Scale (SAS and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS. The Structured Clinical interview for DSM Axis I was applied to Axis I disorders, while the Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure depression severity. Results Patients with FMS in general have a sociotropic personality style similar to patients with MDD, and different from HC, but FMS patients without a lifetime history of MDD had a cognitive personality style different from patients with MDD and similar to HC. Conclusion These findings suggest that a depressotypic personality style is related to depressive disorder, but not to FMS.

  15. Developing a ubiquitous health management system with healthy diet control for metabolic syndrome healthcare in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yao-Chiang; Chen, Kai-Hong; Lin, Hsueh-Chun

    2017-06-01

    Self-management in healthcare can allow patients managing their health data anytime and everywhere for prevention of chronic diseases. This study established a prototype of ubiquitous health management system (UHMS) with healthy diet control (HDC) for people who need services of metabolic syndrome healthcare in Taiwan. System infrastructure comprises of three portals and a database tier with mutually supportive components to achieve functionality of diet diaries, nutrition guides, and health risk assessments for self-health management. With the diet, nutrition, and personal health database, the design enables the analytical diagrams on the interactive interface to support a mobile application for diet diary, a Web-based platform for health management, and the modules of research and development for medical care. For database integrity, dietary data can be stored at offline mode prior to transformation between mobile device and server site at online mode. The UHMS-HDC was developed by open source technology for ubiquitous health management with personalized dietary criteria. The system integrates mobile, internet, and electronic healthcare services with the diet diary functions to manage healthy diet behaviors of users. The virtual patients were involved to simulate the self-health management procedure. The assessment functions were approved by capturing the screen snapshots in the procedure. The proposed system development was capable for practical intervention. This approach details the expandable framework with collaborative components regarding the self-developed UHMS-HDC. The multi-disciplinary applications for self-health management can support the healthcare professionals to reduce medical resources and improve healthcare effects for the patient who requires monitoring personal health condition with diet control. The proposed system can be practiced for intervention in the hospital. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Echocardiographic findings and joint hypermobility: patients with mitral valve prolapse vs. healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradmand S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Mitral valve prolapse is a relatively common valvular abnormality in most communities and joint hypermobility (JHM is also seen in many healthy people as well as in certain clinical disorders, such as Marfan syndrome. The present study was designed to investigate the association between joint hypermobility and mitral valve prolapse (MVP in an Iranian population sample. "nMethods: Fifty-seven patients with nonrheumatic and isolated mitral anterior leaflet prolapse (24 men and 33 women, mean age 23.5 +/-2.3 and 51 healthy subjects (20 men and 31 women, mean age 22.9+/-2.3 were studied. The presence of JHM was evaluated according to the Carter-Wilkinson & Beighton criteria. Echocardiographic examination was performed in all subjects and the correlation between the echocardiographic features of the mitral valve and the hypermobility score were investigated. "nResults: The frequency of JHM in patients with MVP was found to be significantly higher than that of controls (26.3% vs. 7.8%, with mean JHM scores of 3.1+/-2.2 and 1.9+/-1.7, respectively. The patients in the MVP group had significantly increased the anterior mitral leaflet thickness (AMLT, 3.4+/-0.4 mm vs. 3.0+/-0.3 mm; p<0.0005 and maximal leaflet displacement (MLD, 2.4+/-0.3 mm vs. 1.5+/-0.2 mm; p<0.0005 compared to the controls. "nConclusions: We detect a statistically significant relationship between isolated MVP and joint hypermobility as well as between the severity of JHM and echocardiographic features of the mitral leaflets. These results suggest a common etiology for MVP and JHM, which should be investigated in future well-conducted studies.

  17. Classical and additional antiphospholipid antibodies in blood samples of ischemic stroke patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel-Neiderman, Narin-Nard; Tanne, David; Goren, Idan; Rotman-Pikielny, Pnina; Levy, Yair

    2017-04-01

    Classical antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLa) are found in 6-25% of blood samples from stroke patients. The frequency of novel aPLa antibodies in blood samples of CVA patients is not known. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed on blood samples from 209 CVA patients (170 samples were obtained during the acute phase and 39 samples were from patients with complete carotid stenosis) and compared to 54 healthy controls. Subjects were tested for the presence of the classical aPL antibodies anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-beta2-glycoprotein (aβ2gI), in addition to antiphosphatidylethanolamine (aPE), anti-phosphatidylserine (aPS), and Annexin V. All antibodies were tested for both IgM and IgG subclasses. Numeric analysis of the antibody titer levels (μ/ml) revealed a significantly higher subclinical titer by two standard deviations of many aPL autoantibodies among CVA patients (Pv < 0.05). However, according to the kit manufacturer's cutoff value, no positive antibodies were found except a trend toward higher percentage of positive aPS IgG titer in the CVA group compared to controls (6.2 vs. %0; P = 0.077). According to the manufacturer's cutoff, significantly higher levels of positive antibodies were not found among stroke patients. However, the absolute ELISA values of stroke patients were significantly higher. These results suggest that lower cutoff values than those used for APS diagnosis should be used for risk stratification of CVA among healthy individuals.

  18. A comparative study of the working memory multicomponent model in psychosis and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Elosúa, M Rosa; Lorente-Omeñaca, Ruth; Moreno-Izco, Lucía; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2015-08-01

    Working memory deficits are considered nuclear deficits in psychotic disorders. However, research has not found a generalized impairment in all of the components of working memory. We aimed to assess the components of the Baddeley and Hitch working memory model: the temporary systems-the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad and the episodic buffer (introduced later by Baddeley)-and the central executive system, which includes four executive functions: divided attention, updating, shifting and inhibition. We assessed working memory performance in a sample of 21 patients with a psychotic disorder and 21 healthy controls. Patients also underwent a clinical assessment. Both univariate and repeated measures ANOVAs were applied to analyze performance in the working memory components between groups. Patients with a psychotic disorder underperformed compared to the controls in all of the working memory tasks, but after controlling for age and premorbid IQ, we only found a difference in performance in the N-Back task. Repeated measures ANCOVAs showed that patients also underperformed compared to the controls in the Digit span test and the TMT task. Not all of the components of working memory were impaired in the patients. Specifically, patients' performance was impaired in the tasks selected to assess the phonological loop and the shifting executive function. Patients' also showed worse performance than controls in the N-Back task, representative of the updating executive function. However, we did not find higher impairment in the patients' performance respect to controls when increasing the loading of the task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Controlled Positioning of Cells in Biomaterials-Approaches Towards 3D Tissue Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Silke; Müller, Ralph; Hofmann, Sandra

    2011-08-04

    Current tissue engineering techniques have various drawbacks: they often incorporate uncontrolled and imprecise scaffold geometries, whereas the current conventional cell seeding techniques result mostly in random cell placement rather than uniform cell distribution. For the successful reconstruction of deficient tissue, new material engineering approaches have to be considered to overcome current limitations. An emerging method to produce complex biological products including cells or extracellular matrices in a controlled manner is a process called bioprinting or biofabrication, which effectively uses principles of rapid prototyping combined with cell-loaded biomaterials, typically hydrogels. 3D tissue printing is an approach to manufacture functional tissue layer-by-layer that could be transplanted in vivo after production. This method is especially advantageous for stem cells since a controlled environment can be created to influence cell growth and differentiation. Using printed tissue for biotechnological and pharmacological needs like in vitro drug-testing may lead to a revolution in the pharmaceutical industry since animal models could be partially replaced by biofabricated tissues mimicking human physiology and pathology. This would not only be a major advancement concerning rising ethical issues but would also have a measureable impact on economical aspects in this industry of today, where animal studies are very labor-intensive and therefore costly. In this review, current controlled material and cell positioning techniques are introduced highlighting approaches towards 3D tissue printing.

  20. Controlled Positioning of Cells in Biomaterials—Approaches Towards 3D Tissue Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hofmann

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Current tissue engineering techniques have various drawbacks: they often incorporate uncontrolled and imprecise scaffold geometries, whereas the current conventional cell seeding techniques result mostly in random cell placement rather than uniform cell distribution. For the successful reconstruction of deficient tissue, new material engineering approaches have to be considered to overcome current limitations. An emerging method to produce complex biological products including cells or extracellular matrices in a controlled manner is a process called bioprinting or biofabrication, which effectively uses principles of rapid prototyping combined with cell-loaded biomaterials, typically hydrogels. 3D tissue printing is an approach to manufacture functional tissue layer-by-layer that could be transplanted in vivo after production. This method is especially advantageous for stem cells since a controlled environment can be created to influence cell growth and differentiation. Using printed tissue for biotechnological and pharmacological needs like in vitro drug-testing may lead to a revolution in the pharmaceutical industry since animal models could be partially replaced by biofabricated tissues mimicking human physiology and pathology. This would not only be a major advancement concerning rising ethical issues but would also have a measureable impact on economical aspects in this industry of today, where animal studies are very labor-intensive and therefore costly. In this review, current controlled material and cell positioning techniques are introduced highlighting approaches towards 3D tissue printing.

  1. Development of a tool-kit for the detection of healthy and injured cardiac tissue based on MR imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westphal Philip

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Planning of interventions to treat cardiac arrhythmia requires a 3D patient specific model of the heart. Currently available commercial or free software dedicated to this task have important limitations for routinely use. Automatic algorithms are not robust enough while manual methods are time-consuming. Therefore, the project attempts to develop an optimal software tool. The heart model is generated from preoperative MR data-sets acquired with contrast agent and allows visualisation of damaged cardiac tissue. A requirement in the development of the software tool was the use of semi-automatic functions to be more robust. Once the patient image dataset has been loaded, the user selects a region of interest. Thresholding functions allow selecting the areas of high intensities which correspond to anatomical structures filled with contrast agent, namely cardiac cavities and blood vessels. Thereafter, the target-structure, for example the left ventricle, is coarsely selected by interactively outlining the gross shape. An active contour function adjusts automatically the initial contour to the image content. The result can still be manually improved using fast interaction tools. Finally, possible scar tissue located in the cavity muscle is automatically detected and visualized on the 3D heart model. The model is exported in format which is compatible with interventional devices at hospital. The evaluation of the software tool included two steps. Firstly, a comparison with two free software tools was performed on two image data sets of variable quality. Secondly, six scientists and physicians tested our tool and filled out a questionnaire. The performance of our software tool was visually judged more satisfactory than the free software, especially on the data set of lower quality. Professionals evaluated positively our functionalities regarding time taken, ease of use and quality of results. Improvements would consist in performing the planning based

  2. Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

  3. (-)-Epicatechin administration and exercising skeletal muscle vascular control and microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Steven W; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; White, Michael J; Hirai, Daniel M; Ferguson, Scott K; Holdsworth, Clark T; Sims, Gabrielle E; Poole, David C; Musch, Timothy I

    2013-01-15

    Consumption of the dietary flavanol (-)-epicatechin (EPI) is associated with enhanced endothelial function and augmented skeletal muscle capillarity and mitochondrial volume density. The potential for EPI to improve peripheral vascular function and muscle oxygenation during exercise is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that EPI administration in healthy rats would improve treadmill exercise performance secondary to elevated skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance [VC, blood flow/mean arterial pressure (MAP)] and improved skeletal muscle microvascular oxygenation. Rats received water (control, n = 12) or 4 mg/kg EPI (n = 12) via oral gavage daily for 24 days. Exercise endurance capacity and peak O(2) uptake (Vo(2) peak) were measured via treadmill runs to exhaustion. MAP (arterial catheter) and blood flow (radiolabeled microspheres) were measured and VC was calculated during submaximal treadmill exercise (25 m/min, 5% grade). Spinotrapezius muscle microvascular O(2) pressure (Po(2mv)) was measured (phosphorescence quenching) during electrically induced twitch (1 Hz) contractions. In conscious rats, EPI administration resulted in lower (↓~5%) resting (P = 0.03) and exercising (P = 0.04) MAP. There were no differences in exercise endurance capacity, Vo(2) peak, total exercising hindlimb blood flow (control, 154 ± 13; and EPI, 159 ± 8 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1), P = 0.68), or VC (control, 1.13 ± 0.10; and EPI, 1.24 ± 0.08 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)·mmHg(-1), P = 0.21) between groups. Following anesthesia, EPI resulted in lower MAP (↓~16%) but did not impact resting Po(2mv) or any kinetics parameters (P > 0.05 for all) during muscle contractions compared with control. EPI administration (4 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) improved modestly cardiovascular function (i.e., ↓MAP) with no impact on exercise performance, total exercising skeletal muscle blood flow and VC, or contracting muscle microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats.

  4. Gender differences in interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sandra E; Degen, Bigna; Petitjean, Sylvie; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Walter, Marc

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol dependence is a heavy burden on patients, their families, and society. Epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol dependence will affect many individuals at some time in their lives, with men affected more frequently than women. Since alcohol-dependent patients often exhibit a lack of social skills and suffer from interpersonal problems, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether men and women experience the same interpersonal problems. Eighty-five alcohol-dependent patients (48 men; 37 women) after detoxification and 62 healthy controls (35 men; 27 women) were recruited. Interpersonal problems were measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64). Additionally, alcohol-dependent patients were interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and were subtyped according to Lesch's Alcohol Typology (LAT). There were no significant gender differences in the AUDIT and LAT between alcohol-dependent men and women. Interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent men differed significantly in one out of eight dimensions from controls; alcohol-dependent men perceive themselves as colder than male controls. Alcohol-dependent women differed in four out of eight interpersonal dimensions from female controls. Alcohol-dependent women rated themselves as significantly more vindictive, more introverted, more overly accommodating and more intrusive than female controls. Results suggest that alcohol-dependent men and women suffer from different interpersonal problems and furthermore alcohol-dependent women perceive more interpersonal problems, whereas the severity of alcohol dependence did not differ between the groups. Our findings indicate that alcohol-dependent women may profit more from a gender-specific treatment approach aimed at improving treatment outcome than alcohol-dependent men.

  5. Karolinska Scales of Personality, cognition and psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Björn Mikael; Holm, Gunnar; Ekselius, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Studies on both personality dimensions and cognition in schizophrenia are scarce. The objective of the present study was to examine personality traits and the relation to cognitive function and psychotic symptoms in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. In total 23 patients with schizophrenia and 14 controls were assessed with the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). A broad cognitive test programme was used, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, the Finger-Tapping Test, the Trail Making Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, the Benton Visual Retention Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test . Compared with controls, the patients exhibited prominent elevations on KSP scales measuring anxiety proneness and neuroticism (P = 0.000005-0.0001), on the Detachment scale (P < 0.00009) and lower value on the Socialization scale (P < 0.0002). The patients also scored higher on the Inhibition of Aggression, Suspicion, Guilt and Irritability scales (P = 0.002-0.03) while the remaining five scales did not differ between patients and controls. KSP anxiety-related scales correlated with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) general psychopathology subscale. Cognitive test results were uniformly lower in the patient group and correlated with PANSS negative symptoms subscale. There was no association between KSP scale scores and PANSS positive or negative symptoms. The patients revealed a highly discriminative KSP test profile with elevated scores in neuroticism- and psychoticism-related scales as compared to controls. Results support previous findings utilizing other personality inventories in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive test performance correlated inversely with negative symptoms.

  6. Gender Differences in Interpersonal Problems of Alcohol-Dependent Patients and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Walter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a heavy burden on patients, their families, and society. Epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol dependence will affect many individuals at some time in their lives, with men affected more frequently than women. Since alcohol-dependent patients often exhibit a lack of social skills and suffer from interpersonal problems, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether men and women experience the same interpersonal problems. Eighty-five alcohol-dependent patients (48 men; 37 women after detoxification and 62 healthy controls (35 men; 27 women were recruited. Interpersonal problems were measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64. Additionally, alcohol-dependent patients were interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT and were subtyped according to Lesch’s Alcohol Typology (LAT. There were no significant gender differences in the AUDIT and LAT between alcohol-dependent men and women. Interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent men differed significantly in one out of eight dimensions from controls; alcohol-dependent men perceive themselves as colder than male controls. Alcohol-dependent women differed in four out of eight interpersonal dimensions from female controls. Alcohol-dependent women rated themselves as significantly more vindictive, more introverted, more overly accommodating and more intrusive than female controls. Results suggest that alcohol-dependent men and women suffer from different interpersonal problems and furthermore alcohol-dependent women perceive more interpersonal problems, whereas the severity of alcohol dependence did not differ between the groups. Our findings indicate that alcohol-dependent women may profit more from a gender-specific treatment approach aimed at improving treatment outcome than alcohol-dependent men.

  7. Endogenous opioid blockade and impulsive responding in alcoholics and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jennifer M; Tavares, Venessa C; Fields, Howard L; D'Esposito, Mark; Boettiger, Charlotte A

    2007-02-01

    The opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (NTX) is one of few approved treatments for alcoholism, yet the mechanism by which it reduces drinking remains unclear. In rats, NTX reduces morphine-induced impulsive choice bias; however, nothing is known about the drug's effect on discrete aspects of impulsive behavior in humans, such as decision-making and inhibitory control. Here, we used a modified delay discounting procedure to investigate whether NTX improves decision-making or inhibitory control in humans. We measured the effect of acute NTX (50 mg) on choice between smaller sooner (SS) and larger later monetary rewards and on response errors (motor mismatch) in a high conflict condition in a group of abstinent alcoholics (AA) and healthy control subjects (CS). We previously reported that AA selected the SS option significantly more often than did CS in this paradigm. If the choice bias of AA is due to enhanced endogenous opioid signaling in response to potential reward, NTX should reduce such bias in the AA group. We found that NTX did not reliably reduce impulsive choice in the AA group; however, NTX's effect on choice bias across individuals was robustly predictable. NTX's effect on choice bias was significantly correlated with scores on Rotter's Locus of Control (LOC) scale; increasingly internal LOC scores predicted increasing likelihood of impulsive choices on NTX. In addition, we found that NTX significantly enhanced control of motor responses, particularly within the CS group. These results suggest that endogenous opioids may impair response selection during decision-making under conflict, and that NTX's effects on explicit decision-making are personality-dependent. Determining the biological basis of this dependence could have important implications for effective alcoholism treatment.

  8. White matter correlates of impaired attention control in major depressive disorder and healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Mina M; Rubin-Falcone, Harry; Keilp, John; Miller, Jeffrey M; Sublette, M Elizabeth; Burke, Ainsley; Oquendo, Maria A; Kamal, Ahmed M; Abdelhameed, Mohamed A; Mann, J John

    2017-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with impaired attention control and alterations in frontal-subcortical connectivity. We hypothesized that attention control as assessed by Stroop task interference depends on white matter integrity in fronto-cingulate regions and assessed this relationship using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in MDD and healthy volunteers (HV). DTI images and Stroop task were acquired in 29 unmedicated MDD patients and 16 HVs, aged 18-65 years. The relationship between Stroop interference and fractional anisotropy (FA) was examined using region-of-interest (ROI) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analyses. ROI analysis revealed that Stroop interference correlated positively with FA in left caudal anterior cingulate cortex (cACC) in HVs (r = 0.62, p = 0.01), but not in MDD (r = -0.05, p= 0.79) even after controlling for depression severity. The left cACC was among 4 ROIs in fronto-cingulate network where FA was lower in MDD relative to HVs (F (1,41) = 8.87, p = 0.005). Additionally, TBSS showed the same group interaction of differences and correlations, although only at a statistical trend level. The modest sample size limits the generalizability of the findings. Structural connectivity of white matter network of cACC correlated with magnitude of Stroop interference in HVs, but not MDD. The cACC-frontal network, sub-serving attention control, may be disrupted in MDD. Less cognitive control may include enhanced effects of salience in HVs, or less effective response inhibition in MDD. Further studies of salience and inhibition components of executive function may better elucidate the relationship between brain white matter changes and executive dysfunction in MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tissue Factor and Toll Like Receptor (TLR)4 in Hyperglycemia-Hyperinsulinemia: Effects in Healthy Subjects, and Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anamika; Boden, Guenther; Rao, A. Koneti

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) patients have increased cardiovascular events. Blood tissue factor-procoagulant activity (TF-PCA), the initiating mechanism for blood coagulation, is elevated in DM. We have shown that hyperglycemia (HG), hyperinsulinemia (HI) and combined HG+HI (induced using 24 hr infusion clamps) increases TF-PCA in healthy and T2DM subjects, but not in T1DM subjects. The mechanisms for this are unknown. DM patients have elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 ligand. We postulated that TLR4 plays a role in modulating TF levels. Objectives and Methods We studied the effect of HG+HI on TLR4 and TF-PCA in vivo during 24 hr HG+HI infusion clamps in healthy subjects, and T1DM and T2DM subjects, and in vitro in blood. Results In vivo, in healthy subjects, 24 hr HG + HI infusion increased TLR4 6-fold, which correlated with TF-PCA (r= 0.91, p<0.0001). T2DM patients showed smaller increases in both. In T1DM subjects, TLR4 declined (50%, p<0.05) and correlated with TF-PCA (r=0.55; p<0.05). In vitro, HG (200 mg/dl added glucose) and HI (1-100 nM added insulin) increased TF-PCA in healthy subjects (~2-fold, 2-4 hr). Insulin inhibited by ~30% LPS-induced increase in TF-PCA and high glucose reversed it. TLR4 levels paralleled TF-PCA (r=0.71, p<0.0001); HG and HI increased TLR4 and insulin inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 increase. Conclusions This is first evidence that even in healthy subjects, HG of short duration increases TLR4 and TF-PCA, key players in inflammation and thrombosis. TLR4-TF interplay is strikingly different in non-diabetic, T1DM and T2DM subjects. PMID:25653143

  10. Paracetamol sharpens reflection and spatial memory: a double-blind randomized controlled study in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering G

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gisèle Pickering,1–3 Nicolas Macian,1,2 Claude Dubray,1–3 Bruno Pereira4 1University Hospital, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Centre de Pharmacologie Clinique, 2Inserm, CIC 1405, UMR Neurodol 1107, 3Clermont Université, Laboratoire de Pharmacologie, Faculté de médecine, 4CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, Délégation Recherche Clinique Innovation, Clermont-Ferrand, France Background: Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol mechanism for analgesic and antipyretic outcomes has been largely addressed, but APAP action on cognitive function has not been studied in humans. Animal studies have suggested an improved cognitive performance but the link with analgesic and antipyretic modes of action is incomplete. This study aims at exploring cognitive tests in healthy volunteers in the context of antinociception and temperature regulation. A double-blind randomized controlled study (NCT01390467 was carried out from May 30, 2011 to July 12, 2011. Methods: Forty healthy volunteers were included and analyzed. Nociceptive thresholds, core temperature (body temperature, and a battery of cognitive tests were recorded before and after oral APAP (2 g or placebo: Information sampling task for predecisional processing, Stockings of Cambridge for spatial memory, reaction time, delayed matching of sample, and pattern recognition memory tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adapted to crossover design was performed and a two-tailed type I error was fixed at 5%. Results: APAP improved information sampling task (diminution of the number of errors, latency to open boxes, and increased number of opened boxes; all P<0.05. Spatial planning and working memory initial thinking time were decreased (P=0.04. All other tests were not modified by APAP. APAP had an antinociceptive effect (P<0.01 and body temperature did not change. Conclusion: This study shows for the first time that APAP sharpens decision making and planning strategy in healthy volunteers and that cognitive performance

  11. Peripheral blood B lymphocytes derived from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension express a different RNA pattern compared with healthy controls: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Lars C

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH is a progressive and still incurable disease. Research of IPAH-pathogenesis is complicated by the lack of a direct access to the involved tissue, the human pulmonary vasculature. Various auto-antibodies have been described in the blood of patients with IPAH. The purpose of the present work was therefore to comparatively analyze peripheral blood B lymphocyte RNA expression characteristics in IPAH and healthy controls. Methods Patients were diagnosed having IPAH according to WHO (mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥ 25 mmHg, pulmonary capillary occlusion pressure ≤ 15 mmHg, absence of another explaining disease. Peripheral blood B-lymphocytes of patients and controls were immediately separated by density gradient centrifugation and magnetic beads for CD19. RNA was thereafter extracted and analyzed by the use of a high sensitivity gene chip (Affymetrix HG-U133-Plus2 able to analyze 47000 transcripts and variants of human genes. The array data were analyzed by two different softwares, and up-and down-regulations were defined as at least 1.3 fold with standard deviations smaller than fold-changes. Results Highly purified B-cells of 5 patients with IPAH (mean pulmonary artery pressure 51 ± 13 mmHg and 5 controls were analyzed. Using the two different analyzing methods we found 225 respectively 128 transcripts which were up-regulated (1.3–30.7 fold in IPAH compared with healthy controls. Combining both methods, there were 33 overlapping up-regulated transcripts and no down-regulated B-cell transcripts. Conclusion Patients with IPAH have a distinct RNA expression profile of their peripheral blood B-lymphocytes compared to healthy controls with some clearly up-regulated genes. Our finding suggests that in IPAH patients B cells are activated.

  12. Healthy Foundations Study: a randomised controlled trial to evaluate biological embedding of early-life experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Catherine, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; Jack, Susan M; Atkinson, Leslie; Kobor, Michael; Sheehan, Debbie; Tonmyr, Lil; Waddell, Charlotte; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2018-01-26

    Adverse early experiences are associated with long-lasting disruptions in physiology, development and health. These experiences may be 'biologically embedded' into molecular and genomic systems that determine later expressions of vulnerability. Most studies to date have not examined whether preventive interventions can potentially reverse biological embedding. The Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) is an evidence-based intervention with demonstrated efficacy in improving prenatal health, parenting and child functioning. The Healthy Foundations Study is an innovative birth cohort which will evaluate the impact of the NFP on biological outcomes of mothers and their infants. Starting in 2013, up to 400 pregnant mothers and their newborns were recruited from the British Columbia Healthy Connections Project-a randomised controlled trial of the NFP, and will be followed to child aged 2 years. Women were recruited prior to 28 weeks' gestation and then individually randomised to receive existing services (comparison group) or NFP plus existing services (intervention group). Hair samples are collected from mothers at baseline and 2 months post partum to measure physiological stress. Saliva samples are collected from infants during all visits for analyses of stress and immune function. Buccal swabs are collected from infants at 2 and 24 months to assess DNA methylation. Biological samples will be related to child outcome measures at age 2 years. The study received ethical approval from seven research ethics boards. Findings from this study will be shared broadly with the research community through peer-reviewed publications, and conference presentations, as well as seminars with our policy partners and relevant healthcare providers. The outcomes of this study will provide all stakeholders with important information regarding how early adversity may lead to health and behavioural disparities and how these may be altered through early interventions. NCT01672060; Pre-results.

  13. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from skin and soft tissue infections samples and healthy carriers in the Central Slovenia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svent-Kucina, Natasa; Pirs, Mateja; Kofol, Romina; Blagus, Rok; Smrke, Dragica Maja; Bilban, Marjan; Seme, Katja

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is among the most important human pathogens. It is associated with different infections and is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). The aim of our study was to compare S. aureus isolates associated with SSTIs with isolates obtained from healthy carriers in the Central Slovenia region in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility, genetic diversity by clonal complex (CC)/sequence type, spa type, and by toxin gene profiling. In total, 274 S. aureus isolates were collected prospectively by culturing wound samples from 461 SSTI patients and nasal samples from 451 healthy carriers. We have demonstrated high heterogeneity in terms of CCs and spa type in both groups of isolates. The main clone among SSTI strains was Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene (pvl) positive CC121, whereas the main clone among carrier strains was CC45 carrying a large range of toxin genes. The main spa type in both groups was t091. Pvl was more frequently present in SSTI strains (31.2% SSTI vs 3.6% carrier strains) and staphylococcal enterotoxin C was more frequently present in carrier strains (1.6% SSTI vs 17.0% carrier strains). We have also demonstrated that methicillin-resistant S. aureus was a rare cause (2.8%) of SSTIs in our region. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of impedance on biological Tissues using automatic control measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kil, Sang Hyeong; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Seong Mo [Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moo Seok; Kim, Sang Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gun FDo; Lee, Jong Kyu [Pukyung National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Each biological tissue has endemic electrical characteristics owing to various differences such as those in cellular arrangement or organization form. The endemic electrical characteristics change when any biological change occurs. This work is a preliminary study surveying the changes in the electrical characteristics of biological tissue caused by radiation exposure. For protection against radiation hazards, therefore the electrical characteristics of living tissue were evaluated after development of the automatic control measurement system using LabVIEW. No alteration of biological tissues was observed before and after measurement of the electrical characteristics, and the biological tissues exhibited similar patterns. Through repeated measurements using the impedance/gain-phase analyzer, the coefficient of variation was determined as within 10%. The reproducibility impedance phase difference in electrical characteristics of the biological tissue did not change, and the tissue had resistance. The absolute value of impedance decreased constantly in proportion to the frequency. It has become possible to understand the electrical characteristics of biological tissues through the measurements made possible by the use of the developed.

