Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya has experienced a number of retail sector initiatives aimed at improving access to antimalarial medicines. This study explored stakeholders' perceptions of the role of private medicine retailers (PMRs, the value and feasibility of programme goals, perceived programme impact, factors influencing implementation and recommendations in three districts of Kenya. Methods This study was part of a larger evaluation of PMR programmes, including quantitative and qualitative components. The qualitative research was conducted to assess implementation processes and actors' experiences in the programmes, through focus group discussions with trained PMRs and mothers of children under five years, and in-depth interviews with programme managers, trainers and co-trainers. Results PMRs were perceived to provide rapid cheap treatment for non-serious conditions and used as a deliberate and continuously evaluated choice between different treatment sources. All stakeholders supported programme goals and most PMRs described increased customer satisfaction, more rational purchasing of medicine stock and increased medicine sales after participation. Factors undermining programme implementation included a lack of MoH resources to train and monitor large numbers of PMRs, the relative instability of outlets, medicines stocked and retail personnel, the large number of proprietary brands and financial challenges to retailers in stocking antimalarial medicines, and their customers in buying them. Unambiguous national support and a broad range of strategies are important to strengthen the feasibility of change in OTC antimalarial use. Conclusions Understanding the context and implementation processes of PMR programmes and the perspectives of key actors are critical to identifying measures to support their effective implementation. Financial barriers underlie many described challenges, with important implications for policies on subsidies in this sector
Rowa, Yvonne; Abuya, Timothy O; Mutemi, Wilfred K; Ochola, Sam; Molyneux, Sassy; Marsh, Vicki
Kenya has experienced a number of retail sector initiatives aimed at improving access to antimalarial medicines. This study explored stakeholders' perceptions of the role of private medicine retailers (PMRs), the value and feasibility of programme goals, perceived programme impact, factors influencing implementation and recommendations in three districts of Kenya. This study was part of a larger evaluation of PMR programmes, including quantitative and qualitative components. The qualitative research was conducted to assess implementation processes and actors' experiences in the programmes, through focus group discussions with trained PMRs and mothers of children under five years, and in-depth interviews with programme managers, trainers and co-trainers. PMRs were perceived to provide rapid cheap treatment for non-serious conditions and used as a deliberate and continuously evaluated choice between different treatment sources. All stakeholders supported programme goals and most PMRs described increased customer satisfaction, more rational purchasing of medicine stock and increased medicine sales after participation. Factors undermining programme implementation included a lack of MoH resources to train and monitor large numbers of PMRs, the relative instability of outlets, medicines stocked and retail personnel, the large number of proprietary brands and financial challenges to retailers in stocking antimalarial medicines, and their customers in buying them. Unambiguous national support and a broad range of strategies are important to strengthen the feasibility of change in OTC antimalarial use. Understanding the context and implementation processes of PMR programmes and the perspectives of key actors are critical to identifying measures to support their effective implementation. Financial barriers underlie many described challenges, with important implications for policies on subsidies in this sector. In spite of barriers to implementation, increased exposure to
Personalized medicine is booming. It tends to provide a medical management "tailored" for groups of patients, or for one unique patient, but also to identify risk groups to develop public health strategies. In this context, some radicalization phenomenon can emerge, leading to not only personalized medicine but also privatized medicine, which can lead to a capture of the medical public resource. If the "privatization" of medicine is not limited to producing adverse effects, several potentially destabilizing phenomena for patients still remain. First, some objective factors, like the adjustment of scientific prerequisites, are emerging from personalized medicine practices (clinical trial, public health policy) and are interfering with the medical doctor/patient relationship. Another risk emerges for patients concomitantly to their demand for controlling their own health, in terms of patients' security although these risks are not clearly identified and not effectively communicated. These practices, related to a privatized medicine, develop within the healthcare system but also outside, and the government and legislators will have to take into account these new dimensions in drafting their future regulations and policies. © 2014 médecine/sciences – Inserm.
Bal, C.S.; Bandopadhyaya, G.P.
The objective of this article is to critically analyse from the macroeconomics point of view the true picture of private investment in nuclear medicine i.e. whether it is a profit making or loss incurring investment
Full Text Available Value-based medicine is the tendency of modern medicine.This paper elaborated the properties of value-based medicine,analyzed the role of model of value-based medicine in modern medicine,and put forward ideas and related measures with the model of value-based medicine to promote the development of private hospitals, which provided some reference for development of private hospitals.
Value-based medicine is the tendency of modern medicine.This paper elaborated the properties of value-based medicine,analyzed the role of model of value-based medicine in modern medicine,and put forward ideas and related measures with the model of value-based medicine to promote the development of private hospitals, which provided some reference for development of private hospitals.
Luijten, Peter R; van Dongen, Guus A M S; Moonen, Chrit T; Storm, Gert; Crommelin, Daan J A
The way forward in multidisciplinary research according to former NIH's director Elias Zerhouni is to engage in predictive, personalized, preemptive and participatory medicine. For the creation of the optimal innovation climate that would allow for such a strategy, public-private partnerships have been widely proposed as an important instrument. Public-private partnerships have become an important instrument to expedite translational research in medicine. The Netherlands have initiated three large public-private partnerships in the life sciences and health area to facilitate the translation of valuable basic scientific concepts to new products and services in medicine. The focus of these partnerships has been on drug development, improved diagnosis and regenerative medicine. The Dutch model of public-private partnership forms the blueprint of a much larger European initiative called EATRIS. This paper will provide practical examples of public-private partnerships initiated to expedite the translation of new technology for drug development towards the clinic. Three specific technologies are in focus: companion diagnostics using nuclear medicine, the use of ultra high field MRI to generate sensitive surrogate endpoints based on endogenous contrast, and MRI guidance for High Intensity Focused Ultrasound mediated drug delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Trends in the development of new private colleges of osteopathic medicine (COMs) described by the author in 2003 have accelerated in the ensuing decade. During 2003 to 2013, 10 new COMs as well as 2 remote teaching sites and 4 new branch campuses at private institutions were accredited, leading to a 98% increase in the number of students enrolled in private COMs. The key features of the private COM educational model during this period were a reliance on student tuition, the establishment of health professions education programs around the medical school, the expansion of class size, the creation of branch campuses and remote teaching sites, an environment that emphasizes teaching over research, and limited involvement in facilities providing clinical services to patients. There is institutional ownership of preclinical instruction, but clinical instruction occurs in affiliated hospitals and medical institutions where students are typically taught by volunteer and/or adjunct faculty.Between 2003 and 2013, this model attracted smaller universities and organizations, which implemented the strategies of established private COMs in initiating new private COMs, branch campuses, and remote teaching sites. The new COMs have introduced changes to the osteopathic profession and private COM model by expanding to new parts of the country and establishing the first for-profit medical school accredited in the United States in modern times. They have also increased pressure on the system of osteopathic graduate medical education, as the number of funded GME positions available to their graduates is less than the need.
N. O. Sinyenko
Full Text Available It was discussed the possibilities and the reality of the e-medicine challenges through technology of public-private partnership (PPP. It is shown that the use of e-medicine is one of the most important levers of improving the quality of medical care in Ukraine. Taking into account that the computerization of health care is extremely expensive project its rapid implementation is possible for the widest possible PPP. It is believed that mobile medicine is the best example of modern PPP. It is postulated that for the effective control of the quality of medical care it should be created specialized expertise and advisory mechanisms in a specialized system of state control of the new system of electronic health systems with strictly defined principles such as objectivity, complimentarily, law and so on.
James, Peter Bai; Kamara, Halimatu; Bah, Abdulai Jawo; Steel, Amie; Wardle, Jon
This study aimed to determine the prevalence, determinants and pattern of herbal medicine use among hypertensive patients in Freetown. We conducted a cross-sectional study among hypertensive patients attending public and private health facilities in Freetown, Sierra Leone between August and October 2016. We analyzed the data using SPSS version 24. We used Chi-square, Fisher exact two-tailed test and regression analysis for data analysis. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Out of 260 study participants, over half (n = 148, 56.9%) reported using herbal medicine for the treatment of hypertension alone or together with comorbid condition(s). The most commonly used herbal medicine among users were honey (n = 89, 33.3%), moringa (n = 80, 30.0%) and garlic (n = 73, 27.3%). No significant difference existed between users and non-users of herbal medicine with regards to socio-demographic and health-related factors. The majority (n = 241, 92.7%) of respondents considered herbal medicine beneficial if it was recommended by a healthcare provider yet 85.1% (n = 126) did not disclose their herbal medicine use to their health care provider. There is a high use of herbal medicines among hypertensive patients in Freetown, Sierra Leone. It is essential for healthcare providers to take heed of the findings of this study and routinely ask their patients about their herbal medicine use status. Such practice will provide the opportunity to discuss the benefits and risks of herbal medicine use with the aim of maximizing patient desired therapeutic outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ashigbie, Paul G; Azameti, Devine; Wirtz, Veronika J
Ghana established its National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2003 with the goal of ensuring more equitable financing of health care to improve access to health services. This qualitative study examines the challenges and consequences of medicines management policies and practices under the NHIS as perceived by public and private service providers. This study was conducted in health facilities in the Eastern, Greater Accra and Volta regions of Ghana between July and August 2014. We interviewed 26 Key Informants (KIs) from a purposively selected sample of public and private sector providers (government and mission hospitals, private hospitals and private standalone pharmacies), pharmaceutical suppliers and NHIS district offices. Data was collected using semi-structured interview guides which covered facility accreditation, reimbursement practices, medicines selection, purchasing and pricing of medicines, and utilization of medicines. Codes for data analysis were developed based on the study questions and also in response to themes that emerged from the transcripts and notes. Most KIs agreed that the introduction of the NHIS has increased access to and utilization of medicines by removing cost barriers for patients; however, some pointed out the increased utilization could also be corollary to moral hazard. Common concerns across all facilities were the delays in receiving NHIS reimbursements, and low reimbursement rates for medicines which result in providers asking patients to pay supplementary fees. KIs reported important differences between private and public sectors including weak separation of prescribing and dispensing and limited use of drugs and therapeutic committees in the private sector, the disproportionate effects of unfavorable reimbursement prices for medicines, and inadequate participation of the private sector providers (especially pharmacies and licensed chemical sellers) in the NHIS. Health providers generally perceive the NHIS to have had a
Maïga, Diadié; Williams-Jones, Bryn
In 1998, the government of Mali adopted a national pharmaceutical policy aimed at promoting a supply system for generic essential medicines that would guarantee equal access for all citizens. Distribution and delivery is a shared responsibility of both public and private sectors (wholesalers and pharmacies). To influence private sector behaviour, the national policy uses a combination of government regulation and market forces. In 2006, the government issued a decree fixing maximum prices in the private sector for 107 prescription drugs from the national list of 426 essential medicines. The current study assessed the impact of this intervention on the evolution of market prices (wholesale and retail), and the subsequent availability and public access to essential medicines in Mali. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in February and May 2006, and January 2009, with 16 wholesalers and 30 private drugstores in Bamako, Mali. The overall availability of essential medicines at private wholesalers (p=1) and pharmacies (p=0.53) was identical before and after the enforcement of the 2006 decree fixing maximum drug prices. Contrary to concerns expressed by wholesalers and pharmacies, and the other stakeholders, the decree did not impact negatively on availability of essential medicines. In fact, median wholesale prices in 2009 were 25.6% less than those fixed by the decree. In private pharmacies, retail prices were only 3% more expensive than the recommended prices, compared with being 25.5% more expensive prior to enforcement of the decree. The study shows that prices of essential medicines in Mali have evolved favourably towards the prices recommended by the government decree. Further, the study contributes to mounting evidence that market regulation by governments does not necessarily negatively affect drug availability; in fact, given the reduction in prices, the study shows that Malians arguably have better access to more affordable essential medicines
Kumar, Rohit; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad; Alrasheedy, Alian A; Kaur, Navneet; Wong, Zhi Yen; Kader, Muhamad Ali Sk Abdul
Generic medicine prescribing has become a common practice in public hospitals. However, the trend in private medical centres seems to be different. The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, perceptions and behavior of physicians from private medical centres in Malaysia regarding generic medicines. This study was a cross-sectional nationwide survey targeting physicians from private medical centres in Malaysia. The survey was conducted using questionnaire having (i) background and demographic data of the physicians, volume of prescription in a day, stock of generic medicines in their hospital pharmacy etc. (ii) their knowledge about bioequivalence (iii) prescribing behavior (iv) physicians' knowledge of quality, safety and efficacy of generic medicines, and their cost (v) perceptions of physicians towards issues pertaining to generic medicines utilization. A total of 263 questionnaires out of 735 were received, giving a response rate of 35.8%. Of the respondents, 214 (81.4%) were male and 49 (18.6%) were females. The majority of the participants were in the age range of 41-50 years and comprised 49.0% of the respondents. Only 2.3% of physicians were aware of the regulatory limits of bioequivalence standards in Malaysia. Of the respondents, 23.2% agreed that they 'always' write their prescriptions using originator product name whereas 50.2% do it 'usually'. A number of significant associations were found between their knowledge, perceptions about generic medicines and their demographic characteristics. The majority of the physicians from private medical centres in Malaysia had negative perceptions about safety, quality and the efficacy of generic medicines. These negative perceptions could be the cause of the limited use of generic medicines in the private medical centres. Therefore, in order to facilitate their use, it is recommended that the physicians need to be reassured and educated about the drug regulatory authority approval system of generic
Tougher, Sarah; Mann, Andrea G; Ye, Yazoume; Kourgueni, Idrissa A; Thomson, Rebecca; Amuasi, John H; Ren, Ruilin; Willey, Barbara A; Ansong, Daniel; Bruxvoort, Katia; Diap, Graciela; Festo, Charles; Johanes, Boniface; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Mallam, Oumarou; Mberu, Blessing; Ndiaye, Salif; Nguah, Samual Blay; Seydou, Moctar; Taylor, Mark; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Arnold, Fred; Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine
Improving access to quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) is an important component of malaria control in low- and middle-income countries. In 2010 the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria launched the Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria (AMFm) program in seven African countries. The goal of the program was to decrease malaria morbidity and delay drug resistance by increasing the use of ACTs, primarily through subsidies intended to reduce costs. We collected data on price and retail markups on antimalarial medicines from 19,625 private for-profit retail outlets before and 6-15 months after the program's implementation. We found that in six of the AMFm pilot programs, prices for quality-assured ACTs decreased by US$1.28-$4.34, and absolute retail markups on these therapies decreased by US$0.31-$1.03. Prices and markups on other classes of antimalarials also changed during the evaluation period, but not to the same extent. In all but two of the pilot programs, we found evidence that prices could fall further without suppliers' losing money. Thus, concerns may be warranted that wholesalers and retailers are capturing subsidies instead of passing them on to consumers. These findings demonstrate that supranational subsidies can dramatically reduce retail prices of health commodities and that recommended retail prices communicated to a wide audience may be an effective mechanism for controlling the market power of private-sector antimalarial retailers and wholesalers. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
intercultural preventative medical approaches, and the good governance, policy relevance, and corporate social responsibility, and were analyzed mainly referring to the potential of the Romanian private medicine sector in preventive medicine. The conclusions of the paper reveal the fact that the region of Oradea is much above the average index of Romania when it comes to preventive medicine, but still behind the other EU Member States. So, the background for meeting the precondition for economic growth and sustainable development in Oradea was created, but there are still a lots to be done on short term, even because of the features of this area, which situates it at the top of the cancer diseases registered cases in the country.
