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Sample records for healthcare resources methodologically

  1. CHARACTERISTICS OF HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING IN HEALTHCARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetelina Mihaylova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The planning may be determined as prediction and prognosis making of human resources in a long-term plan, in conformity with the aims of the particular healthcare institution. It is prepared by the medical manager based on different analyses and prognoses with the purpose of ensuring the needed number of human resources. The aim of the study is an exploration of some of the reasons for the shortage of human resources in the healthcare system. In order to be achieved the realization of the aim set, a task was assigned for analysis of the main aspects of human resource planning in the healthcare system. Data from available scientific sources on the subject were used; they were published in different scientific issues. The results from the study demonstrate that the human resource planning is usually determined by the volume of work, however, due to the specificity of the activities in the health care system, it is usually determined by the type of labour functions – basic, governing, assisting. The future needs of personnel are fully determined by the mission, strategy, and aims of the organization. A conclusion may be drawn that the human resource planning is a necessary condition for effective management of human resources, and it has a significant and decisive role in the prosperity of the particular hospital.

  2. An evolving systems-based methodology for healthcare planning.

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    Warwick, Jon; Bell, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Healthcare planning seems beset with problems at all hierarchical levels. These are caused by the 'soft' nature of many of the issues present in healthcare planning and the high levels of complexity inherent in healthcare services. There has, in recent years, been a move to utilize systems thinking ideas in an effort to gain a better understanding of the forces at work within the healthcare environment and these have had some success. This paper argues that systems-based methodologies can be further enhanced by metrication and modeling which assist in exploring the changed emergent behavior of a system resulting from management intervention. The paper describes the Holon Framework as an evolving systems-based approach that has been used to help clients understand complex systems (in the education domain) that would have application in the analysis of healthcare problems.

  3. Assessing the impact of healthcare research: A systematic review of methodological frameworks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Cruz Rivera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, researchers need to demonstrate the impact of their research to their sponsors, funders, and fellow academics. However, the most appropriate way of measuring the impact of healthcare research is subject to debate. We aimed to identify the existing methodological frameworks used to measure healthcare research impact and to summarise the common themes and metrics in an impact matrix.Two independent investigators systematically searched the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL+, the Health Management Information Consortium, and the Journal of Research Evaluation from inception until May 2017 for publications that presented a methodological framework for research impact. We then summarised the common concepts and themes across methodological frameworks and identified the metrics used to evaluate differing forms of impact. Twenty-four unique methodological frameworks were identified, addressing 5 broad categories of impact: (1 'primary research-related impact', (2 'influence on policy making', (3 'health and health systems impact', (4 'health-related and societal impact', and (5 'broader economic impact'. These categories were subdivided into 16 common impact subgroups. Authors of the included publications proposed 80 different metrics aimed at measuring impact in these areas. The main limitation of the study was the potential exclusion of relevant articles, as a consequence of the poor indexing of the databases searched.The measurement of research impact is an essential exercise to help direct the allocation of limited research resources, to maximise research benefit, and to help minimise research waste. This review provides a collective summary of existing methodological frameworks for research impact, which funders may use to inform the measurement of research impact and researchers may use to inform

  4. Discourse analysis: A useful methodology for health-care system researches.

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    Yazdannik, Ahmadreza; Yousefy, Alireza; Mohammadi, Sepideh

    2017-01-01

    Discourse analysis (DA) is an interdisciplinary field of inquiry and becoming an increasingly popular research strategy for researchers in various disciplines which has been little employed by health-care researchers. The methodology involves a focus on the sociocultural and political context in which text and talk occur. DA adds a linguistic approach to an understanding of the relationship between language and ideology, exploring the way in which theories of reality and relations of power are encoded in such aspects as the syntax, style, and rhetorical devices used in texts. DA is a useful and productive qualitative methodology but has been underutilized within health-care system research. Without a clear understanding of discourse theory and DA it is difficult to comprehend important research findings and impossible to use DA as a research strategy. To redress this deficiency, in this article, represents an introduction to concepts of discourse and DA, DA history, Philosophical background, DA types and analysis strategy. Finally, we discuss how affect to the ideological dimension of such phenomena discourse in health-care system, health beliefs and intra-disciplinary relationship in health-care system.

  5. Teaching medical students about fair distribution of healthcare resources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leget, C.J.W.; Hoedemaekers, R.H.M.V.

    2007-01-01

    Healthcare package decisions are complex. Different judgements about effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and disease burden influence the decision-making process. Moreover, different concepts of justice generate different ideas about fair distribution of healthcare resources. This paper presents a

  6. A methodology and supply chain management inspired reference ontology for modeling healthcare teams.

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    Kuziemsky, Craig E; Yazdi, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies and strategic plans are advocating more team based healthcare delivery that is facilitated by information and communication technologies (ICTs). However before we can design ICTs to support teams we need a solid conceptual model of team processes and a methodology for using such a model in healthcare settings. This paper draws upon success in the supply chain management domain to develop a reference ontology of healthcare teams and a methodology for modeling teams to instantiate the ontology in specific settings. This research can help us understand how teams function and how we can design ICTs to support teams.

  7. Crew resource management: applications in healthcare organizations.

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    Oriol, Mary David

    2006-09-01

    Healthcare organizations continue their struggle to establish a culture of open communication and collaboration. Lessons are learned from the aviation industry, which long ago acknowledged that most errors were the result of poor communication and coordination rather than individual mistakes. The author presents a review of how some healthcare organizations have successfully adopted aviation's curriculum called Crew Resource Management, which promotes and reinforces the conscious, learned team behaviors of cooperation, coordination, and sharing.

  8. USGS Methodology for Assessing Continuous Petroleum Resources

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    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a new quantitative methodology for assessing resources in continuous (unconventional) petroleum deposits. Continuous petroleum resources include shale gas, coalbed gas, and other oil and gas deposits in low-permeability ("tight") reservoirs. The methodology is based on an approach combining geologic understanding with well productivities. The methodology is probabilistic, with both input and output variables as probability distributions, and uses Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the estimates. The new methodology is an improvement of previous USGS methodologies in that it better accommodates the uncertainties in undrilled or minimally drilled deposits that must be assessed using analogs. The publication is a collection of PowerPoint slides with accompanying comments.

  9. Corporate sustainability: the environmental design and human resource management interface in healthcare settings.

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    Sadatsafavi, Hessam; Walewski, John

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Paper: The purpose of this study is to provide healthcare organizations with a new perspective for developing strategies to enrich their human resource capabilities and improve their performance outcomes. The focus of this study is on leveraging the synergy between organizational management strategies and environmental design interventions. This paper proposes a framework for linking the built environment with the human resource management system of healthcare organizations. The framework focuses on the impact of the built environment regarding job attitudes and behaviors of healthcare workers. Research from the disciplines of strategic human resource management, resource-based view of firms, evidence-based design, and green building are utilized to develop the framework. The positive influence of human resource practices on job attitudes and behaviors of employees is one mechanism to improve organizational performance outcomes. Organizational psychologists suggest that human resource practices are effective because they convey that the organization values employee contributions and cares about their well-being. Attention to employee socio-emotional needs can be reciprocated with higher levels of motivation and commitment toward the organization. In line with these findings, healthcare environmental studies imply that physical settings and features can have a positive influence on job attitudes and the behavior of caregivers by providing for their physical and socio-emotional needs. Adding the physical environment as a complementary resource to the array of human resource practices creates synergy in improving caregivers' job attitudes and behaviors and enhances the human capital of healthcare firms. Staff, evidence-based design, interdisciplinary, modeling, perceived organizational supportPreferred Citation: Sadatsafavi, H., & Walewski, J. (2013). Corporate sustainability: The environmental design and human resource management interface in

  10. ERP (enterprise resource planning) systems can streamline healthcare business functions.

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    Jenkins, E K; Christenson, E

    2001-05-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) software applications are designed to facilitate the systemwide integration of complex processes and functions across a large enterprise consisting of many internal and external constituents. Although most currently available ERP applications generally are tailored to the needs of the manufacturing industry, many large healthcare systems are investigating these applications. Due to the significant differences between manufacturing and patient care, ERP-based systems do not easily translate to the healthcare setting. In particular, the lack of clinical standardization impedes the use of ERP systems for clinical integration. Nonetheless, an ERP-based system can help a healthcare organization integrate many functions, including patient scheduling, human resources management, workload forecasting, and management of workflow, that are not directly dependent on clinical decision making.

  11. Values, participatory democracy, and healthcare resource allocation: an application to a campus community.

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    Bentley, J P; Larson, L N; Brenton, M A

    1995-03-01

    As healthcare reform is debated, it is important that decision makers consider the values of all citizens, that is, what people find desirable or useful about healthcare services. Several states have used town meetings in an effort to determine their citizens' views on the values in the realm of healthcare. In this article, the authors describe a process in which individuals actively participate in an open discussion about issues surrounding allocation of healthcare resources in a university setting. Three different groups from the university community participated in separate, structured meetings to discuss their values concerning the allocation of scarce healthcare resources. Such meetings give participants opportunities to learn about their values and those of other persons in the community.

  12. Mobile Usability Testing in Healthcare: Methodological Approaches.

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    Borycki, Elizabeth M; Monkman, Helen; Griffith, Janessa; Kushniruk, Andre W

    2015-01-01

    The use of mobile devices and healthcare applications is increasing exponentially worldwide. This has lead to the need for the healthcare industry to develop a better understanding of the impact of the usability of mobile software and hardware upon consumer and health professional adoption and use of these technologies. There are many methodological approaches that can be employed in conducting usability evaluation of mobile technologies. More obtrusive approaches to collecting study data may lead to changes in study participant behaviour, leading to study results that are less consistent with how the technologies will be used in the real-world. Alternatively, less obstrusive methods used in evaluating the usability of mobile software and hardware in-situ and laboratory settings can lead to less detailed information being collected about how an individual interacts with both the software and hardware. In this paper we review and discuss several innovative mobile usability evaluation methods on a contiuum from least to most obtrusive and their effects on the quality of the usability data collected. The strengths and limitations of methods are also discussed.

  13. Cultural Health Capital on the margins: Cultural resources for navigating healthcare in communities with limited access.

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    Madden, Erin Fanning

    2015-05-01

    Communities struggling with access to healthcare in the U.S. are often considered to be disadvantaged and lacking in resources. Yet, these communities develop and nurture valuable strategies for healthcare access that are underrecognized by health scholars. Combining medical sociology and critical race theory perspectives on cultural capital, this paper examines the health-relevant cultural resources, or Cultural Health Capital, in South Texas Mexican American border communities. Ethnographic data collected during 2011-2013 in Cameron and Hidalgo counties on the U.S.-Mexico border provide empirical evidence for expanding existing notions of health-relevant cultural capital. These Mexican American communities use a range of cultural resources to manage healthcare exclusion and negotiate care in alternative healthcare spaces like community clinics, flea markets and Mexican pharmacies. Navigational, social, familial, and linguistic skills and knowledge are used to access doctors and prescription drugs in these spaces despite social barriers to mainstream healthcare (e.g. cost, English language skills, etc.). Cultural capital used in marginalized communities to navigate limited healthcare options may not always fully counteract healthcare exclusion. Nevertheless, recognizing the cultural resources used in Mexican American communities to facilitate healthcare challenges deficit views and yields important findings for policymakers, healthcare providers, and advocates seeking to capitalize on community resources to improve healthcare access. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of an Improved Methodology to Assess Potential Unconventional Gas Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Jesus; McVay, Duane A.; Lee, W. John

    2010-01-01

    Considering the important role played today by unconventional gas resources in North America and their enormous potential for the future around the world, it is vital to both policy makers and industry that the volumes of these resources and the impact of technology on these resources be assessed. To provide for optimal decision making regarding energy policy, research funding, and resource development, it is necessary to reliably quantify the uncertainty in these resource assessments. Since the 1970s, studies to assess potential unconventional gas resources have been conducted by various private and governmental agencies, the most rigorous of which was by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The USGS employed a cell-based, probabilistic methodology which used analytical equations to calculate distributions of the resources assessed. USGS assessments have generally produced distributions for potential unconventional gas resources that, in our judgment, are unrealistically narrow for what are essentially undiscovered, untested resources. In this article, we present an improved methodology to assess potential unconventional gas resources. Our methodology is a stochastic approach that includes Monte Carlo simulation and correlation between input variables. Application of the improved methodology to the Uinta-Piceance province of Utah and Colorado with USGS data validates the means and standard deviations of resource distributions produced by the USGS methodology, but reveals that these distributions are not right skewed, as expected for a natural resource. Our investigation indicates that the unrealistic shape and width of the gas resource distributions are caused by the use of narrow triangular input parameter distributions. The stochastic methodology proposed here is more versatile and robust than the USGS analytic methodology. Adoption of the methodology, along with a careful examination and revision of input distributions, should allow a more realistic

  15. Building an integrated methodology of learning that can optimally support improvements in healthcare.

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    Lynn, Joanne

    2011-04-01

    The methods for healthcare reform are strikingly underdeveloped, with much reliance on political power. A methodology that combined methods from sources such as clinical trials, experience-based wisdom, and improvement science could be among the aims of the upcoming work in the USA on comparative effectiveness and on the agenda of the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation in the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Those working in quality improvement have an unusual opportunity to generate substantial input into these processes through professional organisations such as the Academy for Healthcare Improvement and dominant leadership organisations such as the Institute for Healthcare Improvement.

  16. Diffusion of novel healthcare technologies to resource poor settings.

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    Malkin, Robert; von Oldenburg Beer, Kim

    2013-09-01

    A new product has completed clinical trials in a distant, resource poor hospital using a few dozen prototypes. The data looks great. The novel medical device solves a widely felt problem. The next goal is to integrate the device into the country's healthcare system and spread the device to other countries. But how? In order to be widely used, the device must be manufactured and distributed. One option is to license the intellectual property (IP) to an interested third party, if one can be found. However, it is possible to manage the manufacturing and distribution without licensing. There are at least two common means for manufacturing a novel medical device targeted to resource poor settings: (a) formal (contract) manufacturing and (b) informal (local) manufacturing. There are three primary routes to diffusion of novel medical devices in the developing world: (1) local distributors (2) direct international sales and (3) international donations. Perhaps surprisingly, the least effective mechanism is direct importation through donation. The most successful mechanism, the method used by nearly all working medical devices in resource-poor settings, is the use of contract manufacturing and a local distributor. This article is written for the biomedical innovator and entrepreneur who wishes to make a novel healthcare technology or product available and accessible to healthcare providers and patients in the developing world. There are very few documented cases and little formal research in this area. To this end, this article describes and explores the manufacturing and distribution options in order to provide insights into when and how each can be applied to scale up a novel technology to make a difference in a resource poor setting.

  17. Distribution of selected healthcare resources for influenza pandemic response in Cambodia.

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    Schwanke Khilji, Sara U; Rudge, James W; Drake, Tom; Chavez, Irwin; Borin, Khieu; Touch, Sok; Coker, Richard

    2013-10-04

    Human influenza infection poses a serious public health threat in Cambodia, a country at risk for the emergence and spread of novel influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Prior pandemics demonstrated the adverse impact of influenza on poor communities in developing countries. Investigation of healthcare resource distribution can inform decisions regarding resource mobilization and investment for pandemic mitigation. A health facility survey performed across Cambodia obtained data on availability of healthcare resources important for pandemic influenza response. Focusing on five key resources considered most necessary for treating severe influenza (inpatient beds, doctors, nurses, oseltamivir, and ventilators), resource distributions were analyzed at the Operational District (OD) and Province levels, refining data analysis from earlier studies. Resources were stratified by respondent type (hospital vs. District Health Office [DHO]). A summary index of distribution inequality was calculated using the Gini coefficient. Indices for local spatial autocorrelation were measured at the OD level using geographical information system (GIS) analysis. Finally, a potential link between socioeconomic status and resource distribution was explored by mapping resource densities against poverty rates. Gini coefficient calculation revealed variable inequality in distribution of the five key resources at the Province and OD levels. A greater percentage of the population resides in areas of relative under-supply (28.5%) than over-supply (21.3%). Areas with more resources per capita showed significant clustering in central Cambodia while areas with fewer resources clustered in the northern and western provinces. Hospital-based inpatient beds, doctors, and nurses were most heavily concentrated in areas of the country with the lowest poverty rates; however, beds and nurses in Non-Hospital Medical Facilities (NHMF) showed increasing concentrations at higher levels of poverty. There is

  18. Healthcare resources and expenditure in financial crisis: scenarios and managerial strategies.

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    Nuti, Sabina; Vainieri, Milena; Frey, Marco

    2012-10-01

    What are the implications of financial crisis on healthcare expenditure? This paper explores different approaches applied across European countries focusing on the role that managerial tools may have in coping with this challenge. The paper reports the results of recent studies on responses to financial crisis from European countries and which are the techniques they had applied to reallocate resources. Although resources scarcity, some governments did not reduce the healthcare expenditure because they believe in its focal role on the economic development and on maintaining social cohesion and protection of vulnerable people. Other countries decided a strong reduction of costs which often has affected services delivered. In both cases authors suggest to avoid across-the-board cuts in favor of approach involving priority setting. The public sector has assumed new responsibilities following the global crisis and the rising demand for social services. Some countries shifted the healthcare costs from the public purse to private households undermining the survival of the health system and the universal coverage. A way to avoid this risk is based on the ability to share discussion about where to cut and where to reallocate resources.

  19. Information resources assessment of a healthcare integrated delivery system.

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    Gadd, C. S.; Friedman, C. P.; Douglas, G.; Miller, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    While clinical healthcare systems may have lagged behind computer applications in other fields in the shift from mainframes to client-server architectures, the rapid deployment of newer applications is closing that gap. Organizations considering the transition to client-server must identify and position themselves to provide the resources necessary to implement and support the infrastructure requirements of client-server architectures and to manage the accelerated complexity at the desktop, including hardware and software deployment, training, and maintenance needs. This paper describes an information resources assessment of the recently aligned Pennsylvania regional Veterans Administration Stars and Stripes Health Network (VISN4), in anticipation of the shift from a predominantly mainframe to a client-server information systems architecture in its well-established VistA clinical information system. The multimethod assessment study is described here to demonstrate this approach and its value to regional healthcare networks undergoing organizational integration and/or significant information technology transformations. PMID:10566414

  20. Information resources assessment of a healthcare integrated delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, C S; Friedman, C P; Douglas, G; Miller, D J

    1999-01-01

    While clinical healthcare systems may have lagged behind computer applications in other fields in the shift from mainframes to client-server architectures, the rapid deployment of newer applications is closing that gap. Organizations considering the transition to client-server must identify and position themselves to provide the resources necessary to implement and support the infrastructure requirements of client-server architectures and to manage the accelerated complexity at the desktop, including hardware and software deployment, training, and maintenance needs. This paper describes an information resources assessment of the recently aligned Pennsylvania regional Veterans Administration Stars and Stripes Health Network (VISN4), in anticipation of the shift from a predominantly mainframe to a client-server information systems architecture in its well-established VistA clinical information system. The multimethod assessment study is described here to demonstrate this approach and its value to regional healthcare networks undergoing organizational integration and/or significant information technology transformations.

  1. Verbal protocols as methodological resources: research evidence

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    Alessandra Baldo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at reflecting on the use of verbal protocols as a methodological resource in qualitative research, more specifically on the aspect regarded as the main limitation of a study about lexical inferencing in L2 (BALDO; VELASQUES, 2010: its subjective trait. The article begins with a brief literature review on protocols, followed by a description of the study in which they were employed as methodological resources. Based on that, protocol subjectivity is illustrated through samples of unparalleled data classification, carried out independently by two researchers. In the final section, the path followed to minimize the problem is presented, intending to contribute to improve efficiency in the use of verbal protocols in future research.

  2. Intellectual capital in the healthcare sector: a systematic review and critique of the literature.

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    Evans, Jenna M; Brown, Adalsteinn; Baker, G Ross

    2015-12-15

    Variations in the performance of healthcare organizations may be partly explained by differing "stocks" of intellectual capital (IC), and differing approaches and capacities for leveraging IC. This study synthesizes what is currently known about the conceptualization, management and measurement of IC in healthcare through a review of the literature. Peer-reviewed papers on IC in healthcare published between 1990 and 2014 were identified through searches of five databases using the following key terms: intellectual capital/assets, knowledge capital/assets/resources, and intangible assets/resources. Articles deemed relevant for inclusion underwent systematic data extraction to identify overarching themes and were assessed for their methodological quality. Thirty-seven papers were included in the review. The primary research method used was cross-sectional questionnaires focused on hospital managers' perceptions of IC, followed by semi-structured interviews and analysis of administrative data. Empirical studies suggest that IC is linked to subjective process and performance indicators in healthcare organizations. Although the literature on IC in healthcare is growing, it is not advanced. In this paper, we identify and examine the conceptual, theoretical and methodological limitations of the literature. The concept and framework of IC offer a means to study the value of intangible resources in healthcare organizations, how to manage systematically these resources together, and their mutually enhancing interactions on performance. We offer several recommendations for future research.

  3. Are fish eaters healthier and do they consume less health-care resources?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostenkamp, Gisela; Sørensen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Regular dietary intake of fish is associated with reduced risk of developing cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, and may improve general well-being. If fish eaters are healthier, they may use fewer health-care resources. The present study aimed to describe the reported intake...... of fish and fish products in a Danish general population, and to investigate whether fish consumption is associated with generic measures of self-reported health and consumption of health-care resources. Design: Data on eating patterns and health status for 3422 Danish adults were obtained by telephone...... interview in the Funen County Health Survey. These data were merged with individual-level register data on health-care utilisation. Survey respondents were categorised into those consuming fish at least once weekly (fish eaters) and those consuming fish less frequently (non-fish eaters). Results: People who...

  4. Resource selection for an interdisciplinary field: a methodology.

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    Jacoby, Beth E; Murray, Jane; Alterman, Ina; Welbourne, Penny

    2002-10-01

    The Health Sciences and Human Services Library of the University of Maryland developed and implemented a methodology to evaluate print and digital resources for social work. Although this methodology was devised for the interdisciplinary field of social work, the authors believe it may lend itself to resource selection in other interdisciplinary fields. The methodology was developed in response to the results of two separate surveys conducted in late 1999, which indicated improvement was needed in the library's graduate-level social work collections. Library liaisons evaluated the print collection by identifying forty-five locally relevant Library of Congress subject headings and then using these subjects or synonymous terms to compare the library's titles to collections of peer institutions, publisher catalogs, and Amazon.com. The collection also was compared to social work association bibliographies, ISI Journal Citation Reports, and major social work citation databases. An approval plan for social work books was set up to assist in identifying newly published titles. The library acquired new print and digital social work resources as a result of the evaluation, thus improving both print and digital collections for its social work constituents. Visibility of digital resources was increased by cataloging individual titles in aggregated electronic journal packages and listing each title on the library Web page.

  5. Improved USGS methodology for assessing continuous petroleum resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents an improved methodology for estimating volumes of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources within the United States and around the world. The methodology is based on previously developed U.S. Geological Survey methodologies that rely on well-scale production data. Improvements were made primarily to how the uncertainty about estimated ultimate recoveries is incorporated in the estimates. This is particularly important when assessing areas with sparse or no production data, because the new methodology allows better use of analog data from areas with significant discovery histories.

  6. Methodological approach to assessment of organizational resources of the productive activity

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    Alexander Miller

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to solve the problem connected with development of theoretical and methodological provisions of formation of the assessment procedure of organizational resources of the productive activity. Theoretical results of our research are: improvement of the concept of development of organizational resources of the productive activity; identifying the impact of organizational resources on the productive activity; justification of the basic principles of formation of the assessment system of efficiency of the organizational resources' use. We proposed a unified methodological approach allowing to combine the complexity of assessment of both quantity of core resources of the productive activity and organizational resources, which significantly develops traditional systems of the productive activity management based on identifying quantitative parameters of the subsystems, their assessment, comparison and analysis. We also substantiated our opinion on assessment of organizational resources' values. It is focused on the development of the productive activity and allows to use the developed tools of the methodological approach for forecast assessment of the impact of the quantity of core resources, used in the productive activity, and organizational resources of the productive activity on the economic results of the enterprise.

  7. Managing resources and reducing waste in healthcare settings.

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    Minogue, Virginia; Wells, Bill

    2016-05-18

    The NHS is under pressure to increase its effectiveness and productivity. Nurses are tasked with delivering effective and efficient care, as well as improving patient safety, experiences and results. The reduction of waste in service delivery, care and treatment can release time and resources for nurses to engage in direct patient care. Nurses have an important role in reducing waste and influencing other professionals in the healthcare environment to increase their efficiency and productivity.

  8. The resource impact of wounds on health-care providers in Europe.

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    Posnett, J; Gottrup, F; Lundgren, H; Saal, G

    2009-04-01

    Most of the literature focuses on the resources required to manage particular wound types, rather than the cost of wounds to health-care organisations. Until this information is available, wound care is unlikely to be a management priority.

  9. Methodological Challenges in Examining the Impact of Healthcare Predictive Analytics on Nursing-Sensitive Patient Outcomes.

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    Jeffery, Alvin D

    2015-06-01

    The expansion of real-time analytic abilities within current electronic health records has led to innovations in predictive modeling and clinical decision support systems. However, the ability of these systems to influence patient outcomes is currently unknown. Even though nurses are the largest profession within the healthcare workforce, little research has been performed to explore the impact of clinical decision support on their decisions and the patient outcomes associated with them. A scoping literature review explored the impact clinical decision support systems containing healthcare predictive analytics have on four nursing-sensitive patient outcomes (pressure ulcers, failure to rescue, falls, and infections). While many articles discussed variable selection and predictive model development/validation, only four articles examined the impact on patient outcomes. The novelty of predictive analytics and the inherent methodological challenges in studying clinical decision support impact are likely responsible for this paucity of literature. Major methodological challenges include (1) multilevel nature of intervention, (2) treatment fidelity, and (3) adequacy of clinicians' subsequent behavior. There is currently insufficient evidence to demonstrate efficacy of healthcare predictive analytics-enhanced clinical decision support systems on nursing-sensitive patient outcomes. Innovative research methods and a greater emphasis on studying this phenomenon are needed.

  10. Workplace bullying and burnout among healthcare employees: The moderating effect of control-related resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livne, Yael; Goussinsky, Ruhama

    2018-03-01

    Workplace bullying is a widespread and challenging problem in healthcare organizations, bearing negative consequences for individuals and organizations. Drawing on the job demands-resources theory, in this study, we examined the relationship between workplace bullying and burnout among healthcare employees, as well as the moderating role of job autonomy and occupational self-efficacy in this relationship. Using a cross-sectional design with anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from two samples of 309 healthcare employees in a mental health facility, and 105 nurses studying for their bachelor degree in health systems administration. The findings indicated that workplace bullying was positively related to burnout dimensions, and that this relationship was moderated by job autonomy and occupational self-efficacy resources. Job autonomy interacted with workplace bullying in predicting emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; the interaction of bullying with occupational self-efficacy significantly predicted depersonalization. These results underscore the importance of control-related resources in mitigating the harmful effects of workplace bullying on employees. Implications for research and managerial practices are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. The ambiguous role of healthcare providers: a new perspective in Human Resources Management.

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    Panari, Chiara; Levati, W; Bonini, A; Tonelli, M; Alfieri, E; Artioli, Giovanna

    2016-05-26

    A strategic Human Resources Management approach, that overcomes anadministrative Personnel Management, is becoming crucial for hospital organizations. In this sense, the aimof this work was to examine the figure of healthcare provider using the concept of role, as expected behaviourin term of integration in the organizational culture. The instrument used to analyse the healthcareprovider figure was "role mapping". Particularly, semistructured interviews were conducted and involved to36 health professionals of four units in order to examine the behaviour expectations system towards thehealthcare providers. The analysis revealed that the expectations of different professionals relatedto the healthcare provider were dissimilar. Physicians' expectations referred to technical preparation and efficiency,while nurses and nurse coordinators required collaboration in equip work and emotional support forpatients. In all Operating Units, directors were perceived as missing persons with vague expectations of efficiency.Differences concerned also the four Units. For example, in intensive care Unit, the role of healthcareprovider was clearer and this figure was perceived as essential for patients' care and for the equip teamwork.On the contrary, in Recovery Unit the healthcare provider was underestimated, the role was ambiguous andnot integrated in the equip even if there was a clear division of tasks between nurses and healthcare providers. The "role mapping" instrument allows to identify healthcare provider profile and find possible roleambiguity and conflicts in order to plan adequate human resources management interventions.

  12. Professionals' perceptions about healthcare resources for co-occuring disorders in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero, Carlos; Vega, Pablo; Martínez-Raga, Jose; Barral, Carmen; Basurte-Villamor, Ignacio; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Mesías, Beatriz; Grau-López, Lara; Casas, Miguel; Szerman, Nestor

    2014-01-01

    Since provision of integrated services for patients with dual pathology or dual disorders (coexistence of an addictive disorder and other psychiatric disorders) constitutes an important challenge, this study compared the perceptions of health-care professionals with the existing, current state of specific resources for patients with dual pathology in Spain. Epidemiological, observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study with a large, representative sample of health care professionals attending patients with dual pathology in treatment resources throughout Spain. Participants completed a specifically designed ad-hoc on-line questionnaire about their perceptions on the existence of available resources and treatment needs for patients with dual pathology. To compare professionals' perceptions with existing available resources, the same on-line questionnaire was also completed by commissioners and managers responsible for national and regional healthcare plans on drug abuse. A total of 659 professionals, mostly psychologists (43.40%) or psychiatrists (32.93%) agreed to participate in the study. The highest degree of concordance between the perceptions of professional and the actual situation was found regarding the existence of mental health and addiction networks (either separately or unified) (74.48%), followed by specific workshops (73.08%) and sub-acute inpatient units (67.38%), specific hospitalization units (66.26%), detoxification units (63.15%) and outpatient programs (60.73%). We detected a lower degree of agreement regarding specific occupational rehabilitation centers (59.34%) day hospitals (58.93%), day centers (57.88%), outpatient intermediate resources (48.87%), psychiatric acute admission units (46.54%) and therapeutic communities (43.77%). In addition, on average, health care professionals underestimated the number of resources present in their respective communities. Relevant differences exist between the perceptions of professional and existing

  13. Simulation analysis of resource flexibility on healthcare processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simwita, Yusta W; Helgheim, Berit I

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses discrete event simulation to explore the best resource flexibility scenario and examine the effect of implementing resource flexibility on different stages of patient treatment process. Specifically we investigate the effect of resource flexibility on patient waiting time and throughput in an orthopedic care process. We further seek to explore on how implementation of resource flexibility on patient treatment processes affects patient access to healthcare services. We focus on two resources, namely, orthopedic surgeon and operating room. The observational approach was used to collect process data. The developed model was validated by comparing the simulation output with actual patient data collected from the studied orthopedic care process. We developed different scenarios to identify the best resource flexibility scenario and explore the effect of resource flexibility on patient waiting time, throughput, and future changes in demand. The developed scenarios focused on creating flexibility on service capacity of this care process by altering the amount of additional human resource capacity at different stages of patient care process and extending the use of operating room capacity. The study found that resource flexibility can improve responsiveness to patient demand in the treatment process. Testing different scenarios showed that the introduction of resource flexibility reduces patient waiting time and improves throughput. The simulation results show that patient access to health services can be improved by implementing resource flexibility at different stages of the patient treatment process. This study contributes to the current health care literature by explaining how implementing resource flexibility at different stages of patient care processes can improve ability to respond to increasing patients demands. This study was limited to a single patient process; studies focusing on additional processes are recommended.

  14. Economic planning and equilibrium growth of human resources and capital in health-care sector: Case study of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboobi-Ardakan, Payman; Kazemian, Mahmood; Mehraban, Sattar

    2017-01-01

    During different planning periods, human resources factor has been considerably increased in the health-care sector. The main goal is to determine economic planning conditions and equilibrium growth for services level and specialized workforce resources in health-care sector and also to determine the gap between levels of health-care services and specialized workforce resources in the equilibrium growth conditions and their available levels during the periods of the first to fourth development plansin Iran. In the study after data collection, econometric methods and EViews version 8.0 were used for data processing. The used model was based on neoclassical economic growth model. The results indicated that during the former planning periods, although specialized workforce has been increased significantly in health-care sector, lack of attention to equilibrium growth conditions caused imbalance conditions for product level and specialized workforce in health-care sector. In the past development plans for health services, equilibrium conditions based on the full employment in the capital stock, and specialized labor are not considered. The government could act by choosing policies determined by the growth model to achieve equilibrium level in the field of human resources and services during the next planning periods.

  15. The Impact of Severe Obesity on Healthcare Resource Utilisation in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espallardo, Olga; Busutil, Rafael; Torres, Antonio; Zozaya, Néboa; Villoro, Renata; Hidalgo-Vega, Álvaro

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is not only a health problem but also a source of increased monetary expenditures. The objectives of this study were to analyse the use of healthcare resources in the Spanish adult population with class II obesity and above (BMI ≥35 kg/m 2 ) and to compare it with other BMI groups. We used the Spanish National Health Survey, a longitudinal population-based survey (n = 18,682), to analyse healthcare resource utilisation by BMI groups. Adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for healthcare use among class II and over obese subjects versus normal BMI. Persons with BMI ≥35 are more likely to attend general practitioner (GP)'s consultations (17%), to visit the emergency department (26%), to consume medications (36%), to be hospitalised (49%), to require nursing consultations (61%) and to require psychology consultations (83%). The proportion of obese people receiving home visits is 2.6 times higher than among normal BMI. After controlling for sex and age groups, people with severe obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m 2 ) were more prone to requiring home care visits (OR 2.3; CI [1.3; 4.2]), GP visits (OR 2.1; CI [1.5; 3.0]), psychologist visits (OR 1.96; CI [1.3; 2.99]), emergency service visits (OR 1.5; CI [1.2; 1.8]), nurse visits (OR 1.46; CI [1.2; 1.9]) and hospitalisations (OR 1.43; CI [1.1; 1.9]) and after also adjusting for relevant comorbidities like hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases: GP visits (OR 1.85; CI [1.3; 2.7]), psychologist visits (OR 1.8; CI [1.2; 2.7]), specialised care visits (OR 0.92; CI [0.7; 1.2]) and physiotherapist visits (OR 0.7; CI [0.5; 1.0]). Severe obesity significantly increases healthcare resource utilisation in Spain. The results shed light on the real magnitude of the burden of obesity in Spain.

  16. Economic planning and equilibrium growth of human resources and capital in health-care sector: Case study of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboobi-Ardakan, Payman; Kazemian, Mahmood; Mehraban, Sattar

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: During different planning periods, human resources factor has been considerably increased in the health-care sector. AIMS: The main goal is to determine economic planning conditions and equilibrium growth for services level and specialized workforce resources in health-care sector and also to determine the gap between levels of health-care services and specialized workforce resources in the equilibrium growth conditions and their available levels during the periods of the first to fourth development plansin Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the study after data collection, econometric methods and EViews version 8.0 were used for data processing. The used model was based on neoclassical economic growth model. RESULTS: The results indicated that during the former planning periods, although specialized workforce has been increased significantly in health-care sector, lack of attention to equilibrium growth conditions caused imbalance conditions for product level and specialized workforce in health-care sector. CONCLUSIONS: In the past development plans for health services, equilibrium conditions based on the full employment in the capital stock, and specialized labor are not considered. The government could act by choosing policies determined by the growth model to achieve equilibrium level in the field of human resources and services during the next planning periods. PMID:28616419

  17. [Factors associated with job satisfaction of human resources in healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Вежновець, Тетяна А; Парій, Валентин Д; Вишнивецький, Іван І; Москаленко, Максим В

    Healthcare employee satisfaction is an important criterion for the efficiency of human resource management and prognostic impact factor for high turnover of staff. Furthermore, job satisfaction positively affects patient satisfaction, which is an important indicator for quality of care. The goal of our study was to identify factors associated with job satisfaction in healthcare organizations in Ukraine. We conducted sociological and psychological survey of 190 healthcare professionals (81% response rate) in Kherson City Hospital. Job satisfaction and organizational climate was assessed through developed questionnaire, "Test Motype" method of Gerchikov (motivational profile designing) and "Diagnosis Syndrome emotional burnout" method of Boyko. Spearman rank correlation was used for analysis. Job satisfaction positively correlated with personnel age and time record, career prospects, professional development, superior-subordinate, peer-to-peer and patient communications (pJob satisfaction did not correlate with responsibility of executives, factors for satisfaction of job description, working conditions and range of wages (all p> 0.05). Based on findings we developed dual job satisfaction-dissatisfaction approach specific for healthcare employee in Ukraine. This model includes internal factors such as work experience, career prospects, professional motivation; external factors such as leadership, governance, work environment, customer satisfaction and preventive factors such as staff role, job description, company policies, salary and benefits.

  18. The application of Lean Six Sigma methodology to reduce the risk of healthcare-associated infections in surgery departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montella, Emma; Di Cicco, Maria Vincenza; Ferraro, Anna; Centobelli, Piera; Raiola, Eliana; Triassi, Maria; Improta, Giovanni

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, the monitoring and prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) is a priority for the healthcare sector. In this article, we report on the application of the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) methodology to reduce the number of patients affected by sentinel bacterial infections who are at risk of HAI. The LSS methodology was applied in the general surgery department by using a multidisciplinary team of both physicians and academics. Data on more than 20 000 patients who underwent a wide range of surgical procedures between January 2011 and December 2014 were collected to conduct the study using the departmental information system. The most prevalent sentinel bacteria were determined among the infected patients. The preintervention (January 2011 to December 2012) and postintervention (January 2013 to December 2014) phases were compared to analyze the effects of the methodology implemented. The methodology allowed the identification of variables that influenced the risk of HAIs and the implementation of corrective actions to improve the care process, thereby reducing the percentage of infected patients. The improved process resulted in a 20% reduction in the average number of hospitalization days between preintervention and control phases, and a decrease in the mean (SD) number of days of hospitalization amounted to 36 (15.68), with a data distribution around 3 σ. The LSS is a helpful strategy that ensures a significant decrease in the number of HAIs in patients undergoing surgical interventions. The implementation of this intervention in the general surgery departments resulted in a significant reduction in both the number of hospitalization days and the number of patients affected by HAIs. This approach, together with other tools for reducing the risk of infection (surveillance, epidemiological guidelines, and training of healthcare personnel), could be applied to redesign and improve a wide range of healthcare processes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Knowledge mobilization in healthcare organizations: a view from the resource-based view of the firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlie, Ewan; Crilly, Tessa; Jashapara, Ashok; Trenholm, Susan; Peckham, Anna; Currie, Graeme

    2015-03-01

    This short literature review argues that the Resource-Based View (RBV) school of strategic management has recently become of increased interest to scholars of healthcare organizations. RBV links well to the broader interest in more effective Knowledge Mobilization (KM) in healthcare. The paper outlines and discusses key concepts, texts and authors from the RBV tradition and gives recent examples of how RBV concepts have been applied fruitfully to healthcare settings. It concludes by setting out a future research agenda.

  20. Methodology for an economic valuation of the mineral resources of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco Sepulveda, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    The present article presents a synthesis of the project of investigation; Methodology for an economic valuation of the mineral resources of Colombia, whose objective is the of proposing a methodology, specifically for the calcareous and coal deposits, like a tool for its administration, planning, regulation and control that it can be applied to the generality of the non renewable resources with the end to insert them in the states of national accounts in the long term

  1. Performance management in healthcare: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewko, Sarah J; Cummings, Greta G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the underlying theoretical assumptions and implications of current micro-level performance management and evaluation (PME) practices, specifically within health-care organizations. PME encompasses all activities that are designed and conducted to align employee outputs with organizational goals. Design/methodology/approach - PME, in the context of healthcare, is analyzed through the lens of critical theory. Specifically, Habermas' theory of communicative action is used to highlight some of the questions that arise in looking critically at PME. To provide a richer definition of key theoretical concepts, the authors conducted a preliminary, exploratory hermeneutic semantic analysis of the key words "performance" and "management" and of the term "performance management". Findings - Analysis reveals that existing micro-level PME systems in health-care organizations have the potential to create a workforce that is compliant, dependent, technically oriented and passive, and to support health-care systems in which inequalities and power imbalances are perpetually reinforced. Practical implications - At a time when the health-care system is under increasing pressure to provide high-quality, affordable services with fewer resources, it may be wise to investigate new sector-specific ways of evaluating and managing performance. Originality/value - In this paper, written for health-care leaders and health human resource specialists, the theoretical assumptions and implications of current PME practices within health-care organizations are explored. It is hoped that readers will be inspired to support innovative PME practices within their organizations that encourage peak performance among health-care professionals.

  2. Coal resources available for development; a methodology and pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Jane R.; Carter, M. Devereux; Cobb, James C.

    1990-01-01

    Coal accounts for a major portion of our Nation's energy supply in projections for the future. A demonstrated reserve base of more than 475 billion short tons, as the Department of Energy currently estimates, indicates that, on the basis of today's rate of consumption, the United States has enough coal to meet projected energy needs for almost 200 years. However, the traditional procedures used for estimating the demonstrated reserve base do not account for many environmental and technological restrictions placed on coal mining. A new methodology has been developed to determine the quantity of coal that might actually be available for mining under current and foreseeable conditions. This methodology is unique in its approach, because it applies restrictions to the coal resource before it is mined. Previous methodologies incorporated restrictions into the recovery factor (a percentage), which was then globally applied to the reserve (minable coal) tonnage to derive a recoverable coal tonnage. None of the previous methodologies define the restrictions and their area and amount of impact specifically. Because these restrictions and their impacts are defined in this new methodology, it is possible to achieve more accurate and specific assessments of available resources. This methodology has been tested in a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kentucky Geological Survey on the Matewan 7.5-minute quadrangle in eastern Kentucky. Pertinent geologic, mining, land-use, and technological data were collected, assimilated, and plotted. The National Coal Resources Data System was used as the repository for data, and its geographic information system software was applied to these data to eliminate restricted coal and quantify that which is available for mining. This methodology does not consider recovery factors or the economic factors that would be considered by a company before mining. Results of the pilot study indicate that, of the estimated

  3. The Relationship Between 24-Hour Symptoms and COPD Exacerbations and Healthcare Resource Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Worth, Heinrich; Soler-Cataluña, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    This observational study assessed the relationship between nighttime, early-morning and daytime chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms and exacerbations and healthcare resource use. COPD symptoms were assessed at baseline in patients with stable COPD using a standardised questionna...

  4. Multi-model approach to petroleum resource appraisal using analytic methodologies for probabilistic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The geologic appraisal model that is selected for a petroleum resource assessment depends upon purpose of the assessment, basic geologic assumptions of the area, type of available data, time available before deadlines, available human and financial resources, available computer facilities, and, most importantly, the available quantitative methodology with corresponding computer software and any new quantitative methodology that would have to be developed. Therefore, different resource assessment projects usually require different geologic models. Also, more than one geologic model might be needed in a single project for assessing different regions of the study or for cross-checking resource estimates of the area. Some geologic analyses used in the past for petroleum resource appraisal involved play analysis. The corresponding quantitative methodologies of these analyses usually consisted of Monte Carlo simulation techniques. A probabilistic system of petroleum resource appraisal for play analysis has been designed to meet the following requirements: (1) includes a variety of geologic models, (2) uses an analytic methodology instead of Monte Carlo simulation, (3) possesses the capacity to aggregate estimates from many areas that have been assessed by different geologic models, and (4) runs quickly on a microcomputer. Geologic models consist of four basic types: reservoir engineering, volumetric yield, field size, and direct assessment. Several case histories and present studies by the U.S. Geological Survey are discussed. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  5. The connection between nursing diagnosis and the use of healthcare resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Company-Sancho, María Consuelo; Estupiñán-Ramírez, Marcos; Sánchez-Janáriz, Hilda; Tristancho-Ajamil, Rita

    The health service invests up to 75% of its resources on chronic care where the focus should be on caring rather than curing. Nursing staff focuses their work on such care. Care requires being redorded in health histories through the standardized languages. These records enable useful analyses to organisational and healthcare decision-making. Our proposal is to know the association of between nursing diagnosis and a higher total expenditure on health. An observational cross-sectional analytical study was performed based on data from electronic health records in Primary Care (Drago-AP), hospital discharges (CMBD-AH) and prescriptions (REC-SCS) of patients over 50 from 2012-2013 in the Canary Islands. A descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analysis was undertaken to create a predictive model on the use of resources. Sociodemographic (age, sex, type of health-care affiliation, type of prescription charge) and nursing diagnosis (ND) recorded in late 2012. Dependent variables: Resources consumed in 2013. 582,171 patients met the criteria for inclusion. 53.0% of them were women with an average age of 64.3 years (SD 10.8years). 53.2% were pensioners. 49% of the included population had an ND, with an average of 2.1ND per patient. The average costs per patient were 1824.62€ (with a median of 827.5€) 25 and 27 percentiles of 264.1€ and 1824.7€, respectively. The bivariate analysis showed a significant correlation between these expenses and all the demographic variables; the expenses increased when a nursing diagnosis has been made (Spearman's rank=0.37: the more diagnoses, the more expenses). In the multivariate analysis, a first linear regression with the sociodemographic variables as independent variables explains 13.7% of the variability of the logarithm of the full costs (R 2 =0.137). If we add to this model the presence of nursing diagnoses, the explanatory capacity reaches 19.77% (R 2 =0.1977). Compared with a model that only consists of sociodemographic

  6. Factors influencing early stage healthcare-academia partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvhagen, Håkan; von Knorring, Mia; Hasson, Henna; Øvretveit, John; Hansson, Johan

    2018-02-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore factors influencing early implementation and intermediate outcomes of a healthcare-academia partnership in a primary healthcare setting. Design/methodology/approach The Academic Primary Healthcare Network (APHN) initiative was launched in 2011 in Stockholm County, Sweden and included 201 primary healthcare centres. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2013-2014 with all coordinating managers ( n=8) and coordinators ( n=4). A strategic change model framework was used to collect and analyse data. Findings Several factors were identified to aid early implementation: assignment and guidelines that allowed flexibility; supportive management; dedicated staff; facilities that enabled APHN actions to be integrated into healthcare practice; and positive experiences from research and educational activities. Implementation was hindered by: discrepancies between objectives and resources; underspecified guidelines that trigger passivity; limited research and educational activities; a conflicting non-supportive reimbursement system; limited planning; and organisational fragmentation. Intermediate outcomes revealed that various actions, informed by the APHN assignment, were launched in all APHNs. Practical implications The findings can be rendered applicable by preparing stakeholders in healthcare services to optimise early implementation of healthcare-academia partnerships. Originality/value This study increases understanding of interactions between factors that influence early stage partnerships between healthcare services and academia in primary healthcare settings.

  7. Assessment of healthcare measures, healthcare resource use, and cost of care among severe hemophilia A patients in Mumbai region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, U; Mukherjee, K

    2017-10-23

    In India, the low public health priority given to rare disorders such as hemophilia hinders their management and optimal care, leading to relatively poor health outcomes. This study aims to profile the multidimensional health status of patients with severe hemophilia A, and its association with the use of healthcare resources and the cost of care in Mumbai region of India. A cross-sectional, single-center study was conducted during January-May 2011, among 160 patients diagnosed with severe hemophilia A in Mumbai region of India. Their health status was documented using the Hemophilia Utilization Group Study's validated instrument of Functional Health Status Measure (FHS) and a single item of Self-care Measure. Of 160 patients, 55% (n = 88) scored on the lower side on the FHS, with an average score of 6.65 ± 2.85. The use of healthcare resources and cost of treatment were considerable for patients with a lower mean rank score on the FHS and a higher mean rank score on the self-care measure. The consumption of clotting factor concentrates (CFCs), number of visits to a health facility and incidence of inpatient episodes were significantly associated with a relatively low score on the FHS. Similarly, a higher cost of treatment, in terms of the cost of CFCs, direct cost, emergency room cost, and indirect cost, were significantly associated with a lower score on the FHS. The health status of patients with severe hemophilia A is compromised and has a significant impact on the use of healthcare resources and the cost of treatment.

  8. Designing effective eLearning for healthcare professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delf, P.

    2013-01-01

    Overview: eLearning has been identified as a versatile, economic method of delivering education, adopted by many education providers. Yet, little research has been undertaken into its impact as a sole method of delivery and effectiveness for imparting new knowledge or skills. This may have particular implications for busy healthcare practitioners wishing to access an educational programme to maintain, or extend their knowledge base in response to service needs. Aims and methodology: Following an action research approach and using an instructional design methodology, a discrete eLearning resource was devised and constructed to prepare non-medical healthcare practitioners to report radionuclide bone scans. Volunteers were recruited from across the UK to assess and establish the feasibility and efficacy of the module. Results: In terms of versatility, access, design and content, the module achieved resonance, with knowledge gains and transferability demonstrated, particularly amongst less experienced volunteers, suggesting a positive influence of the eLearning approach. Conclusions: Owing to the small-scale nature of the study, the capability of eLearning, as a sole educational medium to establish emergent skills, can only be cautiously expressed. However, as a tool for blended learning, continuing professional development, or audit purposes, it demonstrated its potential, confirming the place for this type of resource within the professional learning arena

  9. Evaluating healthcare resource utilization and outcomes for surgical hip dislocation and hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sa, Darren; Horner, Nolan S; MacDonald, Austin; Simunovic, Nicole; Slobogean, Gerard; Philippon, Marc J; Belzile, Etienne L; Karlsson, Jon; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2016-12-01

    Surgical hip dislocation (SHD) and hip arthroscopy are surgical methods used to correct deformity associated with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Though both of these approaches appear to benefit patients, no studies exist comparing healthcare resource utilization of the two surgical approaches. This systematic review examines the literature and the records of two surgeons to evaluate the resource utilization associated with treating symptomatic FAI via these two methods. EMBASE, MEDLINE and PubMed were searched for relevant articles. The articles were systematically screened, and data was abstracted in duplicate. To further supplement resource utilization data, a retrospective chart review of two surgeon's patient data (one using SHD and another using an arthroscopic approach) was completed. Experts in pharmacy, physiotherapy, radiology, anaesthesia, physiatry and the local hospital finance department were also consulted. There were 52 studies included with a total of 460 patients (535 hips) and 3886 patients (4147 hips) who underwent SHD and arthroscopic surgery for FAI, respectively. Regardless of approach, most patients treated for symptomatic FAI improved across various outcomes measures with low complication rates. Surgical time across all approaches was similar, averaging 118 ± 2 min. On a per patient basis, hip arthroscopy ($10,976) uses approximately 41 % of the resources of SHD ($24,379). There were no significant differences in outcomes for FAI treated with SHD or arthroscopy. However, with regard to healthcare resource utilization based on the OHIP healthcare system, hip arthroscopy uses substantially less resources than SHD within the first post-operative year. Systematic Review of Level IV Studies, Level IV.

  10. Determinants of Thailand household healthcare expenditure: the relevance of permanent resources and other correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunade, Albert A; Suraratdecha, Chutima; Benson, David A

    2010-03-01

    Several papers in the leading health economics journals modeled the determinants of healthcare expenditure using household survey or family budgets data of developed countries. Past work largely used self-reported current income as the core determinant, whereas the theoretically correct concept of household resource constraint is permanent or long-run income (á lá Milton Friedman). This paper strives to rectify the theoretical oversight of using current income by augmenting the model with household asset. Using longitudinal data, we constructed 'wealth index' as a distinct covariate to capture the households' tendency to liquidate assets when defraying necessary healthcare liabilities after exhausting cash incomes. (Current income and assets together capture the household expanded resource base). Using 98 632 household observations from Thailand Socio-Economic Surveys (1994-2000 biennial data cycles) we found, using a double-hurdle model with dependent errors, that out-of-pocket healthcare spending behaves as a technical necessity across income quintiles and household sizes. Pre-1997 economic shock income elasticities are smaller than the post-shock estimates across income quintiles for large and small households. Proximity to death, median age, and assets are also among other significant determinants. Our novel findings extend the theoretical consistency of a multi-level decision model in household healthcare expenditure in the developing Asian country context. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Methodology for assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The methodological procedures used in the geologic assessments of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) were based largely on the methodology developed for the 2000 U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment. The main variables were probability distributions for numbers and sizes of undiscovered accumulations with an associated risk of occurrence. The CARA methodology expanded on the previous methodology in providing additional tools and procedures more applicable to the many Arctic basins that have little or no exploration history. Most importantly, geologic analogs from a database constructed for this study were used in many of the assessments to constrain numbers and sizes of undiscovered oil and gas accumulations.

  12. Four methodologies to improve healthcare demand forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, M J; Tucker, S L

    2001-05-01

    Forecasting demand for health services is an important step in managerial decision making for all healthcare organizations. This task, which often is assumed by financial managers, first requires the compilation and examination of historical information. Although many quantitative forecasting methods exist, four common methods of forecasting are percent adjustment, 12-month moving average, trendline, and seasonalized forecast. These four methods are all based upon the organization's recent historical demand. Healthcare financial managers who want to project demand for healthcare services in their facility should understand the advantages and disadvantages of each method and then select the method that will best meet the organization's needs.

  13. Assessing healthcare professional knowledge, attitudes, and practices on hypertension management. Announcing a new World Hypertension League resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R C; Dashdorj, Naranjargal; Baatarsuren, Uurtsaikh; Myanganbayar, Maral; Dashtseren, Myagmartseren; Unurjargal, Tsolmon; Zhang, Xin-Hua; Veiga, Eugenia Velludo; Beheiry, Hind Mamoun; Mohan, Sailesh; Almustafa, Bader; Niebylski, Mark; Lackland, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    To assist hypertension control programs and specifically the development of training and education programs on hypertension for healthcare professionals, the World Hypertension League has developed a resource to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices on hypertension management. The resource assesses: (1) the importance of hypertension as a clinical and public health risk; (2) education in national or international hypertension recommendations; (3) lifestyle causes of hypertension; (4) measurement of blood pressure, screening, and diagnosis of hypertension; (5) lifestyle therapy counseling; (6) cardiovascular risk assessment; (7) antihypertensive drug therapy; and (8) adherence to therapy. In addition, the resource assesses the attitudes and practices of healthcare professionals for task sharing/shifting, use of care algorithms, and use of registries with performance reporting functions. The resource is designed to help support the Global Hearts Alliance to provide standardized and enhanced hypertension control globally. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Covariates of depression and high utilizers of healthcare: Impact on resource use and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Rebecca L; Grabner, Michael; Palli, Swetha Rao; Faries, Douglas; Stephenson, Judith J

    2016-06-01

    To characterize healthcare costs, resource use, and treatment patterns of survey respondents with a history of depression who are high utilizers (HUds) of healthcare and to identify factors associated with high utilization. Adults with two or more depression diagnoses identified from the HealthCore Integrated Research Database were invited to participate in the CODE study, which links survey data with 12-month retrospective claims data. Patient surveys provided data on demographics, general health, and symptoms and/or comorbidities associated with depression. Similar clinical conditions also were identified from the medical claims. Factors associated with high utilization were identified using logistic regression models. Of 3132 survey respondents, 1921 were included, 193 of whom were HUds (defined as those who incurred the top 10% of total all-cause costs in the preceding 12months). Mean total annual healthcare costs were eightfold greater for HUds than for non-HUds ($US56,145 vs. $US6,954; pcosts/resource use. HUds were prescribed twice as many medications (total mean: 16.86 vs. 8.32; psychotropic mean: 4.11 vs. 2.61; both pcosts in patients with depression. Copyright © 2016 Eli Lilly and Company. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Information contracting tools in a cancer specialist unit:the role of Healthcare Resource Groups (HRGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Marlow

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for high quality management information within the contracting process has driven many of the major developments in health service computing. These have often merged clinical and financial requirements, usually along patient-centred lines. In order to identify a common currency for a range of clinical activities that are inherently variable, price tariffs have been drawn up on the basis of 'episodes of care' within specialties. Healthcare Resource Groups (HRGs were designed to meet the need for a common information currency. However, they were designed for acute care. The study on which this paper is based aims to examine their applicability to chronic care in a cancer specialist unit. The data were drawn from the patient information system within a major cancer unit. The focus of the investigation is encapsulated in the following questions: a Do HRGs really work as a grouping and costing methodology? b How relevant are HRG classifications for long-term patient care? The investigation demonstrated that not all HRGs are iso-resource within this environment. The findings from the data analysis are echoed by the NHS Executive's own evaluation . This does not negate advantages in their use. Furthermore, the development of Health Benefit Groups as information management tools, through a focus on health conditions and interventions rather than on purely on treatments, offers potential for greater validity within a chronic care situation.

  16. Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... for More Information Resources for Those Vaccinating HCWs Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk for exposure to ...

  17. Strategic enterprise resource planning in a health-care system using a multicriteria decision-making model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Won; Kwak, N K

    2011-04-01

    This paper deals with strategic enterprise resource planning (ERP) in a health-care system using a multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) model. The model is developed and analyzed on the basis of the data obtained from a leading patient-oriented provider of health-care services in Korea. Goal criteria and priorities are identified and established via the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Goal programming (GP) is utilized to derive satisfying solutions for designing, evaluating, and implementing an ERP. The model results are evaluated and sensitivity analyses are conducted in an effort to enhance the model applicability. The case study provides management with valuable insights for planning and controlling health-care activities and services.

  18. Male-female differences in households' resource allocation and decision to seek healthcare in south-eastern Nigeria: Results from a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onah, Michael Nnachebe; Horton, Susan

    2018-05-01

    Ability to influence household decision-making has been shown to increase with improved social capital and power and is linked to better access to household financial resources and other services outside the household including healthcare. To examine the male-female differences in household custody of financial resources, decision-making, and type of healthcare utilised, we used a mixed methods approach of cross-sectional household surveys and focus-group discussions (FGDs). Data was collected between 10 January-28 February 2011. We analyzed a sample of 411 households and a sub-sample of 223 households with a currently married head. We conducted six single-sex FGDs in 3 communities (1 urban, 2 rural) among a random sub-sample of participants in the survey. We performed univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses with a 95% confidence interval. For the qualitative data, we performed thematic analysis where broad themes relevant to the research objective were abstracted. In all households and in those with a married head, sick male members were less likely to forgo healthcare (aOR all 0.87, 95% CI 0.80-0.90; aOR married 0.52, 95% CI 0.18-0.83) and more likely to utilise formal healthcare relative to female sick members (aOR all 3.36, 95% CI 3.20-3.87; aOR married 19.50, 95% CI 9.62-39.52). Formal healthcare providers are medically trained while informal providers are untrained vendors that dispense medications for profit. There were more reports of sole custody of household resources among men within households with married heads. Joint decision-making on healthcare expenditure improved women's access to healthcare but is not reflective of unhindered access to household financial resources. Qualitatively, women spoke of seeking permission from male household head before expenditure was incurred, while male heads spoke of concealing household financial resources from their spouse. Gender constructs and male-female differences have important effects on

  19. Controlling healthcare professionals: how human resource management influences job attitudes and operational efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogin, Julie Ann; Ng, Ju Li; Lee, Ilro

    2016-09-20

    We assess how human resource management (HRM) is implemented in Australian hospitals. Drawing on role theory, we consider the influence HRM has on job attitudes of healthcare staff and hospital operational efficiency. We adopt a qualitative research design across professional groups (physicians, nurses, and allied health staff) at multiple levels (executive, healthcare managers, and employee). A total of 34 interviews were carried out and analyzed using NVivo. Findings revealed a predominance of a control-based approach to people management. Using Snell's control framework (AMJ 35:292-327, 1992), we found that behavioral control was the principal form of control used to manage nurses, allied health workers, and junior doctors. We found a mix between behavior, output, and input controls as well as elements of commitment-based HRM to manage senior physicians. We observed low levels of investment in people and a concentration on transactional human resource (HR) activities which led to negative job attitudes such as low morale and frustration among healthcare professionals. While hospitals used rules to promote conformity with established procedures, the overuse and at times inappropriate use of behavior controls restricted healthcare managers' ability to motivate and engage their staff. Excessive use of behavior control helped to realize short-term cost-cutting goals; however, this often led to operational inefficiencies. We suggest that hospitals reduce the profusion of behavior control and increase levels of input and output controls in the management of people. Poor perceptions of HR specialists and HR activities have resulted in HR being overlooked as a vehicle to address the strategic challenges required of health reform and to build an engaged workforce.