  15. Evaluation of impedance on biological Tissues using automatic control measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kil, Sang Hyeong; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Seong Mo; Lee, Moo Seok; Kim, Sang Sik; Kim, Gun FDo; Lee, Jong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Each biological tissue has endemic electrical characteristics owing to various differences such as those in cellular arrangement or organization form. The endemic electrical characteristics change when any biological change occurs. This work is a preliminary study surveying the changes in the electrical characteristics of biological tissue caused by radiation exposure. For protection against radiation hazards, therefore the electrical characteristics of living tissue were evaluated after development of the automatic control measurement system using LabVIEW. No alteration of biological tissues was observed before and after measurement of the electrical characteristics, and the biological tissues exhibited similar patterns. Through repeated measurements using the impedance/gain-phase analyzer, the coefficient of variation was determined as within 10%. The reproducibility impedance phase difference in electrical characteristics of the biological tissue did not change, and the tissue had resistance. The absolute value of impedance decreased constantly in proportion to the frequency. It has become possible to understand the electrical characteristics of biological tissues through the measurements made possible by the use of the developed.

  16. ST6GalNAc-I controls expression of sialyl-Tn antigen in gastrointestinal tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcos, Nuno T; Bennett, Eric Paul; Gomes, Joana

    2011-01-01

    -Tn biosynthesis. We developed novel monoclonal antibodies specific for ST6GalNAc-I and evaluated its expression in gastrointestinal tissues. ST6GalNAc-I was detected in normal colon mucosa co-localized with O-acetylated sialyl-Tn. Expression was largely unaltered in colorectal adenocarcinomas. In contrast, we......NAc-I as the major enzyme controlling the expression of cancer-associated sialyl-Tn antigen in gastrointestinal tissues....

  17. Plasma progranulin and relaxin levels in PCOS women with normal BMI compared to control healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is the most commonly encountered endocrine gland disease affecting 5-10 present of women at their reproductive age. This syndrome is associated with type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Progranulin and relaxin are adipokins that are related with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Due to limited data about progranulin and relaxin plasma levels´ in women with PCOS and normal BMI, this study was conducted. Material and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional. During the study 39 women with PCOS and BMI< 25 on the basis of Rotterdam criteria were chosen as the patient group and 38 healthy women were selected as the control group. The concentration of progranulin and relaxin were measured by ELISA technique. Results: The difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin, and also some of the biochemical parameters in the patient group versus to the control group was not significant, but there was significant difference in the concentrations of VLDL, triglyceride (p=0.046, insulin (p=0.016, HOMA-IR (p=0.015, testosterone (p=0.01, and DHEAS (p=0.034 in the patients group compared to the control group. Conclusion: In this study, the difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin in the patient group compared to the control group was not significant. It could be inferred that lack of change in plasma level of progranulin and relaxin in women with PCOS is related to BMI<25 and FBS<110. Moreoverestosterones, insulin, DHEAS and HOMA-IR changes could be better predictors of PCOS and its associated diabetes.

  18. Using multivariate machine learning methods and structural MRI to classify childhood onset schizophrenia and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna eGreenstein

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multivariate machine learning methods can be used to classify groups of schizophrenia patients and controls using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. However, machine learning methods to date have not been extended beyond classification and contemporaneously applied in a meaningful way to clinical measures. We hypothesized that brain measures would classify groups, and that increased likelihood of being classified as a patient using regional brain measures would be positively related to illness severity, developmental delays and genetic risk. Methods: Using 74 anatomic brain MRI sub regions and Random Forest, we classified 98 COS patients and 99 age, sex, and ethnicity-matched healthy controls. We also used Random Forest to determine the likelihood of being classified as a schizophrenia patient based on MRI measures. We then explored relationships between brain-based probability of illness and symptoms, premorbid development, and presence of copy number variation associated with schizophrenia. Results: Brain regions jointly classified COS and control groups with 73.7% accuracy. Greater brain-based probability of illness was associated with worse functioning (p= 0.0004 and fewer developmental delays (p=0.02. Presence of copy number variation (CNV was associated with lower probability of being classified as schizophrenia (p=0.001. The regions that were most important in classifying groups included left temporal lobes, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal regions, and left medial parietal lobes. Conclusions: Schizophrenia and control groups can be well classified using Random Forest and anatomic brain measures, and brain-based probability of illness has a positive relationship with illness severity and a negative relationship with developmental delays/problems and CNV-based risk.

  19. Differences in Facial Emotion Recognition between First Episode Psychosis, Borderline Personality Disorder and Healthy Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catalan

    Full Text Available Facial emotion recognition (FER is essential to guide social functioning and behaviour for interpersonal communication. FER may be altered in severe mental illness such as in psychosis and in borderline personality disorder patients. However, it is unclear if these FER alterations are specifically related to psychosis. Awareness of FER alterations may be useful in clinical settings to improve treatment strategies. The aim of our study was to examine FER in patients with severe mental disorder and their relation with psychotic symptomatology.Socio-demographic and clinical variables were collected. Alterations on emotion recognition were assessed in 3 groups: patients with first episode psychosis (FEP (n = 64, borderline personality patients (BPD (n = 37 and healthy controls (n = 137, using the Degraded Facial Affect Recognition Task. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Structured Interview for Schizotypy Revised and Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences scales were used to assess positive psychotic symptoms. WAIS III subtests were used to assess IQ.Kruskal-Wallis analysis showed a significant difference between groups on the FER of neutral faces score between FEP, BPD patients and controls and between FEP patients and controls in angry face recognition. No significant differences were found between groups in the fear or happy conditions. There was a significant difference between groups in the attribution of negative emotion to happy faces. BPD and FEP groups had a much higher tendency to recognize happy faces as negatives. There was no association with the different symptom domains in either group.FEP and BPD patients have problems in recognizing neutral faces more frequently than controls. Moreover, patients tend to over-report negative emotions in recognition of happy faces. Although no relation between psychotic symptoms and FER alterations was found, these deficits could contribute to a patient's misinterpretations in daily life.

  20. Habit learning and the genetics of the dopamine D3 receptor: evidence from patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kéri, Szabolcs; Juhász, Anna; Rimanóczy, Agnes; Szekeres, György; Kelemen, Oguz; Cimmer, Csongor; Szendi, István; Benedek, György; Janka, Zoltán

    2005-06-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between the Ser9Gly (SG) polymorphism of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) and striatal habit learning in healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia. Participants were given the weather prediction task, during which probabilistic cue-response associations were learned for tarot cards and weather outcomes (rain or sunshine). In both healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia, participants with Ser9Ser (SS) genotype did not learn during the early phase of the task (1-50 trials), whereas participants with SG genotype did so. During the late phase of the task (51-100 trials), both participants with SS and SG genotype exhibited significant learning. Learning rate was normal in patients with schizophrenia. These results suggest that the DRD3 variant containing glycine is associated with more efficient striatal habit learning in healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. A look inside the nerve - Morphology of nerve fascicles in healthy controls and patients with polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Alexander; Winter, Natalie; Rattay, Tim W; Härtig, Florian; Dammeier, Nele M; Auffenberg, Eva; Koch, Marilin; Axer, Hubertus

    2017-12-01

    Polyneuropathies are increasingly analyzed by ultrasound. Summarizing, diffuse enlargement is typical in Charcot-Marie Tooth type 1 (CMT1a), regional enlargement occurs in inflammatory neuropathies. However, a distinction of subtypes is still challenging. Therefore, this study focused on fascicle size and pattern in controls and distinct neuropathies. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median, ulnar and peroneal nerve (MN, UN, PN) was measured at predefined landmarks in 50 healthy controls, 15 CMT1a and 13 MMN patients. Additionally, largest fascicle size and number of visible fascicles was obtained at the mid-upper arm cross-section of the MN and UN and in the popliteal fossa cross-section of the PN. Cut-off normal values for fascicle size in the MN, UN and PN were defined (50%) in all nerves (p20%), representing differential fascicle enlargement (enlarged and normal fascicles at the same location) sparing the peroneal nerve (regional fascicle enlargement). Based on these findings distinct fascicle patterns were defined. Normal values for fascicle size could be evaluated; while CMT1a features diffuse fascicle enlargement, MMN shows regional and differential predominance with enlarged fascicles as single pathology. Pattern analysis of fascicles might facilitate distinction of several otherwise similar neuropathies. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Examining frontotemporal connectivity and rTMS in healthy controls: implications for auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromann, Paula M; Tracy, Derek K; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Krabbendam, Lydia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S

    2012-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to have clinically beneficial effects in altering the perception of auditory hallucinations (AH) in patients with schizophrenia. However, the mode of action is not clear. Recent neuroimaging findings indicate that rTMS has the potential to induce not only local effects but also changes in remote, functionally connected brain regions. Frontotemporal dysconnectivity has been proposed as a mechanism leading to psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. The current study examines functional connectivity between temporal and frontal brain regions after rTMS and the implications for AH in schizophrenia. A connectivity analysis was conducted on the fMRI data of 11 healthy controls receiving rTMS, compared with 11 matched subjects receiving sham TMS, to the temporoparietal junction, before engaging in a task associated with robust frontotemporal activation. Compared to the control group, the rTMS group showed an altered frontotemporal connectivity with stronger connectivity between the right temporoparietal cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the angular gyrus. This finding provides preliminary evidence for the hypothesis that normalizing the functional connectivity between the temporoparietal and frontal brain regions may underlie the therapeutic effect of rTMS on AH in schizophrenia.

  3. The control of translational accuracy is a determinant of healthy ageing in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Haar, Tobias; Leadsham, Jane E; Sauvadet, Aimie; Tarrant, Daniel; Adam, Ilectra S; Saromi, Kofo; Laun, Peter; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Breitenbach-Koller, Hannelore; Breitenbach, Michael; Tuite, Mick F; Gourlay, Campbell W

    2017-01-01

    Life requires the maintenance of molecular function in the face of stochastic processes that tend to adversely affect macromolecular integrity. This is particularly relevant during ageing, as many cellular functions decline with age, including growth, mitochondrial function and energy metabolism. Protein synthesis must deliver functional proteins at all times, implying that the effects of protein synthesis errors like amino acid misincorporation and stop-codon read-through must be minimized during ageing. Here we show that loss of translational accuracy accelerates the loss of viability in stationary phase yeast. Since reduced translational accuracy also reduces the folding competence of at least some proteins, we hypothesize that negative interactions between translational errors and age-related protein damage together overwhelm the cellular chaperone network. We further show that multiple cellular signalling networks control basal error rates in yeast cells, including a ROS signal controlled by mitochondrial activity, and the Ras pathway. Together, our findings indicate that signalling pathways regulating growth, protein homeostasis and energy metabolism may jointly safeguard accurate protein synthesis during healthy ageing. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. Comparison of prevalence of periodontal disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ehsan Rahiminejad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, affecting 4-18% of them. Previous studies also showed that periodontal diseases are associated with different components of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the association between PCOS and periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: A total of 196 women (98 with PCOS and 98 healthy controls were enrolled. PCOS diagnosis was confirmed by history, clinical signs, physical examination, laboratory parameters, and ultrasound studies. Both cases and controls were examined by the same periodontist. Periodontal parameters including bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth, clinical attachment loss (CAL, plaque index, and tooth loss were investigated in all participants. Pregnant women, smokers, individuals with a history of malignancy or osteoporosis, and those taking prophylactic antibiotics for dental procedures or receiving periodontal treatment during the 6-month period before examination were excluded. Data were analyzed using t-test, Chi-square test, and linear regression. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: CAL and sites with BOP were significantly higher in women with PCOS (P < 0.05. However, no significant difference was observed in the tooth loss rate between PCOS and non-PCOS participants (P = 0.384. Conclusion: The prevalence of periodontal disease seems to be higher in women with PCOS. This may be related to the role of chronic systemic inflammation in the pathophysiology of both PCOS and periodontal diseases.

  5. Direct experience while eating: Laboratory outcomes among individuals with eating disorders versus healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elices, Matilde; Carmona, Cristina; Narváez, Vanessa; Seto, Victoria; Martin-Blanco, Ana; Pascual, Juan C; Soriano, José; Soler, Joaquim

    2017-12-01

    To compare individuals with eating disorders (EDs) to healthy controls (HCs) to assess for differences in direct engagement in the eating process. Participants (n=58) were asked to eat an orange slice. To assess the degree of direct engagement with the eating process, participants were asked to write down 10 thoughts about the experience of eating the orange slice. Next, the participants were instructed to classify the main focus of each thought as either experiential ("direct experience") or analytical ("thinking about"). A direct experience index (DEI) was computed by dividing the number of times that participants classified an experience as a "direct experience" (the numerator) by the total number of all observations (i.e., direct experience+thinking about). Participants also completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ) to assess mindfulness facets and decentering, respectively. Compared to controls, participants in the EDs group presented significantly lower levels of direct experience during the eating task (EDs group: mean=43.54, SD=29.64; HCs group: mean=66.17, SD=22.23, p=0.03). Participants in the EDs group also scored significantly lower on other mindfulness-related variables. These findings suggest that engagement with the direct experience of eating is lower in individuals with EDs. Future research should investigate the role of mindfulness-based interventions to address direct experience while eating in individuals with EDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Minor Physical Anomalies in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Manouilenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Minor Physical Anomalies (MPAs are subtle abnormalities of the head, face, and limbs, without significant cosmetic or functional impact to the individual. They are assumed to represent external markers of developmental deviations during foetal life. MPAs have been suggested to indicate severity in mental illness and constitute external markers for atypical brain development. Higher frequencies of MPAs can be found in children with autism. The aims of the present study were to examine the prevalence and patterns of MPAs in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD and to investigate whether MPAs are associated with symptom severity and overall functioning. Fifty adults with ASD and intelligence within the normal range and 53 healthy controls were examined with the Waldrop scale, an instrument for assessing MPAs. Face and feet were photographed enabling blinded assessment. Significant differences between the ASD and the control group were found on the MPA total scores, and also in the craniofacial region scores. Moreover, the shape of the ears was associated with autistic traits, in the ASD group. High MPA total scores were associated with poorer functioning. The findings suggest a link between MPAs, autistic traits, and level of functioning. Assessment of MPAs may assist in the diagnostic procedure of psychiatric disorders.

  7. Four-Quadrant Facial Function in Dysphagic Patients after Stroke and in Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hägg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine any motility disturbance in any quadrant of the face other than the quadrant innervated by the lower facial nerve contralateral to the cortical lesion after stroke. Thirty-one stroke-afflicted patients with subjective dysphagia, consecutively referred to a swallowing centre, were investigated with a facial activity test (FAT in all four facial quadrants and with a swallowing capacity test (SCT. Fifteen healthy adult participants served as FAT controls. Sixteen patients were judged to have a central facial palsy (FP according to the referring physician, but all 31 patients had a pathological FAT in the lower quadrant contralateral to the cortical lesion. Simultaneous pathology in all four quadrants was observed in 52% of stroke-afflicted patients with dysphagia; some pathology in the left or right upper quadrant was observed in 74%. Dysfunction in multiple facial quadrants was independent of the time interval between stroke and study inclusion. All patients except two had a pathological SCT. All the controls had normal activity in all facial quadrants. In summary the majority of poststroke patients with dysphagia have subclinical orofacial motor dysfunction in three or four facial quadrants as assessed with a FAT. However, whether subclinical orofacial motor dysfunction can be present in stroke-afflicted patients without dysphagia is unknown.

  8. Controlled Bioactive Molecules Delivery Strategies for Tendon and Ligament Tissue Engineering using Polymeric Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiong Teh, Thomas Kok; Hong Goh, James Cho; Toh, Siew Lok

    2015-01-01

    The interest in polymeric nanofibers has escalated over the past decade given its promise as tissue engineering scaffolds that can mimic the nanoscale structure of the native extracellular matrix. With functionalization of the polymeric nanofibers using bioactive molecules, localized signaling moieties can be established for the attached cells, to stimulate desired biological effects and direct cellular or tissue response. The inherently high surface area per unit mass of polymeric nanofibers can enhance cell adhesion, bioactive molecules loading and release efficiencies, and mass transfer properties. In this review article, the application of polymeric nanofibers for controlled bioactive molecules delivery will be discussed, with a focus on tendon and ligament tissue engineering. Various polymeric materials of different mechanical and degradation properties will be presented along with the nanofiber fabrication techniques explored. The bioactive molecules of interest for tendon and ligament tissue engineering, including growth factors and small molecules, will also be reviewed and compared in terms of their nanofiber incorporation strategies and release profiles. This article will also highlight and compare various innovative strategies to control the release of bioactive molecules spatiotemporally and explore an emerging tissue engineering strategy involving controlled multiple bioactive molecules sequential release. Finally, the review article concludes with challenges and future trends in the innovation and development of bioactive molecules delivery using polymeric nanofibers for tendon and ligament tissue engineering.

  9. An Automatic Occlusion Device for Remote Control of Tumor Tissue Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dahdah, Hamid; Wang, Bei; He, Guanglong; Xu, Ronald X.

    2015-01-01

    We developed an automatic occlusion device for remote control of tumor tissue ischemia. The device consists of a flexible cannula encasing a shape memory alloy wire with its distal end connected to surgical suture. Regional tissue occlusion was tested on both the benchtop and the animal models. In the benchtop test, the occlusion device introduced quantitative and reproducible changes of blood flow in a tissue simulating phantom embedding a vessel simulator. In the animal test, the device generated a cyclic pattern of reversible ischemia in the right hinder leg tissue of a black male C57BL/6 mouse. We also developed a multimodal detector that integrates near infrared spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy for continuous monitoring of tumor tissue oxygenation, blood content, and oxygen tension changes. The multimodal detector was tested on a cancer xenograft nude mouse undergoing reversible tumor ischemia. The automatic occlusion device and the multi-modal detector can be potentially integrated for closed-loop feedback control of tumor tissue ischemia. Such an integrated occlusion device may be used in multiple clinical applications such as regional hypoperfusion control in tumor resection surgeries and thermal ablation processes. In addition, the proposed occlusion device can also be used as a research tool to understand tumor oxygen transport and hemodynamic characteristics. PMID:20082532

  10. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of the metacarpophalangeal joints in rheumatoid arthritis, early unclassified polyarthritis, and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarlund, Mette; Østergaard, Mikkel; Rostrup, Egill

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To introduce dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an indicator of inflammatory activity in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or early unclassified polyarthritis, and to compare the results with a healthy control group. MATERIALS...... AND METHODS: We examined 42 RA and 23 early unclassified polyarthritis patients, and 12 healthy controls in a cross-sectional study. Dynamic MRI (repeated FLASH-MR images after injection of a contrast agent) was performed through the 2nd to the 5th MCP joint. Two methods for identification of the enhancing...

  11. Effects of dietary supplementation with EPA and/or α-lipoic acid on adipose tissue transcriptomic profile of healthy overweight/obese women following a hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Ana E; Prieto-Hontoria, Pedro L; Fernández-Galilea, Marta; Escoté, Xavier; Martínez, J Alfredo; Moreno-Aliaga, María J

    2017-01-02

    In obesity, the increment of adiposity levels disrupts the whole body homeostasis, promoting an over production of oxidants and inflammatory mediators. The current study aimed to characterize the transcriptomic changes promoted by supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 1.3 g/day), α-lipoic acid (0.3 g/day), or both (EPA + α-lipoic acid, 1.3 g/day + 0.3 g/day) in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from overweight/obese healthy women, who followed a hypocaloric diet (30% of total energy expenditure) during ten weeks, by using a microarray approach. At the end of the intervention, a total of 33,297 genes were analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip arrays. EPA promoted changes in extracellular matrix remodeling gene expression, besides a rise of genes associated with either chemotaxis or wound repair. α-Lipoic acid decreased expression of genes related with cell adhesion and inflammation. Furthermore, α-lipoic acid, especially in combination with EPA, upregulated the expression of genes associated with lipid catabolism while downregulated genes involved in lipids storage. Together, all these data suggest that some of the metabolic effects of EPA and α-lipoic acid could be related to their regulatory actions on adipose tissue metabolism. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):117-131, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. Healthy Children, Strong Families 2: A randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention for American Indian families designed using community-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Prince, Ronald J; Cronin, Kate A; Parker, Tassy; Kim, Kyungmann; Grant, Vernon M; Sheche, Judith N; Adams, Alexandra K

    2017-04-01

    Background/Aims Few obesity prevention trials have focused on young children and their families in the home environment, particularly in underserved communities. Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 is a randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention for American Indian children and their families, a group at very high risk of obesity. The study design resulted from our long-standing engagement with American Indian communities, and few collaborations of this type resulting in the development and implementation of a randomized clinical trial have been described. Methods Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 is a lifestyle intervention targeting increased fruit and vegetable intake, decreased sugar intake, increased physical activity, decreased TV/screen time, and two less-studied risk factors: stress and sleep. Families with young children from five American Indian communities nationwide were randomly assigned to a healthy lifestyle intervention ( Wellness Journey) augmented with social support (Facebook and text messaging) or a child safety control group ( Safety Journey) for 1 year. After Year 1, families in the Safety Journey receive the Wellness Journey, and families in the Wellness Journey start the Safety Journey with continued wellness-focused social support based on communities' request that all families receive the intervention. Primary (adult body mass index and child body mass index z-score) and secondary (health behaviors) outcomes are assessed after Year 1 with additional analyses planned after Year 2. Results To date, 450 adult/child dyads have been enrolled (100% target enrollment). Statistical analyses await trial completion in 2017. Lessons learned Conducting a community-partnered randomized controlled trial requires significant formative work, relationship building, and ongoing flexibility. At the communities' request, the study involved minimal exclusion criteria, focused on wellness rather than obesity, and included an active

  13. Healthy eating and obesity prevention for preschoolers: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swinburn Boyd

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing effective prevention and intervention programs for the formative preschool years is seen as an essential step in combating the obesity epidemic across the lifespan. The overall goal of the current project is to measure the effectiveness of a healthy eating and childhood obesity prevention intervention, the MEND (Mind Exercise Nutrition Do It! program that is delivered to parents of children aged 2-4 years. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial will be conducted with 200 parents and their 2-4 year old children who attend the MEND 2-4 program in metropolitan and regional Victoria. Parent-child dyads will attend ten 90-minute group workshops. These workshops focus on general nutrition, as well as physical activity and behaviours. They are typically held at community or maternal and child health centres and run by a MEND 2-4 trained program leader. Child eating habits, physical activity levels and parental behaviours and cognitions pertaining to nutrition and physical activity will be assessed at baseline, the end of the intervention, and at 6 and 12 months post the intervention. Informed consent will be obtained from all parents, who will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or wait-list control group. Discussion Our study is the first RCT of a healthy eating and childhood obesity prevention intervention targeted specifically to Australian parents and their preschool children aged 2-4 years. It responds to the call by experts in the area of childhood obesity and child health that prevention of overweight in the formative preschool years should focus on parents, given that parental beliefs, attitudes, perceptions and behaviours appear to impact significantly on the development of early overweight. This is 'solution-oriented' rather than 'problem-oriented' research, with its focus being on prevention rather than intervention. If this is a positive trial, the MEND2-4 program can be implemented as a

  14. Female fibromyalgia patients: lower resting metabolic rates than matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John C; Yellin, Jackie; Honeyman-Lowe, Gina

    2006-07-01

    Many features of fibromyalgia and hypothyroidism are virtually the same, and thyroid hormone treatment trials have reduced or eliminated fibromyalgia symptoms. These findings led the authors to test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia patients are hypometabolic compared to matched controls. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioelectrical impedance for 15 fibromyalgia patients and 15 healthy matched controls. Measured resting metabolic rate (mRMR) was compared to percentages of predicted RMR (pRMR) by fat-free weight (FFW) (Sterling-Passmore: SP) and by sex, age, height, and weight (Harris-Benedict: HB). Patients had a lower mRMR (4,306.31+/-1077.66 kJ vs 5,411.59+/-695.95 kJ, p=0.0028) and lower percentages of pRMRs (SP: -28.42+/-15.82% vs -6.83+/-12.55%, pBMI) best accounted for variability in controls' RMRs, age and fat weight (FW) did for patients. In the patient group, TSH level accounted for 28% of the variance in pain distribution, and free T3 (FT3) accounted for 30% of the variance in pressure-pain threshold. Patients had lower mRMR and percentages of pRMRs. The lower RMRs were not due to calorie restriction or low FFW. Patients' normal FFW argues against low physical activity as the mechanism. TSH, FT4, and FT3 levels did not correlate with RMRs in either group. This does not rule out inadequate thyroid hormone regulation because studies show these laboratory values do not reliably predict RMR.

  15. Defining guilt in depression: a comparison of subjects with major depression, chronic medical illness and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatavi, Kayhan; Nicolson, Rob; MacDonald, Cathy; Osher, Sue; Levitt, Anthony

    2002-04-01

    Although guilt is a widely accepted feature of depression, there is limited and inconsistent data defining the nature of this symptom. The purpose of the current study was to examine the specificity and nature of guilt in subjects with major depression as compared to patients with another chronic medical illness and healthy controls. Outpatients with current major depressive episode (MDE; n=34), past-MDE (n=22), chronic cardiac illness (n=20) and healthy controls (n=59) were administered the following measures: The Guilt Inventory (GI), State Shame and Guilt Scale (SSGS), 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Ham-D) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Overall multivariate analysis of covariance comparing mean scores for the six guilt subscales [state-guilt, trait-guilt, moral standards (from the GI); state-guilt, -pride, and -shame (from the SSGS)] across the four groups was significant (F=9.1, df=6:121, pguilt (GI), current-MDE>past-MDE>cardiac=healthy controls; for trait-guilt (GI), current-MDE=past-MDE>cardiac=healthy controls; for state-shame, -guilt and -pride (SSGS), current-MDE>past-MDE, past-MDE=cardiac, past-MDE>healthy, cardiac=healthy controls. Among depressed patients, there was significant correlation between Ham-D score and all guilt sub-scales (pguilt, shame and low pride distinguish acutely depressed from all other groups, and are highly influenced by severity of depression. Trait-guilt does not differentiate acute from past depressed. Data suggests guilt may represent both an enduring and fluctuating feature of depressive illness over its longitudinal course.

  16. A system model of the effects of exercise on plasma Interleukin-6 dynamics in healthy individuals: Role of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morettini, Micaela; Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Sacchetti, Massimo; Castiglione, Filippo; Mazzà, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been recently shown to play a central role in glucose homeostasis, since it stimulates the production and secretion of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) from intestinal L-cells and pancreas, leading to an enhanced insulin response. In resting conditions, IL-6 is mainly produced by the adipose tissue whereas, during exercise, skeletal muscle contractions stimulate a marked IL-6 secretion as well. Available mathematical models describing the effects of exercise on glucose homeostasis, however, do not account for this IL-6 contribution. This study aimed at developing and validating a system model of exercise's effects on plasma IL-6 dynamics in healthy humans, combining the contributions of both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. A two-compartment description was adopted to model plasma IL-6 changes in response to oxygen uptake's variation during an exercise bout. The free parameters of the model were estimated by means of a cross-validation procedure performed on four different datasets. A low coefficient of variation (dynamics during exercise and post-exercise were consistent with literature data from exercise protocols differing in intensity, duration and modality. The model successfully emulated the physiological effects of exercise on plasma IL-6 levels and provided a reliable description of the role of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue on the dynamics of plasma IL-6. The system model here proposed is suitable to simulate IL-6 response to different exercise modalities. Its future integration with existing models of GLP-1-induced insulin secretion might provide a more reliable description of exercise's effects on glucose homeostasis and hence support the definition of more tailored interventions for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  17. Top-Down and Bottom-Up Identification of Proteins by Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry of Healthy and Diseased Human Liver Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsby, Joscelyn; Martin, Nicholas J.; Lalor, Patricia F.; Bunch, Josephine; Cooper, Helen J.