Douglass, Katherine; Pousson, Amelia; Gidwani, Shweta; Smith, Jeffrey
Emergency medicine (EM) is a recently recognized specialty in India, still in its infancy. Local training programs are developing, but remain very limited. Private, for-profit hospitals are an important provider of graduate medical education (GME) in India, and are partnering with United States (US) universities in EM to expand training opportunities. Our aim was to describe current private-sector programs affiliated with a US university providing postgraduate EM training in India, the evolution and structure of these programs, and successes and challenges of program implementation. Programs have been established in seven cities in India in partnership with a US academic institution. Full-time trainees have required didactics, clinical rotations, research, and annual examinations. Faculty members affiliated with the US institution visit each program monthly. Regular evaluations have informed program modifications, and a local faculty development program has been implemented. Currently, 240 trainees are enrolled in the EM postgraduate program, and 141 physicians have graduated. A pilot survey conducted in 2012 revealed that 93% of graduates are currently practicing EM, 82% of those in India; 71% are involved in teaching, and 32% in research. Further investigation into programmatic impacts is necessary. Challenges include issues of formal program recognition both in India and abroad. This unique partnership is playing a major early role in EM GME in India. Future steps include official program recognition, expanded numbers of training sites, and a gradual transition of training and education to local faculty. Similar partnership programs may be effective in other settings outside of India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Timothy O Abuya
Full Text Available Private medicine retailers (PMRs are key partners in the home management of fevers in many settings. Current evidence on effectiveness for PMR interventions at scale is limited. This study presents evaluation findings of two different programs implemented at moderate scale targeting PMRs for malaria control in the Kisii and Kwale districts of Kenya. Key components of this evaluation were measurement of program performance, including coverage, PMR knowledge, practices, and utilization based on spatial analysis.The study utilized mixed quantitative methods including retail audits and surrogate client surveys based on post-intervention cross-sectional surveys in intervention and control areas and mapping of intervention outlets. There was a large and significant impact on PMR knowledge and practices of the program in Kisii, with 60.5% of trained PMRs selling amodiaquine medicines in adequate doses compared to 2.8% of untrained ones (OR; 53.5: 95% CI 6.7, 428.3, a program coverage of 69.7% targeted outlets, and a potential utilization of about 30,000 children under five. The evaluation in Kwale also indicates a significant impact with 18.8% and 2.3% intervention and control PMRs selling amodiaquine with correct advice, respectively (OR; 9.4: 95% CI 1.1, 83.7, a program coverage of 25.3% targeted outlets, and a potential utilization of about 48,000 children under five. A provisional benchmark of 7.5 km was a reasonable threshold distance for households to access PMR services.This evaluation show that PMR interventions operationalized in the district level settings are likely to impact PMR knowledge and practices and lead to increased coverage of appropriate treatment to target populations. There is value of evaluating different dimensions of public health programs, including quality, spatial access, and implementation practice. This approach strengthens the potential contribution of pragmatic study designs to evaluating public health programs in the
Stark, E; Flitcraft, A; Frazier, W
Our objectives are to describe the pattern of abuse associated with battering and to evaluate the contribution of the medical system and of broader social forces to its emergence. A pilot study of 481 women who used the emergency service of a large metropolitan hospital in the U.S. shows that battering includes a history of self-abuse and psychosocial problems, as well as repeated and escalating physical injury. In addition, although the number of battered women using the service is 10 times higher than medical personnel identify, the pattern of abuse that constitutes battering emerges only after its initial effects are presented and in conjunction with specific medical intervnetions and referrals. Examination of intervention and referral patterns suggests a staging process by which battering is socially constructed. At first, the physical trauma associated with abuse is medicated symptomatically. But the patient's persistence, the failure of the cure, and the incongruity between her problems and available medical explanations lead the provider to label the abused woman in ways that suggest she is personally responsible for her victimization. Although secondary problems such as depression, drug abuse, suicide attempts, or alcoholism derive as much from the intervention strategy adopted as from physical assault or psychopathology, they are treated as the primary problems at psychiatric and social service referral points where family maintenance is often the therapeutic goal. One consequence of this referral strategy is the stabilization of "violent families" in ways that virtually insure women will be abused in systematic and arbitrary ways. The use of patriarchal logic by medical providers ostensibly responding to physical trauma has less to do with individual "sexism" than with the political and economic constraints under which medicine operates as part of an "extended patriarchy." Medicine's role in battering suggests that the services function to reconstitute
Maïga, D; Maïga, S; Maïga, M D
The healthcare and pharmaceutical professions in Mali were privatized in 1985. Privatization led to swift expansion of the private sector and upset the balance that had existed between the public and private sectors. A national pharmaceutical policy did not emerge until a decade later. Its purpose was to promote a system ensuring fair access to essential generic medicines for all. It was hoped that synergy between the two sectors would promote that objective. However, the policy calling for distribution of essential generic medicine through the private sector was not accompanied by an adequate system for pricing. This problem led the government to adopt a price regulation policy to realign market dynamics with public health goals. This experience shows that a sustained effort from public policy makers is necessary to prevail against the professional and business interests that can conflict with the public interest. Analysis of this experience also demonstrates the need to improve, restructure, and control the pharmaceutical industry. The government must continue to play its crucial role in the context of limited resources and inequality between consumers and pharmaceutical companies.
Abuya, Timothy O; Mutemi, Wilfred; Karisa, Baya; Ochola, Sam A; Fegan, Greg; Marsh, Vicki
Global malaria control strategies highlight the need to increase early uptake of effective antimalarials for childhood fevers in endemic settings, based on a presumptive diagnosis of malaria in this age group. Many control programmes identify private medicine sellers as important targets to promote effective early treatment, based on reported widespread inadequate childhood fever treatment practices involving the retail sector. Data on adult use of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines is limited. This study aimed to assess childhood and adult patterns of OTC medicine use to inform national medicine retailer programmes in Kenya and other similar settings. Large-scale cluster randomized surveys of treatment seeking practices and malaria parasite prevalence were conducted for recent fevers in children under five years and recent acute illnesses in adults in three districts in Kenya with differing malaria endemicity. A total of 12, 445 households were visited and data collected on recent illnesses in 11, 505 children and 19, 914 adults. OTC medicines were the most popular first response to fever in children with fever (47.0%; 95% CI 45.5, 48.5) and adults with acute illnesses (56.8%; 95% CI 55.2, 58.3). 36.9% (95% CI 34.7, 39.2) adults and 22.7% (95% CI 20.9, 24.6) children using OTC medicines purchased antimalarials, with similar proportions in low and high endemicity districts. 1.9% (95% CI 0.8, 4.2) adults and 12.1% (95% CI 16.3,34.2) children used multidose antimalarials appropriately. Although the majority of children and adults sought no further treatment, self-referral to a health facility within 72 hours of illness onset was the commonest pattern amongst those seeking further help. In these surveys, OTC medicines were popular first treatments for fever in children or acute illnesses in adults. The proportions using OTC antimalarials were similar in areas of high and low malaria endemicity. In all districts, adults were more likely to self-treat with OTC
Costantino, Luca; Barlocco, Daniela
This review analyzes the articles that have appeared during the past 10 years in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, the leading journal in the field of medicinal chemistry, to provide a picture of the changing trends in this research area. Our analysis involved the country of the corresponding author, assuming that he/she was the leader of the research group, the interaction between private and public sectors, and the research topics. This analysis provides information on the contributions to the journal of authors from each country and highlights the differences between the public and private sectors regarding the research topics pursued. Moreover, changes in the number of articles that describe work on hits, leads, or clinical candidates during these years have been correlated with the affiliation of the contributors (public or private). An analysis of top-cited articles that have appeared in the journal has also been included. The data will provide the basis for understanding the evolution that is taking place in medicinal chemistry.
Cameron, Alexandra; Roubos, Ilse; Ewen, Margaret; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Leufkens, Hubertus G M; Laing, Richard O
To investigate potential differences in the availability of medicines for chronic and acute conditions in low- and middle-income countries. Data on the availability of 30 commonly-surveyed medicines - 15 for acute and 15 for chronic conditions - were obtained from facility-based surveys conducted in 40 developing countries. Results were aggregated by World Bank country income group and World Health Organization region. The availability of medicines for both acute and chronic conditions was suboptimal across countries, particularly in the public sector. Generic medicines for chronic conditions were significantly less available than generic medicines for acute conditions in both the public sector (36.0% availability versus 53.5%; P = 0.001) and the private sector (54.7% versus 66.2%; P = 0.007). Antiasthmatics, antiepileptics and antidepressants, followed by antihypertensives, were the drivers of the observed differences. An inverse association was found between country income level and the availability gap between groups of medicines, particularly in the public sector. In low- and lower-middle income countries, drugs for acute conditions were 33.9% and 12.9% more available, respectively, in the public sector than medicines for chronic conditions. Differences in availability were smaller in the private sector than in the public sector in all country income groups. Current disease patterns do not explain the significant gaps observed in the availability of medicines for chronic and acute conditions. Measures are needed to better respond to the epidemiological transition towards chronic conditions in developing countries alongside current efforts to scale up treatment for communicable diseases.
Full Text Available Many patients with malaria-like symptoms seek treatment in private medicine retail outlets (PMR that distribute malaria medicines but do not traditionally provide diagnostic services, potentially leading to overtreatment with antimalarial drugs. To achieve universal access to prompt parasite-based diagnosis, many malaria-endemic countries are considering scaling up malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs in these outlets, an intervention that may require legislative changes and major investments in supporting programs and infrastructures. This review identifies studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs and examines study outcomes and success factors to inform scale up decisions.Published and unpublished studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs were systematically identified and reviewed. Literature published before November 2016 was searched in six electronic databases, and unpublished studies were identified through personal contacts and stakeholder meetings. Outcomes were extracted from publications or provided by principal investigators.Six published and six unpublished studies were found. Most studies took place in sub-Saharan Africa and were small-scale pilots of RDT introduction in drug shops or pharmacies. None of the studies assessed large-scale implementation in PMRs. RDT uptake varied widely from 8%-100%. Provision of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT for patients testing positive ranged from 30%-99%, and was more than 85% in five studies. Of those testing negative, provision of antimalarials varied from 2%-83% and was less than 20% in eight studies. Longer provider training, lower RDT retail prices and frequent supervision appeared to have a positive effect on RDT uptake and provider adherence to test results. Performance of RDTs by PMR vendors was generally good, but disposal of medical waste and referral of patients to public facilities were common challenges.Expanding services of PMRs to include malaria diagnostic
Bangalee, V; Suleman, F
Recent investigations by the Competition Commission of South Africa (SA) of suspected excessive pricing of cancer medicines in SA by three global pharmaceutical companies have once again drawn attention to increasing medicine pricing transparency and warrant further public debate.