  20. Clinical characteristics, healthcare costs, and resource utilization in hepatitis C vary by genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby Hunter, Alyssa; Rosenblatt, Lisa; Patel, Chad; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Anduze-Faris, Beatrice

    2017-05-01

    In the United States, approximately 3 million people are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Genotypes of HCV variably affect disease progression and treatment response. However, the relationships between HCV genotypes and liver disease progression, healthcare resource utilization, and healthcare costs have not been fully explored. In this retrospective study of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), healthcare claims from a large US health plan were used to collect data on patient demographic and clinical characteristics. Main outcome measures include healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and healthcare costs. Linked laboratory data provided genotype and select measures to determine liver disease severity. The sample (mean age 50.6 years, 63.5% male) included 10,331 patients, of whom 79.1% had genotype (GT)1, 12.8% had GT2, and 8.1% had GT3. Descriptive analyses demonstrated variation by HCV genotype in liver and non-liver related comorbidities, liver disease severity, and healthcare costs. The highest percentage of patients with liver-related comorbidities and advanced liver disease was found among those with GT3. Meanwhile, patients with GT2 had lower HCRU and the lowest costs, and patients with GT1 had the highest total all-cause costs. These differences may reflect differing rates of non-liver-related comorbidities and all-cause care. Multivariable analyses showed that genotype was a significant predictor of costs and liver disease severity: compared with patients having GT1, those with GT3 were significantly more likely to have advanced liver disease. Patients with GT2 were significantly less likely to have advanced disease and more likely to have lower all-cause costs. Results may not be generalizable to patients outside the represented commercial insurance plans, and analysis of a prevalent population may underestimate HCRU and costs relative to a sample of treated patients. These results suggest that liver disease progression varies by genotype and

  1. Nurse managers' experiences in continuous quality improvement in resource-poor healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakyo, Tracy Alexis; Xiao, Lily Dongxia

    2017-06-01

    Ensuring safe and quality care for patients in hospitals is an important part of a nurse manager's role. Continuous quality improvement has been identified as one approach that leads to the delivery of quality care services to patients and is widely used by nurse managers to improve patient care. Nurse managers' experiences in initiating continuous quality improvement activities in resource-poor healthcare settings remain largely unknown. Research evidence is highly demanded in these settings to address disease burden and evidence-based practice. This interpretive qualitative study was conducted to gain an understanding of nurse managers' Continuous Quality Improvement experiences in rural hospitals in Uganda. Nurse managers in rural healthcare settings used their role to prioritize quality improvement activities, monitor the Continuous Quality Improvement process, and utilize in-service education to support continuous quality improvement. The nurse managers in our sample encountered a number of barriers during the implementation of Continuous Quality Improvement, including: limited patient participation, lack of materials, and limited human resources. Efforts to address the challenges faced through good governance and leadership development require more attention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Resources for Middle Eastern patients: online resources for culturally and linguistically appropriate services in home healthcare and hospice, part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Judith S

    2013-01-01

    As the population of patients for whom English is not their primary language grows, home care and hospice clinicians are challenged to provide culturally respectful and acceptable patient-centered care for cultures and languages unfamiliar to them. This article identifies resources for understanding the culture of Middle Eastern-born patients and appropriate patient education materials in most of the languages spoken by this population. The resources have been made available for free on the Web by healthcare professionals, government agencies, and support organizations from around the world.

  3. Methodology for Clustering High-Resolution Spatiotemporal Solar Resource Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getman, Dan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dyson, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we introduce a methodology to achieve multiple levels of spatial resolution reduction of solar resource data, with minimal impact on data variability, for use in energy systems modeling. The selection of an appropriate clustering algorithm, parameter selection including cluster size, methods of temporal data segmentation, and methods of cluster evaluation are explored in the context of a repeatable process. In describing this process, we illustrate the steps in creating a reduced resolution, but still viable, dataset to support energy systems modeling, e.g. capacity expansion or production cost modeling. This process is demonstrated through the use of a solar resource dataset; however, the methods are applicable to other resource data represented through spatiotemporal grids, including wind data. In addition to energy modeling, the techniques demonstrated in this paper can be used in a novel top-down approach to assess renewable resources within many other contexts that leverage variability in resource data but require reduction in spatial resolution to accommodate modeling or computing constraints.

  4. Role of the anesthesiologist in the wider governance of healthcare and health economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Janet; Cheng, Davy

    2013-09-01

    Healthcare resources will always be limited, and as a result, difficult decisions must be made about how to allocate limited resources across unlimited demands in order to maximize health gains per resource expended. Governments and hospitals now in severe financial deficits recognize that reengagement of physicians is central to their ability to contain the runaway healthcare costs. Health economic analysis provides tools and techniques to assess which investments in healthcare provide good value for money vs which options should be forgone. Robust decision-making in healthcare requires objective consideration of evidence in order to balance clinical and economic benefits vs risks. Surveys of the literature reveal very few economic analyses related to anesthesia and perioperative medicine despite increasing recognition of the need. Now is an opportune time for anesthesiologists to become familiar with the tools and methodologies of health economics in order to facilitate and lead robust decision-making in quality-based procedures. For most technologies used in anesthesia and perioperative medicine, the responsibility to determine cost-effectiveness falls to those tasked with the governance and stewardship of limited resources for unlimited demands using best evidence plus economics at the local, regional, and national levels. Applicable cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, and cost-benefits in health economics are reviewed in this article with clinical examples in anesthesia. Anesthesiologists can make a difference in the wider governance of healthcare and health economics if we advance our knowledge and skills beyond the technical to address the "other" dimensions of decision-making--most notably, the economic aspects in a value-based healthcare system.

  5. Healthcare resource use, comorbidity, treatment and clinical outcomes for patients with primary intracranial tumors: a Swedish population-based register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergqvist, Jenny; Iderberg, Hanna; Mesterton, Johan; Bengtsson, Nils; Wettermark, Björn; Henriksson, Roger

    2017-03-01

    Primary intracranial tumors are relatively uncommon and heterogeneous, which make them challenging to study. We coupled data from unique Swedish population-based registries in order to deeper analyze the most common intracranical tumor types. Patient characteristics (e.g. comorbidities), care process measures like adherence to national guidelines, healthcare resource use and clinical outcome was evaluated. A register-based study including several population-based registries for all patients living in Stockholm-Gotland, diagnosed with primary intracranial tumor between 2001 and 2013 was performed. Patient characteristics were captured and investigated in relation to survival, healthcare resource use (inpatient-, outpatient- and primary care) and treatment process. High-grade glioma and meningioma were the most common tumor types and most patients (76%) were above the age of 40 in the patient population (n = 3664). Older age, comorbidity (Elixhauser comorbidity index) and type of tumor (high-grade glioma) were associated with lower survival rate and increased use of healthcare resources, analyzed for patients living in Stockholm (n = 3031). The analyses of healthcare use and survival showed no differences between males and females, when stratifying by tumor types. Healthcare processes were not always consistent with existing national treatment recommendations for patients with high-grade gliomas (n = 474) with regard to specified lead times, analyzed in the Swedish Brain Tumor Registry, as also observed at the national level. Age, comorbidity and high-grade gliomas, but not sex, were associated with decreased survival and increased use of healthcare resources. Fewer patients than aimed for in national guidelines received care according to specified lead times. The analysis of comprehensive population-based register data can be used to improve future care processes and outcomes.

  6. Necessary but Not Sufficient… Comment on "Knowledge Mobilization in Healthcare Organizations: A View From the Resource-Based View of the Firm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Gill; Kitson, Alison

    2015-08-25

    The challenge of mobilizing knowledge to improve patient care, population health and ensure effective use of resources is an enduring one in healthcare systems across the world. This commentary reflects on an earlier paper by Ferlie and colleagues that proposes the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm as a useful theoretical lens through which to study knowledge mobilization in healthcare. Specifically, the commentary considers 3 areas that need to be addressed in relation to the proposed application of RBV: the definition of competitive advantage in healthcare; the contribution of macro level theory to understanding knowledge mobilization in healthcare; and the need to embrace and align multiple theories at the micro, meso, and macro levels of implementation. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  7. A Lexical-Ontological Resource for Consumer Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Elena; Serafini, Luciano; Tamilin, Andrei

    In Consumer Healthcare Informatics it is still difficult for laypeople to find, understand and act on health information, due to the persistent communication gap between specialized medical terminology and that used by healthcare consumers. Furthermore, existing clinically-oriented terminologies cannot provide sufficient support when integrated into consumer-oriented applications, so there is a need to create consumer-friendly terminologies reflecting the different ways healthcare consumers express and think about health topics. Following this direction, this work suggests a way to support the design of an ontology-based system that mitigates this gap, using knowledge engineering and semantic web technologies. The system is based on the development of a consumer-oriented medical terminology that will be integrated with other medical domain ontologies and terminologies into a medical ontology repository. This will support consumer-oriented healthcare systems, such as Personal Health Records, by providing many knowledge services to help users in accessing and managing their healthcare data.

  8. Resource based view: a promising new theory for healthcare organizations: Comment on "Resource based view of the firm as a theoretical lens on the organisational consequences of quality improvement".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlie, Ewan

    2014-11-01

    This commentary reviews a recent piece by Burton and Rycroft-Malone on the use of Resource Based View (RBV) in healthcare organizations. It first outlines the core content of their piece. It then discusses their attempts to extend RBV to the analysis of large scale quality improvement efforts in healthcare. Some critique is elaborated. The broader question of why RBV seems to be migrating into healthcare management research is considered. They conclude RBV is a promising new theory for healthcare organizations.

  9. From efficacy to equity: Literature review of decision criteria for resource allocation and healthcare decisionmaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guindo, L.A.; Wagner, M.; Baltussen, R.; Rindress, D.; van Til, Janine Astrid; Kind, P.; Goetghebeur, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Resource allocation is a challenging issue faced by health policy decisionmakers requiring careful consideration of many factors. Objectives of this study were to identify decision criteria and their frequency reported in the literature on healthcare decisionmaking. Method An extensive

  10. Global health trials methodological research agenda:results from a priority setting exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Blazeby, Jane; Nasser, Mona; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Sydes, Matthew R.; Zhang, Junhua; Williamson, Paula R

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundMethodological research into the design, conduct, analysis and reporting of trials is essential to optimise the process. UK specialists in the field have established a set of top priorities in aid of this research. These priorities however may not be reflected in the needs of similar research in low to middle income countries (LMICs) with different healthcare provision, resources and research infrastructure. The aim of the study was to identify the top priorities for methodological ...

  11. Online resources for culturally and linguistically appropriate services in home healthcare and hospice, part 2: resources for Asian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Judith S

    2012-04-01

    Home care and hospice clinicians are increasingly working with patients for whom English is not their primary language. Provision of culturally respectful and acceptable patient-centered care includes both an awareness of cultural beliefs that influence the patient's health and also the ability to provide the patient with health information in the language with which he or she is most comfortable. This article identifies resources for understanding the cultural norms of Asian-born patients and appropriate patient education materials in the many languages spoken by this population. The resources have been made available free on the Web by healthcare professionals and government agencies from around the world.

  12. IoT-Based Information System for Healthcare Application: Design Methodology Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Dziak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, life expectancy has increased significantly. However, elderly people who live on their own often need assistance due to mobility difficulties, symptoms of dementia or other health problems. In such cases, an autonomous supporting system may be helpful. This paper proposes the Internet of Things (IoT-based information system for indoor and outdoor use. Since the conducted survey of related works indicated a lack of methodological approaches to the design process, therefore a Design Methodology (DM, which approaches the design target from the perspective of the stakeholders, contracting authorities and potential users, is introduced. The implemented solution applies the three-axial accelerometer and magnetometer, Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR, thresholding and the decision trees algorithm. Such an architecture enables the localization of a monitored person within four room-zones with accuracy; furthermore, it identifies falls and the activities of lying, standing, sitting and walking. Based on the identified activities, the system classifies current activities as normal, suspicious or dangerous, which is used to notify the healthcare staff about possible problems. The real-life scenarios validated the high robustness of the proposed solution. Moreover, the test results satisfied both stakeholders and future users and ensured further cooperation with the project.

  13. Hermeneutics as a Methodological Resource for Understanding Empathy in On-Line Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshaw, Margaret; Duncan, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Hermeneutics is both a philosophical tradition and a methodological resource. In this qualitative study, hermeneutics provided, simultaneously, a framework and a methodology for understanding empathy in synchronous multimedia conferencing. As a framework for the design of the study, hermeneutics supported the overriding objective to understand the…

  14. Stakeholder analysis methodologies resource book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babiuch, W.M.; Farhar, B.C.

    1994-03-01

    Stakeholder analysis allows analysts to identify how parties might be affected by government projects. This process involves identifying the likely impacts of a proposed action and stakeholder groups affected by that action. Additionally, the process involves assessing how these groups might be affected and suggesting measures to mitigate any adverse effects. Evidence suggests that the efficiency and effectiveness of government actions can be increased and adverse social impacts mitigated when officials understand how a proposed action might affect stakeholders. This report discusses how to conduct useful stakeholder analyses for government officials making decisions on energy-efficiency and renewable-energy technologies and their commercialization. It discusses methodological issues that may affect the validity and reliability of findings, including sampling, generalizability, validity, ``uncooperative`` stakeholder groups, using social indicators, and the effect of government regulations. The Appendix contains resource directories and a list of specialists in stakeholder analysis and involvement.

  15. Methodology for uranium resource estimates and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchfield, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    The NURE uranium assessment method has evolved from a small group of geologists estimating resources on a few lease blocks, to a national survey involving an interdisciplinary system consisting of the following: (1) geology and geologic analogs; (2) engineering and cost modeling; (3) mathematics and probability theory, psychology and elicitation of subjective judgments; and (4) computerized calculations, computer graphics, and data base management. The evolution has been spurred primarily by two objectives; (1) quantification of uncertainty, and (2) elimination of simplifying assumptions. This has resulted in a tremendous data-gathering effort and the involvement of hundreds of technical experts, many in uranium geology, but many from other fields as well. The rationality of the methods is still largely based on the concept of an analog and the observation that the results are reasonable. The reliability, or repeatability, of the assessments is reasonably guaranteed by the series of peer and superior technical reviews which has been formalized under the current methodology. The optimism or pessimism of individual geologists who make the initial assessments is tempered by the review process, resulting in a series of assessments which are a consistent, unbiased reflection of the facts. Despite the many improvements over past methods, several objectives for future development remain, primarily to reduce subjectively in utilizing factual information in the estimation of endowment, and to improve the recognition of cost uncertainties in the assessment of economic potential. The 1980 NURE assessment methodology will undoubtly be improved, but the reader is reminded that resource estimates are and always will be a forecast for the future

  16. [Activity-based costing methodology to manage resources in intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvear V, Sandra; Canteros G, Jorge; Jara M, Juan; Rodríguez C, Patricia

    2013-11-01

    An accurate estimation of resources use by individual patients is crucial in hospital management. To measure financial costs of health care actions in intensive care units of two public regional hospitals in Chile. Prospective follow up of 716 patients admitted to two intensive care units during 2011. The financial costs of health care activities was calculated using the Activity-Based Costing methodology. The main activities recorded were procedures and treatments, monitoring, response to patient needs, patient maintenance and coordination. Activity-Based Costs, including human resources and assorted indirect costs correspond to 81 to 88% of costs per disease in one hospital and 69 to 80% in the other. The costs associated to procedures and treatments are the most significant and are approximately $100,000 (Chilean pesos) per day of hospitalization. The second most significant cost corresponds to coordination activities, which fluctuates between $86,000 and 122,000 (Chilean pesos). There are significant differences in resources use between the two hospitals studied. Therefore cost estimation methodologies should be incorporated in the management of these clinical services.

  17. Pain, health related quality of life and healthcare resource utilization in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Paul; Pérez Hernández, Concepción; Margarit Ferri, César; Ruiz Hidalgo, Domingo; Lubián López, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to consider the relationship between the experience of pain, health related quality of life (HRQoL) and healthcare resource utilization in Spain. The analysis contrasts the contribution of pain severity and frequency of pain reported against respondents reporting no pain in the previous month. Data are from the 2010 National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS) for Spain. Single equation generalized linear regression models are used to evaluate the association of pain with the physical and mental component scores of the SF-12 questionnaire as well as health utilities generated from the SF-6D. In addition, the role of pain is assessed in its association with self-reported healthcare provider visits, emergency room visits and hospitalizations in the previous 6 months. The results indicate that the experience of pain, notably severe and frequent pain, is substantial and is significantly associated with the SF-12 physical component scores, health utilities and all aspects of healthcare resource utilization, which far outweighs the role of demographic and socioeconomic variables, health risk factors (in particular body mass index) and the presence of comorbidities. In the case of severe daily pain, the marginal contribution of the SF-12 physical component score is a deficit of -17.86 compared to those reporting no pain (population average score 46.49), while persons who are morbidly obese report a deficit of only -6.63 compared to those who are normal weight. The corresponding association with health utilities is equally dramatic with a severe daily pain deficit of -0.186 compared to those reporting no pain (average population utility 0.71). The impact of pain on healthcare resource utilization is marked. Severe daily pain increases traditional provider visits by 208.8%, emergency room visits by 373.0% and hospitalizations by 348.5%. As an internet-based survey there is the possibility of bias towards those with internet access, although telephone

  18. Necessary but Not Sufficient…; Comment on “Knowledge Mobilization in Healthcare Organizations: A View From the Resource-Based View of the Firm”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Harvey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of mobilizing knowledge to improve patient care, population health and ensure effective use of resources is an enduring one in healthcare systems across the world. This commentary reflects on an earlier paper by Ferlie and colleagues that proposes the resource-based view (RBV of the firm as a useful theoretical lens through which to study knowledge mobilization in healthcare. Specifically, the commentary considers 3 areas that need to be addressed in relation to the proposed application of RBV: the definition of competitive advantage in healthcare; the contribution of macro level theory to understanding knowledge mobilization in healthcare; and the need to embrace and align multiple theories at the micro, meso, and macro levels of implementation.

  19. Romanian healthcare system at a glance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana Balan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian healthcare system is facing constant challenges to produce high quality care with low costs. Objectives The paper aims to analyze the efficiency of the Romanian healthcare system in terms of resources allocation. The evaluation and the dimension of healthcare system efficiency are important for identifying a balance between the resources required and the health outcomes. Prior Work Previous studies describe the Romanian healthcare system as a system in transition. This study focuses on the relationship between the inputs and outputs of the system. Approach In order to assess the efficiency of the Romanian healthcare system we use Data Envelopment Analysis approach. Both input and output healthcare indicators are observed for the period 1999-2010 and the years when healthcare inputs have been used efficiently are identified. Results The results show that human, financial, and technological resources have been used at maximum capacity in 1999, 2003, 2004, 2007 and 2010. Implications Though efficiency is defined differently by diverse stakeholders, healthcare policies should focus on rising the responsibility of communities and individuals for better treatments and services and better access to information on healthcare providers. Value The paper is an empirically based study of the healthcare resources allocation in Romania.

  20. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.

  1. Licensed Healthcare Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Licensed Healthcare Facilities point layer represents the locations of all healthcare facilities licensed by the State of California, Department of Health...

  2. Process improvement in healthcare: Overall resource efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mast, J.; Kemper, B.; Does, R.J.M.M.; Mandjes, M.; van der Bijl, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to develop a unifying and quantitative conceptual framework for healthcare processes from the viewpoint of process improvement. The work adapts standard models from operation management to the specifics of healthcare processes. We propose concepts for organizational modeling of

  3. Healthcare resource utilization and cost among males with lower urinary tract symptoms with a predominant storage component in Spain: The epidemiological, cross-sectional MERCURY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errando-Smet, Carlos; Müller-Arteaga, Carlos; Hernández, Marta; Lenero, Enrique; Roset, Montse

    2018-01-01

    To assess the relationship between storage-predominant LUTS and healthcare resource consumption and cost among males in Spain. In this non-interventional, cross-sectional study, urologists enrolled males with storage-predominant LUTS and recorded the consumption of healthcare resources (medical visits, diagnostic tests/monitoring, treatment, and hospitalizations) within the previous 6 months. The cost of healthcare resources was calculated from unit costs extracted from a Spanish eHealth database. Severity of LUTS was assessed by the Bladder Self-Assessment Questionnaire (BSAQ) and patients were stratified by symptom score (used more healthcare resources compared with patients with BSAQ symptom scores used as monotherapy (n = 229 [37.5%]) or in combination with antimuscarinics (n = 227 [37.2%]). The estimated median annual cost was €1070 per patient, consisting of diagnostic tests/monitoring (54.6%), medical visits (20.5%), and treatment (29.6%), and was higher in patients with BSAQ symptom score ≥6 (€1127) than in patients with BSAQ symptom score <6 (€920; P < 0.001). More severe LUTS are associated with higher healthcare consumption and cost. These findings highlight the importance of symptom management in LUTS patients to help minimize healthcare consumption and cost. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Application of Lean Healthcare methodology in a urology department of a tertiary hospital as a tool for improving efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronat, F; Budia, A; Broseta, E; Ruiz-Cerdá, J L; Vivas-Consuelo, D

    To describe the application of the Lean methodology as a method for continuously improving the efficiency of a urology department in a tertiary hospital. The implementation of the Lean Healthcare methodology in a urology department was conducted in 3 phases: 1) team training and improvement of feedback among the practitioners, 2) management by process and superspecialisation and 3) improvement of indicators (continuous improvement). The indicators were obtained from the Hospital's information systems. The main source of information was the Balanced Scorecard for health systems management (CUIDISS). The comparison with other autonomous and national urology departments was performed through the same platform with the help of the Hospital's records department (IASIST). A baseline was established with the indicators obtained in 2011 for the comparative analysis of the results after implementing the Lean Healthcare methodology. The implementation of this methodology translated into high practitioner satisfaction, improved quality indicators reaching a risk-adjusted complication index (RACI) of 0.59 and a risk-adjusted mortality rate (RAMR) of 0.24 in 4 years. A value of 0.61 was reached with the efficiency indicator (risk-adjusted length of stay [RALOS] index), with a savings of 2869 stays compared with national Benchmarking (IASIST). The risk-adjusted readmissions index (RARI) was the only indicator above the standard, with a value of 1.36 but with progressive annual improvement of the same. The Lean methodology can be effectively applied to a urology department of a tertiary hospital to improve efficiency, obtaining significant and continuous improvements in all its indicators, as well as practitioner satisfaction. Team training, management by process, continuous improvement and delegation of responsibilities has been shown to be the fundamental pillars of this methodology. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Resources for work-related well-being: a qualitative study about healthcare employees' experiences of relationships at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön Persson, Sophie; Nilsson Lindström, Petra; Pettersson, Pär; Nilsson, Marie; Blomqvist, Kerstin

    2018-05-23

    The aim of this study was to explore municipal healthcare employees' experiences of relationships with care recipients and colleagues. The specific research questions were when do the relationships enhance well-being, and what prerequisites are needed for such relationships to occur?. Employees in health and social care for older people often depict their work in negative terms, and they often take a high number of sick leaves. Despite the heavy workload, other employees express well-being at work and highlight social relationships as one reason for this. However, a greater understanding of how these relationships can act as resources for workplace well-being is needed. The design of the study was qualitative and exploratory. Qualitative interview studies were conducted with twenty-three healthcare employees in municipal healthcare. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Two themes were identified as resources for promoting relationships between employees and care recipients or colleagues: (i) Being personal - a close interpersonal relationship to a care recipient - and (ii) Colleague belongingness - a sense of togetherness within the working group. Spending quality time together, providing long-term care and providing additional care were antecedents for a close interpersonal relationship with care recipients. Trust, mutual responsibility and cooperation were antecedents for a sense of togetherness within the working group. The findings provide an empirical base to raise awareness of relationships with care recipients and colleagues as health aspects. Relationships among employees in healthcare are vital resources that must be considered to create sustainable workplaces, and consequently improve the quality of care. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. An Untapped Resource: Patient and Public Involvement in Implementation Comment on "Knowledge Mobilization in Healthcare Organizations: A View From the Resource-Based View of the Firm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Christopher; Rycroft-Malone, Jo

    2015-08-07

    This commentary considers the potential role of patient and public involvement in implementation. Developing an analytical thread from the resource-based view of the Firm, we argue that this involvement may create unique resources that have the capacity to enhance the impact of implementation activity for healthcare organisations. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  7. Enabling Healthcare IT Governance: Human Task Management Service for Administering Emergency Department's Resources for Efficient Patient Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Salvador; Aziz, Ayesha; Chatwin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The use of Health Information Technology (HIT) to improve healthcare service delivery is constantly increasing due to research advances in medical science and information systems. Having a fully automated process solution for a Healthcare Organization (HCO) requires a combination of organizational strategies along with a selection of technologies that facilitate the goal of improving clinical outcomes. HCOs, requires dynamic management of care capability to realize the full potential of HIT. Business Process Management (BPM) is being increasingly adopted to streamline the healthcare service delivery and management processes. Emergency Departments (EDs) provide a case in point, which require multidisciplinary resources and services to deliver effective clinical outcomes. Managed care involves the coordination of a range of services in an ED. Although fully automated processes in emergency care provide a cutting edge example of service delivery, there are many situations that require human interactions with the computerized systems; e.g. Medication Approvals, care transfer, acute patient care. This requires a coordination mechanism for all the resources, computer and human, to work side by side to provide the best care. To ensure evidence-based medical practice in ED, we have designed a Human Task Management service to model the process of coordination of ED resources based on the UK's NICE Clinical guideline for managing the care of acutely ill patients. This functionality is implemented using Java Business process Management (jBPM).

  8. Using Ontologies for the E-learning System in Healthcare Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia BAJENARU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a model for the use of ontology in e-learning systems for structuring educational content in the domain of healthcare human resources management (HHRM in Romania. In this respect we propose an effective method to improve the learning system by providing personalized learning paths created using ontology and advanced educational strategies to provide a personalized learning content for the medical staff. Personalization of e-learning process for the chosen target group will be achieved by setting up learning path for each user according to his profile. This will become possible using: domain ontology, learning objects, modeling student knowledge. Developing an ontology-based system for competence management allows complex interactions, providing intelligent interfacing. This is a new approach for the healthcare system managers in permanent training based on e-learning technologies and specific ontologies in a complex area that needs urgent modernization and efficiency to meet the public health economic, social and political context of Romania.

  9. Regional Healthcare Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Kudelina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of healthcare systems effectiveness of the regions of the Russian Federation (federal districts was conducted using the Minmax method based on the data available at the United Interdepartmental Statistical Information System. Four groups of components (i.e. availability of resources; use of resources; access to resources and medical effectiveness decomposed into 17 items were analyzed. The resource availability was measured by four indicators, including the provision of doctors, nurses, hospital beds; agencies providing health care to the population. Use of resources was measured by seven indicators: the average hospital stay, days; the average bed occupancy, days; the number of operations per 1 physician surgical; the cost per unit volume of medical care: in outpatient clinics, day hospitals, inpatient and emergency care. Access to the resources was measured by three indicators: the satisfaction of the population by medical care; the capacity of outpatient clinics; the average number of visits to health facility. The medical effectiveness was also measured by three indicators: incidence with the "first-ever diagnosis of malignancy"; life expectancy at birth, years; the number of days of temporary disability. The study of the dynamics of the components and indexes for 2008–2012 allows to indicate a multidirectional influence on the regional healthcare system. In some federal districts (e.g. North Caucasian, the effectiveness decreases due to resource availability, in others (South, North Caucasian — due to the use of resources, in others (Far Eastern, Ural — due to access to resources. It is found that the effectiveness of the healthcare systems of the federal districts differs significantly. In addition, the built matrix proves the variability the of effectiveness (comparison of expenditures and results of healthcare systems of the federal districts of the Russian Federation: the high results can be obtained at high costs

  10. Guidelines for the evaluation and assessment of the sustainable use of resources and of wastes management at healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, William K; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents guidelines that can be used by managers of healthcare facilities to evaluate and assess the quality of resources and waste management at their facilities and enabling the principles of sustainable development to be addressed. The guidelines include the following key aspects which need to be considered when completing an assessment. They are: (a) general management; (b) social issues; (c) health and safety; (d) energy and water use; (e) purchasing and supply; (f) waste management (responsibility, segregation, storage and packaging); (g) waste transport; (h) recycling and re-use; (i) waste treatment; and (j) final disposal. They identify actions required to achieve a higher level of performance which can readily be applied to any healthcare facility, irrespective of the local level of social, economic and environmental development. The guidelines are presented, and the characteristics of facilities associated with sustainable (level 4) and unsustainable (level 0) healthcare resource and wastes management are outlined. They have been used to assess a major London hospital, and this highlighted a number of deficiencies in current practice, including a lack of control over purchasing and supply, and very low rates of segregation of municipal solid waste from hazardous healthcare waste.

  11. Women with urinary incontinence in Spain: Health-related quality of life and the use of healthcare resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoro, Renata; Merino, María; Hidalgo-Vega, Alvaro; Jiménez, Margarita; Martínez, Lucía; Aracil, Javier

    2016-12-01

    To describe Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and healthcare resource utilization in women aged 60 and over in Spain. Descriptive analysis of primary data from the Spanish National Health Survey, 2012. Utility indices were obtained through the EQ5D5L questionnaire included in the survey, and utilization rates of consultations, hospitalizations, emergency services, and medication intake. HRQOL and utilization rates were systematically compared between women diagnosed with UI, women diagnosed with other chronic conditions (OCC) and healthy women of the same age. Utility indices were 0.47 in UI women versus 0.78 and 0.96 in women diagnosed with OCC and healthy women, respectively. Each year 351,675 Quality Adjusted Life Years are lost in Spain due to UI in the population of women aged 60 and over. Resource utilization of these women was significantly higher than that of other women. UI has a larger impact on both HRQOL and healthcare consumption in women who are aged 60 and over, than OCC. Appropriate treatment of UI might entail an important gain in terms of HRQOL and a significant reduction in healthcare consumption in Spain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lean six sigma in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, Henk; Verver, John P S; van den Heuvel, Jaap; Bisgaard, Soren; Does, Ronald J M M

    2006-01-01

    Healthcare, as with any other service operation, requires systematic innovation efforts to remain competitive, cost efficient, and up-to-date. This article outlines a methodology and presents examples to illustrate how principles of Lean Thinking and Six Sigma can be combined to provide an effective framework for producing systematic innovation efforts in healthcare. Controlling healthcare cost increases, improving quality, and providing better healthcare are some of the benefits of this approach.

  13. Impact on healthcare resource utilization of multiple sclerosis in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Ruíz-Beato, Elena; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Maurino, Jorge

    2017-12-29

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease with a high socioeconomic impact. The aim of this study was to assess healthcare resources utilization and costs in a sample of patients with MS. A retrospective, cohort study was conducted using electronic medical records from 19 primary care centres in Asturias and Catalonia, Spain. Adult patients diagnosed with MS were distributed into two groups according to the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score: 0-3.5 (no-moderate disability) and 4-9.5 (severe disability). Healthcare (direct cost) and non-healthcare costs (work productivity losses) were analysed. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used for correction, p < 0.05. A multiple regression model was performed to obtain the variables associated with costs. A total of 222 patients were analyzed; mean (SD) age: 45.5 (12.5) years, 64.4% female, and 62.2% presented a diagnosis of relapsing-remitting MS. Median EDSS score was 2.5, with 68.5% of the patients with no to moderate disability. The mean annual cost per MS patient was €25,103. For no-moderate and severe disability, the ANCOVA-adjusted mean annual cost was €23,157 and €29,242, respectively (p = 0.013). Direct costs and MS disease-modifying therapy accounted for 39.4% and 31.7% of the total costs, respectively. The total costs were associated with number of relapses (β = 0.135, p = 0.001), time since diagnosis (β = 0.281, p = 0.023), and age (β = 0.198, p = 0.037). Multiple sclerosis imposes a substantial economic burden on the Spanish National Health System, patients and society as a whole. Costs significantly correlated with disease progression.

  14. Healthcare teams over the Internet: towards a certificate-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Christos K; Mavridis, Ioannis K; Pangalos, George I

    2002-01-01

    Healthcare environments are a representative case of collaborative environments since individuals (e.g. doctors) in many cases collaborate in order to provide care to patients in a more proficient way. At the same time modem healthcare institutions are increasingly interested in sharing access of their information resources in the networked environment. Healthcare applications over the Internet offer an attractive communication infrastructure at worldwide level but with a noticeably great factor of risk. Security has therefore become a major concern for healthcare applications over the Internet. However, although an adequate level of security can be relied upon digital certificates, if an appropriate security policy is used, additional security considerations are needed in order to deal efficiently with the above team-work concerns. The already known Hybrid Access Control security model supports and handles efficiently healthcare teams with active security capabilities and is capable to exploit the benefits of certificate technology. In this paper we present the way for encoding the appropriate authoritative information in various types of certificates, as well as the overall operational architecture of the implemented access control system for healthcare collaborative environments over the Internet. A pilot implementation of the proposed methodology in a major Greek hospital has shown the applicability of the proposals and the flexibility of the access control provided.

  15. A mechanism for revising accreditation standards: a study of the process, resources required and evaluation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, David; Civil, Mike; Donnison, Andrew; Hogden, Anne; Hinchcliff, Reece; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2014-11-21

    The study objective was to identify and describe the process, resources and expertise required for the revision of accreditation standards, and report outcomes arising from such activities. Secondary document analysis of materials from an accreditation standards development agency. The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners' (RACGP) documents, minutes and reports related to the revision of the accreditation standards were examined. The RACGP revision of the accreditation standards was conducted over a 12 month period and comprised six phases with multiple tasks, including: review methodology planning; review of the evidence base and each standard; new material development; constructing field trial methodology; drafting, trialling and refining new standards; and production of new standards. Over 100 individuals participated, with an additional 30 providing periodic input and feedback. Participants were drawn from healthcare professional associations, primary healthcare services, accreditation agencies, government agencies and public health organisations. Their expertise spanned: project management; standards development and writing; primary healthcare practice; quality and safety improvement methodologies; accreditation implementation and surveying; and research. The review and development process was shaped by five issues: project expectations; resource and time requirements; a collaborative approach; stakeholder engagement; and the product produced. The RACGP evaluation was that participants were positive about their experience, the standards produced and considered them relevant for the sector. The revision of accreditation standards requires considerable resources and expertise, drawn from a broad range of stakeholders. Collaborative, inclusive processes that engage key stakeholders helps promote greater industry acceptance of the standards.

  16. Establishing a convention for acting in healthcare simulation: merging art and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanko, Jill S; Shekhter, Ilya; Kyle, Richard R; Di Benedetto, Stephen; Birnbach, David J

    2013-08-01

    Among the most powerful tools available to simulation instructors is a confederate. Although technical and logical realism is dictated by the simulation platform and setting, the quality of role playing by confederates strongly determines psychological or emotional fidelity of simulation. The highest level of realism, however, is achieved when the confederates are properly trained. Theater and acting methodology can provide simulation educators a framework from which to establish an acting convention specific to the discipline of healthcare simulation. This report attempts to examine simulation through the lens of theater arts and represents an opinion on acting in healthcare simulation for both simulation educators and confederates. It aims to refine the practice of simulation by embracing the lessons of the theater community. Although the application of these approaches in healthcare education has been described in the literature, a systematic way of organizing, publicizing, or documenting the acting within healthcare simulation has never been completed. Therefore, we attempt, for the first time, to take on this challenge and create a resource, which infuses theater arts into the practice of healthcare simulation.

  17. Using Economic Evidence to Set Healthcare Priorities in Low‐Income and Lower‐Middle‐Income Countries: A Systematic Review of Methodological Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitton, Craig; Doyle‐Waters, Mary M.; Drake, Tom; Conteh, Lesong; Newall, Anthony T.; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Jan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Policy makers in low‐income and lower‐middle‐income countries (LMICs) are increasingly looking to develop ‘evidence‐based’ frameworks for identifying priority health interventions. This paper synthesises and appraises the literature on methodological frameworks – which incorporate economic evaluation evidence – for the purpose of setting healthcare priorities in LMICs. A systematic search of Embase, MEDLINE, Econlit and PubMed identified 3968 articles with a further 21 articles identified through manual searching. A total of 36 papers were eligible for inclusion. These covered a wide range of health interventions with only two studies including health systems strengthening interventions related to financing, governance and human resources. A little under half of the studies (39%) included multiple criteria for priority setting, most commonly equity, feasibility and disease severity. Most studies (91%) specified a measure of ‘efficiency’ defined as cost per disability‐adjusted life year averted. Ranking of health interventions using multi‐criteria decision analysis and generalised cost‐effectiveness were the most common frameworks for identifying priority health interventions. Approximately a third of studies discussed the affordability of priority interventions. Only one study identified priority areas for the release or redeployment of resources. The paper concludes by highlighting the need for local capacity to conduct evaluations (including economic analysis) and empowerment of local decision‐makers to act on this evidence. PMID:26804361

  18. Using Economic Evidence to Set Healthcare Priorities in Low-Income and Lower-Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of Methodological Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Virginia; Mitton, Craig; Doyle-Waters, Mary M; Drake, Tom; Conteh, Lesong; Newall, Anthony T; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Jan, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    Policy makers in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) are increasingly looking to develop 'evidence-based' frameworks for identifying priority health interventions. This paper synthesises and appraises the literature on methodological frameworks--which incorporate economic evaluation evidence--for the purpose of setting healthcare priorities in LMICs. A systematic search of Embase, MEDLINE, Econlit and PubMed identified 3968 articles with a further 21 articles identified through manual searching. A total of 36 papers were eligible for inclusion. These covered a wide range of health interventions with only two studies including health systems strengthening interventions related to financing, governance and human resources. A little under half of the studies (39%) included multiple criteria for priority setting, most commonly equity, feasibility and disease severity. Most studies (91%) specified a measure of 'efficiency' defined as cost per disability-adjusted life year averted. Ranking of health interventions using multi-criteria decision analysis and generalised cost-effectiveness were the most common frameworks for identifying priority health interventions. Approximately a third of studies discussed the affordability of priority interventions. Only one study identified priority areas for the release or redeployment of resources. The paper concludes by highlighting the need for local capacity to conduct evaluations (including economic analysis) and empowerment of local decision-makers to act on this evidence. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Strategic knowledge management: a methodology for structuring and analysing knowledge resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricciardi, Rita Izabel

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a methodology to organize, to classify and to assess the knowledge resources of an organization. This methodology presents an innovative integration of the following elements: (a) a systemic vision of the organization; (b) a representation maps of organization strategy; (c) the identification of relevant knowledge through process analysis; (d) the reconfiguration and representation of the identified knowledge in maps; (e) a combination of critical analysis (importance and vulnerability) and of strategic analysis to assess knowledge. Such methodology was applied to the Radiopharmaceutical Center of Nuclear and Energetic Research Institute resulting in a very rich vision and understanding of the knowledge domains that are crucial to the CR. This kind of analysis has allowed a sharp perception of the knowledge problems of the Center and has also made visible the needed connections between Strategic Management and Knowledge Management. (author)

  20. Rethinking gossip and scandal in healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Kathryn

    2016-09-19

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to argue that gossip is a neglected aspect of organizational communication and knowledge, and an under-used management resource. Design/methodology/approach The paper challenges mainstream managerial assumptions that gossip is trivial or tainted talk which should be discouraged in the workplace. Instead, gossip is re-framed at an organizational level of analysis, which provides the opportunity for relational knowledge about systemic failure and poor practice in healthcare to surface. Findings Rather than simply viewing gossip as an individual behaviour and interpersonal process, it is claimed that organizational gossip is also a valuable early warning indicator of risk and failure in healthcare systems. There is potentially significant value in re-framing gossip as an aspect of organizational communication and knowledge. If attended to (rather than neglected or silenced) gossip can provide fresh insights into professional practice, decision making and relational leadership. Originality/value This paper offers a provocative challenge to mainstream health organization and management thinking about gossip in the workplace. It offers new ways of thinking to promote patient safety, and prevent the scandals that have plagued healthcare organizations in recent years.

  1. METHODOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE RESOURCES AUDIT FOR FORMATION OF PHARMACY ORGANIZATION ASSORTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Razdorskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The timeliness of this subject is conditioned by the increase of a role of knowledge in pharmacy organizations (PO management, significance increase of non-material assets in a competition on the pharmaceutical market. The development and substantiation of methodology of knowledge resources audit significance on the example of drug assortment formation for allergic rhinitis treatment. We have used sociological, statistic, expert methods of a study. Close attention was paid to the method of target management, construction of target tree. The construction of the target tree of the knowledge resources audit was based on the main target establishment, targets of the first level, and eight subtargets. We have offered new special positions of assortment formation. “Formation of consumers’ loyalty” is the target of the first level, subtargets “Analysis of clients preferences”, “Transformation of clients preferences”, “Positioning of consumers by the compliance degree”. We have determined the relevance significance by the main target achievement – rational assortment formation. We have shown that the achievement of the first level target “Formation of consumers’  loyalty” conduce the achievement of the main target by 40%. The analysis of the current assortment and a process of assortment upgrading guarantee the achievement of the target by 30% each. The methodology is prospective for knowledge resources audit by the principal business processes of pharmacy organizations.  

  2. The 'My five moments for hand hygiene' concept for the overcrowded setting in resource-limited healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, S; Pittet, D; Sax, H; McLaws, M L

    2015-10-01

    Hand hygiene is a core activity of patient safety for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). To standardize hand hygiene practices globally the World Health Organization (WHO) released Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care and introduced the 'My five moments for hand hygiene' concept to define indications for hand hygiene rooted in an evidence-based model for transmission of micro-organisms by healthcare workers' (HCWs) hands. Central to the concept is the division of the healthcare environment into two geographical care zones, the patient zone and the healthcare zone, that requires the HCW to comply with specific hand hygiene moments. In resource-limited, overcrowded healthcare settings inadequate or no spatial separation between beds occurs frequently. These conditions challenge the HCW's ability to visualize and delineate patient zones. The 'My five moments for hand hygiene' concept has been adapted for these conditions with the aim of assisting hand hygiene educators, auditors, and HCWs to minimize ambiguity regarding shared patient zones and achieve the ultimate goal set by the WHO Guidelines--the reduction of infectious risks. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Healthcare waste management research: A structured analysis and review (2005-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Vikas; Ramesh, A

    2015-10-01

    The importance of healthcare waste management in preserving the environment and protecting the public cannot be denied. Past research has dealt with various issues in healthcare waste management and disposal, which spreads over various journals, pipeline research disciplines and research communities. Hence, this article analyses this scattered knowledge in a systematic manner, considering the period between January 2005 and July 2014. The purpose of this study is to: (i) identify the trends in healthcare waste management literature regarding journals published; (ii) main topics of research in healthcare waste management; (iii) methodologies used in healthcare waste management research; (iv) areas most frequently researched by researchers; and (v) determine the scope of future research in healthcare waste management. To this end, the authors conducted a systematic review of 176 articles on healthcare waste management taken from the following eight esteemed journals: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, International Journal of Healthcare Quality Assurance, Journal of Environmental Management, Journal of Hazardous Material, Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, Resources, Conservations and Recycling, Waste Management, and Waste Management & Research. The authors have applied both quantitative and qualitative approaches for analysis, and results will be useful in the following ways: (i) results will show importance of healthcare waste management in healthcare operations; (ii) findings will give a comparative view of the various publications; (c) study will shed light on future research areas. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Healthcare Resource Utilization and Costs Associated with Ketosis Events in Pediatric and Adult Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalange, Nandu; Aldhouse, Natalie Valerie Jane; Kitchen, Helen; Howard, Daniel; Tutkunkardas, Deniz; Håkan-Bloch, Jonas

    2017-10-01

    Ketosis is a metabolic state associated with insulin deficiency. Untreated, it develops into diabetic ketoacidosis, a significant contributor to mortality and morbidity in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Little is understood about how patients utilize healthcare resources during ketosis events. This study aimed to identify and quantify healthcare resource utilization and provide estimates of associated costs of ketosis events in T1DM, treated unaided or with healthcare professional (HCP) assistance in the UK. Qualitative interviews with adult patients, pediatric carers, and HCPs identified resources used by patients/carers during ketosis events. An online quantitative survey was then used to quantify patients/carers resource use during their/their child's most recent ketosis event, and HCPs estimated patient resource uptake to corroborate the findings. Associated costs estimated from UK data sources were applied to the survey results to calculate the cost of ketosis events in adults and children. Quantitative survey responses from 93 adults, 76 carers, and 52 HCPs were analyzed. Patients and carers monitored ketosis during and following the event with ketone strips and additional glucose strips, and administered treatment comprising insulin and pump set changes where appropriate. Additionally, patients/carers accessed phone services and many received follow-up medical appointments. In total, 70% (n = 65) of adult and 66% (n = 50) of pediatric ketosis events were managed at home, for which resource use costs per event were £23.87 and £38.00 respectively. Remaining events were treated in NHS facilities costing £217.57 per adult and £352.92 per child. Weighted averages identified that ketosis events cost £81.98 per adult and £142.97 per child. Indirect costs from work productivity loss increase these figures to £225.11 per adult and £256.88 per child. Healthcare resource use for ketosis events is high in adults and children with T1DM and

  5. Application of Agent Methodology in Healthcare Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Abdalla

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study to describe the features and the phases of the two agent methodologies. The Gaia methodology for agent oriented analysis and design, Tropos is a detailed agent oriented software engineering methodology to explore each methodology's ability to present solutions for small problems. Also we provide an attempt to discover whether the methodology is in fact understandable and usable. In addition we were collecting and taking notes of the advantages and weaknesses of these methodologies during the study analysis for each methodology and the relationships among their models. The Guardian Angle: Patient-Centered Health Information System (GA: PCHIS is the personal system to help track, manage, and interpret the subject's health history, and give advice to both patient and provider is used as the case study throughout the paper.

  6. Methodology to build medical ontology from textual resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneyx, Audrey; Charlet, Jean; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    In the medical field, it is now established that the maintenance of unambiguous thesauri goes through ontologies. Our research task is to help pneumologists code acts and diagnoses with a software that represents medical knowledge through a domain ontology. In this paper, we describe our general methodology aimed at knowledge engineers in order to build various types of medical ontologies based on terminology extraction from texts. The hypothesis is to apply natural language processing tools to textual patient discharge summaries to develop the resources needed to build an ontology in pneumology. Results indicate that the joint use of distributional analysis and lexico-syntactic patterns performed satisfactorily for building such ontologies.

  7. A Hybrid Methodology for Modeling Risk of Adverse Events in Complex Health-Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Reza; Mosleh, Ali; Dierks, Meghan

    2017-03-01

    In spite of increased attention to quality and efforts to provide safe medical care, adverse events (AEs) are still frequent in clinical practice. Reports from various sources indicate that a substantial number of hospitalized patients suffer treatment-caused injuries while in the hospital. While risk cannot be entirely eliminated from health-care activities, an important goal is to develop effective and durable mitigation strategies to render the system "safer." In order to do this, though, we must develop models that comprehensively and realistically characterize the risk. In the health-care domain, this can be extremely challenging due to the wide variability in the way that health-care processes and interventions are executed and also due to the dynamic nature of risk in this particular domain. In this study, we have developed a generic methodology for evaluating dynamic changes in AE risk in acute care hospitals as a function of organizational and nonorganizational factors, using a combination of modeling formalisms. First, a system dynamics (SD) framework is used to demonstrate how organizational-level and policy-level contributions to risk evolve over time, and how policies and decisions may affect the general system-level contribution to AE risk. It also captures the feedback of organizational factors and decisions over time and the nonlinearities in these feedback effects. SD is a popular approach to understanding the behavior of complex social and economic systems. It is a simulation-based, differential equation modeling tool that is widely used in situations where the formal model is complex and an analytical solution is very difficult to obtain. Second, a Bayesian belief network (BBN) framework is used to represent patient-level factors and also physician-level decisions and factors in the management of an individual patient, which contribute to the risk of hospital-acquired AE. BBNs are networks of probabilities that can capture probabilistic relations

  8. Supporting nurses' transition to rural healthcare environments through mentorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatinsky, Noelle K; Jahner, Sharleen

    2016-01-01

    The global shortage of rural healthcare professionals threatens the access these communities have to adequate healthcare resources. Barriers to recruitment and retention of nurses in rural facilities include limited resources, professional development opportunities, and interpersonal ties to the area. Mentorship programs have been used to successfully recruit and retain rural nurses. This study aimed to explore (i) employee perceptions of mentorship in rural healthcare organizations, (ii) the processes involved in creating mentoring relationships in rural healthcare organizations, and (iii) the organizational features supporting and inhibiting mentorship in rural healthcare organizations. This study was conducted in one rural health region in Saskatchewan, Canada. Volunteer participants who were employed at one rural healthcare facility were interviewed. A semi-structured interview guide that focused on exploring and gaining an understanding of participants' perceptions of mentorship in rural communities was employed. Data were analyzed using interpretive description methodology, which places high value on participants' subjective perspective and knowledge of their experience. All seven participants were female and employed as registered nurses or licensed practical nurses. Participants recognized that the rural environment offered unique challenges and opportunities for the transition of nurses new to rural healthcare. Participants believed mentorships facilitated this transition and were vital to the personal and professional success of new employees. Specifically, their insights indicated that this transition was influenced by three factors: rural community influences, organizational influences, and mentorship program influences. Facilitators for mentorships hinged on the close working relationships that facilitated the development of trust. Barriers to mentorship included low staff numbers, limited selection of volunteer mentors, and lack of mentorship

  9. Significant differences in the use of healthcare resources of native-born and foreign born in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Barrera, Valentin Hernández; de Andrés, Ana López; de Miguel, Ángel Gil

    2009-01-01

    Background In the last decade, the number of foreign residents in Spain has doubled and it has become one of the countries in the European Union with the highest number of immigrants There is no doubt that the health of the immigrant population has become a relevant subject from the point of view of public healthcare. Our study aimed at describing the potential inequalities in the use of healthcare resources and in the lifestyles of the resident immigrant population of Spain. Methods Cross-sectional, epidemiological study from the Spanish National Health Survey (NHS) in 2006, from the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs. We have worked with individualized secondary data, collected in the Spanish National Health Survey carried out in 2006 and 2007 (SNHS-06), from the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs. The format of the SNHS-06 has been adapted to the requirements of the European project for the carrying out of health surveys. Results The economic immigrant population resident in Spain, present diseases that are similar to those of the indigenous population. The immigrant population shows significantly lower values in the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and physical activity (OR = 0.76; CI 95%: 0.65–0.89, they nonetheless perceive their health condition as worse than that reported by the autochthonous population (OR = 1.63, CI 95%: 1.34–1.97). The probability of the immigrant population using emergency services in the last 12 months was significantly greater than that of the autochthonous population (OR = 1.31, CI 95%: 1.12–1.54). This situation repeats itself when analyzing hospitalization data, with values of probability of being hospitalized greater among immigrants (OR = 1.39, CI 95%: 1.07–1.81). Conclusion The economic immigrants have better parameters in relation to lifestyles, but they have a poor perception of their health. Despite the fact that immigrant population shows higher percentages of emergency attendance and hospitalization than

  10. Sustainability in health care by allocating resources effectively (SHARE) 4: exploring opportunities and methods for consumer engagement in resource allocation in a local healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Ko, Henry; Waller, Cara; Sloss, Pamela; Williams, Pamela

    2017-05-05

    This is the fourth in a series of papers reporting a program of Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. Healthcare decision-makers have sought to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of services through removal or restriction of practices that are unsafe or of little benefit, often referred to as 'disinvestment'. A systematic, integrated, evidence-based program for disinvestment was being established within a large Australian health service network. Consumer engagement was acknowledged as integral to this process. This paper reports the process of developing a model to integrate consumer views and preferences into an organisation-wide approach to resource allocation. A literature search was conducted and interviews and workshops were undertaken with health service consumers and staff. Findings were drafted into a model for consumer engagement in resource allocation which was workshopped and refined. Although consumer engagement is increasingly becoming a requirement of publicly-funded health services and documented in standards and policies, participation in organisational decision-making is not widespread. Several consistent messages for consumer engagement in this context emerged from the literature and consumer responses. Opportunities, settings and activities for consumer engagement through communication, consultation and participation were identified within the resource allocation process. Sources of information regarding consumer values and perspectives in publications and locally-collected data, and methods to use them in health service decision-making, were identified. A model bringing these elements together was developed. The proposed model presents potential opportunities and activities for consumer engagement in the context of resource allocation.

  11. Application of Resource Description Framework to Personalise Learning: Systematic Review and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevsikova, Tatjana; Berniukevicius, Andrius; Kurilovas, Eugenijus

    2017-01-01

    The paper is aimed to present a methodology of learning personalisation based on applying Resource Description Framework (RDF) standard model. Research results are two-fold: first, the results of systematic literature review on Linked Data, RDF "subject-predicate-object" triples, and Web Ontology Language (OWL) application in education…

  12. Lean in healthcare: the unfilled promise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radnor, Zoe J; Holweg, Matthias; Waring, Justin

    2012-02-01

    In an effort to improve operational efficiency, healthcare services around the world have adopted process improvement methodologies from the manufacturing sector, such as Lean Production. In this paper we report on four multi-level case studies of the implementation of Lean in the English NHS. Our results show that this generally involves the application of specific Lean 'tools', such as 'kaizen blitz' and 'rapid improvement events', which tend to produce small-scale and localised productivity gains. Although this suggests that Lean might not currently deliver the efficiency improvements desired in policy, the evolution of Lean in the manufacturing sector also reveals this initial focus on the 'tool level'. In moving to a more system-wide approach, however, we identify significant contextual differences between healthcare and manufacturing that result in two critical breaches of the assumptions behind Lean. First, the customer and commissioner in the private sector are the one and the same, which is essential in determining 'customer value' that drives process improvement activities. Second, healthcare is predominantly designed to be capacity-led, and hence there is limited ability to influence demand or make full use of freed-up resources. What is different about this research is that these breaches can be regarded as not being primarily 'professional' in origin but actually more 'organisational' and 'managerial' and, if not addressed could severely constrain Lean's impact on healthcare productivity at the systems level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Healthcare teams over the Internet: programming a certificate-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Christos K; Mavridis, Ioannis K; Pangalos, George I

    2003-07-01

    Healthcare environments are a representative case of collaborative environments since individuals (e.g. doctors) in many cases collaborate in order to provide care to patients in a more proficient way. At the same time modern healthcare institutions are increasingly interested in sharing access of their information resources in the networked environment. Healthcare applications over the Internet offer an attractive communication infrastructure at worldwide level but with a noticeably great factor of risk. Security has, therefore, become a major concern. However, although an adequate level of security can be relied upon digital certificates, if an appropriate security model is used, additional security considerations are needed in order to deal efficiently with the above team-work concerns. The already known Hybrid Access Control (HAC) security model supports and handles efficiently healthcare teams with active security capabilities and is capable to exploit the benefits of certificate technology. In this paper we present the way for encoding the appropriate authoritative information in various types of certificates, as well as the overall operational architecture of the implemented access control system for healthcare collaborative environments over the Internet. A pilot implementation of the proposed methodology in a major Greek hospital has shown the applicability of the proposals and the flexibility of the access control provided.

  14. [Improvement in the efficiency of a rehabilitation service using Lean Healthcare methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda Dávila, S; Tinoco González, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction in costs and the increase in time devoted to the patient, by applying Lean Healthcare methodology. A multidisciplinary team was formed, setting up three potential areas for improvement by performing a diagnostic process, including the storage and standardization of materials, and professional tasks in the therapeutic areas, by implementing three Lean tools: kanban, 5S and 2P. Stored material costs decreased by 43%, the cost of consumables per patient treated by 19%, and time dedicated to patient treatment increased by 7%. The processes were standardized and "muda" (wastefulness) was eliminated, thus reducing costs and increasing the value to the patient. All this demonstrates that it is possible to apply tools of industrial origin to the health sector, with the aim of improving the quality of care and achieve maximum efficiency. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. LEAN thinking in Finnish healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorma, Tapani; Tiirinki, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Turkki, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to evaluate how LEAN thinking is used as a management and development tool in the Finnish public healthcare system and what kind of outcomes have been achieved or expected by using it. The main focus is in managing and developing patient and treatment processes. Design/methodology/approach - A mixed-method approach incorporating the Webropol survey was used. Findings - LEAN is quite a new concept in Finnish public healthcare. It is mainly used as a development tool to seek financial savings and to improve the efficiency of patient processes, but has not yet been deeply implemented. However, the experiences from LEAN initiatives have been positive, and the methodology is already quite well-known. It can be concluded that, because of positive experiences from LEAN, the environment in Finnish healthcare is ready for the deeper implementation of LEAN. Originality/value - This paper evaluates the usage of LEAN thinking for the first time in the public healthcare system of Finland as a development tool and a management system. It highlights the implementation and achieved results of LEAN thinking when used in the healthcare environment. It also highlights the expectations for LEAN thinking in Finnish public healthcare.

  16. Healthcare resources and needs in anticoagulant therapy for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. SAMOA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, V; Egocheaga-Cabello, M I; Gállego-Culleré, J; Ignacio-García, E; Manzano-Espinosa, L; Martín-Martínez, A; Mateo-Arranz, J; Polo-García, J; Vargas-Ortega, D

    2017-05-01

    To determine, in the various medical specialties, the healthcare process for anticoagulated patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, to determine the available and necessary resources and to identify potential areas of improvement in the care of these patients. We performed a cross-sectional survey of primary care and specialised physicians involved in the care of anticoagulated patients. The questionnaires referred to the healthcare process, the indication and prescription of anticoagulant therapy and the barriers and deficiencies present for these patients. A total of 893 physicians participated in the study, 437 of whom worked in primary care and 456 of whom were specialists (mostly cardiologists). Forty-two percent of the family doctors indicated that they assessed and prescribed anticoagulant therapy, and 66% performed the regular follow-up of these patients. In both healthcare settings, the physicians noted the lack of standardised protocols. There was also a lack of quality control in the treatment. The role of primary care in managing anticoagulated patients has grown compared with previous reports. The responses of the participating physicians suggest marked gaps in the standardisation of the healthcare process and several areas for improvement in these patients' follow-up. The promotion of training in direct-acting anticoagulant drugs remains pivotal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  17. Stakeholders' Perceptions on Shortage of Healthcare Workers in Primary Healthcare in Botswana: Focus Group Discussions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oathokwa Nkomazana

    Full Text Available An adequate health workforce force is central to universal health coverage and positive public health outcomes. However many African countries have critical shortages of healthcare workers, which are worse in primary healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of healthcare workers, policy makers and the community on the shortage of healthcare workers in Botswana.Fifteen focus group discussions were conducted with three groups of policy makers, six groups of healthcare workers and six groups of community members in rural, urban and remote rural health districts of Botswana. All the participants were 18 years and older. Recruitment was purposive and the framework method was used to inductively analyse the data.There was a perceived shortage of healthcare workers in primary healthcare, which was believed to result from an increased need for health services, inequitable distribution of healthcare workers, migration and too few such workers being trained. Migration was mainly the result of unfavourable personal and family factors, weak and ineffective healthcare and human resources management, low salaries and inadequate incentives for rural and remote area service.Botswana has a perceived shortage of healthcare workers, which is worse in primary healthcare and rural areas, as a result of multiple complex factors. To address the scarcity the country should train adequate numbers of healthcare workers and distribute them equitably to sufficiently resourced healthcare facilities. They should be competently managed and adequately remunerated and the living conditions and rural infrastructure should also be improved.

  18. Health technology assessment and its role in the future development of the Indian healthcare sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Hass

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Public expenditure on healthcare in India is low by international comparison, and access to essential treatment pushes many uninsured citizens below the poverty line. In many countries, policymakers utilize health technology assessment (HTA methodologies to direct investments in healthcare, to obtain the maximum benefit for the population as a whole. With rising incomes and a commitment from the Government of India to increase the proportion of gross domestic product spent on health, this is an opportune moment to consider how HTA might help to allocate healthcare spending in India, in an equitable and efficient manner. Despite the predominance of out-of-pocket payments in the Indian healthcare sector, payers of all types are increasingly demanding value for money from expenditure on healthcare. In this review we demonstrate how HTA can be used to inform several aspects of healthcare provision. Areas in which HTA could be applied in the Indian context include, drug pricing, development of clinical practice guidelines, and prioritizing interventions that represent the greatest value within a limited budget. To illustrate the potential benefits of using the HTA approach, we present an example from a mature HTA market (Canada that demonstrates how a new treatment for patients with atrial fibrillation - although more expensive than the current standard of care - improves clinical outcomes and represents a cost-effective use of public health resources. If aligned with the prevailing cultural and ethical considerations, and with the necessary investment in expert staff and resources, HTA promises to be a valuable tool for development of the Indian healthcare sector.