    2014-09-01

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA MS) has the potential to become a useful tool in the spatially-resolved profiling of proteins in substrates. Here, the approach has been applied to the analysis of thin tissue sections from human liver. The aim was to determine whether LESA MS was a suitable approach for the detection of protein biomarkers of nonalcoholic liver disease (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH), with a view to the eventual development of LESA MS for imaging NASH pathology. Two approaches were considered. In the first, endogenous proteins were extracted from liver tissue sections by LESA, subjected to automated trypsin digestion, and the resulting peptide mixture was analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (bottom-up approach). In the second (top-down approach), endogenous proteins were extracted by LESA, and analyzed intact. Selected protein ions were subjected to collision-induced dissociation (CID) and/or electron transfer dissociation (ETD) mass spectrometry. The bottom-up approach resulted in the identification of over 500 proteins; however identification of key protein biomarkers, liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1), and its variant (Thr→Ala, position 94), was unreliable and irreproducible. Top-down LESA MS analysis of healthy and diseased liver tissue revealed peaks corresponding to multiple (~15-25) proteins. MS/MS of four of these proteins identified them as FABP1, its variant, α-hemoglobin, and 10 kDa heat shock protein. The reliable identification of FABP1 and its variant by top-down LESA MS suggests that the approach may be suitable for imaging NASH pathology in sections from liver biopsies.

  18. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for optical soft tissue differentiation as remote feedback control for tissue-specific laser surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Florian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Zam, Azhar; Schmidt, Michael; Douplik, Alexandre; Nkenke, Emeka

    2010-04-01

    Laser surgery does not provide haptic feedback for operating layer-by-layer and thereby preserving vulnerable anatomical structures like nerve tissue or blood vessels. Diffuse reflectance spectra can facilitate remote optical tissue differentiation. It is the aim of the study to use this technique on soft tissue samples, to set a technological basis for a remote optical feedback system for tissue-specific laser surgery. Diffuse reflectance spectra (wavelength range: 350-650 nm) of ex vivo types of soft tissue (a total of 10,800 spectra) of the midfacial region of domestic pigs were remotely measured under reduced environmental light conditions and analyzed in order to differentiate between skin, mucosa, muscle, subcutaneous fat, and nerve tissue. We performed a principal components (PC) analysis (PCA) to reduce the number of variables. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was utilized for classification. For the tissue differentiation, we calculated the specificity and sensitivity by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the area under curve (AUC). Six PCs were found to be adequate for tissue differentiation with diffuse reflectance spectra using LDA. All of the types of soft tissue could be differentiated with high specificity and sensitivity. Only the tissue pairs nervous tissue/fatty tissue and nervous tissue/mucosa showed a decline of differentiation due to bio-structural similarity. However, both of these tissue pairs could still be differentiated with a specificity and sensitivity of more than 90%. Analyzing diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with PCA and LDA allows for remote differentiation of biological tissue. Considering the limitations of the ex vivo conditions, the obtained results are promising and set a basis for the further development of a feedback system for tissue-specific laser surgery. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Controlled surface topography regulates collective 3D migration by epithelial-mesenchymal composite embryonic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiho; Shawky, Joseph H; Kim, YongTae; Hazar, Melis; LeDuc, Philip R; Sitti, Metin; Davidson, Lance A

    2015-07-01

    Cells in tissues encounter a range of physical cues as they migrate. Probing single cell and collective migratory responses to physically defined three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments and the factors that modulate those responses are critical to understanding how tissue migration is regulated during development, regeneration, and cancer. One key physical factor that regulates cell migration is topography. Most studies on surface topography and cell mechanics have been carried out with single migratory cells, yet little is known about the spreading and motility response of 3D complex multi-cellular tissues to topographical cues. Here, we examine the response to complex topographical cues of microsurgically isolated tissue explants composed of epithelial and mesenchymal cell layers from naturally 3D organized embryos of the aquatic frog Xenopus laevis. We control topography using fabricated micropost arrays (MPAs) and investigate the collective 3D migration of these multi-cellular systems in these MPAs. We find that the topography regulates both collective and individual cell migration and that dense MPAs reduce but do not eliminate tissue spreading. By modulating cell size through the cell cycle inhibitor Mitomycin C or the spacing of the MPAs we uncover how 3D topographical cues disrupt collective cell migration. We find surface topography can direct both single cell motility and tissue spreading, altering tissue-scale processes that enable efficient conversion of single cell motility into collective movement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimization and real-time control for laser treatment of heterogeneous soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yusheng; Fuentes, David; Hawkins, Andrea; Bass, Jon M; Rylander, Marissa Nichole

    2009-01-01

    Predicting the outcome of thermotherapies in cancer treatment requires an accurate characterization of the bioheat transfer processes in soft tissues. Due to the biological and structural complexity of tumor (soft tissue) composition and vasculature, it is often very difficult to obtain reliable tissue properties that is one of the key factors for the accurate treatment outcome prediction. Efficient algorithms employing in vivo thermal measurements to determine heterogeneous thermal tissues properties in conjunction with a detailed sensitivity analysis can produce essential information for model development and optimal control. The goals of this paper are to present a general formulation of the bioheat transfer equation for heterogeneous soft tissues, review models and algorithms developed for cell damage, heat shock proteins, and soft tissues with nanoparticle inclusion, and demonstrate an overall computational strategy for developing a laser treatment framework with the ability to perform real-time robust calibrations and optimal control. This computational strategy can be applied to other thermotherapies using the heat source such as radio frequency or high intensity focused ultrasound.

  1. A multi-scale controlled tissue engineering scaffold prepared by 3D printing and NFES technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Yan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current focus in the field of life science is the use of tissue engineering scaffolds to repair human organs, which has shown great potential in clinical applications. Extracellular matrix morphology and the performance and internal structure of natural organs are required to meet certain requirements. Therefore, integrating multiple processes can effectively overcome the limitations of the individual processes and can take into account the needs of scaffolds for the material, structure, mechanical properties and many other aspects. This study combined the biological 3D printing technology and the near-field electro-spinning (NFES process to prepare a multi-scale controlled tissue engineering scaffold. While using 3D printing technology to directly prepare the macro-scaffold, the compositing NFES process to build tissue micro-morphology ultimately formed a tissue engineering scaffold which has the specific extracellular matrix structure. This scaffold not only takes into account the material, structure, performance and many other requirements, but also focuses on resolving the controllability problems in macro- and micro-forming which further aim to induce cell directed differentiation, reproduction and, ultimately, the formation of target tissue organs. It has in-depth immeasurable significance to build ideal scaffolds and further promote the application of tissue engineering.

  2. Higher diversity in fungal species discriminates children with type 1 diabetes mellitus from healthy control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalewska B

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Beata Kowalewska,1 Katarzyna Zorena,2 Małgorzata Szmigiero-Kawko,3 Piotr Wąż,4 Małgorzata Myśliwiec3 1Department of Tropical Medicine and Epidemiology, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Immunology and Environmental Microbiology, 3Clinic of Paediatrics, Diabetology and Endocrinology, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland Objective: To conduct qualitative and quantitative assessment of yeast-like fungi in the feces of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM with respect to their metabolic control and duration of the disease.Materials and methods: The studied materials included samples of fresh feces collected from 53 children and adolescents with T1DM. Control group included 30 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Medical history was taken and physical examination was conducted in the two study arms. Prevalence of the yeast-like fungi in the feces was determined as well as their amounts, species diversity, drug susceptibility, and enzymatic activity.Results: The yeast-like fungi were found in the samples of feces from 75.4% of T1DM patients and 70% controls. In the group of T1DM patients, no correlation was found between age (Rs=0.253, P=0.068, duration of diabetes (Rs=−0.038, P=0.787, or body mass index (Rs=0.150, P=0.432 and the amount of the yeast-like fungi isolated in the feces. Moreover, no correlation was seen between the amount of the yeast-like fungi and glycated hemoglobin (Rs=0.0324, P=0.823, systolic blood pressure (Rs=0.102, P=0.483, or diastolic blood pressure (Rs=0.271, P=0.345.Conclusion: Our research has shown that children and adolescents with T1DM show higher species diversity of the yeast-like fungi, with Candida albicans being significantly less prevalent versus control subjects. Moreover, fungal species in patients with T1DM turn out to be more resistant to antifungal treatment. Keywords: children, diabetes mellitus type 1

  3. Comorbidity, family history and personality traits in pathological gamblers compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, K; Lemenager, T; Zois, E; Hoffmann, S; Nakovics, H; Beutel, M; Vogelgesang, M; Wölfling, K; Kiefer, F; Fauth-Bühler, M

    2017-05-01

    While DSM-5 classified pathological gambling as an addictive disorder, there is debate as to whether ICD-11 should follow suit. The debate hinges on scientific evidence such as neurobiological findings, family history of psychiatric disorders, psychiatric comorbidity, and personality variables. In the "Baden-Württemberg Study of Pathological Gambling", we compared a group of 515 male pathological gamblers receiving treatment with 269 matched healthy controls. We studied differences in sociodemographic characteristics, gambling-related variables, psychiatric comorbidity (lifetime), family history of psychiatric conditions, as well as personality traits such as impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), sensation seeking (Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale) and the NEO-FFI big five. Personality traits were validated in an age- and ethnicity-matched subsample of "pure" gamblers without any psychiatric comorbidity (including nicotine dependence). Data were analyzed using two-sample t-tests, Chi 2 analyses, Fisher's exact test and Pearson correlation analysis, as appropriate. Bonferroni correction was applied to correct for multiple comparisons. Only 1% of the gamblers had been diagnosed with an impulse control disorder other than gambling (ICD-10). Notably, 88% of the gamblers in our sample had a comorbid diagnosis of substance dependence. The highest axis I comorbidity rate was for nicotine dependence (80%), followed by alcohol dependence (28%). Early age of first gambling experience was correlated with gambling severity. Compared to first-degree relatives of controls, first-degree relatives of pathological gamblers were more likely to suffer from alcohol dependence (27.0% vs. 7.4%), pathological gambling (8.3% vs. 0.7%) and suicide attempts (2.7% vs. 0.4%). Significant group differences were observed for the NEO-FFI factors neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Gamblers were also more impulsive than controls, but did not differ from controls in terms of

  4. Attention and memory impairments in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis and inflammatory bowel disease in comparison to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Bartosz; Stanisławska-Kubiak, Maia; Strzelecki, Wojciech; Mojs, Ewa

    2017-10-01

    The main aim of the study was to analyze and compare attention and memory performance in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in healthy controls. 28 patients with CF, 30 patients with IBD and 30 healthy subjects took part in the study (all in age range of 7-17). All subjects were in intellectual norm. To analyze the functioning of attention, the d2 Test of Attention by Brickenkamp (d2 test) was applied. Memory performance was assessed using the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) and the Trial of 10 words. The CF and IBD groups committed significantly more errors in the d2 test than the healthy controls. The CF group also had significantly higher fluctuation rates and received significantly lower scores in overall concentration performance than the control group. Patients with CF made more mistakes and had fewer correct memory projections in BVRT than the healthy controls. Patients with IBD committed significantly more errors in BVRT than the control group. Patients with CF and IBD also got significantly lower scores in the Trial of 10 words than the control group. Pediatric patients with CF and IBD performed more poorly than the healthy controls on attention and memory tests. More distinct cognitive impairments were observed in the CF group. Further research is needed to find the underlying mechanisms and clinical and/or functional significance of observed cognitive deficits. © American Federation for Medical Research (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Negative autobiographical memories in social anxiety disorder: A comparison with panic disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Watson, Lynn A; Rosenberg, Nicole K; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-03-01

    Empirical interest in mental imagery in social anxiety disorder (SAD) has grown over the past years but still little is known about the specificity to SAD. The present study therefore examines negative autobiographical memories in participants with social anxiety disorder (SAD), compared to patients with panic disorder (PD), and healthy controls (HCs). A total of 107 participants retrieved four memories cued by verbal phrases associated with either social anxiety (SA) or panic anxiety (PA), with two memories for each cue category. PA-cued memories were experienced with stronger imagery and as more traumatic. They were also rated as more central to identity than SA-cued memories, but not among participants with SAD, who perceived SA-cued memories as equally central to their identity. When between-group effects were detected, participants with anxiety disorders differed from HCs, but not from each other. Central limitations include reliance on self-report measures, comorbidity in the anxiety disorder groups, and lack of a neutrally cued memory comparison. The findings align with models of SAD suggesting that past negative social events play a central role in this disorder. Future research is suggested to further explore the function of negative memories, not only in SAD, but also in other anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mental State Decoding in Adolescent Boys with Major Depressive Disorder versus Sex-Matched Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellick, William; Sharp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Several adult depression studies have investigated mental state decoding, the basis for theory of mind, using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Findings have been mixed, but a comprehensive study found a greater severity of depression to be associated with poorer mental state decoding. Importantly, there has yet to be a similar study of adolescent depression. Converging evidence suggests that atypical mental state decoding may have particularly profound effects for psychosocial functioning among depressed adolescent boys. Adolescent boys with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 33) and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs, n = 84) completed structured clinical interviews, self-report measures of psychopathology and the Child Eyes Test (CET). The MDD group performed significantly better than HCs on the CET overall (p = 0.002), underscored by greater accuracy for negatively valenced items (p = 0.003). Group differences on items depicting positive (p = 0.129) and neutral mental states (p = 0.081) were nonsignificant. Enhanced mental state decoding among depressed adolescent boys may play a role in the maintenance of and vulnerability to adolescent depression. Findings and implications are discussed. Limitations of this study include a reliance on self-report data for HC boys, as well as a lack of 'pure' depression among the boys with MDD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Visual selective attention in body dysmorphic disorder, bulimia nervosa and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollei, Ines; Horndasch, Stefanie; Erim, Yesim; Martin, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral models postulate that selective attention plays an important role in the maintenance of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). It is suggested that individuals with BDD overfocus on perceived defects in their appearance, which may contribute to the excessive preoccupation with their appearance. The present study used eye tracking to examine visual selective attention in individuals with BDD (n=19), as compared to individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) (n=21) and healthy controls (HCs) (n=21). Participants completed interviews, questionnaires, rating scales and an eye tracking task: Eye movements were recorded while participants viewed photographs of their own face and attractive as well as unattractive other faces. Eye tracking data showed that BDD and BN participants focused less on their self-rated most attractive facial part than HCs. Scanning patterns in own and other faces showed that BDD and BN participants paid as much attention to attractive as to unattractive features in their own face, whereas they focused more on attractive features in attractive other faces. HCs paid more attention to attractive features in their own face and did the same in attractive other faces. Results indicate an attentional bias in BDD and BN participants manifesting itself in a neglect of positive features compared to HCs. Perceptual retraining may be an important aspect to focus on in therapy in order to overcome the neglect of positive facial aspects. Future research should aim to disentangle attentional processes in BDD by examining the time course of attentional processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Corpus Callosum Area and Brain Volume in Alzheimer's Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Healthy Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hee Seok; Kim, Kwang Ki; Yoon, Yup Yoon; Seo, Hyung Suk

    2009-01-01

    To compare the corpus callosum (CC) area and brain volume among individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls (HC). To evaluate the relationship of CC area and brain volume in 111 subjects (M:F = 48:63; mean age, 56.9 years) without memory disturbance and 28 subjects (11:17; 66.7years) with memory disturbance. The 11 AD (3:8; 75.7 years), 17 MCI (8:9; 60.9 years) and 28 selected HC (11:17; 66.4 years) patients were investigated for comparison of their CC area and brain volume. A good positive linear correlation was found between CC area and brain volume in subjects without and with memory disturbance (r = 0.64 and 0.66, respectively, p 2 , 715.4 ± 107 cm3) were significantly smaller than in MCI patients (595.9 ± 108, 844.1 ± 85) and the HCs (563.2 ± 75, 818.9 ± 109) (p < 0.05). The CC area and brain volume were not significantly different between MCI patients and the HCs. The CC area was significantly correlated with brain volume. Both CC area and brain volume were significantly smaller in the AD patients

  10. Neutrophil Microvesicles from Healthy Control and Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Prevent the Inflammatory Activation of Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hefin I. Rhys

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microvesicles (MVs are emerging as a novel means to enact cell-to-cell communication in inflammation. Here, we aimed to ascertain the ability of neutrophil-derived MVs to modulate target cell behaviour, the focus being the macrophage.MVs were generated in response to tumour necrosis factor-α, from healthy control neutrophils or those from rheumatoid arthritis patients. MVs were used to stimulate human monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro, or administered intra-articularly in the K/BxN mouse model of arthritis. A macrophage/fibroblast-like synoviocyte co-culture system was used to study the effects of vesicles on the crosstalk between these cells.We demonstrate a direct role for phosphatidylserine and annexin-A1 exposed by the MVs to counteract classical activation of the macrophages, and promote the release of transforming growth factor-β, respectively. Classically-activated macrophages exposed to neutrophil MVs no longer activated fibroblast-like synoviocytes in subsequent co-culture settings. Finally, intra-articular administration of neutrophil MVs from rheumatoid arthritis patients in arthritic mice affected the phenotype of joint macrophages.Altogether these data, with the identification of specific MV determinants, open new opportunities to modulate on-going inflammation in the synovia – mainly by affecting macrophage polarization and potentially also fibroblast-like synoviocytes - through the delivery of autologous or heterologous MVs produced from neutrophils. Keywords: Neutrophils, Macrophages, Vesicles, Rheumatoid arthritis

  11. Antibody formation towards porcine tissue in patients implanted with crosslinked heart valves is directed to antigenic tissue proteins and αGal epitopes and is reduced in healthy vegetarian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böer, Ulrike; Buettner, Falk F R; Schridde, Ariane; Klingenberg, Melanie; Sarikouch, Samir; Haverich, Axel; Wilhelmi, Mathias

    2017-03-01

    Glutaraldehyde-fixed porcine heart valves (ga-pV) are one of the most frequently used substitutes for insufficient aortic and pulmonary heart valves which, however, degenerate after 10-15 years. Yet, xeno-immunogenicity of ga-pV in humans including identification of immunogens still needs to be investigated. We here determined the immunogenicity of ga-pV in patients with respect to antibody formation, identity of immunogens and potential options to reduce antibody levels. Levels of tissue-specific and anti-αGal antibodies were determined retrospectively in patients who received ga-pV for 51 months (n=4), 25 months (n=6) or 5 months (n=4) and compared to age-matched untreated subjects (n=10) or younger subjects with or without vegetarian diet (n=12/15). Immunogenic proteins were investigated by Western blot approaches. Tissue-specific antibodies in patients were elevated after 5 (1.73-fold) and 25 (1.46-fold, both PVegetarian diet reduced significantly (0.63-fold, P<.01) the level of pre-formed αGal but not of tissue-specific antibodies. Immune response in patients towards ga-pV is induced by the porcine proteins albumin and collagen 6A1 as well as αGal epitopes, which seemed to be more sustained. In contrast, in healthy young subjects pre-formed anti-Gal antibodies were reduced by a meat-free nutrition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Composite microsphere-functionalized scaffold for the controlled release of small molecules in tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current tissue engineering strategies focus on restoring damaged tissue architectures using biologically active scaffolds. The ideal scaffold would mimic the extracellular matrix of any tissue of interest, promoting cell proliferation and de novo extracellular matrix deposition. A plethora of techniques have been evaluated to engineer scaffolds for the controlled and targeted release of bioactive molecules to provide a functional structure for tissue growth and remodeling, as well as enhance recruitment and proliferation of autologous cells within the implant. Recently, novel approaches using small molecules, instead of growth factors, have been exploited to regulate tissue regeneration. The use of small synthetic molecules could be very advantageous because of their stability, tunability, and low cost. Herein, we propose a chitosan–gelatin scaffold functionalized with composite microspheres consisting of mesoporous silicon microparticles and poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid for the controlled release of sphingosine-1-phospate, a small molecule of interest. We characterized the platform with scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and confocal microscopy. Finally, the biocompatibility of this multiscale system was analyzed by culturing human mesenchymal stem cells onto the scaffold. The presented strategy establishes the basis of a versatile scaffold for the controlled release of small molecules and for culturing mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative medicine applications.

  13. The effect of light touch on balance control during overground walking in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, A R; Unger, J; Arnold, C M; Fung, J; Lanovaz, J L

    2017-12-01

    Balance control is essential for safe walking. Adding haptic input through light touch may improve walking balance; however, evidence is limited. This research investigated the effect of added haptic input through light touch in healthy young adults during challenging walking conditions. Sixteen individuals walked normally, in tandem, and on a compliant, low-lying balance beam with and without light touch on a railing. Three-dimensional kinematic data were captured to compute stride velocity (m/s), relative time spent in double support (%DS), a medial-lateral margin of stability (MOS ML ) and its variance (MOS ML CV), as well as a symmetry index (SI) for the MOS ML . Muscle activity was evaluated by integrating electromyography signals for the soleus, tibialis anterior, and gluteus medius muscles bilaterally. Adding haptic input decreased stride velocity, increased the %DS, had no effect on the MOS ML magnitude, decreased the MOS ML CV, had no effect on the SI, and increased activity of most muscles examined during normal walking. During tandem walking, stride velocity and the MOS ML CV decreased, while %DS, MOS ML magnitude, SI, and muscle activity did not change with light touch. When walking on a low-lying, compliant balance beam, light touch had no effect on walking velocity, MOS ML magnitude, or muscle activity; however, the %DS increased and the MOS ML CV and SI decreased when lightly touching a railing while walking on the balance beam. The decreases in the MOS ML CV with light touch across all walking conditions suggest that adding haptic input through light touch on a railing may improve balance control during walking through reduced variability.

  14. The effect of light touch on balance control during overground walking in healthy young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Oates

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Balance control is essential for safe walking. Adding haptic input through light touch may improve walking balance; however, evidence is limited. This research investigated the effect of added haptic input through light touch in healthy young adults during challenging walking conditions. Sixteen individuals walked normally, in tandem, and on a compliant, low-lying balance beam with and without light touch on a railing. Three-dimensional kinematic data were captured to compute stride velocity (m/s, relative time spent in double support (%DS, a medial-lateral margin of stability (MOSML and its variance (MOSMLCV, as well as a symmetry index (SI for the MOSML. Muscle activity was evaluated by integrating electromyography signals for the soleus, tibialis anterior, and gluteus medius muscles bilaterally. Adding haptic input decreased stride velocity, increased the %DS, had no effect on the MOSML magnitude, decreased the MOSMLCV, had no effect on the SI, and increased activity of most muscles examined during normal walking. During tandem walking, stride velocity and the MOSMLCV decreased, while %DS, MOSML magnitude, SI, and muscle activity did not change with light touch. When walking on a low-lying, compliant balance beam, light touch had no effect on walking velocity, MOSML magnitude, or muscle activity; however, the %DS increased and the MOSMLCV and SI decreased when lightly touching a railing while walking on the balance beam. The decreases in the MOSMLCV with light touch across all walking conditions suggest that adding haptic input through light touch on a railing may improve balance control during walking through reduced variability.

  15. Effect of dairy fat on plasma phytanic acid in healthy volunteers - a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drachmann Tue

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytanic acid produced in ruminants from chlorophyll may have preventive effects on the metabolic syndrome, partly due to its reported RXR and PPAR- α agonist activity. Milk from cows fed increased levels of green plant material, contains increased phytanic acid concentrations, but it is unknown to what extent minor increases in phytanic acid content in dairy fat leads to higher circulating levels of phytanic acid in plasma of the consumers. Objective To investigate if cow feeding regimes affects concentration of plasma phytanic acid and risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human. Design In a double-blind, randomized, 4 wk, parallel intervention study 14 healthy young subjects were given 45 g milk fat/d from test butter and cheese with 0.24 wt% phytanic acid or a control diet with 0.13 wt% phytanic acid. Difference in phytanic acid was obtained by feeding roughage with low or high content of chlorophyll. Results There tended to be a difference in plasma phytanic acid (P = 0.0730 concentration after the dietary intervention. Plasma phytanic acid increased significantly within both groups with the highest increase in control group (24% compared to phytanic acid group (15%. There were no significant effects of phytanic acid on risk markers for the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The results indicate that increased intake of dairy fat modify the plasma phytanic acid concentration, regardless of cows feeding regime and the minor difference in dietary phytanic acid. Whether the phytanic acid has potential to affects the risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human still remain to be elucidated. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01343576

  16. Effects of age and physical activity on the autonomic control of heart rate in healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Melo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the aging process and an active life-style on the autonomic control of heart rate (HR were investigated in nine young sedentary (YS, 23 ± 2.4 years, 16 young active (YA, 22 ± 2.1 years, 8 older sedentary (OS, 63 ± 2.4 years and 8 older active (OA, 61 ± 1.1 years healthy men. Electrocardiogram was continuously recorded for 15 min at rest and for 4 min in the deep breathing test, with a breath rate of 5 to 6 cycles/min in the supine position. Resting HR and RR intervals were analyzed by time (RMSSD index and frequency domain methods. The power spectral components are reported in normalized units (nu at low (LF and high (HF frequency, and as the LF/HF ratio. The deep breathing test was analyzed by the respiratory sinus arrhythmia indices: expiration/inspiration ratio (E/I and inspiration-expiration difference (deltaIE. The active groups had lower HR and higher RMSSD index than the sedentary groups (life-style condition: sedentary vs active, P < 0.05. The older groups showed lower HFnu, higher LFnu and higher LF/HF ratio than the young groups (aging effect: young vs older, P < 0.05. The OS group had a lower E/I ratio (1.16 and deltaIE (9.7 bpm than the other groups studied (YS: 1.38, 22.4 bpm; YA: 1.40, 21.3 bpm; OA: 1.38, 18.5 bpm. The interaction between aging and life-style effects had a P < 0.05. These results suggest that aging reduces HR variability. However, regular physical activity positively affects vagal activity on the heart and consequently attenuates the effects of aging in the autonomic control of HR.

  17. Engaging rural women in healthy lifestyle programs: insights from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozica, Samantha L; Harrison, Cheryce L; Teede, Helena J; Ng, Sze; Moran, Lisa J; Lombard, Catherine B

    2015-09-16

    The obesity epidemic is well established, particularly in rural settings. Programs promoting healthy lifestyles for rural women are urgently needed; however, participant engagement is challenging. In the context of a large randomized controlled trial targeting the prevention of weight gain in rural women, we explored successful recruitment strategies and aimed to understand participants' barriers, enablers and reasons for program participation. We recruited women (aged 18-55 years) from the general rural Australian population. A mixed-methods approach was applied to explore factors that influenced program participation, including quantitative questionnaires for all participants (n = 649) and qualitative semi-structured interviews conducted for a subgroup of participants (n = 45). Data were collected at three time points: baseline, 6 and 12 months post program commencement. We recruited 649 rural women through a community communication and partnering strategy, a program marketing campaign and mobilization of social networks. Program participants were diverse across education and income levels and were representative of the wider Australian regional population. Factors that influenced program engagement were divided into personal (perceived program benefits and program accessibility) and social (peer persuasion and support). Identified enablers included convenience of the program location, perceived program utility, such as weight management and optimization of lifestyle choices, as well as attending the program with peer support. Barriers to engagement, which are likely exacerbated in rural communities included lack of anonymity, self-consciousness and segregated social networks in rural settings. Participants reported that eliciting local support and maximizing publicity is fundamental to improving future program engagement. Multiple program promotion strategies including communication, marketing and partnering, as well as mobilization of social networks and peer

  18. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in the substantia nigra of healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeger, Adriane; Godau, Jana; Berg, Daniela; Chadzynski, Grzegorz; Klose, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the substantia nigra in patients with Parkinson's disease three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging with high spatial resolution at 3 Tesla was performed. Regional variations of spectroscopic data between the rostral and caudal regions of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were evaluated in healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. Nine patients with Parkinson's disease and eight age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Data were acquired by using three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging measurements. The ratios between rostral and caudal voxels of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were calculated for the main-metabolites N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline, and myo-inositol. Additionally, the metabolite/creatine ratios were calculated. In all subjects spectra of acceptable quality could be obtained with a nominal voxel size of 0.252 ml. The calculated rostral-to-caudal ratios of the metabolites as well as of the metabolite/creatine ratios showed with exception of choline/creatine ratio significant differences between healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. The findings from this study indicate that regional variations in N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratios in the regions of the substantia nigra may differentiate patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy controls. (orig.)

  19. The circulating cell-free microrna profile in systemic sclerosis is distinct from both healthy controls and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, S. O.; Iversen, L. V.; Carlsen, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the expression profile of cell-free circulating microRNA (miRNA) in systemic sclerosis (SSc), healthy controls (HC), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods. Total RNA was purified from plasma and 45 different, mature miRNA were measured using quantitative PCR assays...