Ochola Sam A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Global malaria control strategies highlight the need to increase early uptake of effective antimalarials for childhood fevers in endemic settings, based on a presumptive diagnosis of malaria in this age group. Many control programmes identify private medicine sellers as important targets to promote effective early treatment, based on reported widespread inadequate childhood fever treatment practices involving the retail sector. Data on adult use of over-the-counter (OTC medicines is limited. This study aimed to assess childhood and adult patterns of OTC medicine use to inform national medicine retailer programmes in Kenya and other similar settings. Methods Large-scale cluster randomized surveys of treatment seeking practices and malaria parasite prevalence were conducted for recent fevers in children under five years and recent acute illnesses in adults in three districts in Kenya with differing malaria endemicity. Results A total of 12, 445 households were visited and data collected on recent illnesses in 11, 505 children and 19, 914 adults. OTC medicines were the most popular first response to fever in children with fever (47.0%; 95% CI 45.5, 48.5 and adults with acute illnesses (56.8%; 95% CI 55.2, 58.3. 36.9% (95% CI 34.7, 39.2 adults and 22.7% (95% CI 20.9, 24.6 children using OTC medicines purchased antimalarials, with similar proportions in low and high endemicity districts. 1.9% (95% CI 0.8, 4.2 adults and 12.1% (95% CI 16.3,34.2 children used multidose antimalarials appropriately. Although the majority of children and adults sought no further treatment, self-referral to a health facility within 72 hours of illness onset was the commonest pattern amongst those seeking further help. Conclusion In these surveys, OTC medicines were popular first treatments for fever in children or acute illnesses in adults. The proportions using OTC antimalarials were similar in areas of high and low malaria endemicity. In all districts
Despite a pre-existing cost-containment programme, expenditure on medicines was identified as a source of further cost savings in a medical benefit scheme faced with increasing divergence between income and benefit expenditure. Analysis of medicines utilisation trends showed that a relatively small number of ...
Ruggieri, L; Giannuzzi, V; Baiardi, P; Bonifazi, F; Davies, E H; Giaquinto, C; Bonifazi, D; Felisi, M; Chiron, C; Pressler, R; Rabe, H; Whitaker, M J; Neubert, A; Jacqz-Aigrain, E; Eichler, I; Turner, M A; Ceci, A
The European Paediatric Regulation mandated the European Commission to fund research on off-patent medicines with demonstrated therapeutic interest for children. Responding to this mandate, five FP7 project calls were launched and 20 projects were granted. This paper aims to detail the funded projects and their preliminary results. Publicly available sources have been consulted and a descriptive analysis has been performed. Twenty Research Consortia including 246 partners in 29 European and non-European countries were created (involving 129 universities or public-funded research organisations, 51 private companies with 40 SMEs, 7 patient associations). The funded projects investigate 24 medicines, covering 10 therapeutic areas in all paediatric age groups. In response to the Paediatric Regulation and to apply for a Paediatric Use Marketing Authorisation, 15 Paediatric Investigation Plans have been granted by the EMA-Paediatric Committee, including 71 studies of whom 29 paediatric clinical trials, leading to a total of 7,300 children to be recruited in more than 380 investigational centres. Notwithstanding the EU contribution for each study is lower than similar publicly funded projects, and also considering the complexity of paediatric research, these projects are performing high-quality research and are progressing towards the increase of new paediatric medicines on the market. Private-public partnerships have been effectively implemented, providing a good example for future collaborative actions. Since these projects cover a limited number of off-patent drugs and many unmet therapeutic needs in paediatrics remain, it is crucial foreseeing new similar initiatives in forthcoming European funding programmes.
Scheffler, Richard M; Pathania, Vikram
Abstract This paper reviews the current status of the global pharmaceutical industry and its research and development focus in the context of the health care needs of the developing world. It will consider the attempts to improve access to critical drugs and vaccines, and increase the research effort directed at key public health priorities in the developing world. In particular, it will consider prospects for public-private collaboration. The challenges and opportunities in such public-priva...
Shrivastava, Ritu; Gadde, Renuka; Nkengasong, John N
After the launch of the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief in 2003, it became evident that inadequate laboratory systems and services would severely limit the scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus infection prevention, care, and treatment programs. Thus, the Office of the US Global AIDS Coordinator, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Becton, Dickinson and Company developed a public-private partnership (PPP). Between October 2007 and July 2012, the PPP combined the competencies of the public and private sectors to boost sustainable laboratory systems and develop workforce skills in 4 African countries. Key accomplishments of the initiative include measurable and scalable outcomes to strengthen national capacities to build technical skills, develop sample referral networks, map disease prevalence, support evidence-based health programming, and drive continuous quality improvement in laboratories. This report details lessons learned from our experience and a series of recommendations on how to achieve successful PPPs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Background This is a pilot cross sectional study using both quantitative and qualitative approach towards tutors teaching large classes in private universities in the Klang Valley (comprising Kuala Lumpur, its suburbs, adjoining towns in the State of Selangor) and the State of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The general aim of this study is to determine the difficulties faced by tutors when teaching large group of students and to outline appropriate recommendations in overcoming them. Findings Thirty-two academics from six private universities from different faculties such as Medical Sciences, Business, Information Technology, and Engineering disciplines participated in this study. SPSS software was used to analyse the data. The results in general indicate that the conventional instructor-student approach has its shortcoming and requires changes. Interestingly, tutors from Medicine and IT less often faced difficulties and had positive experience in teaching large group of students. Conclusion However several suggestions were proposed to overcome these difficulties ranging from breaking into smaller classes, adopting innovative teaching, use of interactive learning methods incorporating interactive assessment and creative technology which enhanced students learning. Furthermore the study provides insights on the trials of large group teaching which are clearly identified to help tutors realise its impact on teaching. The suggestions to overcome these difficulties and to maximize student learning can serve as a guideline for tutors who face these challenges. PMID:21902839
1. The intended fusion of the university hospitals Marburg and Giessen in the state of Hessia is "a marriage under pressure with uncalculated risk" (Spiegel 2005). In the present political and financial situation it hardly appears to be avoidable. From the point of the view of the faculty of medicine in Marburg it is difficult to understand, that the profits of this well guided university hospital with a positive yearly budget should go to the neighboring university hospital which still had a fair amount of deficit spending in the last years.2. Both medical faculties suffer from a very low budget from the state of Hessia for research and teaching. Giessen much more than Marburg, have a substantial need for investments in buildings and infrastructure. Both institutions have a similar need for investments in costly medical apparatuses. This is a problem, which many university hospitals face nowadays.3. The intended privatisation of one or both university hospitals will need sound answers to several fundamental questions and problems:a) A privatisation potentially endangers the freedom of research and teaching garanteed by the German constitution. A private company will undoubtedly influence by active or missing additional support the direction of research in the respective academic institution. An example is the priorisation of clinical in contrast to basic research.b) With the privatisation practical absurdities in the separation of research and teaching on one side and hospital care on the other will become obvious with respect to the status of the academic employees, the obligatory taxation (16%) when a transfer of labor from one institution to the other is taken into account. The use of rooms for seminars, lectures and bedside with a double function for both teaching, research and hospital care has to be clarified with a convincing solution in everyday practice.c) The potential additional acquisition of patients, which has been advocated by the Hessian state
Ruth Corazón Llerena Benites
Full Text Available Objective: Determinate the perception and attitudes towards street sexual harassment among female students of the Human Medicine Faculty at San Martin de Porres University. Methods: Descriptive and transversal study in which the previously validated “Likert” questionnaires, “Scale of Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression” and “Street Harassment Scale” where applied in a virtual way to 227 female students from the 4th, 5th, 6th academic year of the Human Medicine Faculty at San Martin de Porres University. The analysis was made in the SPSS v22 program using descriptive statistics like media, mode, tables of frequency and percentage to determine the prevalence of street harassment and the level of acceptance of beliefs about sexual harassment. Results: We found that 91% of the participants considered that they had been (sexually harassed at least once in the last year. 48% of participants were absolutely disagree with the statements about the myths of sexual aggression. The th percentage of students that mentioned never have been harassed lowered for every year of study, from 13% in the 4 year th to 7.9% in the 6 year. Most of the students came from Central South Lima of which 88% were harassed at least once the past year. Approximately, about half of the participants, independent of the mean of transport they have used, said that they had been harassed once last year. The group of 22 years old was the most affected Conclusion: Even though the participants considered that the Street harassment only happened a few times the past year, we didn't underestimate the fact that for almost everyone this harassment had happened at least once. Also, the majority considered to be strongly disagree regarding the myths about sexual harassment. So, it appears that street harassment, despite acting as a social problem that affects the physical and mental well-being of the Young female community, hasn't been properly managed by the
MacCourt, Duncan; Bernstein, Joseph
physicians cede their implicit "right to remain silent", even if some injured patients will receive less than they do today. Likewise, physicians will be happier with a system that avoids blame-even if this system placed strict requirements for high quality care and disclosure of error. We therefore conceive of de facto trade between patients and physicians, a Pareto improvement, taking form via the establishment of "Societies of Quality Medicine." Physicians working within these societies would consent to onerous processes for disclosing, rectifying and preventing medical error. Patients would in turn contractually agree to assert their claims in arbitration and with limits on recovery. The role of plaintiffs' lawyers would be unchanged, but due to increased disclosure, discovery costs would diminish and the likelihood of prevailing will more than triple. This article examines the legal and policy issues surrounding the establishment of Societies of Quality Medicine, particularly the issues of contracting over liability, and outlines a means of overcoming the theoretical and practical difficulties with enterprise liability, alternative dispute resolution and the imposition of limits on recovery for non-pecuniary damages. We aim to build a welfare enhancing system that rebuffs the culture of silence and promotes error reduction, a system that is at the same time legally sound, fiscally prudent and politically possible.
Full Text Available This working proposal aims to establish an Internal Medicine Network (IMN model for the appropriate management of the poly-pathological complex patient in the different phases of his illness natural hystory. The IMN is based on an organization recalling the Hub and Spoke system already used for existing specialized networks. The Internal Medicine Unit (IMU is the natural destination of acutely ill patients suffering from systemic or multi-organ diseases. Three are the IMU specific tasks: i to stabilize acute, severe, poly-pathologic and complex patients; ii to develop difficult etiological diagnosis in these patients and in those who should necessarily be admitted to the hospital, not being possible, for different reasons, alternative routes; iii to select the acute poly-pathological complex patient’s priorities. The expected results of a new model of integration system inside the IMN are: i reduction and rationalization of expenditure in the medical area, increasing effectiveness, quality and safety guaranteeing patient centrality; ii patients stratification based on characteristics of gravity, acute illness, estimated duration of hospitalization; iii reduction of inappropriate hospital admissions ensuring connections between hospital and primary care units; iv definition of different care pathways for patients hospitalized due to non-communicable diseases; v implementation of new common medical records. The public-private partnership inside the IMN could be able to increase appropriateness reducing health costs. Patient-centered problems assessment, together with integration, cooperation, coordination and effective communication are some simple rules useful to achieve tangible results in a complex system and the IMN model represents its practical application.