  19. Health technology assessment and its role in the future development of the Indian healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Bastian; Pooley, Jayne; Feuring, Martin; Suvarna, Viraj; Harrington, Adrian E

    2012-04-01

    Public expenditure on healthcare in India is low by international comparison, and access to essential treatment pushes many uninsured citizens below the poverty line. In many countries, policymakers utilize health technology assessment (HTA) methodologies to direct investments in healthcare, to obtain the maximum benefit for the population as a whole. With rising incomes and a commitment from the Government of India to increase the proportion of gross domestic product spent on health, this is an opportune moment to consider how HTA might help to allocate healthcare spending in India, in an equitable and efficient manner. Despite the predominance of out-of-pocket payments in the Indian healthcare sector, payers of all types are increasingly demanding value for money from expenditure on healthcare. In this review we demonstrate how HTA can be used to inform several aspects of healthcare provision. Areas in which HTA could be applied in the Indian context include, drug pricing, development of clinical practice guidelines, and prioritizing interventions that represent the greatest value within a limited budget. To illustrate the potential benefits of using the HTA approach, we present an example from a mature HTA market (Canada) that demonstrates how a new treatment for patients with atrial fibrillation - although more expensive than the current standard of care - improves clinical outcomes and represents a cost-effective use of public health resources. If aligned with the prevailing cultural and ethical considerations, and with the necessary investment in expert staff and resources, HTA promises to be a valuable tool for development of the Indian healthcare sector.

  20. The Relationship Between 24-Hour Symptoms and COPD Exacerbations and Healthcare Resource Use : Results from an Observational Study (ASSESS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Worth, Heinrich; Soler-Cataluna, Juan Jose; Price, David; De Benedetto, Fernando; Roche, Nicolas; Godtfredsen, Nina S.; Molen, van der Thys; Lofdahl, Claes-Goran; Padulles, Laura; Ribera, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This observational study assessed the relationship between nighttime, early-morning and daytime chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms and exacerbations and healthcare resource use. COPD symptoms were assessed at baseline in patients with stable COPD using a standardised questionnaire

  1. 48 CFR 801.602-73 - Review requirements for scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review requirements for scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources. 801.602-73 Section 801.602... Responsibilities 801.602-73 Review requirements for scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health...

  2. Profiling Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) of Family Health History based on the Clinical Element Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehoon; Hulse, Nathan C; Wood, Grant M; Oniki, Thomas A; Huff, Stanley M

    2016-01-01

    In this study we developed a Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) profile to support exchanging a full pedigree based family health history (FHH) information across multiple systems and applications used by clinicians, patients, and researchers. We used previously developed clinical element models (CEMs) that are capable of representing the FHH information, and derived essential data elements including attributes, constraints, and value sets. We analyzed gaps between the FHH CEM elements and existing FHIR resources. Based on the analysis, we developed a profile that consists of 1) FHIR resources for essential FHH data elements, 2) extensions for additional elements that were not covered by the resources, and 3) a structured definition to integrate patient and family member information in a FHIR message. We implemented the profile using an open-source based FHIR framework and validated it using patient-entered FHH data that was captured through a locally developed FHH tool.

  3. A national survey of the impact of rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy on health-care workers in Malawi: effects on human resources and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makombe, Simon D; Jahn, Andreas; Tweya, Hannock; Chuka, Stuart; Yu, Joseph Kwong-Leung; Hochgesang, Mindy; Aberle-Grasse, John; Pasulani, Olesi; Schouten, Erik J; Kamoto, Kelita; Harries, Anthony D

    2007-11-01

    To assess the human resources impact of Malawis rapidly growing antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme and balance this against the survival benefit of health-care workers who have accessed ART themselves. We conducted a national cross-sectional survey of the human resource allocation in all public-sector health facilities providing ART in mid-2006. We also undertook a survival analysis of health-care workers who had accessed ART in public and private facilities by 30 June 2006, using data from the national ART monitoring and evaluation system. By 30 June 2006, 59 581 patients had accessed ART from 95 public and 28 private facilities. The public sites provided ART services on 2.4 days per week on average, requiring 7% of the clinician workforce, 3% of the nursing workforce and 24% of the ward clerk workforce available at the facilities. We identified 1024 health-care workers in the national ART-patient cohort (2% of all ART patients). The probabilities for survival on ART at 6 months, 12 months and 18 months were 85%, 81% and 78%, respectively. An estimated 250 health-care workers lives were saved 12 months after ART initiation. Their combined work-time of more than 1000 staff-days per week was equivalent to the human resources required to provide ART at the national level. A large number of ART patients in Malawi are managed by a small proportion of the health-care workforce. Many health-care workers have accessed ART with good treatment outcomes. Currently, staffing required for ART balances against health-care workers lives saved through treatment, although this may change in the future.

  4. Public Value Creation Enabled by Healthcare IS Projects – a resource-based-view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Svejvig, Per; Laursen, Markus

    Creation of value from IT projects is a recurring theme that has diffused into healthcare information sys-tems (HIS). By applying a resource-based-view on findings from a study on the optimisation project of an integrated health information system (HIS) we develop a framework of capabilities needed...... in a public HIS setting to create value. The framework consists of Professional- , Organisational-, Patient Perceived- and Employee Perceived-Value dimensions. HIS is partly overlooked in the public management literature and the aspect of emergence and (personal as well as organisational) learning plays...... an important role in the creation value in HIS-projects....

  5. Decision Making for Healthcare Resource Allocation: Joint v. Separate Decisions on Interacting Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Helen; Gray, Alastair

    2018-05-01

    Standard guidance for allocating healthcare resources based on cost-effectiveness recommends using different decision rules for independent and mutually exclusive alternatives, although there is some confusion around the definition of "mutually exclusive." This paper reviews the definitions used in the literature and shows that interactions (i.e., non-additive effects, whereby the effect of giving 2 interventions simultaneously does not equal the sum of their individual effects) are the defining feature of mutually exclusive alternatives: treatments cannot be considered independent if the costs and/or benefits of one treatment are affected by the other treatment. The paper then identifies and categorizes the situations in which interventions are likely to have non-additive effects, including interventions targeting the same goal or clinical event, or life-saving interventions given to overlapping populations. We demonstrate that making separate decisions on interventions that have non-additive effects can prevent us from maximizing health gained from the healthcare budget. In contrast, treating combinations of independent options as though they were "mutually exclusive" makes the analysis more complicated but does not affect the conclusions. Although interactions are considered by the World Health Organization, other decision makers, such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), currently make independent decisions on treatments likely to have non-additive effects. We propose a framework by which interactions could be considered when selecting, prioritizing, and appraising healthcare technologies to ensure efficient, evidence-based decision making.

  6. Migrants' access to healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie

    2011-01-01

    There are strong pragmatic and moral reasons for receiving societies to address access to healthcare for migrants. Receiving societies have a pragmatic interest in sustaining migrants' health to facilitate integration; they also have a moral obligation to ensure migrants' access to healthcare...... according to international human rights principles. The intention of this thesis is to increase the understanding of migrants' access to healthcare by exploring two study aims: 1) Are there differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy I and II); and 2) Why...... are there possible differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy III and IV). The thesis builds on different methodological approaches using both register-based retrospective cohort design, cross-sectional design and survey methods. Two different measures of access were...

  7. Predictors of high healthcare resource utilization and liver disease progression among patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMori, Joyce; Tandon, Neeta; Laliberté, François; Germain, Guillaume; Pilon, Dominic; Lefebvre, Patrick; Prabhakar, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Since hepatitis C virus therapy is typically prioritized for patients with more advanced disease, predicting which patients will progress could help direct scarce resources to those likely to benefit most. This study aims to identify demographics and clinical characteristics associated with high healthcare resource utilization (HRU) and liver disease progression among CHC patients. Using health insurance claims (January 2001-March 2013), adult patients with ≥2 CHC claims (ICD-9-CM: 070.44 or 070.54), and ≥6 months of continuous insurance coverage before and ≥36 months after the first CHC diagnosis were included. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus were excluded. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify the demographic and clinical characteristics of being in the 20% of patients with the highest HRU. Factors predicting liver disease progression were also identified. In the study population (n = 4898), liver disease severity and both CHC- and non-CHC-related comorbidities and conditions were strong predictors of high healthcare costs, with odds ratios (ORs; 95% confidence interval [CI]) for ≥2 CHC-related and ≥2 non-CHC-related comorbidities/conditions of 2.78 (2.48-3.12) and 2.19 (1.76-2.72), respectively. CHC- and non-CHC-related comorbidities and conditions were also strong predictors of liver disease progression with ORs (95% CI) for ≥2 CHC-related and ≥2 non-CHC-related comorbidities and conditions of 2.18 (1.83-2.60) and 1.50 (1.14-1.97), respectively. Potential inaccuracies in claims data, information or classification bias, and findings based on a privately insured population. This study suggests that CHC patients with high healthcare resource utilization have a high level of comorbidity at baseline and also that non-CHC comorbidities and conditions are strong predictors of high HRU. Non-cirrhotic CHC patients with one or more comorbidities are at high risk of progressing to cirrhosis or end-stage liver disease.

  8. Impact of ranolazine on clinical outcomes and healthcare resource utilization in patients with refractory angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hua; Packard, Kathleen A; Burns, Tammy L; Hilleman, Daniel E

    2013-12-01

    Ranolazine is a novel antianginal medication approved for the treatment of chronic angina. There are only limited data concerning the efficacy of ranolazine in reducing healthcare resource utilization in patients with refractory angina pectoris. The primary objective of this analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ranolazine in refractory angina pectoris. In addition, the impact of ranolazine on healthcare resource utilization was assessed. Consecutive patients with refractory angina pectoris treated with ranolazine at two cardiology practices in the state of Nebraska were included in this analysis. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) angina class and frequency and type of healthcare resource consumption were determined during the 12 months prior to and the 12 months after initiation of ranolazine. A total of 150 pts (64 % men) with a mean age of 66 ± 12 years were included in this analysis. All patients had previously undergone coronary revascularization. Nitrates, β-adrenoceptor antagonists (β-blockers), and calcium antagonists (calcium channel blockers) were being used in 83, 97, and 75 % of patients, respectively. During ranolazine treatment, a significant improvement in CCS angina class was observed, with 23 patients improving by one class and no patient experiencing a deterioration in functional class (p = 0.025). A total of 53 side effects occurred in 28 (19 %) patients receiving ranolazine. Of those patients with side effects, four required dose reduction and seven required drug discontinuation. The frequency of clinic visits and emergency room visits was lower during ranolazine treatment, but the differences in frequency were not significant. The number of patients hospitalized and the number of hospitalizations were significantly lower during ranolazine therapy than in the pre-ranolazine study period (p = 0.002). Ranolazine improved the CCS angina class and reduced hospitalizations over a 12-month follow-up period in a group

  9. Perceived morbidity, healthcare-seeking behavior and their determinants in a poor-resource setting: observation from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Kanungo

    Full Text Available To control the double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases (NCDs, in the developing world, understanding the patterns of morbidity and healthcare-seeking is critical. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the distribution, predictors and inter-relationship of perceived morbidity and related healthcare-seeking behavior in a poor-resource setting.Between October 2013 and July 2014, 43999 consenting subjects were recruited from 10107 households in Malda district of West Bengal state in India, through multistage random sampling, using probability proportional-to-size. Information on socio-demographics, behaviors, recent ailments, perceived severity and healthcare-seeking were analyzed in SAS-9.3.2.Recent illnesses were reported by 55.91% (n=24,600 participants. Among diagnosed ailments (n=23,626, 50.92% (n=12,031 were NCDs. Respiratory (17.28%, n=7605, gastrointestinal (13.48%, n=5929 and musculoskeletal (6.25%, n=2749 problems were predominant. Non-qualified practitioners treated 53.16% (n=13,074 episodes. Older children/adolescents [adjusted odds ratio for private healthcare providers (AORPri=0.76, 95% confidence interval=0.71-0.83 and for Govt. healthcare provider (AORGovt=0.80(0.68-0.95], females [AORGovt=0.80(0.73-0.88], Muslims [AORPri=0.85(0.69-0.76 and AORGovt=0.92(0.87-0.96], backward castes [AORGovt=0.93(0.91-0.96] and rural residents [AORPri=0.82(0.75-0.89 and AORGovt=0.72(0.64-0.81] had lower odds of visiting qualified practitioners. Apparently less severe NCDs [acid-peptic disorders: AORPri=0.41(0.37-0.46 & AORGovt=0.41(0.37-0.46, osteoarthritis: AORPri=0.72(0.59-0.68 & AORGovt=0.58(0.43-0.78], gastrointestinal [AORPri=0.28(0.24-0.33 & AORGovt=0.69(0.58-0.81], respiratory [AORPri=0.35(0.32-0.39 & AORGovt=0.46(0.41-0.52] and skin infections [AORPri=0.65(0.55-0.77] were also less often treated by qualified practitioners. Better education [AORPri=1.91(1.65-2.22 for ≥graduation], sanitation [AORPri=1

  10. Use of healthcare resources and costs of acute cardioembolic stroke management in the Region of Madrid: The CODICE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrés-Nogales, F; Vivancos Mora, J; Barriga Hernández, F J; Díaz Otero, F; Izquierdo Esteban, L; Ortega-Casarrubios, M Á; Castillo Moreno, L; Ximénez-Carrillo Rico, Á; Martín Torres, M P; Gómez-Escalonilla Escobar, C I; Torres González, C; de Salas-Cansado, M; Casado Gómez, M Á; Soto Álvarez, J; Gil-Núñez, A

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the main cause of admission to Neurology departments and cardioembolic stroke (CS) is one of the most common subtypes of stroke. A multicentre prospective observational study was performed in 5 Neurology departments in public hospitals in the Region of Madrid (Spain). The objective was to estimate the use of healthcare resources and costs of acute CS management. Patients with acute CS at<48h from onset were recruited. Patients' socio-demographic, clinical, and healthcare resource use data were collected during hospitalisation and at discharge up to 30 days after admission, including data for rehabilitation treatment after discharge. During an 8-month recruitment period, 128 patients were recruited: mean age, 75.3±11.25; 46.9% women; mortality rate, 4.7%. All patients met the CS diagnostic criteria established by GEENCV-SEN, based on medical history or diagnostic tests. Fifty per cent of the patients had a history of atrial fibrillation and 18.8% presented other major cardioembolic sources. Non-valvular atrial fibrillation was the most frequent cause of CS (33.6%). Data for healthcare resource use, given a mean total hospital stay of 10.3±9.3 days, are as follows: rehabilitation therapy during hospital stay (46.9%, mean 4.5 days) and after discharge (56.3%, mean 26.8 days), complications (32%), specific interventions (19.5%), and laboratory and diagnostic tests (100%). Head CT (98.4%), duplex ultrasound of supra-aortic trunks (87.5%), and electrocardiogram (85.9%) were the most frequently performed diagnostic procedures. Average total cost per patient during acute-phase management and rehabilitation was €13,139. Hospital stay (45.0%) and rehabilitation at discharge (29.2%) accounted for the largest part of resources used. Acute CS management in the Region of Madrid resulted consumes large amounts of resources (€13,139), mainly due to hospital stays and rehabilitation. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espa

  11. Efficient healthcare logistics with a human touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vrugt, Noëlle Maria

    2016-01-01

    Despite the long experienced urgency of rapidly increasing healthcare expenditures, there is still a large potential to improve hospitals' logistical efficiency. Operations Research (OR) methodologies may support healthcare professionals in making better decisions concerning planning and capacity

  12. A framework for healthcare quality improvement in India: The time is here and now!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Varkey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare in India has been undergoing rapid changes in the last decade. As demand outpaces supply, quality improvement (QI initiatives and tools can be beneficial to enhance safe, effective, efficient, equitable and timely care. Healthcare quality is the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge. This article discusses the framework for QI and reviews the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA, Lean and Six Sigma methodologies, and briefly discusses key patient safety and quality measurement concepts. The PDSA cycle assists in testing the ideas through small tests of change or "pilots". Six Sigma aims at reducing variations in processes, and the Lean methodology predominantly focuses on enhancing process efficiency and eliminating non-value added steps in the process. It is likely that such structured problem solving approaches will provide an objective and systematic method of enhancing quality in healthcare institutions across India. As increasing attention being is paid on enhancing the quality of life through the Quality Council of India and accreditation of hospitals in India through the International Organization for standardization and National Accreditation Board for hospitals and healthcare providers, a focus on QI by institutional leaders and healthcare providers is key to enhancing the safety and quality of healthcare in India. Central to this also will be leadership buy-in, identification of a core faculty or team that will be the initiators of change, a respect for the need for faculty training and education in QI, measurement of issues to identify key priorities to focus on, and enhanced information systems where resources permit the same.

  13. Profiling Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) of Family Health History based on the Clinical Element Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jaehoon; Hulse, Nathan C.; Wood, Grant M.; Oniki, Thomas A.; Huff, Stanley M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we developed a Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) profile to support exchanging a full pedigree based family health history (FHH) information across multiple systems and applications used by clinicians, patients, and researchers. We used previously developed clinical element models (CEMs) that are capable of representing the FHH information, and derived essential data elements including attributes, constraints, and value sets. We analyzed gaps between the FHH CEM ...

  14. Avaliação de uma metodologia de alocação de recursos financeiros do setor saúde para aplicação no Brasil Evaluation of a methodology for financial resources allocation in Brazilian health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Porto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available No início da década de 1990, foi desenvolvida na Inglaterra uma nova metodologia para alocação de recursos financeiros aos serviços de saúde baseada nas necessidades de saúde da população. Essa metodologia caracteriza-se por adotar o modelo teórico de demanda aos serviços de saúde e por empregar dados de utilização dos serviços para estimar o uso com base na necessidade de saúde. Este artigo objetivou avaliar a aplicabilidade dessa metodologia para alocação de recursos federais no Brasil. Empregaram-se dados do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde sobre as internações de curta permanência ocorridas no Brasil em 1999. Foram analisadas 134 áreas geográficas, que cobrem o país como um todo. Os modelos estatísticos para estimar o uso testaram as seguintes variáveis de necessidades: mortalidade infantil; mortalidade geral padronizada; percentual de analfabetos; percentual de domicílios permanentes chefiados por mulheres e média de pessoas por domicílio. Todos os modelos de estimativa do uso de testados apresentaram coeficientes de regressão com sinal negativo, o que indica que a metodologia estudada apresenta restrições em contextos com grandes desigualdades sociais no uso de serviços de saúde, como o do Brasil.In the early 1990s, a group of British researchers developed a new methodology for healthcare resource allocation based on need. The methodology's main characteristics are to draw on the theoretical model for healthcare services demand and apply data on health services utilization to estimate needs-based use. The objective of the current study was to assess the applicability of this methodology for allocating Federal resources at the local level in Brazil. Data from all acute hospital admissions in 1999 came from the Inpatient Information System of the Unified National Health System (SUS. The country was divided into 134 geographic areas. The statistical models tested to estimate

  15. Favorable Cardiovascular Risk Profile Is Associated With Lower Healthcare Costs and Resource Utilization: The 2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Elizondo, Javier; Salami, Joseph A; Ogunmoroti, Oluseye; Osondu, Chukwuemeka U; Aneni, Ehimen C; Malik, Rehan; Spatz, Erica S; Rana, Jamal S; Virani, Salim S; Blankstein, Ron; Blaha, Michael J; Veledar, Emir; Nasir, Khurram

    2016-03-01

    The American Heart Association's 2020 Strategic Goals emphasize the value of optimizing risk factor status to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we aimed to quantify the overall and marginal impact of favorable cardiovascular risk factor (CRF) profile on healthcare expenditure and resource utilization in the United States among those with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD). The study population was derived from the 2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Direct and indirect costs were calculated for all-cause healthcare resource utilization. Variables of interest included CVD diagnoses (coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, dysrhythmias, or heart failure), ascertained by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification codes, and CRF profile (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, physical activity, and obesity). Two-part econometric models were used to study expenditure data. The final study sample consisted of 15 651 MEPS participants (58.5±12 years, 54% female). Overall, 5921 (37.8%) had optimal, 7002 (44.7%) had average, and 2728 (17.4%) had poor CRF profile, translating to 54.2, 64.1, and 24.9 million adults in United States, respectively. Significantly lower health expenditures were noted with favorable CRF profile across CVD status. Among study participants with established CVD, overall healthcare expenditures with optimal and average CRF profile were $5946 and $3731 less compared with those with poor CRF profile. The respective differences were $4031 and $2560 in those without CVD. Favorable CRF profile is associated with significantly lower medical expenditure and healthcare utilization among individuals with and without established CVD. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Optimal healthcare delivery to care homes in the UK: a realist evaluation of what supports effective working to improve healthcare outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Adam L; Goodman, Claire; Davies, Sue L; Dening, Tom; Gage, Heather; Meyer, Julienne; Schneider, Justine; Bell, Brian; Jordan, Jake; Martin, Finbarr C; Iliffe, Steve; Bowman, Clive; Gladman, John R F; Victor, Christina; Mayrhofer, Andrea; Handley, Melanie; Zubair, Maria

    2018-01-05

    care home residents have high healthcare needs not fully met by prevailing healthcare models. This study explored how healthcare configuration influences resource use. a realist evaluation using qualitative and quantitative data from case studies of three UK health and social care economies selected for differing patterns of healthcare delivery to care homes. Four homes per area (12 in total) were recruited. A total of 239 residents were followed for 12 months to record resource-use. Overall, 181 participants completed 116 interviews and 13 focus groups including residents, relatives, care home staff, community nurses, allied health professionals and General Practitioners. context-mechanism-outcome configurations were identified explaining what supported effective working between healthcare services and care home staff: (i) investment in care home-specific work that legitimises and values work with care homes; (ii) relational working which over time builds trust between practitioners; (iii) care which 'wraps around' care homes; and (iv) access to specialist care for older people with dementia. Resource use was similar between sites despite differing approaches to healthcare. There was greater utilisation of GP resource where this was specifically commissioned but no difference in costs between sites. activities generating opportunities and an interest in healthcare and care home staff working together are integral to optimal healthcare provision in care homes. Outcomes are likely to be better where: focus and activities legitimise ongoing contact between healthcare staff and care homes at an institutional level; link with a wider system of healthcare; and provide access to dementia-specific expertise. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  17. Decentralization and centralization of healthcare resources: investigating the associations of hospital competition and number of cardiologists per hospital with mortality and resource utilization in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungchul; Lee, Jason; Ikai, Hiroshi; Otsubo, Tetsuya; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the associations of hospital competition and number of cardiologists per hospital (indicating the decentralization and centralization of healthcare resources, respectively) with 30-day in-hospital mortality, healthcare spending, and length of stay (LOS) among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Japan. We collected data from 23,197 AMI patients admitted to 172 hospitals between 2008 and 2011. Hospital competition and number of cardiologists per hospital were analyzed as exposure variables in multilevel regression models for in-hospital mortality, healthcare spending, and LOS. Other covariates included patient, hospital, and regional variables; as well as the use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Hospitals in competitive regions and hospitals with a higher number of cardiologists were both associated lower in-hospital mortality. Additionally, hospitals in competition regions were also associated with longer LOS durations, whereas hospitals with more cardiologists had higher spending. The use of PCI was also associated with reduced mortality, increased spending and increased LOS. Centralization of cardiologists at the hospital level and decentralization of acute hospitals at the regional level may be contributing factors for improving the quality of care in Japan. Policymakers need to strike a balance between these two approaches to improve healthcare provision and quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Review Clostridium difficile: A healthcare-associated infection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    populations.19-22. While CDI has been extensively researched in well-resourced health systems, there are few published studies about CDI in sub-Saharan Africa. Healthcare-associated infections cause a greater disease burden in healthcare systems with fewer resources.23 Furthermore, in sub-Saharan Africa there is.

  19. An Implentation Methodology for Integrated Resource Management in Urban Water Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, G.; Thurm, B.; Klein, D. R.; Öberg, G.

    2014-12-01

    Urban water management requires innovative and integrative approaches to improve sustainability in cities keeping in touch with science progress. Integrated Resource Management (IRM) is one of these strategies and has been developed to integrate various natural and human resources. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that it is challenging to move from vision to implementation. The aim of this paper is to identify strengths and weaknesses of IRM and analyze if the approach might facilitate implementation of sustainability objectives in the water management field. A literature review was performed on peer-reviewed papers that were identified through Google Scholar search for the term 'Integrated Resource Management'. It was found that IRM has been used in a number of contexts such as urban planning, forestry, and management of waste and livestock. Significant implementation challenges are highlighted in the literature. Based on the lessons learned in many different fields, from forestry to communication sciences, important characteristics of IRM approach were found such as the need for adequate governance and strong leaderships, stakeholder's involvement, the learning process and the critical need of appropriate evaluation criteria. We conclude developing an implementation methodology and presenting several recommendations to implement IRM in urban management. While Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) is recognized as a fruitful approach to achieve sustainable water management, this study suggests that a shift toward Integrated Resource Management (IRM) can be beneficial as it is designed to facilitate consideration of the interrelationships between various natural and human resources.

  20. Strategic Management in the Healthcare Sector: The Debate About the Resource-Based View Flourishes in Response to Recent Commentaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan Ferlie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in – and debate about – the extent to which key concepts from the resource-based view (RBV of the Firm school of strategic management can be usefully applied to study knowledge mobilization (KM processes in healthcare and other public services settings.

  1. Incremental healthcare resource utilization and costs in US patients with Cushing's disease compared with diabetes mellitus and population controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Michael S; Neary, Maureen P; Chang, Eunice; Ludlam, William H

    2015-12-01

    Resource utilization and costs in Cushing's disease (CD) patients have not been studied extensively. We compared CD patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and population-based controls to characterize differences in utilization and costs. Using 2008-2012 MarketScan® database, we identified three patient groups: (1) CD patients; (2) DM patients; and (3) population-based control patients without CD. DM and control patients were matched to CD patients by age, gender, region, and review year in a 2:1 ratio. Outcomes included annual healthcare resource utilization and costs. There were 1852 CD patients, 3704 DM patients and 3704 controls. Mean age was 42.9 years; 78.2 % were female. CD patients were hospitalized more frequently (19.3 %) than DM patients (11.0 %, p < .001) or controls (5.6 %, p < .001). CD patients visited the ED more frequently (25.4 %) than DM patients (21.1 %, p < .001) or controls (14.3 %, p < .001). CD patients had more office visits than DM patients (19.1 vs. 10.7, p < .001) or controls (7.1, p < .001). CD patients on average filled more prescriptions than DM patients (51.7 vs. 42.7, p < .001) or controls (20.5, p < .001). Mean total healthcare costs for CD patients were $26,269 versus $12,282 for DM patients (p < .001) and $5869 for controls (p < .001). CD patients had significantly higher annual rates of healthcare resource utilization compared to matched DM patients and population controls without CD. CD patient costs were double DM costs and quadruple control costs. This study puts into context the additional burdens of CD over DM, a common, chronic endocrine condition affecting multiple organ systems, and population controls.

  2. The Imminent Healthcare and Emergency Care Crisis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki, Tetsuji

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Japan has a universal healthcare system, and this paper describes the reality of the healthcare services provided, as well as current issues with the system.Methods: Academic, government, and press reports on Japanese healthcare systems and healthcare guidelines were reviewed.Results: The universal healthcare system of Japan is considered internationally to be both low-cost and effective because the Japanese population enjoys good health status with a long life expectancy, while healthcare spending in Japan is below the average given by the Organization for Economic Corporation and Development (OECD. However, in many regions of Japan the existing healthcare resources are seriously inadequate, especially with regard to the number of physicians and other health professionals. Because healthcare is traditionally viewed as “sacred” work in Japan, healthcare professionals are expected to make large personal sacrifices. Also, public attitudes toward medical malpractice have changed in recent decades, and medical professionals are facing legal issues without experienced support of the government or legal professionals. Administrative response to the lack of resources and collaboration among communities are beginning, and more efficient control and management of the healthcare system is under consideration.Conclusion: The Japanese healthcare system needs to adopt an efficient medical control organization to ease the strain on existing healthcare professionals and to increase the number of physicians and other healthcare resources. Rather than continuing to depend on healthcare professionals being able and willing to make personal sacrifices, the government, the public and medical societies must cooperate and support changes in the healthcare system.

  3. Human resources requirements for diabetic patients healthcare in primary care clinics of the Mexican Institute of Social Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Doubova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the requirements of human resources (HR of two models of care for diabetes patients: conventional and specific, also called DiabetIMSS, which are provided in primary care clinics of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS. Materials and methods. An evaluative research was conducted. An expert group identified the HR activities and time required to provide healthcare consistent with the best clinical practices for diabetic patients. HR were estimated by using the evidence-based adjusted service target approach for health workforce planning; then, comparisons between existing and estimated HRs were made. Results. To provide healthcare in accordance with the patients’ metabolic control, the conventional model required increasing the number of family doctors (1.2 times nutritionists (4.2 times and social workers (4.1 times. The DiabetIMSS model requires greater increase than the conventional model. Conclusions. Increasing HR is required to provide evidence-based healthcare to diabetes patients.

  4. Scalable privacy-preserving data sharing methodology for genome-wide association studies: an application to iDASH healthcare privacy protection challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Ji, Zhanglong

    2014-01-01

    In response to the growing interest in genome-wide association study (GWAS) data privacy, the Integrating Data for Analysis, Anonymization and SHaring (iDASH) center organized the iDASH Healthcare Privacy Protection Challenge, with the aim of investigating the effectiveness of applying privacy-preserving methodologies to human genetic data. This paper is based on a submission to the iDASH Healthcare Privacy Protection Challenge. We apply privacy-preserving methods that are adapted from Uhler et al. 2013 and Yu et al. 2014 to the challenge's data and analyze the data utility after the data are perturbed by the privacy-preserving methods. Major contributions of this paper include new interpretation of the χ2 statistic in a GWAS setting and new results about the Hamming distance score, a key component for one of the privacy-preserving methods.

  5. A time-driven activity-based costing model to improve health-care resource use in Mirebalais, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandigo, Morgan; O'Neill, Kathleen; Mistry, Bipin; Mundy, Bryan; Millien, Christophe; Nazaire, Yolande; Damuse, Ruth; Pierre, Claire; Mugunga, Jean Claude; Gillies, Rowan; Lucien, Franciscka; Bertrand, Karla; Luo, Eva; Costas, Ainhoa; Greenberg, Sarah L M; Meara, John G; Kaplan, Robert

    2015-04-27

    In resource-limited settings, efficiency is crucial to maximise resources available for patient care. Time driven activity-based costing (TDABC) estimates costs directly from clinical and administrative processes used in patient care, thereby providing valuable information for process improvements. TDABC is more accurate and simpler than traditional activity-based costing because it assigns resource costs to patients based on the amount of time clinical and staff resources are used in patient encounters. Other costing approaches use somewhat arbitrary allocations that provide little transparency into the actual clinical processes used to treat medical conditions. TDABC has been successfully applied in European and US health-care settings to facilitate process improvements and new reimbursement approaches, but it has not been used in resource-limited settings. We aimed to optimise TDABC for use in a resource-limited setting to provide accurate procedure and service costs, reliably predict financing needs, inform quality improvement initiatives, and maximise efficiency. A multidisciplinary team used TDABC to map clinical processes for obstetric care (vaginal and caesarean deliveries, from triage to post-partum discharge) and breast cancer care (diagnosis, chemotherapy, surgery, and support services, such as pharmacy, radiology, laboratory, and counselling) at Hôpital Universitaire de Mirebalais (HUM) in Haiti. The team estimated the direct costs of personnel, equipment, and facilities used in patient care based on the amount of time each of these resources was used. We calculated inpatient personnel costs by allocating provider costs per staffed bed, and assigned indirect costs (administration, facility maintenance and operations, education, procurement and warehouse, bloodbank, and morgue) to various subgroups of the patient population. This study was approved by the Partners in Health/Zanmi Lasante Research Committee. The direct cost of an uncomplicated vaginal

  6. Healthcare resource use and costs of multiple sclerosis patients in Germany before and during fampridine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemssen, Tjalf; Prosser, Christine; Haas, Jennifer Scarlet; Lee, Andrew; Braun, Sebastian; Landsman-Blumberg, Pamela; Kempel, Angela; Gleißner, Erika; Patel, Sarita; Huang, Ming-Yi

    2017-03-27

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients often suffer from gait impairment and fampridine is indicated to medically improve walking ability in this population. Patient characteristics, healthcare resource use, and costs of MS patients on fampridine treatment for 12 months in Germany were analyzed. A retrospective claims database analysis was conducted including MS patients who initiated fampridine treatment (index date) between July 2011 and December 2013. Continuous insurance enrollment during 12 months pre- and post-index date was required, as was at least 1 additional fampridine prescription in the fourth quarter after the index date. Patient characteristics were evaluated and pre- vs post-index MS-related healthcare utilization and costs were compared. A total of 562 patients were included in this study. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 50.5 (9.8) years and 63% were female. In the treatment period, almost every patient had at least 1 MS-related outpatient visit, 24% were hospitalized due to MS, and 79% utilized MS-specific physical therapy in addition to the fampridine treatment. Total MS-related healthcare costs were significantly higher in the fampridine treatment period than in the period prior to fampridine initiation (€17,392 vs €10,960, P treatment (€1,333 vs €1,565, P treatment. While healthcare costs were higher during fampridine treatment compared to the pre-treatment period, inpatient costs were lower. Further research is necessary to better understand the fampridine influence.

  7. International Meeting on Simulation in Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    into healthcare. Lean principles originate from Japanese manufacturing, particularly the Toyota production system. “Lean thinking”, essentially...for Simulation in Healthcare Page 50 Appendix 6: Video Presentations Simulation Cinema The video sessions provide an opportunity for the...Lean methodology is a series of principles derived from Japanese manufacturing aimed at creating value for customers through elimination of wasteful

  8. School resources and student achievment: worldwide findings and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Meyer. M. Nascimento

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The issues raised in the Education Production Function literature since the US 1966 Coleman Report have fuelled high controversy on the role of school resources in relation to student performance. In several literature reviews and some self estimates, Erik Hanushek (1986, 1997, 2006 systematically affirms that these two factors are not associated one to another – neither in the US nor abroad. In recent cross-country analyses, Ludger Woessmann (2003; 2005a; 2005b links international differences in attainment to institutional differences across educational systems – not to resourcing levels. In the opposite direction, Stephen Heyneman and William Loxley (1982, 1983 tried to demonstrate in the 1980’s that, at least for low income countries, school factors seemed to outweigh family characteristics on the determination of students’ outcomes – although other authors show evidence that such a phenomenon may have existed only during a limited period of the 20th Century. In the 1990s, meta-analyses raised the argument that school resources were sufficiently significant to be regarded as pedagogically important. The turn of the Century witnessed a new movement: the recognition that endogenous determination of resource allocation is a substantial methodological issue. Therefore, efforts have been made to incorporate the decision-making processes that involve families, schools and policy-makers in economic models. This implies changes in research designs that may affect the direction of future policy advices patronised by international development and educational organisations.

  9. Analytical group decision making in natural resources: Methodology and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoldt, D.L.; Peterson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Group decision making is becoming increasingly important in natural resource management and associated scientific applications, because multiple values are treated coincidentally in time and space, multiple resource specialists are needed, and multiple stakeholders must be included in the decision process. Decades of social science research on decision making in groups have provided insights into the impediments to effective group processes and on techniques that can be applied in a group context. Nevertheless, little integration and few applications of these results have occurred in resource management decision processes, where formal groups are integral, either directly or indirectly. A group decision-making methodology is introduced as an effective approach for temporary, formal groups (e.g., workshops). It combines the following three components: (1) brainstorming to generate ideas; (2) the analytic hierarchy process to produce judgments, manage conflict, enable consensus, and plan for implementation; and (3) a discussion template (straw document). Resulting numerical assessments of alternative decision priorities can be analyzed statistically to indicate where group member agreement occurs and where priority values are significantly different. An application of this group process to fire research program development in a workshop setting indicates that the process helps focus group deliberations; mitigates groupthink, nondecision, and social loafing pitfalls; encourages individual interaction; identifies irrational judgments; and provides a large amount of useful quantitative information about group preferences. This approach can help facilitate scientific assessments and other decision-making processes in resource management.

  10. Impact of an Educational Program to Reduce Healthcare Resources in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: The EDUCAP Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Adamuz

    Full Text Available Additional healthcare visits and rehospitalizations after discharge are frequent among patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and have a major impact on healthcare costs. We aimed to determine whether the implementation of an individualized educational program for hospitalized patients with CAP would decrease subsequent healthcare visits and readmissions within 30 days of hospital discharge.A multicenter, randomized trial was conducted from January 1, 2011 to October 31, 2014 at three hospitals in Spain. We randomly allocated immunocompetent adults patients hospitalized for CAP to receive either an individualized educational program or conventional information before discharge. The educational program included recommendations regarding fluid intake, adherence to drug therapy and preventive vaccines, knowledge and management of the disease, progressive adaptive physical activity, and counseling for alcohol and smoking cessation. The primary trial endpoint was a composite of the frequency of additional healthcare visits and rehospitalizations within 30 days of hospital discharge. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed.We assigned 102 patients to receive the individualized educational program and 105 to receive conventional information. The frequency of the composite primary end point was 23.5% following the individualized program and 42.9% following the conventional information (difference, -19.4%; 95% confidence interval, -6.5% to -31.2%; P = 0.003.The implementation of an individualized educational program for hospitalized patients with CAP was effective in reducing subsequent healthcare visits and rehospitalizations within 30 days of discharge. Such a strategy may help optimize available healthcare resources and identify post-acute care needs in patients with CAP.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN39531840.

  11. Data mining applications in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hian Chye; Tan, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Data mining has been used intensively and extensively by many organizations. In healthcare, data mining is becoming increasingly popular, if not increasingly essential. Data mining applications can greatly benefit all parties involved in the healthcare industry. For example, data mining can help healthcare insurers detect fraud and abuse, healthcare organizations make customer relationship management decisions, physicians identify effective treatments and best practices, and patients receive better and more affordable healthcare services. The huge amounts of data generated by healthcare transactions are too complex and voluminous to be processed and analyzed by traditional methods. Data mining provides the methodology and technology to transform these mounds of data into useful information for decision making. This article explores data mining applications in healthcare. In particular, it discusses data mining and its applications within healthcare in major areas such as the evaluation of treatment effectiveness, management of healthcare, customer relationship management, and the detection of fraud and abuse. It also gives an illustrative example of a healthcare data mining application involving the identification of risk factors associated with the onset of diabetes. Finally, the article highlights the limitations of data mining and discusses some future directions.

  12. Review of Methodologies for Offshore Wind Resource Assessment in European Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Pryor, Sara

    2008-01-01

    promising wind farm sites and (ii) a site specific evaluation of wind climatology and vertical profiles of wind and atmospheric turbulence, in addition to an assessment of historical and possibly future changes due to climate non-stationarity. Phase (i) of the process can involve use of in situ observations......The wind resource offshore is generally larger than at geographically nearby onshore sites, which can offset the higher installation, operation and maintenance costs associated with offshore wind parks. Successful offshore wind energy development relies to some extent on accurate prediction of wind......) of the project often still requires in situ observations (which may or may not be supplemented with ground-based remote sensing technologies) and application of tools to provide a climatological context for the resulting measurements. Current methodologies for undertaking these aspects of the resource assessment...

  13. Understanding healthcare innovation systems: the Stockholm region case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larisch, Lisa-Marie; Amer-Wåhlin, Isis; Hidefjäll, Patrik

    2016-11-21

    Purpose There is an increasing interest in understanding how innovation processes can address current challenges in healthcare. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the wider socio-economic context and conditions for such innovation processes in the Stockholm region, using the functional dynamics approach to innovation systems (ISs). Design/methodology/approach The analysis is based on triangulation using data from 16 in-depth interviews, two workshops, and additional documents. Using the functional dynamics approach, critical structural and functional components of the healthcare IS were analyzed. Findings The analysis revealed several mechanisms blocking innovation processes such as fragmentation, lack of clear leadership, as well as insufficient involvement of patients and healthcare professionals. Furthermore, innovation is expected to occur linearly as a result of research. Restrictive rules for collaboration with industry, reimbursement, and procurement mechanisms limit entrepreneurial experimentation, commercialization, and spread of innovations. Research limitations/implications In this study, the authors analyzed how certain functions of the functional dynamics approach to ISs related to each other. The authors grouped knowledge creation, resource mobilization, and legitimacy as they jointly constitute conditions for needs articulation and entrepreneurial experimentation. The economic effects of entrepreneurial experimentation and needs articulation are mainly determined by the stage of market formation and existence of positive externalities. Social implications Stronger user involvement; a joint innovation strategy for healthcare, academia, and industry; and institutional reform are necessary to remove blocking mechanisms that today prevent innovation from occurring. Originality/value This study is the first to provide an analysis of the system of innovation in healthcare using a functional dynamics approach, which has evolved as a tool for public

  14. Economic evaluation in stratified medicine: methodological issues and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joerg eFugel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stratified Medicine (SM is becoming a practical reality with the targeting of medicines by using a biomarker or genetic-based diagnostic to identify the eligible patient sub-population. Like any healthcare intervention, SM interventions have costs and consequences that must be considered by reimbursement authorities with limited resources. Methodological standards and guidelines exist for economic evaluations in clinical pharmacology and are an important component for health technology assessments (HTAs in many countries. However, these guidelines have initially been developed for traditional pharmaceuticals and not for complex interventions with multiple components. This raises the issue as to whether these guidelines are adequate to SM interventions or whether new specific guidance and methodology is needed to avoid inconsistencies and contradictory findings when assessing economic value in SM.Objective: This article describes specific methodological challenges when conducting health economic (HE evaluations for SM interventions and outlines potential modifications necessary to existing evaluation guidelines /principles that would promote consistent economic evaluations for SM.Results/Conclusions: Specific methodological aspects for SM comprise considerations on the choice of comparator, measuring effectiveness and outcomes, appropriate modelling structure and the scope of sensitivity analyses. Although current HE methodology can be applied for SM, greater complexity requires further methodology development and modifications in the guidelines.

  15. Understanding how orthopaedic surgery practices generate value for healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Steven A; Mather, Richard C

    2013-06-01

    Orthopaedic surgery practices can provide substantial value to healthcare systems. Increasingly, healthcare administrators are speaking of the need for alignment between physicians and healthcare systems. However, physicians often do not understand what healthcare administrators value and therefore have difficulty articulating the value they create in discussions with their hospital or healthcare organization. Many health systems and hospitals use service lines as an organizational structure to track the relevant data and manage the resources associated with a particular type of care, such as musculoskeletal care. Understanding service lines and their management can be useful for orthopaedic surgeons interested in interacting with their hospital systems. We provide an overview of two basic types of value orthopaedic surgeons create for healthcare systems: financial or volume-driven benefits and nonfinancial quality or value-driven patient care benefits. We performed a search of PubMed from 1965 to 2012 using the term "service line." Of the 351 citations identified, 18 citations specifically involved the use of service lines to improve patient care in both nursing and medical journals. A service line is a structure used in healthcare organizations to enable management of a subset of activities or resources in a focused area of patient care delivery. There is not a consistent definition of what resources are managed within a service line from hospital to hospital. Physicians can positively impact patient care through engaging in service line management. There is increasing pressure for healthcare systems and hospitals to partner with orthopaedic surgeons. The peer-reviewed literature demonstrates there are limited resources for physicians to understand the value they create when attempting to negotiate with their hospital or healthcare organization. To effectively negotiate for resources to provide the best care for patients, orthopaedic surgeons need to claim and

  16. Process-oriented integration and coordination of healthcare services across organizational boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello-Leal, Edgar; Chiotti, Omar; Villarreal, Pablo David

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents a methodology that follows a top-down approach based on a Model-Driven Architecture for integrating and coordinating healthcare services through cross-organizational processes to enable organizations providing high quality healthcare services and continuous process improvements. The methodology provides a modeling language that enables organizations conceptualizing an integration agreement, and identifying and designing cross-organizational process models. These models are used for the automatic generation of: the private view of processes each organization should perform to fulfill its role in cross-organizational processes, and Colored Petri Net specifications to implement these processes. A multi-agent system platform provides agents able to interpret Colored Petri-Nets to enable the communication between the Healthcare Information Systems for executing the cross-organizational processes. Clinical documents are defined using the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture. This methodology guarantees that important requirements for healthcare services integration and coordination are fulfilled: interoperability between heterogeneous Healthcare Information Systems; ability to cope with changes in cross-organizational processes; guarantee of alignment between the integrated healthcare service solution defined at the organizational level and the solution defined at technological level; and the distributed execution of cross-organizational processes keeping the organizations autonomy.

  17. Evaluation methodology for tariff design under escalating penetrations of distributed energy resources

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmotteleb, I.I.A.; Gómez, Tomás; Reneses, Javier

    2017-01-01

    As the penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) escalates in distribution networks, new network tariffs are needed to cope with this new situation. These tariffs should allocate network costs to users, promoting an efficient use of the distribution network. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate and compare network tariff designs. Four design attributes are proposed for this aim: (i) network cost recovery; (ii) deferral of network reinforcements; (iii) efficient consumer resp...

  18. Managing today's complex healthcare business enterprise: reflections on distinctive requirements of healthcare management education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, William E

    2004-01-01

    In early 2001, the community of educational programs offering master's-level education in healthcare management began an odyssey to modernize its approach to the organization and delivery of healthcare management education. The community recognized that cumulative long-term changes within healthcare management practice required a careful examination of healthcare management context and manpower requirements. This article suggests an evidence-based rationale for defining the distinctive elements of healthcare management, thus suggesting a basis for review and transformation of master's-level healthcare management curricula. It also suggests ways to modernize these curricula in a manner that recognizes the distinctiveness of the healthcare business enterprise as well as the changing management roles and careers within these complex organizations and systems. Through such efforts, the healthcare management master's-level education community would be better prepared to meet current and future challenges, to increase its relevance to the management practice community, and to allocate scarce faculty and program resources more effectively.

  19. Methodology for developing evidence-based clinical imaging guidelines: Joint recommendations by Korea society of radiology and national evidence-based healthcare collaborating agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sol Ji; Jo, Ae Jeong; Choi, Jin A [Div. for Healthcare Technology Assessment Research, National Evidence-Based Healthcare Collaborating Agency, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-01-15

    This paper is a summary of the methodology including protocol used to develop evidence-based clinical imaging guidelines (CIGs) in Korea, led by the Korean Society of Radiology and the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency. This is the first protocol to reflect the process of developing diagnostic guidelines in Korea. The development protocol is largely divided into the following sections: set-up, process of adaptation, and finalization. The working group is composed of clinical imaging experts, and the developmental committee is composed of multidisciplinary experts to validate the methodology. The Korean CIGs will continue to develop based on this protocol, and these guidelines will act for decision supporting tools for clinicians as well as reduce medical radiation exposure.

  20. Methodology for developing evidence-based clinical imaging guidelines: Joint recommendations by Korea society of radiology and national evidence-based healthcare collaborating agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sol Ji; Jo, Ae Jeong; Choi, Jin A

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the methodology including protocol used to develop evidence-based clinical imaging guidelines (CIGs) in Korea, led by the Korean Society of Radiology and the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency. This is the first protocol to reflect the process of developing diagnostic guidelines in Korea. The development protocol is largely divided into the following sections: set-up, process of adaptation, and finalization. The working group is composed of clinical imaging experts, and the developmental committee is composed of multidisciplinary experts to validate the methodology. The Korean CIGs will continue to develop based on this protocol, and these guidelines will act for decision supporting tools for clinicians as well as reduce medical radiation exposure

  1. Exploring the challenges of the Iranian parliament about passing laws for resource allocation in healthcare: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenpour, Seyed Ramezan; Arab, Mohammad; Razavi, Seyed Hasan Emami; Sari, Ali Akbari

    2017-10-01

    Awareness about the process of law making and the factors that affect the legislative process have an important role in improving legislations that are approved by parliaments. This study aimed to explore and analyze the process of development and enactment of law in Iran's parliament, and factors that might affect the enactment of laws that are related to the allocation and distribution of health sector resources in Iran. In this case study, data were collected through review of literature and national documents, and experts' interviews. Interviews were performed with selected members of parliament (MPs), ex members of parliament and professionals from the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) (15 persons). MAX QDA 10 was used for coding and constructing themes. Data were analyzed in five steps (familiarization, developing a conceptual framework, coding, indexing, and interpretation) using a content analysis with inductive and deductive approaches. The main factors that could affect the approval and enactment of legislations related to allocation of healthcare resources in the Iranian parliament were categorized in seven themes including: Importance of issue, resource availability, legislator's awareness about the topic, lobbying and unofficial relations with influential officials, mentioning strong reasons by MOHME, weakness of previous laws, and positive feedback related to the same laws. Although the process of law making in parliament, and implementation of them in health organizations have legal stages, the study showed that several key factors affect this trend. In fact, it is suggested the health policy makers and MPs consider extending a range of factors to improve the process of law making and the efficiency of legislation related to allocation of healthcare resources.

  2. Exploring the challenges of the Iranian parliament about passing laws for resource allocation in healthcare: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenpour, Seyed Ramezan; Arab, Mohammad; Razavi, Seyed Hasan Emami; Sari, Ali Akbari

    2017-01-01

    Background Awareness about the process of law making and the factors that affect the legislative process have an important role in improving legislations that are approved by parliaments. Objective This study aimed to explore and analyze the process of development and enactment of law in Iran’s parliament, and factors that might affect the enactment of laws that are related to the allocation and distribution of health sector resources in Iran. Methods In this case study, data were collected through review of literature and national documents, and experts’ interviews. Interviews were performed with selected members of parliament (MPs), ex members of parliament and professionals from the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) (15 persons). MAX QDA 10 was used for coding and constructing themes. Data were analyzed in five steps (familiarization, developing a conceptual framework, coding, indexing, and interpretation) using a content analysis with inductive and deductive approaches. Results The main factors that could affect the approval and enactment of legislations related to allocation of healthcare resources in the Iranian parliament were categorized in seven themes including: Importance of issue, resource availability, legislator’s awareness about the topic, lobbying and unofficial relations with influential officials, mentioning strong reasons by MOHME, weakness of previous laws, and positive feedback related to the same laws. Conclusion Although the process of law making in parliament, and implementation of them in health organizations have legal stages, the study showed that several key factors affect this trend. In fact, it is suggested the health policy makers and MPs consider extending a range of factors to improve the process of law making and the efficiency of legislation related to allocation of healthcare resources. PMID:29238478

  3. Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative puts new spin on improving healthcare quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    For nearly 4 years, the Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) has been working to improve the way healthcare is delivered in southwestern Pennsylvania by combining the voices and resources of hospitals, providers, the business community, insurers, health plans, and federal agencies. As one example of borrowing from business, the PRHI has created a new learning and management system, called Perfecting Patient Care, which is based on the Toyota Production System model and is now being used successfully in hospitals.

  4. How Can Information and Communication Technology Improve Healthcare Inequalities and Healthcare Inequity? The Concept of Context Driven Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Kwang Chien; Bettiol, Silvana; Nash, Rosie; Macintyrne, Kate; Wong, Ming Chao; Nøhr, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Advances in medicine have improved health and healthcare for many around the world. The challenge is achieving the best outcomes of health via healthcare delivery to every individual. Healthcare inequalities exist within a country and between countries. Health information technology (HIT) has provided a mean to deliver equal access to healthcare services regardless of social context and physical location. In order to achieve better health outcomes for every individual, socio-cultural factors, such as literacy and social context need to consider. This paper argues that HIT while improves healthcare inequalities by providing access, might worsen healthcare inequity. In order to improve healthcare inequity using HIT, this paper argues that we need to consider patients and context, and hence the concept of context driven care. To improve healthcare inequity, we need to conceptually consider the patient's view and methodologically consider design methods that achieve participatory outcomes.

  5. Verification of Timed Healthcare Workflows Using Component Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertolini, Cristiano; Liu, Zhiming; Srba, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Workflows in modern healthcare systems are becoming increasingly complex and their execution involves concurrency and sharing of resources. The definition, analysis and management of collaborative healthcare workflows requires abstract model notations with a precisely defined semantics and a supp......Workflows in modern healthcare systems are becoming increasingly complex and their execution involves concurrency and sharing of resources. The definition, analysis and management of collaborative healthcare workflows requires abstract model notations with a precisely defined semantics...

  6. Business resilience: Reframing healthcare risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, Cynthia L

    2015-09-01

    The responsibility of risk management in healthcare is fractured, with multiple stakeholders. Most hospitals and healthcare systems do not have a fully integrated risk management system that spans the entire organizational and operational structure for the delivery of key services. This article provides insight toward utilizing a comprehensive Business Resilience program and associated methodology to understand and manage organizational risk leading to organizational effectiveness and operational efficiencies, with the fringe benefit of realizing sustainable operational capability during adverse conditions. © 2015 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  7. Febrile illness in healthcare workers caring for Ebola virus disease patients in a high-resource setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Douglas; Cropley, Ian; Jacobs, Michael; Mepham, Stephen

    2017-01-26

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) patients treated in high-resource facilities are cared for by large numbers of healthcare staff. Monitoring these healthcare workers (HCWs) for any illness that may represent transmission of Ebola virus is important both for the individuals and to minimise the community risk. International policies for monitoring HCWs vary considerably and their effectiveness is unknown. Here we describe the United Kingdom (UK) experience of illness in HCWs who cared for three patients who acquired EVD in West Africa. Five of these 93 high-level isolation unit (HLIU) HCWs presented with fever within 21 days of working on the unit; one of these five presented outside of the UK. This article discusses different approaches to monitoring of HCW symptom reporting. The potential impact of these approaches on HLIU staff recruitment, including travel restrictions, is also considered. An international surveillance system enhancing collaboration between national public health authorities may assist HLIU HCW monitoring in case they travel. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  8. The Learning Healthcare System: Where are we now? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budrionis, Andrius; Bellika, Johan Gustav

    2016-12-01

    The Learning Healthcare System paradigm has attracted the attention of researchers worldwide. The great potential originating from high-scale health data reuse and the inclusion of patient perspectives into care models promises personalized care, lower costs of health services and minimized consumption of resources. The aim of this review is to summarize the attempts to adopt the novel paradigm, putting emphasis on implementations and evaluating the impact on current medical practices. PRISMA methodology was followed for structuring the review process. Three major research databases (PubMed, IEEE Xplore and ACM DL) were queried with the predefined search terms "learning healthcare" and "learning health". Publications containing specific theoretical or empirical results were considered. Three hundred and fifty-eight publications were identified; however, only 32 met the inclusion criteria. Nineteen papers were characterized as theoretical contributions, while the rest presented empirical achievements. Only one paper described the initial estimates of impact and economy. Individualistic communication of studies ignoring popular frameworks for assessing and reporting research achievements prevents the systematic generation of knowledge. Evaluating the impact of the Learning Healthcare System instances where it is implemented could work as a catalyst in reaching higher acceptance and adoption of the proposed ideas by healthcare worldwide; however, it mostly remains described in theory. The review demonstrated the interest of researchers in exploring the Learning Healthcare System ideas. However, it also revealed minimal focus on evaluating the impact of the novel paradigm on both healthcare service delivery and patient outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Using interpersonal affect regulation in simulated healthcare consultations: An experimental investigation of self-control resource depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eMartínez-Iñigo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlled Interpersonal Affect Regulation –the process of deliberately influencing the internal feeling states of others– occurs in a variety of interpersonal relationships and contexts. An incipient corpus of research shows that interpersonal affect regulation can be characterized as a goal-directed behaviour that uses self-control processes which, according to the strength model of self-regulation, consumes a limited resource that is also used by other self-control processes. Using interpersonal affect-improving and affect-worsening regulation strategies can increase agents´ resource depletion but there is reason to think that effects will partially rely on targets´ feedback in response to the regulation. Using a healthcare paradigm, an experiment was conducted to test the combined effects of interpersonal affect regulation use and patient feedback on healthcare workers’ resource depletion, measured as self-reported actual and expected emotional exhaustion, and persistence on a self-regulation task. Medical students (N = 78 were randomly assigned to a 2(interpersonal affect regulation: affect-worsening vs. affect-improving x 2(patients’ feedback: positive vs. negative factorial between-subjects design and given instructions to play the role of doctors in interactions with two professional actors trained to act as patients. Analysis of covariance showed that affect-worsening was more depleting than affect-improving for all measures, whereas the recovery effects of positive feedback varied depending on strategy type and measure. The findings confirm the characterization of interpersonal affect regulation as potentially depleting, but suggest that the correspondence between the agent´s strategy and the target´s response needs to be taken into consideration. Use of affect-improving and positive feedback showed positive effects on self-rated performance, indicating that interpersonal affect regulation is relevant for organizational as

  10. Using interpersonal affect regulation in simulated healthcare consultations: an experimental investigation of self-control resource depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Íñigo, David; Mercado, Francisco; Totterdell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Controlled Interpersonal Affect Regulation -the process of deliberately influencing the internal feeling states of others- occurs in a variety of interpersonal relationships and contexts. An incipient corpus of research shows that interpersonal affect regulation can be characterized as a goal-directed behavior that uses self-control processes which, according to the strength model of self-regulation, consumes a limited resource that is also used by other self-control processes. Using interpersonal affect-improving and affect-worsening regulation strategies can increase agent's resource depletion but there is reason to think that effects will partially rely on target's feedback in response to the regulation. Using a healthcare paradigm, an experiment was conducted to test the combined effects of interpersonal affect regulation use and patient feedback on healthcare workers' resource depletion, measured as self-reported experienced and expected emotional exhaustion, and persistence on a self-regulation task. Medical students (N = 78) were randomly assigned to a 2(interpersonal affect regulation: affect-worsening vs. affect-improving) × 2(patients' feedback: positive vs. negative) factorial between-subjects design and given instructions to play the role of doctors in interactions with two professional actors trained to act as patients. Analysis of covariance showed that affect-worsening was more depleting than affect-improving for all measures, whereas the recovery effects of positive feedback varied depending on strategy type and measure. The findings confirm the characterization of interpersonal affect regulation as potentially depleting, but suggest that the correspondence between the agent's strategy and the target's response needs to be taken into consideration. Use of affect-improving and positive feedback showed positive effects on self-rated performance, indicating that interpersonal affect regulation is relevant for organizational as well as personal

  11. Measuring resource inequalities. The concepts and methodology for an area-based Gini coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druckman, A.; Jackson, T.