  20. Specific Interference between a Cognitive Task and Sensory Organization for Stance Balance Control in Healthy Young Adults: Visuospatial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Raymond K. Y.; Mills, Bradley; Dailey, Leanna; Lane, Elizabeth; Smith, Sarah; Lee, Kyoung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a computational overload results when two activities, one motor and the other cognitive that draw on the same neural processing pathways, are performed concurrently. Healthy young adult subjects carried out two seemingly distinct tasks of maintaining standing balance control under conditions of low (eyes closed),…

  1. 1H-NMR METABONOMICS ANALYSIS OF SERA DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN MAMMARY TUMOR-BEARING MICE AND HEALTHY CONTROLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global analysis of 1H-NMR spectra of serum is an appealing approach for the rapid detection of cancer. To evaluate the usefulness of this method in distinguishing between mammary tumor-bearing mice and healthy controls, we conducted 1H-NMR metabonomic analyses on serum samples ob...

  2. Voluntary activation of the trapezius muscle in cases with neck/shoulder pain compared to healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Katrine Tholstrup; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2017-01-01

    Subjects reporting neck/shoulder pain have been shown to generate less force during maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of the shoulder muscles compared to healthy controls. This has been suggested to be caused by a pain-related decrease in voluntary activation (VA) rather than lack of...

  3. Filaggrin gene mutations and the distribution of filaggrin in oral mucosa of patients with oral lichen planus and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, K R; Johansen, J D; Reibel, J

    2017-01-01

    candidiasis. Immunohistochemistry were performed using poly- and monoclonal filaggrin antibodies. RESULTS: The immunoreactivity for filaggrin was significantly more intense in the oral mucosa in the patients with OLP/OLL compared to healthy controls (p=0.000025). No difference was noted in the incidence...

  4. Echocardiographic Assessment of Left Ventricular Function in Healthy Horses and in Horses with Heart Disease Using Pulsed-Wave Tissue Doppler Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, T R; Mitchell, K J; Schwarzwald, C C

    2017-03-01

    Assessment of left ventricular (LV) function by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is not well established in horses with heart disease. To describe the use of pulsed-wave (PW) TDI for the assessment of LV function, establish reference intervals, investigate effects of mitral regurgitation (MR), aortic regurgitation (AR), and primary myocardial disease (MD), and provide proof of concept for the use of PW TDI in Warmblood horses with heart disease. Thirty healthy horses, 38 horses with MR, 25 with AR, 8 with MD. Echocardiograms were retrospectively analyzed. Reference intervals were calculated. PW TDI indices of healthy horses and horses with MR, AR, and MD were compared by one-way ANOVA and Dunnett's test. A complete set of PW TDI variables could be obtained in 94 of 101 horses. Variables corresponding to isovolumic intervals were most difficult to measure. Valvular regurgitation influenced variables describing isovolumic contraction and ejection. Horses with MD had significantly shortened ET m (-118.5 [-154.1 to -82.9] ms; mean difference [95% CI of difference of means]), increased PEP m /ET m (0.11 [0.05 to 0.17]), prolonged IMP m (0.28 [0.18 to 0.37]), increased S 1 (8.9 [5.2 to 12.6] cm/s), and decreased E 1 (-2.6 [-4.7 to -0.5] cm/s), E m (-14.2 [-19.9 to -8.5] cm/s), and E m /A m ratio (-1.6 [-2.6 to -0.6]). Pulsed-wave TDI might be useful for detection of LV dysfunction in horses with primary MD. The clinical value of TDI in horses with MR and AR remains uncertain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Sensitivity of cognitive tests in four cognitive domains in discriminating MDD patients from healthy controls: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, JaeHyoung; Oh, In Kyung; Han, Changsu; Huh, Yu Jeong; Jung, In-Kwa; Patkar, Ashwin A; Steffens, David C; Jang, Bo-Hyoung

    2013-09-01

    We performed a meta-analysis in order to determine which neuropsychological domains and tasks would be most sensitive for discriminating between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls. Relevant articles were identified through a literature search of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases for the period between January 1997 and May 2011. A meta-analysis was conducted using the standardized means of individual cognitive tests in each domain. The heterogeneity was assessed, and subgroup analyses according to age and medication status were performed to explore the sources of heterogeneity. A total of 22 trials involving 955 MDD patients and 7,664 healthy participants were selected for our meta-analysis. MDD patients showed significantly impaired results compared with healthy participants on the Digit Span and Continuous Performance Test in the attention domain; the Trail Making Test A (TMT-A) and the Digit Symbol Test in the processing speed domain; the Stroop Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Verbal Fluency in the executive function domain; and immediate verbal memory in the memory domain. The Finger Tapping Task, TMT-B, delayed verbal memory, and immediate and delayed visual memory failed to separate MDD patients from healthy controls. The results of subgroup analysis showed that performance of Verbal Fluency was significantly impaired in younger depressed patients (memory was significantly reduced in depressed patients using antidepressants. Our findings have inevitable limitations arising from methodological issues inherent in the meta-analysis and we could not explain high heterogeneity between studies. Despite such limitations, current study has the strength of being the first meta-analysis which tried to specify cognitive function of depressed patients compared with healthy participants. And our findings may provide clinicians with further evidences that some cognitive tests in specific cognitive domains have sensitivity

  6. Effect of verbal persuasion on self-efficacy for pain-related diagnostic sensory testing in individuals with chronic neck pain and healthy controls - a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Anne; Sterling, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in cold pain threshold (CTh), pressure pain threshold (PPT), cold pain tolerance (CPTo) tests, and the level of self-efficacy when self-efficacy for diagnostic sensory testing was manipulated by verbal persuasion before a testing situation in persons with neck pain and in healthy controls. A randomized experimental design was used. Twenty-one healthy volunteers and 22 individuals with either traumatic or nontraumatic chronic neck pain were recruited to participate in the study. The intervention consisted of two experimental verbal persuasion conditions: Increase self-efficacy and Decrease self-efficacy. The PPT was measured using a pressure algometer, the CTh was measured using a thermo test system, and CPTo was measured by submerging the participant's hand in ice water up to the elbow joint. On three occasions, the participants reported their self-efficacy level in performing the sensory tests. In the chronic neck pain group, there were no differences in pain threshold or tolerance. There was a difference in the self-efficacy level after verbal persuasion between the experimental conditions. In the healthy control group, the CThs increased following the condition that aimed to increase self-efficacy. No other differences were observed in the healthy controls. A short verbal persuasion in the form of manipulative instructions seems to have a marginal effect on the individual's self-efficacy levels in the chronic neck pain group and a slight influence on the results of sensory testing in healthy controls.

  7. Controlled delivery of antiangiogenic drug to human eye tissue using a MEMS device

    KAUST Repository

    Pirmoradi, Fatemeh Nazly; Ou, Kevin; Jackson, John K.; Letchford, Kevin; Cui, Jing; Wolf, Ki Tae; Graber, Florian; Zhao, Tom; Matsubara, Joanne A.; Burt, Helen; Chiao, Mu; Lin, Liwei

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an implantable MEMS drug delivery device to conduct controlled and on-demand, ex vivo drug transport to human eye tissue. Remotely operated drug delivery to human post-mortem eyes was performed via a MEMS device. The developed curved

  8. Remote Control of Tissue Interactions via Engineered Photo-switchable Cell Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Pulsipher, Abigail; Dutta, Debjit; Lamb, Brian M.; Yousaf, Muhammad N.

    2014-09-01

    We report a general cell surface molecular engineering strategy via liposome fusion delivery to create a dual photo-active and bio-orthogonal cell surface for remote controlled spatial and temporal manipulation of microtissue assembly and disassembly. Cell surface tailoring of chemoselective functional groups was achieved by a liposome fusion delivery method and quantified by flow cytometry and characterized by a new cell surface lipid pull down mass spectrometry strategy. Dynamic co-culture spheroid tissue assembly in solution and co-culture tissue multilayer assembly on materials was demonstrated by an intercellular photo-oxime ligation that could be remotely cleaved and disassembled on demand. Spatial and temporal control of microtissue structures containing multiple cell types was demonstrated by the generation of patterned multilayers for controlling stem cell differentiation. Remote control of cell interactions via cell surface engineering that allows for real-time manipulation of tissue dynamics may provide tools with the scope to answer fundamental questions of cell communication and initiate new biotechnologies ranging from imaging probes to drug delivery vehicles to regenerative medicine, inexpensive bioreactor technology and tissue engineering therapies.

  9. Tumor control and normal tissue toxicity: The two faces of radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oorschot, B.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis discusses the two contrasting sides of radiotherapy: tumor control and normal tissue toxicity. On one hand, radiation treatment aims to target the tumor with the highest possible radiation dose, inducing as much lethal DNA damage as possible. On the other hand however, escalation of the

  10. Filaggrin gene mutations and the distribution of filaggrin in oral mucosa of patients with oral lichen planus and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, K R; Johansen, J D; Reibel, J; Zachariae, C; Rosing, K; Pedersen, A M L

    2017-05-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology affecting the skin and oral mucosa. Oral lichenoid lesions (OLLs), like oral contact reactions, may resemble oral lichen planus (OLP) both clinically and histopathologically. As OLP and OLL are hyperkeratotic diseases and filaggrin is essential to keratinization, the distribution of filaggrin may be altered in these lesions. To investigate whether patients with OLP/OLL have (i) altered distribution of filaggrin in the oral mucosa; (ii) a higher incidence of mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG); (iii) active dermatoses, apart from cutaneous LP, than healthy controls; and (iv) patients with OLP/OLL and a defect in the FLG have more widespread oral lesions and report more symptoms than OLP/OLL patients without a concomitant defect in the FLG. Forty-nine Caucasian patients (42 women and 7 men, mean age 61.0 ± 10.3 years), with symptomatic OLP, OLL or stomatitis, and 29 matched healthy controls underwent a clinical oral and dermatological examination, oral mucosal biopsy and filaggrin genotyping (testing for R2447X, R501X, 2282del4). Smear tests for Candida spp. were performed in all patients to exclude oral candidiasis. Immunohistochemistry were performed using poly- and monoclonal filaggrin antibodies. The immunoreactivity for filaggrin was significantly more intense in the oral mucosa in the patients with OLP/OLL compared with healthy controls (P = 0.000025). No difference was noted in the incidence of defects in the FLG and active dermatoses between patients and healthy controls. No difference was noted in extension and number of symptoms reported by patients with OLP/OLL with or without a concomitant defect in the FLG. OLP/OLL is associated with an altered distribution of filaggrin in the oral mucosa independently of defects in the FLG. Patients with OLP/OLL did not display more active dermatoses other than cutaneous LP when compared to healthy controls. © 2016 European Academy of

  11. A multicentre matched case control study of risk factors for Preeclampsia in healthy women in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadri Zeeshan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality world-wide. The risk for developing preeclampsia varies depending on the underlying mechanism. Because the disorder is heterogeneous, the pathogenesis can differ in women with various risk factors. Understanding these mechanisms of disease responsible for preeclampsia as well as risk assessment is still a major challenge. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with preeclampsia, in healthy women in maternity hospitals of Karachi and Rawalpindi. Methods We conducted a hospital based matched case-control study to assess the factors associated with preeclampsia in Karachi and Rawalpindi, from January 2006 to December 2007. 131 hospital-reported cases of PE and 262 controls without history of preeclampsia were enrolled within 3 days of delivery. Cases and controls were matched on the hospital, day of delivery and parity. Potential risk factors for preeclampsia were ascertained during in-person postpartum interviews using a structured questionnaire and by medical record abstraction. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate matched odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs. Results In multivariate analysis, women having a family history of hypertension (adjusted OR 2.06, 95% CI; 1.27-3.35, gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 6.57, 95% CI; 1.94 -22.25, pre-gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 7.36, 95% CI; 1.37-33.66 and mental stress during pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI; 1.19-1.46, for each 5 unit increase in Perceived stress scale score were at increased risk of preeclampsia. However, high body mass index, maternal age, urinary tract infection, use of condoms prior to index pregnancy and sociodemographic factors were not associated with higher risk of having preeclampsia. Conclusions Development of preeclampsia was associated with gestational diabetes, pregestational diabetes, family

  12. A process evaluation of the Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Abbott, Gavin; McNaughton, Sarah A; Le, Ha N D; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Pollard, Christina; Crawford, David A

    2016-02-24

    Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) was a randomized controlled trial that operationalized a socioecological approach to population-level dietary behaviour change in a real-world supermarket setting. SHELf tested the impact of individual (skill-building), environmental (20% price reductions), and combined (skill-building + 20% price reductions) interventions on women's purchasing and consumption of fruits, vegetables, low-calorie carbonated beverages and water. This process evaluation investigated the reach, effectiveness, implementation, and maintenance of the SHELf interventions. RE-AIM provided a conceptual framework to examine the processes underlying the impact of the interventions using data from participant surveys and objective sales data collected at baseline, post-intervention (3 months) and 6-months post-intervention. Fisher's exact, χ (2) and t-tests assessed differences in quantitative survey responses among groups. Adjusted linear regression examined the impact of self-reported intervention dose on food purchasing and consumption outcomes. Thematic analysis identified key themes within qualitative survey responses. Reach of the SHELf interventions to disadvantaged groups, and beyond study participants themselves, was moderate. Just over one-third of intervention participants indicated that the interventions were effective in changing the way they bought, cooked or consumed food (p < 0.001 compared to control), with no differences among intervention groups. Improvements in purchasing and consumption outcomes were greatest among those who received a higher intervention dose. Most notably, participants who said they accessed price reductions on fruits and vegetables purchased (519 g/week) and consumed (0.5 servings/day) more vegetables. The majority of participants said they accessed (82%) and appreciated discounts on fruits and vegetables, while there was limited use (40%) and appreciation of discounts on low-calorie carbonated

  13. Controlled delivery of antiangiogenic drug to human eye tissue using a MEMS device

    KAUST Repository

    Pirmoradi, Fatemeh Nazly

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an implantable MEMS drug delivery device to conduct controlled and on-demand, ex vivo drug transport to human eye tissue. Remotely operated drug delivery to human post-mortem eyes was performed via a MEMS device. The developed curved packaging cover conforms to the eyeball thereby preventing the eye tissue from contacting the actuating membrane. By pulsed operation of the device, using an externally applied magnetic field, the drug released from the device accumulates in a cavity adjacent to the tissue. As such, docetaxel (DTX), an antiangiogenic drug, diffuses through the eye tissue, from sclera and choroid to retina. DTX uptake by sclera and choroid were measured to be 1.93±0.66 and 7.24±0.37 μg/g tissue, respectively, after two hours in pulsed operation mode (10s on/off cycles) at 23°C. During this period, a total amount of 192 ng DTX diffused into the exposed tissue. This MEMS device shows great potential for the treatment of ocular posterior segment diseases such as diabetic retinopathy by introducing a novel way of drug administration to the eye. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Laser-activated nano-biomaterials for tissue repair and controlled drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteini, P; Ratto, F; Rossi, F; Pini, R

    2014-01-01

    We present recent achievements of minimally invasive welding of biological tissue and controlled drug release based on laser-activated nano-biomaterials. In particular, we consider new advancements in the biomedical application of near-IR absorbing gold nano-chromophores as an original solution for the photothermal repair of surgical incisions and as nanotriggers of controlled drug release from hybrid biopolymer scaffolds. (laser biophotonics)

  15. Neuro-adaptive control in beating heart surgery based on the viscoelastic tissue model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Rezakhani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of 3D heart motion in beating heart surgery is resolved by proposing a parallel force-motion controller. Motion controller is designed based on neuro-adaptive approach to compensate 3D heart motion and deal with uncertainity in dynamic parameters, while an implicit force control is implemented by considering a viscoelastic tissue model. Stability analysis is proved through Lypanov’s stability theory and Barballet’s lemma. Simulation results, for D2M2 robot, which is done in nominal case and viscoelastic parameter mismatches demonstrate the robust performance of the controller.

  16. Controlling Fluences of Reactive Species Produced by Multipulse DBDs onto Wet Tissue: Frequency and Liquid Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Kushner, Mark J.

    2015-09-01

    Tissue covered by a thin liquid layer treated by atmospheric pressure plasmas for biomedical applications ultimately requires a reproducible protocol for human healthcare. The outcomes of wet tissue treatment by dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) depend on the plasma dose which determines the integral fluences of radicals and ions onto the tissue. These fluences are controlled in part by frequency and liquid thickness. In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of multipulse DBDs interacting with wet tissue. The DBDs were simulated for 100 stationary or random streamers at different repetition rates and liquid thicknesses followed by 10 s to 2 min of afterglow. At 100 Hz, NOaq and OHaq are mixed by randomly striking streamers, although they have different rates of solvation. NOaq is nearly completely consumed by reactions with OHaq at the liquid surface. Only H2O2aq, produced through OHaq mutual reactions, survives to reach the tissue. After 100 pulses, the liquid becomes ozone-rich, in which the nitrous ion, NO2-aq, is converted to the nitric ion, NO3-aq. Reducing the pulse frequency to 10 Hz results in significant fluence of NOaq to the tissue as NOaq can escape during the interpulse period from the liquid surface where OHaq is formed. For the same reason, NO2-aq can also reach deeper into the liquid at lower frequency. Frequency and thickness of the liquid are methods to control the plasma produced aqueous species to the underlying tissue. Work supported by DOE (DE-SC0001319) and NSF (CHE-1124724).

  17. On the genetic control of planar growth during tissue morphogenesis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enugutti, Balaji; Kirchhelle, Charlotte; Schneitz, Kay

    2013-06-01

    Tissue morphogenesis requires extensive intercellular communication. Plant organs are composites of distinct radial cell layers. A typical layer, such as the epidermis, is propagated by stereotypic anticlinal cell divisions. It is presently unclear what mechanisms coordinate cell divisions relative to the plane of a layer, resulting in planar growth and maintenance of the layer structure. Failure in the regulation of coordinated growth across a tissue may result in spatially restricted abnormal growth and the formation of a tumor-like protrusion. Therefore, one way to approach planar growth control is to look for genetic mutants that exhibit localized tumor-like outgrowths. Interestingly, plants appear to have evolved quite robust genetic mechanisms that govern these aspects of tissue morphogenesis. Here we provide a short summary of the current knowledge about the genetics of tumor formation in plants and relate it to the known control of coordinated cell behavior within a tissue layer. We further portray the integuments of Arabidopsis thaliana as an excellent model system to study the regulation of planar growth. The value of examining this process in integuments was established by the recent identification of the Arabidopsis AGC VIII kinase UNICORN as a novel growth suppressor involved in the regulation of planar growth and the inhibition of localized ectopic growth in integuments and other floral organs. An emerging insight is that misregulation of central determinants of adaxial-abaxial tissue polarity can lead to the formation of spatially restricted multicellular outgrowths in several tissues. Thus, there may exist a link between the mechanisms regulating adaxial-abaxial tissue polarity and planar growth in plants.

  18. A link between expression level of long-non-coding RNA ZFAS1 in breast tissue of healthy women and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori, Yaser; Tabei, Mohammad Bagher; Askari, Alireza; Izadi, Pantea; Daraei, Abdolreza; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Zendehbad, Zahra; Bastami, Milad; Nariman-Saleh-Fam, Ziba; Mansoori, Hosein; Tavakkoly-Bazzaz, Javad

    2018-04-01

    Epidemiological and experimental literature indicates that the risk of breast cancer incidence is strongly linked to hormone-dependent factors, including reproductive history and obesity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the association between these factors and breast cancer risk are poorly understood. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine whether obesity and reproductive history are associated with expression levels of two breast cancer-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), namely ZFAS1 and SRA1 in cancer-free breast tissues of women. In the current research, 145 healthy women were recruited, and the quantitative expression levels of the two lncRNAs were determined through qPCR assay after gathering the mammoplasty breast tissue samples. It was found that women with body mass index (BMI)≥30 kg/m 2 and BMI 25-29 kg/m 2 show a low expression of ZFAS1 compared to the BMI<25 kg/m 2 ( P=0.031 and P=0.027, respectively). Then, the correlation analysis disclosed a negative correlation of ZFAS1 low expression with increasing BMI (r=-0.194, P=0.019). Interestingly, this analysis demonstrated a negative correlation between low expression of the ZFAS1 and high BMI in women with menarche age below 14 (r=-221; P=0.028). Lastly, it was also revealed that there was a negative association of the low expression level of ZFAS1 with increasing BMI in women through regression models (B=-0.048, P=0.019). These findings suggest interesting clues about the links between high BMI and the expression levels of ZFAS1 in non-diseased breasts that may help us better understand the underlying mechanisms through which obesity contributes to breast carcinogenesis. However, such results need more validations in future research.

  19. Childhood obsessive-compulsive traits in anorexia nervosa patients, their unaffected sisters and healthy controls: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degortes, Daniela; Zanetti, Tatiana; Tenconi, Elena; Santonastaso, Paolo; Favaro, Angela

    2014-07-01

    Although there is evidence that childhood perfectionistic traits predate the onset of eating disorders, few studies to date have examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of these traits in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and their unaffected sisters. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of childhood obsessive-compulsive traits in patients with lifetime AN, their unaffected sisters and healthy women. A total of 116 AN patients, 32 healthy sisters and 119 controls were assessed by the EATATE Interview to assess traits such as perfectionism, inflexibility, rule-bound traits, drive for order and symmetry, and excessive doubt and cautiousness. Both self-report and maternal reports were collected. AN patients reported more childhood obsessive-compulsive traits than their healthy sisters and controls. In contrast, no differences between healthy controls and unaffected sisters emerged. In patients with AN, a dose-response relationship was found between the number of childhood obsessive-compulsive traits and psychopathology, including body image distortion, thus indicating that these traits are an important feature to be considered in assessing and treating eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  20. Event-related potentials in response to emotional words in patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Yin, Hui-fang; Wu, Da-xing; Xu, Shu-jing

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunctional cognitive processing and abnormal brain activation in response to emotional stimuli have long been recognized as core features of the major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine how Chinese patients with MDD process Chinese emotional words presented to either the left (LH) or right hemisphere (RH). Reaction time (RT) and the late positive component of the event-related potential were measured while subjects judged the valence (positive or negative) of emotional words written in Chinese. Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD exhibited slower RTs in response to negative words. In all subjects, the RTs in response to negative words were significantly faster than RTs in response to positive words presented to the LH, as well as significantly faster than responses to negative words presented to the RH. Compared to healthy controls, MDD patients exhibited reduced activation of the central and left regions of the brain in response to both negative and positive words. In healthy controls, the posterior brain areas were more active than the anterior brain areas when responding to negative words. All individuals showed faster RTs in response to negative words compared to positive words. In addition, MDD patients showed lateralization of brain activity in response to emotional words, whereas healthy individuals did not show this lateralization. Posterior brain areas appear to play an especially important role in discriminating and experiencing negative emotional words. This study provides further evidence in support of the negative bias hypothesis and the emotional processing theory.

  1. Longitudinal CSF biomarkers in patients with early Parkinson disease and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Brit; Caspell-Garcia, Chelsea J; Coffey, Christopher S; Taylor, Peggy; Shaw, Leslie M; Trojanowski, John Q; Singleton, Andy; Frasier, Mark; Marek, Kenneth; Galasko, Douglas

    2017-11-07

    To analyze longitudinal levels of CSF biomarkers in drug-naive patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and healthy controls (HC), examine the extent to which these biomarker changes relate to clinical measures of PD, and identify what may influence them. CSF α-synuclein (α-syn), total and phosphorylated tau (t- and p-tau), and β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ42) were measured at baseline and 6 and 12 months in 173 patients with PD and 112 matched HC in the international multicenter Parkinson's Progression Marker Initiative. Baseline clinical and demographic variables, PD medications, neuroimaging, and genetic variables were evaluated as potential predictors of CSF biomarker changes. CSF biomarkers were stable over 6 and 12 months, and there was a small but significant increase in CSF Aβ42 in both patients with patients with PD and HC from baseline to 12 months. The t-tau remained stable. The p-tau increased marginally more in patients with PD than in HC. α-syn remained relatively stable in patients with PD and HC. Ratios of p-tau/t-tau increased, while t-tau/Aβ42 decreased over 12 months in patients with PD. CSF biomarker changes did not correlate with changes in Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scores or dopamine imaging. CSF α-syn levels at 12 months were lower in patients with PD treated with dopamine replacement therapy, especially dopamine agonists. These core CSF biomarkers remained stable over 6 and 12 months in patients with early PD and HC. PD medication use may influence CSF α-syn. Novel biomarkers are needed to better profile progressive neurodegeneration in PD. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Multiple sclerosis patients have a diminished serologic response to vitamin D supplementation compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Pavan; Steele, Sonya U; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Revirajan, Nisha R; Marcus, Jacqueline; Dembele, Marieme; Cassard, Sandra D; Hollis, Bruce W; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Mowry, Ellen M

    2016-05-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS), and patients do not always show the expected response to vitamin D supplementation. We aimed to determine if vitamin D supplementation leads to a similar increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25(OH)D) levels in patients with MS and healthy controls (HCs). Participants in this open-label study were female, white, aged 18-60 years, had 25(OH)D levels ⩽ 75 nmol/l at screening, and had relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or were HCs. Participants received 5000 IU/day of vitamin D3 for 90 days. Utilizing generalized estimating equations we examined the relationship between the primary outcome (serum 25(OH)D level) and the primary (MS versus HC status) and secondary predictors. For this study 27 MS patients and 30 HCs were enrolled. There was no significant difference in baseline 25(OH)D level or demographics except for higher body mass index (BMI) in the MS group (25.3 vs. 23.6 kg/m(2), p=0.035). In total, 24 MS subjects and 29 HCs completed the study. In a multivariate model accounting for BMI, medication adherence, and oral contraceptive use, MS patients had a 16.7 nmol/l (95%CI: 4.2, 29.2, p=0.008) lower increase in 25(OH)D levels compared with HCs. Patients with MS had a lower increase in 25(OH)D levels with supplementation, even after accounting for putative confounders. © The Author(s), 2015.

  3. Aerobic exercise as a potential way to improve self-control after ego-depletion in healthy female college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling eZou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To test whether aerobic exercise can help build self-control stamina in healthy female young adults. Stamina in this context is defined as the capability to endure ego depletion, which can be measured with a self-control task following another activity also requiring self-control.Methods: 45 healthy undergraduate women were randomized to either an experimental group or control group. Participants in the experimental group were required to run in their campus running field for 30 minutes for a period of five weeks. Individuals in the control group were required to do diary entries regarding self-control in their daily lives, also for a period of five weeks. Before and after the five-week intervention, participants completed a pain threshold test, a color word Stroop task and the following Cold Pressor Task (CPT (with and without a distraction component. Results: There was significant decrease of pain tolerance in session 2 relative to session 1 in the control group, but no such decline was found in the experimental group (though the improvement of pain tolerance was not significant, possibly suggesting successful self-control against this kind of decline. Conclusions: Five weeks of aerobic exercise increased self-control after ego depletion in terms of pain tolerance. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise may serve as a potential effective intervention for enhancing self-control in a college female population.