Kaplan, Warren A.; Wirtz, Veronika J.; Stephens, Peter
This observational study investigates the private sector, retail pharmaceutical market of 19 low and middle income countries (LMICs) in Latin America, Asia and the Middle East/South Africa analyzing the relationships between volume market share of generic and originator medicines over a time series from 2001 to 2011. Over 5000 individual pharmaceutical substances were divided into generic (unbranded generic, branded generic medicines) and originator categories for each country, including the United States as a comparator. In 9 selected LMICs, the market share of those originator substances with the largest decrease over time was compared to the market share of their counterpart generic versions. Generic medicines (branded generic plus unbranded generic) represent between 70 and 80% of market share in the private sector of these LMICs which exceeds that of most European countries. Branded generic medicine market share is higher than that of unbranded generics in all three regions and this is in contrast to the U.S. Although switching from an originator to its generic counterpart can save money, this narrative in reality is complex at the level of individual medicines. In some countries, the market behavior of some originator medicines that showed the most temporal decrease, showed switching to their generic counterpart. In other countries such as in the Middle East/South Africa and Asia, the loss of these originators was not accompanied by any change at all in market share of the equivalent generic version. For those countries with a significant increase in generic medicines market share and/or with evidence of comprehensive “switching” to generic versions, notably in Latin America, it would be worthwhile to establish cause-effect relationships between pharmaceutical policies and uptake of generic medicines. The absence of change in the generic medicines market share in other countries suggests that, at a minimum, generic medicines have not been strongly
Warren A Kaplan
Full Text Available This observational study investigates the private sector, retail pharmaceutical market of 19 low and middle income countries (LMICs in Latin America, Asia and the Middle East/South Africa analyzing the relationships between volume market share of generic and originator medicines over a time series from 2001 to 2011. Over 5000 individual pharmaceutical substances were divided into generic (unbranded generic, branded generic medicines and originator categories for each country, including the United States as a comparator. In 9 selected LMICs, the market share of those originator substances with the largest decrease over time was compared to the market share of their counterpart generic versions. Generic medicines (branded generic plus unbranded generic represent between 70 and 80% of market share in the private sector of these LMICs which exceeds that of most European countries. Branded generic medicine market share is higher than that of unbranded generics in all three regions and this is in contrast to the U.S. Although switching from an originator to its generic counterpart can save money, this narrative in reality is complex at the level of individual medicines. In some countries, the market behavior of some originator medicines that showed the most temporal decrease, showed switching to their generic counterpart. In other countries such as in the Middle East/South Africa and Asia, the loss of these originators was not accompanied by any change at all in market share of the equivalent generic version. For those countries with a significant increase in generic medicines market share and/or with evidence of comprehensive "switching" to generic versions, notably in Latin America, it would be worthwhile to establish cause-effect relationships between pharmaceutical policies and uptake of generic medicines. The absence of change in the generic medicines market share in other countries suggests that, at a minimum, generic medicines have not been
Kaplan, Warren A; Wirtz, Veronika J; Stephens, Peter
This observational study investigates the private sector, retail pharmaceutical market of 19 low and middle income countries (LMICs) in Latin America, Asia and the Middle East/South Africa analyzing the relationships between volume market share of generic and originator medicines over a time series from 2001 to 2011. Over 5000 individual pharmaceutical substances were divided into generic (unbranded generic, branded generic medicines) and originator categories for each country, including the United States as a comparator. In 9 selected LMICs, the market share of those originator substances with the largest decrease over time was compared to the market share of their counterpart generic versions. Generic medicines (branded generic plus unbranded generic) represent between 70 and 80% of market share in the private sector of these LMICs which exceeds that of most European countries. Branded generic medicine market share is higher than that of unbranded generics in all three regions and this is in contrast to the U.S. Although switching from an originator to its generic counterpart can save money, this narrative in reality is complex at the level of individual medicines. In some countries, the market behavior of some originator medicines that showed the most temporal decrease, showed switching to their generic counterpart. In other countries such as in the Middle East/South Africa and Asia, the loss of these originators was not accompanied by any change at all in market share of the equivalent generic version. For those countries with a significant increase in generic medicines market share and/or with evidence of comprehensive "switching" to generic versions, notably in Latin America, it would be worthwhile to establish cause-effect relationships between pharmaceutical policies and uptake of generic medicines. The absence of change in the generic medicines market share in other countries suggests that, at a minimum, generic medicines have not been strongly promoted.
S. V. Suchkov
Full Text Available The article considers the key problems of the transition of the national health system to a new platform of personalized medicine and, in particular, pediatrics. In the second part, published in this issue, the main mechanisms for building a new model are analyzed. The main prerequisites (financial and economic, fundamental research and applied research, the emergence and construction in the structure of global trends in the development of health care markets, actualized at the end of the last century, are presented. It is indicated that one of the main incentives for the development of personalized medicine is a noticeable increase in individual and social demand for preventive drugs and the corresponding tools. The development of programs for managing their own health is gaining in importance, and new business-development models (including public and private partnerships are being developed and implemented. The evidence is examined that a progressive scenario for the development of a model of personalized medicine will provide a significant reduction in the cost of medical care. A large section of the article is devoted to the development of the provision that the understanding and awareness of the importance of the protection and management of one's own health by a modern state, medical audience and individual citizen is the most important aspect of the educational and educational activities of a doctor and a nurse. The perspectives of personalized pediatrics as a global instrument for restructuring the entire healthcare system are considered in detail.
Bishop, Felicity L; Amos, Nicola; Yu, He; Lewith, George T
The aim was to identify similarities and differences between private practice and the National Health Service (NHS) in practitioners' experiences of delivering acupuncture to treat pain. We wished to identify differences that could affect patients' experiences and inform our understanding of how trials conducted in private clinics relate to NHS clinical practice. Acupuncture is commonly used in primary care for lower back pain and is recommended in the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence's guidelines. Previous studies have identified differences in patients' accounts of receiving acupuncture in the NHS and in the private sector. The major recent UK trial of acupuncture for back pain was conducted in the private sector. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 acupuncturists who had experience of working in the private sector (n = 7), in the NHS (n =3), and in both the sectors (n = 6). The interviews lasted between 24 and 77 min (median=49 min) and explored acupuncturists' experiences of treating patients in pain. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences across private practice and the NHS. The perceived effectiveness of acupuncture was described consistently and participants felt they did (or would) deliver acupuncture similarly in NHS and in private practice. In both the sectors, patients sought acupuncture as a last resort and acupuncturist-patient relationships were deemed important. Acupuncture availability differed across sectors: in the NHS it was constrained by Trust policies and in the private sector by patients' financial resources. There were greater opportunities for autonomous practice in the private sector and regulation was important for different reasons in each sector. In general, NHS practitioners had Western-focussed training and also used conventional medical techniques, whereas private practitioners were more likely to have Traditional Chinese training and to practise
Full Text Available Abstract Background The home-management of malaria strategy seeks to improve prompt and effective anti-malarial drug use through the informal sector, with a potential channel being the Private Medicine Retailers (PMRs. Previous evaluations of PMR programmes focused on their impact on retailer knowledge and practices, with limited evidence about the influence of implementation processes on the impacts at scale. This paper examines how the implementation processes of three PMR programmes in Kenya, each scaled up within a district, contributed to the outcomes observed. These were a Ministry of Health programme in Kwale district; and two programmes supported by non-governmental organizations in collaboration with government in Kisii Central and Bungoma districts. Methods The research methods included 24 focus group discussions with clients and PMRs, 19 in-depth interviews with implementing actors, document review and a diary of events. The data were analysed using the combination of a broad policy analysis framework and more specific scaling up/diffusion of innovations frameworks. Results The Kisii programme, a case study of successful implementation, was underpinned by good relationships between district health managers and a “resource team”, supported by a memorandum of understanding which enabled successful implementation. It had flexible budgetary and decision making processes which were responsive to local contexts, and took account of local socio-economic activities. In contrast, the Kwale programme, which had implementation challenges, was characterised by a complex funding process, with lengthy timelines, that was tied to the government financial management system which constrained implementation Although there was a flexible funding system in Bungoma, a perceived lack of transparency in fund management, inadequate management of inter-organisational relationships, and inability to adapt and respond to changing circumstances led to
Abuya, Timothy; Amin, Abdinasir; Molyneux, Sassy; Akhwale, Willis; Marsh, Vicki; Gilson, Lucy
The home-management of malaria strategy seeks to improve prompt and effective anti-malarial drug use through the informal sector, with a potential channel being the Private Medicine Retailers (PMRs). Previous evaluations of PMR programmes focused on their impact on retailer knowledge and practices, with limited evidence about the influence of implementation processes on the impacts at scale. This paper examines how the implementation processes of three PMR programmes in Kenya, each scaled up within a district, contributed to the outcomes observed. These were a Ministry of Health programme in Kwale district; and two programmes supported by non-governmental organizations in collaboration with government in Kisii Central and Bungoma districts. The research methods included 24 focus group discussions with clients and PMRs, 19 in-depth interviews with implementing actors, document review and a diary of events. The data were analysed using the combination of a broad policy analysis framework and more specific scaling up/diffusion of innovations frameworks. The Kisii programme, a case study of successful implementation, was underpinned by good relationships between district health managers and a "resource team", supported by a memorandum of understanding which enabled successful implementation. It had flexible budgetary and decision making processes which were responsive to local contexts, and took account of local socio-economic activities. In contrast, the Kwale programme, which had implementation challenges, was characterised by a complex funding process, with lengthy timelines, that was tied to the government financial management system which constrained implementation Although there was a flexible funding system in Bungoma, a perceived lack of transparency in fund management, inadequate management of inter-organisational relationships, and inability to adapt and respond to changing circumstances led to implementation difficulties. For effective scaling up of PMR
Medicines can treat diseases and improve your health. If you are like most people, you need to take medicine at some point in your life. You may need to take medicine every day, or you may only need to ...
Atilgan, Emre; Kilic, Dilek; Ertugrul, Hasan Murat
The well-known health-led growth hypothesis claims a positive correlation between health expenditure and economic growth. The aim of this paper is to empirically investigate the health-led growth hypothesis for the Turkish economy. The bound test approach, autoregressive-distributed lag approach (ARDL) and Kalman filter modeling are employed for the 1975-2013 period to examine the co-integration relationship between economic growth and health expenditure. The ARDL model is employed in order to investigate the long-term and short-term static relationship between health expenditure and economic growth. The results show that a 1 % increase in per-capita health expenditure will lead to a 0.434 % increase in per-capita gross domestic product. These findings are also supported by the Kalman filter model's results. Our findings show that the health-led growth hypothesis is supported for Turkey.
Doctors across the country who operate private medical practices are facing increasing financial obstacles, namely shrinking income as a result of rising costs and lower reimbursements. In addition, as hospitals have become overburdened many physicians have opened up private surgical centers; magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography and positron emission tomography scanning facilities; pathology labs; colonoscopy/endoscopy suites; lithotripsy centers; and other medical businesses typically performed within the hospital. Moreover, many doctors seek loans to purchase existing practices or for their capital contribution in medical partnerships. The past decade has thus seen a significant increase in the number of doctors taking out small business loans. Indeed, banks view the healthcare industry as a large growth market. This article includes practical information, advice, and resources to help doctors to secure bank financing for their practices, ancillary services business, real estate, and equipment on the best possible market terms.
Kostyanev, T; Bonten, M J M; O'Brien, S; Steel, H; Ross, S; François, B; Tacconelli, E; Winterhalter, M; Stavenger, R A; Karlén, A; Harbarth, S; Hackett, J; Jafri, H S; Vuong, C; MacGowan, A; Witschi, A; Angyalosi, G; Elborn, J S; deWinter, R; Goossens, H
Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a global public health threat. Despite the emergence of highly resistant organisms and the huge medical need for new drugs, the development of antibacterials has slowed to an unacceptable level worldwide. Numerous government and non-government agencies have called for public-private partnerships and innovative funding mechanisms to address this problem. To respond to this public health crisis, the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking programme has invested more than €660 million, with a goal of matched contributions from the European Commission and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations, in the development of new antibacterial strategies. The New Drugs for Bad Bugs (ND4BB) programme, an Innovative Medicines Initiative, has the ultimate goal to boost the fight against ABR at every level from basic science and drug discovery, through clinical development to new business models and responsible use of antibiotics. Seven projects have been launched within the ND4BB programme to achieve this goal. Four of them will include clinical trials of new anti-infective compounds, as well as epidemiological studies on an unprecedented scale, which will increase our knowledge of ABR and specific pathogens, and improve the designs of the clinical trials with new investigational drugs. The need for rapid concerted action has driven the funding of seven topics, each of which should add significantly to progress in the fight against ABR. ND4BB unites expertise and provides a platform where the commitment and resources required by all parties are streamlined into a joint public-private partnership initiative of unprecedented scale. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Dolor, Rowena; Victorson, David; Amoils, Steve
Focus Areas: Integrative Approaches to Care The purpose of this panel discussion is to share successful efforts from a practice-based research network (PBRN) including ten integrative medicine clinics. The BraveNet PBRN includes integrative medicine clinics with academic health centers, large health systems, and a stand-alone private practice clinic. While clinical care is prioritized across all of these centers, introducing research into clinical sites oriented to providing care poses challenges that vary by clinic environment. We will highlight some of the unique issues encountered when trying to standardize data collection in sites practicing a patient-centered, whole-systems approach to healing as well as the solutions used to overcome these issues. We will present some operational solutions and data collected from the PBRN's ongoing data registry, entitled PRIMIER. The panel will engage attendees in a dialogue centering on potential for future analyses of existing results, ideas for possible upcoming studies, and creative ways to expand the PBRN data registry to include additional sites that may have expertise and interest in participating.