    2008-01-01

    Although inequalities in income and expenditure are relatively well researched, comparatively little attention has been paid, to date, to inequalities in resource use. This is clearly a shortcoming when it comes to developing informed policies for sustainable consumption and social justice. This paper describes an indicator of inequality in resource use called the AR-Gini. The AR-Gini is an area-based measure of resource inequality that estimates inequalities between neighbourhoods with regard to the consumption of specific consumer goods. It is also capable of estimating inequalities in the emissions resulting from resource use, such as carbon dioxide emissions from energy use, and solid waste arisings from material resource use. The indicator is designed to be used as a basis for broadening the discussion concerning 'food deserts' to inequalities in other types of resource use. By estimating the AR-Gini for a wide range of goods and services we aim to enhance our understanding of resource inequalities and their drivers, identify which resources have highest inequalities, and to explore trends in inequalities. The paper describes the concepts underlying the construction of the AR-Gini and its methodology. Its use is illustrated by pilot applications (specifically, men's and boys' clothing, carpets, refrigerators/freezers and clothes washer/driers). The results illustrate that different levels of inequality are associated with different commodities. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of some possible policy implications of the AR-Gini. (author)

  12. Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) 2: identifying opportunities for disinvestment in a local healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Allen, Kelly; King, Richard; Ramsey, Wayne; Kelly, Cate; Thiagarajan, Malar

    2017-05-05

    This is the second in a series of papers reporting a program of Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. Rising healthcare costs, continuing advances in health technologies and recognition of ineffective practices and systematic waste are driving disinvestment of health technologies and clinical practices that offer little or no benefit in order to maximise outcomes from existing resources. However there is little information to guide regional health services or individual facilities in how they might approach disinvestment locally. This paper outlines the investigation of potential settings and methods for decision-making about disinvestment in the context of an Australian health service. Methods include a literature review on the concepts and terminology relating to disinvestment, a survey of national and international researchers, and interviews and workshops with local informants. A conceptual framework was drafted and refined with stakeholder feedback. There is a lack of common terminology regarding definitions and concepts related to disinvestment and no guidance for an organisation-wide systematic approach to disinvestment in a local healthcare service. A summary of issues from the literature and respondents highlight the lack of theoretical knowledge and practical experience and provide a guide to the information required to develop future models or methods for disinvestment in the local context. A conceptual framework was developed. Three mechanisms that provide opportunities to introduce disinvestment decisions into health service systems and processes were identified. Presented in order of complexity, time to achieve outcomes and resources required they include 1) Explicit consideration of potential disinvestment in routine decision-making, 2) Proactive decision-making about disinvestment driven by available evidence from published research and local data, and 3) Specific exercises in

  13. A Design Methodology for Medical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacina, Stefano; Pozzi, Giuseppe; Pinciroli, Francesco; Marceglia, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Healthcare processes, especially those belonging to the clinical domain, are acknowledged as complex and characterized by the dynamic nature of the diagnosis, the variability of the decisions made by experts driven by their experiences, the local constraints, the patient’s needs, the uncertainty of the patient’s response, and the indeterminacy of patient’s compliance to treatment. Also, the multiple actors involved in patient’s care need clear and transparent communication to ensure care coordination. Objectives In this paper, we propose a methodology to model healthcare processes in order to break out complexity and provide transparency. Methods The model is grounded on a set of requirements that make the healthcare domain unique with respect to other knowledge domains. The modeling methodology is based on three main phases: the study of the environmental context, the conceptual modeling, and the logical modeling. Results The proposed methodology was validated by applying it to the case study of the rehabilitation process of stroke patients in the specific setting of a specialized rehabilitation center. The resulting model was used to define the specifications of a software artifact for the digital administration and collection of assessment tests that was also implemented. Conclusions Despite being only an example, our case study showed the ability of process modeling to answer the actual needs in healthcare practices. Independently from the medical domain in which the modeling effort is done, the proposed methodology is useful to create high-quality models, and to detect and take into account relevant and tricky situations that can occur during process execution. PMID:27081415

  14. A Design Methodology for Medical Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Simona; Bonacina, Stefano; Pozzi, Giuseppe; Pinciroli, Francesco; Marceglia, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare processes, especially those belonging to the clinical domain, are acknowledged as complex and characterized by the dynamic nature of the diagnosis, the variability of the decisions made by experts driven by their experiences, the local constraints, the patient's needs, the uncertainty of the patient's response, and the indeterminacy of patient's compliance to treatment. Also, the multiple actors involved in patient's care need clear and transparent communication to ensure care coordination. In this paper, we propose a methodology to model healthcare processes in order to break out complexity and provide transparency. The model is grounded on a set of requirements that make the healthcare domain unique with respect to other knowledge domains. The modeling methodology is based on three main phases: the study of the environmental context, the conceptual modeling, and the logical modeling. The proposed methodology was validated by applying it to the case study of the rehabilitation process of stroke patients in the specific setting of a specialized rehabilitation center. The resulting model was used to define the specifications of a software artifact for the digital administration and collection of assessment tests that was also implemented. Despite being only an example, our case study showed the ability of process modeling to answer the actual needs in healthcare practices. Independently from the medical domain in which the modeling effort is done, the proposed methodology is useful to create high-quality models, and to detect and take into account relevant and tricky situations that can occur during process execution.

  15. China’s Healthcare Reform And Resources Redistribution: Lessons For Emerging Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Jia CUI; Shaomin HUANG; Gerald RAMEY

    2009-01-01

    Following China’s recent economic growth and healthcare reform, medical services quickly merged into the market economy. The burden of healthcare expense on the Chinese people has become a serious political issue. This research project reviews the changes in health expenditures made during the last two decades. This paper explores the cause of this rapid change in the healthcare sector and analyzes the corresponding statistics during the entire economic reform period. In addition, the paper a...

  16. The CRADLE vital signs alert: qualitative evaluation of a novel device designed for use in pregnancy by healthcare workers in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Hannah L; Boene, Helena; Munguambe, Khatia; Sevene, Esperança; Akeju, David; Adetoro, Olalekan O; Charanthimath, Umesh; Bellad, Mrutyunjaya B; de Greeff, Annemarie; Anthony, John; Hall, David R; Steyn, Wilhelm; Vidler, Marianne; von Dadelszen, Peter; Chappell, Lucy C; Sandall, Jane; Shennan, Andrew H

    2018-01-05

    Vital signs measurement can identify pregnant and postpartum women who require urgent treatment or referral. In low-resource settings, healthcare workers have limited access to accurate vital signs measuring devices suitable for their environment and training. The CRADLE Vital Signs Alert (VSA) is a novel device measuring blood pressure and pulse that is accurate in pregnancy and designed for low-resource settings. Its traffic light early warning system alerts healthcare workers to the need for escalation of care for women with hypertension, haemorrhage or sepsis. This study evaluated the usability and acceptability of the CRADLE VSA device. Evaluation was conducted in community and primary care settings in India, Mozambique and Nigeria and tertiary hospitals in South Africa. Purposeful sampling was used to convene 155 interviews and six focus groups with healthcare workers using the device (n = 205) and pregnant women and their family members (n = 41). Interviews and focus groups were conducted in the local language and audio-recorded, transcribed and translated into English for analysis. Thematic analysis was undertaken using an a priori thematic framework, as well as an inductive approach. Most healthcare workers perceived the CRADLE device to be easy to use and accurate. The traffic lights early warning system was unanimously reported positively, giving healthcare workers confidence with decision-making and a sense of professionalism. However, a minority in South Africa described manual inflation as tiring, particularly when measuring vital signs in obese and hypertensive women (n = 4) and a few South African healthcare workers distrusted the device's accuracy (n = 7). Unanimously, pregnant women liked the CRADLE device. The traffic light early warning system gave women and their families a better understanding of the importance of vital signs in pregnancy and during the postpartum period. The CRADLE device was well accepted by healthcare workers

  17. Person-centred healthcare research: a personal influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    * Corresponding author: University of Windesheim, Zwolle, The Netherlands Email: am.vandenberg@windesheim.nl Submitted for publication: 3rd November 2017 Accepted for publication: 12th March 2018 Published: 16th May 2018 https://doi.org/10.19043/ipdj.81.011 Abstract Context: This critical reflection is about the positive effects for educational and research settings of participation in a two-day programme entitled ‘Using participatory action research and appreciative inquiry to research healthcare practice’. Aims: To reflect on the journey of positive developments in research and education that started with participation in this programme. Using Caring Conversations (Dewar, 2011 as a reflective framework of questions, this article discusses the journey in order to encourage others to consider the approach of appreciative inquiry to bring to life the concept of co-creation in research and education. Conclusions and implications for practice: Participation in this programme has led to the implementation of a variety of actions in educational and research settings. Central to all these actions is an appreciative approach to co-creation as a counterpart to today’s prevailing problem-based viewpoint. A possible factor behind these developments was the power of vulnerability experienced during the programme, a shared process of transformational learning. Implications for practice: This critical reflection: Provides an invitation to shift from a problem-based focus to a positive revolution Provides an appreciative reflective story about the power of vulnerability as an inspiration for others to move out of their comfort zone and seek to discover their own exceptionality Supports a shift from a facilitator-led to a co-creation approach in doing research and teaching with older adults Keywords: Emotional touchpoints, appreciative inquiry, Caring Conversations, practice development, co-creation, transformational learning theory   IDEAS AND INFLUENCES Person-centred healthcare research: a personal influence Hazel M. Chapman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This commentary assesses the contribution made by the person-centred healthcare research of McCormack et al (2017 to research methodology and our ability to evaluate an organisation’s claims to be person-centred. It discusses the importance of person-centred ethical approaches within rigorous research methodologies.

  18. Organizational excellence in healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Does, R.J.M.M.; van den Heuvel, J.; Foley, K.J.; Hermel, P.

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare, as any other service operation, requires systematic innovation efforts to remain competitive, cost efficient and up to date. In this paper, we outline a methodology and present how principles of two improvement programs, i.e., Lean Thinking and Six Sigma, can be combined to provide an

  19. Methodological Support to Develop Interoperable Applications for Pervasive Healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso de Moraes, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The healthcare model currently being used in most countries will soon be inadequate, due to the increasing care costs of a growing population of elderly people, the rapid increase of chronic diseases, the growing demand for new treatments and technologies, and the relative decrease in the number of

  20. Short- and longer-term health-care resource utilization and costs associated with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson BH

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Barbara H Johnson,1 Machaon M Bonafede,1 Crystal Watson2 1Outcomes Research, Truven Health Analytics, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA Objectives: The mean lifetime cost of ischemic stroke is approximately $140,048 in the United States, placing stroke among the top 10 most costly conditions among Medicare beneficiaries. The objective of this study was to describe the health-care resource utilization and costs in the year following hospitalization for acute ischemic stroke (AIS.Methods: This retrospective claims analysis quantifies utilization and costs following inpatient admission for AIS among the commercially insured and Medicare beneficiaries in the Truven Health databases. Patients who were 18 years or older and continuously enrolled for 12 months before and after an AIS event occurring (index between January 2009 and December 2012 were identified. Patients with AIS in the year preindex were excluded. Demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated at admission and in the preindex, respectively. Direct costs, readmissions, and inpatient length of stay (LOS were described in the year postindex.Results: The eligible populations comprised 20,314 commercially insured patients and 31,037 Medicare beneficiaries. Average all-cause costs were $61,354 and $44,929 (commercial and Medicare, respectively in the first year after the AIS. Approximately 50%–55% of total 12-month costs were incurred between day 31 and day 365 following the incident AIS. One quarter (24.6% of commercially insured patients and 38.8% of Medicare beneficiaries were readmitted within 30 days with 16.6% and 71.7% (commercial and Medicare, respectively of those having a principal diagnosis of AIS. The average AIS-related readmission length of stay was nearly three times that of the initial hospitalization for both commercially insured patients (3.8 vs 10.8 days and Medicare beneficiaries (4.0 vs 10.8 days

  1. What drives continuous improvement project success in healthcare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelson, Paul; Hille, Joshua; Eseonu, Chinweike; Doolen, Toni

    2017-02-13

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present findings from a study of factors that affect continuous improvement (CI) project success in hospitals. Design/methodology/approach Quantitative regression analysis was performed on Likert scale survey responses. Qualitative thematic analysis was performed on open-ended survey responses and written reports on CI projects. Findings The paper identifies managerial and employee factors that affect project success. These factors include managerial support, communication, and affective commitment. Affective commitment is the extent to which employees perceive the change as being needed or necessary. Practical implications The results highlight how managerial decisions, approaches to communication - including communication before, during and after CI projects affect project success. The results also show that success depends on the way employees perceive proposed changes. This suggests the need for a more individualized approach to CI, lean, and broader change initiatives. Originality/value This research is the first to fuse project success and sustainability theory to CI projects, beyond Kaizen events, in healthcare environments. The research is particularly important at a time when healthcare organizations are required to make rapid changes with limited resources as they work toward outcome-based assessment and reimbursement rules.

  2. A Mixed-Methods Research Framework for Healthcare Process Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Nathaniel D; Munoz, David; Ventura, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The healthcare system in the United States is spiraling out of control due to ever-increasing costs without significant improvements in quality, access to care, satisfaction, and efficiency. Efficient workflow is paramount to improving healthcare value while maintaining the utmost standards of patient care and provider satisfaction in high stress environments. This article provides healthcare managers and quality engineers with a practical healthcare process improvement framework to assess, measure and improve clinical workflow processes. The proposed mixed-methods research framework integrates qualitative and quantitative tools to foster the improvement of processes and workflow in a systematic way. The framework consists of three distinct phases: 1) stakeholder analysis, 2a) survey design, 2b) time-motion study, and 3) process improvement. The proposed framework is applied to the pediatric intensive care unit of the Penn State Hershey Children's Hospital. The implementation of this methodology led to identification and categorization of different workflow tasks and activities into both value-added and non-value added in an effort to provide more valuable and higher quality patient care. Based upon the lessons learned from the case study, the three-phase methodology provides a better, broader, leaner, and holistic assessment of clinical workflow. The proposed framework can be implemented in various healthcare settings to support continuous improvement efforts in which complexity is a daily element that impacts workflow. We proffer a general methodology for process improvement in a healthcare setting, providing decision makers and stakeholders with a useful framework to help their organizations improve efficiency. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Spirituality and healthcare: Towards holistic peoplecentred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Healthcare in South Africa is in a crisis. Problems with infrastructure, management, human resources and the supply of essential medicines are at a critical level. This is compounded by a high burden of disease and disparity in levels of service delivery, particularly between public and private healthcare. The government ...

  4. Leading Lean: a Canadian healthcare leader's guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Benjamin A; Golden, Brian; Hannam, Rosemary; Morra, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Canadian healthcare organizations are increasingly asked to do more with less, and too often this has resulted in demands on staff to simply work harder and longer. Lean methodologies, originating from Japanese industrial organizations and most notably Toyota, offer an alternative - tried and tested approaches to working smarter. Lean, with its systematic approaches to reducing waste, has found its way to Canadian healthcare organizations with promising results. This article reports on a study of five Canadian healthcare providers that have recently implemented Lean. We offer stories of success but also identify potential obstacles and ways by which they may be surmounted to provide better value for our healthcare investments.

  5. The global cancer divide: Relationships between national healthcare resources and cancer outcomes in high-income vs. middle- and low-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Batouli

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: The analysis of this study suggested that cancer MIR is greater in middle/low-income countries. Furthermore, the WHO healthcare score was associated with improved cancer outcomes in middle/low-income countries while absolute levels of financial resources and infrastructure played a more important role in high-income countries.

  6. Lean Six Sigma in Healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, H.; Verver, J.P.S.; van den Heuvel, J.; Bisgaard, S.; Does, R.J.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Cost reduction; efficiency; innovation; quality improvement; service management. Abstract Healthcare, as any other service operation, requires systematic innovation efforts to remain competitive, cost efficient and up to date. In this article, we outline a methodology and present examples

  7. Treatment patterns and healthcare resource utilization and costs in heavy menstrual bleeding: a Japanese claims database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Sayako; Tanaka, Erika; Cristeau, Olivier; Onishi, Yoshie; Osuga, Yutaka

    2018-06-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a highly prevalent condition, characterized by excessive menstrual blood loss and cramping, that interferes with activities of daily life. The aim of this study was to investigate treatment patterns in HMB in Japan, and to assess healthcare resource utilization and costs among women newly-diagnosed with the condition. This study retrospectively analyzed health insurance data available in the Japan Medical Data Center (JMDC) database on women aged 18-49 years who were newly-diagnosed with primary or secondary HMB. Treatment patterns were analyzed, and healthcare utilization and costs were evaluated and compared to matched controls. The study included a total of 635 patients, 210 with primary HMB and 425 with secondary HMB. In the primary HMB cohort, 60.0% of patients received one or more pharmacological or surgical treatments, compared with 76.2% in the secondary HMB cohort. The most commonly prescribed medications in all patients were hemostatic agents (28.7%), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) (12.1%), and low-dose estrogen progestins (LEPs) (10.1%). After adjustment for patient baseline characteristics, healthcare costs were 1.93-times higher in primary HMB cases (p < .0001) and 4.44-times higher in secondary HMB cases (p < .0001) vs healthy controls. Outpatient care was the main cost driver. The main limitations of this study are related to its retrospective nature, and the fact that only reimbursed medications were captured in the source database. A substantial proportion of HMB patients did not receive the recommended treatments. Healthcare costs were considerably increased in the presence of an HMB diagnosis.

  8. Shifting to triple value healthcare: Reflections from England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Anant; Jungmann, Sven; Gray, Muir

    2018-02-01

    Increasing need and demand because of growing and aging populations combined with stagnant or decreasing resources being invested into healthcare globally mean that a radical shift is needed to ensure that healthcare systems can meet current and future challenges. Quality-, safety- and efficiency-improvement approaches have been used as means to address many problems in healthcare and while they are essential and necessary, they are not sufficient to meet our current challenges. To build resilient and sustainable healthcare systems, we need a shift to focus on triple value healthcare, which will help healthcare professionals improve outcomes at the process, patient and population levels while also optimising resource utilisation. Here we present a brief history of the Quality and Evidence-based Healthcare model and then describe how value emerged as a predominant theme in England. We then highlight the four solutions that we, as part of the RightCare programme, designed and refined in the English NHS to turn theory into practice: We end with a description of how triple value is being introduced into Germany and steps that can be taken to facilitate its adoption. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. Managing hospital doctors and their practice: what can we learn about human resource management from non-healthcare organisations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebble, Timothy M; Heyworth, Nicola; Clarke, Nicholas; Powell, Timothy; Hockey, Peter M

    2014-11-21

    Improved management of clinicians' time and practice is advocated to address increasing demands on healthcare provision in the UK National Health Service (NHS). Human resource management (HRM) is associated with improvements in organisational performance and outcomes within and outside of healthcare, but with limited use in managing individual clinicians. This may reflect the absence of effective and transferrable models. The current systems of managing the performance of individual clinicians in a secondary healthcare organisation were reviewed through the study of practice in 10 successful partnership organisations, including knowledge worker predominant, within commercial, public and voluntary sector operating environments. Reciprocal visits to the secondary healthcare environment were undertaken. Six themes in performance related HRM were identified across the external organisations representing best practice and considered transferrable to managing clinicians in secondary care organisations. These included: performance measurement through defined outcomes at the team level with decision making through local data interpretation; performance improvement through empowered formal leadership with organisational support; individual performance review (IPR); and reward, recognition and talent management. The role of the executive was considered essential to support and implement effective HRM, with management of staff performance, behaviour and development integrated into organisational strategy, including through the use of universally applied values and effective communication. These approaches reflected many of the key aspects of high performance work systems and strategic HRM. There is the potential to develop systems of HRM of individual clinicians in secondary healthcare to improve practice. This should include both performance measurement and performance improvement but also engagement at an organisational level. This suggests that effective HRM and

  10. A narrative review of undergraduate peer-based healthcare ethics teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarch, Thomas; Allikmets, Silvia; Knights, Felicity

    2015-12-12

    This study explores the literature in establishing the value of undergraduate peer-based healthcare ethics teaching as an educational methodology. A narrative review of the literature concerning peer-based ethics teaching was conducted. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS databases, and the Cochrane Library, were systematically searched for studies of peer-based ethics or professionalism teaching. Selected studies related peer-based teaching to ethics education outcomes. Ten publications were identified. Selected studies were varied in their chosen intervention methodology and analysis. Collectively, the identified studies suggest peer-based ethics education is an effective and valued educational methodology in training healthcare professionals. One paper suggests peer-based ethics teaching has advantages over traditional didactic methods. Peer-based ethics teaching also receives positive feedback from student participants. However, the limited literature base demonstrates a clear need for more evaluation of this pedagogy. The current literature base suggests that undergraduate peer based healthcare ethics teaching is valuable in terms of efficacy and student satisfaction. We conclude that the medical community should invest in further study in order to capitalise upon the potential of peer-based ethics teaching in undergraduate healthcare education.

  11. Big data analytics in healthcare: promise and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathi, Wullianallur; Raghupathi, Viju

    2014-01-01

    To describe the promise and potential of big data analytics in healthcare. The paper describes the nascent field of big data analytics in healthcare, discusses the benefits, outlines an architectural framework and methodology, describes examples reported in the literature, briefly discusses the challenges, and offers conclusions. The paper provides a broad overview of big data analytics for healthcare researchers and practitioners. Big data analytics in healthcare is evolving into a promising field for providing insight from very large data sets and improving outcomes while reducing costs. Its potential is great; however there remain challenges to overcome.

  12. Spirituality and healthcare: Towards holistic people-centred healthcare in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre de la Porte

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare in South Africa is in a crisis. Problems with infrastructure, management, human resources and the supply of essential medicines are at a critical level. This is compounded by a high burden of disease and disparity in levels of service delivery, particularly between public and private healthcare. The government has put ambitious plans in place, which are part of the National Development Plan to ward 2030. In the midst of this we find the individual person and their family and community staggering under the suffering caused by disease, poverty, crime and violence. There is a more than 70% chance that this person and their family and community are trying to make sense of this within a spiritual framework and that they belong to a faith-based community. This article explores the valuable contribution of spirituality, spiritual and pastoral work, the faith-based community (FBC and faith-based organisations (FBOs to holistic people-centred healthcare in South Africa. Keywords: Healthcare; Spirituality; Clinical Spiritual Counselling

  13. Analyzing the Feasibility of Using Secure Application Integration Methodology (SAIM) for Integrating DON Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marin, Ramon

    2004-01-01

    ...) would provide useful information about a beneficial methodology. SAIM is analyzed, by accessing its step by step directions, for suitability in the integration of the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP...

  14. Buffering Effect of Job Resources in the Relationship between Job Demands and Work-to-Private-Life Interference: A Study among Health-Care Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Viotti, Sara; Converso, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study aims at investigating whether and how (1) job demands and job resources are associated with work-to-private-life interference (WLI) and (2) job resources moderate the relationship between job demands and WLI. Methods: Data were collected by a self-report questionnaire from three hospitals in Italy. The sample consisted of 889 health-care workers. Results: All job demands (i.e., quantitative demands, disproportionate patient expectations, and verbal aggressi...

  15. Mapping educational opportunities for healthcare workers on antimicrobial resistance and stewardship around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers Van Katwyk, Susan; Jones, Sara L; Hoffman, Steven J

    2018-02-05

    Antimicrobial resistance is an important global issue facing society. Healthcare workers need to be engaged in solving this problem, as advocates for rational antimicrobial use, stewards of sustainable effectiveness, and educators of their patients. To fulfill this role, healthcare workers need access to training and educational resources on antimicrobial resistance. To better understand the resources available to healthcare workers, we undertook a global environmental scan of educational programs and resources targeting healthcare workers on the topic of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial stewardship. Programs were identified through contact with key experts, web searching, and academic literature searching. We summarized programs in tabular form, including participating organizations, region, and intended audience. We developed a coding system to classify programs by program type and participating organization type, assigning multiple codes as necessary and creating summary charts for program types, organization types, and intended audience to illustrate the breadth of available resources. We identified 94 educational initiatives related to antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial stewardship, which represent a diverse array of programs including courses, workshops, conferences, guidelines, public outreach materials, and online-resource websites. These resources were developed by a combination of government bodies, professional societies, universities, non-profit and community organizations, hospitals and healthcare centers, and insurance companies and industry. Most programs either targeted healthcare workers collectively or specifically targeted physicians. A smaller number of programs were aimed at other healthcare worker groups including pharmacists, nurses, midwives, and healthcare students. Our environmental scan shows that there are many organizations working to develop and share educational resources for healthcare workers on antimicrobial

  16. A methodology of healthcare quality measurement: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecoraro, F; Luzi, D; Federico II, Naples (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology and Interuniversity Centre of Bioengineering of the Human Neuromusculoskeletal System, University of Naples, Federico II, Naples (Italy))" >Cesarelli, M; Clemente, F

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a comprehensive model for quality assessment taking into account structure, process and outcome dimensions introduced in the Donabedian framework. To test our hypothesis a case study based on the Italian healthcare services is reported focusing on the analysis of the hospital bed management and on the phenomenon of both active and passive patient mobility

  17. Doctors as managers of healthcare resources in Nigeria: Evolving roles and current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Temitope Olumuyiwa; Akinwumi, Adebowale Femi

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, medical practice in Nigeria has evolved in scope and practice, in terms of changing disease patterns, patients' needs, and social expectations. In addition, there is a growing sentiment especially among the general public and some health workers that most doctors are bad managers. Besides drawing examples from some doctors in top management positions that have performed less creditably, critics also harp on the fact that more needs to be done to improve the training of doctors in health management. This article describes the role of doctors in this changing scene of practice and highlights the core areas where doctors' managerial competencies are required to improve the quality of healthcare delivery. Areas such as health care financing, essential drugs and supplies management, and human resource management are emphasized. Resources to be managed and various skills needed to function effectively at the different levels of management are also discussed. To ensure that doctors are well-skilled in managerial competencies, the article concludes by suggesting a curriculum review at undergraduate and postgraduate levels of medical training to include newer but relevant courses on health management in addition to the existing ones, whereas also advocating that doctors be incentivized to go for professional training in health management and not only in the core clinical specialties.

  18. Teaching at primary healthcare services within the Brazilian national health system (SUS in Brazilian healthcare professionals' training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Fernanda Ceriotti Toassi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the role of teaching at primary healthcare services within the Brazilian National Health System (SUS in dentists' training, at a public university in the south of Brazil. A qualitative methodological approach (case study was used. Interviews were conducted with 12 dentistry students, six dentists who were preceptors working in public primary healthcare services and three teachers connected with this curricular training. Our findings showed that the curricular training in SUS primary healthcare services had an impact on the dentists' education through establishment of bonds, autonomy in problem-solving and multiprofessional teamwork. It was seen that they learned about how healthcare services function, about healthcare and about development of cultural competence. There is a need to maintain constant questioning regarding these practices, and to ensure the presence of infrastructure and qualified professionals for teaching at these services.

  19. Healthcare avoidance: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Sharon K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review and synthesis of theoretical and research literature documenting the impact of avoidance on healthcare behaviors, identify the factors that influence healthcare avoidance and delay in the adult population, and propose a direction for future research. The Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Care-Seeking Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use/Utilization are utilized to elaborate on the context within which individual intention to engage in healthcare behaviors occurs. Research literature on the concept of healthcare avoidance obtained by using computerized searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYCH INFO, and HAPI databases, from 1995 to 2007, were reviewed. Studies were organized by professional disciplines. Healthcare avoidance is a common and highly variable experience. Multiple administrative, demographic, personal, and provider factors are related to healthcare avoidance, for example, distrust of providers and/or the science community, health beliefs, insurance status, or socioeconomic/income level. Although the concept is recognized by multiple disciplines, limited research studies address its impact on healthcare decision making. More systematic research is needed to determine correlates of healthcare avoidance. Such studies will help investigators identify patients at risk for avoidant behaviors and provide the basis for health-promoting interventions. Methodological challenges include identification of characteristics of individuals and environments that hinder healthcare behaviors, as well as, the complexity of measuring healthcare avoidance. Studies need to systematically explore the influence of avoidance behaviors on specific healthcare populations at risk.

  20. Environmental sustainability in European public healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarini, Andrea; Vagnoni, Emidia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to enlarge the debate concerning the influence of leadership on environmental sustainability implementation in European public healthcare organisations. Design/methodology/approach - This paper is a viewpoint. It is based on preliminary analysis of European standards dedicated to environmental sustainability and their spread across Europe in public healthcare organisations. Viewpoints concerning leadership are then discussed and asserted. Findings - This paper found a limited implementation of standards such as Green Public Procurement criteria, Eco-Management and Audit Scheme and ISO 14001 in public healthcare. Some clues indicate that the lack of implementation is related to leadership and management commitment. Originality/value - For the first time, this paper investigates relationships between leadership and environmental sustainability in European public healthcare opening further avenues of research on the subject.

  1. Healthcare seeking behaviour among Chinese elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Wang, Wei; Xu, Ling; Li, Zhenhong; Ding, Yan; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Fei

    2017-04-18

    Purpose The Chinese population is rapidly ageing before they are rich. The purpose of this paper is to describe healthcare seeking behaviour and the critical factors associated with healthcare seeking behaviour. Design/methodology/approach Using a purposive sampling method, the authors recruited 44 adults aged 60 years or older from three provinces, representing the developed (Shanghai), undeveloped (Ningxia) regions and the regions in between (Hubei). From July to September 2008, using a semi-structured guide, the authors interviewed participants in focus group discussions. Findings The healthcare needs for chronic and catastrophic diseases were high; however, the healthcare demands were low and healthcare utilizations were even lower owing to the limited accessibility to healthcare services, particularly, in underdeveloped rural areas. "Too expensive to see a doctor" was a prime complaint, explaining substantial discrepancies between healthcare needs, demands and use. Care seeking behaviour varied depending on insurance availability, perceived performance, particularly hospital services, and prescription medications. Participants consistently rated increasing healthcare accessibility as a high priority, including offering financial aid, and improving service convenience. Improving social security fairness was the first on the elderly's wish list. Originality/value Healthcare demand and use were lower than needs, and were influenced by multiple factors, primarily, service affordability and efficiency, perceived performance and hospital service quality.

  2. Controlling Healthcare Costs: Just Cost Effectiveness or "Just" Cost Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Leonard M

    2018-04-01

    Meeting healthcare needs is a matter of social justice. Healthcare needs are virtually limitless; however, resources, such as money, for meeting those needs, are limited. How then should we (just and caring citizens and policymakers in such a society) decide which needs must be met as a matter of justice with those limited resources? One reasonable response would be that we should use cost effectiveness as our primary criterion for making those choices. This article argues instead that cost-effectiveness considerations must be constrained by considerations of healthcare justice. The goal of this article will be to provide a preliminary account of how we might distinguish just from unjust or insufficiently just applications of cost-effectiveness analysis to some healthcare rationing problems; specifically, problems related to extraordinarily expensive targeted cancer therapies. Unconstrained compassionate appeals for resources for the medically least well-off cancer patients will be neither just nor cost effective.

  3. Effects of the per diem prospective payment system with DRG-like grouping system (DPC/PDPS) on resource usage and healthcare quality in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Hironori; Sekimoto, Miho; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2012-10-01

    In 2003, Japan introduced the prospective payment system (PPS) with diagnosis-related groups (DRG) rearranged grouping system called the diagnostic procedure combination/per-diem payment system (DPC/PDPS). Even after eight years, little is known about the effects of DPC/PDPS. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of DPC/PDPS on resource usage and healthcare quality. Using 2001-2009 (fiscal year) administrative data of acute myocardial infarction patients, four indices, including inpatient total accumulated medical charges, length of stay (LOS), mortality rate, and readmission rate, were compared between patients reimbursed by DPC/PDPS or by fee-for-service. DPC/PDPS significantly reduced total accumulated medical charges by $1061 (95% confidence interval [CI], -2007, -116) and LOS by 2.29 days (95% CI, -3.71, -0.88) after risk adjustment. However, mortality rate (Odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% CI, 0.73, 1.21) was unchanged. Furthermore, DPC/PDPS increased the readmission rate (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.03, 1.82). This study showed that DPC/PDPS was associated with reduced resource usage, but not improved healthcare quality, as with DRG/PPSs in other countries. To achieve successful healthcare reform, further discussion on additional motives will be required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Toyota A3 report: a tool for process improvement in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Te-Shu; Kuo, Mu-Hsing

    2009-01-01

    It is proposed that the A3 problem solving process be used by hospital staff to improve its healthcare workflow. A hypothetical case study is given to demonstrate the applicability and benefits of the methodology. The research results show that A3 is a useful tool for healthcare organizations seeking to continuously improve their healthcare service quality.

  5. A combined linear optimisation methodology for water resources allocation in Alfeios River Basin (Greece) under uncertain and vague system conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekri, Eleni; Yannopoulos, Panayotis; Disse, Markus

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, a combined linear programming methodology, based on Li et al. (2010) and Bekri et al. (2012), is employed for optimizing water allocation under uncertain system conditions in the Alfeios River Basin, in Greece. The Alfeios River is a water resources system of great natural, ecological, social and economic importance for Western Greece, since it has the longest and highest flow rate watercourse in the Peloponnisos region. Moreover, the river basin was exposed in the last decades to a plethora of environmental stresses (e.g. hydrogeological alterations, intensively irrigated agriculture, surface and groundwater overexploitation and infrastructure developments), resulting in the degradation of its quantitative and qualitative characteristics. As in most Mediterranean countries, water resource management in Alfeios River Basin has been focused up to now on an essentially supply-driven approach. It is still characterized by a lack of effective operational strategies. Authority responsibility relationships are fragmented, and law enforcement and policy implementation are weak. The present regulated water allocation puzzle entails a mixture of hydropower generation, irrigation, drinking water supply and recreational activities. Under these conditions its water resources management is characterised by high uncertainty and by vague and imprecise data. The considered methodology has been developed in order to deal with uncertainties expressed as either probability distributions, or/and fuzzy boundary intervals, derived by associated α-cut levels. In this framework a set of deterministic submodels is studied through linear programming. The ad hoc water resources management and alternative management patterns in an Alfeios subbasin are analyzed and evaluated under various scenarios, using the above mentioned methodology, aiming to promote a sustainable and equitable water management. Li, Y.P., Huang, G.H. and S.L., Nie, (2010), Planning water resources

  6. Generational Learning Style Preferences Based on Computer-Based Healthcare Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Michaelle H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to determine the degree of perceived differences for auditory, visual and kinesthetic learning styles of Traditionalist, Baby Boomers, Generation X and Millennial generational healthcare workers participating in technology-assisted healthcare training. Methodology. This mixed-method research…

  7. Health Data Entanglement and artificial intelligence-based analysis: a brand new methodology to improve the effectiveness of healthcare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, A; Cicchetti, A; Mennini, F S; Marcellusi, A; Baio, G; Favato, G

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare expenses will be the most relevant policy issue for most governments in the EU and in the USA. This expenditure can be associated with two major key categories: demographic and economic drivers. Factors driving healthcare expenditure were rarely recognised, measured and comprehended. An improvement of health data generation and analysis is mandatory, and in order to tackle healthcare spending growth, it may be useful to design and implement an effective, advanced system to generate and analyse these data. A methodological approach relied upon the Health Data Entanglement (HDE) can be a suitable option. By definition, in the HDE a large amount of data sets having several sources are functionally interconnected and computed through learning machines that generate patterns of highly probable future health conditions of a population. Entanglement concept is borrowed from quantum physics and means that multiple particles (information) are linked together in a way such that the measurement of one particle's quantum state (individual health conditions and related economic requirements) determines the possible quantum states of other particles (population health forecasts to predict their impact). The value created by the HDE is based on the combined evaluation of clinical, economic and social effects generated by health interventions. To predict the future health conditions of a population, analyses of data are performed using self-learning AI, in which sequential decisions are based on Bayesian algorithmic probabilities. HDE and AI-based analysis can be adopted to improve the effectiveness of the health governance system in ways that also lead to better quality of care.

  8. Societal values in the allocation of healthcare resources: is it all about the health gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafinski, Tania; Menon, Devidas; Marshall, Deborah; Caulfield, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, public distrust in unavoidable value-laden decisions on the allocation of resources to new health technologies has grown. In response, healthcare organizations have made considerable efforts to improve their acceptability by increasing transparency in decision-making processes. However, the social value judgments (distributive preferences of the public) embedded in them have yet to be defined. While the need to explicate such judgments has become widely recognized, the most appropriate approach to accomplishing this remains unclear. The aims of this review were to identify factors around which distributive preferences of the public have been sought, create a list of social values proposed or used in current resource allocation decision-making processes for new health technologies, and review approaches to eliciting such values from the general public. Social values proposed or used in making resource allocation decisions for new health technologies were identified through three approaches: (i) a comprehensive review of published, peer-reviewed, empirical studies of public preferences for the distribution of healthcare; (ii) an analysis of non-technical factors or social value statements considered by technology funding decision-making processes in Canada and abroad; and (iii) a review of appeals to funding decisions on grounds in part related to social value judgments. A total of 34 empirical studies, 10 technology funding decision-making processes, and 12 appeals to decisions were identified and reviewed. The key factors/patient characteristics addressed through policy statements and around which distributive preferences of the public have been sought included severity of illness, immediate need, age (and its relationship to lifetime health), health gain (amount and final outcome/health state), personal responsibility for illness, caregiving responsibilities, and number of patients who could benefit (rarity). Empirical studies typically

  9. Optimizing learning in healthcare: how Island Health is evolving to learn at the speed of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Conrad; Stroud, Carol; Jackson, Mary; Stevenson, R Lynn; Archer, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare organizations are challenged with constrained resources and increasing service demands by an aging population with complex care needs. Exponential growth in competency requirements also challenges staff's ability to provide quality patient care. How can a healthcare organization support its staff to learn "at or above the speed of change" while continuing to provide the quality patient care? Island Health is addressing this challenge by transforming its traditional education model into an innovative, evidence-based learning and performance support approach. Implementation of the methodology is yielding several lessons learned, both for the internal Learning and Performance Support team, and for what it takes to bring a new way of doing business into an organization. A key result is that this approach is enabling the organization to be more responsive in helping staff gain and maintain competencies.

  10. Successful healthcare programs and projects: organization portfolio management essentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Scott; Solak, Jamie

    2005-01-01

    Many healthcare organization projects take more time and resources than planned and fail to deliver desired business outcomes. Healthcare IT is a major component of many projects and often undeservedly receives the blame for failure. Poor results are often not a result of faulty healthcare IT or poor project management or poor project execution alone. Many projects fail because of poor portfolio management--poor planning and management of the portfolio of initiatives designed to meet an organization's strategic goals. Because resources are limited, portfolio management enables organizations to more strategically allocate and manage their resources so care delivery, service delivery, and initiatives that advance organizations toward their strategic goals, including healthcare IT initiatives, can be accomplished at the levels of quality and service desired by an organization. Proper portfolio management is the essential foundation for program and project success and supports overall organization success. Without portfolio management, even programs and projects that execute flawlessly may not meet desired objectives. This article discusses the essential requirements for porfolio management. These include opportunity identification, return on investment (ROI) forecast, project prioritization, capacity planning (inclusive of human, financial, capital, and facilities resources), work scheduling, program and project management and execution, and project performance and value assessment. Portfolio management is essential to successful healthcare project execution. Theories are drawn from the Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3) work of the Project Management Institute and other leading strategy, planning, and organization change management research institutes.

  11. Clostridium difficile: A healthcare-associated infection of unknown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clostridium difficile: A healthcare-associated infection of unknown significance in adults in sub-Saharan Africa. ... Abstract. Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes a high burden of disease in high-resource healthcare systems, with significant morbidity, mortality, and financial implications. CDI is a ...

  12. Proposed Methodology for Developing a National Strategy for Human Resource Development: Lessons Learned from a NNSA Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhamri, Oksana O.; Frazar, Sarah L.; Essner, Jonathan; Vergino, Eileen; Bissani, Mo; Apt, Kenneth E.; McClelland-Kerr, John; Mininni, Margot; VanSickle, Matthew; Kovacic, Donald

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a recent National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) workshop on Human Resource Development, which was focused on the potential methodology for developing a National Human Resource strategy for nuclear power in emerging nuclear states. The need for indigenous human resource development (HRD) has been singled out as a key milestone by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its 2007 Milestones document. A number of countries considering nuclear energy have reiterated this need for experts and specialists to support a national nuclear program that is sustainable and secure. Many have expressed concern over how best to assure the long-term availability of crucial human resource, how to approach the workforce planning process, and how to determine the key elements of developing a national strategy.

  13. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT IN HEALTHCARE SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION. INTRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sarancha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Article describes the life cycle assessment method and introduces opportunities for method performance in healthcare system settings. LSA draws attention to careful use of resources, environmental, human and social responsibility. Modelling of environmental and technological inputs allows optimizing performance of the system. Various factors and parameters that may influence effectiveness of different sectors in healthcare system are detected. Performance optimization of detected parameters could lead to better system functioning, higher patient safety, economic sustainability and reduce resources consumption.

  14. Architecture for Business Intelligence in the Healthcare Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Young

    2018-03-01

    Healthcare environment is growing to include not only the traditional information systems, but also a business intelligence platform. For executive leaders, consultants, and analysts, there is no longer a need to spend hours in design and develop of typical reports or charts, the entire solution can be completed through using Business Intelligence software. The current paper highlights the advantages of big data analytics and business intelligence in the healthcare industry. In this paper, In this paper we focus our discussion around intelligent techniques and methodologies which are recently used for business intelligence in healthcare.

  15. Global comparative healthcare effectiveness research: Evaluating sustainable programmes in low & middle resource settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Balkrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to focus healthcare expenditures on innovative and sustainable health systems that efficiently use existing effective therapies are the major drivers stimulating Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER across the globe. Lack of adequate access and high cost of essential medicines and technologies in many countries increases morbidity and mortality and cost of care that forces people and families into poverty due to disability and out-of-pocket expenses. This review illustrates the potential of value-added global health care comparative effectiveness research in shaping health systems and health care delivery paradigms in the "global south". Enabling the development of effective CER systems globally paves the way for tangible local and regional definitions of equity in health care because CER fosters the sharing of critical assets, resources, skills, and capabilities and the development of collaborative of multi-sectorial frameworks to improve health outcomes and metrics globally.

  16. Resource Allocation and Justice-based Arguments for Funding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... healthcare system that would ensure Nigerians, access to glaucoma treatment ...... proceeds from the sales of common patrimony of natural resources ..... Besides, it would plausibly optimize use of healthcare resources and.

  17. Investigating patients' experiences: methodological usefulness of interpretive interactionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Marion; Rowe, Jennifer; Wallis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the methodological usefulness of interpretive interactionism by applying it to the example of a study investigating healthcare experiences of women affected by domestic violence. Understanding patients' experiences of health, illness and health care is important to nurses. For many years, biomedical discourse has prevailed in healthcare language and research, and has influenced healthcare responses. Contemporary nursing scholarship can be developed by engaging with new ways of understanding therapeutic interactions with patients. Research that uses qualitative methods of inquiry is an important paradigm for nurses who seek to explain and understand or describe experiences rather than predict outcomes. Interpretive interactionism is an interpretive form of inquiry for conducting studies of social or personal problems that have healthcare policy implications. It puts the patient at the centre of the research process and makes visible the experiences of patients as they interact with the healthcare and social systems that surround them. Interpretive interactionism draws on concepts of symbolic interactionism, phenomenology and hermeneutics. Interpretive interactionism is a patient-centred methodology that provides an alternative way of understanding patients' experiences. It can contribute to policy and practice development by drawing on the perspectives and experiences of patients, who are central to the research process. It also allows research findings to be situated in and linked to healthcare policy, professional ethics and organisational approaches to care. Interpretive interactionism has methodological utility because it can contribute to policy and practice development by drawing on the perspectives and experiences of patients who are central to the research process. Interpretive interactionism allows research findings to be situated in and linked to health policy, professional ethics and organisational approaches to caring.

  18. Integration of Value Stream Map and Healthcare Failure Mode and Effect Analysis into Six Sigma Methodology to Improve Process of Surgical Specimen Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Sheng-Hui; Wang, Pa-Chun; Lin, Hung-Chun; Chen, Hung-Ying; Su, Chao-Ton

    2015-01-01

    Specimen handling is a critical patient safety issue. Problematic handling process, such as misidentification (of patients, surgical site, and specimen counts), specimen loss, or improper specimen preparation can lead to serious patient harms and lawsuits. Value stream map (VSM) is a tool used to find out non-value-added works, enhance the quality, and reduce the cost of the studied process. On the other hand, healthcare failure mode and effect analysis (HFMEA) is now frequently employed to avoid possible medication errors in healthcare process. Both of them have a goal similar to Six Sigma methodology for process improvement. This study proposes a model that integrates VSM and HFMEA into the framework, which mainly consists of define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC), of Six Sigma. A Six Sigma project for improving the process of surgical specimen handling in a hospital was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  19. Association of obesity with healthcare resource utilization and costs in a commercial population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamble, Pravin S; Hayden, Jennifer; Collins, Jenna; Harvey, Raymond A; Suehs, Brandon; Renda, Andrew; Hammer, Mette; Huang, Joanna; Bouchard, Jonathan

    2018-05-10

    To examine the association of obesity with healthcare resource utilization (HRU) and costs among commercially insured individuals. This retrospective observational cohort study used administrative claims from 1 January 2007 to 1 December 2013. The ICD-9-CM status codes (V85 hierarchy) from 2008 to 2012 classified body mass index (BMI) into the World Health Organizations' BMI categories. The date of first observed BMI code was defined as the index date and continuous eligibility for one year pre- and post- index date was ensured. Post-index claims determined individuals' HRU and costs. Sampling weights developed using the entropy balance method and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data ensured representation of the US adult commercially insured population. Baseline characteristics were described across BMI classes and associations between BMI categories, and outcomes were examined using multivariable regression. The cohort included 9651 individuals with BMI V85 codes. After weighting, the BMI distribution was: normal (31.1%), overweight (33.4%), obese class I (22.0%), obese class II (8.1%) and obese class III (5.4%). Increasing BMI was associated with greater prevalence of cardiometabolic conditions, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The use of antihypertensives, antihyperlipidemics, antidiabetics, analgesics and antidepressants rose with increasing BMI. Greater BMI level was associated with increased inpatient, emergency department and outpatient utilization, and higher total healthcare, medical and pharmacy costs. Increasing BMI was associated with higher prevalence of cardiometabolic conditions and higher HRU and costs. There is an urgent need to address the epidemic of obesity and its clinical and economic impacts.

  20. Effects of patient-reported non-severe hypoglycemia on healthcare resource use, work-time loss, and wellbeing in insulin-treated patients with diabetes in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, Petronella H; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Weitgasser, Raimund; Lahtela, Jorma; Jensen, Marie Markert; Östenson, Claes-Göran

    2013-12-01

    Hypoglycemia is a frequent side effect induced by insulin treatment of type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Limited data exist on the associated healthcare resource use and patient impact of hypoglycemia, particularly at a country-specific level. This study investigated the effects of self-reported non-severe hypoglycemic events (NSHE) on use of healthcare resources and patient wellbeing. Patients with T1DM or insulin-treated T2DM diabetes from seven European countries were invited to complete four weekly questionnaires. Data were collected on patient demographics, NSHE occurrence in the last 7 days, hypoglycemia-related resource use, and patient impact. NSHE were defined as events with hypoglycemia symptoms, with or without blood glucose measurement, or low blood glucose measurement without symptoms, which the patient could manage without third-party assistance. Three thousand, nine hundred and fifty-nine respondents completed at least one wave of the survey, with 57% completing all four questionnaires; 3827 respondents were used for data analyses. Overall, 2.3% and 8.9% of NSHE in patients with T1DM and T2DM, respectively, resulted in healthcare professional contact. Across countries, there was a mean increase in blood glucose test use of 3.0 tests in the week following a NSHE. Among respondents who were employed (48%), loss of work-time after the last hypoglycemic event was reported for 9.7% of NSHE. Overall, 10.2% (daytime) and 8.0% (nocturnal) NSHE led to work-time loss, with a mean loss of 84.3 (daytime) and 169.6 (nocturnal) minutes among patients reporting work-time loss. Additionally, patients reported feeling tired, irritable, and having negative feelings following hypoglycemia. Direct comparisons between studies must be interpreted with caution because of different definitions of hypoglycemia severity, duration of the studies, and methods of data collection. NSHE were associated with use of extra healthcare resources and work-time loss in all

  1. [The five commandments for preparing the Israeli healthcare system for emergencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adini, Bruria; Laor, Danny; Cohen, Robert; Lev, Boaz; Israeli, Avi

    2010-07-01

    In the last decade, the Israeli healthcare system dealt with many casualties that resulted from terrorist actions and at the same time maintained preparedness for other potential hazards such as natural disasters, toxicological, chemical, radiological and biological events. There are various models for emergency preparedness that are utilized in different countries. The aim of the article is to present the structure and the methodology of the Israeli healthcare system for emergencies. Assuring emergency preparedness for the different scenarios is based on 5 major components that include: comprehensive contingency planning; control and command of operations; central control of readiness; capacity building; coordination and collaboration among the numerous emergency agencies. CLose working relationships between the military and civilian systems characterize the operations of the emergency system. There is a mutual sharing of information, coordinated operations to achieve risk assessment and determine priorities, and consensual allocation of resources. The ability of the medical system to operate in optimal coordination with interface bodies, including the Israel Defense Forces, is derived from three main elements: the shortage of resources necessitate that all agencies work together to develop an effective response to emergencies; the Israeli society is characterized by transition of personnel from the military to the civilian system which promotes joint operations, whereas in most other countries these systems are completely separated; and also developing mechanisms for continuous and coordinated operation in routine and emergency times, such as the Supreme Health Authority. The Israeli healthcare system was put to the test several times in the Last decade, during the terror wave that occurred between 2001-2006, the 2nd Lebanon War and in operation "Cast Lead". An extensive process of learning lessons, conducted during and following each of these periods, and the

  2. Expediting evidence synthesis for healthcare decision-making: exploring attitudes and perceptions towards rapid reviews using Q methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon E. Kelly

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Rapid reviews expedite the knowledge synthesis process with the goal of providing timely information to healthcare decision-makers who want to use evidence-informed policy and practice approaches. A range of opinions and viewpoints on rapid reviews is thought to exist; however, no research to date has formally captured these views. This paper aims to explore evidence producer and knowledge user attitudes and perceptions towards rapid reviews. Methods A Q methodology study was conducted to identify central viewpoints about rapid reviews based on a broad topic discourse. Participants rank-ordered 50 text statements and explained their Q-sort in free-text comments. Individual Q-sorts were analysed using Q-Assessor (statistical method: factor analysis with varimax rotation. Factors, or salient viewpoints on rapid reviews, were identified, interpreted and described. Results Analysis of the 11 individual Q sorts identified three prominent viewpoints: Factor A cautions against the use of study design labels to make judgements. Factor B maintains that rapid reviews should be the exception and not the rule. Factor C focuses on the practical needs of the end-user over the review process. Conclusion Results show that there are opposing viewpoints on rapid reviews, yet some unity exists. The three factors described offer insight into how and why various stakeholders act as they do and what issues may need to be resolved before increase uptake of the evidence from rapid reviews can be realized in healthcare decision-making environments.

  3. Expediting evidence synthesis for healthcare decision-making: exploring attitudes and perceptions towards rapid reviews using Q methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moher, David; Clifford, Tammy J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid reviews expedite the knowledge synthesis process with the goal of providing timely information to healthcare decision-makers who want to use evidence-informed policy and practice approaches. A range of opinions and viewpoints on rapid reviews is thought to exist; however, no research to date has formally captured these views. This paper aims to explore evidence producer and knowledge user attitudes and perceptions towards rapid reviews. Methods A Q methodology study was conducted to identify central viewpoints about rapid reviews based on a broad topic discourse. Participants rank-ordered 50 text statements and explained their Q-sort in free-text comments. Individual Q-sorts were analysed using Q-Assessor (statistical method: factor analysis with varimax rotation). Factors, or salient viewpoints on rapid reviews, were identified, interpreted and described. Results Analysis of the 11 individual Q sorts identified three prominent viewpoints: Factor A cautions against the use of study design labels to make judgements. Factor B maintains that rapid reviews should be the exception and not the rule. Factor C focuses on the practical needs of the end-user over the review process. Conclusion Results show that there are opposing viewpoints on rapid reviews, yet some unity exists. The three factors described offer insight into how and why various stakeholders act as they do and what issues may need to be resolved before increase uptake of the evidence from rapid reviews can be realized in healthcare decision-making environments. PMID:27761324

  4. The development of intelligent healthcare in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaochen; Rodríguez-Monroy, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Intelligent healthcare (IH) is proposed with the fast application of Internet of Things technology in the healthcare area in recent years. It is considered as an expansion of e-health and telemedicine. As the largest developing country, China is investing large amounts of resources to push forward the development of IH. It is one of the centerpieces of the country's New Healthcare Reform, and great expectation is placed on it to help solve the conflict between limited healthcare resources and the large patient population. Essential policies, milestones, standards, and specifications from the Chinese government since the 1990s were reviewed to show the brief development history of IH in China. Some typical cases and products have been analyzed to present the current situation. The main problems and future development directions have been summarized. The IH industry in China has great potential and is growing very fast, but a lot of challenges also exist. In the future both government support and the active participation of nongovernmental capital are needed to push forward the whole industry.

  5. Healthcare financing in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Kovač

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare financing system is of crucial importance for the functioning of any healthcare system, especially because there is no country in the world that is able to provide all its residents with access to all the benefits afforded by modern medicine. Lack of resources in general and rising healthcare expenditures are considered a difficult issue to solve in Croatia as well. Since Croatia gained its independence, its healthcare system has undergone a number of reforms, the primary objective of which was to optimize healthcare services to the actual monetary capacity of the Croatian economy. The objectives of the mentioned re - forms were partially achieved. The solutions that have been offered until now, i.e. consolidation measures undertaken in the last 10 years were necessary; however, they have not improved the operating conditions. There is still the issue of the deficit from the previous years, i.e. outstanding payments, the largest in the last decade. Analysis of the performance of healthcare institutions in 2011 shows that the decision makers will have to take up a major challenge of finding a solution to the difficulties the Croatian healthcare system has been struggling with for decades, causing a debt of 7 billion kuna. At the same time, they will need to uphold the basic principles of the Healthcare Act, i.e. to provide access to healthcare and ensure its continuity, comprehensiveness and solidarity, keeping in mind that the National Budget Act and Fiscal Responsibility Act have been adopted.

  6. Educating patients about warfarin therapy using information technology: A survey on healthcare professionals’ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullan J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore healthcare professionals’ views about the benefits and challenges of using information technology (IT resources for educating patients about their warfarin therapy.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of both community and hospital-based healthcare professionals (e.g., doctors, pharmacists and nurses involved using a purpose-designed questionnaire. The questionnaires were distributed using a multi-modal approach to maximise response rates.Results: Of the total 300 questionnaires distributed, 109 completed surveys were received (43.3% response rate. Over half (53.2% of the healthcare participants were aged between 40-59 years, the majority (59.5% of whom were female. Fifty nine (54.1% participants reported having had no access to warfarin-specific IT-based patient education resources, and a further 19 (38.0% of the participants who had IT-access reported that they never used such resources. According to the healthcare participants, the main challenges associated with educating their patients about warfarin therapy included: patient-related factors, such as older age, language barriers, cognitive impairments and/or ethnic backgrounds or healthcare professional factors, such as time constraints. The healthcare professionals reported that there were several aspects about warfarin therapy which they found difficult to educate their patients about which is why they identified computers and interactive touch screen kiosks as preferred IT devices to deliver warfarin education resources in general practices, hospital-based clinics and community pharmacies. At the same time, the healthcare professionals also identified a number of facilitators (e.g., to reinforce warfarin education, to offer reliable and easily comprehensible information and barriers (e.g., time and costs of using IT resources, difficulty in operating the resources that could impact on the effective implementation of these devices in educating patients about their

  7. Healthcare Resource Uses and Out-of-Pocket Expenses Associated with Pulmonary TB Treatment in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvejsilp, Pimwara; Loeb, Mark; Dushoff, Jonathan; Xie, Feng

    2017-08-22

    In Thailand, pharmaceutical care has been recently introduced to a tertiary hospital as an approach to improve adherence to tuberculosis (TB) treatment in addition to home visit and modified directly observed therapy (DOT). However, the economic impact of pharmaceutical care is not known. The aim of this study was to estimate healthcare resource uses and costs associated with pharmaceutical care compared with home visit and modified DOT in pulmonary TB patients in Thailand from a healthcare sector perspective inclusive of out-of-pocket expenditures. We conducted a retrospective study using data abstracted from the hospital billing database associated with pulmonary TB patients who began treatment between 2010 and 2013 in three hospitals in Thailand. We used generalized linear models to compare the costs by accounting for baseline characteristics. All costs were converted to international dollars (Intl$) RESULTS: The mean direct healthcare costs to the public payer were $519.96 (95%confidence interval [CI] 437.31-625.58) associated with pharmaceutical care, $1020.39 (95% CI 911.13-1154.11) for home visit, and $887.79 (95% CI 824.28-955.91) for modified DOT. The mean costs to patients were $175.45 (95% CI 130.26-230.48) for those receiving pharmaceutical care, $53.77 (95% CI 33.25-79.44) for home visit, and $49.33 (95% CI 34.03-69.30) for modified DOT. After adjustment for baseline characteristics, pharmaceutical care was associated with lower total direct costs compared with home visit (-$354.95; 95% CI -285.67 to -424.23) and modified DOT (-$264.61; 95% CI -198.76 to -330.46). After adjustment for baseline characteristics, pharmaceutical care was associated with lower direct costs compared with home visit and modified DOT.

  8. Social Return on Investment: A New Approach to Understanding and Advocating for Value in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Catherine M; Moules, Nancy J

    2017-12-01

    To determine whether the methodology of social return on investment (SROI) could be a way in which the value of a healthcare-related program (children's cancer camp) could be captured, evaluated, and communicated. The value of healthcare goes beyond what can be captured in financial terms; however, this is the most common type of value that is measured. The SROI methodology accounts for a broader concept of value by measuring social, environmental, and economic outcomes and uses monetary values to represent them. The steps/stages of an SROI analysis were applied to the context of a children's camp for this article. Applying the SROI methodology to this healthcare-related program was feasible and provided insight and understanding related to the impacts of this program. Because of SROI's flexibility, it is a tool that has great potential in a healthcare environment and for leaders to evaluate programmatic return on investment.

  9. Regulatory, design and methodological impacts in determining tidal-in-stream power resource potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwater, Joel F.; Lawrence, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Tidal-in-Stream energy has been heralded by many as a significant potential source for clean power, a scheme where kinetic energy is extracted from tidal currents. A number of estimates have suggested that tidal power may become a sizeable fraction of overall electricity generation, however these estimates have been largely based on a resource assessment methodology that dramatically oversimplifies the physical phenomenon at play. This paper develops a model that considers the effect of energy extraction on the bulk flow, showing that tidal energy inventories that assess solely kinetic energy flux may represent both an order-of-magnitude overestimation of the resource and a significant oversimplification of regulatory impacts. The interplay between the characteristics of a flow and the regulatory and economic issues will likely limit tidal power generation to levels significantly below the physical maximums. Permitted flow reduction, turbine design and staging of development all have significant and predictable impacts on the extractible resource. Energy planners must therefore understand these relationships in order to appropriately assess the magnitude of generation that can be realistically be produced from tidal energy. - Research highlights: → Inventorying kinetic energy is not appropriate for assessing the tidal energy potential and may overestimate the resource by orders of magnitude. → The physical maximum for tidal power extraction is 38% of the total fluid power of a channel and causes a flow reduction of 42%. → Any amount of tidal power generation will reduce the flow rate in a channel. → Limiting the permitted reduction in flow significantly reduces the available resource. → Turbine efficiency is important as extraneous resistance depletes the resource without providing power generation.

  10. Integration of Value Stream Map and Healthcare Failure Mode and Effect Analysis into Six Sigma Methodology to Improve Process of Surgical Specimen Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hui Hung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimen handling is a critical patient safety issue. Problematic handling process, such as misidentification (of patients, surgical site, and specimen counts, specimen loss, or improper specimen preparation can lead to serious patient harms and lawsuits. Value stream map (VSM is a tool used to find out non-value-added works, enhance the quality, and reduce the cost of the studied process. On the other hand, healthcare failure mode and effect analysis (HFMEA is now frequently employed to avoid possible medication errors in healthcare process. Both of them have a goal similar to Six Sigma methodology for process improvement. This study proposes a model that integrates VSM and HFMEA into the framework, which mainly consists of define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC, of Six Sigma. A Six Sigma project for improving the process of surgical specimen handling in a hospital was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  11. [A functional analysis of healthcare auditors' skills in Venezuela, 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos-Muñoz, Mónica S

    2010-10-01

    Using functional analysis for identifying the basic, working, specific and generic skills and values which a health service auditor must have. Implementing the functional analysis technique with 10 experts, identifying specific, basic, generic skills and values by means of deductive logic. A functional map was obtained which started by establishing a key purpose based on improving healthcare and service quality from which three key functions emerged. The main functions and skills' units were then broken down into the competitive elements defining what a health service auditor is able to do. This functional map (following functional analysis methodology) shows in detail the simple and complex tasks which a healthcare auditor should apply in the workplace, adopting a forward management approach for improving healthcare and health service quality. This methodology, expressing logical-deductive awareness raising, provides expert consensual information validating each element regarding overall skills.

  12. METHODOLOGY OF DOMESTIC STUDIES OF MEDICINAL DRUGS NEED AND THEIR CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Dryomova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At the current development stage of Russian healthcare rational use of limited financial resources for the fullest satisfaction of population's need in medicinal drugs acquires a special importance. Therefore, the issue about knowledge of experts in determination of need in drugs and evaluation of the consumption, as well as methods applied for these scientific and practical tasks resolution has a critical character. The purpose of our work is to characterize the development of research methodology of medicinal drugs need and their consumption in Russia. We have revealed the dynamics and tendencies of analyzed scientific direction development, leading scientists, principal methods, and study objects using scientometric methods of content-analysis and scientific works calculation (dissertations autoab-stracts. We have established the fact of significant change of methodology beginning with 2000 comparing with a period 1970-1980s. According to authors' opinion this was conditioned by objective need in problem solving connected with pharmaceutical support in the frameworks of state guarantees.