  4. Aerobic Exercise As a Potential Way to Improve Self-Control after Ego-Depletion in Healthy Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiling; Liu, Yang; Xie, Jing; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether aerobic exercise can help build self-control stamina in healthy female young adults. Stamina in this context is defined as the capability to endure ego depletion, which can be measured with a self-control task following another activity also requiring self-control. Methods: Forty-five healthy undergraduate women were randomized to either an experimental group or control group. Participants in the experimental group were required to run in their campus running field for 30 min for a period of 5 weeks. Individuals in the control group were required to do diary entries regarding self-control in their daily lives, also for a period of 5 weeks. Before and after the 5-week intervention, participants completed a pain threshold test, a color word Stroop task and the following Cold Pressor Task (CPT) (with and without a distraction component). Results: There was significant decrease of pain tolerance in session 2 relative to session 1 in the control group, but no such decline was found in the experimental group (though the improvement of pain tolerance was not significant), possibly suggesting successful self-control against this kind of decline. Conclusions: Five weeks of aerobic exercise increased self-control after ego depletion in terms of pain tolerance. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise may serve as a potential effective intervention for enhancing self-control in a college female population. PMID:27148113

  5. Smaller brain size likely in young adults (<40 years old) with depressive symptoms compared to healthy controls. A retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Michito; Sato, Takamichi; Kawaguchi, Etsuko; Shibata, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the brain size of young patients with depressive symptoms is smaller than that of healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We retrospectively evaluated brain size by calculating the ratio of the brain area to that of the skull (the brain-to-skull ratio) on routine MRI scans including the splenium of the corpus callosum obtained from 19 patients <40 years old with depressive symptoms in 2009. The controls were 12 healthy individuals <40 years old who underwent MRI for medical examinations. The mean brain-to-skull ratio of the control group was 0.850±0.022 (range 0.822-0.889), and that of the patient group was 0.819±0.041 (range 0.756-0.878). An unpaired t-test showed a significant difference in the brain-to-skull ratios between these groups (P=0.011). In particular, in 7 of the 19 patients with longer duration of illness and more severe symptoms, the brain-to-skull ratio was 89%-92% of the mean ratio of the control group. The brain size of young patients with depressive symptoms appears to be smaller than that of healthy controls. (author)

  6. Capabilities and Limitations of Tissue Size Control through Passive Mechanical Forces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Kursawe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenesis is an extraordinarily robust process, exhibiting the ability to control tissue size and repair patterning defects in the face of environmental and genetic perturbations. The size and shape of a developing tissue is a function of the number and size of its constituent cells as well as their geometric packing. How these cellular properties are coordinated at the tissue level to ensure developmental robustness remains a mystery; understanding this process requires studying multiple concurrent processes that make up morphogenesis, including the spatial patterning of cell fates and apoptosis, as well as cell intercalations. In this work, we develop a computational model that aims to understand aspects of the robust pattern repair mechanisms of the Drosophila embryonic epidermal tissues. Size control in this system has previously been shown to rely on the regulation of apoptosis rather than proliferation; however, to date little work has been done to understand the role of cellular mechanics in this process. We employ a vertex model of an embryonic segment to test hypotheses about the emergence of this size control. Comparing the model to previously published data across wild type and genetic perturbations, we show that passive mechanical forces suffice to explain the observed size control in the posterior (P compartment of a segment. However, observed asymmetries in cell death frequencies across the segment are demonstrated to require patterning of cellular properties in the model. Finally, we show that distinct forms of mechanical regulation in the model may be distinguished by differences in cell shapes in the P compartment, as quantified through experimentally accessible summary statistics, as well as by the tissue recoil after laser ablation experiments.

  7. Comparison of Salivary TIMP-1 Levels in Periodontally Involved and Healthy Controls and the Response to Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Fenol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. Periodontal destruction is an outcome of the imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs. We wanted to prove the hypothesis that salivary TIPM-1 level will vary in different people. A decrease in TIMP-1 level could make them more susceptible to periodontitis whereas a normal level could prevent increased tissue destruction thereby inhibiting the progression from gingivitis to periodontitis. This could probably pave the way for TIPM-1 to be a specific salivary biomarker and serve as a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in periodontitis. Methods. Whole unstimulated saliva of 2 ml was collected from twenty-five periodontally healthy and twenty-seven systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis. Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and reevaluated after four weeks in subjects with periodontitis following nonsurgical periodontal therapy were gingival index (GI, oral hygiene index-Simplified (OHI-S, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL. Salivary TIMP-1 levels in both were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit.

  8. Detection of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin and fimbria-associated protein gene genotypes among periodontitis patients and healthy controls: A case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalakshmi, Krishnan; Krishnan, Padma; Chandrasekaran, S. C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been reported in higher proportions in subgingival microbiota of individuals with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) compared with those with chronic periodontitis (ChP) and healthy controls. The major virulence factors are the ones that help in colonization and evasion of host's defenses. Hence, this study was aimed to assess the prevalence of A. actinomycetemcomitans 16S rRNA and its virulent genotypes (leukotoxin [lktA] and fimbria-associated protein [fap]). Materials and Methods: In this case– control study We performed periodontal examination and measured probing depth and clinical attachment level (CAL). Subgingival plaque samples from 200 (ChP: n = 128 and AgP: n = 72) periodontitis patients and 200 healthy controls were screened for the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans 16S rRNA, lktA, and fap genotypes by polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of genotypes between periodontitis patients and healthy controls was compared with Pearson's Chi-square test. P periodontitis patients, while A. actinomycetemcomitans fap genotype showed 31.8% prevalence. The prevalence of these genotypes was insignificant in healthy controls. Conclusion: The high odds ratio for A. actinomycetemcomitans prevalence suggests its strong link to periodontitis. Detection of A. actinomycetemcomitans lktA + genotype may be a useful marker for AgP as its prevalence was found to be high in AgP. PMID:29922337

  9. DNA methylation changes separate allergic patients from healthy controls and may reflect altered CD4+ T-cell population structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm E Nestor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered DNA methylation patterns in CD4(+ T-cells indicate the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in inflammatory diseases. However, the identification of these alterations is complicated by the heterogeneity of most inflammatory diseases. Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR is an optimal disease model for the study of DNA methylation because of its well-defined phenotype and etiology. We generated genome-wide DNA methylation (N(patients = 8, N(controls = 8 and gene expression (N(patients = 9, Ncontrols = 10 profiles of CD4(+ T-cells from SAR patients and healthy controls using Illumina's HumanMethylation450 and HT-12 microarrays, respectively. DNA methylation profiles clearly and robustly distinguished SAR patients from controls, during and outside the pollen season. In agreement with previously published studies, gene expression profiles of the same samples failed to separate patients and controls. Separation by methylation (N(patients = 12, N(controls = 12, but not by gene expression (N(patients = 21, N(controls = 21 was also observed in an in vitro model system in which purified PBMCs from patients and healthy controls were challenged with allergen. We observed changes in the proportions of memory T-cell populations between patients (N(patients = 35 and controls (N(controls = 12, which could explain the observed difference in DNA methylation. Our data highlight the potential of epigenomics in the stratification of immune disease and represents the first successful molecular classification of SAR using CD4(+ T cells.

  10. Effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function of healthy individuals: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgerinos, Konstantinos I; Spyrou, Nikolaos; Bougioukas, Konstantinos I; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2018-07-15

    Creatine is a supplement used by sportsmen to increase athletic performance by improving energy supply to muscle tissues. It is also an essential brain compound and some hypothesize that it aids cognition by improving energy supply and neuroprotection. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the effects of oral creatine administration on cognitive function in healthy individuals. A search of multiple electronic databases was performed for the identification of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) examining the cognitive effects of oral creatine supplementation in healthy individuals. Six studies (281 individuals) met our inclusion criteria. Generally, there was evidence that short term memory and intelligence/reasoning may be improved by creatine administration. Regarding other cognitive domains, such as long-term memory, spatial memory, memory scanning, attention, executive function, response inhibition, word fluency, reaction time and mental fatigue, the results were conflicting. Performance on cognitive tasks stayed unchanged in young individuals. Vegetarians responded better than meat-eaters in memory tasks but for other cognitive domains no differences were observed. Oral creatine administration may improve short-term memory and intelligence/reasoning of healthy individuals but its effect on other cognitive domains remains unclear. Findings suggest potential benefit for aging and stressed individuals. Since creatine is safe, future studies should include larger sample sizes. It is imperative that creatine should be tested on patients with dementias or cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. To Fear Is to Gain? The Role of Fear Recognition in Risky Decision Making in TBI Patients and Healthy Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie C Visser-Keizer

    Full Text Available Fear is an important emotional reaction that guides decision making in situations of ambiguity or uncertainty. Both recognition of facial expressions of fear and decision making ability can be impaired after traumatic brain injury (TBI, in particular when the frontal lobe is damaged. So far, it has not been investigated how recognition of fear influences risk behavior in healthy subjects and TBI patients. The ability to recognize fear is thought to be related to the ability to experience fear and to use it as a warning signal to guide decision making. We hypothesized that a better ability to recognize fear would be related to a better regulation of risk behavior, with healthy controls outperforming TBI patients. To investigate this, 59 healthy subjects and 49 TBI patients were assessed with a test for emotion recognition (Facial Expression of Emotion: Stimuli and Tests and a gambling task (Iowa Gambling Task (IGT. The results showed that, regardless of post traumatic amnesia duration or the presence of frontal lesions, patients were more impaired than healthy controls on both fear recognition and decision making. In both groups, a significant relationship was found between better fear recognition, the development of an advantageous strategy across the IGT and less risk behavior in the last blocks of the IGT. Educational level moderated this relationship in the final block of the IGT. This study has important clinical implications, indicating that impaired decision making and risk behavior after TBI can be preceded by deficits in the processing of fear.

  12. To Fear Is to Gain? The Role of Fear Recognition in Risky Decision Making in TBI Patients and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser-Keizer, Annemarie C; Westerhof-Evers, Herma J; Gerritsen, Marleen J J; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba M

    2016-01-01

    Fear is an important emotional reaction that guides decision making in situations of ambiguity or uncertainty. Both recognition of facial expressions of fear and decision making ability can be impaired after traumatic brain injury (TBI), in particular when the frontal lobe is damaged. So far, it has not been investigated how recognition of fear influences risk behavior in healthy subjects and TBI patients. The ability to recognize fear is thought to be related to the ability to experience fear and to use it as a warning signal to guide decision making. We hypothesized that a better ability to recognize fear would be related to a better regulation of risk behavior, with healthy controls outperforming TBI patients. To investigate this, 59 healthy subjects and 49 TBI patients were assessed with a test for emotion recognition (Facial Expression of Emotion: Stimuli and Tests) and a gambling task (Iowa Gambling Task (IGT)). The results showed that, regardless of post traumatic amnesia duration or the presence of frontal lesions, patients were more impaired than healthy controls on both fear recognition and decision making. In both groups, a significant relationship was found between better fear recognition, the development of an advantageous strategy across the IGT and less risk behavior in the last blocks of the IGT. Educational level moderated this relationship in the final block of the IGT. This study has important clinical implications, indicating that impaired decision making and risk behavior after TBI can be preceded by deficits in the processing of fear.

  13. Reliability of intra-oral quantitative sensory testing (QST) in patients with atypical odontalgia and healthy controls - a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baad-Hansen, L; Pigg, M; Yang, G; List, T; Svensson, P; Drangsholt, M

    2015-02-01

    The reliability of comprehensive intra-oral quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol has not been examined systematically in patients with chronic oro-facial pain. The aim of the present multicentre study was to examine test-retest and interexaminer reliability of intra-oral QST measures in terms of absolute values and z-scores as well as within-session coefficients of variation (CV) values in patients with atypical odontalgia (AO) and healthy pain-free controls. Forty-five patients with AO and 68 healthy controls were subjected to bilateral intra-oral gingival QST and unilateral extratrigeminal QST (thenar) on three occasions (twice on 1 day by two different examiners and once approximately 1 week later by one of the examiners). Intra-class correlation coefficients and kappa values for interexaminer and test-retest reliability were computed. Most of the standardised intra-oral QST measures showed fair to excellent interexaminer (9-12 of 13 measures) and test-retest (7-11 of 13 measures) reliability. Furthermore, no robust differences in reliability measures or within-session variability (CV) were detected between patients with AO and the healthy reference group. These reliability results in chronic orofacial pain patients support earlier suggestions based on data from healthy subjects that intra-oral QST is sufficiently reliable for use as a part of a comprehensive evaluation of patients with somatosensory disturbances or neuropathic pain in the trigeminal region. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Gelatin Scaffolds with Controlled Pore Structure and Mechanical Property for Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangwu; Zhang, Qin; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2016-03-01

    Engineering of cartilage tissue in vitro using porous scaffolds and chondrocytes provides a promising approach for cartilage repair. However, nonuniform cell distribution and heterogeneous tissue formation together with weak mechanical property of in vitro engineered cartilage limit their clinical application. In this study, gelatin porous scaffolds with homogeneous and open pores were prepared using ice particulates and freeze-drying. The scaffolds were used to culture bovine articular chondrocytes to engineer cartilage tissue in vitro. The pore structure and mechanical property of gelatin scaffolds could be well controlled by using different ratios of ice particulates to gelatin solution and different concentrations of gelatin. Gelatin scaffolds prepared from ≥70% ice particulates enabled homogeneous seeding of bovine articular chondrocytes throughout the scaffolds and formation of homogeneous cartilage extracellular matrix. While soft scaffolds underwent cellular contraction, stiff scaffolds resisted cellular contraction and had significantly higher cell proliferation and synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycan. Compared with the gelatin scaffolds prepared without ice particulates, the gelatin scaffolds prepared with ice particulates facilitated formation of homogeneous cartilage tissue with significantly higher compressive modulus. The gelatin scaffolds with highly open pore structure and good mechanical property can be used to improve in vitro tissue-engineered cartilage.

  15. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT3) levels in post-mortem brain tissue from patients with depression compared to healthy individuals 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldrick, A; Camara, S; Ilieva, M

    2017-01-01

    The neurotrophic factors (NTF) hypothesis of depression was postulated nearly a decade ago and is nowadays widely acknowledged. Previous reports suggest that cerebral concentrations of NTF may be reduced in suicide victims who received minimal or no antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Recent evidence...... and nucleus caudatus) of 21 individuals - 7 patients of which 4 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and overall age 86.8±5 years who received antidepressant pharmacotherapy (selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors [SSRI]; tricyclic antidepressants [TCA]), 3 patients with MDD without antidepressant...... medication compared to MDD untreated patients and controls. Moreover, we detected a significant decrease of NT3 levels in the parietal cortex of patients suffering from MDD non-treated patients without treatment compared to healthy individuals. Although the limited statistical power due to the small sample...

  16. Working Memory and Motor Activity: A Comparison Across Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Healthy Control Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Sarah E; Matt Alderson, R; Patros, Connor H G; Tarle, Stephanie J; Arrington, Elaine F; Grant, DeMond M

    2018-05-01

    Converging findings from recent research suggest a functional relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related hyperactivity and demands on working memory (WM) in both children and adults. Excessive motor activity such as restlessness and fidgeting are not pathognomonic symptoms of ADHD, however, and are often associated with other diagnoses such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Further, previous research indicates that anticipatory processing associated with anxiety can directly interfere with storage and rehearsal processes of WM. The topographical similarity of excessive motor activity seen in both ADHD and anxiety disorders, as well as similar WM deficits, may indicate a common relationship between WM deficits and increased motor activity. The relationship between objectively measured motor activity (actigraphy) and PH and visuospatial WM demands in adults with ADHD (n = 21), adults with GAD (n = 21), and healthy control adults (n = 20) was examined. Although all groups exhibited significant increases in activity from control to WM conditions, the ADHD group exhibited a disproportionate increase in activity, while activity exhibited by the GAD and healthy control groups was not different. Findings indicate that ADHD-related hyperactivity is uniquely related to WM demands, and appear to suggest that adults with GAD are no more active relative to healthy control adults during a cognitively demanding laboratory task. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Point shear wave elastography of the pancreas in patients with cystic fibrosis: a comparison with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfahler, Matthias Hermann Christian; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Leichsenring, Michael; Graeter, Tilmann; Schmidt, Stefan Andreas; Wendlik, Inka; Lormes, Elisabeth; Schmidberger, Julian; Fabricius, Dorit

    2018-02-19

    Manifestations of cystic fibrosis in the pancreas are gaining in clinical importance as patients live longer. Conventional ultrasonography and point shear wave elastography (pSWE) imaging are non-invasive and readily available diagnostic methods that are easy to perform. The aim of this study was to perform conventional ultrasonography and obtain pSWE values in the pancreases of patients with cystic fibrosis and to compare the findings with those of healthy controls. 27 patients with cystic fibrosis (13 women/14 men; mean age 27.7 ± 13.7 years; range 9-58 years) and 60 healthy control subjects (30 women/30 men; mean age 30.3 ± 10.0 years; range 22-55 years) underwent examinations of the pancreas with conventional ultrasound and pSWE imaging. Patients with cystic fibrosis have an echogenic pancreatic parenchyma. We found cystic lesions of the pancreas in six patients. pSWE imaging of the pancreatic parenchyma gave significantly lower shear wave velocities in patients with cystic fibrosis than in the control group (1.01 m/s vs 1.30 m/s; p cystic fibrosis than in a healthy control population.

  18. Glucose uptake heterogeneity of the leg muscles is similar between patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindred, John H; Ketelhut, Nathaniel B; Rudroff, Thorsten

    2015-02-01

    Difficulties in ambulation are one of the main problems reported by patients with multiple sclerosis. A previous study by our research group showed increased recruitment of muscle groups during walking, but the influence of skeletal muscle properties, such as muscle fiber activity, has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this investigation was to use the novel method of calculating glucose uptake heterogeneity in the leg muscles of patients with multiple sclerosis and compare these results to healthy controls. Eight patients with multiple sclerosis (4 men) and 8 healthy controls (4 men) performed 15 min of treadmill walking at a comfortable self-selected speed following muscle strength tests. Participants were injected with ≈ 8 mCi of [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose during walking after which positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging was performed. No differences in muscle strength were detected between multiple sclerosis and control groups (P>0.27). Within the multiple sclerosis, group differences in muscle volume existed between the stronger and weaker legs in the vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus (Pmuscle group or individual muscle of the legs (P>0.16, P≥0.05). Patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls showed similar muscle fiber activity during walking. Interpretations of these results, with respect to our previous study, suggest that walking difficulties in patients with multiple sclerosis may be more associated with altered central nervous system motor patterns rather than alterations in skeletal muscle properties. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Efficacy of Escitalopram for Hot Flashes in Healthy Menopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ellen W.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Caan, Bette; Sternfeld, Barbara; Cohen, Lee S.; Joffe, Hadine; Carpenter, Janet S.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Larson, Joseph C.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Reed, Susan; Newton, Katherine M.; Sherman, Sheryl; Sammel, Mary D.; La Croix, Andrea Z.

    2011-01-01

    Context Concerns for the risks of hormone therapy have resulted in its decline and a demand for non-hormonal treatments with demonstrated efficacy for hot flashes. Objective Determine the efficacy and tolerability of 10–20 mg/day escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in alleviating the frequency, severity and bother of menopausal hot flashes. Design, Setting and Patients Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel arm trial for 8 weeks in a sample stratified by race (African American n=95; white n=102) and conducted at 4 MsFlash network sites between July 2009 and June 2010. Of 205 women randomized, 194 (95%) completed week 8 (intervention endpoint), and 183 completed post-treatment follow-up. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes were the frequency and severity of hot flashes assessed by prospective daily diaries. Secondary outcomes were hot flash "bother" recorded on daily diaries and clinical improvement (hot flash frequency >=50% decrease from baseline). Results Hot flash frequency was 9.78/day (SD 5.60) at baseline. At week 8, reduction in hot flash frequency was greater in the escitalopram group versus placebo (−4.60, SD 4.28 and −3.20, SD 4.76, respectively, P=0.004). Fifty-five percent of the escitalopram group (versus 36% of the placebo group) reported >=50% decreases in hot flash frequency (P=0.009). Differences in decreases in the severity and bother of hot flashes were significant (P=0.003 and P=0.013, respectively), paralleling the decreases in hot flash frequency. Three weeks after treatment ended, hot flash frequency increased in the escitalopram group to the level of the placebo group, which remained stable in the follow-up interval (P=0.020). Overall discontinuation due to side effects was 4% (7 drug, 2 placebo). Conclusion Escitalopram 10–20 mg/day provides non-hormonal off-label treatment for menopausal hot flashes that is effective and well-tolerated in healthy women. PMID:21245182

  20. Dim light melatonin onset in alcohol-dependent men and women compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Deirdre A; Hairston, Ilana S; Arnedt, J Todd; Hoffmann, Robert F; Armitage, Roseanne; Brower, Kirk J

    2012-02-01

    Sleep disturbances in alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals may persist despite abstinence from alcohol and can influence the course of the disorder. Although the mechanisms of sleep disturbances of AD are not well understood and some evidence suggests dysregulation of circadian rhythms, dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) has not previously been assessed in AD versus healthy control (HC) individuals in a sample that varied by sex and race. The authors assessed 52 AD participants (mean ± SD age: 36.0 ± 11.0 yrs of age, 10 women) who were 3-12 wks since their last drink (abstinence: 57.9 ± 19.3 d) and 19 age- and sex-matched HCs (34.4 ± 10.6 yrs, 5 women). Following a 23:00-06:00 h at-home sleep schedule for at least 5 d and screening/baseline nights in the sleep laboratory, participants underwent a 3-h extension of wakefulness (02:00 h bedtime) during which salivary melatonin samples were collected every 30 min beginning at 19:30 h. The time of DLMO was the primary measure of circadian physiology and was assessed with two commonly used methodologies. There was a slower rate of rise and lower maximal amplitude of the melatonin rhythm in the AD group. DLMO varied by the method used to derive it. Using 3 pg/mL as threshold, no significant differences were found between the AD and HC groups. Using 2 standard deviations above the mean of the first three samples, the DLMO in AD occurred significantly later, 21:02 ± 00:41 h, than in HC, 20:44 ± 00:21 h (t = -2.4, p = .02). Although melatonin in the AD group appears to have a slower rate of rise, using well-established criteria to assess the salivary DLMO did not reveal differences between AD and HC participants. Only when capturing melatonin when it is already rising was DLMO found to be significantly delayed by a mean 18 min in AD participants. Future circadian analyses on alcoholics should account for these methodological caveats.

  1. Sensorimotor Control in Individuals With Idiopathic Neck Pain and Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zoete, Rutger M J; Osmotherly, Peter G; Rivett, Darren A; Farrell, Scott F; Snodgrass, Suzanne J

    2017-06-01

    (1) To identify reported tests used to assess sensorimotor control in individuals with idiopathic neck pain and (2) to investigate whether these tests can quantify differences between individuals with idiopathic neck pain and healthy individuals. Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus. Studies reporting sensorimotor outcomes in individuals with idiopathic neck pain or healthy individuals were identified. There were 1,677 records screened independently by 2 researchers for eligibility: 43 studies were included in the review, with 30 of these studies included in the meta-analysis. Methodologic quality was determined using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Data were extracted using a standardized extraction table. Sensorimotor control was most commonly assessed by joint position error and postural sway. Pooled means for joint position error after cervical rotation in individuals with neck pain (range, 2.2°-9.8°) differed significantly (P=.04) compared with healthy individuals (range, 1.66°-5.1°). Postural sway with eyes open ranged from 4.85 to 10.5cm 2 (neck pain) and 3.5 to 6.6cm 2 (healthy) (P=.16), and postural sway with eyes closed ranged from 2.51 to 16.6cm 2 (neck pain) and 2.74 to 10.9cm 2 (healthy) (P=.30). Individual studies, but not meta-analysis, demonstrated differences between neck pain and healthy groups for postural sway. Other test conditions and other tests were not sufficiently investigated to enable pooling of data. The findings from this review suggest sensorimotor control testing may be clinically useful in individuals with idiopathic neck pain. However, results should be interpreted with caution because clinical differences were small; therefore, further cross-sectional research with larger samples is needed to determine the magnitude of the relation between

  2. Patients cured from craniopharyngioma or nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFMA) suffer similarly from increased daytime somnolence despite normal sleep patterns compared to healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klaauw, Agatha A.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Pereira, Alberto M.; van Kralingen, Klaas W.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; Rabe, Klaus F.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Adults patients previously treated for craniopharyngioma have increased general and physical fatigue compared to healthy controls. This could be related to disturbed sleep patterns. The aim of this study was to compare sleepiness and sleep patterns in those patients to healthy controls and to

  3. Manufacturing of hydrogel biomaterials with controlled mechanical properties for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedadghavami, Armin; Minooei, Farnaz; Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Khetani, Sultan; Rezaei Kolahchi, Ahmad; Mashayekhan, Shohreh; Sanati-Nezhad, Amir

    2017-10-15

    Hydrogels have been recognized as crucial biomaterials in the field of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery applications due to their specific characteristics. These biomaterials benefit from retaining a large amount of water, effective mass transfer, similarity to natural tissues and the ability to form different shapes. However, having relatively poor mechanical properties is a limiting factor associated with hydrogel biomaterials. Controlling the biomechanical properties of hydrogels is of paramount importance. In this work, firstly, mechanical characteristics of hydrogels and methods employed for characterizing these properties are explored. Subsequently, the most common approaches used for tuning mechanical properties of hydrogels including but are not limited to, interpenetrating polymer networks, nanocomposites, self-assembly techniques, and co-polymerization are discussed. The performance of different techniques used for tuning biomechanical properties of hydrogels is further compared. Such techniques involve lithography techniques for replication of tissues with complex mechanical profiles; microfluidic techniques applicable for generating gradients of mechanical properties in hydrogel biomaterials for engineering complex human tissues like intervertebral discs, osteochondral tissues, blood vessels and skin layers; and electrospinning techniques for synthesis of hybrid hydrogels and highly ordered fibers with tunable mechanical and biological properties. We finally discuss future perspectives and challenges for controlling biomimetic hydrogel materials possessing proper biomechanical properties. Hydrogels biomaterials are essential constituting components of engineered tissues with the applications in regenerative medicine and drug delivery. The mechanical properties of hydrogels play crucial roles in regulating the interactions between cells and extracellular matrix and directing the cells phenotype and genotype. Despite

  4. Sleep–Wake Transition in Narcolepsy and Healthy Controls Using a Support Vector Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Julie B; Sorensen, Helge B D; Kempfner, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    .0199) and healthy subjects (P = 0.0265). In addition, the sleep-wake transitions were elevated in hypocretin-deficient patients. It is concluded that the classifier shows high validity for identifying the sleep-wake transition. Narcolepsy with cataplexy patients have more sleep-wake transitions during night...

  5. Clonal structure of Staphylococcus aureus colonizing children with sickle cell anaemia and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaumburg, F.; Biallas, B.; Alabi, A. S.; Grobusch, M. P.; Feugap, E. N.; Lell, B.; Mellmann, A.; Peters, G.; Kremsner, P. G.; Becker, K.; Adegnika, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) might carry hospital-associated bacterial lineages due to frequent hospital stays and antibiotic treatments. In this study we compared Staphylococcus aureus from SCA patients (n=73) and healthy children (n=143) in a cross-sectional study in Gabon. S. aureus

  6. Endurance exercise-induced changes in BNP concentrations in cardiovascular patients versus healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aengevaeren, V.L.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Kimmenade, R.R.J. van; Boer, M.J. de; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Healthy athletes demonstrated increased B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations following exercise, but it is unknown whether these responses are exaggerated in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) or disease (CVD). We compared exercise-induced increases in BNP

  7. N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide response to acute exercise in depressed patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Ströhle, Andreas; Westrin, Asa

    2011-01-01

    that patients with depression would have an attenuated N-terminal proANP (NT-proANP) response to acute exercise compared to healthy controls. Secondly, we aimed to assess the effect of antidepressants on NT-proANP response to acute exercise. METHODS: We examined 132 outpatients with mild to moderate depression......BACKGROUND: The dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in major depression includes hyperactivity and reduced feedback inhibition. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is able to reduce the HPA-axis response to stress and has an anxiolytic effect in rodents and humans. We hypothesized...... (ICD-10) and 44 healthy controls, group matched for age, sex, and BMI. We used an incremental bicycle ergometer test as a physical stressor. Blood samples were drawn at rest, at exhaustion, and 15, 30, and 60min post-exercise. RESULTS: The NT-proANP response to physical exercise differed between...

  8. N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide response to acute exercise in depressed patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Ströhle, Andreas; Westrin, Asa

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in major depression includes hyperactivity and reduced feedback inhibition. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is able to reduce the HPA-axis response to stress and has an anxiolytic effect in rodents and humans. We hypothesized...... that patients with depression would have an attenuated N-terminal proANP (NT-proANP) response to acute exercise compared to healthy controls. Secondly, we aimed to assess the effect of antidepressants on NT-proANP response to acute exercise. METHODS: We examined 132 outpatients with mild to moderate depression...... (ICD-10) and 44 healthy controls, group matched for age, sex, and BMI. We used an incremental bicycle ergometer test as a physical stressor. Blood samples were drawn at rest, at exhaustion, and 15, 30, and 60min post-exercise. RESULTS: The NT-proANP response to physical exercise differed between...

  9. [Styles of interpersonal conflict in patients with panic disorder, alcoholism, rheumatoid arthritis and healthy controls: a cluster analysis study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eher, R; Windhaber, J; Rau, H; Schmitt, M; Kellner, E

    2000-05-01

    Conflict and conflict resolution in intimate relationships are not only among the most important factors influencing relationship satisfaction but are also seen in association with clinical symptoms. Styles of conflict will be assessed in patients suffering from panic disorder with and without agoraphobia, in alcoholics and in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. 176 patients and healthy controls filled out the Styles of Conflict Inventory and questionnaires concerning severity of clinical symptoms. A cluster analysis revealed 5 types of conflict management. Healthy controls showed predominantely assertive and constructive styles, patients with panic disorder showed high levels of cognitive and/or behavioral aggression. Alcoholics showed high levels of repressed aggression, and patients with rheumatoid arthritis often did not exhibit any aggression during conflict. 5 Clusters of conflict pattern have been identified by cluster analysis. Each patient group showed considerable different patterns of conflict management.