Rusk, Andria; Highfield, Linda; Wilkerson, J Michael; Harrell, Melissa; Obala, Andrew; Amick, Benjamin
Efforts to improve malaria case management in sub-Saharan Africa have shifted focus to private antimalarial retailers to increase access to appropriate treatment. Demands to decrease intervention cost while increasing efficacy requires interventions tailored to geographic regions with demonstrated need. Cluster analysis presents an opportunity to meet this demand, but has not been applied to the retail sector or antimalarial retailer behaviors. This research conducted cluster analysis on medicine retailer behaviors in Kenya, to improve malaria case management and inform future interventions. Ninety-seven surveys were collected from medicine retailers working in the Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Survey items included retailer training, education, antimalarial drug knowledge, recommending behavior, sales, and shop characteristics, and were analyzed using Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. The Bernoulli purely spatial model for binomial data was used, comparing cases to controls. Statistical significance of found clusters was tested with a likelihood ratio test, using the null hypothesis of no clustering, and a p value based on 999 Monte Carlo simulations. The null hypothesis was rejected with p values of 0.05 or less. A statistically significant cluster of fewer than expected pharmacy-trained retailers was found (RR = .09, p = .001) when compared to the expected random distribution. Drug recommending behavior also yielded a statistically significant cluster, with fewer than expected retailers recommending the correct antimalarial medication to adults (RR = .018, p = .01), and fewer than expected shops selling that medication more often than outdated antimalarials when compared to random distribution (RR = 0.23, p = .007). All three of these clusters were co-located, overlapping in the northwest of the study area. Spatial clustering was found in the data. A concerning amount of correlation was found in one specific region in the study area where
Schiavetti, Benedetta; Wynendaele, Evelien; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Mbinze, Geremie J; Kalenda, Nicodème; Marini, Roland; Melotte, Vera; Hasker, Epco; Meessen, Bruno; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Van der Elst, Josiane; Mutolo Ngeleka, Daniel
Poor-quality medicines are a threat to public health in many low- and middle-income countries, and prospective surveys are needed to inform corrective actions. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional survey on a sample of products used for children and available in the private market in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic Congo: amoxicillin (AX) and artemether/lumefantrine (AL), powders for suspension, and paracetamol (PC) tablets 500 mg. Overall, 417 products were covertly purchased from 61 wholesalers. To obtain a representative sample, the products were weighted on their market shares and a subset of 239 samples was randomly extracted to undergo in-depth visual inspection locally, and they were chemically assessed at two accredited laboratories in Belgium. Samples were defined of "poor-quality" if they failed to comply with at least one specification of the International Pharmacopoeia (for AL) or United States Pharmacopoeia 37 (for AX and PC). Results are reported according to the Medicine Quality Assessment Reporting Guideline. The visual inspection detected nonconformities in the aspects of antimalarial powders for suspension, and poor-quality labels across all medicine types. According to chemical analysis, 27.2% samples were of poor quality and 59.5% of AL samples were underdosed in artemether. Poor quality was more frequent for locally manufactured antimalarials (83.3%, P = 0.021; 86.4%, P = 0.022) and PC (4.8%, P = 0.000). The poor quality of the surveyed products may decrease the treatment's efficacy and favor the development of resistances to antimalarials. It is hoped that these findings may guide the corrective actions of the Democratic Republic of Congo Regulatory Authority, which was the main partner in the research.
Schiavetti, Benedetta; Wynendaele, Evelien; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Mbinze, Geremie J.; Kalenda, Nicodème; Marini, Roland; Melotte, Vera; Hasker, Epco; Meessen, Bruno; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Van der Elst, Josiane; Mutolo Ngeleka, Daniel
Abstract. Poor-quality medicines are a threat to public health in many low- and middle-income countries, and prospective surveys are needed to inform corrective actions. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional survey on a sample of products used for children and available in the private market in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic Congo: amoxicillin (AX) and artemether/lumefantrine (AL), powders for suspension, and paracetamol (PC) tablets 500 mg. Overall, 417 products were covertly purchased from 61 wholesalers. To obtain a representative sample, the products were weighted on their market shares and a subset of 239 samples was randomly extracted to undergo in-depth visual inspection locally, and they were chemically assessed at two accredited laboratories in Belgium. Samples were defined of “poor-quality” if they failed to comply with at least one specification of the International Pharmacopoeia (for AL) or United States Pharmacopoeia 37 (for AX and PC). Results are reported according to the Medicine Quality Assessment Reporting Guideline. The visual inspection detected nonconformities in the aspects of antimalarial powders for suspension, and poor-quality labels across all medicine types. According to chemical analysis, 27.2% samples were of poor quality and 59.5% of AL samples were underdosed in artemether. Poor quality was more frequent for locally manufactured antimalarials (83.3%, P = 0.021; 86.4%, P = 0.022) and PC (4.8%, P = 0.000). The poor quality of the surveyed products may decrease the treatment’s efficacy and favor the development of resistances to antimalarials. It is hoped that these findings may guide the corrective actions of the Democratic Republic of Congo Regulatory Authority, which was the main partner in the research. PMID:29313479
O'Connell, Kathryn A; Gatakaa, Hellen; Poyer, Stephen; Njogu, Julius; Evance, Illah; Munroe, Erik; Solomon, Tsione; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara; Zinsou, Cyprien; Akulayi, Louis; Raharinjatovo, Jacky; Arogundade, Ekundayo; Buyungo, Peter; Mpasela, Felton; Adjibabi, Chérifatou Bello; Agbango, Jean Angbalu; Ramarosandratana, Benjamin Fanomezana; Coker, Babajide; Rubahika, Denis; Hamainza, Busiku; Chapman, Steven; Shewchuk, Tanya; Chavasse, Desmond
, but often comprised non-artemisinin therapies, and in the DRC and Nigeria, oral artemisinin monotherapies. Provider knowledge of the first-line treatment was significantly lower in the private sector than in the public/not-for-profit sector. These standardized, nationally representative results demonstrate the typically low availability, low market share and high prices of ACT, in the private sector where most anti-malarials are accessed, with some exceptions. The results confirm that there is substantial room to improve availability and affordability of ACT treatment in the surveyed countries. The data will also be useful for monitoring the impact of interventions such as the Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria.
O'Connell Kathryn A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT is the first-line malaria treatment throughout most of the malaria-endemic world. Data on ACT availability, price and market share are needed to provide a firm evidence base from which to assess the current situation concerning quality-assured ACT supply. This paper presents supply side data from ACTwatch outlet surveys in Benin, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia. Methods Between March 2009 and June 2010, nationally representative surveys of outlets providing anti-malarials to consumers were conducted. A census of all outlets with the potential to provide anti-malarials was conducted in clusters sampled randomly. Results 28,263 outlets were censused, 51,158 anti-malarials were audited, and 9,118 providers interviewed. The proportion of public health facilities with at least one first-line quality-assured ACT in stock ranged between 43% and 85%. Among private sector outlets stocking at least one anti-malarial, non-artemisinin therapies, such as chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, were widely available (> 95% of outlets as compared to first-line quality-assured ACT ( Conclusions These standardized, nationally representative results demonstrate the typically low availability, low market share and high prices of ACT, in the private sector where most anti-malarials are accessed, with some exceptions. The results confirm that there is substantial room to improve availability and affordability of ACT treatment in the surveyed countries. The data will also be useful for monitoring the impact of interventions such as the Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria.
Department of Homeland Security — This Private Schools feature dataset is composed of all Private elementary and secondary education features in the United States as defined by the Private School...
Adams, Edwina J; Cox, Jennifer M; Adamson, Barbara J; Schofield, Deborah J
The retention of Australian nuclear medicine technologists (NMTs) is poor with the future workforce size in question. As a consequence, the primary aim of this study was to determine Australian NMTs' level of work engagement and the factors influencing this to identify the issues surrounding retention. The job demands resource model assumes that each job has its own demands and resources and the balance between these can influence the level of work engagement. Lower levels of work engagement are predictive of an intention to leave. Work engagement levels can be measured using the Utrecht work engagement scale. This study used the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale in a self-report questionnaire with additional open-ended and closed-ended items designed to evaluate satisfying job characteristics. Members of the professional body in specific geographical locations of Australia were invited to participate. A 49.6% response rate was achieved (n=201); of these, 164 were practicing NMTs. Public sector workers had significantly lower total mean scores (P=0.05) on the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the subscale of dedication (P=0.005) compared with private NMTs. Seven of the 14 job satisfaction closed-ended items were statistically significantly lower for public NMTs: the level of decision making; feelings of importance with the tasks performed; feedback on tasks and roles; and relationships with physicians, staff and the organization. To improve the retention of NMTs, changes in the job resources and demands are needed. Advanced practice roles may improve retention by enhancing the job resources.
This Bachelor Thesis titled Private labels deals with distribution strategy based on the introduction of private labels especially in retail chains. At the beginning it is focused on the general concept of private label offered by retailers, where is mentioned basic characteristics, history and structuring of distribution brands. Subsequently this thesis informs readers about the introduction of new special distribution brands, which focus primarily on the new consumption habits of customers....
Andersen, Hans Skifter
for private udlejningsboligers pris, økonomi og kvalitet. Det økonomiske afkast af investering i private udlejningsejendomme har været højt i de sidste 10 år, men fortrinsvist pga. værdistigninger. For tiden er disse gået i stå, hvilket gør den økonomiske fremtid for den private udlejningssektor mindre...
Full Text Available The author, based on the circumstances that contributed to the creation of private prisons, has explained the historical development of private prisons in the United States and Great Britain. After that, the author has analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of the prison run by private companies. Namely, the author has, stating the benefits of private prisons (reduced overcrowding penitencijarnih institution, cheaper accommodation cost per prisoner, provide better services, the possibility of applying a new philosophy in the manner of execution of sentence, with modern Penitentiary program, with the aim of re-socialization and the reduction of recidivism and weaknesses of the private prisons (the question of legitimac, a chronic lack of space in the Penitentiary system is not solved, business-oriented policies of private prisons, less salaries, poor performance of the security service, worst food, weak enforcement of parole, lack of appropriate penitentiary program, wanted to draw attention to the professional public about controversy of the introduction private companies in the management structure of penitentiary institutions . As the Republic of Serbia is, constantly in the last twenty years, faced with the increasing number of inmates, as well as the chronic shortage of money, which affects on the situation in industrial areas of prisons, there are options to give licenses to private companies to manage prisons. Therefore, the author has paid special attention to potential problems of introducing private prisons in the penitentiary system in Serbia.
What happened to anti-malarial markets after the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria pilot? Trends in ACT availability, price and market share from five African countries under continuation of the private sector co-payment mechanism.
Tougher, Sarah; Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine
The private sector supplies anti-malarial treatment for large proportions of patients in sub-Saharan Africa. Following the large-scale piloting of the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) from 2010 to 2011, a private sector co-payment mechanism (CPM) provided continuation of private sector subsidies for quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (QAACT). This article analyses for the first time the extent to which improvements in private sector QAACT supply and distribution observed during the AMFm were maintained or intensified during continuation of the CPM through 2015 in Kenya, Madagascar, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda using repeat cross-sectional outlet survey data. QAACT market share in all five countries increased during the AMFm period (p private sector QAACT availability were maintained or improved. In 2014/15, private sector QAACT availability was greater than 70% in Nigeria (84.3%), Kenya (70.5%), Tanzania (83.0%) and Uganda (77.1%), but only 11.2% in Madagascar. QAACT market share was maintained or improved post-AMFm in Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda, but statistically significant declines were observed in Kenya and Madagascar. In 2014/5, QAACT market share was highest in Kenya and Uganda (48.2 and 47.5%, respectively) followed by Tanzania (39.2%), Nigeria (35.0%), and Madagascar (7.0%). Four of the five countries experienced significant decreases in median QAACT price during the AMFm period. Private sector QAACT prices were maintained or further reduced in Tanzania, Nigeria and Uganda, but prices increased significantly in Kenya and Madagascar. SP prices were consistently lower than those of QAACT in the AMFm period, with the exception of Kenya and Tanzania in 2011, where they were equal. In 2014/5 QAACT remained two to three times more expensive than the most popular non-artemisinin therapy in all countries except Tanzania. Results suggest that a private sector co-payment mechanism for QAACT implemented at national scale for 5 years was
Verhoef, Erik T.
This paper studies the efficiency impacts of private toll roads in initially untolled networks. The analysis allows for capacity and toll choice by private operators, and endogenizes entry and therewith the degree of competition, distinguishing and allowing for both parallel and serial competition.