  13. A review of the Australian healthcare system: A policy perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambasivan, Murali

    2018-01-01

    This article seeks to review the Australian healthcare system and compare it to similar systems in other countries to highlight the main issues and problems. A literature search for articles relating to the Australian and other developed countries’ healthcare systems was conducted by using Google and the library of Victoria University, Melbourne. Data from the websites of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, the Australian Productivity Commission, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Bank have also been used. Although care within the Australian healthcare system is among the best in the world, there is a need to change the paradigm currently being used to measure the outcomes and allocate resources. The Australian healthcare system is potentially dealing with two main problems: (a) resource allocation, and (b) performance and patient outcomes improvements. An interdisciplinary research approach in the areas of performance measurement, quality and patient outcomes improvement could be adopted to discover new insights, by using the policy implementation error/efficiency and bureaucratic capacity. Hospital managers, executives and healthcare management practitioners could use an interdisciplinary approach to design new performance measurement models, in which financial performance, quality, healthcare and patient outcomes are blended in, for resource allocation and performance improvement. This article recommends that public policy implementation error and the bureaucratic capacity models be applied to healthcare to optimise the outcomes for the healthcare system in Australia. In addition, it highlights the need for evaluation of the current reimbursement method, freedom of choice to patients and a regular scrutiny of the appropriateness of care. PMID:29686869

  14. Healthcare is primary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available India is undergoing a rapid transformation in terms of governance, administrative reforms, newer policy develoment, and social movements. India is also considered one of the most vibrant economies in the world. The current discourse in public space is dominated by issues such as economic development, security, corruption free governance, gender equity, and women safety. Healthcare though remains a pressing need of population; seems to have taken a backseat. In the era of decreasing subsidies and cautious investment in social sectors, the 2 nd National Conference on Family Medicine and Primary Care 2015 (FMPC brought a focus on "healthcare" in India. The theme of this conference was "Healthcare is Primary." The conference participants discussed on the theme of why healthcare should be a national priority and why strong primary care should remain at the center of healthcare delivery system. The experts recommended that India needs to strengthen the "general health system" instead of focusing on disease based vertical programs. Public health system should have capacity and skill pool to be able to deliver person centered comprehensive health services to the community. Proactive implementation of policies towards human resource in health is the need of the hour. As the draft National Health Policy 2015 is being debated, "family medicine" (academic primary care, the unfinished agenda of National Health Policy 2002, remains a priority area of implementation.

  15. Conceptions of Patients and Their Roles in Healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Aoife M.; Reff Pedersen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    /methodology/approach: – The paper utilises a literature synthesis and thematic analysis of the special issue submissions. These emanated from the Ninth International Organisational Behaviour in Healthcare Conference, hosted by Copenhagen Business School on behalf of the Learned Society for Studies in Organizing Healthcare...... to patients to engage, by organisations and their employees. Originality/value: – The paper explores the relationally embedded nature of patient involvement in healthcare, inherent in the interdependence between patient and providers’ roles. The typology aims to prompt discussion regarding...... the conceptualisation patients’ roles in healthcare organisations, and the individual, employee, organisational and contextual factors that may help and hinder their involvement in service delivery and improvement. The authors close by noting four areas meriting further research attention, and potentially useful...

  16. Workplace Bullying among Healthcare Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M.; Montero-Simó, María José; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers. PMID:23887621

  17. Workplace Bullying among Healthcare Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Montero-Simó

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08. The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers.

  18. Improving healthcare practice behaviors: an exploratory study identifying effective and ineffective behaviors in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Fleet, David D; Peterson, Tim O

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of exploratory research designed to develop an awareness of healthcare behaviors, with a view toward improving the customer satisfaction with healthcare services. It examines the relationship between healthcare providers and their consumers/patients/clients. The study uses a critical incident methodology, with both effective and ineffective behavioral specimens examined across different provider groups. The effects of these different behaviors on what Berry (1999) identified as the common core values of service organizations are examined, as those values are required to build a lasting service relationship. Also examined are categories of healthcare practice based on the National Quality Strategy priorities. The most obvious is the retrospective nature of the method used. How accurate are patient or consumer memories? Are they capable of making valid judgments of healthcare experiences (Berry and Bendapudi, 2003)? While an obvious limitation, such recollections are clearly important as they may be paramount in following the healthcare practitioners' instructions, loyalty for repeat business, making recommendations to others and the like. Further, studies have shown retrospective reports to be accurate and useful (Miller et al., 1997). With this information, healthcare educators should be in a better position to improve the training offered in their programs and practitioners to better serve their customers. The findings would indicate that the human values of excellence, innovation, joy, respect and integrity play a significant role in building a strong service relationship between consumer and healthcare provider. Berry (1999) has argued that the overriding importance in building a lasting service business is human values. This exploratory study has shown how critical incident analysis can be used to determine both effective and ineffective practices of different medical providers. It also provides guidelines as

  19. Architecture Capabilities to Improve Healthcare Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Mardomi, Karim; Hassanpour Rahimabad, Kasra

    2013-01-01

    Background The physical environment of healthcare buildings has great importance in issues such as patient safety, functional efficiency, user satisfaction, healthcare outcomes, and energy and resources consumption. Objectives The present study assesses physical environments of Iranian healthcare buildings. Materials and Methods This study was performed using a descriptive-analytical method. Data collection was carried out via a written questionnaire. Results Based on the findings of this study, "functional efficiency", "user satisfaction", "environmental issues", "patient safety”, “accountability in incidents and disasters", and "flexibility" are regarded as the most issues in the country's hospitals. Also, none of the parameters is "without any problem" and has a "desirable status". Conclusions According to the responses, all of the healthcare buildings in this research had flaws in their physical environment, which require attention. Thus, it is necessary to review and pay more attention to the architecture of the country's healthcare buildings. PMID:24350145

  20. Situation Analysis of Healthcare Service Delivery using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISML5

    Geography plays an important role in planning and allocation of healthcare resources for an effective and efficient ... utilization and gaps in resource allocation, and to develop propositions to support the health policy. Facility survey and .... Figure 2. Location of health centres against population density in Sironko district ...

  1. Reduction of Complications of Local Anaesthesia in Dental Healthcare Setups by Application of the Six Sigma Methodology: A Statistical Quality Improvement Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akifuddin, Syed; Khatoon, Farheen

    2015-12-01

    Health care faces challenges due to complications, inefficiencies and other concerns that threaten the safety of patients. The purpose of his study was to identify causes of complications encountered after administration of local anaesthesia for dental and oral surgical procedures and to reduce the incidence of complications by introduction of six sigma methodology. DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve and Control) process of Six Sigma was taken into consideration to reduce the incidence of complications encountered after administration of local anaesthesia injections for dental and oral surgical procedures using failure mode and effect analysis. Pareto analysis was taken into consideration to analyse the most recurring complications. Paired z-sample test using Minitab Statistical Inference and Fisher's exact test was used to statistically analyse the obtained data. The p-value six sigma improvement methodology in healthcare tends to deliver consistently better results to the patients as well as hospitals and results in better patient compliance as well as satisfaction.

  2. Total quality management practices in Malaysia healthcare industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Md Fauzi; Nee, Phoi Soo; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Wei, Chan Shiau; Hassan, Mohd Fahrul; Hamid, Nor Aziati Abdul

    2017-10-01

    The aim of total quality management (TQM) is to achieve customer satisfaction. Healthcare industry is very important in Malaysia for providing good healthcare services to public. However, failure to improve quality and efficiency is a big challenge in a healthcare industry in order to increase quality healthcare services. The objectives of this research are to identify the extent level of TQM implementation; and to determine the impact of TQM implementation on business sustainable in healthcare industry. Quantitative approach has been chosen as the methodology of this study. The survey respondents targeted in this research are staffs in Malaysia private clinic. 70 respondents have participated in this research. Data were analysed by Statistical Package Social Science (SPSS). Analysis result showed that there was a positive significant relationship between TQM practices and business sustainable (r=0.774, Prelationship with business sustainable factors. The findings of this research will help healthcare industry to understand a better and deeper valuable information on the impact of TQM implementation towards business sustainable in Malaysia healthcare industry.

  3. A methodology for handling exploration risk and constructing supply curves for oil and gas plays when resources are stacked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallaire, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    The use of project economics to estimate full-cycle supply prices for undiscovered oil and gas resources is a straightforward exercise for those regions where oil and gas plays are not vertically superimposed on one another, ie. are not stacked. Exploration risk is incorporated into such an analysis by using a simple two-outcome decision tree model to include the costs of dry and abandoned wells. The decision tree model can be expanded to include multiple targets or discoveries, but this expansion requires additional drilling statistics and resource assessment data. A methodology is suggested to include exploration risk in the preparation of supply curves when stacked resources are expected and little or no information on uphole resources is available. In this method, all exploration costs for wells drilled to targets in the play being evaluated are assigned to that play, rather than prorated among the multiple targets or discoveries. Undiscovered pools are assumed to either bear all exploration costs (full cycle discoveries) or no exploration costs (half cycle discoveries). The weighted full- and half-cycle supply price is shown to be a more realistic estimate of the supply price of undiscovered pools in a play when stacked resources exist. The statistics required for this methodology are minimal, and resource estimates for prospects in other zones are not required. The equation relating the average pool finding cost to the discovery record is applicable to different scenarios regarding the presence of shallower and deeper resources. The equation derived for the two-outcome decision tree model is shown to be a special case of the general expression. 5 refs., 7 figs

  4. Methodological challenges and analytic opportunities for modeling and interpreting Big Healthcare Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinov, Ivo D

    2016-01-01

    Managing, processing and understanding big healthcare data is challenging, costly and demanding. Without a robust fundamental theory for representation, analysis and inference, a roadmap for uniform handling and analyzing of such complex data remains elusive. In this article, we outline various big data challenges, opportunities, modeling methods and software techniques for blending complex healthcare data, advanced analytic tools, and distributed scientific computing. Using imaging, genetic and healthcare data we provide examples of processing heterogeneous datasets using distributed cloud services, automated and semi-automated classification techniques, and open-science protocols. Despite substantial advances, new innovative technologies need to be developed that enhance, scale and optimize the management and processing of large, complex and heterogeneous data. Stakeholder investments in data acquisition, research and development, computational infrastructure and education will be critical to realize the huge potential of big data, to reap the expected information benefits and to build lasting knowledge assets. Multi-faceted proprietary, open-source, and community developments will be essential to enable broad, reliable, sustainable and efficient data-driven discovery and analytics. Big data will affect every sector of the economy and their hallmark will be 'team science'.

  5. Geographic and Perceived Healthcare Access Equity among Patients with Acute Cardiovascular Event in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Tang, Wenxi; Gan, Da; Lin, Jie; Zhang, Lichao; Guo, Huilan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In acute cardiovascular event (ACE) such as stroke and myocardial infarction, access to comprehensive, timely, and quality healthcare services was critical for receiving appropriate treatment and improving prognosis. However, due to significant disparities on distribution of healthcare resources, allocating the limited resources to regions and population in needs was a key challenge for China. This study aimed to evaluate both geographic and perceived healthcare access of ACE pa...

  6. Challenges and Opportunities in Scaling-Up Nutrition in Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Darnton-Hill, Ian; Samman, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare continues to be in a state of flux; conventionally, this provides opportunities and challenges. The opportunities include technological breakthroughs, improved economies and increasing availability of healthcare. On the other hand, economic disparities are increasing and leading to differing accessibility to healthcare, including within affluent countries. Nutrition has received an increase in attention and resources in recent decades, a lot of it stimulated by the rise in obesity,...

  7. The association between psoriasis and health-related quality of life, work productivity, and healthcare resource use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBonaventura, Marco; Carvalho, André Vicente Esteves de; Souza, Cacilda da Silva; Squiassi, Haline Bianca; Ferreira, Cristina Nunes

    2018-03-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, immune mediated inflammatory condition that affects a significant amount of the global population. Yet geographic variability in the consequences of psoriasis warrants region-level analyses. The current study contributes to the psoriasis outcomes literature by offering a comprehensive assessment of the humanistic and economic burden in Brazil. The 2012 Brazil National Health and Wellness Survey (N=12,000) was used to assess health-related quality of life (Short Form-12, version 2), work productivity, and healthcare resource use associated with experiencing psoriasis vs. no psoriasis, along with varying levels of psoriasis severity. A total of 210 respondents reported diagnosis of psoriasis (N=157, 42, and 11 reporting mild, moderate, and severe psoriasis, respectively). Compared with controls, respondents with psoriasis reported diminished mental component summary scores and health utilities, as well as increased presenteeism, activity impairment, and physician visits over the past six months, adjusting for covariates. Among those with psoriasis, physical health decreased as psoriasis severity increased. Although work productivity and healthcare resource utilization did not differ with psoriasis severity, the high rates of productivity loss (e.g. 45.5% presenteeism in the severe psoriasis group) suggest an economic burden. Cost analyses were not performed, and cross-sectional patient-reported data limit causal conclusions and may reflect reporting biases. Nevertheless, these results suggest a significant burden to patients with psoriasis across both humanistic and economic outcomes. The association between psoriasis and mental health aspects and health utilities were particularly strong and exceeded what would be considered clinically meaningful.

  8. Coherence in the Danish Healthcare System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jesper; Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we investigate ‘coherence in healthcare’ as a strategy of welfare policy. We conduct our investigation within the theoretical and methodological framework of Scandinavian praxeology, and we construct our empirical data from Danish administrative documents. The tools and terms...... of this tradition are used to generate data from discourse as representations of institutional logics. The aim is to uncover how coherence in healthcare emerges as different strategies in healthcare governance in relation to different institutions seen as positions. Hence, our findings suggest that, although...... the stated aim in policy is to improve coherence in healthcare for the benefit of the patients, various ambiguities within the institutions producing policy tend to maintain a certain order rather than introducing changes. Furthermore, we discuss how this section of the welfare state, examined in relation...

  9. Research Methods in Healthcare Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Stewardship-Mathematical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sean L; Kasaie, Parastu; Anderson, Deverick J; Rubin, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Mathematical modeling is a valuable methodology used to study healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship, particularly when more traditional study approaches are infeasible, unethical, costly, or time consuming. We focus on 2 of the most common types of mathematical modeling, namely compartmental modeling and agent-based modeling, which provide important advantages-such as shorter developmental timelines and opportunities for extensive experimentation-over observational and experimental approaches. We summarize these advantages and disadvantages via specific examples and highlight recent advances in the methodology. A checklist is provided to serve as a guideline in the development of mathematical models in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-7.

  10. Corruption in the Nigerian healthcare system | Buowari | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption is the use of public resources for private gain. This is common in most countries though reduced in some and alarming in others. It affects all sectors of the economy and the healthcare system is not spared. Medical corruption is increasing in countries with high rates of corruption and all healthcare professionals ...

  11. Building social capital in healthcare organizations: thinking ecologically for safer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyer, Anne; Marck, Patricia B

    2008-01-01

    Research on patient safety and health human resources, 2 critical issues for 21st century healthcare, converges on similar findings. Specifically, it is apparent that along with the patients, families, and communities we serve, nurses and other healthcare professionals navigate a volatile health care system where persistent restructuring, market pressures, and workforce instability present ongoing threats to the delivery of safer care. Drawing from the fields of nursing, healthcare ethics, health systems management, and ecological restoration, we outline the role of social capital for organizational integrity, healthy workplace cultures, sustainable resource management, improved nurse retention, effective knowledge translation, and safer patient care. Nursing leaders can use ecological thinking to build the vital resource of social capital by taking concrete steps to commit the necessary human and material resources to: (1) forge relations to foster bonding, bridging and linking social capital; (2) build solidarity and trust; (3) foster collective action and cooperation; (4) strengthen communication and knowledge exchange; and (5) create capacity for social cohesion and inclusion.

  12. A methodology for the prediction of offshore wind energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, S J; Watson, G M [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Holt, R.J. [Univ. of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, Norwich (United Kingdom)] Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark); Zuylen, E.J. van [Ecofys Energy and Environment, Utrecht (Netherlands)] Cleijne, J.W. [Kema Sustainable, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1999-03-01

    There are increasing constraints on the development of wind power on land. Recently, there has been a move to develop wind power offshore, though the amount of measured wind speed data at potential offshore wind farm sites is sparse. We present a novel methodology for the prediction of offshore wind power resources which is being applied to European Union waters. The first stage is to calculate the geostrophic wind from long-term pressure fields over the sea area of interest. Secondly, the geostrophic wind is transformed to the sea level using WA{sup s}P, taking account of near shore topography. Finally, these values are corrected for land/sea climatology (stability) effects using an analytical Coastal discontinuity Model (CDM). These values are further refined using high resolution offshore data at selected sites. The final values are validated against existing offshore datasets. Preliminary results are presented of the geostrophic wind speed validation in European Union waters. (au)

  13. Healthcare Data Analytics on the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrajit Bhattacharya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Meaningful analysis of voluminous health information has always been a challenge in most healthcare organizations. Accurate and timely information required by the management to lead a healthcare organization through the challenges found in the industry can be obtained using business intelligence (BI or business analytics tools. However, these require large capital investments to implement and support the large volumes of data that needs to be analyzed to identify trends. They also require enormous processing power which places pressure on the business resources in addition to the dynamic changes in the digital technology. This paper evaluates the various nuances of business analytics of healthcare hosted on the cloud computing environment. The paper explores BI being offered as Software as a Service (SaaS solution towards offering meaningful use of information for improving functions in healthcare enterprise. It also attempts to identify the challenges that healthcare enterprises face when making use of a BI SaaS solution.

  14. Demographic and epidemiological determinants of healthcare costs in Netherlands: cost of illness study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Meerding (Willem Jan); L.G.A. Bonneux (Luc); J.J. Polder (Johan); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); P.J. van der Maas (Paul)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To determine the demands on healthcare resources caused by different types of illnesses and variation with age and sex. DESIGN: Information on healthcare use was obtained from all 22 healthcare sectors in the Netherlands. Most important sectors

  15. Healthcare quality improvement work: a professional employee perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadolin, Christian; Andersson, Thomas

    2017-06-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze conditions that influence how employees engage in healthcare quality improvement (QI) work. Design/methodology/approach Qualitative case study based on interviews ( n=27) and observations ( n=10). Findings The main conditions that influence how employees engage in healthcare QI work are professions, work structures and working relationships. These conditions can both prevent and facilitate healthcare QI. Professions and work structures may cement existing institutional logics and thus prevent employees from engaging in healthcare QI work. However, attempts to align QI with professional logics, together with work structures that empower employees, can make these conditions increase employee engagement, which can be accomplished through positive working relationships that foster institutional work, which bridge different competing institutional logics, making it possible to overcome barriers that professions and work structures may constitute. Practical implications Understanding the conditions that influence how employees engage in healthcare QI work will make initiatives more likely to succeed. Originality/value Healthcare QI has mainly been studied from an implementer perspective, and employees have either been neglected or seen as passive resisters. Weak employee perspectives make healthcare QI research incomplete. In our research, healthcare QI work is studied closely at the actor level to understand healthcare QI from an employee perspective.

  16. Are natural resources bad for health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Anshasy, Amany A; Katsaiti, Marina-Selini

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine whether economic dependence on various natural resources is associated with lower investment in health, after controlling for countries' geographical and historical fixed effects, corruption, autocratic regimes, income levels, and initial health status. Employing panel data for 118 countries for the period 1990-2008, we find no compelling evidence in support of a negative effect of resources on healthcare spending and outcomes. On the contrary, higher dependence on agricultural exports is associated with higher healthcare spending, higher life expectancy, and lower diabetes rates. Similarly, healthcare spending increases with higher mineral intensity. Finally, more hydrocarbon resource rents are associated with less diabetes and obesity rates. There is however evidence that public health provision relative to the size of the economy declines with greater hydrocarbon resource-intensity; the magnitude of this effect is less severe in non-democratic countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Entrepreneurship in agriculture and healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, Jan; Hulsink, Willem; Grin, John

    2016-01-01

    Care farming provides an interesting context of multifunctional agriculture where farmers face the challenge of having to bridge the gap between agriculture and healthcare and acquire new customers, partners and financial resources from the care sector. We compared different entry strategies of

  18. Innovative use of the integrative review to evaluate evidence of technology transformation in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew B; Merrill, Jacqueline A

    2015-12-01

    Healthcare is in a period significant transformational activity through the accelerated adoption of healthcare technologies, new reimbursement systems that emphasize shared savings and care coordination, and the common place use of mobile technologies by patients, providers, and others. The complexity of healthcare creates barriers to transformational activity and has the potential to inhibit the desired paths toward change envisioned by policymakers. Methods for understanding how change is occurring within this complex environment are important to the evaluation of delivery system reform and the role of technology in healthcare transformation. This study examines the use on an integrative review methodology to evaluate the healthcare literature for evidence of technology transformation in healthcare. The methodology integrates the evaluation of a broad set of literature with an established evaluative framework to develop a more complete understanding of a particular topic. We applied this methodology and the framework of punctuated equilibrium (PEq) to the analysis of the healthcare literature from 2004 to 2012 for evidence of technology transformation, a time during which technology was at the forefront of healthcare policy. The analysis demonstrated that the established PEq framework applied to the literature showed considerable potential for evaluating the progress of policies that encourage healthcare transformation. Significant inhibitors to change were identified through the integrative review and categorized into ten themes that describe the resistant structure of healthcare delivery: variations in the environment; market complexity; regulations; flawed risks and rewards; change theories; barriers; ethical considerations; competition and sustainability; environmental elements, and internal elements. We hypothesize that the resistant nature of the healthcare system described by this study creates barriers to the direct consumer involvement and engagement

  19. 'Practical' resources to support patient and family engagement in healthcare decisions: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs Burns, Katharina; Bellows, Mandy; Eigenseher, Carol; Gallivan, Jennifer

    2014-04-15

    engagement models, numerous barriers and benefits, and 34 toolkits for various patient engagement and evaluation initiatives. Patient engagement is very complex. This scoping review for patient/family engagement tools and guides is a good start for a resource inventory and can guide the content development of a patient engagement resource kit to be used by patients/families, healthcare providers and administrators.

  20. Evaluating priority setting success in healthcare: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upshur Ross

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In healthcare today, decisions are made in the face of serious resource constraints. Healthcare managers are struggling to provide high quality care, manage resources effectively, and meet changing patient needs. Healthcare managers who are constantly making difficult resource decisions desire a way to improve their priority setting processes. Despite the wealth of existing priority setting literature (for example, program budgeting and marginal analysis, accountability for reasonableness, the 'describe-evaluate-improve' strategy there are still no tools to evaluate how healthcare resources are prioritised. This paper describes the development and piloting of a process to evaluate priority setting in health institutions. The evaluation process was designed to examine the procedural and substantive dimensions of priority setting using a multi-methods approach, including a staff survey, decision-maker interviews, and document analysis. Methods The evaluation process was piloted in a mid-size community hospital in Ontario, Canada while its leaders worked through their annual budgeting process. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyze the data. Results The evaluation process was both applicable to the context and it captured the budgeting process. In general, the pilot test provided support for our evaluation process and our definition of success, (i.e., our conceptual framework. Conclusions The purpose of the evaluation process is to provide a simple, practical way for an organization to better understand what it means to achieve success in its priority setting activities and identify areas for improvement. In order for the process to be used by healthcare managers today, modification and contextualization of the process are anticipated. As the evaluation process is applied in more health care organizations or applied repeatedly in an organization, it may become more streamlined.

  1. Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations and the Burden of Healthcare-Associated Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Lorden

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: An estimated 4% of hospital admissions acquired healthcare-associated infections (HAIs and accounted for $9.8 (USD billion in direct cost during 2011. In 2010, nearly 140 000 of the 3.5 million potentially preventable hospitalizations (PPHs may have acquired an HAI. There is a knowledge gap regarding the co-occurrence of these events. Aims: To estimate the period occurrences and likelihood of acquiring an HAI for the PPH population. Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional study using logistic regression analysis of 2011 Texas Inpatient Discharge Public Use Data File including 2.6 million admissions from 576 acute care hospitals. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Prevention Quality Indicator software identified PPH, and existing administrative data identification methodologies were refined for Clostridium difficile infection, central line–associated bloodstream infection, catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Odds of acquiring HAIs when admitted with PPH were adjusted for demographic, health status, hospital, and community characteristics. Findings: We identified 272 923 PPH, 14 219 HAI, and 986 admissions with PPH and HAI. Odds of acquiring an HAI for diabetic patients admitted for lower extremity amputation demonstrated significantly increased odds ratio of 2.9 (95% confidence interval: 2.16-3.91 for Clostridium difficile infection. Other PPH patients had lower odds of acquiring HAI compared to non-PPH patients, and results were frequently significant. Conclusions: Clinical implications include increased risk of HAI among diabetic patients admitted for lower extremity amputation. Methodological implications include identification of rare events for inpatient subpopulations and the need for improved codification of HAIs to improve cost and policy analyses regarding allocation of resources toward clinical improvements.

  2. The retention of health human resources in primary healthcare centers in Lebanon: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Mohamad; Saleh, Shadi; El-Jardali, Fadi; Dimassi, Hani; Mourad, Yara

    2012-11-22

    Critical shortages of health human resources (HHR), associated with high turnover rates, have been a concern in many countries around the globe. Of particular interest is the effect of such a trend on the primary healthcare (PHC) sector; considered a cornerstone in any effective healthcare system. This study is a rare attempt to investigate PHC HHR work characteristics, level of burnout and likelihood to quit as well as the factors significantly associated with staff retention at PHC centers in Lebanon. A cross-sectional design was utilized to survey all health providers at 81 PHC centers dispersed in all districts of Lebanon. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: socio-demographic/ professional background, organizational/institutional characteristics, likelihood to quit and level of professional burnout (using the Maslach-Burnout Inventory). A total of 755 providers completed the questionnaire (60.5% response rate). Bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression were used to determine factors associated with likelihood to quit. Two out of five respondents indicated likelihood to quit their jobs within the next 1-3 years and an additional 13.4% were not sure about quitting. The top three reasons behind likelihood to quit were poor salary (54.4%), better job opportunities outside the country (35.1%) and lack of professional development (33.7%). A U-shaped relationship was observed between age and likelihood to quit. Regression analysis revealed that high levels of burnout, lower level of education and low tenure were all associated with increased likelihood to quit. The study findings reflect an unstable workforce and are not conducive to supporting an expanded role for PHC in the Lebanese healthcare system. While strategies aiming at improving staff retention would be important to develop and implement for all PHC HHR; targeted retention initiatives should focus on the young-new recruits and allied health professionals. Particular attention should

  3. The retention of health human resources in primary healthcare centers in Lebanon: a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alameddine Mohamad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Critical shortages of health human resources (HHR, associated with high turnover rates, have been a concern in many countries around the globe. Of particular interest is the effect of such a trend on the primary healthcare (PHC sector; considered a cornerstone in any effective healthcare system. This study is a rare attempt to investigate PHC HHR work characteristics, level of burnout and likelihood to quit as well as the factors significantly associated with staff retention at PHC centers in Lebanon. Methods A cross-sectional design was utilized to survey all health providers at 81 PHC centers dispersed in all districts of Lebanon. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: socio-demographic/ professional background, organizational/institutional characteristics, likelihood to quit and level of professional burnout (using the Maslach-Burnout Inventory. A total of 755 providers completed the questionnaire (60.5% response rate. Bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression were used to determine factors associated with likelihood to quit. Results Two out of five respondents indicated likelihood to quit their jobs within the next 1–3 years and an additional 13.4% were not sure about quitting. The top three reasons behind likelihood to quit were poor salary (54.4%, better job opportunities outside the country (35.1% and lack of professional development (33.7%. A U-shaped relationship was observed between age and likelihood to quit. Regression analysis revealed that high levels of burnout, lower level of education and low tenure were all associated with increased likelihood to quit. Conclusions The study findings reflect an unstable workforce and are not conducive to supporting an expanded role for PHC in the Lebanese healthcare system. While strategies aiming at improving staff retention would be important to develop and implement for all PHC HHR; targeted retention initiatives should focus on the young-new recruits

  4. Instill Lean A3 Thinking into Healthcare IT Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Zeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare information technology is a key enabler for care transformation to provide quality care at low cost and better population health.  Many healthcare organizations have established IT Program Management and adopted ITIL best practice to manage IT services. However, ITIL and traditional project management are heavily process oriented, and neither flexible nor effective enough for swift response to changing business demand. Lean methodologies are increasingly deployed by healthcare providers to improve workflow process management but only has limited use cases documented in healthcare IT service. This paper introduces the Lean A3 Thinking methodology and its value in identifying and eliminating wastes to provide agile and effective solutions in response to customer requests. We present a case study of applying Lean A3 Thinking to improve clinical informatics reporting service. The initial evaluation results are promising and indicate that both ITIL and Lean A3 Thinking focus on customer and service quality, complementing each other well. ITIL provides a framework for ITSM based on a set of best practice to manage IT services. Lean A3 Thinking specifies a set of framework and tools for improving quality of services and processes by eliminating wastes. Proper balance between Lean and ITIL principles for ITSM needs more research and further study.

  5. [Indicators of communication and degree of professional integration in healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola, Ernesto; Maggio, Anna; Vantaggiato, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    According to the chronic care model, improving the management of chronic illness requires efficient communication between health care professionals and the creation of a web of integrated healthcare The aim of this study was to identify an efficient methodology for evaluating the degree of professional integration through indicators related to communication between healthcare professionals. The following types of indicators were identified:-structure indicators to evaluate the presence of prerequisites necessary for implementing the procedures -functional indicators to quantitatively evaluate the use of communications instruments-performance indicators Defining specific indicators may be an appropriate methodology for evaluating the degree of integration and communication between health professionals, available for a bargaining system of incentives.

  6. Development of new canine and feline preventive healthcare guidelines designed to improve pet health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) and American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) have jointly introduced the first Canine and Feline Preventive Healthcare Guidelines. These consensus statements provide veterinarians with a new resource for improving patient care by emphasizing the value and scope of regular pet examinations. The two guidelines provide complete recommendations for comprehensive preventive healthcare programs, published as accessible, single-page documents. The guidelines are based on the subjective-objective-assessment-plan (SOAP) methodology of case management, a proven approach traditionally used with sick or injured patients. This logical and disciplined process is equally applicable to healthy patients and is designed to consistently deliver optimal patient care. The guidelines recommend visits for health examinations on at least an annual basis, recognizing that for many pets, more frequent visits may be appropriate, depending on the individual needs of the patient. The guidelines also provide detailed diagnostic, therapeutic, prevention, and follow up plans, to be accompanied by appropriate documentation. The inclusive content and concise format of the guidelines are designed to maximize their practical value and make them easy to implement.

  7. The health of nations: A transatlantic trade and investment agenda for better healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Erixon, Fredrik; Ferracane, Martina Francesca; Van der Marel, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Today, increases in the demand for healthcare are driving European governments to look for ways to control growth in healthcare expenditures and at the same time improve health outcomes. Consideration of ways to enhance trade in healthcare goods and services is important for governments as they struggle to find resources to finance this increasing demand for healthcare.

  8. Sustainability in Health care by allocating resources effectively (SHARE) 1: introducing a series of papers reporting an investigation of disinvestment in a local healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Green, Sally; Ramsey, Wayne; Allen, Kelly; King, Richard

    2017-05-04

    This is the first in a series of papers reporting Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE). The SHARE Program is an investigation of concepts, opportunities, methods and implications for evidence-based investment and disinvestment in health technologies and clinical practices in a local healthcare setting. The papers in this series are targeted at clinicians, managers, policy makers, health service researchers and implementation scientists working in this context. This paper presents an overview of the organisation-wide, systematic, integrated, evidence-based approach taken by one Australian healthcare network and provides an introduction and guide to the suite of papers reporting the experiences and outcomes.

  9. Setting priorities for EU healthcare workforce IT skills competence improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sisi; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Traver, Vicente; Car, Josip; Zary, Nabil

    2017-04-01

    A major challenge for healthcare quality improvement is the lack of IT skills and knowledge of healthcare workforce, as well as their ambivalent attitudes toward IT. This article identifies and prioritizes actions needed to improve the IT skills of healthcare workforce across the EU. A total of 46 experts, representing different fields of expertise in healthcare and geolocations, systematically listed and scored actions that would improve IT skills among healthcare workforce. The Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative methodology was used for research priority-setting. The participants evaluated the actions using the following criteria: feasibility, effectiveness, deliverability, and maximum impact on IT skills improvement. The leading priority actions were related to appropriate training, integrating eHealth in curricula, involving healthcare workforce in the eHealth solution development, improving awareness of eHealth, and learning arrangement. As the different professionals' needs are prioritized, healthcare workforce should be actively and continuously included in the development of eHealth solutions.

  10. A scoping review to understand the effectiveness of linking schemes from healthcare providers to community resources to improve the health and well-being of people with long-term conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossabir, Rahena; Morris, Rebecca; Kennedy, Anne; Blickem, Christian; Rogers, Anne

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of people living with long-term conditions is increasing, accompanied by an increased expectation that patients will become more involved in self-management. Long-term conditions are associated with increased social isolation and poor physical and mental health. But there remains a gap in health provision between providing medical treatment and effectively addressing psychosocial well-being. One potential way of addressing this gap is by utilising social interventions which link patients from health services to community-based sources of support. However, the mechanisms involved in the delivery of interventions providing that link and their effectiveness remain unclear. This review adopted the methodological framework for conducting scoping studies, searching for both academic and grey literature on social interventions which link people from healthcare settings to a range of community and voluntary sector organisations. A literature search between May and June 2013, involving five electronic databases, hand searching of two journals and the use of Google search engine, identified seven studies relevant to the review question. In terms of key characteristics and mechanisms of the interventions, mental health conditions and social isolation were the most common reasons for referral to the interventions, and referrals were usually made through general practices. Almost all the interventions were facilitator-led, whereby the facilitator worked to identify and link participants to appropriate community-based resources. In regard to health and social outcomes and their cost-effectiveness, studies reported improvement to participants' psychological and social well-being as well as their decreased use of health services, although there were limited measures of participants' physical health outcomes. Interventions for linking patients from healthcare setting to community-based resources target and address psychosocial needs of participants. The review

  11. Use of healthcare resources and costs associated to the start of treatment with injectable drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Morano, Raúl; Ruíz, Lucía

    2016-12-01

    The main objective was to assess resource use and costs of starting treatment with insulin or injectable GLP-1 receptor analogues (GLP-1 RAs) in a Spanish population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Treatment adherence and persistence were also determined for both treatment groups. A retrospective, non-interventional, observational study was conducted. Patients aged ≥20 years who started treatment with insulin or GLP-1 RAs in the 2010-2012 period were recruited. Use of healthcare resources was estimated to evaluate healthcare costs in these two groups of patients (medical visits, hospital stay, emergency visits, diagnostic or treatment requests, medication). Clinical information including body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ), metabolic control (HbA1c), adherence, persistence, and complications (hypoglycemia, and cardiovascular events (CVE) was collected. The follow-up period was 12 months. Only direct healthcare costs were considered. A total of 1301 patients with a mean age of 67.6 years (51.6% males) were recruited. Of these, 71.9% and 28.1% were on treatment with insulin and GLP-1 RA respectively. After one year of follow-up, patients treated with GLP-1 RAs were found less visits to primary care (8 vs. 11; P<.001) and specialized care (1.0 vs. 1.8; P<.001), hospital stays (0.3 vs. 0.7; P=.030) and less visits to the emergency room (0.8 vs. 1.6; P<.001). Patients treated with GLP-1 showed greater adherence (88.1% vs. 82.7%; P<.001) and persistence (62.0% vs. 55.9%; P=.046), and had less hypoglycemia episodes (13.4% vs. 18.7%; P=.022), with similar metabolic control (HbA1c: 7.2% vs. 7.4%; P=.049), BMI (29.1 vs. 30.9kg/m 2 ), and CVE rate (9.1% vs. 11.5%; P=.330) respectively. The mean corrected direct healthcare cost per patient was €1787 vs. €2005 (P=.046.) CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with GLP-1 RAs caused lower direct healthcare costs for the National Health System than patients treated with insulin. The results may be explained by greater treatment

  12. Quality of Life, Depression, and Healthcare Resource Utilization among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Concomitant Hypertension and Obesity: A Prospective Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Green

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study compared quality of life, depression, and healthcare resource utilization among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and comorbid hypertension (HTN and obesity with those of adults reporting T2DM alone. Methods. Respondents to the US SHIELD survey self-reported their height, weight, comorbid conditions, hospitalizations, and outpatient visits and completed the Short Form-12 (SF-12 and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Respondents reporting T2DM and HTN and obesity (body mass index, BMI, ≥30 kg/m2 were compared with a T2DM-alone group. Results. Respondents with T2DM, HTN, and obesity (n=1292 had significantly lower SF-12 Physical and Mental Component Summary scores (37.3 and 50.9, resp. than T2DM-alone respondents (n=349 (45.8 and 53.5, resp., P<0.0001. Mean PHQ-9 scores were significantly higher among T2DM respondents with comorbid HTN and obesity (5.0 versus 2.5, P<0.0001, indicating greater depression burden. Respondents with T2DM, HTN, and obesity had significantly more resource utilization with respect to physician visits and emergency room visits but not hospitalizations than respondents with T2DM alone (P=0.03. Conclusions. SHIELD respondents with comorbid conditions of T2DM, HTN, and obesity reported greater healthcare resource utilization, more depression symptoms, and lower quality of life than the T2DM-alone group.

  13. LEAN THINKING IN HEALTHCARE: REVIEW OF IMPLEMENTATION RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Kovacevic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For over decade, automotive industry originated lean concept has been successfully implemented in healthcare systems as a management method and philosophy with main focus on elimination of all types of wastes and looses in all tasks and processes so that time, materials, resources and medical procedures could be realized as effectively as it is possible. As main result lean concept implementation ensured to healthcare organizations to focus on their main core function and dedicate more time and efforts to patients without additional costs for them or healthcare system. However, lean implementation in healthcare could be much more difficult than in standard industrial environment and there are significant number of examples of lean in healthcare projects that failed to gain any measurable results and sustainable benefits from it. This paper presents review of some of the most successful implementations of lean tools and principles in healthcare organizations.

  14. Radiation epidemiology: concept, methodology and statistical resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasques, Monica H. Braga; Carneiro, Janete C. Gaburo; Sordi, Gian M.A.

    2008-01-01

    As radiation exposure is the main point of interest in radiation epidemiology, epidemiologists try to relate the risk of diseases (mainly the risk of cancer) to the different levels and patterns of humankind exposure to radiation. Statistics as a branch of mathematics is able to prove associations and infer causality. As many researches are object of methodological limits, mainly those related to both the insufficient size of the sample and descriptive analysis as well as the choice of methods and variables, this paper aims at describing firstly the main kinds of epidemiological studies. Secondly, it relates distributions and summary measures (central tendency measures, measures of dispersion and normal distributions) and hypothesis tests as well necessary for each study. It also discusses the most appropriate statistical resource to the epidemiological evaluation. Finally, the main aim of this study is both to elaborate a systematic review of the researches that have been already done in Brazil since 2000, focusing on the effects caused by the occupational exposures to ionizing radiation in order to establish positive associations between them and to analyze the risk related to the workers health. This paper has as its basis the Reports in Public Health (Public Health Books-CSP) from which several studies about the exposure effects to ionizing radiation and referred kinds of cancer (e.g.: leukemia, skin cancer, thyroid gland cancer and bone cancer) have been taken as object of analysis. The relevance of this study lies in the most applied methods of risk to establish positive associations in ionizing radiation, in the relation between workers' workplace and his health. (author)

  15. Effects of patient-reported non-severe hypoglycemia on healthcare resource use, work-time loss, and wellbeing in insulin-treated patients with diabetes in seven European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, Petronella H; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Weitgasser, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    the effects of self-reported non-severe hypoglycemic events (NSHE) on use of healthcare resources and patient wellbeing. Methods: Patients with T1DM or insulin-treated T2DM diabetes from seven European countries were invited to complete four weekly questionnaires. Data were collected on patient demographics...

  16. Identifying Opportunities for Decision Support Systems in Support of Regional Resource Use Planning: An Approach Through Soft Systems Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu; Dale

    2000-10-01

    / Regional resource use planning relies on key regional stakeholder groups using and having equitable access to appropriate social, economic, and environmental information and assessment tools. Decision support systems (DSS) can improve stakeholder access to such information and analysis tools. Regional resource use planning, however, is a complex process involving multiple issues, multiple assessment criteria, multiple stakeholders, and multiple values. There is a need for an approach to DSS development that can assist in understanding and modeling complex problem situations in regional resource use so that areas where DSSs could provide effective support can be identified, and the user requirements can be well established. This paper presents an approach based on the soft systems methodology for identifying DSS opportunities for regional resource use planning, taking the Central Highlands Region of Queensland, Australia, as a case study.

  17. Healthcare information technology infrastructures in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogac, A; Yuksel, M; Ertürkmen, G L; Kabak, Y; Namli, T; Yıldız, M H; Ay, Y; Ceyhan, B; Hülür, U; Oztürk, H; Atbakan, E

    2014-05-22

    The objective of this paper is to describe some of the major healthcare information technology (IT) infrastructures in Turkey, namely, Sağlık-Net (Turkish for "Health-Net"), the Centralized Hospital Appointment System, the Basic Health Statistics Module, the Core Resources Management System, and the e-prescription system of the Social Security Institution. International collaboration projects that are integrated with Sağlık-Net are also briefly summarized. The authors provide a survey of the some of the major healthcare IT infrastructures in Turkey. Sağlık-Net has two main components: the National Health Information System (NHIS) and the Family Medicine Information System (FMIS). The NHIS is a nation-wide infrastructure for sharing patients' Electronic Health Records (EHRs). So far, EHRs of 78.9 million people have been created in the NHIS. Similarly, family medicine is operational in the whole country via FMIS. Centralized Hospital Appointment System enables the citizens to easily make appointments in healthcare providers. Basic Health Statistics Module is used for collecting information about the health status, risks and indicators across the country. Core Resources Management System speeds up the flow of information between the headquarters and Provincial Health Directorates. The e-prescription system is linked with Sağlık-Net and seamlessly integrated with the healthcare provider information systems. Finally, Turkey is involved in several international projects for experience sharing and disseminating national developments. With the introduction of the "Health Transformation Program" in 2003, a number of successful healthcare IT infrastructures have been developed in Turkey. Currently, work is going on to enhance and further improve their functionality.

  18. Patients, the public and priorities in healthcare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Littlejohns, Peter; Rawlins, Michael

    2009-01-01

    "Sharing the costs of ill health is the mark of a civilised society. However, every society has limited healthcare resources, and must therefore make finely balanced decisions on how best to allocate...

  19. Application of the Delphi technique in healthcare maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuangang, Stanley; Liyanage, Champika; Akintoye, Akintola

    2017-10-09

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the research design, issues and considerations in the application of the Delphi technique to identify, refine and rate the critical success factors and performance measures in maintenance-associated infections. Design/methodology/approach In-depth literature review through the application of open and axial coding were applied to formulate the interview and research questions. These were used to conduct an exploratory case study of two healthcare maintenance managers, randomly selected from two National Health Service Foundation Trusts in England. The results of exploratory case study provided the rationale for the application of the Delphi technique in this research. The different processes in the application of the Delphi technique in healthcare research are examined thoroughly. Findings This research demonstrates the need to apply and integrate different research methods to enhance the validity of the Delphi technique. The rationale for the application of the Delphi technique in this research is because some healthcare maintenance managers lack knowledge about basic infection control (IC) principles to make hospitals safe for patient care. The result of first round of the Delphi exercise is a useful contribution in its own rights. It identified a number of salient issues and differences in the opinions of the Delphi participants, noticeably between healthcare maintenance managers and members of the infection control team. It also resulted in useful suggestions and comments to improve the quality and presentation of the second- and third-round Delphi instruments. Practical implications This research provides a research methodology that can be adopted by researchers investigating new and emerging issues in the healthcare sector. As this research demonstrates, the Delphi technique is relevant in soliciting expert knowledge and opinion to identify performance measures to control maintenance-associated infections in

  20. Health-Care Costs, Glycemic Control and Nutritional Status in Malnourished Older Diabetics Treated with a Hypercaloric Diabetes-Specific Enteral Nutritional Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Paris, Alejandro; Boj-Carceller, Diana; Lardies-Sanchez, Beatriz; Perez-Fernandez, Leticia; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J

    2016-03-09

    Diabetes-specific formulas are an effective alternative for providing nutrients and maintaining glycemic control. This study assesses the effect of treatment with an oral enteral nutrition with a hypercaloric diabetes-specific formula (HDSF) for one year, on health-care resources use, health-care costs, glucose control and nutritional status, in 93 type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) malnourished patients. Changes in health-care resources use and health-care costs were collected the year before and during the year of intervention. Glucose status and nutritional laboratory parameters were analyzed at baseline and one-year after the administration of HDSF. The administration of HDSF was significantly associated with a reduced use of health-care resources, fewer hospital admissions (54.7%; p Health-care costs were reduced by 65.6% (p nutritional parameters were improved at one year (albumin: +10.6%, p nutritional parameters. The use of health-care resources and costs were significantly reduced during the nutritional intervention.

  1. Computer modelling of the UK wind energy resource. Phase 2. Application of the methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, S F; Makari, M; Newton, K; Ravenscroft, F; Whittaker, J

    1993-12-31

    This report presents the results of the second phase of a programme to estimate the UK wind energy resource. The overall objective of the programme is to provide quantitative resource estimates using a mesoscale (resolution about 1km) numerical model for the prediction of wind flow over complex terrain, in conjunction with digitised terrain data and wind data from surface meteorological stations. A network of suitable meteorological stations has been established and long term wind data obtained. Digitised terrain data for the whole UK were obtained, and wind flow modelling using the NOABL computer program has been performed. Maps of extractable wind power have been derived for various assumptions about wind turbine characteristics. Validation of the methodology indicates that the results are internally consistent, and in good agreement with available comparison data. Existing isovent maps, based on standard meteorological data which take no account of terrain effects, indicate that 10m annual mean wind speeds vary between about 4.5 and 7 m/s over the UK with only a few coastal areas over 6 m/s. The present study indicates that 28% of the UK land area had speeds over 6 m/s, with many hill sites having 10m speeds over 10 m/s. It is concluded that these `first order` resource estimates represent a substantial improvement over the presently available `zero order` estimates. The results will be useful for broad resource studies and initial site screening. Detailed resource evaluation for local sites will require more detailed local modelling or ideally long term field measurements. (12 figures, 14 tables, 21 references). (Author)

  2. Methodological quality and descriptive characteristics of prosthodontic-related systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, T; Compton, S; Nassar, U; Matthews, D; Ansari, K; Flores-Mir, C

    2013-04-01

    Ideally, healthcare systematic reviews (SRs) should be beneficial to practicing professionals in making evidence-based clinical decisions. However, the conclusions drawn from SRs are directly related to the quality of the SR and of the included studies. The aim was to investigate the methodological quality and key descriptive characteristics of SRs published in prosthodontics. Methodological quality was analysed using the Assessment of Multiple Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Several electronic resources (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and American Dental Association's Evidence-based Dentistry website) were searched. In total 106 SRs were located. Key descriptive characteristics and methodological quality features were gathered and assessed, and descriptive and inferential statistical testing performed. Most SRs in this sample originated from the European continent followed by North America. Two to five authors conducted most SRs; the majority was affiliated with academic institutions and had prior experience publishing SRs. The majority of SRs were published in specialty dentistry journals, with implant or implant-related topics, the primary topics of interest for most. According to AMSTAR, most quality aspects were adequately fulfilled by less than half of the reviews. Publication bias and grey literature searches were the most poorly adhered components. Overall, the methodological quality of the prosthodontic-related systematic was deemed limited. Future recommendations would include authors to have prior training in conducting SRs and for journals to include a universal checklist that should be adhered to address all key characteristics of an unbiased SR process. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Evaluating Complex Healthcare Systems: A Critique of Four Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Boon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to bring clarity to the emerging conceptual and methodological literature that focuses on understanding and evaluating complex or ‘whole’ systems of healthcare. An international working group reviewed literature from interdisciplinary or interprofessional groups describing approaches to the evaluation of complex systems of healthcare. The following four key approaches were identified: a framework from the MRC (UK, whole systems research, whole medical systems research described by NCCAM (USA and a model from NAFKAM (Norway. Main areas of congruence include acknowledgment of the inherent complexity of many healthcare interventions and the need to find new ways to evaluate these; the need to describe and understand the components of complex interventions in context (as they are actually practiced; the necessity of using mixed methods including randomized clinical trials (RCTs (explanatory and pragmatic and qualitative approaches; the perceived benefits of a multidisciplinary team approach to research; and the understanding that methodological developments in this field can be applied to both complementary and alternative medicine (CAM as well as conventional therapies. In contrast, the approaches differ in the following ways: terminology used, the extent to which the approach attempts to be applicable to both CAM and conventional medical interventions; the prioritization of research questions (in order of what should be done first especially with respect to how the ‘definitive’ RCT fits into the process of assessing complex healthcare systems; and the need for a staged approach. There appears to be a growing international understanding of the need for a new perspective on assessing complex healthcare systems.

  4. Comparison of cost determination of both resource consumption accounting and time-driven activity-based costing systems in a healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyapıcı, Hasan; Tanış, Veyis Naci

    2017-05-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to explore the differences between resource consumption accounting (RCA) and time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) systems in determining the costs of services of a healthcare setting. Methods A case study was conducted to calculate the unit costs of open and laparoscopic gall bladder surgeries using TDABC and RCA. Results The RCA system assigns a higher cost both to open and laparoscopic gall bladder surgeries than TDABC. The total cost of unused capacity under the TDABC system is also double that in RCA. Conclusion Unlike TDABC, RCA calculates lower costs for unused capacities but higher costs for products or services in a healthcare setting in which fixed costs make up a high proportion of total costs. What is known about the topic? TDABC is a revision of the activity-based costing (ABC) system. RCA is also a new costing system that includes both the theoretical advantages of ABC and the practical advantages of German costing. However, little is known about the differences arising from application of TDABC and RCA. What does this paper add? There is no study comparing both TDABC and RCA in a single case study based on a real-world healthcare setting. Thus, the present study fills this gap in the literature and it is unique in the sense that it is the first case study comparing TDABC and RCA for open and laparoscopic gall bladder surgeries in a healthcare setting. What are the implications for practitioners? This study provides several interesting results for managers and cost accounting researchers. Thus, it will contribute to the spread of RCA studies in healthcare settings. It will also help the implementers of TDABC to revise data concerning the cost of unused capacity. In addition, by separating costs into fixed and variable, the paper will help managers to create a blended (combined) system that can improve both short- and long-term decisions.

  5. Sustainability of evidence-based healthcare: research agenda, methodological advances, and infrastructure support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Enola; Luke, Douglas; Calhoun, Annaliese; McMillen, Curtis; Brownson, Ross; McCrary, Stacey; Padek, Margaret

    2015-06-11

    Little is known about how well or under what conditions health innovations are sustained and their gains maintained once they are put into practice. Implementation science typically focuses on uptake by early adopters of one healthcare innovation at a time. The later-stage challenges of scaling up and sustaining evidence-supported interventions receive too little attention. This project identifies the challenges associated with sustainability research and generates recommendations for accelerating and strengthening this work. A multi-method, multi-stage approach, was used: (1) identifying and recruiting experts in sustainability as participants, (2) conducting research on sustainability using concept mapping, (3) action planning during an intensive working conference of sustainability experts to expand the concept mapping quantitative results, and (4) consolidating results into a set of recommendations for research, methodological advances, and infrastructure building to advance understanding of sustainability. Participants comprised researchers, funders, and leaders in health, mental health, and public health with shared interest in the sustainability of evidence-based health care. Prompted to identify important issues for sustainability research, participants generated 91 distinct statements, for which a concept mapping process produced 11 conceptually distinct clusters. During the conference, participants built upon the concept mapping clusters to generate recommendations for sustainability research. The recommendations fell into three domains: (1) pursue high priority research questions as a unified agenda on sustainability; (2) advance methods for sustainability research; (3) advance infrastructure to support sustainability research. Implementation science needs to pursue later-stage translation research questions required for population impact. Priorities include conceptual consistency and operational clarity for measuring sustainability, developing evidence

  6. An Attribute Based Access Control Framework for Healthcare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Majid; Samet, Saeed; Hu, Ting

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, access control is an indispensable part of the Personal Health Record and supplies for its confidentiality by enforcing policies and rules to ensure that only authorized users gain access to requested resources in the system. In other words, the access control means protecting patient privacy in healthcare systems. Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) is a new access control model that can be used instead of other traditional types of access control such as Discretionary Access Control, Mandatory Access Control, and Role-Based Access Control. During last five years ABAC has shown some applications in both recent academic fields and industry purposes. ABAC by using user’s attributes and resources, makes a decision according to an access request. In this paper, we propose an ABAC framework for healthcare system. We use the engine of ABAC for rendering and enforcing healthcare policies. Moreover, we handle emergency situations in this framework.

  7. Perspectives on healthcare, chronic non-communicable disease, and healthworlds in an urban and rural setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Ibanez-Gonzalez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Amidst diverging discourses describing chronic non-communicable disease (NCD) and healthcare access, the hermeneutical tradition within sociology, particularly as exemplified in the work of Jurgen Habermas, provides a starting point for exploring and interpreting the experiences of chronic illness and healthcare access. In this study, we aimed to understand how women living with NCDs experience their illness and access healthcare in an urban and rural context. This study was a mixed-methods comparative case study of the healthcare access experiences of women with NCDs in an urban and rural area in South Africa. The core of the study methodology was a comparative qualitative case study, with quantitative methods serving to contextualise the findings. The cross-sectional survey describes a low resource population with a high prevalence of NCDs. Slightly over half the respondents in urban Soweto (50.7%) reported having at least one NCD. Only around a third (33.3%) of these participants reported accessing formal healthcare services in the past 6 months. Similar trends were found in the review of research carried out in rural Agincourt. The qualitative case study in Soweto is characterised by a preoccupation with how medicine from the clinic interacts with the body. The Agincourt qualitative case study highlights the importance of church membership, particularly of African Christian Churches, as the strongest factor motivating against the open use of traditional medicine. A consideration of the findings suggests five broad themes for further research: 1) processes of constructing body narratives; 2) encounters with purposive-rational systems; 3) encounters with traditional medicine; 4) encounters with contemporary informal medicine; and 5) religion and healthcare. These five themes constitute the beginning of a comprehensive schema of the lifeworld/healthworld.

  8. Clinical engagement: improving healthcare together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riches, E; Robson, B

    2014-02-01

    Clinical engagement can achieve lasting change in the delivery of healthcare. In October 2011, Healthcare Improvement Scotland formulated a clinical engagement strategy to ensure that a progressive and sustainable approach to engaging healthcare professionals is firmly embedded in its health improvement and public assurance activities. The strategy was developed using a 90-day process, combining an evidence base of best practice and feedback from semi-structured interviews and focus groups. The strategy aims to create a culture where clinicians view working with Healthcare Improvement Scotland as a worthwhile venture, which offers a number of positive benefits such as training, career development and research opportunities. The strategy works towards developing a respectful partnership between Healthcare Improvement Scotland, the clinical community and key stakeholders whereby clinicians' contributions are recognised in a non-financial reward system. To do this, the organisation needs a sustainable infrastructure and an efficient, cost-effective approach to clinical engagement. There are a number of obstacles to achieving successful clinical engagement and these must be addressed as key drivers in its implementation. The implementation of the strategy is supported by an action and resource plan, and its impact will be monitored by a measurement plan to ensure the organisation reviews its approaches towards clinical engagement.

  9. REGULAR OBSERVATION OF CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA BY ALLERGOLOGIST AND ITS INFLUENCE ON CLINICAL AND FUNCTIONAL PARAMETERS OF THE DISEASE AND CONSUMPTION OF HEALTHCARE RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Artyukhov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In real practice, treatment of patients with bronchial asthma (BA is accompanied by unreasonable increase of healthcare resources consumption because of unplanned visits to the doctor due to health worsening, hospital treatment of exacerbations and emergency calls. Objective: to evaluate an effectiveness of children’s with bronchial asthma observations by allergologist. Methods: the dynamics of clinical and functional signs and frequency of emergency claims was analyzed in 115 children with BA who were observed by allergologist once in 3 months during one year. Results: in 3 months of regular observation by allergologist the number of children with day and night symptoms of BA and patients with daily rescue use of short-acting 2-agonists decreased, there were fewer children with limitations of physical activity. The number of patients with normal FEV1 increased in 6 months. Regular observation with allergologist resulted in reduction of number of patients with exacerbations and hospitalizations, shortening of acute period of BA and hospital stay, decreasing of emergency claims rate compared to those who were observed by GPs. Conclusion: regular observation by allergologist once in 3 months results in stabilization of clinical and functional state in patients with BA and decreases the consumption of emergency care resources.Key words: children, bronchial asthma, allergologist, clinical and functional state, healthcare resources.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (3: 55–59

  10. Healthcare Workers and Workplace Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Pinar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Workplace violence is a threatening worldwide public health problem. Healthcare workers have under particular risk of workplace violence, and they are being exposed to violence 4-16 times more than other service workers. The frequency of violence in the health sector in the world has indicated in different range of results since there is no consistent definition of workplace violence and differences in research methodology (any type of violence: 22,0% - 60,0%; physical violence: 2,6% - 57,0%; verbal violence: 24,3% - 82,0%; sexual harassment: %1,9 - 10,5%. All healthcare workers have right to work in a safe working place. The safety of healthcare workers should deserve the same priority as patient safety. Various risk factors including social, cultural, environmental, organizational and personal elements play a role in the formation of workplace violence that is very important for our country. Considering all those factors, the workplace violence in health sector should be seriously handled and the strategies and policies must be developed for prevention. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 315-326

  11. Visioning future emergency healthcare collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderholm, Hanna M.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2010-01-01

    physicians, nurses, administrators, and information technology (IT) professionals working at large and small medical centers, and asked them to share their perspectives regarding 3DMC's potential benefits and disadvantages in emergency healthcare and its compatibility and/or lack thereof......New video technologies are emerging to facilitate collaboration in emergency healthcare. One such technology is 3D telepresence technology for medical consultation (3DMC) that may provide richer visual information to support collaboration between medical professionals to, ideally, enhance patient......, and resources. Both common and unique perceptions regarding 3DMC emerged,illustrating the need for 3DMC, and other collaboration technologies,to support interwoven situational awareness across different technological frames....