  10. Gram-negative bacteria account for main differences between faecal microbiota from patients with ulcerative colitis and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Brynskov, J.; Steenholdt, C.

    2012-01-01

    process of the gut mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the faecal microbiota in patients either with UC in remission (n=6) or with active disease (n=6), and in healthy controls (n=6). The composition of Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria was examined. Antigenic structures...... of Gram-negative bacteria such as lipopolysaccharides have been related to the inflammatory responses and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Dice cluster analysis and principal component analysis of faecal microbiota profiles obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative...... PCR, respectively, revealed that the composition of faecal bacteria from UC patients with active disease differed from the healthy controls and that this difference should be ascribed to Gram-negative bacteria. The analysis did not show any clear grouping of UC patients in remission. Even...

  11. Heart over mind: metabolic control of white adipose tissue and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Michinari; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2014-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the heart controls the metabolism of peripheral organs. Olson and colleagues previously demonstrated that miR‐208a controls systemic energy homeostasis through the regulation of MED13 in cardiomyocytes (Grueter et al, 2012). In their follow‐up study in this issue of EMBO Molecular Medicine, white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver are identified as the physiological targets of cardiac MED13 signaling, most likely through cardiac‐derived circulating factors, which boost energy consumption by upregulating metabolic gene expression and increasing mitochondrial numbers (Baskin et al, 2014). In turn, increased energy expenditure in WAT and the liver confers leanness. These findings strengthen the evidence of metabolic crosstalk between the heart and peripheral tissues through cardiokines and also set the stage for the development of novel treatments for metabolic syndrome.

  12. Poorer elbow proprioception in patients with lateral epicondylitis than in healthy controls: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, B.; Lund, H.; Hansen, K.

    2008-01-01

    Two groups of women, 15 patients with lateral epicondylitis and 21 healthy controls, were studied to compare proprioception in the elbows and knees between the groups. Outcome measures were absolute error and variable error for joint position sense and for threshold to detection of a passive...... movement. Both absolute error and variable error of threshold to detection of a passive movement were greater in the lateral epicondylitis-diagnosed elbows than in the controls' elbows (lateral epicondylitis, 1.8 degrees vs controls 1.1 degrees, P = .026; lateral epicondylitis, 0.8 degrees vs controls 0.......3 degrees, P = .015), and there was a tendency toward a greater absolute error of joint position sense compared with the control elbows (lateral epicondylitis, 8.2 degrees vs controls, 5.6 degrees; P = .078). Absolute error of joint position sense was greater in the elbows than in the knees of the lateral...

  13. Peer-led healthy lifestyle program in supportive housing: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Stefancic, Ana; O'Hara, Kathleen; El-Bassel, Nabila; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Luchsinger, José A; Gates, Lauren; Younge, Richard; Wall, Melanie; Weinstein, Lara; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2015-09-02

    The risk for obesity is twice as high in people with serious mental illness (SMI) compared to the general population. Racial and ethnic minority status contribute additional health risks. The aim of this study is to describe the protocol of a Hybrid Trial Type 1 design that will test the effectiveness and examine the implementation of a peer-led healthy lifestyle intervention in supportive housing agencies serving diverse clients with serious mental illness who are overweight or obese. The Hybrid Trial Type 1 design will combine a randomized effectiveness trial with a mixed-methods implementation study. The effectiveness trial will test the health impacts of a peer-led healthy lifestyle intervention versus usual care in supportive housing agencies. The healthy lifestyle intervention is derived from the Group Lifestyle Balanced Program, lasts 12 months, and will be delivered by trained peer specialists. Repeated assessments will be conducted at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18 months post randomization. A mixed-methods (e.g., structured interviews, focus groups, surveys) implementation study will be conducted to examine multi-level implementation factors and processes that can inform the use of the healthy lifestyle intervention in routine practice, using data from agency directors, program managers, staff, and peer specialists before, during, and after the implementation of the effectiveness trial. This paper describes the use of a hybrid research design that blends effectiveness trial methodologies and implementation science rarely used when studying the physical health of people with SMI and can serve as a model for integrating implementation science and health disparities research. Rigorously testing effectiveness and exploring the implementation process are both necessary steps to establish the evidence for large-scale delivery of peer-led healthy lifestyle intervention to improve the physical health of racial/ethnic minorities with SMI. www

  14. Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with selective attention and inhibitory control in healthy male high-school students

    OpenAIRE

    Wengaard, Eivind Johannessen; Kristoffersen, Morten; Harris, Anette; Gundersen, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown associations of physical fitness and cognition in children and in younger and older adults. However, knowledge about associations in high-school adolescents and young adults is sparse. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of physical fitness, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (V⋅O2max), muscle mass, weekly training, and cognitive function in the executive domains of selective attention and inhibitory control, in healthy male ...

  15. The effects of increased dietary protein yogurt snack in the afternoon on appetite control and eating initiation in healthy women

    OpenAIRE

    Ortinau, Laura C; Culp, Julie M; Hoertel, Heather A; Douglas, Steve M; Leidy, Heather J

    2013-01-01

    Background A large portion of daily intake comes from snacking. One of the increasingly common, healthier snacks includes Greek-style yogurt, which is typically higher in protein than regular yogurt. This study evaluated whether a 160?kcal higher-protein (HP) Greek-style yogurt snack improves appetite control, satiety, and delays subsequent eating compared to an isocaloric normal protein (NP) regular yogurt in healthy women. This study also identified the factors that predict the onset of eat...

  16. A cross-sectional observational study comparing foot and ankle characteristics in people with stroke and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Kunkel, Dorit; Potter, Julia; Mamode, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and compare foot and ankle characteristics in people with stroke and healthy controls; and between stroke fallers and non-fallers.Methods: Participants were recruited from community groups and completed standardized tests assessing sensation, foot posture, foot function, ankle dorsiflexion and first metatarsal phalangeal joint range of motion (1st MPJ ROM), hallux valgus presence and severity.Results: Twenty-three stroke participants (mean age...

  17. Pre-schoolers suffering from psychiatric disorders show increased cortisol secretion and poor sleep compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzinger, Martin; Brand, Serge; Perren, Sonja; von Wyl, Anges; Stadelmann, Stephanie; von Klitzing, Kai; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2012-05-01

    Various studies of child cortisol secretion and sleep show a close association between poor sleep, deterioration of the HPA axis and unfavorable psychological functioning. However, there is little evidence as to whether these associations are clearly present in pre-school children suffering from psychiatric disorders. A total of 30 pre-schoolers suffering from psychiatric disorders (anxiety, adjustment disorders, emotional and attachment disorder; hyperactivity or oppositional disorder) and 35 healthy controls took part in the study. Saliva cortisol secretion was assessed both at baseline and under challenge conditions. Sleep was assessed via activity monitoring for seven consecutive days and nights, using a digital movement-measuring instrument. Parents and teachers completed questionnaires assessing children's cognitive, emotional and social functioning. The Berkeley Puppet Interview provided child-based reports of cognitive-emotional processes. Compared to healthy controls, children suffering from psychiatric disorders had much higher cortisol secretion both at baseline and under challenge conditions. Sleep was also more disturbed, and parents and teachers rated children suffering from psychiatric disorders as cognitively, emotionally and behaviorally more impaired, relative to healthy controls. Children with psychiatric disorders reported being more bullied and victimized. In five-year old children the presence of psychiatric disorders is reflected not only at psychological, social and behavioral, but also at neuroendocrine and sleep-related levels. It is likely that these children remain at increased risk for suffering from psychiatric difficulties later in life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Meta-Analysis of Facial Emotion Recognition in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia: Comparison With Alzheimer Disease and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre; Velakoulis, Dennis; Walterfang, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Behavioral disturbances and lack of empathy are distinctive clinical features of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) in comparison to Alzheimer disease (AD). The aim of this meta-analytic review was to compare facial emotion recognition performances of bvFTD with healthy controls and AD. The current meta-analysis included a total of 19 studies and involved comparisons of 288 individuals with bvFTD and 329 healthy controls and 162 bvFTD and 147 patients with AD. Facial emotion recognition was significantly impaired in bvFTD in comparison to the healthy controls (d = 1.81) and AD (d = 1.23). In bvFTD, recognition of negative emotions, especially anger (d = 1.48) and disgust (d = 1.41), were severely impaired. Emotion recognition was significantly impaired in bvFTD in comparison to AD in all emotions other than happiness. Impairment of emotion recognition is a relatively specific feature of bvFTD. Routine assessment of social-cognitive abilities including emotion recognition can be helpful in better differentiating between cortical dementias such as bvFTD and AD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Hypothalamic BOLD response to glucose intake and hypothalamic volume are similar in anorexia nervosa and healthy control subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Van Opstal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inconsistent findings about the neurobiology of Anorexia Nervosa (AN hinder the development of effective treatments for this severe mental disorder. Therefore the need arises for elucidation of neurobiological factors involved in the pathophysiology of AN. The hypothalamus plays a key role in the neurobiological processes that govern food intake and energy homeostasis, processes that are disturbed in anorexia nervosa (AN. The present study will assess the hypothalamic response to energy intake and the hypothalamic structure in patients with AN and healthy controls. Methods. 10 women aged 18-30 years diagnosed with AN and 11 healthy, lean (BMI <23 kg/m2 women in the same age range were recruited. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to determine function of the hypothalamus in response to glucose. Structural MRI was used to determine differences in hypothalamic volume and local grey volume using manual segmentation and voxel-based morphometry.Results. No differences were found in hypothalamic volume and neuronal activity in response to a glucose load between the patients and controls. Whole brain structural analysis showed a significant decrease in grey matter volume in the cingulate cortex in the AN patients, bilaterally.Conclusions. We argue that in spite of various known changes in the hypothalamus the direct hypothalamic response to glucose intake is similar in AN patients and healthy controls.

  20. Physical Exercise Keeps the Brain Connected: Biking Increases White Matter Integrity in Patients With Schizophrenia and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatkova, Alena; Mandl, René C W; Scheewe, Thomas W; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that learning a new skill leads to structural changes in the brain. However, it is unclear whether it is the acquisition or continuous practicing of the skill that causes this effect and whether brain connectivity of patients with schizophrenia can benefit from such practice. We examined the effect of 6 months exercise on a stationary bicycle on the brain in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Biking is an endemic skill in the Netherlands and thus offers an ideal situation to disentangle the effects of learning vs practice. The 33 participating patients with schizophrenia and 48 healthy individuals were assigned to either one of two conditions, ie, physical exercise or life-as-usual, balanced for diagnosis. Diffusion tensor imaging brain scans were made prior to and after intervention. We demonstrate that irrespective of diagnosis regular physical exercise of an overlearned skill, such as bicycling, significantly increases the integrity, especially of motor functioning related, white matter fiber tracts whereas life-as-usual leads to a decrease in fiber integrity. Our findings imply that exercise of an overlearned physical skill improves brain connectivity in patients and healthy individuals. This has important implications for understanding the effect of fitness programs on the brain in both healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, the outcome may even apply to the nonphysical realm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Comparison of contrast-to-noise ratios of transmission and dark-field signal in grating-based X-ray imaging for healthy murine lung tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, Felix; Schleede, Simone; Hahn, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: An experimental comparison of the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between transmission and dark-field signals in grating-based X-ray imaging for ex-vivo murine lung tissue. Materials and Methods: Lungs from three healthy mice were imaged ex vivo using a laser-driven compact synchrotron X-ray source. Background noise of transmission and dark-field signal was quantified by measuring the standard deviation in a region of interest (ROI) placed in a homogeneous area outside the specimen. Image contrast was quantified by measuring the signal range in rectangular ROIs placed in central and peripheral lung parenchyma. The relative contrast gain (RCG) of dark-field over transmission images was calculated as CNRDF / CNRT. Results: In all images, there was a trend for contrast-to-noise ratios of dark-field images (CNRDF) to be higher than for transmission images (CNRT) for all ROIs (median 61 vs. 38, p = 0.10), but the difference was statistically significant only for peripheral ROIs (61 vs. 32, p = 0.03). Median RCG was >1 for all ROIs (1.84). RCG values were significantly smaller for central ROIs than for peripheral ROIs (1.34 vs. 2.43, p = 0.03). Conclusion: The contrast-to-noise ratio of dark-field images compares more favorably to the contrast-to-noise ratio of transmission images for peripheral lung regions as compared to central regions. For any specific specimen, a calculation of the RCG allows comparing which X-ray modality (dark-field or transmission imaging) produces better contrast-to-noise characteristics in a well-defined ROI. (orig.)

  2. Sex-related and tissue-specific effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy: assessment in a large longitudinal cohort of healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin eDuriez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy in a large cohort of healthy elderly participants (65 to 80 years. MRI was used for measuring whole brain (WB, gray matter (GM, white matter (WM, and hippocampus (HIP volumes at study entry time (baseline, N=1,451, and the annualized rates of variation of these volumes using a 4-year follow-up MRI in a subpart of the cohort (N=1,111. Effects of smoking status (never, former, or current smoker at study entry and of lifetime tobacco consumption on these brain phenotypes were studied using sex-stratified AN(COVAs, including other health parameters as covariates. At baseline, male current smokers had lower GM, while female current smokers had lower WM. In addition, female former smokers exhibited reduced baseline HIP, the reduction being correlated with lifetime tobacco consumption. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated that current smokers, whether men or women, had larger annualized rates of HIP atrophy, as compared to either current or former smokers, independent of their lifetime consumption of tobacco. There was no effect of smoking on the annualized rate of WM loss. In all cases, measured sizes of these tobacco-smoking effects were of the same order of magnitude than those of age, and larger than effect sizes of any other covariate. These results demonstrate gender- and tissue specific effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy. They indicate that tobacco smoking is a major factor of brain aging, with notable effects on the hippocampus annualized-rate of atrophy after the age of 65.

  3. Effects of emotionally affect adult and baby' photographs in healthy controls and schizophrenic patients evaluating by exploratory eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Chizuko; Morita, Kiichiro; Shoji, Yoshihisa; Fujiki, Ryo; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Asaumi, Yasue; Uchimura, Naohisa

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between mother and baby is of fundamental importance in the development of cognitive function and emotion. In this study we investigated the effects of affective photographs of a mother and baby (crying or smiling faces) and other stimuli (neutral mother or baby faces) on visual cognitive function in schizophrenic patents. We recorded exploratory eye movements in 22 healthy controls and 22 age-matched schizophrenic patients. Total number of right and left field gaze points (right TNGP, left TNGP) in the visual fields were determined using an eye-mark recorder as subjects viewed affectively charged or neutral photographs (crying, smiling or neutral faces). Left TNGP for all mother photographs (crying, smiling or neutral) were significantly larger in controls than patients, and right TNGP for neutral mother photographs were significantly larger in controls than in patients. Right TNGP for photographs of smiling babies were significantly larger in controls than patients, and left TNGP for photographs of both smiling and crying babies were significantly larger in controls than patients. Within the patient group, right TNGP were significantly larger than left TNGP for all mother photographs (crying, smiling or neutral). Left TNGP for photographs of mothers and babies correlated negatively with negative symptom scores. These results suggest that exploratory eye movements when viewing emotionally laded twin stimuli such as photographs of a mother and baby are a useful marker of visual cognitive function in both healthy controls and schizophrenic patients.

  4. Early traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history, and birth risk factors in patients with depressive disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Gutermann, Julia; Peter, Helmut; Wedekind, Dirk

    2013-02-01

    Only few studies have compared the frequency of traumatic life events during childhood in inpatients with depression with a healthy control group. Consecutively admitted inpatients with depression (n = 79), most of whom belonged to the melancholic subtype (n = 73; 92.4%), and healthy controls (n = 110) were investigated using a comprehensive retrospective interview with 203 questions regarding childhood traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history of psychiatric disorders and birth risk factors. Depressed patients had significantly more severe traumatic events (mean score 1.33; SD 1.4) than control subjects (0.85; SD 1.2) on a 0-10 point "severe trauma scale". 70.9% (n = 56) of the depressed patients, but only 48.2% (n = 53) of the controls reported at least one severe traumatic event. When looking at single events, only few differences were found between patients and controls. Compared to controls, patients described significantly higher rates of psychiatric disorders in their families, in particular depression. Parental rearing styles were rated as more unfavorable in the patient group. In a logistic regression model, of all possible etiological factors examined, only a family history of psychiatric disorders showed a significant influence (OR = 3.6). Melancholic depression seems to be less associated with traumatic events than other psychiatric disorders.

  5. Regulatory B and T cell responses in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases occur due to faulty self-tolerance. Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) are classic examples of organ-specific autoimmune diseases. GD is an auto-antibody-mediated disease where autoantibodies are produced against the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR...... (Bregs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) were investigated in the context of GD and HT. First, we studied the role of the thyroid self-antigen, thyroglobulin (TG) in healthy donors. The self-antigen TG, but not the foreign recall antigen tetanus toxoid (TT), was able to induce interleukin 10 (IL-10......) secretion by B cells and CD4+ T cells. These IL-10 producing B cells (B10 cells) from healthy donors were enriched with the CD5+ and CD24hi phenotype. In addition, TG was able to induce IL-6 production by B cells. In contrast, TT induced production of Th1-type pro-inflammatory cytokines including interferon...

  6. Mechanical control of notochord morphogenesis by extra-embryonic tissues in mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imuta, Yu; Koyama, Hiroshi; Shi, Dongbo; Eiraku, Mototsugu; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Mammalian embryos develop in coordination with extraembryonic tissues, which support embryonic development by implanting embryos into the uterus, supplying nutrition, providing a confined niche, and also providing patterning signals to embryos. Here, we show that in mouse embryos, the expansion of the amniotic cavity (AC), which is formed between embryonic and extraembryonic tissues, provides the mechanical forces required for a type of morphogenetic movement of the notochord known as convergent extension (CE) in which the cells converge to the midline and the tissue elongates along the antero-posterior (AP) axis. The notochord is stretched along the AP axis, and the expansion of the AC is required for CE. Both mathematical modeling and physical simulation showed that a rectangular morphology of the early notochord caused the application of anisotropic force along the AP axis to the notochord through the isotropic expansion of the AC. AC expansion acts upstream of planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, which regulates CE movement. Our results highlight the importance of extraembryonic tissues as a source of the forces that control the morphogenesis of embryos. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Community Violence Exposure and Conduct Problems in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Healthy Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Kersten; Noortje Vriends; Martin Steppan; Nora M. Raschle; Martin Praetzlich; Helena Oldenhof; Robert Vermeiren; Lucres Jansen; Katharina Ackermann; Anka Bernhard; Anne Martinelli; Karen Gonzalez-Madruga; Ignazio Puzzo; Amy Wells; Jack C. Rogers

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD). Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also te...

  8. A study of the healthy standard for radiation controlling insect of almond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Wang Weiguo; Li Fengmei

    1992-01-01

    The result of healthy standard research for disinfestation insects of almond by γ-ray irradiation is described. The mortality of insects is more effective by using 1.0 kGy dose. The comparison of good product rate between irradiated and un-irradiated has been studied. Result indicates that good product rate of irradiated sample is 20% higher than unirradiated. In addition, there are no significant difference between irradiated and unirradiated samples on nutrition and chemical parameters

  9. Frontal assessment battery in a Brazilian sample of healthy controls: normative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Beato

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To show data on the performance of healthy subjects in the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB, correlating with gender, age, education, and scores in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. METHODS: Two hundred and seventy-five healthy individuals with mean age of 66.4±10.6 years-old were evaluated. Mean total FAB scores were established according to the educational level. RESULTS: Mean total FAB scores according to the educational level were 10.9±2.3, for one to three years; 12.8±2.7, for four to seven years; 13.8±2.2, for eight to 11 years; and 15.3±2.3, for 12 or more years. Total FAB scores correlated significantly with education (r=0.47; p<0.0001 and MMSE scores (r=0.39; p<0.0001. No correlation emerged between FAB scores, age, and gender. CONCLUSION: In this group of healthy subjects, the Brazilian version of the FAB proved to be influenced by the education level, but not by age and gender.

  10. Flexibility of Knee Joint Muscles in Women with Knee Osteoarthritis and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Abolahrari Shirazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis is one of the most common diseases in synovial joints. Due to high loading forces during weight-bearing activities, the knee joint is prone to degenerative processes. This study aimed to compare the flexibility of muscles around the knee joint in patients with knee osteoarthritis with those of healthy individuals. Methods: Twenty-three women with bilateral knee osteoarthritis and 23 healthy women matched with the patient group for age, height and weight participated in this study. Flexibility of the quadriceps, hamstring, iliotibial band, adductor and gastrocnemius muscles was evaluated with a goniometric device. Pain intensity was assessed with a visual analogue scale. The data were analyzed with independent t-tests to compare the two groups, and Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to correlate muscle flexibility and pain intensity. Results: significant lower flexibility of the bilateral quadriceps muscles was found in patients compared to healthy women (P<0.05. No significant differences were detected between groups regarding other muscles. Quadriceps flexibility correlated significantly with pain intensity in patients (P<0.001. Conclusion: In patients with osteoarthritis, quadriceps flexibility may be decreased although other muscles may remain unaffected. Quadriceps stretching is thus a potentially important component of treatment, which may influence pain reduction in these patients.

  11. Targeted vaccination in healthy school children - Can primary school vaccination alone control influenza?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorrington, Dominic; Jit, Mark; Eames, Ken

    2015-10-05

    The UK commenced an extension to the seasonal influenza vaccination policy in autumn 2014 that will eventually see all healthy children between the ages of 2-16 years offered annual influenza vaccination. Models suggest that the new policy will be both highly effective at reducing the burden of influenza as well as cost-effective. We explore whether targeting vaccination at either primary or secondary schools would be more effective and/or cost-effective than the current strategy. An age-structured deterministic transmission dynamic SEIR-type mathematical model was used to simulate a national influenza outbreak in England. Costs including GP consultations, hospitalisations due to influenza and vaccinations were compared to potential gains in quality-adjusted life years achieved through vaccinating healthy children. Costs and benefits of the new JCVI vaccination policy were estimated over a single season, and compared to the hypothesised new policies of targeted and heterogeneous vaccination. All potential vaccination policies were highly cost-effective. Influenza transmission can be eliminated for a particular season by vaccinating both primary and secondary school children, but not by vaccinating only one group. The most cost-effective policy overall is heterogeneous vaccination coverage with 48% uptake in primary schools and 34% in secondary schools. The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation can consider a modification to their policy of offering seasonal influenza vaccinations to all healthy children of ages 2-16 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Healthy Beyond Pregnancy, a Web-Based Intervention to Improve Adherence to Postpartum Care: Randomized Controlled Feasibility Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Katherine Park; Donovan, Heidi; Wang, Stephanie; Weaver, Carrie; Grove, Jillian Rae; Facco, Francesca Lucia

    2017-10-10

    During the postpartum visit, health care providers address issues with short- and long-term implications for maternal and child health. Women with Medicaid insurance are less likely to return for a postpartum visit compared with women with private insurance. Behavioral economics acknowledges that people do not make exclusively rational choices, rather immediate gratification, cognitive and psychological biases, and social norms influence decision making. Drawing on insights from decision science, behavioral economists have examined how these biases can be modulated through carefully designed interventions. We have developed a Web-based tool, Healthy Beyond Pregnancy, that incorporates empirically derived concepts of behavioral economics to improve adherence rates to the postpartum visit. The primary objectives of this pilot study were to (1) refine and assess the usability of Healthy Beyond Pregnancy and (2) assess the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the intervention. We used a multistep process and multidisciplinary team of maternal-fetal medicine physicians, a behavioral economist, and researchers with expertise in behavioral interventions to design Healthy Beyond Pregnancy. We assessed the usability of the program with the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ), a validated 7-point scale, and semistructured interviews with postpartum women. We then conducted a feasibility trial to determine the proportion of eligible women who were willing to participate in an RCT of Healthy Beyond Pregnancy and the proportion of women willing to complete the Web-based program. Exploratory outcomes of the pilot trial included attendance at the postpartum visit, uptake of long-acting reversible contraception, and uptake of any contraception. The median PSSUQ score for Healthy Beyond Pregnancy was 6.5 (interquartile range: 6.1-7) demonstrating high usability. Semistructured interviews (n=10) provided in-depth comments about users' experience and

  13. VWF mutations and new sequence variations identified in healthy controls are more frequent in the African-American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellissimo, Daniel B; Christopherson, Pamela A; Flood, Veronica H; Gill, Joan Cox; Friedman, Kenneth D; Haberichter, Sandra L; Shapiro, Amy D; Abshire, Thomas C; Leissinger, Cindy; Hoots, W Keith; Lusher, Jeanne M; Ragni, Margaret V; Montgomery, Robert R

    2012-03-01

    Diagnosis and classification of VWD is aided by molecular analysis of the VWF gene. Because VWF polymorphisms have not been fully characterized, we performed VWF laboratory testing and gene sequencing of 184 healthy controls with a negative bleeding history. The controls included 66 (35.9%) African Americans (AAs). We identified 21 new sequence variations, 13 (62%) of which occurred exclusively in AAs and 2 (G967D, T2666M) that were found in 10%-15% of the AA samples, suggesting they are polymorphisms. We identified 14 sequence variations reported previously as VWF mutations, the majority of which were type 1 mutations. These controls had VWF Ag levels within the normal range, suggesting that these sequence variations might not always reduce plasma VWF levels. Eleven mutations were found in AAs, and the frequency of M740I, H817Q, and R2185Q was 15%-18%. Ten AA controls had the 2N mutation H817Q; 1 was homozygous. The average factor VIII level in this group was 99 IU/dL, suggesting that this variation may confer little or no clinical symptoms. This study emphasizes the importance of sequencing healthy controls to understand ethnic-specific sequence variations so that asymptomatic sequence variations are not misidentified as mutations in other ethnic or racial groups.

  14. Alteration patterns of brain glucose metabolism: comparisons of healthy controls, subjective memory impairment and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Uk; Choi, Eun Kyoung; Oh, Jin Kyoung; Chung, Yong-An; Chung, Sung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Some groups have focused on the detection and management of subjective memory impairment (SMI) as the stage that precedes mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, there have been few clinical studies that have examined biomarkers of SMI to date. To investigate the differences in glucose metabolism as a prodromal marker of dementia in patients with SMI, MCI, and healthy controls using brain F-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Sixty-eight consecutive patients with SMI, 47 patients with MCI, and 42 age-matched healthy subjects were recruited. All subjects underwent FDG-PET and detailed neuropsychological testing. FDG-PET images were analyzed using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM) program. FDG-PET analysis showed glucose hypometabolism in the periventricular regions of patients with SMI and in the parietal, precentral frontal, and periventricular regions of patients with MCI compared with healthy controls. Interestingly, hypometabolism on FDG-PET was noted in the parietal and precentral frontal regions in MCI patients compared to SMI patients. The results suggest that hypometabolism in the periventricular regions as seen on FDG-PET may play a role as a predictive biomarker of pre-dementia, and the extension of reduced glucose metabolism into parietal regions likely reflects progression of cognitive deterioration. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014.

  15. Central Arterial Hemodynamic Effects of Dark Chocolate Ingestion in Young Healthy People: A Randomized and Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, T.; Maldonado, J.; Laranjeiro, M.; Coutinho, R.; Cardoso, E.; Andrade, I.; Conde, J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to assess the vascular benefits of dark chocolate in healthy and young individuals. Methods. A randomized and controlled trial was carried out involving 60 healthy volunteers, randomized into two groups: control group (CG; n = 30) and intervention group (IG; n = 30). The IG ingested a daily dosage of 10 g of dark chocolate (>75% cocoa) for a month. Blood pressure (BP), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), arterial stiffness index (ASI), aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), and pulse wave analysis (PWA) were assessed at baseline and one week after the one-month intervention period. Results. Arterial function improved after intervention in the IG, with PWV decreasing from 6.13 ± 0.41 m/s to 5.83 ± 0.53 m/s (P = 0.02), with no significant differences observed in the CG. A significant decrease in ASI (0.16 ± 0.01 to 0.13 ± 0.01; P chocolate (>75% cocoa) during a month significantly improves vascular function in young and healthy individuals. PMID:24982813

  16. Central Arterial Hemodynamic Effects of Dark Chocolate Ingestion in Young Healthy People: A Randomized and Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to assess the vascular benefits of dark chocolate in healthy and young individuals. Methods. A randomized and controlled trial was carried out involving 60 healthy volunteers, randomized into two groups: control group (CG; n=30 and intervention group (IG; n=30. The IG ingested a daily dosage of 10 g of dark chocolate (>75% cocoa for a month. Blood pressure (BP, flow-mediated dilation (FMD, arterial stiffness index (ASI, aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV, and pulse wave analysis (PWA were assessed at baseline and one week after the one-month intervention period. Results. Arterial function improved after intervention in the IG, with PWV decreasing from 6.13±0.41 m/s to 5.83±0.53 m/s (P=0.02, with no significant differences observed in the CG. A significant decrease in ASI (0.16±0.01 to 0.13±0.01; P75% cocoa during a month significantly improves vascular function in young and healthy individuals.