The efforts in progress now in Great Britain to liberalize the nuclear decommissioning activity market imply that by 2012 the competitive commercial private companies will lead the national nuclear decommissioning and decontamination related activity market. Paper dwells upon the new market peculiar features and upon some peculiar features of the new market related activities [ru
Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; Political and economic background; Energy supply; The Chinese electricity sector; Private power in China; Issues for private investors; Fuel choice in private projects; Private investors in China; Listed Chinese generators; Private power prospects; Implemented private generation projects; Planned private Generation Projects; Plants owned by listed Chinese generators. (Author)
The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country's two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain's nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross
working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... blind reviewed and edited for quality. They represent the contributions of leading academics, early career researchers and others from an increasing number of countries, universities and institutions around the world. They set a benchmark for discussion of the current issues arising in the subject area...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work...
Dragovich, Anthony; Brason, Fred; Beltran, Thomas; McCoart, Amy; Plunkett, Anthony R
The purpose of this study was to determine if employing a home healthcare model for education and treatment of opioid overdose using Evzio® (Naloxone)* auto-injector in a private practice pain clinic. A prospective survey was used to determine the feasibility of integrating a naloxone auto-injector within the patient's home with a home care training model. Twenty moderate or high-risk patients were enrolled from our chronic pain clinic. Patients who were moderate or high risk completed an evaluation survey. The naloxone auto-injector was dispensed to all patients meeting criteria. The treating provider after prescribing the naloxone auto-injector then consulted home health per standard clinical practice. All patients had home health consulted to perform overdose identification and rescue training. A Cochran's Q test was conducted to examine differences in patient knowledge pre and post training. The post training test was done 2-4 weeks later. Forty subjects enrolled after meeting inclusion/exclusion criteria. Twenty withdrew because their insurance declined coverage for the naloxone auto-injector. Those completing home health showed a statistically significant difference in their ability to correctly identify the steps needed to effectively respond to an overdose p = 0.03 Discussion: Preliminary evidence would suggest training on overdose symptom recognition and proper use of prescription naloxone for treatment in the home setting by home health staff would prove more beneficial than the clinic setting, but feasibility was hindered by unaffordable costs related to insurance coverage limitations.
Bugeaud, G. J. R.
The principles underlying private placements in Alberta, and the nature of the processes employed by the Alberta Securities Commission in handling such transactions were discussed. The Alberta Securities Commission's mode of operation was demonstrated by the inclusion of various documents issued by the Commission concerning (1) special warrant transactions prior to listing, (2) a decision by the Executive Director refusing to issue a receipt for the final prospectus for a distribution of securities of a company and the reasons for the refusal, (3) the Commission's decision to interfere with the Executive Director's decision not to issue a receipt for the final prospectus, with full citation of the Commission's reasons for its decision, (4) and a series of proposed rules and companion policy statements regarding trades and distributions outside and in Alberta. Text of a sample 'short form prospectus' was also included
Multi-Dimensional Impact of the Public-Private Center for Translational Molecular Medicine (CTMM) in the Netherlands: Understanding New 21(st) Century Institutional Designs to Support Innovation-in-Society.
Steuten, Lotte M
Knowledge translation is at the epicenter of 21st century life sciences and integrative biology. Several innovative institutional designs have been formulated to cultivate knowledge translation. One of these organizational innovations has been the Center for Translational Molecular Medicine (CTMM), a multi-million public-private partnership in the Netherlands. The CTMM aims to accelerate molecular diagnostics and imaging technologies to forecast disease susceptibilities in healthy populations and early diagnosis and personalized treatment of patients. This research evaluated CTMM's impact on scientific, translational, clinical, and economic dimensions. A pragmatic, operationally-defined process indicators approach was used. Data were gathered from CTMM administrations, through a CTMM-wide survey (n = 167) and group interviews. We found that the CTMM focused on disease areas with high human, clinical, and economic burden to society (i.e., oncology, cardiovascular, neurologic, infection, and immunity diseases). CTMM displayed a robust scientific impact that rests 15%-80% above international reference values regarding publication volume and impact. Technology translation to the clinic was accelerated, with >50% of projects progressing from pre-clinical development to clinical testing within 5 years. Furthermore, CTMM has generated nearly 1500 Full Time Equivalent (FTE) of translational R&D capacity. Its positive impact on translational, (future) clinical, and economic aspects is recognized across all surveyed stakeholders. As organizational innovation is increasingly considered critical to forge linkages between life sciences discoveries and innovation-in-society, lessons learned from this study may inform other institutions with similar objectives such as the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States.
This paper highlights emerging trends, programmes and policies in privatization of education in Western countries. These trends are educational vouchers, choice of private schools, private school liberalization, private contracting of specific services, tuition tax credits and deductions for parents ,subsidies and assistance grants to private…
Izaguirre, Ada Karina; Hunt, Catherine
Drawing on the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database, this Note reviews developments in the water and sewerage sector of developing countries in 2004 and changes in private participation in the sector since 2001. Data for 2004 show that total investment in water and sewerage projects with private participation amounted to nearly US$2 billion. Recent private ...
Sestelo, José Antonio de Freitas; Souza, Luis Eugenio Portela Fernandes de; Bahia, Lígia
This article draws on a previous review of 270 articles on private health plans published from 2000 to 2010 and selects 17 that specifically address the issue of the relationship between the public and private healthcare sectors. Content analysis considered the studies' concepts and terms, related theoretical elements, and predominant lines of argument. A reading of the argumentative strategies detected the existence of a critical view of the modus operandi in the public/private relationship based on Social Medicine and the theoretical tenets of the Brazilian Health Reform Movement. The study also identified contributions based on neoliberal business approaches that focus strictly on economic issues to discuss private health insurance. Understanding the public/private link in healthcare obviously requires the development of a solid empirical base, analyzed with adequate theoretical assumptions due to the inherent degree of complexity in the public/private healthcare interface.
California Natural Resource Agency — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...
J.T.J. Smit (Han); W.A. van den Berg (Ward)
textabstractThis study presents a dynamic model for the private equity market in which information revelation and uncertainty rationally explain the cyclical pattern of investment flows into private equity. The net benefit of private equity over public equity is i) uncertain and ii) agents have
Background: Medical student attachments with family/general practitioners (GPs) in non-academic or private practice are a valued resource in the undergraduate teaching of Family Medicine. This study describes the experience and views of GPs in private practice with final-year medical student attachments from the ...
Nichiforel, Liviu; Keary, Kevin; Deuffic, Philippe
Private forests are widespread in Europe providing a range of ecosystem services of significant value to society, and there are calls for novel policies to enhance their provision and to face the challenges of environmental changes. Such policies need to acknowledge the importance of private...... across jurisdictions, we constructed an original Property Rights Index for Forestry encompassing five rights domains (access, withdrawal, management, exclusion and alienation). We documented substantial variation of the private forest owners' rights, and notably to i) make decisions in operational...... management and the formulation of management goals, ii) withdraw timber resources from their forest, and iii) exclude others from the use of forest resources. We identified broad relations between the scope for decision making of private forest owners and jurisdictions' former socio-political background...
Full Text Available In reality privatization has never occurred according to the handbook rules of ordinary market transactions. Not even in advanced market economies can privatization transactions be described by the Walrasian or Arrowian, or Leontiefian equilibrium models, or by the equilibrium models of the game theory. In these economies transactions of privatization take place in a fairly organic way – which means that those are driven by the dominance of private property rights and in a market economy. But despite this fact Western privatization also some peculiar features as compared to ordinary company takeovers, since the state as the seller may pursue non – economic goals. Changes in the dominant form of property change positions and status of many individuals and groups in the society. That’s why privatization can even less be explained by ordinary market mechanisms in transition countries where privatizing state-owned property have happened in a mass scale and where markets and private property rights weren't established at the time process of privatization began. In this paper I’ll discuss and analyze the phenomenon of privatization in context of different economic theories arguing that empirical results go in favor of the public choice theory (Buchanan, 1978, theory of "economic constitution" (Brennan and Buchanan 1985, (Buchanan and Tullock, 1989, and theory of "collective action" (Olson, 1982. These theories argues that transition from one economic system into another, for example transition from collectivistic, socialistic system into capitalism and free market economy with dominant private property, will not happen through isolated changes of only few economic institutions, no matter how deep that changes would be. In other words privatization can not give results if it's not followed by comprehensive change of economic system because privatized companied wouldn't be able to operate in old environment.
their innovator and/or generic equivalents) in both private retail and public pharmacies. Setting: Private and public sector retail pharmacies in Harare metropolitan province, Zimbabwe. Materials and Methods: Forty medicines were selected for ...
This viewgraph presentation reviews the various Information Technology challenges for aerospace medicine. The contents include: 1) Space Medicine Activities; 2) Private Medical Information; 3) Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health; 4) Mission Medical Support; 5) Data Repositories for Research; 6) Data Input and Output; 7) Finding Data/Information; 8) Summary of Challenges; and 9) Solutions and questions.
Aksoy, Fikret; Ergun, Alper
The ambulance service is very important in emergency medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the new governing statuate of private ambulance service and to propose some new ideas. We examinated the new governing statuate of private ambulance service, rules of patient transporte between the hospitals and reports written by SSK Goztepe Educational Hospital ambulance drivers. We concluded that SSK Goztepe Educational Hospital ambulance drivers have a iot of problems especially at the rules of patient transport between the hospitals and there are some defiencies at the new governing statuate of private ambulance service. We concluded that it is necesssary to manage all the ambulance services in one center; all the private ambulance services have to have a specialist and all these must be determinated by the special rules. Key words: Regulation ofprivate ambulance, emergency head maintanence, ambulance services
Privatization has been recognized as a worldwide phenomenon. In this pa-per, a political economy approach is developed to analyze privatization. The ap-proach assumes that political economy and privatization overlap in people’s need. So, the framework of political economy in privatization is based on the ‘need’ phi-losophy. Government and private sectors are contrasted in this respect, leading to a conclusion on privatization as a method to manage the economy. Keywords: privatization, politic...
Miranda Sarmento, J.J.
Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasing in number worldwide and are used to build and manage large public infrastructure projects. In PPPs, the private sector plays a role in developing and maintaining public infrastructure and services, which is usually a public sector responsibility.
Benson, Helene A.
This speech focuses on women and private pension plans, such as private pension coverage and smaller benefit amounts. Pension issues affecting women as employees include participation in plans, vesting, break-in service, benefit accruals, integration with Social Security, sex-based actuarial tables, portability, inflation, and individual…
Bovenberg, L.; van Ewijk, C.
Private pensions can enhance international and intergenerational risk-sharing and create a deeper European capital market, which allows for better diversification of country-specific risks and facilitates economic growth. Private funding of pensions creates a more integrated European capital market
Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…
van den Berg, V.A.C.
This paper investigates private supply of two congestible infrastructures that are serial, where the consumer has to use both in order to consume. Four market structures are analysed: a monopoly and 3 duopolies that differ in how firms interact. It is well known that private supply leads too high
... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...
Huang Hongmei; Zhang Chengjun
Setting up virtual private network for business enterprise provides a low cost network foundation, increases enterprise's network function and enlarges its private scope. The text introduces virtual private network's principal, privileges and protocols that use in virtual private network. At last, this paper introduces several setting up virtual private network's technologies which based on LAN
Huang Hongmei; Zhang Chengjun
Setting up virtual private network for business enterprise provides a low cost network foundation, increases enterprise network function and enlarges its private scope. This text introduces virtual private network principal, privileges and protocols applied in virtual private network. At last, this paper introduces several setting up virtual private network technologies which is based on LAN
9. juulist Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis eesti ja briti kunstnike ühisnäitus "Private Views. Ruum taasavastatud eesti ja briti kaasaegses kunstis". Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. Osalejad.
9. juulist Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis eesti ja briti kunstnike ühisnäitus "Private Views. Ruum taasavastatud eesti ja briti kaasaegses kunstis" Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. Osalejad
Small businesses can be an important vehicle for .... Small and medium enterprises make up most of private businesses in the. Middle East ... Small businesses can drive more equi- table growth. ... patterns affect job creation and the demand ...
Syverson, Paul F; Reed, Michael G; Goldschlag, David M
.... These are both kept confidential from network elements as well as external observers. Private Web browsing is achieved by unmodified Web browsers using anonymous connections by means of HTTP proxies...
Gurun, Ayfer; Millimet, Daniel L.
We assess the causal effect of private tutoring on the probability of university placement in Turkey. We find that tutoring increases the probability of being placed in a university when non-random selection is ignored. Moreover, among those utilizing private tutoring, greater expenditure on tutoring is also positively associated with university placement. However, we find evidence of positive selection into tutoring, but negative selection into greater expenditures among those receiving tuto...