  12. Real-world health outcomes in adults with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the United States: a population study using electronic health records to examine patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, medication use, and healthcare resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Foster, Shonda A; Comer, Brian S; Lin, Chen-Yen; Malatestinic, William; Burge, Russel; Goldblum, Orin

    2018-06-28

    Little is known regarding real-world health outcomes data among US psoriasis patients, but electronic health records (EHR) that collect structured data at point-of-care may provide opportunities to investigate real-world health outcomes among psoriasis patients. Our objective was to investigate patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, patterns of medication use (duration, switching, and/or discontinuation), healthcare resource utilization, and medication costs using real-world data from psoriasis patients. Data for adults (≥18-years) with a dermatology provider-given diagnosis of psoriasis from 9/2014-9/2015 were obtained from dermatology practices using a widely used US dermatology-specific EHR containing over 500,000 psoriasis patients. Disease severity was captured by static physician's global assessment and body surface area. Patient-perceived treatment effectiveness was assessed by a pre-defined question. Treatment switching and duration were documented. Reasons for discontinuations were assessed using pre-defined selections. Healthcare resource utilization was defined by visit frequency and complexity. From 82,621 patients with psoriasis during the study period, patient-perceived treatment effectiveness was investigated in 2200 patients. The proportion of patients reporting "strongly agree" when asked if their treatment was effective was highest for biologics (73%) and those reporting treatment adherence (55%). In 16,000 patients who received oral systemics and 21,087 patients who received biologics, median treatment duration was longer for those who received biologics (160 vs. 113 days, respectively). Treatment switching was less frequent among patients on systemic monotherapies compared to those on combination therapies. The most common reason for discontinuing biologics was loss of efficacy; the most common reason for discontinuing orals was side effects. In 28,754 patients, higher disease severity was associated with increased healthcare resource

  13. Healthcare resource consumption for intermittent urinary catheterisation: cost-effectiveness of hydrophilic catheters and budget impact analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognoni, Carla; Tarricone, Rosanna

    2017-01-17

    This study presents a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing hydrophilic coated to uncoated catheters for patients performing urinary intermittent catheterisation. A national budget impact analysis is also included to evaluate the impact of intermittent catheterisation for management of bladder dysfunctions over a period of 5 years. A Markov model (lifetime horizon, 1 year cycle length) was developed to project health outcomes (life years and quality-adjusted life years) and economic consequences related to patients using hydrophilic coated or uncoated catheters. The model was populated with catheter-related clinical efficacy data retrieved from randomised controlled trials and quality-of-life data (utility weights) from the literature. Cost data (EUR, 2015) were estimated on the basis of healthcare resource consumption derived from an e-survey addressed to key opinion leaders in the field. Italian Healthcare Service perspective. Patients with spinal cord injury performing intermittent urinary catheterisation in the home setting. Incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility ratios (ICER and ICUR) of hydrophilic coated versus uncoated catheters and associated healthcare budget impact. The base-case ICER and ICUR associated with hydrophilic coated catheters were €20 761 and €24 405, respectively. This implies that hydrophilic coated catheters are likely to be cost-effective in comparison to uncoated ones, as proposed Italian threshold values range between €25 000 and €66 400. Considering a market share at year 5 of 89% hydrophilic catheters and 11% uncoated catheters, the additional cost for Italy is approximately €12 million in the next 5 years (current market share scenario for year 0: 80% hydrophilic catheters and 20% uncoated catheters). Considered over a lifetime, hydrophilic coated catheters are potentially a cost-effective choice in comparison to uncoated ones. These findings can assist policymakers in evaluating intermittent

  14. Demand for healthcare in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh C. Purohit

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In a developing country like India, allocation of scarce fiscal resources has to be based on a clear understanding of how investments in the heath sector are going to affect demand. Three aspects like overall healthcare demand, consumer decisions to use public and/or private care and role of price/quality influencing poor/rich consumer’s decisions are critical to assessing the equity implications of alternative policies. Our paper addresses these aspects through examining the pattern of healthcare demand in India. Data from the National Family Health Survey are used to model the healthcare choices that individuals make. We consider what these behavioral characteristics imply for public policy. This analysis aims to study disparities between rural and urban areas from all throughout India to five Indian states representing three levels of per capita incomes (all-India average, rich and poor. Results evidence that healthcare demand both in rural and urban areas is a commodity emerging as an essential need. Choices between public or private provider are guided by income and quality variables mainly with regard to public healthcare denoting thus a situation of very limited alternatives in terms of availing private providers. These results emphasize that existing public healthcare facilities do not serve the objective of providing care to the poor in a satisfactory manner in rural areas. Thus, any financing strategy to improve health system and reduce disparities across rich-poor states and rural-urban areas should also take into account not only overcoming inadequacy but also inefficiency in allocation and utilization of healthcare inputs.

  15. The intersection of disability and healthcare disparities: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Michelle A; Mahmoudi, Elham; Lee, Shoou-Yih

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual framework for understanding healthcare disparities experienced by individuals with disabilities. While health disparities are the result of factors deeply rooted in culture, life style, socioeconomic status, and accessibility of resources, healthcare disparities are a subset of health disparities that reflect differences in access to and quality of healthcare and can be viewed as the inability of the healthcare system to adequately address the needs of specific population groups. This article uses a narrative method to identify and critique the main conceptual frameworks that have been used in analyzing disparities in healthcare access and quality, and evaluating those frameworks in the context of healthcare for individuals with disabilities. Specific models that are examined include the Aday and Anderson Model, the Grossman Utility Model, the Institute of Medicine (IOM)'s models of Access to Healthcare Services and Healthcare Disparities, and the Cultural Competency model. While existing frameworks advance understandings of disparities in healthcare access and quality, they fall short when applied to individuals with disabilities. Specific deficits include a lack of attention to cultural and contextual factors (Aday and Andersen framework), unrealistic assumptions regarding equal access to resources (Grossman's utility model), lack of recognition or inclusion of concepts of structural accessibility (IOM model of Healthcare Disparities) and exclusive emphasis on supply side of the healthcare equation to improve healthcare disparities (Cultural Competency model). In response to identified gaps in the literature and short-comings of current conceptualizations, an integrated model of disability and healthcare disparities is put forth. We analyzed models of access to care and disparities in healthcare to be able to have an integrated and cohesive conceptual framework that could potentially address issues related to access to

  16. Measuring and modelling occupancy time in NHS continuing healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millard Peter H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to increasing demand and financial constraints, NHS continuing healthcare systems seek to find better ways of forecasting demand and budgeting for care. This paper investigates two areas of concern, namely, how long existing patients stay in service and the number of patients that are likely to be still in care after a period of time. Methods An anonymised dataset containing information for all funded admissions to placement and home care in the NHS continuing healthcare system was provided by 26 (out of 31 London primary care trusts. The data related to 11289 patients staying in placement and home care between 1 April 2005 and 31 May 2008 were first analysed. Using a methodology based on length of stay (LoS modelling, we captured the distribution of LoS of patients to estimate the probability of a patient staying in care over a period of time. Using the estimated probabilities we forecasted the number of patients that are likely to be still in care after a period of time (e.g. monthly. Results We noticed that within the NHS continuing healthcare system there are three main categories of patients. Some patients are discharged after a short stay (few days, some others staying for few months and the third category of patients staying for a long period of time (years. Some variations in proportions of discharge and transition between types of care as well as between care groups (e.g. palliative, functional mental health were observed. A close agreement of the observed and the expected numbers of patients suggests a good prediction model. Conclusions The model was tested for care groups within the NHS continuing healthcare system in London to support Primary Care Trusts in budget planning and improve their responsiveness to meet the increasing demand under limited availability of resources. Its applicability can be extended to other types of care, such as hospital care and re-ablement. Further work will be geared towards

  17. Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Healthcare Resources in Relation to Black-White Breast Cancer Survival Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi F. Akinyemiju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breast cancer survival has improved significantly in the US in the past 10–15 years. However, disparities exist in breast cancer survival between black and white women. Purpose. To investigate the effect of county healthcare resources and SES as well as individual SES status on breast cancer survival disparities between black and white women. Methods. Data from 1,796 breast cancer cases were obtained from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study dataset. Cox Proportional Hazards models were constructed accounting for clustering within counties. Three sequential Cox models were fit for each outcome including demographic variables; demographic and clinical variables; and finally demographic, clinical, and county-level variables. Results. In unadjusted analysis, black women had a 53% higher likelihood of dying of breast cancer and 32% higher likelihood of dying of any cause (P<0.05 compared with white women. Adjusting for demographic variables explained away the effect of race on breast cancer survival (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.99–1.97, but not on all-cause mortality. The racial difference in all-cause survival disappeared only after adjusting for county-level variables (HR, 1.27; CI, 0.95–1.71. Conclusions. Improving equitable access to healthcare for all women in the US may help eliminate survival disparities between racial and socioeconomic groups.

  18. A new process-centered description tool to initiate meta-reporting methodology in healthcare - 7CARECAT™. Feasibility study in a post-anesthesia care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, P; d'Hollander, A; Cahana, A; Van Gessel, E; Tassaux, D

    2013-10-01

    In the healthcare domain, different analytic tools focused on accidents appeared to be poorly adapted to sub-accidental issues. Improving local management and intra-institutional communication with simpler methods, allowing rapid and uncomplicated meta-reporting, could be an attractive alternative. A process-centered structure derived from the industrial domain - DEPOSE(E) - was selected and modified for its use in the healthcare domain. The seven exclusive meta-categories defined - Patient, Equipment, Process, Actor, Supplies, work Room and Organization- constitute 7CARECAT™. A collection of 536 "improvement" reports from a tertiary hospital Post anesthesia care unit (PACU) was used and four meta-categorization rules edited prior to the analysis. Both the relevance of the metacategories and of the rules were tested to build a meta-reporting methodology. The distribution of these categories was analyzed with a χ 2 test. Five hundred and ninety independent facts were collected out of the 536 reports. The frequencies of the categories are: Organization 44%, Actor 37%, Patient 11%, Process 3%, work Room 3%, Equipment 1% and Supplies 1%, with a p-value events voluntarily reported. This model represents a relevant tool to exchange meta-informations important for local and transversal communication in healthcare institutions. It could be used as a promising tool to improve quality and risk management. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  19. Formulation of a correlated variables methodology for assessment of continuous gas resources with an application to the Woodford play, Arkoma Basin, eastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, R.A.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Garrity, C.P.; Cook, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    Shale gas is a form of continuous unconventional hydrocarbon accumulation whose resource estimation is unfeasible through the inference of pore volume. Under these circumstances, the usual approach is to base the assessment on well productivity through estimated ultimate recovery (EUR). Unconventional resource assessments that consider uncertainty are typically done by applying analytical procedures based on classical statistics theory that ignores geographical location, does not take into account spatial correlation, and assumes independence of EUR from other variables that may enter into the modeling. We formulate a new, more comprehensive approach based on sequential simulation to test methodologies known to be capable of more fully utilizing the data and overcoming unrealistic simplifications. Theoretical requirements demand modeling of EUR as areal density instead of well EUR. The new experimental methodology is illustrated by evaluating a gas play in the Woodford Shale in the Arkoma Basin of Oklahoma. Differently from previous assessments, we used net thickness and vitrinite reflectance as secondary variables correlated to cell EUR. In addition to the traditional probability distribution for undiscovered resources, the new methodology provides maps of EUR density and maps with probabilities to reach any given cell EUR, which are useful to visualize geographical variations in prospectivity.

  20. Targeted Learning in Healthcare Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Susan

    2015-12-01

    The increasing availability of Big Data in healthcare encourages investigators to seek answers to big questions. However, nonparametric approaches to analyzing these data can suffer from the curse of dimensionality, and traditional parametric modeling does not necessarily scale. Targeted learning (TL) combines semiparametric methodology with advanced machine learning techniques to provide a sound foundation for extracting information from data. Predictive models, variable importance measures, and treatment benefits and risks can all be addressed within this framework. TL has been applied in a broad range of healthcare settings, including genomics, precision medicine, health policy, and drug safety. This article provides an introduction to the two main components of TL, targeted minimum loss-based estimation and super learning, and gives examples of applications in predictive modeling, variable importance ranking, and comparative effectiveness research.

  1. Improvement of laboratory turnaround time using lean methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shradha; Kapil, Sahil; Sharma, Monica

    2018-05-14

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss the implementation of lean methodology to reduce the turnaround time (TAT) of a clinical laboratory in a super speciality hospital. Delays in report delivery lead to delayed diagnosis increased waiting time and decreased customer satisfaction. The reduction in TAT will lead to increased patient satisfaction, quality of care, employee satisfaction and ultimately the hospital's revenue. Design/methodology/approach The generic causes resulting in increasing TAT of clinical laboratories were identified using lean tools and techniques such as value stream mapping (VSM), Gemba, Pareto Analysis and Root Cause Analysis. VSM was used as a tool to analyze the current state of the process and further VSM was used to design the future state with suggestions for process improvements. Findings This study identified 12 major non-value added factors for the hematology laboratory and 5 major non-value added factors for the biochemistry lab which were acting as bottlenecks resulting in limiting throughput. A four-month research study by the authors together with hospital quality department and laboratory staff members led to reduction of the average TAT from 180 to 95minutes in the hematology lab and from 268 to 208 minutes in the biochemistry lab. Practical implications Very few improvement initiatives in Indian healthcare are based on industrial engineering tools and techniques, which might be due to a lack of interaction between healthcare and engineering. The study provides a positive outcome in terms of improving the efficiency of services in hospitals and identifies a scope for lean in the Indian healthcare sector. Social implications Applying lean in the Indian healthcare sector gives its own potential solution to the problem caused, due to a wide gap between lean accessibility and lean implementation. Lean helped in changing the mindset of an organization toward providing the highest quality of services with faster delivery at

  2. Embedding systematic quality assessments in supportive supervision at primary healthcare level: application of an electronic Tool to Improve Quality of Healthcare in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboya, Dominick; Mshana, Christopher; Kessy, Flora; Alba, Sandra; Lengeler, Christian; Renggli, Sabine; Vander Plaetse, Bart; Mohamed, Mohamed A; Schulze, Alexander

    2016-10-13

    Assessing quality of health services, for example through supportive supervision, is essential for strengthening healthcare delivery. Most systematic health facility assessment mechanisms, however, are not suitable for routine supervision. The objective of this study is to describe a quality assessment methodology using an electronic format that can be embedded in supervision activities and conducted by council health staff. An electronic Tool to Improve Quality of Healthcare (e-TIQH) was developed to assess the quality of primary healthcare provision. The e-TIQH contains six sub-tools, each covering one quality dimension: infrastructure and equipment of the facility, its management and administration, job expectations, clinical skills of the staff, staff motivation and client satisfaction. As part of supportive supervision, council health staff conduct quality assessments in all primary healthcare facilities in a given council, including observation of clinical consultations and exit interviews with clients. Using a hand-held device, assessors enter data and view results in real time through automated data analysis, permitting immediate feedback to health workers. Based on the results, quality gaps and potential measures to address them are jointly discussed and actions plans developed. For illustrative purposes, preliminary findings from e-TIQH application are presented from eight councils of Tanzania for the period 2011-2013, with a quality score quality dimensions at baseline. Clinical practice was unsatisfactory in six councils, with more mixed results for availability of infrastructure and equipment, and for administration and management. In contrast, client satisfaction scored surprisingly high. Over time, each council showed a significant overall increase of 3-7 % in mean score, with the most pronounced improvements in staff motivation and job expectations. Given its comprehensiveness, convenient handling and automated statistical reports, e-TIQH enables

  3. Aviation and healthcare: a comparative review with implications for patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Narinder; Parand, Anam; Soukup, Tayana; Reader, Tom; Sevdalis, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Safety in aviation has often been compared with safety in healthcare. Following a recent article in this journal, the UK government set up an Independent Patient Safety Investigation Service, to emulate a similar well-established body in aviation. On the basis of a detailed review of relevant publications that examine patient safety in the context of aviation practice, we have drawn up a table of comparative features and a conceptual framework for patient safety. Convergence and divergence of safety-related behaviours across aviation and healthcare were derived and documented. Key safety-related domains that emerged included Checklists, Training, Crew Resource Management, Sterile Cockpit, Investigation and Reporting of Incidents and Organisational Culture. We conclude that whilst healthcare has much to learn from aviation in certain key domains, the transfer of lessons from aviation to healthcare needs to be nuanced, with the specific characteristics and needs of healthcare borne in mind. On the basis of this review, it is recommended that healthcare should emulate aviation in its resourcing of staff who specialise in human factors and related psychological aspects of patient safety and staff wellbeing. Professional and post-qualification staff training could specifically include Cognitive Bias Avoidance Training, as this appears to play a key part in many errors relating to patient safety and staff wellbeing.

  4. "The largest Lean transformation in the world": the implementation and evaluation of lean in Saskatchewan healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, Leigh; Rotter, Thomas; Stevenson, Katherine; Bath, Brenna; Goodridge, Donna; Harrison, Liz; Dobson, Roy; Sari, Nazmi; Jeffery, Cathy; Bourassa, Carrie; Westhorp, Gill

    2014-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Ministry of Health has committed to a multi-million dollar investment toward the implementation of Lean methodology across the province's healthcare system. Originating as a production line discipline (the Toyota Production System), Lean has evolved to encompass process improvements including inventory management, waste reduction and quality improvement techniques. With an initial focus on leadership, strategic alignment, training and the creation of a supportive infrastructure (Lean promotion offices), the goal in Saskatchewan is a whole health system transformation that produces "better health, better value, better care, and better teams." Given the scope and scale of the initiative and the commitment of resources, it is vital that a comprehensive, longitudinal evaluation plan be implemented to support ongoing decision-making and program design. The nature of the initiative also offers a unique opportunity to contribute to health quality improvement science by advancing our understanding of the implementation and evaluation of complex, large-scale healthcare interventions. The purpose of this article is to summarize the background to Lean in Saskatchewan and the proposed evaluation methods. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  5. Finding a balance between "value added" and feeling valued: revising models of care. The human factor of implementing a quality improvement initiative using Lean methodology within the healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Rachel; Wade, Shawna

    2011-01-01

    Growing demand from clients waiting to access vital services in a healthcare sector under economic constraint, coupled with the pressure for ongoing improvement within a multi-faceted organization, can have a significant impact on the front-line staff, who are essential to the successful implementation of any quality improvement initiative. The Lean methodology is a management system for continuous improvement based on the Toyota Production System; it focuses on two main themes: respect for people and the elimination of waste or non-value-added activities. Within the Lean process, value-added is used to describe any activity that contributes directly to satisfying the needs of the client, and non-value-added refers to any activity that takes time, space or resources but does not contribute directly to satisfying client needs. Through the revision of existing models of service delivery, the authors' organization has made an impact on increasing access to care and has supported successful engagement of staff in the process, while ensuring that the focus remains on the central needs of clients and families accessing services. While the performance metrics continue to exhibit respectable results for this strategic priority, further gains are expected over the next 18-24 months.

  6. Balancing influence between actors in healthcare decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babad Yair M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare costs in most developed countries are not clearly linked to better patient and public health outcomes, but are rather associated with service delivery orientation. In the U.S. this has resulted in large variation in healthcare availability and use, increased cost, reduced employer participation in health insurance programs, and reduced overall population health outcomes. Recent U.S. healthcare reform legislation addresses only some of these issues. Other countries face similar healthcare issues. Discussion A major goal of healthcare is to enhance patient health outcomes. This objective is not realized in many countries because incentives and structures are currently not aligned for maximizing population health. The misalignment occurs because of the competing interests between "actors" in healthcare. In a simplified model these are individuals motivated to enhance their own health; enterprises (including a mix of nonprofit, for profit and government providers, payers, and suppliers, etc. motivated by profit, political, organizational and other forces; and government which often acts in the conflicting roles of a healthcare payer and provider in addition to its role as the representative and protector of the people. An imbalance exists between the actors, due to the resources and information control of the enterprise and government actors relative to the individual and the public. Failure to use effective preventive interventions is perhaps the best example of the misalignment of incentives. We consider the current Pareto efficient balance between the actors in relation to the Pareto frontier, and show that a significant change in the healthcare market requires major changes in the utilities of the enterprise and government actors. Summary A variety of actions are necessary for maximizing population health within the constraints of available resources and the current balance between the actors. These actions include

  7. Balancing influence between actors in healthcare decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert M; Babad, Yair M

    2011-04-19

    Healthcare costs in most developed countries are not clearly linked to better patient and public health outcomes, but are rather associated with service delivery orientation. In the U.S. this has resulted in large variation in healthcare availability and use, increased cost, reduced employer participation in health insurance programs, and reduced overall population health outcomes. Recent U.S. healthcare reform legislation addresses only some of these issues. Other countries face similar healthcare issues. A major goal of healthcare is to enhance patient health outcomes. This objective is not realized in many countries because incentives and structures are currently not aligned for maximizing population health. The misalignment occurs because of the competing interests between "actors" in healthcare. In a simplified model these are individuals motivated to enhance their own health; enterprises (including a mix of nonprofit, for profit and government providers, payers, and suppliers, etc.) motivated by profit, political, organizational and other forces; and government which often acts in the conflicting roles of a healthcare payer and provider in addition to its role as the representative and protector of the people. An imbalance exists between the actors, due to the resources and information control of the enterprise and government actors relative to the individual and the public. Failure to use effective preventive interventions is perhaps the best example of the misalignment of incentives. We consider the current Pareto efficient balance between the actors in relation to the Pareto frontier, and show that a significant change in the healthcare market requires major changes in the utilities of the enterprise and government actors. A variety of actions are necessary for maximizing population health within the constraints of available resources and the current balance between the actors. These actions include improved transparency of all aspects of medical decision

  8. Lean healthcare from a change management perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rossum, Lisa; Aij, Kjeld Harald; Simons, Frederique Elisabeth; van der Eng, Niels; Ten Have, Wouter Dirk

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - Lean healthcare is used in a growing number of hospitals to increase efficiency and quality of care. However, healthcare organizations encounter problems with the implementation of change initiatives due to an implementation gap: the gap between strategy and execution. From a change management perspective, the purpose of this paper is to increase scientific knowledge regarding factors that diminish the implementation gap and make the transition from the "toolbox lean" toward an actual transformation to lean healthcare. Design/methodology/approach - A cross-sectional study was executed in an operating theatre of a Dutch University Medical Centre. Transformational leadership was expected to ensure the required top-down commitment, whereas team leadership creates the required active, bottom-up behavior of employees. Furthermore, professional and functional silos and a hierarchical structure were expected to impede the workforce flexibility in adapting organizational elements and optimize the entire process flow. Findings - The correlation and regression analyses showed positive relations between the transformational leadership and team leadership styles and lean healthcare implementation. The results also indicated a strong relation between workforce flexibility and the implementation of lean healthcare. Originality/value - With the use of a recently developed change management model, the Change Competence Model, the authors suggest leadership and workforce flexibility to be part of an organization's change capacity as crucial success factor for a sustainable transformation to lean healthcare.

  9. TQM implementation for the healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarini, Andrea; Vagnoni, Emidia

    2017-07-03

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to enlarge the debate on total quality management (TQM) implementation in the healthcare sector and to evaluate how and whether leadership can affect TQM implementation. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on findings from a literature review of TQM and leadership. The authors analysed these findings to categorise causes of a lack of leadership in TQM programme implementations. Findings The authors propose three categories of causes of a lack of leadership in TQM programme implementation. The first cause is well-known: a lack of senior managers' involvement and commitment. The second category is the "combined leadership" that occurs in large healthcare organisations; and the third category is the influence of an external "political leadership" on public healthcare. Research limitations/implications This paper presents researchers with three categories of causes of failure of leadership in TQM implementation that can be investigated. It also encourages reflections from practitioners concerning TQM leadership in the healthcare sector. Practical implications The authors request that practitioners reflect on ways to create or sustain a "monolithic" leadership, especially in large organisations, to ensure a common vision, values and attitude for unitary TQM governance. Originality/value In an original way, this paper analyses and proposes three categories of causes linked to a lack of TQM leadership in the healthcare sector.

  10. A novel methodology for energy performance benchmarking of buildings by means of Linear Mixed Effect Model: The case of space and DHW heating of out-patient Healthcare Centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozzoli, Alfonso; Piscitelli, Marco Savino; Neri, Francesco; Grassi, Daniele; Serale, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 100 Healthcare Centres were analyzed to assess energy consumption reference values. • A novel robust methodology for energy benchmarking process was proposed. • A Linear Mixed Effect estimation Model was used to treat heterogeneous datasets. • A nondeterministic approach was adopted to consider the uncertainty in the process. • The methodology was developed to be upgradable and generalizable to other datasets. - Abstract: The current EU energy efficiency directive 2012/27/EU defines the existing building stocks as one of the most promising potential sector for achieving energy saving. Robust methodologies aimed to quantify the potential reduction of energy consumption for large building stocks need to be developed. To this purpose, a benchmarking analysis is necessary in order to support public planners in determining how well a building is performing, in setting credible targets for improving performance or in detecting abnormal energy consumption. In the present work, a novel methodology is proposed to perform a benchmarking analysis particularly suitable for heterogeneous samples of buildings. The methodology is based on the estimation of a statistical model for energy consumption – the Linear Mixed Effects Model –, so as to account for both the fixed effects shared by all individuals within a dataset and the random effects related to particular groups/classes of individuals in the population. The groups of individuals within the population have been classified by resorting to a supervised learning technique. Under this backdrop, a Monte Carlo simulation is worked out to compute the frequency distribution of annual energy consumption and identify a reference value for each group/class of buildings. The benchmarking analysis was tested for a case study of 100 out-patient Healthcare Centres in Northern Italy, finally resulting in 12 different frequency distributions for space and Domestic Hot Water heating energy consumption, one for

  11. Risk of bloodborne pathogen exposure among Zambian healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elayne Kornblatt Phillips

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Understanding the risks of bloodborne pathogen transmission is fundamental to prioritizing interventions when resources are limited. This study investigated the risks to healthcare workers in Zambia. Design: A survey was completed anonymously by a convenience sample of workers in three hospitals and two clinics in Zambia. Respondents provided information regarding job category, injuries with contaminated sharps, hepatitis B vaccination status and the availability of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP. Results: Nurses reported the largest number of injuries. The average annual sharps injury rate was 1.3 injuries per worker, and service workers (housekeepers, laundry, ward assistants had the highest rate of these injuries, 1.9 per year. Injuries were often related to inadequate disposal methods. Syringe needles accounted for the largest proportion of injuries (60%, and 15% of these injuries were related to procedures with a higher-than-average risk for infection. Most workers (88% reported the availability of PEP, and only 8% were fully vaccinated against hepatitis B. Conclusions: The injury risks identified among Zambian workers are serious and are exacerbated by the high prevalence of bloodborne pathogens in the population. This suggests that there is a high risk of occupationally acquired bloodborne pathogen infection. The findings also highlight the need for a hepatitis B vaccination program focused on healthcare workers. The risks associated with bloodborne pathogens threaten to further diminish an already scarce resource in Zambia – trained healthcare workers. To decrease these risks, we suggest the use of low-cost disposal alternatives, the implementation of cost-sensitive protective strategies and the re-allocation of some treatment resources to primary prevention. Keywords: Healthcare worker safety, Zambian healthcare workers, Bloodborne pathogen transmission, Sharps injury prevention, Infectious diseases

  12. Analysis and Improvement of Healthcare Delivery Processes in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... delivery processes given the district's limited human and financial resources. ... Throughout this period of instability and unrest, Lacor Hospital has delivered critical ... and; strengthen the hospital's decision-making around healthcare delivery ...

  13. Healthcare leadership's diversity paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Reginald

    2017-02-06

    Purpose The purpose of this research study was to obtain healthcare executives' perspectives on diversity in executive healthcare leadership. The study focused on identifying perspectives about diversity and its potential impact on the access of healthcare services by people of color. The study also identified perspectives about factors that influence the attainment of executive healthcare roles by people of color. Design/methodology/approach A convenience sample of healthcare executives was obtained. The executives identified themselves as belonging to one of two subgroups, White healthcare executives or executives of color. Participants were interviewed telephonically in a semi-structured format. The interviews were transcribed and entered into a qualitative software application. The data were codified and important themes were identified. Findings The majority of the study participants perceive that diversity of the executive healthcare leadership team is important. There were differences in perspective among the subgroups as it relates to solutions to improve access to healthcare by people of color. There were also differences in perspective among the subgroups, as it relates to explaining the underrepresentation of people of color in executive healthcare leadership roles. Research limitations/implications This research effort benefited from the subject matter expertise of 24 healthcare executives from two states. Expansion of the number of survey participants and broadening the geographical spread of where participants were located may have yielded more convergence and/or more divergence in perspectives about key topics. Practical implications The findings from this research study serve to add to the existing body of literature on diversity in executive healthcare leadership. The findings expand on the importance of key elements in contemporary literature such as diversity, cultural competency and perspectives about the need for representation of people of

  14. Job satisfaction and retention of health-care providers in Afghanistan and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Linda; Kim, Young Mi; Juon, Hee-Soon; Tappis, Hannah; Noh, Jin Won; Zainullah, Partamin; Rozario, Aleisha

    2014-02-17

    This study describes job satisfaction and intention to stay on the job among primary health-care providers in countries with distinctly different human resources crises, Afghanistan and Malawi. Using a cross-sectional design, we enrolled 87 health-care providers in 32 primary health-care facilities in Afghanistan and 360 providers in 10 regional hospitals in Malawi. The study questionnaire was used to assess job satisfaction, intention to stay on the job and five features of the workplace environment: resources, performance recognition, financial compensation, training opportunities and safety. Descriptive analyses, exploratory factor analyses for scale development, bivariate correlation analyses and bivariate and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. The multivariate model for Afghanistan, with demographic, background and work environment variables, explained 23.9% of variance in job satisfaction (F(9,73) = 5.08; P job satisfaction. The multivariate model for intention to stay for Afghanistan explained 23.6% of variance (F(8,74) = 4.10; P job satisfaction (F(8,332) = 4.19; P job are highly dependent on the local context. Although health-care workers in both Afghanistan and Malawi reported satisfaction with their jobs, the predictors of satisfaction, and the extent to which those predictors explained variations in job satisfaction and intention to stay on the job, differed substantially. These findings demonstrate the need for more detailed comparative human resources for health-care research, particularly regarding the relative importance of different determinants of job satisfaction and intention to stay in different contexts and the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve health-care worker performance and retention.

  15. Measuring healthcare productivity - from unit to system level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämäräinen, Vesa Johannes; Peltokorpi, Antti; Torkki, Paulus; Tallbacka, Kaj

    2016-04-18

    Purpose - Healthcare productivity is a growing issue in most Western countries where healthcare expenditure is rapidly increasing. Therefore, accurate productivity metrics are essential to avoid sub-optimization within a healthcare system. The purpose of this paper is to focus on healthcare production system productivity measurement. Design/methodology/approach - Traditionally, healthcare productivity has been studied and measured independently at the unit, organization and system level. Suggesting that productivity measurement should be done in different levels, while simultaneously linking productivity measurement to incentives, this study presents the challenges of productivity measurement at the different levels. The study introduces different methods to measure productivity in healthcare. In addition, it provides background information on the methods used to measure productivity and the parameters used in these methods. A pilot investigation of productivity measurement is used to illustrate the challenges of measurement, to test the developed measures and to prove the practical information for managers. Findings - The study introduces different approaches and methods to measure productivity in healthcare. Practical implications - A pilot investigation of productivity measurement is used to illustrate the challenges of measurement, to test the developed measures and to prove the practical benefits for managers. Originality/value - The authors focus on the measurement of the whole healthcare production system and try to avoid sub-optimization. Additionally considering an individual patient approach, productivity measurement is examined at the unit level, the organizational level and the system level.

  16. Exploitation of Clustering Techniques in Transactional Healthcare Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Ahmad Mahoto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare service centres equipped with electronic health systems have improved their resources as well as treatment processes. The dynamic nature of healthcare data of each individual makes it complex and difficult for physicians to manually mediate them; therefore, automatic techniques are essential to manage the quality and standardization of treatment procedures. Exploratory data analysis, patternanalysis and grouping of data is managed using clustering techniques, which work as an unsupervised classification. A number of healthcare applications are developed that use several data mining techniques for classification, clustering and extracting useful information from healthcare data. The challenging issue in this domain is to select adequate data mining algorithm for optimal results. This paper exploits three different clustering algorithms: DBSCAN (Density-Based Clustering, agglomerative hierarchical and k-means in real transactional healthcare data of diabetic patients (taken as case study to analyse their performance in large and dispersed healthcare data. The best solution of cluster sets among the exploited algorithms is evaluated using clustering quality indexes and is selected to identify the possible subgroups of patients having similar treatment patterns

  17. A healthcare Lean Six Sigma System for postanesthesia care unit workflow improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Alex Mu-Hsing; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre; Lee, Te-Shu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a new model called Healthcare Lean Six Sigma System that integrates Lean and Six Sigma methodologies to improve workflow in a postanesthesia care unit. The methodology of the proposed model is fully described. A postanesthesia care unit case study is also used to demonstrate the benefits of using the Healthcare Lean Six Sigma System model by combining Lean and Six Sigma methodologies together. The new model bridges the service gaps between health care providers and patients, balances the requirements of health care managers, and delivers health care services to patients by taking the benefits of the Lean speed and Six Sigma high-quality principles. The full benefits of the new model will be realized when applied at both strategic and operational levels. For further research, we will examine how the proposed model is used in different real-world case studies.

  18. Model-driven methodology for rapid deployment of smart spaces based on resource-oriented architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Iván; Bernardos, Ana M; Iglesias, Josué; Casar, José R

    2012-01-01

    Advances in electronics nowadays facilitate the design of smart spaces based on physical mash-ups of sensor and actuator devices. At the same time, software paradigms such as Internet of Things (IoT) and Web of Things (WoT) are motivating the creation of technology to support the development and deployment of web-enabled embedded sensor and actuator devices with two major objectives: (i) to integrate sensing and actuating functionalities into everyday objects, and (ii) to easily allow a diversity of devices to plug into the Internet. Currently, developers who are applying this Internet-oriented approach need to have solid understanding about specific platforms and web technologies. In order to alleviate this development process, this research proposes a Resource-Oriented and Ontology-Driven Development (ROOD) methodology based on the Model Driven Architecture (MDA). This methodology aims at enabling the development of smart spaces through a set of modeling tools and semantic technologies that support the definition of the smart space and the automatic generation of code at hardware level. ROOD feasibility is demonstrated by building an adaptive health monitoring service for a Smart Gym.

  19. Model-Driven Methodology for Rapid Deployment of Smart Spaces Based on Resource-Oriented Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Casar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in electronics nowadays facilitate the design of smart spaces based on physical mash-ups of sensor and actuator devices. At the same time, software paradigms such as Internet of Things (IoT and Web of Things (WoT are motivating the creation of technology to support the development and deployment of web-enabled embedded sensor and actuator devices with two major objectives: (i to integrate sensing and actuating functionalities into everyday objects, and (ii to easily allow a diversity of devices to plug into the Internet. Currently, developers who are applying this Internet-oriented approach need to have solid understanding about specific platforms and web technologies. In order to alleviate this development process, this research proposes a Resource-Oriented and Ontology-Driven Development (ROOD methodology based on the Model Driven Architecture (MDA. This methodology aims at enabling the development of smart spaces through a set of modeling tools and semantic technologies that support the definition of the smart space and the automatic generation of code at hardware level. ROOD feasibility is demonstrated by building an adaptive health monitoring service for a Smart Gym.

  20. The role of information technology as a complementary resource in healthcare integrated delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Evelyn H; Revels, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    As in many industries, it is recognized that there is a need to increase the use of information technology (IT) in the healthcare industry. However, until now, this has not occurred. In fact, some say that IT in healthcare has consistently fallen far short of expectations. The purpose of this study was to illuminate the need for a more holistic view of healthcare network integration and demonstrate that simply applying the latest technology to the network is not adequate for improving overall effectiveness. The study results showed that the more holistic view has to include management commitment, of complementarity between IT integration and organizational integration, and continued investments.

  1. Antecedents to the adoption of ASPS in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randeree, Ebrahim; Judd, Susan P; Kishore, Rajiv; Rao, H Raghav

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this exploratory study was to identify drivers of adoption for a new form of information technology outsourcing--the ASP model--in the healthcare industry. Primary data were collected in January 2002 from a nationwide survey of senior-level healthcare information technology executives. Cost management (supplier presence, asset specificity, production costs, transaction costs, resource availability) and relative advantage (reliability, customizability, strategic alignment, and magnitude of potential loss) were found to have the largest influences on adoption behavior.

  2. Mindful Application of Aviation Practices in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Brennan, Peter A; Peerally, Mohammad Farhad; Kapur, Narinder; Hynes, Jonny M; Hodkinson, Peter D

    2017-12-01

    Evidence supports the efficacy of incorporating select recognized aviation practices and procedures into healthcare. Incident analysis, debrief, safety brief, and crew resource management (CRM) have all been assessed for implementation within the UK healthcare system, a world leader in aviation-based patient safety initiatives. Mindful application, in which aviation practices are specifically tailored to the unique healthcare setting, show promise in terms of acceptance and long-term sustainment. In order to establish British healthcare applications of aviation practices, a PubMed search of UK authored manuscripts published between 2005-2016 was undertaken using search terms 'aviation,' 'healthcare,' 'checklist,' and 'CRM.' A convenience sample of UK-authored aviation medical conference presentations and UK-authored patient safety manuscripts were also reviewed. A total of 11 of 94 papers with UK academic affiliations published between 2005-2016 and relevant to aviation modeled healthcare delivery were found. The debrief process, incident analysis, and CRM are the primary practices incorporated into UK healthcare, with success dependent on cultural acceptance and mindful application. CRM training has gained significant acceptance in UK healthcare environments. Aviation modeled incident analysis, debrief, safety brief, and CRM training are increasingly undertaken within the UK healthcare system. Nuanced application, in which the unique aspects of the healthcare setting are addressed as part of a comprehensive safety approach, shows promise for long-term success. The patient safety brief and aviation modeled incident analysis are in earlier phases of implementation, and warrant further analysis.Powell-Dunford N, Brennan PA, Peerally MF, Kapur N, Hynes JM, Hodkinson PD. Mindful application of aviation practices in healthcare. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(12):1107-1116.

  3. The complex interface between economy and healthcare: An introductory overview for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottolini, Federica Liliana; Buggio, Laura; Somigliana, Edgardo; Vercellini, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    In a period of generalized economic crisis, it seems particularly appropriate to try to manage a continuing growing sector such as healthcare in the best possible way. The crucial aim of optimization of available healthcare resources is obtaining the maximum possible benefit with the minimum expenditure. This has important social implications, whether individual citizens or tax-funded national health services eventually have to pay the bill. The keyword here is efficiency, which means either, maximizing the benefit from a fixed sum of money, or minimizing the resources required for a defined benefit. In order to achieve these objectives, economic evaluation is a helpful tool. Five different types of economic evaluation exist in the health-care field: cost-minimization, cost-benefit, cost-consequences, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis. The objective of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the principal methods used for economic evaluation in healthcare. Economic evaluation represents a starting point for the allocation of resources, the decision of the valuable investments and the division of budgets across different health programs. Moreover, economic evaluation allows the comparison of different procedures in terms of quality of life and life expectancy, bearing in mind that cost-effectiveness is only one of multiple facets in the decision making-process. Economic evaluation is important to critically evaluate clinical interventions and ensure that we are implementing the most cost-effective management protocols. Clinicians are called to fulfill the complex task of optimizing the use of resources, and, at the same time, improving the quality of healthcare assistance. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Work motivation among healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellström, Sofia; Avby, Gunilla; Areskoug-Josefsson, Kristina; Andersson Gäre, Boel; Andersson Bäck, Monica

    2017-06-19

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore work motivation among professionals at well-functioning primary healthcare centers subject to a national healthcare reform which include financial incentives. Design/methodology/approach Five primary healthcare centers in Sweden were purposively selected for being well-operated and representing public/private and small/large units. In total, 43 interviews were completed with different medical professions and qualitative deductive content analysis was conducted. Findings Work motivation exists for professionals when their individual goals are aligned with the organizational goals and the design of the reform. The centers' positive management was due to a unique combination of factors, such as clear direction of goals, a culture of non-hierarchical collaboration, and systematic quality improvement work. The financial incentives need to be translated in terms of quality patient care to provide clear direction for the professionals. Social processes where professionals work together as cohesive groups, and provided space for quality improvement work is pivotal in addressing how alignment is created. Practical implications Leaders need to consistently translate and integrate reforms with the professionals' drives and values. This is done by encouraging participation through teamwork, time for structured reflection, and quality improvement work. Social implications The design of the reforms and leadership are essential preconditions for work motivation. Originality/value The study offers a more complete picture of how reforms are managed at primary healthcare centers, as different medical professionals are included. The value also consists of showing how a range of aspects combine for primary healthcare professionals to successfully manage external reforms.

  5. Comparing interprofessional and interorganizational collaboration in healthcare: A systematic review of the qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Marlène; Brault, Isabelle; Van Durme, Thérèse; Macq, Jean

    2018-03-01

    Interprofessional and interorganizational collaboration have become important components of a well-functioning healthcare system, all the more so given limited financial resources, aging populations, and comorbid chronic diseases. The nursing role in working alongside other healthcare professionals is critical. By their leadership, nurses can create a culture that encourages values and role models that favour collaborative work within a team context. To clarify the specific features of conceptual frameworks of interprofessional and interorganizational collaboration in the healthcare field. This review, accordingly, offers insights into the key challenges facing policymakers, managers, healthcare professionals, and nurse leaders in planning, implementing, or evaluating interprofessional collaboration. This systematic review of qualitative research is based on the Joanna Briggs Institute's methodology for conducting synthesis. Cochrane, JBI, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Sociological Abstract, PsycInfo, and ProQuest were searched, using terms such as professionals, organizations, collaboration, and frameworks. Qualitative studies of all research design types describing a conceptual framework of interprofessional or interorganizational collaboration in the healthcare field were included. They had to be written in French or English and published in the ten years between 2004 and 2014. Sixteen qualitative articles were included in the synthesis. Several concepts were found to be common to interprofessional and interorganizational collaboration, such as communication, trust, respect, mutual acquaintanceship, power, patient-centredness, task characteristics, and environment. Other concepts are of particular importance either to interorganizational collaboration, such as the need for formalization and the need for professional role clarification, or to interprofessional collaboration, such as the role of individuals and team identity. Promoting

  6. What can organisational theory offer knowledge translation in healthcare? A thematic and lexical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadich, Ann; Doloswala, Navin

    2018-05-10

    Despite the relative abundance of frameworks and models to guide implementation science, the explicit use of theory is limited. Bringing together two seemingly disparate fields of research, this article asks, what can organisational theory offer implementation science? This is examined by applying a theoretical lens that incorporates agency, institutional, and situated change theories to understand the implementation of healthcare knowledge into practice. Interviews were conducted with 20 general practitioners (GPs) before and after using a resource to facilitate evidence-based sexual healthcare. Research material was analysed using two approaches - researcher-driven thematic coding and lexical analysis, which was relatively less researcher-driven. The theoretical lens elucidated the complex pathways of knowledge translation. More specifically, agency theory revealed tensions between the GP as agent and their organisations and patients as principals. Institutional theory highlighted the importance of GP-embeddedness within their chosen specialty of general practice; their medical profession; and the practice in which they worked. Situated change theory exposed the role of localised adaptations over time - a metamorphosis. This study has theoretical, methodological, and practical implications. Theoretically, it is the first to examine knowledge translation using a lens premised on agency, institutional, and situated change theories. Methodologically, the study highlights the complementary value of researcher-driven and researcher-guided analysis of qualitative research material. Practically, this study signposts opportunities to facilitate knowledge translation - more specifically, it suggests that efforts to shape clinician practices should accommodate the interrelated influence of the agent and the institution, and recognise that change can be ever so subtle.

  7. Transferability of Industrial Engineering Methods to the Healthcare Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Nielsen, Anders Paarup; Hasle, Peter

    for discussing the implications of transferring such industrial engineering methods to the healthcare sector. The conclusion of the review suggest that is possible to use lean as an inspiration for improvements of both efficiency, quality and working conditions provided diligent consideration of the particulars....... With no hope of getting substantial more resources healthcare managers and politicians has begun to look for alternative modes of organization. In doing so the healthcare sector is being exposed to industrial rationalization principles such as lean manufacturing. The question is whether lean opens...... of health care organization in comparison with manufacturing industry....

  8. Transferability of Industrial Engineering Methods to the Healthcare Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Nielsen, Anders P.; Hasle, Peter

    2011-01-01

    for discussing the implications of transferring such industrial engineering methods to the healthcare sector. The conclusion of the review suggest that is possible to use lean as an inspiration for improvements of both efficiency, quality and working conditions provided diligent consideration of the particulars....... With no hope of getting substantial more resources healthcare managers and politicians has begun to look for alternative modes of organization. In doing so the healthcare sector is being exposed to industrial rationalization principles such as lean manufacturing. The question is whether lean opens...... of health care organization in comparison with manufacturing industry....

  9. Characteristics of healthcare wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, L.F.; Eggerth, L.L.; Enkhtsetseg, Sh.; Savage, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the quantities and characteristics of the material that needs to be managed is one of the most basic steps in the development of a plan for solid waste management. In this case, the material under consideration is the solid waste generated in healthcare facilities, also known as healthcare waste. Unfortunately, limited reliable information is available in the open literature on the quantities and characteristics of the various types of wastes that are generated in healthcare facilities. Thus, sound management of these wastes, particularly in developing countries, often is problematic. This article provides information on the quantities and properties of healthcare wastes in various types of facilities located in developing countries, as well as in some industrialized countries. Most of the information has been obtained from the open literature, although some information has been collected by the authors and from reports available to the authors. Only data collected within approximately the last 15 years and using prescribed methodologies are presented. The range of hospital waste generation (both infectious and mixed solid waste fractions) varies from 0.016 to 3.23 kg/bed-day. The relatively wide variation is due to the fact that some of the facilities surveyed in Ulaanbaatar include out-patient services and district health clinics; these facilities essentially provide very basic services and thus the quantities of waste generated are relatively small. On the other hand, the reported amount of infectious (clinical, yellow bag) waste varied from 0.01 to 0.65 kg/bed-day. The characteristics of the components of healthcare wastes, such as the bulk density and the calorific value, have substantial variability. This literature review and the associated attempt at a comparative analysis point to the need for worldwide consensus on the terms and characteristics that describe wastes from healthcare facilities. Such a consensus would greatly

  10. Developing a strategic human resources plan for the Urban Angel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Susan M

    2011-01-01

    In healthcare a significant portion of the budget is related to human resources. However, many healthcare organizations have yet to develop and implement a focused organizational strategy that ensures all human resources are managed in a way that best supports the successful achievement of corporate strategies. St. Michael's Hospital, in Toronto, Ontario, recognized the benefits of a strategic human resources management plan. During an eight-month planning process, St. Michael's Hospital undertook the planning for and development of a strategic human resources management plan. Key learnings are outlined in this paper.

  11. Utilization and Monetization of Healthcare Data in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bram, Joshua T; Warwick-Clark, Boyd; Obeysekare, Eric; Mehta, Khanjan

    2015-06-01

    In developing countries with fledgling healthcare systems, the efficient deployment of scarce resources is paramount. Comprehensive community health data and machine learning techniques can optimize the allocation of resources to areas, epidemics, or populations most in need of medical aid or services. However, reliable data collection in low-resource settings is challenging due to a wide range of contextual, business-related, communication, and technological factors. Community health workers (CHWs) are trusted community members who deliver basic health education and services to their friends and neighbors. While an increasing number of programs leverage CHWs for last mile data collection, a fundamental challenge to such programs is the lack of tangible incentives for the CHWs. This article describes potential applications of health data in developing countries and reviews the challenges to reliable data collection. Four practical CHW-centric business models that provide incentive and accountability structures to facilitate data collection are presented. Creating and strengthening the data collection infrastructure is a prerequisite for big data scientists, machine learning experts, and public health administrators to ultimately elevate and transform healthcare systems in resource-poor settings.

  12. Healthcare administration education in the 21st century: the case for entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R; Duncan, W Jack; Ginter, Peter M

    2005-01-01

    This paper recommends the broadening of the course content in several of the current required courses within the core curriculum of healthcare management education to include entrepreneurship topics and the inclusion of a separate entrepreneurship course. The current state of entrepreneurship within healthcare is described through the discussion of a healthcare entrepreneurship continuum. Because of the evolution of the healthcare industry in the past ten years, healthcare administration programs must also evolve to make our curriculum more relevant and increase student placement options. The current healthcare administration education shortcomings are discussed and recommendations for curriculum change are presented. Finally, a readings and resources list is provided as a basis for further curriculum development.

  13. Formulation of a correlated variables methodology for assessment of continuous gas resources with an application to the Wood ford play, Arkoma Basin, eastern Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olea, R. A.; Houseknecht, D. W.; Garrity, C. P.; Cook, T. A.

    2011-07-01

    Shale gas is a form of continuous unconventional hydrocarbon accumulation whose resource estimation is unfeasible through the inference of pore volume. Under these circumstances, the usual approach is to base the assessment on well productivity through estimated ultimate recovery (EUR). Unconventional resource assessments that consider uncertainty are typically done by applying analytical procedures based on classical statistics theory that ignores geographical location, does not take into account spatial correlation, and assumes independence of EUR from other variables that may enter into the modeling. We formulate a new, more comprehensive approach based on sequential simulation to test methodologies known to be capable of more fully utilizing the data and overcoming unrealistic simplifications. Theoretical requirements demand modeling of EUR as areal density instead of well EUR. The new experimental methodology is illustrated by evaluating a gas play in the Wood ford Shale in the Arkoma Basin of Oklahoma. Differently from previous assessments, we used net thickness and vitrinite reflectance as secondary variables correlated to cell EUR. In addition to the traditional probability distribution for undiscovered resources, the new methodology provides maps of EUR density and maps with probabilities to reach any given cell EUR, which are useful to visualize geographical variations in prospectivity. (Author) 21 refs.

  14. Welfarism versus 'free enterprise': considerations of power and justice in the Philippine healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Peter A

    2003-10-01

    The just distribution of benefits and burdens of healthcare, at least in the contemporary Philippine context, is an issue that gravitates towards two opposing doctrines of welfarism and 'free enterprise.' Supported largely by popular opinion, welfarism maintains that social welfare and healthcare are primarily the responsibility of the government. Free enterprise (FE) doctrine, on the other hand, maintains that social welfare is basically a market function and that healthcare should be a private industry that operates under competitive conditions with minimal government control. I will examine the ethical implications of these two doctrines as they inform healthcare programmes by business and government, namely: (a) the Devolution of Health Services and (b) the Philippine Health Maintenance Organization (HMO). I will argue that these doctrines and the health programmes they inform are deficient in following respects: (1) equitable access to healthcare, (2) individual needs for premium healthcare, (3) optimal utilisation of health resources, and (4) the equitable assignment of burdens that healthcare entails. These respects, as considerations of justice, are consistent with an operational definition of 'power' proposed here as 'access to and control of resources.'

  15. The Potential Role of Mental Model Methodologies in Multistakeholder Negotiations: Integrated Water Resources Management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derick R. Du Toit

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Equitable redistribution of resources is an emergent phenomenon in democratizing countries, and attempts are often characterized by decentralized decision making within a framework of multistakeholder negotiations. South Africa offers a unique opportunity to explore the manifestations of these relationships, particularly through Integrated Water Resources Management and its National Water Act of 1998. The Integrated Water Resources Management framework provides for collaborative strategic planning, shared visioning, consideration to water resource protection, attention to the regulation of use, operational planning, and implementation of management plans. Water users, with different stakes and views of how the resource should be managed, are expected to arrive at a single strategic plan for a specific hydrological region. Clearly this complex planning situation creates a need for tools that assist in producing a measure of convergence in thinking and enough of a shared rationale to allow stakeholder participation to produce an integrated management outcome. Several such tools are available in the overall catchment management strategy, but these would benefit from clearer understanding of the positions from which different stakeholders are operating and a way of knowing whether these positions are aligning. In this paper challenges posed by differences in meaning and understanding amongst stakeholders are examined against the need to engage stakeholders in water resources management. We deliberate on the prospects of employing mental model methodologies within the context of the strategic management framework for water management described.

  16. Methodology to explore emergent behaviours of the interactions between water resources and ecosystem under a pluralistic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Santos, Glenda; Madruga de Brito, Mariana; Höllermann, Britta; Taft, Linda; Almoradie, Adrian; Evers, Mariele

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the interactions between water resources and its social dimensions is crucial for an effective and sustainable water management. The identification of sensitive control variables and feedback loops of a specific human-hydro-scape can enhance the knowledge about the potential factors and/or agents leading to the current water resources and ecosystems situation, which in turn supports the decision-making process of desirable futures. Our study presents the utility of a system dynamics modeling approach for water management and decision-making for the case of a forest ecosystem under risk of wildfires. We use the pluralistic water research concept to explore different scenarios and simulate the emergent behaviour of water interception and net precipitation after a wildfire in a forest ecosystem. Through a case study, we illustrate the applicability of this new methodology.

  17. Effect of a Neonatal Resuscitation Course on Healthcare Providers' Performances Assessed by Video Recording in a Low-Resource Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanuto, Daniele; Bertuola, Federica; Lanzoni, Paolo; Cavallin, Francesco; Matediana, Eduardo; Manzungu, Olivier Wingi; Gomez, Ermelinda; Da Dalt, Liviana; Putoto, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the effect of an adapted neonatal resuscitation program (NRP) course on healthcare providers' performances in a low-resource setting through the use of video recording. A video recorder, mounted to the radiant warmers in the delivery rooms at Beira Central Hospital, Mozambique, was used to record all resuscitations. One-hundred resuscitations (50 before and 50 after participation in an adapted NRP course) were collected and assessed based on a previously published score. All 100 neonates received initial steps; from these, 77 and 32 needed bag-mask ventilation (BMV) and chest compressions (CC), respectively. There was a significant improvement in resuscitation scores in all levels of resuscitation from before to after the course: for "initial steps", the score increased from 33% (IQR 28-39) to 44% (IQR 39-56), pproviders improved after participation in an adapted NRP course. Video recording was well-accepted by the staff, useful for objective assessment of performance during resuscitation, and can be used as an educational tool in a low-resource setting.

  18. Attributable Healthcare Resource Utilization and Costs for Patients With Primary and Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongmu; Prabhu, Vimalanand S; Marcella, Stephen W

    2018-04-17

    The economic burden of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea, is not well understood. The objective of this study was to estimate the healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and costs attributable to primary CDI and recurrent CDI (rCDI). This is a database (MarketScan) study. Patients without CDI were matched 1:1 by propensity score to those with primary CDI but no recurrences to obtain HCRU and costs attributable to primary CDI. Patients with primary CDI but no recurrences were matched 1:1 by propensity score to those with primary CDI plus 1 recurrence in order to obtain HCRU and costs attributable to rCDI. Adjusted estimates for incremental cumulative hospitalized days and healthcare costs over a 6-month follow-up period were obtained by generalized linear models with a Poisson or gamma distribution and a log link. Bootstrapping was used to obtain 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 55504 eligible CDI patients were identified. Approximately 25% of these CDI patients had rCDI. The cumulative hospitalized days attributable to primary CDI and rCDI over the 6-month follow-up period were 5.20 days (95% CI, 5.01-5.39) and 1.95 days (95% CI, 1.48-2.43), respectively. The healthcare costs attributable to primary CDI and rCDI over the 6-month follow-up period were $24205 (95% CI, $23436-$25013) and $10580 (95% CI, $8849-$12446), respectively. The HCRU and costs attributable to primary CDI and rCDI are quite substantial. It is necessary to reduce the burden of CDI, especially rCDI.

  19. Find-rate methodology and resource base estimates of the Hydrocarbon Supply Model (1990 update). Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.

    1991-02-01

    The Hydrocarbon Supply Model is used to develop long-term trends in Lower-48 gas production and costs. The model utilizes historical find-rate patterns to predict the discovery rate and size distribution of future oil and gas field discoveries. The report documents the methodologies used to quantify historical oil and gas field find-rates and to project those discovery patterns for future drilling. It also explains the theoretical foundations for the find-rate approach. The new field and reserve growth resource base is documented and compared to other published estimates. The report has six sections. Section 1 provides background information and an overview of the model. Sections 2, 3, and 4 describe the theoretical foundations of the model, the databases, and specific techniques used. Section 5 presents the new field resource base by region and depth. Section 6 documents the reserve growth model components

  20. Introducing New Priority Setting and Resource Allocation Processes in a Canadian Healthcare Organization: A Case Study Analysis Informed by Multiple Streams Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neale Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In this article, we analyze one case instance of how proposals for change to the priority setting and resource allocation (PSRA processes at a Canadian healthcare institution reached the decision agenda of the organization’s senior leadership. We adopt key concepts from an established policy studies framework – Kingdon’s multiple streams theory – to inform our analysis. Methods Twenty-six individual interviews were conducted at the IWK Health Centre in Halifax, NS, Canada. Participants were asked to reflect upon the reasons leading up to the implementation of a formal priority setting process – Program Budgeting and Marginal Analysis (PBMA – in the 2012/2013 fiscal year. Responses were analyzed qualitatively using Kingdon’s model as a template. Results The introduction of PBMA can be understood as the opening of a policy window. A problem stream – defined as lack of broad engagement and information sharing across service lines in past practice – converged with a known policy solution, PBMA, which addressed the identified problems and was perceived as easy to use and with an evidence-base from past applications across Canada and elsewhere. Conditions in the political realm allowed for this intervention to proceed, but also constrained its potential outcomes. Conclusion Understanding in a theoretically-informed way how change occurs in healthcare management practices can provide useful lessons to researchers and decision-makers whose aim is to help health systems achieve the most effective use of available financial resources.

  1. Job satisfaction and retention of health-care providers in Afghanistan and Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes job satisfaction and intention to stay on the job among primary health-care providers in countries with distinctly different human resources crises, Afghanistan and Malawi. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, we enrolled 87 health-care providers in 32 primary health-care facilities in Afghanistan and 360 providers in 10 regional hospitals in Malawi. The study questionnaire was used to assess job satisfaction, intention to stay on the job and five features of the workplace environment: resources, performance recognition, financial compensation, training opportunities and safety. Descriptive analyses, exploratory factor analyses for scale development, bivariate correlation analyses and bivariate and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Results The multivariate model for Afghanistan, with demographic, background and work environment variables, explained 23.9% of variance in job satisfaction (F(9,73) = 5.08; P job satisfaction. The multivariate model for intention to stay for Afghanistan explained 23.6% of variance (F(8,74) = 4.10; P job satisfaction (F(8,332) = 4.19; P job satisfaction and intention to stay on the job, differed substantially. These findings demonstrate the need for more detailed comparative human resources for health-care research, particularly regarding the relative importance of different determinants of job satisfaction and intention to stay in different contexts and the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve health-care worker performance and retention. PMID:24533615

  2. The importance of epidemiological predictors for healthcare costs for chronic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise

    SUMMARY Healthcare systems around the world continue to see their expenditures increase, measured as a percentage of gross domestic product. Within health economics, the need for models that can predict healthcare costs is of substantial importance, as decisions to introduce as well as to decommi......SUMMARY Healthcare systems around the world continue to see their expenditures increase, measured as a percentage of gross domestic product. Within health economics, the need for models that can predict healthcare costs is of substantial importance, as decisions to introduce as well...... to consider, and lastly choosing the most appropriate statistical model. This framework was developed as a result of five quantitative studies, of which four were based on patient specific data from registers, and one on cost of illness theory. The framework was applied for predicting the cost for all...... which these patients are treated, as different resources were affected differently by the clinical and behavioural predictors included. In conclusion, the results from this dissertation highlight the importance being familiar with the population of interest, identifying the relevant resources, including...

  3. 75 FR 59720 - Methodology Committee of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Methodology Committee of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research... responsibility for appointing not more than 15 members to a Methodology Committee of the Patient- Centered Outcomes Research Institute. In addition, the Directors of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality...

  4. Cultural Landscapes as a Methodology for Understanding Natural Resource Management Impacts in the Western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. Toupal

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Multicultural demands on public lands in the United States continue to challenge federal land managers to address social and cultural concerns in their planning efforts. Specifically, they lack adequate knowledge of cultural concerns, as well as a consistent strategy for acquiring that knowledge for use in decision-making. Current federal approaches to understanding such issues as access, use, and control of resources include public participation, conservation partnerships, government-to-government consultations with American Indian tribes, cultural resource inventories, and landscape analysis. Given that cultural knowledge arises from human-nature relationships and shared perceptions of natural environments, and that landscapes are the ultimate expression of such knowledge, an exploratory methodology was developed to provide a different approach to understanding cultural concerns through landscape perceptions. Using cultural landscape theories and applications from the natural and social sciences, this study examines the landscape perceptions of four groups concerned with management planning of the Baboquivari Wilderness Area in southern Arizona: the Bureau of Land Management, the landowners of the Altar Valley, recreationists, and members of the Tohono O'odham Nation. The methodology is based on a human-nature relationship rather than cultural aspects or features. It takes a holistic approach that differs from other perception studies in that it includes: emic aspects of data collection and analysis; a spatial component (triangulation of data collection through narrative and graphic descriptions; ethnographic, on-site interviews; and cultural consensus analysis and small-sample theory. The results include: verification of four cultural groups; two levels of consensus (in the population of concern, and in each group that overlap in some aspects of landscape perception; descriptions of four cultural landscapes that illustrate similarities and

  5. The burden of gunshot injuries on orthopaedic healthcare resources in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Case; Thiart, Gerhard; McCollum, Graham; Roche, Stephen; Maqungo, Sithombo

    2017-06-30

    cost USD2 940, used just over 3 hours of theatre time per operation, and necessitated a hospital bed for an average period of 9.75 days. Improved understanding of the high incidence of orthopaedic GSWs treated in an SA tertiary care trauma centre and the costs incurred will help the state healthcare system better prioritise orthopaedic trauma funding and training opportunities, while also supporting cost-saving measures, including redirection of financial resources to primary prevention initiatives.