  17. Comparison of changes in oxygenated hemoglobin during the tree-drawing task between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Shinya; Shoji, Yoshihisa; Morita, Kiichiro; Igimi, Hiroyasu; Sato, Mamoru; Ishii, Youhei; Kondo, Akihiko; Uchimura, Naohisa

    2018-01-01

    Tree-drawing test is used as a projective psychological test that expresses the abnormal internal experience in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Despite the widely accepted view that the cognitive function is involved in characteristic tree-drawing in patients with SZ, no study has psychophysiologically examined it. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of cognitive function during tree-drawing in patients with SZ. For that purpose, we evaluated the brain function in patients with SZ during a tree-drawing task by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and compared them with those in healthy controls. The subjects were 28 healthy controls and 28 patients with SZ. Changes in the oxygenated hemoglobin ([oxy-Hb]) concentration in both the groups during the task of drawing a tree imagined freely (free-drawing task) and the task of copying an illustration of a tree (copying task) were measured by using NIRS. Because of the difference between the task conditions, [oxy-Hb] levels in controls during the free-drawing task were higher than that during the copying task at the bilateral frontal pole regions and left inferior frontal region. Because of the difference between the groups, [oxy-Hb] levels at the left middle frontal region, bilateral inferior frontal regions, bilateral inferior parietal regions, and left superior temporal region during the free-drawing task in patients were lower than that in controls. [oxy-Hb] during the tree-drawing task in patients with SZ was lower than that in healthy controls. Our results suggest that brain dysfunction in patients with SZ might be associated with their tree-drawing.

  18. Prickle isoforms control the direction of tissue polarity by microtubule independent and dependent mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Sharp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Planar cell polarity signaling directs the polarization of cells within the plane of many epithelia. While these tissues exhibit asymmetric localization of a set of core module proteins, in Drosophila, more than one mechanism links the direction of core module polarization to the tissue axes. One signaling system establishes a polarity bias in the parallel, apical microtubules upon which vesicles containing core proteins traffic. Swapping expression of the differentially expressed Prickle isoforms, Prickle and Spiny-legs, reverses the direction of core module polarization. Studies in the proximal wing and the anterior abdomen indicated that this results from their differential control of microtubule polarity. Prickle and Spiny-legs also control the direction of polarization in the distal wing (D-wing and the posterior abdomen (P-abd. We report here that this occurs without affecting microtubule polarity in these tissues. The direction of polarity in the D-wing is therefore likely determined by a novel mechanism independent of microtubule polarity. In the P-abd, Prickle and Spiny-legs interpret at least two directional cues through a microtubule-polarity-independent mechanism.

  19. A Nodal-independent and tissue-intrinsic mechanism controls heart-looping chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Emily S.; Verhoeven, Manon; Lagendijk, Anne Karine; Tessadori, Federico; Smith, Kelly; Choorapoikayil, Suma; den Hertog, Jeroen; Bakkers, Jeroen

    2013-11-01

    Breaking left-right symmetry in bilateria is a major event during embryo development that is required for asymmetric organ position, directional organ looping and lateralized organ function in the adult. Asymmetric expression of Nodal-related genes is hypothesized to be the driving force behind regulation of organ laterality. Here we identify a Nodal-independent mechanism that drives asymmetric heart looping in zebrafish embryos. In a unique mutant defective for the Nodal-related southpaw gene, preferential dextral looping in the heart is maintained, whereas gut and brain asymmetries are randomized. As genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Nodal signalling does not abolish heart asymmetry, a yet undiscovered mechanism controls heart chirality. This mechanism is tissue intrinsic, as explanted hearts maintain ex vivo retain chiral looping behaviour and require actin polymerization and myosin II activity. We find that Nodal signalling regulates actin gene expression, supporting a model in which Nodal signalling amplifies this tissue-intrinsic mechanism of heart looping.

  20. Modeling and control of tissue compression and temperature for automation in robot-assisted surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Utkarsh; Li, Baichun; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is being used widely due to its various benefits that includes reduced patient trauma and increased dexterity and ergonomics for the operating surgeon. Making the whole or part of the surgical procedure autonomous increases patient safety and will enable the robotic surgery platform to be used in telesurgery. In this work, an Electrosurgery procedure that involves tissue compression and application of heat such as the coaptic vessel closure has been automated. A MIMO nonlinear model characterizing the tissue stiffness and conductance under compression was feedback linearized and tuned PID controllers were used to control the system to achieve both the displacement and temperature constraints. A reference input for both the constraints were chosen as a ramp and hold trajectory which reflect the real constraints that exist in an actual surgical procedure. Our simulations showed that the controllers successfully tracked the reference trajectories with minimal deviation and in finite time horizon. The MIMO system with controllers developed in this work can be used to drive a surgical robot autonomously and perform electrosurgical procedures such as coaptic vessel closures.

  1. Evaluation of the 'healthy start to pregnancy' early antenatal health promotion workshop: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkinson Shelley A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is an ideal time to encourage healthy lifestyles as most women access health services and are more receptive to health messages; however few effective interventions exist. The aim of this research was to deliver a low-intensity, dietitian-led behavior change workshop at a Maternity Hospital to influence behaviors with demonstrated health outcomes. Methods Workshop effectiveness was evaluated using an RCT; ‘usual care’ women (n = 182 received a nutrition resource at their first antenatal visit and 'intervention' women also attended a one-hour ‘Healthy Start to Pregnancy’ workshop (n = 178. Dietary intake, physical activity levels, gestational weight gain knowledge, smoking cessation, and intention to breastfeed were assessed at service-entry and 12 weeks later. Intention-to-treat (ITT and per-protocol (PP analyses examined change over time between groups. Results Approximately half (48.3% the intervention women attended the workshop and overall response rate at time 2 was 67.2%. Significantly more women in the intervention met pregnancy fruit guidelines at time 2 (+4.3%, p = 0.011 and had a clinically-relevant increase in physical activity (+27 minutes/week compared with women who only received the resource (ITT. Women who attended the workshop increased their consumption of serves of fruit (+0.4 serves/day, p = 0.004, vegetables (+0.4 serves/day, p = 0.006, met fruit guidelines (+11.9%, p , had a higher diet quality score (p = 0.027 and clinically-relevant increases in physical activity (+21.3 minutes/week compared with those who only received the resource (PP. Conclusions The Healthy Start to Pregnancy workshop attendance facilitates improvements in important health behaviors. Service changes and accessibility issues are required to assist women's workshop attendance to allow more women to benefit from the workshop’s effects. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN

  2. Striatal Dopamine D2/D3 Receptor Availability Is Associated with Executive Function in Healthy Controls but Not Methamphetamine Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Ballard

    Full Text Available Dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the striatum has been linked with executive function in healthy individuals, and is below control levels among drug addicts, possibly contributing to diminished executive function in the latter group. This study tested for an association of striatal D2/D3 receptor availability with a measure of executive function among research participants who met DSM-IV criteria for methamphetamine dependence.Methamphetamine users and non-user controls (n = 18 per group completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and positron emission tomography with [18F]fallypride.The methamphetamine users displayed significantly lower striatal D2/D3 receptor availability on average than controls after controlling for age and education (p = 0.008, but they did not register greater proportions of either perseverative or non-perseverative errors when controlling for education (both ps ≥ 0.622. The proportion of non-perseverative, but not perseverative, errors was negatively correlated with striatal D2/D3 receptor availability among controls (r = -0.588, p = 0.010, but not methamphetamine users (r = 0.281, p = 0.258, and the group-wise interaction was significant (p = 0.030.These results suggest that cognitive flexibility, as measured by perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, is not determined by signaling through striatal D2/D3 receptors in healthy controls, and that in stimulant abusers, who have lower D2/D3 receptor availability, compensation can effectively maintain other executive functions, which are associated with D2/D3 receptor signaling in controls.

  3. Upper Limb Kinematics in Stroke and Healthy Controls Using Target-to-Target Task in Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netha Hussain

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundKinematic analysis using virtual reality (VR environment provides quantitative assessment of upper limb movements. This technique has rarely been used in evaluating motor function in stroke despite its availability in stroke rehabilitation.ObjectiveTo determine the discriminative validity of VR-based kinematics during target-to-target pointing task in individuals with mild or moderate arm impairment following stroke and in healthy controls.MethodsSixty-seven participants with moderate (32–57 points or mild (58–65 points stroke impairment as assessed with Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity were included from the Stroke Arm Longitudinal study at the University of Gothenburg—SALGOT cohort of non-selected individuals within the first year of stroke. The stroke groups and 43 healthy controls performed the target-to-target pointing task, where 32 circular targets appear one after the other and disappear when pointed at by the haptic handheld stylus in a three-dimensional VR environment. The kinematic parameters captured by the stylus included movement time, velocities, and smoothness of movement.ResultsThe movement time, mean velocity, and peak velocity were discriminative between groups with moderate and mild stroke impairment and healthy controls. The movement time was longer and mean and peak velocity were lower for individuals with stroke. The number of velocity peaks, representing smoothness, was also discriminative and significantly higher in both stroke groups (mild, moderate compared to controls. Movement trajectories in stroke more frequently showed clustering (spider’s web close to the target indicating deficits in movement precision.ConclusionThe target-to-target pointing task can provide valuable and specific information about sensorimotor impairment of the upper limb following stroke that might not be captured using traditional clinical scale.Trial registration detailsThe trial was registered with register number

  4. Direct comparison of FP-CIT SPECT and F-DOPA PET in patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshuis, S.A.; Maguire, R.P.; Leenders, K.L.; Jager, P.L.; Jonkman, S.; Dierckx, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Diagnosing Parkinson's disease (PD) on clinical grounds may be difficult, especially in the early stages of the disease. F-DOPA PET and FP-CIT SPECT scans are able to determine presynaptic dopaminergic activity in different ways. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the sensitivity and specificity of the two methods in the detection of striatal dopaminergic deficits in the same cohort of PD patients and healthy controls. Movement disorder specialists recruited 11 patients with early-stage PD and 17 patients with advanced PD. The patients underwent both an FP-CIT SPECT scan and an F-DOPA PET scan. In addition, 10 FP-CIT SPECT scans or 10 F-DOPA PET scans were performed in 20 healthy controls. A template with regions of interest was used to sample tracer activity of the caudate, putamen and a reference region in the brain. The outcome parameter was the striatooccipital ratio (SOR). Normal SOR values were determined in the controls. The sensitivity and specificity of both scanning methods were calculated. FP-CIT SPECT and F-DOPA PET scans were both able to discriminate PD patients from healthy controls. For the early phases of the disease, sensitivity and specificity of the contralateral striatal and putaminal uptake of FP-CIT and F-DOPA was 100%. When only caudate uptake was considered, the specificities were 100% and 90% for FP-CIT and F-DOPA, respectively, while the sensitivity was 91% for both scanning techniques. FP-CIT SPECT and F-DOPA PET scans are both able to diagnose presynaptic dopaminergic deficits in early phases of PD with excellent sensitivity and specificity. (orig.)

  5. Specificity of Affective Instability in Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder Compared to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Bulimia Nervosa, and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Philip; Mussgay, Lutz; Sawitzki, Günther; Trull, Timothy J.; Reinhard, Iris; Steil, Regina; Klein, Christoph; Bohus, Martin; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2014-01-01

    Affective instability is a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The use of advanced assessment methodologies and appropriate statistical analyses has led to consistent findings that indicate a heightened instability in patients with BPD compared with healthy controls. However, few studies have investigated the specificity of affective instability among patients with BPD with regard to relevant clinical control groups. In this study, 43 patients with BPD, 28 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 20 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 28 healthy controls carried e-diaries for 24 hours and were prompted to rate their momentary affective states approximately every 15 minutes while awake. To quantify instability, we used 3 state-of-the-art indices: multilevel models for squared successive differences (SSDs), multilevel models for probability of acute changes (PACs), and aggregated point-by-point changes (APPCs). Patients with BPD displayed heightened affective instability for emotional valence and distress compared with healthy controls, regardless of the specific instability indices. These results directly replicate earlier studies. However, affective instability did not seem to be specific to patients with BPD. With regard to SSDs, PACs, and APPCs, patients with PTSD or BN showed a similar heightened instability of affect (emotional valence and distress) to that of patients with BPD. Our results give raise to the discussion if affective instability is a transdiagnostic or a disorder-specific mechanism. Current evidence cannot answer this question, but investigating psychopathological mechanisms in everyday life across disorders is a promising approach to enhance validity and specificity of mental health diagnoses. PMID:24661176

  6. Upper Limb Kinematics in Stroke and Healthy Controls Using Target-to-Target Task in Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Netha; Alt Murphy, Margit; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S

    2018-01-01

    Kinematic analysis using virtual reality (VR) environment provides quantitative assessment of upper limb movements. This technique has rarely been used in evaluating motor function in stroke despite its availability in stroke rehabilitation. To determine the discriminative validity of VR-based kinematics during target-to-target pointing task in individuals with mild or moderate arm impairment following stroke and in healthy controls. Sixty-seven participants with moderate (32-57 points) or mild (58-65 points) stroke impairment as assessed with Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity were included from the Stroke Arm Longitudinal study at the University of Gothenburg-SALGOT cohort of non-selected individuals within the first year of stroke. The stroke groups and 43 healthy controls performed the target-to-target pointing task, where 32 circular targets appear one after the other and disappear when pointed at by the haptic handheld stylus in a three-dimensional VR environment. The kinematic parameters captured by the stylus included movement time, velocities, and smoothness of movement. The movement time, mean velocity, and peak velocity were discriminative between groups with moderate and mild stroke impairment and healthy controls. The movement time was longer and mean and peak velocity were lower for individuals with stroke. The number of velocity peaks, representing smoothness, was also discriminative and significantly higher in both stroke groups (mild, moderate) compared to controls. Movement trajectories in stroke more frequently showed clustering (spider's web) close to the target indicating deficits in movement precision. The target-to-target pointing task can provide valuable and specific information about sensorimotor impairment of the upper limb following stroke that might not be captured using traditional clinical scale. The trial was registered with register number NCT01115348 at clinicaltrials.gov, on May 4, 2010. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2

  7. Comparison of the effect of selected muscle groups fatigue on postural control during bipedal stance in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Zahra Rojhani; Jahromi, Fatemeh Nikhalat

    2013-09-01

    The maintenance of balance is an essential requirement for the performance of daily tasks and sporting activities and muscular fatigue is a factor to impair postural control, so this study was done to compare the effect of selected muscle groups fatigue on postural control during bipedal stance in healthy subjects. Fifteen healthy female students (24.3 ± 2.6 years) completed three testing session with a break period of at least 2 days. During each session, postural control was assessed during two 30-s trials of bipedal stance with eyes close before and after the fatigue protocol. Fatigue protocols were performed by 60% of their unfatigued Maximum Voluntary Contraction of unilateral ankle plantar flexors, bilateral lumbar extensors and bilateral neck extensors. One of the three fatigue protocols was performed on each session. The result showed that fatigue had a significant effect on COP velocity and it increase COP velocity but there was not found any difference in postural sway between muscle groups. Localized muscle fatigue caused deficits in postural control regardless of the location of fatigue. Authors suggest the possibility of the contributions of central mechanisms to postural deficits due to fatigue and it seems that difference was not between muscle groups due to central fatigue.

  8. Randomized controlled trial of a healthy brain ageing cognitive training program: effects on memory, mood, and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Keri; Mowszowski, Loren; Cockayne, Nicole; Norrie, Louisa; Paradise, Matthew; Hermens, Daniel F; Lewis, Simon J G; Hickie, Ian B; Naismith, Sharon L

    2015-01-01

    With the rise in the ageing population and absence of a cure for dementia, cost-effective prevention strategies for those 'at risk' of dementia including those with depression and/or mild cognitive impairment are urgently required. This study evaluated the efficacy of a multifaceted Healthy Brain Ageing Cognitive Training (HBA-CT) program for older adults 'at risk' of dementia. Using a single-blinded design, 64 participants (mean age = 66.5 years, SD = 8.6) were randomized to an immediate treatment (HBA-CT) or treatment-as-usual control arm. The HBA-CT intervention was conducted twice-weekly for seven weeks and comprised group-based psychoeducation about cognitive strategies and modifiable lifestyle factors pertaining to healthy brain ageing, and computerized cognitive training. In comparison to the treatment-as-usual control arm, the HBA-CT program was associated with improvements in verbal memory (p = 0.03), self-reported memory (p = 0.03), mood (p = 0.01), and sleep (p = 0.01). While the improvements in memory (p = 0.03) and sleep (p = 0.02) remained after controlling for improvements in mood, only a trend in verbal memory improvement was apparent after controlling for sleep. The HBA-CT program improves cognitive, mood, and sleep functions in older adults 'at risk' of dementia, and therefore offers promise as a secondary prevention strategy.

  9. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, H; Hodges, P W; Bliddal, H; Henriksen, M

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals. Twenty-seven healthy untrained volunteers participated in a randomized controlled trial of quadriceps strengthening (3 times per week for 8 weeks). Participants were randomized to perform resistance training either during pain induced by injections of painful hypertonic saline (pain group, n = 13) or during a nonpainful control condition with injection of isotonic saline (control group, n = 14) into the infrapatellar fat pad. The primary outcome measure was change in maximal isokinetic muscle strength in knee extension/flexion (60, 120, and 180 degrees/second). The group who exercised with pain had a significantly larger improvement in isokinetic muscle strength at all angular velocities of knee extension compared to the control group. In knee flexion there were improvements in isokinetic muscle strength in both groups with no between-group differences. Experimental knee joint pain improved the training-induced gain in muscle strength following 8 weeks of quadriceps training. It remains to be studied whether knee joint pain has a positive effect on strength gain in patients with knee pathology. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  10. Comparison of axillary and rectal temperatures for healthy Beagles in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Justin C; Campbell, Vicki L

    2015-07-01

    To compare axillary and rectal temperature measurements obtained with a digital thermometer for Beagles in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment. 26 healthy Beagles (17 sexually intact males and 9 sexually intact females). Dogs were maintained in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment for 56 days before rectal and axillary temperatures were measured. Axillary and rectal temperatures were obtained in triplicate for each dog by use of a single commercially available manufacturer-calibrated digital thermometer. Mean rectal and axillary temperatures of Beagles maintained in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment were significantly different, with a median ± SD difference of 1.4° ± 0.15°C (range, 0.7° to 2.1°C). Mean rectal and axillary temperatures were 38.7°C (range, 37.6° to 39.5°C) and 37.2°C (range, 36.6° to 38.3°C), respectively. Results of this study indicated that the historical reference of a 0.55°C gradient between rectal and axillary temperatures that has been clinically used for veterinary patients was inaccurate for healthy Beagles in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment. Rectal and axillary temperatures can be measured in veterinary patients. Reliable interpretation of axillary temperatures may accommodate patient comfort and reduce patient anxiety when serial measurement of temperatures is necessary. Further clinical studies will be needed.

  11. Markers of glutamate signaling in cerebrospinal fluid and serum from patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pålsson, Erik; Jakobsson, Joel; Södersten, Kristoffer; Fujita, Yuko; Sellgren, Carl; Ekman, Carl-Johan; Ågren, Hans; Hashimoto, Kenji; Landén, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aberrations in glutamate signaling have been linked to the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Increased plasma levels of glutamate as well as higher glutamine+glutamate levels in the brain have been demonstrated in patients with bipolar disorder as compared to healthy controls. In this study, we explored the glutamate hypothesis of bipolar disorder by examining peripheral and central levels of amino acids related to glutamate signaling. A total of 215 patients with bipolar disorder and 112 healthy controls from the Swedish St. Göran bipolar project were included in this study. Glutamate, glutamine, glycine, L-serine and D-serine levels were determined in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Serum levels of glutamine, glycine and D-serine were significantly higher whereas L-serine levels were lower in patients with bipolar disorder as compared to controls. No differences between the patient and control group in amino acid levels were observed in cerebrospinal fluid. The observed differences in serum amino acid levels may be interpreted as a systemic aberration in amino acid metabolism that affects several amino acids related to glutamate signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparision of Parent Reported Sleeping Habits and Sleep Problems Between Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ozturk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD children has been shown to affect the quality of sleep. In this study it is aimed to evaluate sleep habits and sleep problems between the cases who are diagnosed with ADHD and healthy controls. The study group consisted of 61 children (8-12 years old with ADHD; the control group (87 children comprised patients of other clinics at hospital. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL and DuPaul ADHD Rating Scale vere used. Children's sleep habits and sleep problems were assessed with the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. ADHD group compared to healthy controls; statistical significant difference was found in bedtime resistance, the sleep onset delay, the sleep duration, the sleep anxiety, the night wakings, the parasomnias and the daytime sleepiness but statistical significant difference wasn’t found the sleep disordered breathing. In our study, problems in the sleep habits evaluated by parents ADHD are more than campared with healty controls likewise literature. However, further studies with larger sample size and objective measures such as actigraphy and polysomnography may allow us to have more knowledge in this area. [JCBPR 2017; 6(3.000: 108-114

  13. Healthy Places for Healthy People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance program that helps communities create walkable, healthy, economically vibrant places by engaging with local health care facility partners

  14. Temperature-controlled radiofrequency ablation of cardiac tissue: an in vitro study of the impact of electrode orientation, electrode tissue contact pressure and external convective cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H H; Chen, X; Pietersen, A

    1999-01-01

    A variety of basic factors such as electrode tip pressure, flow around the electrode and electrode orientation influence lesion size during radiofrequency ablation, but importantly is dependent on the chosen mode of ablation. However, only little information is available for the frequently used...... temperature-controlled mode. The purpose of the present experimental study was to evaluate the impact during temperature-controlled radiofrequency ablation of three basic factors regarding electrode-tissue contact and convective cooling on lesion size....

  15. 3D force control for robotic-assisted beating heart surgery based on viscoelastic tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Moreira, Pedro; Zemiti, Nabil; Poignet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Current cardiac surgery faces the challenging problem of heart beating motion even with the help of mechanical stabilizer which makes delicate operation on the heart surface difficult. Motion compensation methods for robotic-assisted beating heart surgery have been proposed recently in literature, but research on force control for such kind of surgery has hardly been reported. Moreover, the viscoelasticity property of the interaction between organ tissue and robotic instrument further complicates the force control design which is much easier in other applications by assuming the interaction model to be elastic (industry, stiff object manipulation, etc.). In this work, we present a three-dimensional force control method for robotic-assisted beating heart surgery taking into consideration of the viscoelastic interaction property. Performance studies based on our D2M2 robot and 3D heart beating motion information obtained through Da Vinci™ system are provided.

  16. Does green tea affect postprandial glucose, insulin and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindstedt Sandra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of green tea could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Intervention studies show that green tea may decrease blood glucose levels, and also increase satiety. This study was conducted to examine the postprandial effects of green tea on glucose levels, glycemic index, insulin levels and satiety in healthy individuals after the consumption of a meal including green tea. Methods The study was conducted on 14 healthy volunteers, with a crossover design. Participants were randomized to either 300 ml of green tea or water. This was consumed together with a breakfast consisting of white bread and sliced turkey. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Participants completed several different satiety score scales at the same times. Results Plasma glucose levels were higher 120 min after ingestion of the meal with green tea than after the ingestion of the meal with water. No significant differences were found in serum insulin levels, or the area under the curve for glucose or insulin. Subjects reported significantly higher satiety, having a less strong desire to eat their favorite food and finding it less pleasant to eat another mouthful of the same food after drinking green tea compared to water. Conclusions Green tea showed no glucose or insulin-lowering effect. However, increased satiety and fullness were reported by the participants after the consumption of green tea. Trial registration number NCT01086189

  17. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-10-21

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.

  18. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0 or 7.0 (Bev-7.0 or gels as acid (Gel-Acid or heated (Gel-Heated. In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05, and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0 vs. CON (all, p < 0.05. Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.

  19. Peripheral tissue homing receptor control of naïve, effector, and memory CD8 T cell localization in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, C Colin; Peske, J David; Engelhard, Victor Henry

    2013-01-01

    T cell activation induces homing receptors that bind ligands on peripheral tissue vasculature, programing movement to sites of infection and injury. There are three major types of CD8 effector T cells based on homing receptor expression, which arise in distinct lymphoid organs. Recent publications indicate that naïve, effector, and memory T cell migration is more complex than once thought; while many effectors enter peripheral tissues, some re-enter lymph nodes (LN), and contain central memory precursors. LN re-entry can depend on CD62L or peripheral tissue homing receptors. Memory T cells in LN tend to express the same homing receptors as their forebears, but often are CD62Lneg. Homing receptors also control CD8 T cell tumor entry. Tumor vasculature has low levels of many peripheral tissue homing receptor ligands, but portions of it resemble high endothelial venules (HEV), enabling naïve T cell entry, activation, and subsequent effector activity. This vasculature is associated with positive prognoses in humans, suggesting it may sustain ongoing anti-tumor responses. These findings reveal new roles for homing receptors expressed by naïve, effector, and memory CD8 T cells in controlling entry into lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues.

  20. Reduced mRNA expression of PTGDS in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients compared with healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Peijs, Lone; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    was measured in 37 rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Repeated measurements of PTGDS and AKR1C3 mRNA expression were obtained in various affective states during 6-12 months...... and compared with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Adjusted for age and gender, PTGDS mRNA expression was down-regulated in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients in a euthymic, depressive, and manic/hypomanic state compared with healthy control subjects. No difference in PTGDS m...

  1. A geometrically controlled rigidity transition in a model for confluent 3D tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Matthias; Manning, M. Lisa

    2018-02-01

    The origin of rigidity in disordered materials is an outstanding open problem in statistical physics. Previously, a class of 2D cellular models has been shown to undergo a rigidity transition controlled by a mechanical parameter that specifies cell shapes. Here, we generalize this model to 3D and find a rigidity transition that is similarly controlled by the preferred surface area S 0: the model is solid-like below a dimensionless surface area of {s}0\\equiv {S}0/{\\bar{V}}2/3≈ 5.413 with \\bar{V} being the average cell volume, and fluid-like above this value. We demonstrate that, unlike jamming in soft spheres, residual stresses are necessary to create rigidity. These stresses occur precisely when cells are unable to obtain their desired geometry, and we conjecture that there is a well-defined minimal surface area possible for disordered cellular structures. We show that the behavior of this minimal surface induces a linear scaling of the shear modulus with the control parameter at the transition point, which is different from the scaling observed in particulate matter. The existence of such a minimal surface may be relevant for biological tissues and foams, and helps explain why cell shapes are a good structural order parameter for rigidity transitions in biological tissues.

  2. Implementing oxygen control in chip-based cell and tissue culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomen, Pieter E; Skolimowski, Maciej D; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2016-09-21

    Oxygen is essential in the energy metabolism of cells, as well as being an important regulatory parameter influencing cell differentiation and function. Interest in precise oxygen control for in vitro cultures of tissues and cells continues to grow, especially with the emergence of the organ-on-a-chip and the desire to emulate in vivo conditions. This was recently discussed in this journal in a Critical Review by Brennan et al. (Lab Chip (2014). DOI: ). Microfluidics can be used to introduce flow to facilitate nutrient supply to and waste removal from in vitro culture systems. Well-defined oxygen gradients can also be established. However, cells can quickly alter the oxygen balance in their vicinity. In this Tutorial Review, we expand on the Brennan paper to focus on the implementation of oxygen analysis in these systems to achieve continuous monitoring. Both electrochemical and optical approaches for the integration of oxygen monitoring in microfluidic tissue and cell culture systems will be discussed. Differences in oxygen requirements from one organ to the next are a challenging problem, as oxygen delivery is limited by its uptake into medium. Hence, we discuss the factors determining oxygen concentrations in solutions and consider the possible use of artificial oxygen carriers to increase dissolved oxygen concentrations. The selection of device material for applications requiring precise oxygen control is discussed in detail, focusing on oxygen permeability. Lastly, a variety of devices is presented, showing the diversity of approaches that can be employed to control and monitor oxygen concentrations in in vitro experiments.