The French nuclear public group Areva (the fusion of CEA-Industrie, Framatome and Cogema companies) will actively prepare its privatization and stock exchange introduction before the end of the first half of 2005, in order to re-launch its acquisitions and associations policy. However, the advantages of this privatization with a preponderant public share-holding will depend on the intentions of the French government. Short paper. (J.S.)
In February 1988, the Government announced their intention of privatizing the electricity supply industry of England, Wales and Scotland. The Government's proposals were outlined in two White Papers. Cm 322 covered the proposals for England and Wales and Cm 327 the proposals for Scotland. This article deals with the events covering the stages of the privatization process from just before passing of the Electricity Bill in July 1989 to December 1990. (author)
The rise of public supervision over private relationships in many areas of private law has led to the development of what, in the author’s view, could be called ‘European supervision private law’. This emerging body of law forms part of European regulatory private law and is made up of
Full Text Available The majority of household savings are in the form of bank deposits. It is therefore of interest for credit institutions to tailor their deposit policy for getting finances from non-banking entities and to provide the private sector with the loans that are necessary for investment activities and consumption. This paper deals with the determinants of the saving rate of the private sector of Slovakia. Economic, financial and demographic variables influence savings. Growth of income per capita, private disposable income, elderly dependency ratio, real interest rate and inflation have a positive impact on savings, while increases in public savings indicate a crowding out effect. The inflation rate implies precautionary savings, and dependency ratio savings for bequest. There are also implications for governing institutions deciding on the implementation of appropriate fiscal and monetary operations.
Full Text Available Given the importance of sport for international integration, affirmation, a sense of belonging and other values of general interest, in order to maintain and open new prospects of development, it is necessary to form the private security system along with state security system, with a view to creating conditions for development sports athletes to achieve better results both in domestic and international competitions. Private security is only one element of an integrated security system which, with its efficient organization with the use of adequate means and measures should provide answers to new challenges, risks and threats. Private security in line with the new understanding of the concept of security has an important role in providing athletes.
Drawing on the nationally representative "Participation and Expenditure in Education" surveys, we document the incidence and cost of private tutoring at different stages of schooling over the last two decades in India. As private tutoring involve two decisions: a) whether to take private tuition or not, and b) how much to spend on private tutoring conditional on positive decision in (a), we analyze the determinants of the two decisions separately using a Hurdle model. We find that private tut...
This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru is forging ahead on several fronts despite Peru's political turmoil and uncertainty over where government ordered-privatization will take it. The state oil company: is expected to sign contract soon related to development of Chambira oil field in the northern jungle; let contract to a group of Peruvian and Brazilian companies for construction of an oil terminal at Talara on the Pacific coast; and received expressions of interest in participating in an operating contract on an offshore block operated by its Petromar SA offshore subsidiary under the government's privatization program
This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru is forging ahead on several fronts despite Peru's political turmoil and uncertainty over where government ordered-privatization will take it. The state oil company: is expected to sign contract soon related to development of Chambira oil field in the northern jungle; let contract to a group of Peruvian and Brazilian companies for construction of an oil terminal at Talara on the Pacific coast; and received expressions of interest in participating in an operating contract on an offshore block operated by its Petromar SA offshore subsidiary under the government's privatization program.
?To go private? As an object the cell phone is a diminutive phenomenon, but its power and importance in the social space is infinite. What happens in the social space when the cell phone is used and when it is turned off? As a point of departure observations from a field study conducted in a youth...... club (teens between 12-16 years) in Denmark will be presented. The teens are always situated end located when they use the cell phone. When they use it, temporary personal reserves are created, in which they do territorial demands. As the most obvious they forget themselves and ?go private?. It has...
Koch, Christian; Jensen, Jesper Ole
Public Private Partnerships (PPP) are frequently mobilized as a purchasing form suitable for large infrastructure projects. And it is commonly assumed that transaction costs linked to the establishment of PPP make them prohibitive in small sizes. In a Danish context this has been safeguarded by t...
Yang Yuguang; Cao Weifeng; Wen Qiaoyan
We propose a two-party quantum private comparison protocol using single photons, in which two distrustful parties can compare whether their secrets are equal with the help of a third party (TP). Any information about the values of their respective secrets will not be leaked out even with a compromised TP. Security is also discussed.
Yang Yuguang [College of Computer Science and Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Cao Weifeng [College of Electric and Information Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Wen Qiaoyan [State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
We propose a two-party quantum private comparison protocol using single photons, in which two distrustful parties can compare whether their secrets are equal with the help of a third party (TP). Any information about the values of their respective secrets will not be leaked out even with a compromised TP. Security is also discussed.
including Bosnia, Ukraine, Chile , and others made up the largest portion of private contractors in Iraq.43 Mercenary...56 movements, schools are now advocating “diversity rather than unity” and make “little effort to inculcate immigrants in American culture...identities are becoming increasingly important as a result of failures to assimilate new immigrants . Huntington highlights that immigrants from Mexico
Full Text Available Constituant une première histoire de la médecine libérale indigène dans le Viêt Nam sous domination française, cet article revient sur certains acquis historiographiques et propose de nouvelles avenues pour enrichir la recherche sur l’histoire de la santé en contexte colonial. Il s’interroge d’abord sur les conditions et les motifs qui ont permis l’existence de cette communauté médicale a priori marginale ; il en établit ensuite les principales caractéristiques en termes de formation, de parcours professionnel et d’engagement médico-sanitaire et plus largement social. Ces médecins privés apparaissent alors comme des agents actifs, non seulement compétents mais inventifs, de la médicalisation coloniale dans l’entre-deux guerres, susceptibles d’avoir améliorer de façon substantielle la santé de la population colonisée. Pour donner corps et vie à cette médecine libérale, plusieurs de ses acteurs sont évoqués et en particulier le Dr Nguyễn Văn Luyện (1898-1946. Ces fragments biographiques permettent de révéler la polyvalence, l’expertise, le dynamisme et les engagements en santé publique et en matière de soins d’un nouveau groupe social attentif aux attentes de sa communauté, autant de manifestations probantes en même temps d’une demande en santé en mutation.This paper constitutes the first account on the history of Vietnamese private medical practice during the French domination over Indochina. It aims to revisit multiple historiographies and at the same time to suggest new ways of writing the history of colonial health and health care. First, I analyse the legal and political context in which Vietnamese private doctors could emerge as a professional and as a social group. Then I insist on the main characteristics of this medical community in terms of training, professional life and scientific and social activities. These Vietnamese doctors would appear as active agents and inventive
recently installed in 2000, one in Istanbul and one in Izmir with 2 private PET centers. PET centers in Ankara are on the way. Turkish Atomic Energy Agency provides license for nuclear medicine departments and therapy wards according to the written regulations. The import and nationwide transport of radioactive substances and disposal of wastes are under the control of this agency. All nuclear medicine clinics need to be licensed by this agency in order to purchase radioactive materials
NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.
Expanding public-private collaborations to enhance cancer drug development: a report of the Institute of Medicine's workshop series, "Implementing a National Cancer Clinical Trials System for the 21st Century".
Bertagnolli, Monica M; Canetta, Renzo; Nass, Sharyl J
Since their inception in the 1950s, the National Cancer Institute-funded cancer cooperative groups have been important contributors to cancer clinical and translational research. In 2010, a committee appointed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences completed a consensus review on the status of the U.S. publicly funded cancer clinical trials system. This report identified a need to reinvigorate the cooperative groups and provided recommendations for improving their effectiveness. Follow-up workshops to monitor progress were conducted by the IOM's National Cancer Policy Forum and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) in 2011 and 2013. One of the key recommendations of the IOM report was a call for greater collaboration among stakeholders in cancer research. In particular, more active engagement and better alignment of incentives among the cooperative groups, the National Cancer Institute, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and the biopharmaceutical industry were identified as essential to achieving the promise of oncology drug development. This review, based on presentations and discussion during the IOM-ASCO workshops, outlines the progress and remaining challenges of these collaborations. ©AlphaMed Press.
Sørensen, Morten; Wang, Neng; Yang, Jinqiang
We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees, car....... On average, LPs may just break even, net of management fees, carry, risk, and costs of illiquidity.......We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees......, carried interest, and illiquidity are costly, and GPs must generate substantial alpha to compensate LPs for bearing these costs. Debt is cheap and reduces these costs, potentially explaining the high leverage of buyout transactions. Conventional interpretations of PE performance measures appear optimistic...
Kjellstrom, Sven B.
State capitalism has been a basic tenet of the developing strategy for Turkey for half a century, with import-substituting industrialization through state economic enterprises (SEEs) as a guiding principle. By 1980 a serious economic and political crisis called for a reassessment of economic policies. Policy reorientation was radical : from import substitution to export promotion, from interventionism to market forces, and from promotion of SEEs to promotion of the private sector. The state's...
ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB CE) and seven other companies have submitted a plan to the DOE for deploying a multipurpose reactor at the Savannah River Plant. The facility would consume excess plutonium as fuel, irradiate tritium producing targets, and generate electricity. The plan proposes to establish a consortium that would privately finance and own two System 80+ nuclear units and a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility
environment such as that in Abu Grahib prison , where military personnel tasked with similar duties to that of contractors have been held legally accountable... Grahib Prison . The Washington Post. Office of Management and Budget Circular A-76. (August 4, 1988. Revised 1999). Performance of Commercial...downsizes the military after the Global War on Terror as it did after the Cold War. Private contractors depend largely upon former service members to
Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia
and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....
A report sponsored by a group of nuclear suppliers and the Royal Bank suggested that the Candu reactor system would sell better if it were owned by a private company. Licensing of a Candu reactor in the U.S.A. was also suggested. The author of this article agrees with these points, but disagrees with the suggestion that safeguards should be relaxed. He suggests that contracts should stipulate that instrumentation should be supplied as much as possible from Canadian sources
Trying to drum up business for what would be the first private temporary storage facility for spent nuclear fuel rods, the Mescalero Apaches are inviting officials of 30 utilities to convene March 10 at the tribe's New Mexico reservation. The state public utilities commission will also attend the meeting, which grew from an agreement the tribe signed last month with Minneapolis-based Northern States Power Co
Lehmann, Martin; Jeppesen, S.
Public-private partnerships in the environmental field have emerged as one option in the pursuit of sustainable development. So-called ‘Green Networks’, ‘Cleaner Production Centres’, ‘Waste Minimisation Clubs’ are among others highlighted as alternatives to governmental regulation. While being...... these initiatives in an institutional framework and suggest how the experiences can be understood in their own rights....
A virtual private network (VPN) is the essential security feature that allows remote monitoring systems to take advantage of the low communications cost of the internet. This paper introduces the VPN concept and summarizes the networking and security principles. The mechanics of security, for example, types of encryption and protocols for exchange of keys between partners, are explained. Important issues for partners in different countries include the interoperability and mutual accreditations of systems. (author)
This paper has been delivered within the context of the research project "Transnational Private Regulatory Regimes: Constitutional foundations and governance design". This paper considers the topic of private regulation and enforcement for internationally active financial services firms. The paper documents the following types of regulation and enforcement that involve significant private input: house rules, contracts, internal compliance, management-based regulation, private standard-sett...
Full Text Available O uso de drogas entre estudantes universitários está cada dia mais difundido. Os índices de uso de álcool e drogas ilícitas podem ser maiores na população universitária do que na população em geral. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho procurou detectar quais são as drogas de abuso usadas pelos estudantes de medicina de universidade privada de Curitiba para posterior implementação de programa de prevenção secundária nesta população. MÉTODOS: Durante 106 dias, em 2006, foi aplicada adaptação virtual do questionário Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST aos 209 estudantes de medicina participantes do presente trabalho. RESULTADOS: Oitenta e oito (42% estudantes participaram. A maioria era solteira (88% e tinham entre 17 e 25 anos (85%. Setenta e oito por cento usou álcool pelo menos uma vez na vida. O uso na vida de tabaco foi de 39%; cannabis sativa 26%, inalantes 22% e estimulantes 11%. DISCUSSÃO: Os resultados encontrados são semelhantes aos de outras pesquisas em universidades e mostram alto número de usuários de drogas, especialmente o álcool. Essa é uma situação preocupante e aponta a importância da instituição educacional na prevenção da dependência química. CONCLUSÃO: O ambiente universitário influencia o uso de drogas e novas estratégias de prevenção são necessárias.Drug abuse among universitarians is an increasing issue. Rates of alcohol and illegal drugs abuse can be higher in the universitarian population than in the general one. OBJECTIVE: This research aims to detect what drugs are used by Medicine students of Positivo University (Universidade Positivo and to correlate associated caracteristics. METHOD: It was applied a virtual adaptation of the ASSIST (Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test questionnaire to all (209 Medicine students during 106 days in 2006. RESULTS: Eighty-eight (42% of the students took part in it. Most were single (88% between 17 and
Gregoric, Aleksandra; Masten, Arjana Brezigar; Zajc, Katarina
of the multiple blockholder structures that these firms were assigned at privatization. We observe significant path dependence: patterns of ownership and control are in part determined by the persistence of the initial privatization owners (state funds, privatization investment funds, employees, and managers...