  6. Sustainability in Health care by allocating resources effectively (SHARE) 1: introducing a series of papers reporting an investigation of disinvestment in a local healthcare setting

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Claire; Green, Sally; Ramsey, Wayne; Allen, Kelly; King, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This is the first in a series of papers reporting Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE). The SHARE Program is an investigation of concepts, opportunities, methods and implications for evidence-based investment and disinvestment in health technologies and clinical practices in a local healthcare setting. The papers in this series are targeted at clinicians, managers, policy makers, health service researchers and implementation scientists working in this cont...

  7. Medication supply, healthcare outcomes and healthcare expenses: longitudinal analyses of patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Chen; Blank, Robert H; Cheng, Shou-Hsia

    2014-09-01

    Patients with chronic conditions largely depend on proper medications to maintain health. This study aims to examine, for patients with diabetes and hypertension, whether the appropriateness of the quantity of drug obtained is associated with favorable healthcare outcomes and lower expenses. This study utilized a longitudinal design with a seven-year follow-up period from 2002 to 2009 under a universal health insurance program in Taiwan. The patients under study were those aged 18 years or older and newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes or hypertension in 2002. Generalized estimating equations were performed to examine the relationship between medication supply and health outcomes as well as expenses. The results indicate that while compared with patients with an appropriate medication supply, patients with either an undersupply or an oversupply of medications tended to have poorer healthcare outcomes. The study also found that an excess supply of medications for patients with diabetes or hypertension resulted in higher total healthcare expenses. Either an undersupply or an oversupply of medication was associated with unfavorable healthcare outcomes, and that medication oversupply was associated with the increased consumption of health resources. Our findings suggest that improving appropriate medication supply is beneficial for the healthcare system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human resources for health in six healthcare arenas under stress: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Jo; Pavignani, Enrico; Beesley, Mark; Hill, Peter S

    2015-03-29

    Research on "human resources for health" (HRH) typically focuses on the public health subsector, despite the World Health Organization's inclusive definition to the contrary. This qualitative research examines the profile of HRH in six conflict-affected contexts where the public health subsector does not dominate healthcare service provision and HRH is a less coherent and cohesive entity: Afghanistan, the Central African Republic (CAR), the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo), Haiti, the Occupied Palestinian Territories and Somalia. The study uses a multiple-country qualitative research design including documentary analysis and key informant interviews undertaken between 2010 and 2012. The documentary analysis included peer-reviewed articles, books, unpublished research and evaluations and donor and non-government organisation reviews. A common thematic guide, informed by this analysis, was used to undertake key informant interviews. Informants thought able to provide some insight into the research questions were identified from ministry of health organograms, and from listings of donors and non-government organisations. Local informants outside the familiar structures were also contacted. In CAR, 74 were interviewed; in Somalia 25; . in Haiti, 45; in Afghanistan, 41; in DR Congo, 32; and in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, 30. In addition, peer review was sought on the initial country reports. The study discovered, in each healthcare arena investigated, a crowded HRH space with a wide range of public, private, formal and informal providers of varying levels of competence and a diverse richness of initiatives, shaped by the easy commodification of health and an unregulated market. The weak regulatory framework and capacity to regulate, combined with limited information regarding those not on the state payroll, allowed non-state providers to flourish, if not materially then at least numerically. When examining HRH, a reliance on information provided by the

  9. How 'healthy' are healthcare organizations? Exploring employee healthcare utilization rates among Dutch healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronkhorst, Babette

    2017-08-01

    Occupational health and safety research rarely makes use of data on employee healthcare utilization to gain insight into the physical and mental health of healthcare staff. This paper aims to fill this gap by examining the prevalence of two relevant types of healthcare utilization among staff working in healthcare organizations: physical therapy and mental healthcare utilization. The paper furthermore explores what role employee and organizational characteristics play in explaining differences in healthcare utilization between organizations. A Dutch healthcare insurance company provided healthcare utilization records for a sample of 417 organizations employing 136,804 healthcare workers in the Netherlands. The results showed that there are large differences between and within healthcare industries when it comes to employee healthcare utilization. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that employee characteristics such as age and gender distributions, and healthcare industry, explain some of the variance between healthcare organizations. Nevertheless, the results of the analyses showed that for all healthcare utilization indicators there is still a large amount of unexplained variance. Further research into the subject of organizational differences in employee healthcare utilization is needed, as finding possibilities to influence employee health and subsequent healthcare utilization is beneficial to employees, employers and society as a whole.

  10. Performance Management in Healthcare Organizations: Concept and Practicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, Panagiotis E

    2017-01-01

    Organizational performance can create and sustain competitive advantages for corporations and even improve their sustainability and future prospects. Health care organizations present a sector where performance management is structured by multiple dimensions. The scope of this study is to analyze the issue of performance management in healthcare organizations and specifically the implementation of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) methodology on organizations providing health services. The study provides a discussion on the BSC development process, the steps that management has to take in order to prepare the implementation of the BSC and finally discusses a practical example of a scorecard with specific strategic goals and performance indicators. Managers of healthcare organizations and specifically those providing services to the elderly and the general population could use the propositions of the study as a roadmap for processing, analyzing, evaluating and implementing the balanced scorecard approach in their organizations' daily operations. BSC methodology can give an advantage in terms of enhanced stakeholder management and preservation within a highly volatile and competitive economic environment.

  11. The great divide: social media's role in bridging healthcare's generational shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarringhaus, Meredith M

    2011-01-01

    Social media, a resource largely untapped in the healthcare field, presents opportunities and advantages and, if used properly, can innovate healthcare and create a competitive advantage for adopters. Many organizations have considered social media but dismissed its advantages as fleeting products of the new generation entering the workforce: the millennials. However, the millennial generation has assumed a greater presence in clinical and administrative positions as the baby boomer generation prepares for retirement. This article advocates the adoption of social media in healthcare organizations as a strategic advantage in connecting with their patient population and recruiting and retaining millennial staff amid the generational shift of the healthcare workforce.

  12. Healthcare professionals' perceptions of the value and impact of the arts in healthcare settings: A critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ceri; Bungay, Hilary; Munn-Giddings, Carol; Boyce, Melanie

    2016-04-01

    Internationally there is growing interest in the use of the arts in the healthcare context evidenced by the number of research studies reported in the nursing and medical literature. Establishing successful projects in healthcare environments will to some extent be reliant on the cooperation of staff working in these settings: healthcare professionals and their cultural values will be the lynchpin in the relationship between the artists organising the activities and the patients. This review appraises healthcare professionals' perceptions of the value of the arts in healthcare settings, and the impact of the arts on healthcare professionals. A critical review of the literature between 2004 and 2014 was undertaken. The following databases were searched: MedLine, CINAHL, AMED, Web of Science and ASSIA. Searches included words from three categories: arts activities; healthcare settings, and healthcare providers. Studies were included if they were written in English, explored the attitudes of healthcare professionals on the use of the arts in healthcare settings or the impact of arts activities on healthcare staff. Studies conducted in community venues and/or reporting on arts therapies (art, drama or music) were excluded. An initial 52 studies were identified and following screening for relevance and quality 27 articles were reviewed. Arts interventions were diverse and included music listening, visual arts, reading and creative writing, and dance. Despite some methodological limitations of the reviewed studies it was found that the majority of staff believed that engaging in arts interventions has a positive impact on patients' health and well-being. The findings suggest that arts interventions are perceived to have an impact on patients' stress, mood, pain levels, and sleep. Furthermore, staff believed that the arts can enhance communication between staff and patients, helping to build rapport and strengthen interactions. The majority of reported staff outcomes were

  13. An assessment of Regional and Gender equity in healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assesses regional and gender equity in healthcare coverage under two different ... 1Department of Geography and Resource Development ...... government budgets, 3) innovative financing and, 4) development assistance for health; ...

  14. The moderating role of job resources in the relationship between job demands and interleukin-6 in an Italian healthcare organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Alessandra; Dal Corso, Laura; Girardi, Damiano; De Carlo, Alessandro; Comar, Manola

    2018-02-01

    In this study we examined the association between job demands (JD), job resources (JR), and serum levels of a possible biomarker of stress, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). According to the buffer hypothesis of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, we expected that job resources-defined as job autonomy and social support from supervisor-might buffer the relationship between job demands, defined as emotional demands and interpersonal conflict with colleagues, and IL-6. Data from 119 employees in an Italian public healthcare organization (acute care hospital) were analyzed using multiple regression. In predicting IL-6, the interactions between emotional demands and JR and between interpersonal conflict with colleagues and job autonomy (but not social support) were significant, after controlling for the effect of age and gender. The association between JD and IL-6 was stronger for individuals with low levels of JR, so that levels of IL-6 were highest when JD were high and JR were low. Overall, these results are consistent with the buffer hypothesis of the JD-R model and also extend previous research, showing that the exposure to stressful situations at work, measured as high JD and low JR, is associated with higher levels of IL-6 in hospital employees. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Is the United States in the middle of a healthcare bubble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Yi; Liang, Yia-Wun; Lin, Yu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the possibility of multiple healthcare bubbles in the US healthcare market. We first applied the newly developed Generalized Sup ADF test to locate multiple healthcare bubble episodes and then estimated the switching regression model specifying multiple healthcare bubble periods to evaluate to what extent macroeconomic variables (such as the interest rate, public debt, and fiscal deficit) and public financing healthcare programs influence the magnitude of healthcare bubbles in terms of the deviation of the medical care price inflation from either the overall price inflation or the money wage growth. Our results show that expansionary monetary and fiscal policies play important roles in determining the deviation of the medical care price inflation from the overall price inflation and that the net government debt has a positive impact on the deviation of the medical care price inflation from the money wage growth. The US healthcare market is now in the middle of a healthcare bubble, and this healthcare bubble has developed slowly and has lasted for approximately 3 decades, mirroring an increased societal preference for healthcare. Policymakers in the US should cautiously consider the fact that healthcare bubbles must imply a misallocation of resources into healthcare, leading to negative consequences on the sustainability of the healthcare system.

  16. The Role of Healthcare Technology Management in Facilitating Medical Device Cybersecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busdicker, Mike; Upendra, Priyanka

    2017-09-02

    This article discusses the role of healthcare technology management (HTM) in medical device cybersecurity and outlines concepts that are applicable to HTM professionals at a healthcare delivery organization or at an integrated delivery network, regardless of size. It provides direction for HTM professionals who are unfamiliar with the security aspects of managing healthcare technologies but are familiar with standards from The Joint Commission (TJC). It provides a useful set of recommendations, including relevant references for incorporating good security practices into HTM practice. Recommendations for policies, procedures, and processes referencing TJC standards are easily applicable to HTM departments with limited resources and to those with no resource concerns. The authors outline processes from their organization as well as best practices learned through information sharing at AAMI, National Health Information Sharing and Analysis Center (NH-ISAC), and Medical Device Innovation, Safety, and Security Consortium (MDISS) conferences and workshops.

  17. Public and private health-care financing with alternate public rationing rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuff, Katherine; Hurley, Jeremiah; Mestelman, Stuart; Muller, Andrew; Nuscheler, Robert

    2012-02-01

    We develop a model to analyze parallel public and private health-care financing under two alternative public sector rationing rules: needs-based rationing and random rationing. Individuals vary in income and severity of illness. There is a limited supply of health-care resources used to treat individuals, causing some individuals to go untreated. Insurers (both public and private) must bid to obtain the necessary health-care resources to treat their beneficiaries. Given individuals' willingnesses-to-pay for private insurance are increasing in income, the introduction of private insurance diverts treatment from relatively poor to relatively rich individuals. Further, the impact of introducing parallel private insurance depends on the rationing mechanism in the public sector. We show that the private health insurance market is smaller when the public sector rations according to need than when allocation is random. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Process management in healthcare. Sant Camil Hospital case study

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Ruiz, Lidia; Blanco Rojo, Beatriz; Simón, Rosa María

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays due to the crisis, some government measures are aimed at reducing healthcare spending, affecting in some level or another the quality offered. Process management is said to be a useful tool for reducing healthcare costs by improving management without any additional economic investment. That is doing more with the same resources and without reducing the quality offered. In this study an empirical case of a Catalan hospital is presented. Overall, the usefulness of process management i...

  19. Managing the patient identification crisis in healthcare and laboratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Bovo, Chiara; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2017-07-01

    Identification errors have emerged as critical issues in health care, as testified by the ample scientific literature on this argument. Despite available evidence suggesting that the frequency of misidentification in vitro laboratory diagnostic testing may be relatively low compared to that of other laboratory errors (i.e., usually comprised between 0.01 and 0.1% of all specimens received), the potential adverse consequences remain particularly worrying, wherein 10-20% of these errors not only would translate into serious harm for the patient, but may also erode considerable human and economic resources, so that the entire healthcare system should be re-engineered to act proactively and limiting the burden of this important problem. The most important paradigms for reducing the chance of misidentification in healthcare entail the widespread use of more than two unique patient identifiers, the accurate education and training of healthcare personnel, the delivery of more resources for patient safety (i.e., implementation of safer technological tools), and the use of customized solutions according to local organization and resources. Moreover, after weighing advantages and drawbacks, labeling blood collection tubes before and not after venipuncture may be considered a safer practice for safeguarding patient safety and optimizing phlebotomist's activity. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Patient Safety and Healthcare Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Toska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to a variety of circumstances and world-wide research findings, patient safety andquality care during hospitalization have emerged as major issues. Patient safety deficits may burdenhealth systems as well as allocated resources. The international community has examined severalproposals covering general and systemic aspects in order to improve patient safety; several long-termprograms and strategies have also been implemented promoting the participation of health-relatedagents, and also government agencies and non-governmental organizations.Aim: Those factors that have negative correlations with patient safety and quality healthcare weredetermined; WHO and EU programs as well as the Greek health policy were also reviewed.Method: Local and international literature was reviewed, including EU and WHO official publications,by using the appropriate keywords.Conclusions: International cooperation on patient safety is necessary in order to improvehospitalization and healthcare quality standards. Such incentives depend heavily on establishing worldwideviable and effective health programs and planning. These improvements also require further stepson safe work procedures, environment safety, hazard management, infection control, safe use ofequipment and medication, and sufficient healthcare staff.

  1. Project Management Methodology in Human Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josler, Cheryl; Burger, James

    2005-01-01

    When charged with overseeing a project, how can one ensure that the project will be completed on time, within budget, and to the satisfaction of everyone involved? In this article, the authors examine project management methodology as a means of ensuring that projects are conducted in a disciplined, well-managed and consistent manner that serves…

  2. FORMULATING BUSINESS STRATEGIES FROM A STAKEHOLDER'S PERSPECTIVE: KOREAN HEALTHCARE IT BUSINESS CASES

    OpenAIRE

    GEUNCHAN LIM; HEESEOK LEE; TAEHUN KIM

    2005-01-01

    The management of competing stakeholders has emerged as an important topic for formulating business strategies. This is especially the case in the complicated business environment like the healthcare IT (Information Technology) industries. This paper proposes a methodology to formulate business strategies based on stakeholders' demands. Our methodology begins with the understanding of stakeholders' demands. This understanding is particularly useful for businesses with conflicting stakeholders...

  3. Managing Knowledge across Boundaries in Healthcare when Innovation is Desired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Edenius

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore how knowledge can be managed across boundaries when implementing innovations in the healthcare sector is desired, in this specific case a healthcare quality register. The research is based on a qualitative, case study approach and comprises methodologies such as semi-structured interviews and document analysis. The findings of this study describe knowledge transferred across boundaries on a syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic level. On the syntactic level, knowledge of the innovation was transferred by training sessions for healthcare staff and through information to patients. On the semantic level, knowledge was transferred by knowledge brokering in the professional community of rheumatologists, and by creating collective stories and encouraging rheumatologists to “try” the innovation to find added value. On the pragmatic level, there were explicit conflicts of interest between physicians and healthcare authorities, as well as resistance from some rheumatologists to share knowledge of patients and treatment. The paper is concluded with implications for innovation practice in healthcare drawn from the study and ends with remarks about challenges ahead.

  4. An application of augmented MDA for the extended healthcare enterprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Valerie M.; van Halteren, Aart; Konstantas, D.; Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.

    2007-01-01

    Mobile health systems extend the Enterprise Computing System (ECS) of the healthcare provider by bringing services to the patient any time and anywhere. We propose a methodology for the development of such extended ECSs which applies a model-driven design and development approach augmented with

  5. Healthcare service quality: what really matters to the female patient?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafei, Ingy; Walburg, J.A.; Taher, Ahmed F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to develop a model that encompasses the constructs and sub-constructs consumers use in evaluating healthcare service quality (HSQ) in Egypt. Design/methodology/approach – Factor analysis was performed on 40 variables to identify the constructs. Ordinal logistic regression

  6. An application of augmented MDA for the extended healthcare enterprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Valerie M.; van Halteren, Aart; Konstantas, D.; Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Mobile health systems extend the enterprise computing system of the healthcare provider by bringing services to the patient any time and anywhere. We propose a methodology for the development of such extended enterprise computing systems which applies a model-driven design and development approach

  7. Hazardous Waste Management by healthcare Institutions, Addis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The finding of the study shows that except Zewditu hospital, the rest use proper management to the hazardous waste. Lack of awareness about health hazards of healthcare waste, inadequate training, absence of waste management and disposal systems, insufficient financial and human resources, low priority given to the ...

  8. Efficiency vs Effectiveness: a Benchmarking Study on European Healthcare Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado lo Storto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. This paper illustrates a benchmarking study concerning the healthcare systems in 32 European countries as of 2011 and 2014. Particularly, this study proposes a two-dimensional approach (efficiency/effectiveness models to evaluate the performance of national healthcare systems. Data Envelopment Analysis has been adopted to compute two performance indices, measuring efficiency and effectiveness of these healthcare systems. The results of the study emphasize that the national healthcare systems achieve different efficiency and effectiveness levels. Their performance indices are uncorrelated and behave differently over time, suggesting that there might be no real trade-off between them. The healthcare systems’ efficiencies remain generally stable, while the effectiveness values significantly improved from 2011 to 2014. However, comparing the efficiency and effectiveness scores, the authors identified a group of countries with the lowest performing healthcare systems that includes Ukraine, Bulgaria, Switzerland, Lithuania, and Romania. These countries need to implement healthcare reforms aimed at reducing resource intensity and increasing the quality of medical services. The results also showed the benefits of the proposed approach, which can help policy makers to identify shortcomings in national healthcare systems and justify the need for their reform.

  9. A Comprehensive Competence-Based Approach in Curriculum Development: Experiences from African and European Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, F.; Baulana, R.; Kahombo, G.; Coppieters, Y.; Garant, M.; De Ketele, J.-M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the methodological steps of developing an integrated reference guide for competences according to the profile of the healthcare professionals concerned. Design: Human resources in healthcare represent a complex issue, which needs conceptual and methodological frameworks and tools to help one understand reality and the limits…

  10. Applications of mixed-methods methodology in clinical pharmacy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Closs, S José

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Mixed-methods methodology, as the name suggests refers to mixing of elements of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in a single study. In the past decade, mixed-methods methodology has gained popularity among healthcare researchers as it promises to bring together the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Methodology A number of mixed-methods designs are available in the literature and the four most commonly used designs in healthcare research are: the convergent parallel design, the embedded design, the exploratory design, and the explanatory design. Each has its own unique advantages, challenges and procedures and selection of a particular design should be guided by the research question. Guidance on designing, conducting and reporting mixed-methods research is available in the literature, so it is advisable to adhere to this to ensure methodological rigour. When to use it is best suited when the research questions require: triangulating findings from different methodologies to explain a single phenomenon; clarifying the results of one method using another method; informing the design of one method based on the findings of another method, development of a scale/questionnaire and answering different research questions within a single study. Two case studies have been presented to illustrate possible applications of mixed-methods methodology. Limitations Possessing the necessary knowledge and skills to undertake qualitative and quantitative data collection, analysis, interpretation and integration remains the biggest challenge for researchers conducting mixed-methods studies. Sequential study designs are often time consuming, being in two (or more) phases whereas concurrent study designs may require more than one data collector to collect both qualitative and quantitative data at the same time.

  11. Effects of Lean Six Sigma application in healthcare services: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Selim; Manaf, Noor H A; Islam, Rafikul

    2013-01-01

    The healthcare organization is the place where defects and mistakes cannot be tolerated. A simple mistake can cost a human life so defects or mistakes must be eliminated in healthcare service processes. A Lean Six Sigma (LSS) approach is the best option in a healthcare environment for dealing with a critical patient. The LSS methodology optimizes the average reduction of a desired process. The expected results can be reductions in several aspects of healthcare such as patient waiting time in emergency departments, lost charges for billing in patient financial services, delinquent medical records, diagnostic result turnaround times, accounts receivable days, patients' length of stay, or medication errors. This paper mainly discusses the effects of the LSS approach in different hospitals around the world according to the literature review. This review also discusses the relationship between LSS as well as their impacts on healthcare services based on literature review.

  12. Healthcare beyond reform: doing it right for half the cost

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flower, Joe

    2012-01-01

    ... can get there by utilizing the resources we already have. The author provides a comprehensive, positive, and intriguing vision of the future of healthcare for professionals, employers and investors...

  13. Improve processes on healthcare: current issues and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jason C H; Dolan, Matt; Lin, Binshan

    2004-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) is a critical resource for improving today's business competitiveness. However, many healthcare providers do not proactively manage or improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their services with IT. Survival in a competitive business environment demands continuous improvements in quality and service, while rigorously maintaining core values. Electronic commerce continues its development, gaining ground as the preferred means of business transactions. Embracing e-healthcare and treating IT as a strategic tool to improve patient safety and the quality of care enables healthcare professionals to benefit from technology formerly used only for management purposes. Numerous improvement initiatives, introduced by both the federal government and the private sector, seek to better the status quo in IT. This paper examines the current IT climate using an enhanced "Built to Last" model, and comments on future IT strategies within the healthcare industry.

  14. Increased healthcare service utilizations for patients with dementia: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Dong Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The majority of previous studies investigating the health care utilization of people with dementia were conducted in Western societies. There is little information on the economic burden on the healthcare system attributable to dementia in Asian countries. This study thus investigated differences in utilization of healthcare services between subjects with and those without a diagnosis of dementia using Taiwan's National Health Insurance population-based database. METHODS: This study comprised 5,666 subjects with a dementia diagnosis and 5,666 age- and gender-matched comparison subjects without a dementia diagnosis. We individually followed each subject for a 1-year period starting from their index date to evaluate their healthcare resource utilization. Healthcare resource utilization included the number of outpatient visits and inpatient days, and the mean costs of outpatient and inpatient treatments. In addition, we divided healthcare resource utilization into psychiatric and non-psychiatric services. RESULTS: As for utilization of psychiatric services, subjects with a dementia diagnosis had significantly more outpatient visits (2.2 vs. 0.3, p<0.001 and significantly higher outpatient costs (US$124 vs. US$16, p<0.001 than comparison subjects. For non-psychiatric services, subjects with a dementia diagnosis also had significantly more outpatient visits (34.4 vs. 31.6, p<0.001 and significantly higher outpatient costs (US$1754 vs. US$1322, p<0.001 than comparison subjects. For all healthcare services, subjects with a dementia diagnosis had significantly more outpatient visits (36.7 vs. 32.0, p<0.001 and significantly higher outpatient costs (US$1878 vs. US$1338, p<0.001 than comparison subjects. Furthermore, the total cost was about 2-fold greater for subjects with a dementia diagnosis than for comparison subjects (US$3997 vs. US$2409, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that subjects who had received a clinical dementia diagnosis had

  15. Healthcare for persons with intellectual disability in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Alan Ervin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction While there has been impressive progress in creating and improving community healthcare delivery systems that support people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD, there is much more that can and should be done. Method This paper offers a review of healthcare delivery concepts on which new models are being developed, while also establishing an historical context. We review the need for creating fully integrated models of healthcare, and at the same time offer practical considerations that range from specific healthcare delivery system components to the need to expand our approach to training healthcare providers. The models and delivery systems, and the areas of needed focus in their development are reviewed to set a starting point for more and greater work going forward. Conclusions Today, we celebrate longer lifespans of people with IDD, increased attention to the benefits of healthcare that is responsive to their needs, and the development of important healthcare delivery systems that are customized to their needs. We also know that the growing body of research on health status offers incentive to continue developing healthcare structures for people with IDD by training healthcare providers about the needs of people with IDD, by establishing systems of care that integrate acute healthcare with long term services and support, by developing IDD medicine as a specialty, and by building health promotion and wellness resources to provide people with IDD a set of preventative health supports.

  16. Resource management for sustainable development : The application of a methodology to support resource management for the adequate application of Construction Systems to enhance sustainability in the lower income dwelling construction industry in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond - de Wilde De Ligny, van E.L.C.; Erkelens, P.A.; Jonge, de S.; Vliet, van A.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the application of a methodology to support resource management for the enhancement of sustainability in the construction industry. Particular emphasis is given to the sustainability of manufacturing and application of construction systems for low income housing

  17. The healthcare experiences of Arab Israeli women in a reformed healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnekave, Eldad; Gross, Revital

    2004-07-01

    Arab Israeli women are subject to unique social stresses deriving from their status as part of an ethno-political minority and from their position as women in a patriarchal community. Collectively, their health profiles rate poorly in comparison to Jewish Israeli women or to women in the vast majority of developed countries. To examine the experiences of Arab Israeli women in the contemporary Israeli healthcare system, following implementation of the National Health Insurance Law (NHIL). The study combined quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. A telephone survey utilizing a structured questionnaire was conducted during August-September 1998 among a random national sample of 849 women, with a response rate of 83%. Between the months of January and July of 2000, qualitative data was attained via participant-observation, long and short semi-structured interviews, and focus groups in one large Muslim Arab Israeli village. Arab Israeli women in the national survey reported poorer self-assessed health, lower rates of care by a woman primary care physician, lower satisfaction ratings for primary care physicians and more frequently foregoing medical care than did native or immigrant Jewish Israeli women. Three major factors contributing to Arab Israeli women's healthcare experiences were elucidated by the qualitative study: (1) the threat of physical and social exposure (2) difficulties in communicating with male physicians and (3) the stifling effect of family politics and surveillance on healthcare. We discuss our findings in relation to structural changes associated with the recent reform of the Israeli health care system. We conclude by suggesting policy measures for better adapting primary care services to the needs of Arab Israeli women, and note the relevance to other systems that aim to provide service to cultural and ethno-political minorities, in which healthcare delivery is shaped by unique local circumstances.

  18. Toward human resource management in inter-professional health practice: linking organizational culture, group identity and individual autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataw, David

    2012-01-01

    The literature on team and inter-professional care practice describes numerous barriers to the institutionalization of inter-professional healthcare. Responses to slow institutionalization of inter-professional healthcare practice have failed to describe change variables and to identify change agents relevant to inter-professional healthcare practice. The purpose of this paper is to (1) describe individual and organizational level barriers to collaborative practice in healthcare; (2) identify change variables relevant to the institutionalization of inter-professional practice at individual and organizational levels of analysis; and (3) identify human resource professionals as change agents and describe how the strategic use of the human resource function could transform individual and organizational level change variables and therefore facilitate the healthcare system's shift toward inter-professional practice. A proposed program of institutionalization includes the following components: a strategic plan to align human resource functions with organizational level inter-professional healthcare strategies, activities to enhance professional competencies and the organizational position of human resource personnel, activities to integrate inter-professional healthcare practices into the daily routines of institutional and individual providers, activities to stand up health provider champions as permanent leaders of inter-professional teams with human resource professionals as consultants and activities to bring all key players to the table including health providers. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Conducting a critical interpretive synthesis of the literature on access to healthcare by vulnerable groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Lucy

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional systematic review techniques have limitations when the aim of a review is to construct a critical analysis of a complex body of literature. This article offers a reflexive account of an attempt to conduct an interpretive review of the literature on access to healthcare by vulnerable groups in the UK Methods This project involved the development and use of the method of Critical Interpretive Synthesis (CIS. This approach is sensitised to the processes of conventional systematic review methodology and draws on recent advances in methods for interpretive synthesis. Results Many analyses of equity of access have rested on measures of utilisation of health services, but these are problematic both methodologically and conceptually. A more useful means of understanding access is offered by the synthetic construct of candidacy. Candidacy describes how people's eligibility for healthcare is determined between themselves and health services. It is a continually negotiated property of individuals, subject to multiple influences arising both from people and their social contexts and from macro-level influences on allocation of resources and configuration of services. Health services are continually constituting and seeking to define the appropriate objects of medical attention and intervention, while at the same time people are engaged in constituting and defining what they understand to be the appropriate objects of medical attention and intervention. Access represents a dynamic interplay between these simultaneous, iterative and mutually reinforcing processes. By attending to how vulnerabilities arise in relation to candidacy, the phenomenon of access can be better understood, and more appropriate recommendations made for policy, practice and future research. Discussion By innovating with existing methods for interpretive synthesis, it was possible to produce not only new methods for conducting what we have termed critical

  20. [The Marketing of Healthcare Services in ENT-Clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschner, M; Lenarz, T

    2016-07-01

    The provision of healthcare services in Germany is based on fundamental principles of solidarity and is highly regulated. The question arises which conditions exist for marketing for healthcare services in ENT-clinics in Germany. The marketing options will be elicited using environmentally analytical considerations. The objectives can be achieved using measures derived from external instruments (service policy, pricing policy, distribution policy or communications policy) or from an internal instrument (human resources policy). The policy environment is particularly influenced by the regulatory framework, which particularly restricts the scope for both the pricing and communications policies. All measures must, however, reflect ethical frameworks, which are regarded as the fundamental premise underlying healthcare services and may be at odds with economic factors. Scope for flexibility in pricing exists only within the secondary healthcare market, and even there only to a limited extent. The significance of price in the marketing of healthcare services is thus very low. If marketing activities are to succeed, a market analysis must be carried out exploring the relevant factors for each individual provider. However, the essential precondition for the marketing of healthcare services is trust. The marketing of healthcare services differs from that of business management-oriented enterprises in other branches of economy. In the future the importance of marketing activities will increase. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources: Distributed Resources and Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowart, R.; Harrington, C.; Moskovitz, D.; Shirley, W.; Weston, F.; Sedano, R.

    2002-10-01

    Designing and implementing credit-based pilot programs for distributed resources distribution is a low-cost, low-risk opportunity to find out how these resources can help defer or avoid costly electric power system (utility grid) distribution upgrades. This report describes implementation options for deaveraged distribution credits and distributed resource development zones. Developing workable programs implementing these policies can dramatically increase the deployment of distributed resources in ways that benefit distributed resource vendors, users, and distribution utilities. This report is one in the State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources series developed under contract to NREL (see Annual Technical Status Report of the Regulatory Assistance Project: September 2000-September 2001, NREL/SR-560-32733). Other titles in this series are: (1) Accommodating Distributed Resources in Wholesale Markets, NREL/SR-560-32497; (2) Distributed Resources and Electric System Re liability, NREL/SR-560-32498; (3) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation, NREL/SR-560-32500; (4) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation Appendices, NREL/SR-560-32501.

  2. A meta-modeling technique for analyzing, designing and adapting healthcare processes : A process-deliverable perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijleven, Vincent; Jaspers, Monique; Wetzels, Marijntje; Koelemeijer, Kitty; Mehrsai, Afshin; Wong, Stephen T. C.; Sloane, Elliot

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare organizations have shown growing interest in implementing lean management. Through systematically identifying and eliminating waste, fewer resources are needed while similar or higher quality healthcare can be delivered. However, doing so demands a holistic view of the interrelationships

  3. Healthcare resource use and costs of opioid-induced constipation among non-cancer and cancer patients on opioid therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Christensen, Helene Nordahl; Ibsen, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    -based cohort study including patients ≥18 years of age initiating ≥4 weeks opioid therapy (1998–2012) in Denmark. A measure of OIC was constructed based on data from Danish national health registries, and defined as ≥1 diagnosis of constipation, diverticulitis, mega colon, ileus/subileus, abdominal pain....../acute abdomen or haemorrhoids and/or ≥2 subsequent prescription issues of laxatives. Total healthcare resource utilization and costs (including pharmacy dispense, inpatient-, outpatient-, emergency room- and primary care) were estimated according to OIC status, opioid treatment dosage and length, gender, age...... characteristics of non-cancer OIC patients showed a higher frequency of strong opioid treatment (69% versus 41%), long-term opioid treatment (1189 days versus 584 days), advanced age (73 years versus 61 years), and cardiovascular disease (31% versus 19%) compared to those without OIC (P 

  4. Strategies to promote practice nurse capacity to deliver evidence-based care: An example from sexual healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadich, Ann; Abbott, Penny; Hosseinzadeh, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based practice is pivotal to effective patient care. However, its translation into practice remains limited. Given the central role of primary care in many healthcare systems, it is important to identify strategies that bolster clinician-capacity to promote evidence-based care. The purpose of this paper is to identify strategies to increase Practice Nurse capacity to promote evidence-based sexual healthcare within general practice. A survey of 217 Practice Nurses in an Australian state and ten respondent-interviews regarding two resources to promote evidence-based sexual healthcare - namely, a clinical aide and online training. The perceived impact of both resources was determined by views on relevance and design - particularly for the clinical aide. Resource-use was influenced by role and responsibilities within the workplace, accessibility, and support from patients and colleagues. This is the first Australian study to reveal strategies to promote evidence-based sexual healthcare among Practice Nurses. The findings provide a platform for future research on knowledge translation processes, particularly among clinicians who might be disengaged from sexual healthcare. Given the benefits of evidence-based practices, it is important that managers recognize their role, and the role of their services, in promoting these. Without explicit support for evidence-based care and recognition of the Practice Nurse role in such care, knowledge translation is likely to be limited. Knowledge translation among Practice Nurses can be facilitated by: resources-deemed informative, relevant, and user-friendly, as well as support from patients, colleagues, and their workplace.

  5. FTT-MA: A Flexible Time-Triggered Middleware Architecture for Time Sensitive, Resource-Aware AmI Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pérez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing number of Ambient Intelligence (AmI systems that are time-sensitive and resource-aware. From healthcare to building and even home/office automation, it is now common to find systems combining interactive and sensing multimedia traffic with relatively simple sensors and actuators (door locks, presence detectors, RFIDs, HVAC, information panels, etc.. Many of these are today known as Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS. Quite frequently, these systems must be capable of (1 prioritizing different traffic flows (process data, alarms, non-critical data, etc., (2 synchronizing actions in several distributed devices and, to certain degree, (3 easing resource management (e.g., detecting faulty nodes, managing battery levels, handling overloads, etc.. This work presents FTT-MA, a high-level middleware architecture aimed at easing the design, deployment and operation of such AmI systems. FTT-MA ensures that both functional and non-functional aspects of the applications are met even during reconfiguration stages. The paper also proposes a methodology, together with a design tool, to create this kind of systems. Finally, a sample case study is presented that illustrates the use of the middleware and the methodology proposed in the paper.

  6. FTT-MA: A Flexible Time-Triggered Middleware Architecture for Time Sensitive, Resource-Aware AmI Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguero, Adrián; Calvo, Isidro; Pérez, Federico; Almeida, Luis

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing number of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) systems that are time-sensitive and resource-aware. From healthcare to building and even home/office automation, it is now common to find systems combining interactive and sensing multimedia traffic with relatively simple sensors and actuators (door locks, presence detectors, RFIDs, HVAC, information panels, etc.). Many of these are today known as Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). Quite frequently, these systems must be capable of (1) prioritizing different traffic flows (process data, alarms, non-critical data, etc.), (2) synchronizing actions in several distributed devices and, to certain degree, (3) easing resource management (e.g., detecting faulty nodes, managing battery levels, handling overloads, etc.). This work presents FTT-MA, a high-level middleware architecture aimed at easing the design, deployment and operation of such AmI systems. FTT-MA ensures that both functional and non-functional aspects of the applications are met even during reconfiguration stages. The paper also proposes a methodology, together with a design tool, to create this kind of systems. Finally, a sample case study is presented that illustrates the use of the middleware and the methodology proposed in the paper. PMID:23669711

  7. A knowledge creation info-structure to acquire and crystallize the tacit knowledge of health-care experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza; Cheah, Yu-N; Curran, Janet

    2005-06-01

    Tacit knowledge of health-care experts is an important source of experiential know-how, yet due to various operational and technical reasons, such health-care knowledge is not entirely harnessed and put into professional practice. Emerging knowledge-management (KM) solutions suggest strategies to acquire the seemingly intractable and nonarticulated tacit knowledge of health-care experts. This paper presents a KM methodology, together with its computational implementation, to 1) acquire the tacit knowledge possessed by health-care experts; 2) represent the acquired tacit health-care knowledge in a computational formalism--i.e., clinical scenarios--that allows the reuse of stored knowledge to acquire tacit knowledge; and 3) crystallize the acquired tacit knowledge so that it is validated for health-care decision-support and medical education systems.

  8. Healthcare in Equatorial Guinea, West Africa: obstacles and barriers to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim Eleanor; Geysimonyan, Aurora; Molina, Gabriela; Reuter, Peter Robert

    2014-01-01

    The provision of healthcare services in developing countries has received increasing attention, but inequalities persist. One nation with potential inequalities in healthcare services is Equatorial Guinea (Central-West Africa). Mitigating these inequalities is difficult, as the Equatoguinean healthcare system remains relatively understudied. In this study, we interviewed members of the healthcare community in order to: 1) learn which diseases are most common and the most common cause of death from the perspective of healthcare workers; and 2) gain an understanding of the healthcare community in Equatorial Guinea by describing how: a) healthcare workers gain their professional knowledge; b) summarizing ongoing healthcare programs aimed at the general public; c) discussing conflicts within the healthcare community and between the public and healthcare providers; d) and addressing opportunities to improve healthcare delivery. We found that some causes of death, such as serious injuries, may not be currently treatable in country, potentially due to a lack of resources and trauma care facilities. In addition, training and informational programs for both healthcare workers and the general public may not be effectively transmitting information to the intended recipients. This presents hurdles to the healthcare community, both in terms of having professional competence in healthcare delivery and in having a community that is receptive to medical care. Our data also highlight government-facility communication as an opportunity for improvement. Our research is an important first step in understanding the context of healthcare delivery in Equatorial Guinea, a country that is relatively data poor.

  9. Innovation in Healthcare Delivery: Commentary on an Evolutionary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Anthony L A

    2015-01-01

    Zwarenstein (2015) proposes a novel approach to healthcare innovation that parallels biological evolution, based on stimulation and reward of multiple small competing innovation projects conducted in the field by decentralized teams. Projects would be designed with explicit outcome targets and results would be widely disseminated and publicly available. More successful projects would be grown and spread. Critical to the model is accepting and reporting failure as well as success, for the benefit of future project design. Examining biological evolution for lessons for healthcare delivery innovation illuminates the need for diversity among healthcare systems to achieve optimum application of best practice interventions across jurisdictions with differing population, provider and facility characteristics. However, careful coordination will be needed to achieve the balance between diversity and harmony across jurisdictions necessary for effective governance and interaction. There are important methodological issues to be addressed to reduce the uncertainty inherent in comparisons of results among discrete innovation projects, especially when observed improvements over the baseline are modest. As well as evolutionary improvement in healthcare outcomes, the model should progressively increase decentralized capacity and expertise in innovation processes.

  10. Improvement attributes in healthcare: implications for integrated care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, Patrick John

    2018-04-16

    Purpose Healthcare quality improvement is a key concern for policy makers, regulators, carers and service users. Despite a contemporary consensus among policy makers that integrated care represents a means to substantially improve service outcomes, progress has been slow. Difficulties achieving sustained improvement at scale imply that methods employed are not sufficient and that healthcare improvement attributes may be different when compared to prior reference domains. The purpose of this paper is to examine and synthesise key improvement attributes relevant to a complex healthcare change process, specifically integrated care. Design/methodology/approach This study is based on an integrative literature review on systemic improvement in healthcare. Findings A central theme emerging from the literature review indicates that implementing systemic change needs to address the relationship between vision, methods and participant social dynamics. Practical implications Accommodating personal and professional network dynamics is required for systemic improvement, especially among high autonomy individuals. This reinforces the need to recognise the change process as taking place in a complex adaptive system where personal/professional purpose/meaning is central to the process. Originality/value Shared personal/professional narratives are insufficiently recognised as a powerful change force, under-represented in linear and rational empirical improvement approaches.

  11. Optimized planning methodologies of ASON implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Michael M.; Tamil, Lakshman S.

    2005-02-01

    Advanced network planning concerns effective network-resource allocation for dynamic and open business environment. Planning methodologies of ASON implementation based on qualitative analysis and mathematical modeling are presented in this paper. The methodology includes method of rationalizing technology and architecture, building network and nodal models, and developing dynamic programming for multi-period deployment. The multi-layered nodal architecture proposed here can accommodate various nodal configurations for a multi-plane optical network and the network modeling presented here computes the required network elements for optimizing resource allocation.

  12. Depression and diabetes: Treatment and health-care delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrak, Frank; Baumeister, Harald; Skinner, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Despite research efforts in the past 20 years, scientific evidence about screening and treatment for depression in diabetes remains incomplete and is mostly focused on North American and European health-care systems. Validated instruments to detect depression in diabetes......, which are often implemented through collaborative care and stepped-care approaches. The evidence for improved glycaemic control in the treatment of depression by use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or psychological approaches is conflicting; only some analyses show small to moderate...... improvements in glycaemic control. More research is needed to evaluate treatment of different depression subtypes in people with diabetes, the cost-effectiveness of treatments, the use of health-care resources, the need to account for cultural differences and different health-care systems, and new treatment...

  13. IoT-based Asset Management System for Healthcare-related Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Carman Ka Man

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The healthcare industry has been focusing efforts on optimizing inventory management procedures through the incorporation of Information and Communication Technology, in the form of tracking devices and data mining, to establish ideal inventory models. In this paper, a roadmap is developed towards a technological assessment of the Internet of Things (IoT in the healthcare industry, 2010–2020. According to the roadmap, an IoT-based healthcare asset management system (IoT-HAMS is proposed and developed based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Fuzzy Logic (FL, incorporating IoT technologies for asset management to optimize the supply of resources.

  14. The Finnish healthcare services lean management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihnala, Susanna; Kettunen, Lilja; Suhonen, Marjo; Tiirinki, Hanna

    2018-02-05

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss health services managers' experiences of management in a special health-care unit and development efforts from the point of view of the Lean method. Additionally, the aim is to deepen the knowledge of the managers' work and nature of the Lean method development processes in the workplace. The research focuses on those aspects and results of Lean method that are currently being used in health-care environments. Design/methodology/approach These data were collected through a number of thematic interviews. The participants were nurse managers ( n = 7) and medical managers ( n = 7) who applied Lean management in their work at the University Hospital in the Northern Ostrobothnia Health Care District. The data were analysed with a qualitative content analysis. Findings A common set of values in specialized health-care services, development of activities and challenges for management in the use of the Lean manager development model to improve personal management skills. Practical implications Managers in specialized health-care services can develop and systematically manage with the help of the Lean method. This emphasizes assumptions, from the point of view of management, about systems development when the organization uses the Lean method. The research outcomes originate from specialized health-care settings in Finland in which the Lean method and its associated management principles have been implemented and applied to the delivery of health care. Originality/value The study shows that the research results and in-depth knowledge on Lean method principles can be applied to health-care management and development processes. The research also describes health services managers' experiences of using the Lean method. In the future, these results can be used to improve Lean management skills, identify personal professional competencies and develop skills required in development processes. Also, the research findings can be used

  15. Outsourcing in Healthcare Through Process Modularization - A Lean Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Machado Guimarães

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Looking for efficiency, quality and profitability gains, healthcare organizations are adopting outsourcing solutions in the attempt of “doing more with less”. Seeking for cost reduction, risk mitigation, adapting to quick changes without compromising internal resources, these organizations also take big risks in control and flexibility variables. In order to understand how healthcare organizations find the best value equation combining internal and external resources in a modular service conception, a case study on a start‐up Long‐term Care unit with innovative format, great levels of customization and following an outsourcing strategy, was carried out. The main conclusion, among others, is that in ambitious start‐ups, having speed of entrance as the conditioning factor, a process orientation and management approach may offer a clear view of the gains related with trade‐off decisions regarding time and cost (agility and cost and quality (Leanness ie, decisions under the “leagile” paradigm. This study contributes for a wider understanding of the “leagile” concept associated to an outsourcing operational strategy. Additionally, it also provides new insights to the concept of modularity in services settings in a complex service as healthcare.

  16. The Internet as a source of health information: experiences of cancer survivors and caregivers with healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, Maria C

    2011-05-01

    To describe the experiences of cancer survivors and caregivers with healthcare providers in the context of the Internet as a source of health information. Qualitative description. Online cancer communities hosted by the Association of Cancer Online Resources. Purposive sample of 488 cancer survivors, with varying cancer types and survivorship stages, and caregivers. Secondary data analysis using Krippendorff's thematic clustering technique of qualitative content analysis. Survivorship, healthcare relationships, and the Internet. Disenchantment with healthcare relationships was associated with failed expectations related to evidence-based practice, clinical expertise, informational support, and therapeutic interpersonal communication. Survivors and caregivers exercised power in healthcare relationships through collaboration, direct confrontation, becoming expert, and endorsement to influence and control care decisions. Disenchantment propelled cancer survivors and caregivers to search the Internet for health information and resources. Conversely, Internet information-seeking precipitated the experience of disenchantment. Through online health information and resources, concealed failures in healthcare relationships were revealed and cancer survivors and caregivers were empowered to influence and control care decisions. The findings highlight failures in cancer survivorship care and underscore the importance of novel interdisciplinary programs and models of care that support evidence-informed decision making, self-management, and improved quality of life. Healthcare professionals need to receive education on survivors' use of the Internet as a source of health information and its impact on healthcare relationships. Future research should include studies examining the relationship between disenchantment and survivorship outcomes.

  17. Spaces for Citizen Involvement in Healthcare: An Ethnographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renedo, Alicia; Marston, Cicely

    2015-06-01

    This ethnographic study examines how participatory spaces and citizenship are co-constituted in participatory healthcare improvement efforts. We propose a theoretical framework for participatory citizenship in which acts of citizenship in healthcare are understood in terms of the spaces they are in. Participatory spaces consist of material, temporal and social dimensions that constrain citizens' actions. Participants draw on external resources to try to make participatory spaces more productive and collaborative, to connect and expand them. We identify three classes of tactics they use to do this: 'plotting', 'transient combination' and 'interconnecting'. All tactics help participants assemble to a greater or lesser extent a less fragmented participatory landscape with more potential for positive impact on healthcare. Participants' acts of citizenship both shape and are shaped by participatory spaces. To understand participatory citizenship, we should take spatiality into account, and track the ongoing spatial negotiations and productions through which people can improve healthcare.

  18. Prioritizing research needs: insights from a healthcare organization in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadkarim Bahadori 1*, Ehsan Teimourzadeh 1, Ali Farzaneh 1, Mostafa Nejati 2

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goal of this study was to identify the priorityof research needs in a healthcare organization in Iran, based onidentification of the problems faced by patients, as the mainrecipients of healthcare services.Method: A cross -sectional descriptive study was planned toachieve the objectives of study. The service recipients sampleconsisted of 400 patients. Given the necessity to gain in-depthinsights of the subject matter, a qualitative research design waschosen. A number of 50 interviews were conducted withindividuals from among 400 patients. The data was analyzedusing ATLAS.ti softwarePrioritizing of the topics was doneusing Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method and theExpert Choice software.Results: Based on the issues extracted from the interviews anddiscourses, 13 research topics were proposed by experts.Among these, the topics “designing the model of premium andcomplementary franchise payment, proportional to theincome, access and enjoyment”, “designing the dental servicespackage with specific premium in three basic, complementaryand optional levels” and “Presenting the model of diseaseprevention in healthcare organizations” acquired the highestpriority ranked 1 to 3 and earning the scores of 0.63, 0.61 and0.41, respectively.Conclusion: Because resources are limited and needs areunlimited, in order to avoid wasting research resources inhealthcare organizations, allocating the resources must bebased on the extracted priorities; and this is vital to fulfill theorganizational objectives.

  19. Healthscape role towards customer satisfaction in private healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Debajani; Ghosh, Tathagata

    2016-07-11

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify the motives that enforce consumers to find out the major determinants that frame healthscape in private healthcare service that leads to their satisfaction in a developing country like India. Design/methodology/approach - The generic motive dimensions are identified using an exploratory factor analysis. Next the reliability and validity of the factors are established followed by regression analysis using SPSS 20.0 s/w. Findings - This paper identifies six healthscape motives in the private healthcare sector named as service personnel conduct and cleanliness, service delivery and facilities, ambience, location and look, appealing decoration, and upgraded safety service, out of which only service delivery, ambience, location, and decorations contribute the most to build customer satisfaction as per their significance value. Research limitations/implications - The various dimensions of healthcare motives should be viewed as the levers of improving hospitals' service quality in the minds of its present and future customers. This finding can offer valuable insight to the forthcoming as well as existing developer who are planning to have their healthcare service presence in India. Practical implications - This study suggests some important strategic guidelines for service positioning and market segmentation of healthcare services as per customer requirements. In the recent past, availing services from hospitals were purely utilitarian in nature. Customers were more inclined to get proper and timely services and cared more about the service quality of the healthcare service provider. Originality/value - This paper is among the few works done on understanding private healthcare service delivery process in India and customer satisfaction level from those Hospitals. This study addresses the gap by identifying a set of dimensions that are relevant to customers for a unique healthcare experience.

  20. Water, sanitation and hygiene in Jordan's healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Yousef Saleh

    2017-08-14

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine water availability, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) services, and healthcare waste management in Jordan healthcare facilities. Design/methodology/approach In total, 19 hospitals (15 public and four private) were selected. The WSH services were assessed in hospitals using the WSH in health facilities assessment tool developed for this purpose. Findings All hospitals (100 percent) had a safe water source and most (84.2 percent) had functional water sources to provide enough water for users' needs. All hospitals had appropriate and sufficient gender separated toilets in the wards and 84.2 percent had the same in outpatient settings. Overall, 84.2 percent had sufficient and functioning handwashing basins with soap and water, and 79.0 percent had sufficient showers. Healthcare waste management was appropriately practiced in all hospitals. Practical implications Jordan hospital managers achieved major achievements providing access to drinking water and improved sanitation. However, there are still areas that need improvements, such as providing toilets for patients with special needs, establishing handwashing basins with water and soap near toilets, toilet maintenance and providing sufficient trolleys for collecting hazardous waste. Efforts are needed to integrate WSH service policies with existing national policies on environmental health in health facilities, establish national standards and targets for the various healthcare facilities to increase access and improve services. Originality/value There are limited WSH data on healthcare facilities and targets for basic coverage in healthcare facilities are also lacking. A new assessment tool was developed to generate core WSH indicators and to assess WSH services in Jordan's healthcare facilities. This tool can be used by a non-WSH specialist to quickly assess healthcare facility-related WSH services and sanitary hazards in other countries. This tool identified some areas

  1. Human resource for health reform in peri-urban areas: a cross-sectional study of the impact of policy interventions on healthcare workers in Epworth, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taderera, Bernard Hope; Hendricks, Stephen James Heinrich; Pillay, Yogan

    2017-12-16

    The need to understand how healthcare worker reform policy interventions impact health personnel in peri-urban areas is important as it also contributes towards setting of priorities in pursuing the universal health coverage goal of health sector reform. This study explored the impact of post 2008 human resource for health reform policy interventions on healthcare workers in Epworth, a peri-urban community in Harare, Zimbabwe, and the implications towards health sector reform policy in peri-urban areas. The study design was exploratory and cross-sectional and involved the use of qualitative and quantitative methods in data collection, presentation, and analysis. A qualitative study in which data were collected through a documentary search, five key informant interviews, seven in-depth interviews, and five focus group discussions was carried out first. This was followed by a quantitative study in which data were collected through a documentary search and 87 semi-structured sample interviews with healthcare workers. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically whilst descriptive statistics were used to examine quantitative data. All data were integrated during analysis to ensure comprehensive, reliable, and valid analysis of the dataset. Three main factors were identified to help interpret findings. The first main factor consisted policy result areas that impacted most successfully on healthcare workers. These included the deployment of community health workers with the highest correlation of 0.83. Policy result areas in the second main factor included financial incentives with a correlation of 0.79, training and development (0.77), deployment (0.77), and non-financial incentives (0.75). The third factor consisted policy result areas that had the lowest satisfaction amongst healthcare workers in Epworth. These included safety (0.72), equipment and tools of trade (0.72), health welfare (0.65), and salaries (0.55). The deployment of community health volunteers impacted

  2. Assessment of technical equipment supply in healthcare institutions: example of Almaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuralbai K Kurakbayev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The share of healthcare-related expenditure in the Gross Domestic Product of Kazakhstan is relatively small, and it is strategically important to restructure budgetary expenses in favor of healthcare with simultaneous redistribution of resources in accordance with changing demands and prioritization of high-quality medical care. The aim of this study was to analyze resource provision to healthcare organizations in Kazakhstan and its structure and level assessment. Materials and Methods: The study is based on a comparative assessment of technical and technological equipment of medical institutions in Almaty, Kazakhstan. We analyzed the scope and structure of the financial component of the resource base in Almaty. We carried out information processing and analysis methods, content analysis, mathematical treatment, as well as conducted case studies. Also, we held opinion poll among medical staff (specialists, managerial staff (n = 300 P for trend < 0.001 and patients (n = 210 P for trend < 0.001. Results: About 18.8% of patients do not receive medical care because of defects of the equipment, whereas 19.9% of patients claim that the reason of refusal of the provision of medical services is an equipment overload. Conclusion: Most of the respondents referred to on poor technical equipment, mismatch with the world standards of performance and competitiveness. Lack of advanced medical technology, inadequate financing, insufficient supply of domestic medical equipment, and inadequate procurement by tender were also noted. The obtained data point to the need for optimization and upgrading medical equipment at various levels of healthcare.

  3. Designing a Model of a Digital Ecosystem for Healthcare and Wellness Using the Business Model Canvas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, María Cosio; Nieto-Hipólito, Juan Ivan; Garibaldi-Beltrán, Julián; Amaya-Parra, Guillermo; Luque-Morales, Priscy; Magaña-Espinoza, Pedro; Aguilar-Velazco, José

    2016-06-01

    Wellness is a term often used to talk about optimal health as "dynamic balance of physical, emotional, social, spiritual, and intellectual health." While healthcare is a term about care offered to patients for improving their health. We use both terms, as well as the Business Model Canvas (BMC) methodology, to design a digital ecosystem model for healthcare and wellness called DE4HW; the model considers economic, technological, and legal asymmetries, which are present on e-services beyond geographical regions. BMC methodology was embedded into the global project strategy called: IBOT (Initiate, Build, Operate and Transfer); it is a methodology to establish a functional, integrated national telemedicine network and virtual education network; of which we took its phases rationale. The results in this work illustrate the design of DE4HW model, into the first phase of IBOT, enriched with the BMC, which enables us to define actors, their interactions, rules and protocols, in order to build DE4HW, while IBOT strategy manages the project goal, up to the transfer phase, where an integral service platform of healthcare and wellness is turned over to stakeholders.

  4. Assessing maternal healthcare inequities among migrants: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Moreira Almeida

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering pregnancy and motherhood as periods of increased vulnerability in migrant women, to characterize the healthcare provided to this collective, we sought to identify and understand patterns of satisfaction and demand of maternal and child healthcare, assessing women’s perceptions about its quality. The study followed a qualitative methodology (semi-structured interviews for collecting and analysing data (content analysis and was conducted in Porto, the second largest city of Portugal. Participants were 25 recent immigrant mothers from Eastern European countries, Brazil, Portuguese-speaking African countries and six native Portuguese recent mothers (for comparison, contacted through social associations and institutions. Data suggests that healthcare depends not only on accessibility but especially on social opportunities. Equitable public health action must provide individuals and groups the equal opportunity to meet their needs, which may not be achieved by providing the same standard if care to all.

  5. Health Data Entanglement and artificial intelligence-based analysis: a brand new methodology to improve the effectiveness of healthcare services

    OpenAIRE

    Capone, A.; Cicchetti, A.; Mennini, F. S.; Marcellusi, A.; Baio, G.; Favato, G.

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare expenses will be the most relevant policy issue for most governments in the EU and in the USA. This expenditure can be associated with two major key categories: demographic and economic drivers. Factors driving healthcare expenditure were rarely recognised, measured and comprehended. An improvement of health data generation and analysis is mandatory, and in order to tackle healthcare spending growth, it may be useful to design and implement an effective, advanced system to generate...

  6. Developing Competence Frameworks in UK Healthcare: Lessons from Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lindsay; Boak, George

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review the use of competence frameworks in the UK healthcare sector and to explore characteristics of the sector that may influence the success of projects to develop new frameworks. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on project reports and evaluations of practice in a range of recent projects…

  7. Developing and measuring healthcare capacity and quality in Burundi: LifeNet International’s horizontal conversion franchise model

    OpenAIRE

    Michael F Brooks; Maggie Ehrenfried

    2016-01-01

    In a departure from traditional “vertical” healthcare interventions in low-resource settings that work to combat a single specific health issue, LifeNet International (LN) uses a horizontal conversion franchise to develop and measure healthcare capacity and quality in primarily faith-based health centers in East Africa. Through a comprehensive franchise package of Medical Training, Management Training, Pharmaceutical Supply, and Growth Financing, LN is able to leverage existing resources and ...

  8. Study of health human resource migration in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panneer Sigamani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Human Resource for Health (HRH migration is an emerging concern in the development paradigm due to the critical importance to sustainability of health system in India. Being the largest human resource supplier to the world, it is important to analyze the consequences of the migration of HRH in the delivery of healthcare services to the country’s population. The study evidences limited to examine the size, distribution of the existing human resources or trends or patterns in migration. The consequences of migration have its implications to the healthcare delivery mechanism which needed to be critically analyzed. Review Methodology The methodology adopted in the paper is descriptive design. The critical review used to evaluate the existing evidence and to develop conceptual framework. The process involved the setting of the inclusion and exclusion criteria to select the articles. It included wide range of articles from the world development reports to specific studies oriented on the HRH scenario of the country. The search strategy comprised both form of studies qualitative and quantitative. The study utilizes the official data set published as report form. Main Findings The data on the migration in context of India, not systematically updated in the existing evidences. The availability of data on migration limits to few reports i.e.(World Health Organization WHO’s Joint Learning Initiatives and studies which combines census data of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD and results in the number of foreign born health professionals. 1. A major proportion of the research studies reviewed describes the disparity in distribution of HRH between rural-urban and public-private. Few researches focused towards the policy environment of the source and destination country for the migration. 2. There is pool of literature explaining the factors of migration but it margins when to analyze the significant implications to

  9. A retrospective study on the impact of comorbid depression or anxiety on healthcare resource use and costs among diabetic neuropathy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Yanjun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic neuropathy (DN is a common complication of diabetes that has significant economic burden, especially for patients with comorbid depression or anxiety. This study examines and quantifies factors associated with healthcare costs among patients diagnosed with diabetic neuropathy (DN with or without a comorbid diagnosis of depression or anxiety (DA using retrospective administrative claims data. No study has examined the differences in economic outcomes depending on the presence of comorbid DA disorders. Methods Over-age-18 individuals with 1+ diagnosis of DN in 2005 were selected. The first observed DN claim was considered the "index date." All individuals had a 12-month pre-index and follow-up period. For both under-age-65 commercially insured and over-age-65 individuals with employer-sponsored Medicare supplemental insurance, we constructed 2 subgroups for individuals with DA (DN-DA or without (DN-only. Patients' clinical characteristics over pre-index period were compared. Multivariate regressions were performed to assess whether DN-DA patients had higher utilization of healthcare resources and costs than DN-only patients, controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics. Results We identified 16,831 DN-only and 1,699 DN-DA patients in the Medicare supplemental cohort, as well as 17,205 and 3,105 in the commercially insured. DN-DA patients had higher prevalence of diabetes-related comorbidities for cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular/peripheral vascular disease, nephropathy, obesity, and hypoglycemic events than DN-only patients (all p Conclusion These findings indicate that the healthcare costs were significantly higher for DN patients with depression or anxiety relative to those without such comorbid disorders.