  3. Decreasing Internal Focus of Attention Improves Postural Control during Quiet Standing in Young Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafati, Gilel; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate whether and how decreasing the amount of attentional focus invested in postural control could affect bipedal postural control. Twelve participants were asked to stand upright as immobile as possible on a force platform in one control condition and one cognitive condition. In the latter condition, they…

  4. The Effects of Four-Week Multivitamin Supplementation on Mood in Healthy Older Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Macpherson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Nutritional deficiencies have been associated with cognitive decline and mood disturbances. Vitamin intake can influence mood and randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that multivitamin supplements are capable of reducing mild symptoms of mood dysfunction. However, few studies have focussed on healthy older women. Methods. This study investigated the effects of four weeks’ multivitamin supplementation on mood in 76 healthy women aged 50–75 years. Mood was assessed before and after intervention in the laboratory using measures of current mood and retrospective experiences of mood over the past week or longer. Mobile phones were used to assess changes in real-time mood ratings, twice weekly in the home. Results. There were no multivitamin-related benefits identified for measures of current mood or reflections of recent mood when measured in the laboratory. In-home assessments, where mood was rated several hours after dose, revealed multivitamin supplementation improved ratings of stress, with a trend to reduce mental fatigue. Conclusions. Over four weeks, subtle changes to stress produced by multivitamin supplementation in healthy older women may not be detected when only pre- and posttreatment mood is captured. In-home mobile phone-based assessments may be more sensitive to the effects of nutritional interventions compared to traditional in-laboratory assessments.

  5. 'To preserve the skin in health': drainage, bodily control and the visual definition of healthy skin 1835-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Hennepe, Mieneke

    2014-07-01

    The concept of a healthy skin penetrated the lives of many people in late-nineteenth-century Britain. Popular writings on skin and soap advertisements are significant for pointing to the notions of the skin as a symbolic surface: a visual moral ideal. Popular health publications reveal how much contemporary understanding of skin defined and connected ideas of cleanliness and the visual ideals of the healthy body in Victorian Britain. Characterised as a 'sanitary commissioner' of the body, skin represented the organ of drainage for body and society. The importance of keeping the skin clean and purging it of waste materials such as sweat and dirt resonated in a Britain that embraced city sanitation developments, female beauty practices, racial identities and moral reform. By focusing on the popular work by British surgeon and dermatologist Erasmus Wilson (1809-84), this article offers a history of skin through the lens of the sanitary movement and developments in the struggle for control over healthy skin still in place today.

  6. Plasma homovanillic acid correlates inversely with history of childhood trauma in personality disordered and healthy control adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Royce; Coccaro, Emil F

    2010-11-01

    Studies of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) level of the dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid (HVA), suggest a relationship between CSF HVA concentration and history of childhood trauma. In this study, the authors test the hypothesis that this relationship is also present using peripheral levels of HVA in healthy volunteers and in personality disordered subjects. 68 personality disordered (PD) and healthy control (HC) subjects were chosen, in whom morning basal plasma HVA (pHVA) concentrations and an assessment of childhood trauma were obtained. History of childhood trauma was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). A significant inverse correlation was found between CTQ Total scores and pHVA concentration across all subjects. In addition, pHVA was lower, and CTQ scores were higher, in PD as compared with HC subjects. Correlations with other personality and behavioral measures were not statistically significant. The data suggest that pHVA concentrations are inversely correlated with history of childhood trauma and that variability in this index of dopamine function may be affected by the history of childhood trauma in healthy and personality disordered subjects.

  7. Flow rate of transport network controls uniform metabolite supply to tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meigel, Felix J; Alim, Karen

    2018-05-01

    Life and functioning of higher organisms depends on the continuous supply of metabolites to tissues and organs. What are the requirements on the transport network pervading a tissue to provide a uniform supply of nutrients, minerals or hormones? To theoretically answer this question, we present an analytical scaling argument and numerical simulations on how flow dynamics and network architecture control active spread and uniform supply of metabolites by studying the example of xylem vessels in plants. We identify the fluid inflow rate as the key factor for uniform supply. While at low inflow rates metabolites are already exhausted close to flow inlets, too high inflow flushes metabolites through the network and deprives tissue close to inlets of supply. In between these two regimes, there exists an optimal inflow rate that yields a uniform supply of metabolites. We determine this optimal inflow analytically in quantitative agreement with numerical results. Optimizing network architecture by reducing the supply variance over all network tubes, we identify patterns of tube dilation or contraction that compensate sub-optimal supply for the case of too low or too high inflow rate. © 2018 The Authors.

  8. A positional code and anisotropic forces control tissue remodeling in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zallen, Jennifer

    A major challenge in developmental biology is to understand how tissue-scale changes in organism structure arise from events that occur on a cellular and molecular level. We are using cell biological, biophysical, and quantitative live-embryo imaging approaches to understand how genes encode the forces that shape tissues, and to identify the mechanisms that modulate cell behavior in response to local forces. In many animals, the elongated head-to-tail body axis is achieved by rapid and coordinated movements of hundreds of cells. We found that in the fruit fly, these cell movements are regulated by subcellular asymmetries in the localization of proteins that generate contractile and adhesive forces between cells. Asymmetries in the force-generating machinery are in turn controlled by a positional code of spatial information provided by an ancient family of Toll-related receptors that are widely used for pathogen recognition by the innate immune system. I will describe how this spatial system systematically orients local cell movements and collective rosette-like clusters in the Drosophila embryo. Rosettes have now also been shown to shape the body axis in chicks, frogs, and mice, demonstrating that rosette behaviors are a general mechanism linking cellular asymmetry to tissue reorganization.

  9. Modelling accuracy and variability of motor timing in treated and untreated Parkinson’s disease and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Rhian Gwyn Jones

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is characterised by difficulty with the timing of movements. Data collected using the synchronization-continuation paradigm, an established motor timing paradigm, have produced varying results but with most studies finding impairment. Some of this inconsistency comes from variation in the medication state tested, in the inter-stimulus intervals (ISI selected, and in changeable focus on either the synchronization (tapping in time with a tone or continuation (maintaining the rhythm in the absence of the tone phase. We sought to re-visit the paradigm by testing across four groups of participants: healthy controls, medication naïve de novo PD patients, and treated PD patients both ‘on’ and ‘off’ dopaminergic medication. Four finger tapping intervals (ISI were used: 250ms, 500ms, 1000ms and 2000ms. Categorical predictors (group, ISI, and phase were used to predict accuracy and variability using a linear mixed model. Accuracy was defined as the relative error of a tap, and variability as the deviation of the participant’s tap from group predicted relative error. Our primary finding is that the treated PD group (PD patients ‘on’ and ‘off’ dopaminergic therapy showed a significantly different pattern of accuracy compared to the de novo group and the healthy controls at the 250ms interval. At this interval, the treated PD patients performed ‘ahead’ of the beat whilst the other groups performed ‘behind’ the beat. We speculate that this ‘hastening’ relates to the clinical phenomenon of motor festination. Across all groups, variability was smallest for both phases at the 500 ms interval, suggesting an innate preference for finger tapping within this range. Tapping variability for the two phases became increasingly divergent at the longer intervals, with worse performance in the continuation phase. The data suggest that patients with PD can be best discriminated from healthy controls on measures of

  10. Preferences and Ratings of Partner Traits in Female Survivors of Childhood Abuse With PTSD and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberz, Klara A; Müller-Engelmann, Meike; Priebe, Kathlen; Friedmann, Franziska; Görg, Nora; Herzog, Julia Isabell; Steil, Regina

    2017-11-01

    There is growing empirical evidence for an association between childhood abuse (CA) and intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. We tested whether revictimized survivors of severe to extreme severities of child sexual abuse (CSA) and severe severities of child physical abuse (CPA) differed from nonvictimized healthy controls in their trait preferences in intimate partners and their current mate choice. In a sample of 52 revictimized female patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after CSA/CPA and 52 female healthy controls, the validated Intimate Partner Preferences Questionnaire (IPPQ) was used to assess (a) the desirability of tenderness, dominance, and aggression traits in potential partners, and (b) the presence of these traits in their current intimate partners. Factors potentially associated with partner preference and mate choice, for example, chronicity of traumatic events and lower self-esteem, were explored. Our results showed that, in general, revictimized PTSD patients did not have a preference for dominant or aggressive partners. However, revictimized women displayed a significantly larger discrepancy than did healthy controls between their preferences for tenderness traits and their ratings of the presence of tenderness traits in their current partners. Our results indicated that revictimized patients had lower self-esteem values; however, these values were associated with higher demands for tenderness traits. Furthermore, our results revealed that compared with patients who experienced early-onset childhood abuse (CA), those who experienced later onset CA were more accepting of dominant traits in potential partners. Women who had experienced IPV rated their current partners to be overly dominant. A higher tolerance of dominance traits might increase the risk of IPV in a specific subgroup of abused women (women with a later onset of abuse experiences and experiences of IPV).

  11. Quantitative sensory testing and pain-evoked cytokine reactivity: comparison of patients with sickle cell disease to healthy matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Claudia M; Carroll, C Patrick; Kiley, Kasey; Han, Dingfen; Haywood, Carlton; Lanzkron, Sophie; Swedberg, Lauren; Edwards, Robert R; Page, Gayle G; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder associated with significant morbidity, which includes severe episodic pain, and, often, chronic pain. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with SCD report enhanced sensitivity to thermal detection and pain thresholds and have altered inflammatory profiles, yet no studies to date have examined biomarker reactivity after laboratory-induced pain. We sought to examine this relationship in patients with SCD compared to healthy control participants. We completed quantitative sensory testing in 83 patients with SCD and sequential blood sampling in 27 of them, whom we matched (sex, age, race, body mass index, and education) to 27 healthy controls. Surprisingly, few quantitative sensory testing differences emerged between groups. Heat pain tolerance, pressure pain threshold at the trapezius, thumb, and quadriceps, and thermal temporal summation at 45°C differed between groups in the expected direction, whereas conditioned pain modulation and pain ratings to hot water hand immersion were counterintuitive, possibly because of tailoring the water temperature to a perceptual level; patients with SCD received milder temperatures. In the matched subsample, group differences and group-by-time interactions were observed in biomarkers including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-4, and neuropeptide Y. These findings highlight the utility of laboratory pain testing methods for understanding individual differences in inflammatory cytokines. Our findings suggest amplified pain-evoked proinflammatory cytokine reactivity among patients with SCD relative to carefully matched controls. Future research is warranted to evaluate the impact of enhanced pain-related cytokine response and whether it is predictive of clinical characteristics and the frequency/severity of pain crises in patients with SCD.

  12. Stem cell signaling. An integral program for tissue renewal and regeneration : Wnt signaling and stem cell control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, Hans; Loh, Kyle M; Nusse, Roel

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells fuel tissue development, renewal, and regeneration, and these activities are controlled by the local stem cell microenvironment, the "niche." Wnt signals emanating from the niche can act as self-renewal factors for stem cells in multiple mammalian tissues. Wnt proteins are lipid-modified,

  13. Modafinil and cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia and healthy volunteers: the effects of test battery in a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, J; Michalopoulou, P G; Lewis, S W; Preston, S; Bamford, C; Collier, T; Kalpakidou, A; Wykes, T; Emsley, R; Pandina, G; Kapur, S; Drake, R J

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have major functional impacts. Modafinil is a cognitive enhancer whose effect in healthy volunteers is well-described, but whose effects on the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia appear to be inconsistent. Two possible reasons for this are that cognitive test batteries vary in their sensitivity, or that the phase of illness may be important, with patients early in their illness responding better. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled single-dose crossover study of modafinil 200 mg examined this with two cognitive batteries [MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)] in 46 participants with under 3 years' duration of DSM-IV schizophrenia, on stable antipsychotic medication. In parallel, the same design was used in 28 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy volunteers. Uncorrected p values were calculated using mixed effects models. In patients, modafinil significantly improved CANTAB Paired Associate Learning, non-significantly improved efficiency and significantly slowed performance of the CANTAB Stockings of Cambridge spatial planning task. There was no significant effect on any MCCB domain. In healthy volunteers, modafinil significantly increased CANTAB Rapid Visual Processing, Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shifting and verbal recall accuracy, and MCCB social cognition performance. The only significant differences between groups were in MCCB visual learning. As in earlier chronic schizophrenia studies, modafinil failed to produce changes in cognition in early psychosis as measured by MCCB. CANTAB proved more sensitive to the effects of modafinil in participants with early schizophrenia and in healthy volunteers. This confirms the importance of selecting the appropriate test battery in treatment studies of cognition in schizophrenia.

  14. Influence of visual control, conduction, and central integration on static and dynamic balance in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, P P; Jeandel, C; Perrin, C A; Béné, M C

    1997-01-01

    Aging is associated with decreased balance abilities, resulting in an increased risk of fall. In order to appreciate the visual, somatosensory, and central signals involved in balance control, sophisticated methods of posturography assessment have been developed, using static and dynamic tests, eventually associated with electromyographic measurements. We applied such methods to a population of healthy older adults in order to appreciate the respective importance of each of these sensorial inputs in aging individuals. Posture control parameters were recorded on a force-measuring platform in 41 healthy young (age 28.5 +/- 5.9 years) and 50 older (age 69.8 +/- 5.9 years) adults, using a static test and two dynamic tests performed by all individuals first with eyes open, then with eyes closed. The distance covered by the center of foot pressure, sway area, and anteroposterior oscillations were significantly higher, with eyes open or closed, in older people than in young subjects. Significant differences were noted in dynamic tests with longer latency responses in the group of old people. Dynamic recordings in a sinusoidal test had a more regular pattern when performed eyes open in both groups and evidenced significantly greater instability in old people. These data suggest that vision remains important in maintaining postural control while conduction and central integration become less efficient with age.

  15. Chocolate cake. Guilt or celebration? Associations with healthy eating attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and weight-loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A

    2014-03-01

    Food and eating are often associated with ambivalent feelings: pleasure and enjoyment, but also worry and guilt. Guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, but may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. This study firstly examined whether a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake) was related to differences in attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and intentions in relation to healthy eating, and secondly whether the default association was related to weight change over an 18month period (and short term weight-loss in a subsample of participants with a weight-loss goal). This study did not find any evidence for adaptive or motivational properties of guilt. Participants associating chocolate cake with guilt did not report more positive attitudes or stronger intentions to eat healthy than did those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Instead, they reported lower levels of perceived behavioural control over eating and were less successful at maintaining their weight over an 18month period. Participants with a weight-loss goal who associated chocolate cake with guilt were less successful at losing weight over a 3month period compared to those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Regulatory B and T cell responses in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Birte; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    ). HT is primarily a T-cell mediated disease, and whether B cells play a pathogenic role in the pathogenesis is still unclear. Both GD and HT are characterized by infiltration of the thyroid gland by self-reactive T cells and B cells. In the first paper of this thesis, the role of regulatory B cells...... (Bregs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) were investigated in the context of GD and HT. First, we studied the role of the thyroid self-antigen, thyroglobulin (TG) in healthy donors. The self-antigen TG, but not the foreign recall antigen tetanus toxoid (TT), was able to induce interleukin 10 (IL-10......Autoimmune diseases occur due to faulty self-tolerance. Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) are classic examples of organ-specific autoimmune diseases. GD is an auto-antibody-mediated disease where autoantibodies are produced against the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR...

  17. Movement detection impaired in patients with knee osteoarthritis compared to healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, H; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Hansen, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify whether osteoarthritis (OA) patients have a localized or a generalized reduction in proprioception. Twenty one women with knee OA (mean age [SD]: 57.1 [12.0] years) and 29 healthy women (mean age [SD]: 55.3 [10.1] years) had their joint position sense (JPS......) and threshold to detection of a passive movement (TDPM) measured in both knees and elbows. JPS was measured as the participant's ability to actively reproduce the position of the elbow and knee joints. TDPM was measured as the participant's ability to recognize a passive motion of the elbow and knee joints....... The absolute error (AE) for JPS (i.e., absolute difference in degrees between target and estimated position) and for TDPM (i.e., the difference in degrees at movement start and response when recognizing the movement) was calculated. For TDPM a higher AE (mean [SE]) was found in the involved knees in patients...

  18. High velocity pulse biopsy device enables controllable and precise needle insertion and high yield tissue acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schässburger, Kai-Uwe; Paepke, Stefan; Saracco, Ariel; Azavedo, Edward; Ekström, Christina; Wiksell, Hans

    2018-02-01

    Minimally invasive biopsies are a cornerstone of breast cancer management with ultrasound being the preferred guidance modality. New developments in breast cancer management and advances in imaging technologies bring new challenges to current biopsy methodologies. A new biopsy device (NeoNavia® biopsy system, 14 G) was developed. It incorporates a pneumatic needle insertion mechanism that is intended to provide better control of needle progression and enable stepwise insertion without noticeable deformation or displacement of surrounding tissue as visualized under ultrasound. A new method of tissue acquisition was designed to achieve a sampling yield higher than standard methodologies. Needle dynamics was assessed on a specifically designed test bed and sampling performance was compared to a Magnum® biopsy instrument (Bard, Covington, GA, USA) in representative tissue models. The histological quality of samples obtained ex-vivo was evaluated. A pneumatic pulse was measured to accelerate the needle to a maximum velocity of 21.2 ± 2.5 m/s on a stroke length of 2.5 mm, achieving significantly higher acceleration, maximum velocity and power than current biopsy devices. Mean weight of samples obtained by the NeoNavia device were 3.5, 4.6, and 4.3 times higher when sampling was performed in turkey breast, calf thymus and swine pancreas, respectively, as compared to samples obtained with the Magnum instrument. Ex-vivo analysis indicates that the method of tissue acquisition has no apparent negative impact on the histopathologic quality of obtained samples. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Memory-guided force control in healthy younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Kristina A; Samimy, Shaadee; Blouch, Samantha L; Wang, Peiyuan; Chennavasin, Amanda; Diaz, Michele T; Dennis, Nancy A

    2017-08-01

    Successful performance of a memory-guided motor task requires participants to store and then recall an accurate representation of the motor goal. Further, participants must monitor motor output to make adjustments in the absence of visual feedback. The goal of this study was to examine memory-guided grip force in healthy younger and older adults and compare it to performance on behavioral tasks of working memory. Previous work demonstrates that healthy adults decrease force output as a function of time when visual feedback is not available. We hypothesized that older adults would decrease force output at a faster rate than younger adults, due to age-related deficits in working memory. Two groups of participants, younger adults (YA: N = 32, mean age 21.5 years) and older adults (OA: N = 33, mean age 69.3 years), completed four 20-s trials of isometric force with their index finger and thumb, equal to 25% of their maximum voluntary contraction. In the full-vision condition, visual feedback was available for the duration of the trial. In the no vision condition, visual feedback was removed for the last 12 s of each trial. Participants were asked to maintain constant force output in the absence of visual feedback. Participants also completed tasks of word recall and recognition and visuospatial working memory. Counter to our predictions, when visual feedback was removed, younger adults decreased force at a faster rate compared to older adults and the rate of decay was not associated with behavioral performance on tests of working memory.

  20. Dysregulation of chemo-cytokine production in schizophrenic patients versus healthy controls

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    Di Giannantonio Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exact cause of schizophrenia is not known, although several aetiological theories have been proposed for the disease, including developmental or neurodegenerative processes, neurotransmitter abnormalities, viral infection and immune dysfunction or autoimmune mechanisms. Growing evidence suggests that specific cytokines and chemokines play a role in signalling the brain to produce neurochemical, neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and behavioural changes. A relationship between inflammation and schizophrenia was supported by abnormal cytokines production, abnormal concentrations of cytokines and cytokine receptors in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid in schizophrenia. Since the neuropathology of schizophrenia has recently been reported to be closely associated with microglial activation we aimed to determined whether spontaneous or LPS-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell chemokines and cytokines production is dysregulated in schizophrenic patients compared to healthy subjects. We enrolled 51 untreated first-episode schizophrenics (SC and 40 healthy subjects (HC and the levels of MCP-1, MIP-1α, IL-8, IL-18, IFN-γ and RANTES were determined by Elisa method in cell-free supernatants of PBMC cultures. Results In the simultaneous quantification we found significantly higher levels of constitutively and LPS-induced MCP-1, MIP-1α, IL-8 and IL-18, and lower RANTES and IFNγ levels released by PBMC of SC patients compared with HC. In ten SC patients receiving therapy with risperidone, olanzapine or clozapine basal and LPS-induced production of RANTES and IL-18 was increased, while both basal and LPS-induced MCP-1 production was decreased. No statistically significant differences were detected in serum levels after therapy. Conclusion The observation that in schizophrenic patients the PBMC production of selected chemo-cytokines is dysregulated reinforces the hypothesis that the peripheral cyto-chemokine network is involved in the

  1. No Difference on Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patellofemoral Cartilage Composition Between Patients With Patellofemoral Pain and Healthy Controls.

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    van der Heijden, Rianne A; Oei, Edwin H G; Bron, Esther E; van Tiel, Jasper; van Veldhoven, Peter L J; Klein, Stefan; Verhaar, Jan A N; Krestin, Gabriel P; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    2016-05-01

    Retropatellar cartilage damage has been suggested as an etiological factor for patellofemoral pain (PFP), a common knee condition among young and physically active individuals. To date, there is no conclusive evidence for an association between cartilage defects and PFP. Nowadays, advanced quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques enable estimation of cartilage composition. To investigate differences in patellofemoral cartilage composition between patients with PFP and healthy control subjects using quantitative MRI. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Patients with PFP and healthy control subjects underwent 3.0-T MRI including delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage and T1ρ and T2 mapping. Differences in relaxation times of patellofemoral cartilage were compared between groups by linear regression analyses, adjusted for age, body mass index, sex, sports participation, and time of image acquisition. This case-control study included 64 patients and 70 controls. The mean (±SD) age was 23.2 ± 6.4 years and the mean body mass index was 22.9 ± 3.4 kg/m(2); 56.7% were female. For delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage, the mean T1GD relaxation times of patellar (657.8 vs 669.4 ms) and femoral cartilage (661.6 vs 659.8 ms) did not significantly differ between patients and controls. In addition, no significant difference was found in mean T1ρ relaxation times of patellar (46.9 vs 46.0 ms) and femoral cartilage (50.8 vs 50.2 ms) and mean T2 relaxation times of patellar (33.2 vs 32.9 ms) and femoral cartilage (36.7 vs 36.6 ms) between patients and controls. Analysis of prespecified medial and lateral subregions within the patellofemoral cartilage also revealed no significant differences. There was no difference in composition of the patellofemoral cartilage, estimated with multiple quantitative MRI techniques, between patients with PFP and healthy control subjects. However, clinically relevant differences could not be ruled out for T1

  2. Exploring Parental Bonding in BED and Non-BED Obesity Compared with Healthy Controls: Clinical, Personality and Psychopathology Correlates.

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    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2016-05-01

    Early inadequate attachment experiences are relevant co-factors in the development of obesity and Binge Eating Disorder (BED), which often concurs with obesity. The relationship of parental bonding with personality and psychopathology may influence treatment strategies for obese subjects, either affected or not with BED. In this study, 443 obese women (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), including 243 with and 200 without BED, and 158 female controls were assessed with regards to attachment, personality and eating psychopathology measures. Clusters obtained using the scores of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were compared with each other and with a control subjects' group. Lower scores of parental bonding distinguished obese subjects with respect to healthy controls. The cluster analysis revealed two clusters of parenting among obese subjects. The larger one displayed intermediate care and overprotection between controls and the smaller cluster, with the exception of paternal overprotection which is similar to controls. This larger cluster was characterized by low persistence and levels of psychopathology which are intermediate between healthy controls and the smaller cluster. The smaller cluster displayed lower care and higher overcontrol from both parents. It also displays more extreme personality traits (high novelty seeking and harm avoidance, and lower self-directedness and cooperativeness) and more severe eating and general psychopathology. Different parenting dynamics relate to different personality patterns and eating psychopathology of obese subjects, but not to binge eating conducts. Personality differences between parenting clusters are more extensive than those between BED and non-BED subgroups. The two different typologies of obese subjects based on parenting may be relevant for treatment personalization. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  3. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on the control of finger force during dexterous manipulation in healthy older adults.

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    Pranav J Parikh

    Full Text Available The contribution of poor finger force control to age-related decline in manual dexterity is above and beyond ubiquitous behavioral slowing. Altered control of the finger forces can impart unwanted torque on the object affecting its orientation, thus impairing manual performance. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over primary motor cortex (M1 has been shown to improve the performance speed on manual tasks in older adults. However, the effects of anodal tDCS over M1 on the finger force control during object manipulation in older adults remain to be fully explored. Here we determined the effects of anodal tDCS over M1 on the control of grip force in older adults while they manipulated an object with an uncertain mechanical property. Eight healthy older adults were instructed to grip and lift an object whose contact surfaces were unexpectedly made more or less slippery across trials using acetate and sandpaper surfaces, respectively. Subjects performed this task before and after receiving anodal or sham tDCS over M1 on two separate sessions using a cross-over design. We found that older adults used significantly lower grip force following anodal tDCS compared to sham tDCS. Friction measured at the finger-object interface remained invariant after anodal and sham tDCS. These findings suggest that anodal tDCS over M1 improved the control of grip force during object manipulation in healthy older adults. Although the cortical networks for representing objects and manipulative actions are complex, the reduction in grip force following anodal tDCS over M1 might be due to a cortical excitation yielding improved processing of object-specific sensory information and its integration with the motor commands for production of manipulative forces. Our findings indicate that tDCS has a potential to improve the control of finger force during dexterous manipulation in older adults.

  4. Relationship between control beliefs, strategy use, and memory performance in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and healthy aging.

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    Hutchens, Rachel L; Kinsella, Glynda J; Ong, Ben; Pike, Kerryn E; Clare, Linda; Ames, David; Saling, Michael M; Storey, Elsdon; Mullaly, Elizabeth; Rand, Elizabeth; Parsons, Samuel

    2013-11-01

    Little information is available regarding the extent of strategy use and factors that affect strategy use in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). This study aimed to compare spontaneous strategy use and beliefs about the controllability of memory between aMCI and healthy older adult (HOA) samples and to explore the relationships between beliefs, strategy use, and memory performance for both groups. The aMCI and HOA groups each composed of 60 individuals matched for age and education. The Memory Controllability Inventory was used to assess control beliefs, and the extent of semantic clustering on a list-learning task provided a measure of spontaneous strategy use. The aMCI group endorsed lower control beliefs and demonstrated poorer semantic clustering and memory performance compared with the HOA group. Although strategy use partially mediated the control beliefs-memory performance relationship for the HOA group, this was not replicated for the aMCI group. Despite the weak relationship between control beliefs and strategy use, and control beliefs and memory performance for the aMCI group, the strong relationship between strategy use and memory performance provides impetus for further research into factors that can be used as a means of enhancing strategy use in interventions for aMCI.

  5. Bioprinting three-dimensional cell-laden tissue constructs with controllable degradation.

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    Wu, Zhengjie; Su, Xin; Xu, Yuanyuan; Kong, Bin; Sun, Wei; Mi, Shengli

    2016-04-19

    Alginate hydrogel is a popular biologically inert material that is widely used in 3D bioprinting, especially in extrusion-based printing. However, the printed cells in this hydrogel could not degrade the surrounding alginate gel matrix, causing them to remain in a poorly proliferating and non-differentiating state. Here, we report a novel study of the 3D printing of human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs)/collagen/gelatin/alginate hydrogel incubated with a medium containing sodium citrate to obtain degradation-controllable cell-laden tissue constructs. The 3D-printed hydrogel network with interconnected channels and a macroporous structure was stable and achieved high cell viability (over 90%). By altering the mole ratio of sodium citrate/sodium alginate, the degradation time of the bioprinting constructs can be controlled. Cell proliferation and specific marker protein expression results also revealed that with the help of sodium citrate degradation, the printed HCECs showed a higher proliferation rate and greater cytokeratin 3(CK3) expression, indicating that this newly developed method may help to improve the alginate bioink system for the application of 3D bioprinting in tissue engineering.

  6. Microporous silk fibroin scaffolds embedding PLGA microparticles for controlled growth factor delivery in tissue engineering.

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    Wenk, Esther; Meinel, Anne J; Wildy, Sarah; Merkle, Hans P; Meinel, Lorenz

    2009-05-01

    The development of prototype scaffolds for either direct implantation or tissue engineering purposes and featuring spatiotemporal control of growth factor release is highly desirable. Silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds with interconnective pores, carrying embedded microparticles that were loaded with insulin-like growth factor I (IGF