  10. Exploring technology impacts of Healthcare 2.0 initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randeree, Ebrahim

    2009-04-01

    As Internet access proliferates and technology becomes more accessible, the number of people online has been increasing. Web 2.0 and the social computing phenomena (such as Facebook, Friendster, Flickr, YouTube, Blogger, and MySpace) are creating a new reality on the Web: Users are changing from consumers of Web-available information and resources to generators of information and content. Moving beyond telehealth and Web sites, the push toward Personal Health Records has emerged as a new option for patients to take control of their medical data and to become active participants in the push toward widespread digitized healthcare. There is minimal research on the impact of Web 2.0 in healthcare. This paper reviews the changing patient-physician relationship in the Healthcare 2.0 environment, explores the technological challenges, and highlights areas for research.

  11. Bioethics Consultations and Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Jennie

    2011-01-01

    Making difficult healthcare decisions is often helped by consultation with a bioethics committee. This article reviews the main bioethics principles, when it is appropriate and how to call a bioethics consult, ethical concerns, and members of the consult team. Bioethics resources are included.

  12. Organizing for teamwork in healthcare: an alternative to team training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydenfält, Christofer; Odenrick, Per; Larsson, Per Anders

    2017-05-15

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how organizational design could support teamwork and to identify organizational design principles that promote successful teamwork. Design/methodology/approach Since traditional team training sessions take resources away from production, the alternative approach pursued here explores the promotion of teamwork by means of organizational design. A wide and pragmatic definition of teamwork is applied: a team is considered to be a group of people that are set to work together on a task, and teamwork is then what they do in relation to their task. The input - process - output model of teamwork provides structure to the investigation. Findings Six teamwork enablers from the healthcare team literature - cohesion, collaboration, communication, conflict resolution, coordination, and leadership - are discussed, and the organizational design measures required to implement them are identified. Three organizational principles are argued to facilitate the teamwork enablers: team stability, occasions for communication, and a participative and adaptive approach to leadership. Research limitations/implications The findings could be used as a foundation for intervention studies to improve team performance or as a framework for evaluation of existing organizations. Practical implications By implementing these organizational principles, it is possible to achieve many of the organizational traits associated with good teamwork. Thus, thoughtful organization for teamwork can be used as an alternative or complement to the traditional team training approach. Originality/value With regards to the vast literature on team training, this paper offers an alternative perspective on how to improve team performance in healthcare.

  13. Strengthening the decentralised healthcare system in rural South Africa through improved service delivery: testing mobility, information and communication technology intervention options

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available their own human resources in providing healthcare services that ultimately counteract these inequalities. Presently, what could be considered the last level of decentralised healthcare is mostly represented by home and community-based healthcare...

  14. Enterprise resource planning for hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Merode, Godefridus G; Groothuis, Siebren; Hasman, Arie

    2004-06-30

    Integrated hospitals need a central planning and control system to plan patients' processes and the required capacity. Given the changes in healthcare one can ask the question what type of information systems can best support these healthcare delivery organizations. We focus in this review on the potential of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems for healthcare delivery organizations. First ERP systems are explained. An overview is then presented of the characteristics of the planning process in hospital environments. Problems with ERP that are due to the special characteristics of healthcare are presented. The situations in which ERP can or cannot be used are discussed. It is suggested to divide hospitals in a part that is concerned only with deterministic processes and a part that is concerned with non-deterministic processes. ERP can be very useful for planning and controlling the deterministic processes.

  15. Spaces for Citizen Involvement in Healthcare: An Ethnographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Cicely

    2015-01-01

    This ethnographic study examines how participatory spaces and citizenship are co-constituted in participatory healthcare improvement efforts. We propose a theoretical framework for participatory citizenship in which acts of citizenship in healthcare are understood in terms of the spaces they are in. Participatory spaces consist of material, temporal and social dimensions that constrain citizens’ actions. Participants draw on external resources to try to make participatory spaces more productive and collaborative, to connect and expand them. We identify three classes of tactics they use to do this: ‘plotting’, ‘transient combination’ and ‘interconnecting’. All tactics help participants assemble to a greater or lesser extent a less fragmented participatory landscape with more potential for positive impact on healthcare. Participants’ acts of citizenship both shape and are shaped by participatory spaces. To understand participatory citizenship, we should take spatiality into account, and track the ongoing spatial negotiations and productions through which people can improve healthcare. PMID:26038612

  16. Towards understanding healthcare professionals' adoption and use of technologies in clinical practice: Using Qmethodology and models of technology acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladan, Muhammad Awwal; Wharrad, Heather; Windle, Richard

    2018-03-09

    Technologies have globally been recognised to improve productivity across different areas of practice including healthcare. This has been achieved due to the expansion of computers and other forms of information technologies. Despite this advancement, there has also been the growing challenge of the adoption and use of these technologies within practice and especially in healthcare. The evolution of information technologies and more specifically e-health within the healthcare practice has its own barriers and facilitators. This paper describes a pilot study to explore these factors that influence information and technology adoption and use by health professionals in the clinical area in Sub-Saharan Africa. We report on the use of Q-methodology and the models of technology acceptance used in combination for the first time. The methodology used for this study aims to explore the subjectivity of healthcare professionals and present their shared views (factors) on their adoption and use of e-health within clinical practice.

  17. A development methodology for scientific software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cort, G.; Barrus, D.M.; Goldstone, J.A.; Miller, L.; Nelson, R.O.; Poore, R.V.

    1985-01-01

    We present the details of a software development methodology that addresses all phases of the software life cycle, yet is well suited for application by small projects with limited resources. The methodology has been developed at the Los Alamos Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) Facility and was utilized during the recent development of the WNR Data Acquisition Command Language. The methodology emphasizes the development and maintenance of comprehensive documentation for all software components. The impact of the methodology upon software quality and programmer productivity is assessed

  18. The role of pharmacoeconomics in current Indian healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Akram; Patel, Isha; Parimilakrishnan, Sundararajan; Mohanta, Guru Prasad; Chung, HaeChung; Chang, Jongwha

    2013-01-01

    Phamacoeconomics can aid the policy makers and the healthcare providers in decision making in evaluating the affordability of and access to rational drug use. Efficiency is a key concept of pharmacoeconomics, and various strategies are suggested for buying the greatest amount of benefits for a given resource use. Phamacoeconomic evaluation techniques such as cost minimization analysis, cost effectiveness analysis, cost benefit analysis, and cost utilization analysis, which support identification and quantification of cost of drugs, are conducted in a similar way, but vary in measurement of value of health benefits and outcomes. This article provides a brief overview about pharmacoeconomics, its utility with respect to the Indian pharmaceutical industry, and the expanding insurance system in India. Pharmacoeconomic evidences can be utilized to support decisions on licensing, pricing, reimbursement, and maintenance of formulary procedure of pharmaceuticals. For the insurance companies to give better facility at minimum cost, India must develop the platform for pharmacoeconomics with a validating methodology and appropriate training. The role of clinical pharmacists including PharmD graduates are expected to be more beneficial than the conventional pharmacists, as they will be able to apply the principles of economics in daily basis practice in community and hospital pharmacy.

  19. Towards a Public Sector GIS Evaluation Methodology | Kurwakumire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards a Public Sector GIS Evaluation Methodology. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... However, evaluation methodologies for public sector GIS are largely lacking.

  20. Human trafficking: review of educational resources for health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Roy; Alpert, Elaine J; Purcell, Genevieve; Konstantopoulos, Wendy Macias; McGahan, Anita; Cafferty, Elizabeth; Eckardt, Melody; Conn, Kathryn L; Cappetta, Kate; Burke, Thomas F

    2013-03-01

    Human trafficking is an increasingly well-recognized human rights violation that is estimated to involve more than 2 million victims worldwide each year. The health consequences of this issue bring victims into contact with health systems and healthcare providers, thus providing the potential for identification and intervention. A robust healthcare response, however, requires a healthcare workforce that is aware of the health impact of this issue; educated about how to identify and treat affected individuals in a compassionate, culturally aware, and trauma-informed manner; and trained about how to collaborate efficiently with law enforcement, case management, and advocacy partners. This article describes existing educational offerings about human trafficking designed for a healthcare audience and makes recommendations for further curriculum development. A keyword search and structured analysis of peer-reviewed and gray literature, conducted in 2011 and 2012, yielded 27 items that provide basic guidance to health professionals on human trafficking. The 27 resources differed substantially in format, length, scope, and intended audience. Topic areas covered by these resources included trafficking definitions and scope, health consequences, victim identification, appropriate treatment, referral to services, legal issues, and security. None of the educational resources has been rigorously evaluated. There is a clear need to develop, implement, and evaluate high-quality education and training programs that focus on human trafficking for healthcare providers. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 77 FR 76052 - Health Resources and Services Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Agency..., Public Law 104-13), the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) publishes periodic summaries... Administration (HRSA) plans to conduct a survey of the National Practitioner Data Bank and the Healthcare...

  2. Contemporary leadership in healthcare organizations: fragmented or concurrent leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikstrøm, Ewa; Dellve, Lotta

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to gain a deeper understanding of the main contemporary challenges for healthcare leaders in their everyday work practice, and the support they need to master their experienced dilemmas. Qualitative in-depth interviews (n=52), and focus-group interviews (n=6) with 31 first-line and 45 second-line healthcare leaders are analysed in line with constructivist grounded theory. In this paper, two leadership models are proposed for defining and differentiating ways of meeting different logics and demands made on leaders in the healthcare sector. The first model is leadership by separating different logics and fragmentation of time. Here, leaders express a desire for support in defining, structuring, dividing, and allocating tasks. The second model is leadership by integrating different logics and currentness of solutions. In this case, leaders want support in strengthening proactive leadership and shaping the basis for participative employeeship. This research is designed to describe what people experience rather than to assess the frequency of that experience in the studied settings. However, it would be interesting to elaborate on the findings of this study using other research methodologies. The findings contribute to contextual knowledge that is of relevance in supporting healthcare leaders. This is helpful in identifying important conditions that support the establishment of leadership and employeeship, leading to improvements in healthcare practice. The paper describes how contemporary leadership in the healthcare sector is constituted through different strategies for meeting multiple logics.

  3. A methodology based on openEHR archetypes and software agents for developing e-health applications reusing legacy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso de Moraes, João Luís; de Souza, Wanderley Lopes; Pires, Luís Ferreira; do Prado, Antonio Francisco

    2016-10-01

    In Pervasive Healthcare, novel information and communication technologies are applied to support the provision of health services anywhere, at anytime and to anyone. Since health systems may offer their health records in different electronic formats, the openEHR Foundation prescribes the use of archetypes for describing clinical knowledge in order to achieve semantic interoperability between these systems. Software agents have been applied to simulate human skills in some healthcare procedures. This paper presents a methodology, based on the use of openEHR archetypes and agent technology, which aims to overcome the weaknesses typically found in legacy healthcare systems, thereby adding value to the systems. This methodology was applied in the design of an agent-based system, which was used in a realistic healthcare scenario in which a medical staff meeting to prepare a cardiac surgery has been supported. We conducted experiments with this system in a distributed environment composed by three cardiology clinics and a center of cardiac surgery, all located in the city of Marília (São Paulo, Brazil). We evaluated this system according to the Technology Acceptance Model. The case study confirmed the acceptance of our agent-based system by healthcare professionals and patients, who reacted positively with respect to the usefulness of this system in particular, and with respect to task delegation to software agents in general. The case study also showed that a software agent-based interface and a tools-based alternative must be provided to the end users, which should allow them to perform the tasks themselves or to delegate these tasks to other people. A Pervasive Healthcare model requires efficient and secure information exchange between healthcare providers. The proposed methodology allows designers to build communication systems for the message exchange among heterogeneous healthcare systems, and to shift from systems that rely on informal communication of actors to

  4. A new approach for translating strategic healthcare objectives into operational indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg, Andreas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new performance measurement approach which enables healthcare managers to design a performance management system tailored for their individual settings. The model is based on the strategic goal of the individual health care facility. It has been developed...... level, a detailed and well-defined performance measurement structure is connected to the overall strategic plan The increasing complexity in modern healthcare requires new improved performance management systems for healthcare institutions (Landrum & Baker 2004). The process of translating strategic......). To be able to coordinate and manage these different requirements, a performance management system, encompassing performance indicators from all the three stakeholder groups is needed. Our approach was derived using the action research methodology (Coughlan & Coghlan 2002). The work is based on a two year...

  5. Applying e-procurement system in the healthcare: the EPOS paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketikidis, Panayiotis H.; Kontogeorgis, Apostolos; Stalidis, George; Kaggelides, Kostis

    2010-03-01

    One of the goals of procurement is to establish a competitive price, while e-procurement utilises electronic commerce to identify potential sources of supply, to purchase goods and services, to exchange contractual information and to interact with suppliers. Extensive academic work has been extensively devoted to e-procurement in diverse industries. However, applying e-procurement in the healthcare sector remains unexplored. It lacks an efficient e-procurement mechanism that will enable hospitals and healthcare suppliers to electronically exchange contractual information, aided by the technologies of optimisation and business rules. The development and deployment of e-procurement requires a major effort in the coordination of complex interorganisational business process. This article presents an e-procurement optimised system (EPOS) for the healthcare marketplace, a complete methodological approach for deploying and operating such system, as piloted in public and private hospitals in three European countries (Greece, Spain and Belgium) and suppliers of healthcare items in the fourth country (Italy). The efficient e-procurement mechanism that EPOS suggests enables hospitals and pharmaceutical and medical equipment suppliers to electronically exchange contractual information.

  6. Structuring agency: examining healthcare management in the USA and Australia using organizational theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Julianne; Leiter, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the healthcare industry has undergone significant changes. Using neo-institutional and resource dependency theories, the purpose of this paper is to explore how managers perceive constraint and enact agency amidst these historic challenges--perhaps most significantly, declining funding and increasing regulation. The data come from ten interviews with healthcare managers, spanning for-profit, non-profit, and government legal forms and hospital and nursing home sub-industries in both Queensland, Australia and North Carolina, USA. The authors look for patterns across the interviews. The paper shows that governments and umbrella "parent" organizations force managers to adhere to institutional expectations in exchange for resource investment. Managers navigate these environmental obstacles using a shared business-minded approach and competitive differentiation. Yet various interest groups--including front-line workers, physicians, and patients--challenge this paradigm, as they demand a focus on quality of care. Managers' efforts are likewise curbed by the very resource and institutional pressures they resist. The authors understand changes in the healthcare industry as resulting from an increasingly powerful managerial logic, at odds with traditional professional and societal values. Interest groups are best positioned to challenge this logic.

  7. MHealth resources for asthma and pregnancy care: methodological issues and social media recruitment. A discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Graham R; O'Connor, Anita; Chamberlain, Chervonne; Halpin, David

    2018-06-26

    A discussion of methodological issues and social media recruitment to a feasibility study to investigate mHealth resources for asthma and pregnancy care. pregnant women with asthma are reported to be poorly supported according to international research. We sought to establish if a mHealth intervention might be feasible and acceptable to them. a Phase I or modelling study. A project team designed an intervention to address UK national guidelines for the management of asthma during pregnancy, using other resources already accessible on the web. This was made available on a project website optimized for mobile phone usage. Links were Tweeted and advertised on Facebook, asking participants to access the project website, which included links to the resources and before- and after-use questionnaires to establish baseline symptom data and participant views of the resources. Despite 55,700 Twitter impressions in a 76 day period over winter 2016-2017, this recruitment strategy garnered 402 engagements but only seven respondents for questionnaire 1 and zero respondents for questionnaire 2. We could not recruit to this study despite believing that social media recruitment would be effective, and we recommend that social media recruitment be used cautiously. Apparently, we did not sufficiently address theoretical aspects of communications theory and were not clear enough about our key messages. Publication bias may exist regarding the non-publication of other failed telemedicine studies using social media; this goes largely unreported in some systematic reviews and may influence researchers' decision-making regarding social media recruitment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Experiences of nurses working in a rural primary health-care setting in Mopani district, Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Mohale

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Professional nurses working in rural, primary health-care settings are experiencing burnout due to serious shortages of personnel. This is exacerbated by the brain drain of nurses leaving the country. Rural settings are resource constrained in terms of personnel and equipment. This results in dissatisfaction among nurses due to the unbearable working conditions which result in stress and frustration. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive study was conducted to explore and describe the experiences of nurses working in a rural primary health-care setting in the greater Letaba sub district in Limpopo Province. Purposive sampling was used to identify the participants. Data was collected in the form of in-depth interviews. The study revealed that nurses working in primary health-care settings were experiencing emotional and physical strain as a result of the shortage of human resources. It was recommended that policies that meet the health-care needs of rural communities be developed, and that strategies to retain professional nurses in primary health-care settings be formulated.

  9. Opportunistic mammography screening provides effective detection rates in a limited resource healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Yew-Ching; Tan, Gie-Hooi; Taib, Nur Aishah; Rahmat, Kartini; Westerhout, Caroline Judy; Fadzli, Farhana; See, Mee-Hoong; Jamaris, Suniza; Yip, Cheng-Har

    2015-05-15

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women world-wide. In low and middle income countries, where there are no population-based mammographic screening programmes, late presentation is common, and because of inadequate access to optimal treatment, survival rates are poor. Mammographic screening is well-studied in high-income countries in western populations, and because it has been shown to reduce breast cancer mortality, it has become part of the healthcare systems in such countries. However the performance of mammographic screening in a developing country is largely unknown. This study aims to evaluate the performance of mammographic screening in Malaysia, a middle income country, and to compare the stage and surgical treatment of screen-detected and symptomatic breast cancer. A retrospective review of 2510 mammograms performed from Jan to Dec 2010 in a tertiary medical centre is carried out. The three groups identified are the routine (opportunistic) screening group, the targeted (high risk) screening group and the diagnostic group. The performance indicators of each group is calculated, and stage at presentation and treatment between the screening and diagnostic group is analyzed. The cancer detection rate in the opportunistic screening group, targeted screening group, and the symptomatic group is 0.5 %, 1.25 % and 26 % respectively. The proportion of ductal carcinoma in situ is 23.1 % in the two screening groups compared to only 2.5 % in the diagnostic group. Among the opportunistic screening group, the cancer detection rate was 0.2 % in women below 50 years old compared to 0.65 % in women 50 years and above. The performance indicators are within international standards. Early-staged breast cancer (Stage 0-2) were 84.6 % in the screening groups compared to 61.1 % in the diagnostic group. From the results, in a setting with resource constraints, targeted screening of high risk individuals will give a higher yield, and if more resources are

  10. Direct and Indirect Healthcare Resource Utilization and Costs Among Migraine Patients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafede, Machaon; Sapra, Sandhya; Shah, Neel; Tepper, Stewart; Cappell, Katherine; Desai, Pooja

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this analysis was to provide a contemporary estimate of the burden of migraine, incorporating both direct and indirect costs, by comparing the costs of migraine patients to a matched group of patients without migraine in a large, nationally representative sample of commercially insured patients in the United States. Previous studies have shown that the economic burden of migraine in the United States is substantial for payers, patients, and employers. Despite the availability of multiple acute and preventive pharmacological treatment options and a relatively stable migraine prevalence in the United States, there has been a documented increase in migraine-related healthcare resource and pharmacy use. Given the frequently disabling nature of migraine and its high prevalence, especially during peak productive years, and the lack of recent estimates of the burden of migraine, there is a need to update the existing literature with more current data. This retrospective, observational cohort study identified migraine patients in the Truven Health Market Scan Research Databases between January 2008 and June 2013. Adult patients had 12 months of continuous enrollment before (baseline period) and after (follow-up period) the day they received migraine diagnoses and/or medications (index) and no diagnosis of HIV or malignancy during the study period. The patients with migraine were matched 1:1 to a group of patients without migraine on demographic variables and index date. Direct healthcare utilization and costs and indirect (absenteeism, short-term disability, and long-term disability) costs were assessed during the 12-month follow-up period and differences between patients with vs without migraine were assessed. Two additional multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. First, an analysis was conducted comparing the odds of having a short-term disability claim between patients with and without migraine after controlling for patient demographic and

  11. Healthcare Information Technology Backsourcing, Problematic Outsourcing Manipulations, and Multisupplier Backsourcing Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garske, Steven Ray

    2010-01-01

    Backsourcing is the act of an organization changing an outsourcing relationship through insourcing, vendor change, or elimination of the outsourced service. This study discovered numerous problematic outsourcing manipulations conducted by suppliers, and identified backsourcing methodologies to correct these manipulations across multiple supplier…

  12. Application of economic principles in healthcare priority setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Angela; Mitton, Craig

    2006-06-01

    In healthcare, resources are often insufficient to meet all claims on them. In this respect, resources are considered scarce and have to be managed by prioritizing between competing claims. Economics as a discipline explicitly addresses this reality by acknowledging resource scarcity. However, the extent to which economics actually influences such prioritizing decisions in healthcare is unclear. The purpose of this paper is to review the use of economics in priority setting decision making. We outline the key principles of economics as they apply to priority setting and review the methods reported in the literature with respect to these. We find that these methods, even economic methods (e.g., those typically used in conducting economic evaluations such as cost-effectiveness analyses) do not tend to explicitly incorporate economic principles. We argue therefore that these methods, when applied to the context of priority setting, are not sufficient and that what is required is a broader framework that can incorporate the output from economic methods yet also be pragmatically applicable. We then go on to present an alternative approach - namely program budgeting and marginal analysis. Finally, we put forward our case for using program budgeting and marginal analysis in priority setting practice and set out some future research challenges.

  13. Chapter 43: Assessment of NE Greenland: Prototype for development of Circum-ArcticResource Appraisal methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, D.L.; Stemmerik, L.; Christiansen, F.G.; Sorensen, K.; Bidstrup, T.; Bojesen-Koefoed, J. A.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Schenk, C.J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    Geological features of NE Greenland suggest large petroleum potential, as well as high uncertainty and risk. The area was the prototype for development of methodology used in the US Geological Survey (USGS) Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA), and was the first area evaluated. In collaboration with the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), eight "assessment units" (AU) were defined, six of which were probabilistically assessed. The most prospective areas are offshore in the Danmarkshavn Basin. This study supersedes a previous USGS assessment, from which it differs in several important respects: oil estimates are reduced and natural gas estimates are increased to reflect revised understanding of offshore geology. Despite the reduced estimates, the CARA indicates that NE Greenland may be an important future petroleum province. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  14. Structural validity and reliability of the healthcare professionals' economic reasoning questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Mira H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The structure of healthcare professionals' economic reasoning (HPER is still unknown. The aim: The structural validity and the reliability of the HPER questionnaire were evaluated. Methods: The psychometric study about evaluation of the HPER factors was conducted. The healthcare professionals (physicians, dentists, pharmacists that are employed in healthcare state sector of Republic of Serbia were interviewed. The HPER Questionnaire contained 29 preliminary items. Its structure was evaluated by Principal Component Analysis for categorial and ordinal data. Results: The 9 items that defined seven HPER factors were extracted: (1 the negligence of the cost of quality by the administration and financier; (2 the consideration of the market price and healthcare benefit; (3 market orientation considering patient's requests; (4 the recognition of inadequate resource alocations by non-medical administrative authority; (5 the attitude about redirecting the profit from state to private healthcare sector; (6 the recognition of the unjustified spending by the healthcare professionals and (7 the relationship physician/patient. Conclusion: The HPER-9 Questionnaire has high structural validity and reliability in the HPER measurement.

  15. Gatekeepers in the healthcare sector: Knowledge and Bourdieu's concept of field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Fran M; Willis, Karen F; Lewis, Sophie

    2017-08-01

    Choice is an imperative for patients in the Australian healthcare system. The complexity of this healthcare 'maze', however, means that successfully navigating and making choices depends not only on the decisions of patients, but also other key players in the healthcare sector. Utilising Bourdieu's concepts of capital, habitus and field, we analyse the role of gatekeepers (i.e., those who control access to resources, services and knowledge) in shaping patients' experiences of healthcare, and producing opportunities to enable or constrain their choices. Indepth interviews were conducted with 41 gatekeepers (GPs, specialists, nurses, hospital administrators and policymakers), exploring how they acquire and use knowledge within the healthcare system. Our findings reveal a hierarchy of knowledges and power within the healthcare field which determines the forms of knowledge that are legitimate and can operate as capital within this complex and dynamic arena. As a consequence, forms of knowledge which can operate as capital, are unequally distributed and strategically controlled, ensuring democratic 'reform' remains difficult and 'choices' limited to those beneficial to private medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Healthcare waste management: an interpretive structural modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Vikas; Anbanandam, Ramesh

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - The World Health Organization identified infectious healthcare waste as a threat to the environment and human health. India's current medical waste management system has limitations, which lead to ineffective and inefficient waste handling practices. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to: first, identify the important barriers that hinder India's healthcare waste management (HCWM) systems; second, classify operational, tactical and strategical issues to discuss the managerial implications at different management levels; and third, define all barriers into four quadrants depending upon their driving and dependence power. Design/methodology/approach - India's HCWM system barriers were identified through the literature, field surveys and brainstorming sessions. Interrelationships among all the barriers were analyzed using interpretive structural modeling (ISM). Fuzzy-Matrice d'Impacts Croisés Multiplication Appliquée á un Classement (MICMAC) analysis was used to classify HCWM barriers into four groups. Findings - In total, 25 HCWM system barriers were identified and placed in 12 different ISM model hierarchy levels. Fuzzy-MICMAC analysis placed eight barriers in the second quadrant, five in third and 12 in fourth quadrant to define their relative ISM model importance. Research limitations/implications - The study's main limitation is that all the barriers were identified through a field survey and barnstorming sessions conducted only in Uttarakhand, Northern State, India. The problems in implementing HCWM practices may differ with the region, hence, the current study needs to be replicated in different Indian states to define the waste disposal strategies for hospitals. Practical implications - The model will help hospital managers and Pollution Control Boards, to plan their resources accordingly and make policies, targeting key performance areas. Originality/value - The study is the first attempt to identify India's HCWM system barriers and prioritize

  17. Developing a standardized healthcare cost data warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Sue L; Naessens, James M; Yawn, Barbara P; Reinalda, Megan S; Anderson, Stephanie S; Borah, Bijan J

    2017-06-12

    Research addressing value in healthcare requires a measure of cost. While there are many sources and types of cost data, each has strengths and weaknesses. Many researchers appear to create study-specific cost datasets, but the explanations of their costing methodologies are not always clear, causing their results to be difficult to interpret. Our solution, described in this paper, was to use widely accepted costing methodologies to create a service-level, standardized healthcare cost data warehouse from an institutional perspective that includes all professional and hospital-billed services for our patients. The warehouse is based on a National Institutes of Research-funded research infrastructure containing the linked health records and medical care administrative data of two healthcare providers and their affiliated hospitals. Since all patients are identified in the data warehouse, their costs can be linked to other systems and databases, such as electronic health records, tumor registries, and disease or treatment registries. We describe the two institutions' administrative source data; the reference files, which include Medicare fee schedules and cost reports; the process of creating standardized costs; and the warehouse structure. The costing algorithm can create inflation-adjusted standardized costs at the service line level for defined study cohorts on request. The resulting standardized costs contained in the data warehouse can be used to create detailed, bottom-up analyses of professional and facility costs of procedures, medical conditions, and patient care cycles without revealing business-sensitive information. After its creation, a standardized cost data warehouse is relatively easy to maintain and can be expanded to include data from other providers. Individual investigators who may not have sufficient knowledge about administrative data do not have to try to create their own standardized costs on a project-by-project basis because our data

  18. Translational educational research: a necessity for effective health-care improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C; Issenberg, S Barry; Cohen, Elaine R; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Wayne, Diane B

    2012-11-01

    Medical education research contributes to translational science (TS) when its outcomes not only impact educational settings, but also downstream results, including better patient-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has demonstrated its role in achieving such distal results. Effective TS also encompasses implementation science, the science of health-care delivery. Educational, clinical, quality, and safety goals can only be achieved by thematic, sustained, and cumulative research programs, not isolated studies. Components of an SBME TS research program include motivated learners, curriculum grounded in evidence-based learning theory, educational resources, evaluation of downstream results, a productive research team, rigorous research methods, research resources, and health-care system acceptance and implementation. National research priorities are served from translational educational research. National funding priorities should endorse the contribution and value of translational education research.

  19. South African uranium resources - 1997 assessment methodology and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainslie, L.C.

    2001-01-01

    The first commercial uranium production in South Africa started in 1953 to meet the demand for British/US nuclear weapons. This early production reached its peak in 1959 and began to decline with the reduced demand. The world oil crisis in the 1970s sparked a second resurgence of increased uranium production that peaked in 1980 to over 6,000 tonnes. Poor market condition allied with increasing political isolation resulted in uranium production declining to less than a third of the levels achieved in the early 1980s. South Africa is well endowed with uranium resource. Its uranium resources in the RAR and EAR-I categories, extractable at costs of less than $80/kg U, as of 1 January 1997, are estimated to 284 400 tonnes U. Nearly two thirds of these resources are associated with the gold deposits in the Witwatersrand conglomerates. Most of the remaining resources occur in the Karoo sandstone and coal deposits. (author)

  20. Design Quality in the Context of Healthcare Environments: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anåker, Anna; Heylighen, Ann; Nordin, Susanna; Elf, Marie

    2017-07-01

    We explored the concept of design quality in relation to healthcare environments. In addition, we present a taxonomy that illustrates the wide range of terms used in connection with design quality in healthcare. High-quality physical environments can promote health and well-being. Developments in healthcare technology and methodology put high demands on the design quality of care environments, coupled with increasing expectations and demands from patients and staff that care environments be person centered, welcoming, and accessible while also supporting privacy and security. In addition, there are demands that decisions about the design of healthcare architecture be based on the best available information from credible research and the evaluation of existing building projects. The basic principles of Arksey and O'Malley's model of scoping review design were used. Data were derived from literature searches in scientific databases. A total of 18 articles and books were found that referred to design quality in a healthcare context. Design quality of physical healthcare environments involves three different themes: (i) environmental sustainability and ecological values, (ii) social and cultural interactions and values, and (iii) resilience of the engineering and building construction. Design quality was clarified herein with a definition. Awareness of what is considered design quality in relation to healthcare architecture could help to design healthcare environments based on evidence. To operationalize the concept, its definition must be clear and explicit and able to meet the complex needs of the stakeholders in a healthcare context, including patients, staff, and significant others.

  1. Healthcare professionals experience with motivational interviewing in their encounter with obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Christina Louise; Rubak, Sune; Mogensen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to explore and describe how healthcare professionals in the Southern Region of Denmark experienced motivational interviewing as a communication method when working with pregnant women with obesity. DESIGN: a qualitative, descriptive study based on face-to-face interviews with 11...... a descriptive analysis methodology. FINDINGS: motivational interviewing was found to be a useful method when communicating with obese pregnant women. The method made the healthcare professionals more aware of their own communication style both when encountering pregnant women and in their interaction...... awareness of the healthcare professionals communication method with the patients and increased their ability to handle a difficult workload. Overall, lack of time restricted the use of the motivational interviewing method on a daily basis....

  2. Income disparities in healthcare use remain after controlling for healthcare need: evidence from Swedish register data on psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfvendahl, Sofia; Jöud, Anna; Petersson, Ingemar F; Theander, Elke; Svensson, Åke; Carlsson, Katarina Steen

    2018-04-01

    We used a southern Swedish cohort of psoriasis (PSO) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients and population-based referents (N = 57,800) to investigate the influence of socioeconomic and demographic factors on the probability of healthcare use and on healthcare costs when controlling for need as measured by PSO/PsA and common additional morbidities such as diabetes, depression and myocardial infarction. People with PSO/PsA were identified by ICD-10 codes in the Skåne Healthcare Register 1998-2007. Resource use and costs for years 2008-2011 were retrieved from the Skåne Healthcare Register and the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, and socioeconomic data were retrieved from Statistics Sweden. After controlling for PSO/PsA and common additional morbidities, income, and to some extent education, had significant effects on the probability of five types of healthcare use. Overall, income showed a bell-shaped relationship to healthcare costs, with patients in income quintiles 2 and 3 having the highest mean annualized cost irrespective of model specification. Education did not have a significant effect in most specifications. Analyses including interaction effects indicated similarly higher costs across income quintiles in the PSO and PsA subgroups, though these cost differences were lower in magnitude for patients with PSO in quintile 5 and with PsA in quintile 1. In conclusion, our results show persistent socioeconomic disparities in healthcare use among a cohort of chronically ill patients and referents, even after controlling for the presence of PSO/PsA and common additional morbidities. These disparities persist even in a country with general healthcare coverage and low out-of-pocket payments.

  3. Beyond Self-Monitoring: Understanding Non-functional Aspects of Home-based Healthcare Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grönvall, Erik; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2013-01-01

    the appropriation of healthcare technologies and people with comorbidity may have diverse but co-existing monitoring needs. In this paper, we seek to understand home-based health monitoring practices to better design and integrate them into people’s everyday life. We perform an analysis of socio......-technical complexities in home-based healthcare technologies through three case studies of self-monitoring: 1) pre-eclampsia (i.e. pregnancy poisoning), 2) heart conditions, and 3) preventive care. Through the analysis seven themes emerged (people, resources, places, routines, knowledge, control and motivation) that can...... facilitate the understanding of home-based healthcare activities. We present three modes of self-monitoring use and provide a set of design recommendations for future Ubicomp designs of home-based healthcare technology....

  4. Projected Lifetime Healthcare Costs Associated with HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Miners, Alec; Smith, Colette J

    2015-01-01

    computer simulation model to project the distribution of lifetime outcomes and costs of men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) infected with HIV in 2013 aged 30, over 10,000 simulations. We assumed a resource-rich setting with no loss to follow-up, and that standards and costs of healthcare management remain...

  5. Six methodological steps to build medical data warehouses for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szirbik, N. B.; Pelletier, C.; Chaussalet, T.; Chaussalet, 27629

    Purpose: We propose a simple methodology for heterogeneous data collection and central repository-style database design in healthcare. Our method can be used with or without other software development frameworks, and we argue that its application can save a relevant amount of implementation effort.

  6. Safe medication management in specialized home healthcare - an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Marléne; Flink, Maria; Ekstedt, Mirjam

    2017-08-24

    Medication management is a complex, error-prone process. The aim of this study was to explore what constitutes the complexity of the medication management process (MMP) in specialized home healthcare and how healthcare professionals handle this complexity. The study is theoretically based in resilience engineering. Data were collected during the MMP at three specialized home healthcare units in Sweden using two strategies: observation of workplaces and shadowing RNs in everyday work, including interviews. Transcribed material was analysed using grounded theory. The MMP in home healthcare was dynamic and complex with unclear boundaries of responsibilities, inadequate information systems and fluctuating work conditions. Healthcare professionals adapted their everyday clinical work by sharing responsibility and simultaneously being authoritative and preserving patients' active participation, autonomy and integrity. To promote a safe MMP, healthcare professionals constantly re-prioritized goals, handled gaps in communication and information transmission at a distance by creating new bridging solutions. Trade-offs and workarounds were necessary elements, but also posed a threat to patient safety, as these interim solutions were not systematically evaluated or devised learning strategies. To manage a safe medication process in home healthcare, healthcare professionals need to adapt to fluctuating conditions and create bridging strategies through multiple parallel activities distributed over time, space and actors. The healthcare professionals' strategies could be integrated in continuous learning, while preserving boundaries of safety, instead of being more or less interim solutions. Patients' and family caregivers' as active partners in the MMP may be an underestimated resource for a resilient home healthcare.

  7. Health technology assessment in India: the potential for improved healthcare decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mrityunjai; Ebrahim, Shah; Taylor, Fiona C; Chokshi, Maulik; Gabbay, John

    2014-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a multidisciplinary approach that uses clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, policy and ethical perspectives to provide evidence upon which rational decisions on the use of health technologies can be made. It can be used for a single stand-alone technology (e.g. a drug, a device), complex interventions (e.g. a rehabilitation service) and can also be applied to individual patient care and to public health. It is a tool for enabling the assessment and comparison of health technologies using the same metric of cost-effectiveness. This process benefits the patient, the health service, the healthcare payer and the technology producer as only technologies that are considered cost-effective are promoted for widespread use. This leads to greater use of effective technologies and greater health gain. The decision-making process in healthcare in India is complex owing to multiplicity of organizations with overlapping mandates. Often the decision-making is not evidence-based and there is no mechanism of bridging the gap between evidence and policy. Elsewhere, HTA is a frequently used tool in informing policy decisions in both resource-rich and resource-poor countries. Despite national organizations producing large volumes of research and clinical guidelines, India has not yet introduced a formal HTA programme. The incremental growth in healthcare products, services, innovation in affordable medical devices and a move towards universal healthcare, needs to be underpinned with an evidencebase which focuses on effectiveness, safety, affordability and acceptability to maximize the benefits that can be gained with a limited healthcare budget. Establishing HTA as a formal process in India, independent of healthcare providers, funders and technology producers, together with a framework for linking HTA to policy-making, would help ensure that the population gets better access to appropriate healthcare in the future. Copyright 2014, NMJI.

  8. A value-based taxonomy of improvement approaches in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colldén, Christian; Gremyr, Ida; Hellström, Andreas; Sporraeus, Daniella

    2017-06-19

    Purpose The concept of value is becoming increasingly fashionable in healthcare and various improvement approaches (IAs) have been introduced with the aim of increasing value. The purpose of this paper is to construct a taxonomy that supports the management of parallel IAs in healthcare. Design/methodology/approach Based on previous research, this paper proposes a taxonomy that includes the dimensions of view on value and organizational focus; three contemporary IAs - lean, value-based healthcare, and patient-centered care - are related to the taxonomy. An illustrative qualitative case study in the context of psychiatric (psychosis) care is then presented that contains data from 23 interviews and focuses on the value concept, IAs, and the proposed taxonomy. Findings Respondents recognized the dimensions of the proposed taxonomy and indicated its usefulness as support for choosing and combining different IAs into a coherent management model, and for facilitating dialog about IAs. The findings also suggested that the view of value as "health outcomes" is widespread, but healthcare professionals are less likely than managers to also view value as a process. Originality/value The conceptual contribution of this paper is to delineate some important characteristics of IAs in relation to the emerging "value era". It also highlights the coexistence of different IAs in healthcare management practice. A taxonomy is proposed that can help managers choose, adapt, and combine IAs in local management models.

  9. Health Information Technology in Healthcare Quality and Patient Safety: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Sue S; Buchalter, Scott; Hayes, Leslie W

    2018-06-04

    The area of healthcare quality and patient safety is starting to use health information technology to prevent reportable events, identify them before they become issues, and act on events that are thought to be unavoidable. As healthcare organizations begin to explore the use of health information technology in this realm, it is often unclear where fiscal and human efforts should be focused. The purpose of this study was to provide a foundation for understanding where to focus health information technology fiscal and human resources as well as expectations for the use of health information technology in healthcare quality and patient safety. A literature review was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications reporting on the actual use of health information technology in healthcare quality and patient safety. Inductive thematic analysis with open coding was used to categorize a total of 41 studies. Three pre-set categories were used: prevention, identification, and action. Three additional categories were formed through coding: challenges, outcomes, and location. This study identifies five main categories across seven study settings. A majority of the studies used health IT for identification and prevention of healthcare quality and patient safety issues. In this realm, alerts, clinical decision support, and customized health IT solutions were most often implemented. Implementation, interface design, and culture were most often noted as challenges. This study provides valuable information as organizations determine where they stand to get the most "bang for their buck" relative to health IT for quality and patient safety. Knowing what implementations are being effectivity used by other organizations helps with fiscal and human resource planning as well as managing expectations relative to cost, scope, and outcomes. The findings from this scan of the literature suggest that having organizational champion leaders that can shepherd implementation, impact culture

  10. Six methodological steps to build medical data warehouses for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirbik, N B; Pelletier, C; Chaussalet, T

    2006-09-01

    We propose a simple methodology for heterogeneous data collection and central repository-style database design in healthcare. Our method can be used with or without other software development frameworks, and we argue that its application can save a relevant amount of implementation effort. Also, we believe that the method can be used in other fields of research, especially those that have a strong interdisciplinary nature. The idea emerged during a healthcare research project, which consisted among others in grouping information from heterogeneous and distributed information sources. We developed this methodology by the lessons learned when we had to build a data repository, containing information about elderly patients flows in the UK's long-term care system (LTC). We explain thoroughly those aspects that influenced the methodology building. The methodology is defined by six steps, which can be aligned with various iterative development frameworks. We describe here the alignment of our methodology with the RUP (rational unified process) framework. The methodology emphasizes current trends, as early identification of critical requirements, data modelling, close and timely interaction with users and stakeholders, ontology building, quality management, and exception handling. Of a special interest is the ontological engineering aspect, which had the effects with the highest impact after the project. That is, it helped stakeholders to perform better collaborative negotiations that brought better solutions for the overall system investigated. An insight into the problems faced by others helps to lead the negotiators to win-win situations. We consider that this should be the social result of any project that collects data for better decision making that leads finally to enhanced global outcomes.

  11. Service quality, patient satisfaction and loyalty in the Bangladesh healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Selim; Tarique, Kazi Md; Arif, Ishtiaque

    2017-06-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate service quality, patient satisfaction and loyalty in Bangladesh's healthcare sector. It identifies healthcare quality conformance, patient satisfaction and loyalty based on demographics such as gender, age and marital status. It examines the differences between public and private healthcare sectors regarding service quality, patient satisfaction and loyalty. Design/methodology/approach The authors distributed 450 self-administered questionnaires to hospital patients resulting in 204 useful responses (45.3 per cent response rate). Data were analysed based on reliability analysis, exploratory factor analysis, independent samples t-tests, ANOVA and discriminant analysis using SPSS version 23. Findings Findings indicate that single patients perceive tangibles, reliability, empathy and loyalty higher compared to married patients. Young patients (⩽20 years) have a higher tangibles, empathy and loyalty scores compared to other age groups. The authors observed that private hospital patients perceive healthcare service quality performance higher compared to patients in public hospitals. Research limitations/implications The authors focussed solely on the Bangladesh health sector, so the results might not be applicable to other countries. Originality/value The findings provide guidelines for enhancing service quality, patient satisfaction and loyalty in the Bangladesh healthcare sector and other countries.

  12. Healthcare barriers and supports for American Indian women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Jessica L; Burnette, Catherine E; Roh, Soonhee; Lee, Yeon-Shim

    2018-05-18

    Although American Indian (AI) women continue to experience cancer at higher rates and have not seen the same decline in cancer prevalence as the general U.S. population, little research examines how interactions with health care providers may influence and exacerbate these health disparities. The purpose of the study was to understand the experiences of AI women who receive cancer treatment, which is integral for eradication of AI cancer disparities among women. A qualitative descriptive methodology was used with a sample of 43 AI women with breast, cervical, colon, and other types of cancer from the Northern Plains region of South Dakota. Interviews were conducted from June 2014 to February 2015. Qualitative content analysis revealed that women experienced: (a) health concerns being ignored or overlooked; (b) lack of consistent and qualified providers; (c) inadequate healthcare infrastructure; (d) sub-optimal patient-healthcare provider relationships; (e) positive experiences with healthcare providers; and (f) pressure and misinformation about treatment. Results indicate the types of support AI women may need when accessing healthcare. Culturally informed trainings for healthcare professionals may be needed to provide high-quality and sensitive care for AI women who have cancer, and to support those providers already providing proper care.

  13. History and Methodology in a Nigerian University | Adesina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    History and Methodology in a Nigerian University. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... School of History), is the issue of methodology and in particular, the use of theories.

  14. Health technology assessment and its role in the future development of the Indian healthcare sector

    OpenAIRE

    Hass, Bastian; Pooley, Jayne; Feuring, Martin; Suvarna, Viraj; Harrington, Adrian E.

    2012-01-01

    Public expenditure on healthcare in India is low by international comparison, and access to essential treatment pushes many uninsured citizens below the poverty line. In many countries, policymakers utilize health technology assessment (HTA) methodologies to direct investments in healthcare, to obtain the maximum benefit for the population as a whole. With rising incomes and a commitment from the Government of India to increase the proportion of gross domestic product spent on health, this is...

  15. A Methodology for Reducing Bench Strength in Information Technology Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby John

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the major risks in information technology (IT project execution is the non-availability of resources with required skill sets to meet the project demands. To mitigate this risk, almost every IT organization maintains a portion of their resources on bench. The bench strength reduces the delay in starting the project due to the non-availability of skilled resources. But bench strength or buffer is cost to the company. A medium scale Indian IT company incurs around USD 142,347 monthly on maintaining the bench strength. Hence this study is undertaken to develop a methodology to reduce the bench strength in IT companies. The proposed methodology is to obtain an optimum mix of resources from bench and through recruitment to meet the demands at a minimum cost. This is done by formulating the problem as an integer programming problem. The problem aims to minimize the total cost of obtaining the skilled resources without violating the constraints on demand, bench strength availability and recruitment lead time. The problem can be solved using Microsoft excel solver function or any other optimization packages like CPLEX, Gurobi, etc. A case study on the application of proposed methodology is also discussed in the paper. The case study showed that the proposed methodology is superior to the existing practice of maintaining large bench strengths to meet the demands for resources with various skills.

  16. KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS FOR HEALTHCARE RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS BETWEEN 2011 AND 2015

    OpenAIRE

    ANISKEVICH A.S.; HALFIN R.A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we identify 16 key indicators to evaluate the performance of healthcare research organizations. These indicators comprehensively characterize such aspects of performance as research output and relevance, human resource development, integration into the international scientific community, distribution of scientific knowledge, promotion of the prestige of science, and resource provision. Below, we review the existing classification of medical research institutions and their key fea...

  17. Healthcare Services Expenditure: A Case Study in Isfahan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdosi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Determining and understanding of healthcare costs and its financing method is one of the most important subjects understatement of which can cause such major problems as excessive health costs for households due to the high rate of out-of-pocket expenses. Objectives The current study aimed to analyze the healthcare costs and determine the share of Isfahan province, Iran, from the total healthcare costs of the country from 2006 to 2011. Materials and Methods It was a retrospective and descriptive-analytical study. The required statistical data were gathered from statistical yearbooks of the country and the province, the website of the World Bank, the statistics provided by the Healthcare Department of Isfahan and Kashan Universities of Medical Sciences and the statistical data provided by Iran Statistics Center in 2011, all covering the period of six years from 2006 to 2011. Excel software was used for data analysis and computations of the research. Results During this period, the annual growth average of healthcare and treatment costs were 12% and 20%, respectively. The share of the healthcare sector declined from 33% in 2006 to 25.4% in 2011. In other words, healthcare cost per capita, being about one second of the treatment cost per capita, reduced to a third of treatment per capita in 2011. Conclusions Efficient allocation of financial resources in the healthcare system based on specific goals and strategies, coordination of public and private sectors in providing healthcare services, the rising share of the healthcare sector in GDP of the province and the country, and the preference of prevention over treatment measures can affect achieving the healthcare system goals and surmount challenges such as pay-out-of-pocket and rising healthcare costs, particularly the costs of integrated treatment with full performance.

  18. The impact of software quality characteristics on healthcare outcome: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Sakineh; Pirnejad, Habibollah; Moradkhani, Alireza; Aliev, Alvosat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discover the effect of software quality characteristics on healthcare quality and efficiency indicators. Through a systematic literature review, we selected and analyzed 37 original research papers to investigate the impact of the software indicators (coming from the standard ISO 9126 quality characteristics and sub-characteristics) on some of healthcare important outcome indicators and finally ranked these software indicators. The results showed that the software characteristics usability, reliability and efficiency were mostly favored in the studies, indicating their importance. On the other hand, user satisfaction, quality of patient care, clinical workflow efficiency, providers' communication and information exchange, patient satisfaction and care costs were among the healthcare outcome indicators frequently evaluated in relation to the mentioned software characteristics. Regression Logistic Method was the most common assessment methodology, and Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling were performed to test the structural model's fit. The software characteristics were considered to impact the healthcare outcome indicators through other intermediate factors (variables).

  19. Use of evidence-based management in healthcare administration decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruiling; Berkshire, Steven D; Fulton, Lawrence V; Hermanson, Patrick M

    2017-07-03

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine whether healthcare leaders use evidence-based management (EBMgt) when facing major decisions and what types of evidence healthcare administrators consult during their decision-making. This study also intends to identify any relationship that might exist among adoption of EBMgt in healthcare management, attitudes towards EBMgt, demographic characteristics and organizational characteristics. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional study was conducted among US healthcare leaders. Spearman's correlation and logistic regression were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 23.0. Findings One hundred and fifty-four healthcare leaders completed the survey. The study results indicated that 90 per cent of the participants self-reported having used an EBMgt approach for decision-making. Professional experiences (87 per cent), organizational data (84 per cent) and stakeholders' values (63 per cent) were the top three types of evidence consulted daily and weekly for decision-making. Case study (75 per cent) and scientific research findings (75 per cent) were the top two types of evidence consulted monthly or less than once a month. An exploratory, stepwise logistic regression model correctly classified 75.3 per cent of all observations for a dichotomous "use of EBMgt" response variable using three independent variables: attitude towards EBMgt, number of employees in the organization and the job position. Spearman's correlation indicated statistically significant relationships between healthcare leaders' use of EBMgt and healthcare organization bed size ( r s = 0.217, n = 152, p employees ( r s = 0.195, n = 152, p = 0.016). Originality/value This study generated new research findings on the practice of EBMgt in US healthcare administration decision-making.

  20. Women leadership barriers in healthcare, academia and business

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaitzi, S.; Czabanowska, K.; Fowler-Davis, S.; Brand, H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose\\ud \\ud \\ud \\ud This paper maps the barriers to women leadership across healthcare, academia and business, and identifies barriers prevalence across sectors. A Barriers Thematic Map (BTM), with quantitative logic, and a prevalence chart have been developed, with the aim to uncover inequalities and provide orientation to develop inclusion and equal opportunity strategies within different work environments.\\ud \\ud \\ud \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud \\ud \\ud A systematic literature...

  1. Methodological pluralism in the teaching of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Josué Antunes; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of using a teaching strategy called methodological pluralism, consisting of the use of various methodological resources in order to provide a meaningful learning. It is part of a doctoral thesis, which aims to investigate contributions to the use of traditional resources combined with digital technologies, in order to create autonomy for future teachers of Natural Sciences and Mathematics in relation to themes in Astronomy. It was offered an extension course at the "Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology" in the North of Minas Gerais (FINMG), Campus Januaria, for thirty-two students of licentiate courses in Physics, Mathematics and Biological Sciences, involving themes of Astronomy, in order to search and contribute to improving the training of future teachers. The following aspects are used: the mixed methodology, with pre-experimental design, combined with content analysis. The results indicate the rates of students' prior knowledge in relation to Astronomy was low; meaningful learning indications of concepts related to Astronomy, and the feasibility of using digital resources Involving technologies, articulated with traditional materials in the teaching of Astronomy. This research sought to contribute to the initial teacher training, especially in relation to Astronomy Teaching, proposing new alternatives to promote the teaching of this area of knowledge, extending the methodological options of future teachers.

  2. [Review of the methodological, ethical, legal and social issues of research projects in healthcare with big data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lecuona, Itziar

    2018-05-31

    The current model for reviewing research with human beings basically depends on decision-making processes within research ethics committees. These committees must be aware of the importance of the new digital paradigm based on the large-scale exploitation of datasets, including personal data on health. This article offers guidelines, with the application of the EU's General Data Protection Regulation, for the appropriate evaluation of projects that are based on the use of big data analytics in healthcare. The processes for gathering and using this data constitute a niche where current research is developed. In this context, the existing protocols for obtaining informed consent from participants are outdated, as they are based not only on the assumption that personal data are anonymized, but that they will continue to be so in the future. As a result, it is essential that research ethics committees take on new capabilities and revisit values such as privacy and freedom, updating protocols, methodologies and working procedures. This change in the work culture will provide legal security to the personnel involved in research, will make it possible to guarantee the protection of the privacy of the subjects of the data, and will permit orienting the exploitation of data to avoid the commodification of personal data in this era of deidentification, so that research meets actual social needs and not spurious or opportunistic interests disguised as research. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. RESOURCE TRAINING AND METHODOLOGICAL CENTER FOR THE TRAINING OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES: EXPERIENCE AND DIRECTION OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Fedorov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The presented article is devoted to the new and actual direction in the system of higher education - the development of inclusive education. The experience of creating a resource training and methodological center (RТMC of the University of Minin in 2017 is presented, the directions of its activity in 2017 and the results are described. The article outlines the role of RТMC in the development of inclusive culture.Materials and methods: The method of analyzing the literature of domestic and foreign authors was used as the basis for writing the article; the monitoring data of the state of inclusive higher education, which was implemented within the framework of the State Contract dated 07.06.2016 No. 05.020.11 007 on the project «Monitoring Information and Analytical Support of Activities regional resource centers for higher education for disabled people».Results: Analyzing the results of the RТMC activity, the authors update the problems that arose during the project implementation and suggest ways of their solution. The authors see the development of the RТMC activity through the development of forms and mechanisms of interdepartmental, interregional and inter-institutional cooperation in order to achieve coherence of actions and effectiveness of all participants in the support of inclusion in higher education, taking into account the educational needs of entrants and labor market needs throughout the fixed territory. As a special mission of the RТMC, the authors see the management of the development of inclusive culture in the university. The system of higher education is considered as an instrument of fulfilling the social order for the formation of a generation of people who tolerate and organically perceive the fact of inclusion in all spheres of life.Discussion and conclusion: The role of the resource training and methodological center in the development of inclusive higher education is determined by the identification

  4. Mobile learning for HIV/AIDS healthcare worker training in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolfo Maria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present an innovative approach to healthcare worker (HCW training using mobile phones as a personal learning environment. Twenty physicians used individual Smartphones (Nokia N95 and iPhone, each equipped with a portable solar charger. Doctors worked in urban and peri-urban HIV/AIDS clinics in Peru, where almost 70% of the nation's HIV patients in need are on treatment. A set of 3D learning scenarios simulating interactive clinical cases was developed and adapted to the Smartphones for a continuing medical education program lasting 3 months. A mobile educational platform supporting learning events tracked participant learning progress. A discussion forum accessible via mobile connected participants to a group of HIV specialists available for back-up of the medical information. Learning outcomes were verified through mobile quizzes using multiple choice questions at the end of each module. Methods In December 2009, a mid-term evaluation was conducted, targeting both technical feasibility and user satisfaction. It also highlighted user perception of the program and the technical challenges encountered using mobile devices for lifelong learning. Results With a response rate of 90% (18/20 questionnaires returned, the overall satisfaction of using mobile tools was generally greater for the iPhone. Access to Skype and Facebook, screen/keyboard size, and image quality were cited as more troublesome for the Nokia N95 compared to the iPhone. Conclusions Training, supervision and clinical mentoring of health workers are the cornerstone of the scaling up process of HIV/AIDS care in resource-limited settings (RLSs. Educational modules on mobile phones can give flexibility to HCWs for accessing learning content anywhere. However lack of softwares interoperability and the high investment cost for the Smartphones' purchase could represent a limitation to the wide spread use of such kind mLearning programs in RLSs.

  5. Determinants of elevated healthcare utilization in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard-Scharf Barbara J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD imparts a substantial economic burden on western health systems. Our objective was to analyze the determinants of elevated healthcare utilization among patients with COPD in a single-payer health system. Methods Three-hundred eighty-nine adults with COPD were matched 1:3 to controls by age, gender and area of residency. Total healthcare cost 5 years prior recruitment and presence of comorbidities were obtained from a computerized database. Health related quality of life (HRQoL indices were obtained using validated questionnaires among a subsample of 177 patients. Results Healthcare utilization was 3.4-fold higher among COPD patients compared with controls (p Conclusion Comorbidity burden determines elevated utilization for COPD patients. Decision makers should prioritize scarce health care resources to a better care management of the "most costly" patients.

  6. Healthcare security staffing for smaller facilities: where science meets art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining effective security resourcing and staffing for smaller healthcare facilities presents many difficulties, according to the author In this article, he provides guidance to security practitioners on taking existing data and translating it into a language that administration will understand and appreciate.

  7. Emotions in relation to healthcare encounters affecting self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räty, Lena; Gustafsson, Barbro

    2006-02-01

    This study identifies emotions in patients with epilepsy as a result of confirming and disconfirming healthcare experiences. A discussion of emotions as a motive for patients' goal-directed actions was a further aim of this study. The critical incident method was used for data collection. Emotions occurring in confirming and disconfirming healthcare encounters were analyzed using the Belief-Desire Theory of Emotions and were categorized as basic, complex, or self-evaluating. Confirming encounters aroused emotions like hope, a feeling of security, joy, relief, and pride, while disconfirming encounters aroused emotions like despair, fear, unrest, resignation, shame, and guilt. The emotions identified in the healthcare encounters were recognized as motives for action. An emotion such as a feeling of security aroused a desire in the patients to strengthen their positive self and motivated them to have a constructive and sympathetic attitude toward the healthcare experience. An emotion such as anger caused patients to strive to maintain their self-respect either by avoiding difficult situations and ignoring the problem (patients with a low self-esteem) or by trying to re-create a positive self-image (patients with a high self-esteem). Healthcare encounters between patient and caregiver considerably affect the patient's emotional status and thereby his or her well-being. The importance of establishing healthcare encounters that evoke positive emotions that strengthen patients' resources must be addressed in future nursing care.

  8. The community speaks: understanding ethical values in allocation of scarce lifesaving resources during disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty Biddison, Elizabeth L; Gwon, Howard; Schoch-Spana, Monica; Cavalier, Robert; White, Douglas B; Dawson, Timothy; Terry, Peter B; London, Alex John; Regenberg, Alan; Faden, Ruth; Toner, Eric S

    2014-06-01

    Pandemic influenza or other crises causing mass respiratory failure could easily overwhelm current North American critical care capacity. This threat has generated large-scale federal, state, and local efforts to prepare for a public health disaster. Few, however, have systematically engaged the public regarding which values are most important in guiding decisions about how to allocate scarce healthcare resources during such crises. The aims of this pilot study were (1) to test whether deliberative democratic methods could be used to promote engaged discussion about complex, ethically challenging healthcare-related policy issues and (2) to develop specific deliberative democratic procedures that could ultimately be used in a statewide process to inform a Maryland framework for allocating scarce healthcare resources during disasters. Using collaboratively developed focus group materials and multiple metrics for assessing outcomes, we held 5-hour pilot community meetings with a combined total of 68 community members in two locations in Maryland. The key outcomes used to assess the project were (1) the comprehensibility of the background materials and ethical principles, (2) the salience of the ethical principles, (3) the perceived usefulness of the discussions, (4) the degree to which participants' opinions evolved as a result of the discussions, and (5) the quality of participant engagement. Most participants were thoughtful, reflective, and invested in this pilot policy-informing process. Throughout the pilot process, changes were made to background materials, the verbal introduction, and pre- and post-surveys. Importantly, by holding pilot meetings in two distinct communities (an affluent suburb and inner city neighborhood), we discerned that participants' ethical reflections were framed in large part by their place-based life experiences. This pilot process, coupled with extensive feedback from participants, yielded a refined methodology suitable for wider

  9. The No-Destination Ship of Priority-Setting in Healthcare: A Call for More Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Brayan V

    2017-10-11

    In dealing with scarcity of resources within healthcare systems, decision-makers inevitably have to make choices about which services to fund. Setting priorities represents a challenging task that requires systematic, explicit and transparent methodologies with focus on economic efficiency. In addition, the engagement of the general public in the process of decision-making has been regarded as one of the most important aspects of the management of publicly-funded health systems in liberal democracies. In the current essay, we aim to discuss the problematics of public engagement in the process of resource allocation and priority-setting within the context of publiclyfunded health systems. Our central argument is that although there may be a conflict between democratic mechanisms of citizen participation and economic efficiency, in the extra-welfarist sense, expected for/from the system, the solution for this tension does not seem to rely on more or novel authoritative technocratic approaches, but rather on the deepening and betterment of democratic participation. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  10. Preventing tuberculosis in healthcare workers of the radiology department: a Malaysian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lh; Kamarulzaman, A

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a well recognised occupational hazard for healthcare workers (HCWs). Concerns on the safety of healthcare settings in Malaysia was raised following a report of 25 HCWs working in 11 general hospitals in Malaysia who were infected with TB in 2004 being publicised in the media recently. As the disease burden in general is high in Malaysia, due attention should be given to this disease in our healthcare facilities including the radiology department, an often neglected area in TB infection control programmes. This article focuses on the key control measures that can be implemented in radiology departments in a developing country with limited resources.