Full Text Available "Private political archives" are understood by me as all acts collected intently by a private person. These acts are connected with the person's participation in political life and gathered in order to be used in public activity as the source of argumentation and information about factors and mechanisms of political processes. Private political archives of the first half of the XVI century were mainly created by royal servants, often with reference to their job duties. These duties could inspire to collect political acts for private purposes. During the reign of Sigismund Augustus, archives of gentry activists were developed to small extent and they mainly focused on parliamentary life. Private political archives were created outside the executionist movement, namely in the community gathered around the royal court. After 1572, Crown and Lithuanian magnates greatly influenced the creation of political archives. Archives of lesser gentry, scarce and poor, did not disappear completely. However, they became difficult for identification. Therefore, developmental process concerned exclusively documentary "treasure troves" created by magnates. They had the financial means and possibilities to create truly valuable political archives. The same as in the previous period the dynamisms of executionist movement was reflected in political archival documentation, now the creation of patronage system and clientele, or traditionally understood magnate oligarchy, (depending on the point of view corresponded best to archives development. The heritage of previous generations was the treasure trove of patterns and solutions. However, this trove was used selectively, on one hand giving up patterns and rights that were uncomfortable, and, on the other, giving the value of precedence to unexpected acts that gained more importance or even new content in changed political conditions. The application of interpretation principle raised interest in old acts and patterns
Several growth areas for nuclear medicine were defined. Among them were: cardiac nuclear medicine, neuro-psychiatric nuclear medicine, and cancer diagnosis through direct tumor imaging. A powerful new tool, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was lauded as the impetus for new developments in nuclear medicine. The political environment (funding, degree of autonomy) was discussed, as were the economic and scientific environments
CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...
Full Text Available Privatization is a very complicated process that builds a market economy. It entails numerous problems, the overcoming of which depends on the pace and scale of privatization in a particular country. The privatization process of the Polish economy is assessed differently, and still raises a lot of controversy and debate, not only for the economy, but also politics. This is particularly the privatization of state assets. Privatization was one of the foundations for political transformation in Poland and other Central- and Eastern European countries. Some say that was a great success, while for others it was a field for plunder and affairs. Who is right? Is privatization a success or a failure? This paper aims to present the arguments posed by both supporters and opponents of the privatization in Poland.
Yap, Raymond; Cullinan, Mark
Training in medicine and surgery has been a public hospital responsibility in Australia. Increasing specialist training needs has led to pressure on speciality societies to find additional training posts, with one utilized solution being the establishment of private hospital training. This growing use has been despite no previously published evaluations of private hospital training in Australia. This article seeks to evaluate the feasibility of surgical training in private hospitals in appendicectomy. Data were prospectively collected on registrar involvement in appendicectomy cases at a single private tertiary institution over 1 year. These data were divided into groups according to registrar involvement and analysed, looking at training caseload, operating theatre time and complications. A total of 122 cases were analysed over the study period. Registrars were more likely to have increased primary operator responsibility if they were an accredited versus unaccredited registrar (P = 0.04) and if the case was open versus laparoscopic (P difference in complications whether the registrar was involved or not. Training in the private sector in Australia appears feasible, with a small loss of efficiency and no increase in complications. This article hopes to further encourage implementation and evaluation of private sector training programs to expand current training positions. Further studies, in different specialty and procedural domains, are needed to assess and evaluate the ongoing feasibility of private sector training. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny
Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.
Hansen, Annette Skovsted
New and independent donors are adding their own twist to the experiences of receiving ODA and their examples are already inspiring the DAC, UN, and other multiple- and bilateral aid relationships. Rather than competition among development paradigms, I see negotiations of ideas of development and ...... and a co-existence of a multiplicity of approaches. I will argue that a trend of new and old actors inspiring each other will continue and the explicit focus on private sector development is just a first outcome....
Yi, Xun; Bertino, Elisa
This book deals with Private Information Retrieval (PIR), a technique allowing a user to retrieve an element from a server in possession of a database without revealing to the server which element is retrieved. PIR has been widely applied to protect the privacy of the user in querying a service provider on the Internet. For example, by PIR, one can query a location-based service provider about the nearest car park without revealing his location to the server.The first PIR approach was introduced by Chor, Goldreich, Kushilevitz and Sudan in 1995 in a multi-server setting, where the user retriev
Bernstein, Shai; Lerner, Josh; Sørensen, Morten
The growth of the private equity industry has spurred concerns about its impact on the economy. This analysis looks across nations and industries to assess the impact of private equity on industry performance. We find that industries where private equity funds invest grow more quickly in terms...... of total production and employment and appear less exposed to aggregate shocks. Our robustness tests provide some evidence that is consistent with our effects being driven by our preferred channel....
Nakyanzi, Josephine Katabaazi; Kitutu, Freddy Eric; Oria, Hussein; Kamba, Pakoyo Fadhiru
The expiry of medicines in the supply chain is a serious threat to the already constrained access to medicines in developing countries. We investigated the extent of, and the main contributing factors to, expiry of medicines in medicine supply outlets in Kampala and Entebbe, Uganda. A cross-sectional survey of six public and 32 private medicine outlets was done using semi-structured questionnaires. The study area has 19 public medicine outlets (three non-profit wholesalers, 16 hospital stores/pharmacies), 123 private wholesale pharmacies and 173 retail pharmacies, equivalent to about 70% of the country's pharmaceutical businesses. Our findings indicate that medicines prone to expiry include those used for vertical programmes, donated medicines and those with a slow turnover. Awareness about the threat of expiry of medicines to the delivery of health services has increased. We have adapted training modules to emphasize management of medicine expiry for pharmacy students, pharmacists and other persons handling medicines. Our work has also generated more research interest on medicine expiry in Uganda. Even essential medicines expire in the supply chain in Uganda. Sound coordination is needed between public medicine wholesalers and their clients to harmonize procurement and consumption as well as with vertical programmes to prevent duplicate procurement. Additionally, national medicine regulatory authorities should enforce existing international guidelines to prevent dumping of donated medicine. Medicine selection and quantification should be matched with consumer tastes and prescribing habits. Lean supply and stock rotation should be considered.
Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...
... used for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... extracts, and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...
Helby Petersen, Ole
This PhD dissertation studies national similarities and differences in policy and regulation of public-private partnerships (PPPs), with an empirical focus on Denmark and Ireland. The starting point and motivation for the study is the observation that whereas PPPs are often depicted in the academic...... time, and how can their similarities and differences be explained?; (iii) how do differing national policy and regulation frameworks serve to facilitate or hinder the formation of PPPs, exemplified by four case studies from the schools sector?; (iv) what framework conditions does the EU set for PPP...... literature and in policy practice as a globally disseminated governance scheme, in reality, a closer examination of the PPP reform landscape reveals significant differences in national governments’ PPP policy and regulation and in the amount of actually implemented PPP projects. By comparing the initiatives...
The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. The organization of this bibliography is by subject area. Some of the documents overlap subject areas, and may be presented in more than one. Additionally, assignment of a document to one subject area does not necessarily preclude that document from containing information relevant to other subject areas not identified. The subject areas include, in order of presentation:. Waste Characterization; Pre-treatment; High-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Melter Test Program; Performance Assessment; and General Safety
The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. The documents referenced herein have been identified as representative of those potentially helpful to Offerors. This list of documents does not represent the full extent of available and potentially helpful information, nor should it be taken as a representation of documents determined to be of greater importance than other documents not referenced herein. There are numerous documents available to the public that are NOT cited in this bibliography; the Offeror is encouraged to perform searches for alternate sources of information
Janoska, J.; Benka, M.; Sobinkovic, B.; Haluza, I.
The state has been talking about privatization of 6 municipal heating plants since 2001. The tenders were to start last year. But nothing has happened and the future is uncertain. The city councils would prefer to receive, if not 100%, then at least a majority stake in the heating plants free of charge. But the Cabinet has decided to sell 51% to investors. The privatization agency - the National Property Fund (FNM) is preparing a proposal to increase the stake offered for sale to 67%. According to information provided by the FNM the sale will begin after Cabinet approval. The Fund intends to apply the same model to the sale of all the heating plants. Last year, a major German company Verbundnetz Gas declared its interest in purchasing large municipal heating plants in Slovakia. But it has been waiting for a response ever since. The French company - Dalkia, which has 10-years' experience of doing business in Slovakia, is interested in all the heating plants to be offered for sale. The Austrian company - Stefe is not new to the business either, it is interested mainly in the regions where it has already established itself - Central and Eastern Slovakia. Strategic investors expect financial groups to show interest too. The Penta Group has not hid its ambitions - it has already privatised a company which represents the key to the future development of heat management in Bratislava - Paroplynovy cyklus. Whereas Penta is not new to the heat production business another financial group - Slavia Capital is still surveying the sector. Should it not succeed, it plans several projects that would allow it to take a stake in the sector
In the first, historical part the most important programs of "Medical Enlightenment", are pointed out, beginning with Leibniz, followed by the public health movement of the 18th century, up to the time of Immanuel Kant. Based on this historical background several concepts of a "Medical Culture" are analysed in detail, for instance the "Theorie einer Medizinal-Ordnung" by Johann Benjamin Ehrhard (1800), the "Medicinische Reform" by Rudolf Virchow (1848) and the programs of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Arzte" (about 1850-1890), the latter bearing both scientific and political character. Following the historical part, the question is raised whether "Enlightenment" is limited by medicine and whether medicine is able to provide a program for individual health education resulting in a more cultivated style of private life, and lastly how this might be realized.
Full Text Available A ′need-supply′ and ′requirement-distribution mismatch′ along with a continuingneed explosion are the biggest hurdles faced by palliative medicine today. It is the need of the hour to provide an unbiased, equitable and evidence-based palliative care to those in need irrespective of the diagnosis, prognosis, social and economic status or geographical location. Palliative care as a fundamental human right, ensuring provision throughout the illness spectrum, global as well as region-specific capacity building, uniform availability of essential drugs at an affordable price, a multidisciplinary team approachand caregiver-support are some of the achievable goals for the future. This supplanted with a strong political commitment, professional dedication and ′public-private partnerships′ are necessaryto tackle the existing hurdles and the exponentially increasing future need. For effectively going ahead it is of utmost importance to integrate palliative medicine into medical education, healthcare system and societal framework.
Private foundations Global Health Philanthropy: the problem of conflicts of interest. Private foundations are in a position where they are granted several privileges and are very powerful and able to influence global health. A recent article published on Plos Medicine, analyzing five of the largest health foundations highlights the network of interests and conflicts. Many private health foundations have associations with private food and pharmaceutical corporations. In some instances, these corporations directly benefit from foundations grants, and foundations in turn are invested in the corporations to which they award these grants.
... lead’s effects on health. How to tell if herbal medicines or folk medicines contain lead You only can ... as high as 90%. Ghasard, an Indian folk medicine, has also been found to contain lead. It is a brown powder used as a tonic. Ba-baw-san is a Chinese herbal remedy that contains lead. It is used to ...
Prata, Ndola; Montagu, Dominic; Jefferys, Emma
In much of the developing world, private health care providers and pharmacies are the most important sources of medicine and medical care and yet these providers are frequently not considered in planning for public health. This paper presents the available evidence, by socioeconomic status, on which strata of society benefit from publicly provided care and which strata use private health care. Using data from The World Bank's Health Nutrition and Population Poverty Thematic Reports on 22 countries in Africa, an assessment was made of the use of public and private health services, by asset quintile groups, for treatment of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections, proxies for publicly subsidized services. The evidence and theory on using franchise networks to supplement government programmes in the delivery of public health services was assessed. Examples from health franchises in Africa and Asia are provided to illustrate the potential for franchise systems to leverage private providers and so increase delivery-point availability for public-benefit services. We argue that based on the established demand for private medical services in Africa, these providers should be included in future planning on human resources for public health. Having explored the range of systems that have been tested for working with private providers, from contracting to vouchers to behavioural change and provider education, we conclude that franchising has the greatest potential for integration into large-scale programmes in Africa to address critical illnesses of public health importance.
Prata, Ndola; Montagu, Dominic; Jefferys, Emma
In much of the developing world, private health care providers and pharmacies are the most important sources of medicine and medical care and yet these providers are frequently not considered in planning for public health. This paper presents the available evidence, by socioeconomic status, on which strata of society benefit from publicly provided care and which strata use private health care. Using data from The World Bank's Health Nutrition and Population Poverty Thematic Reports on 22 countries in Africa, an assessment was made of the use of public and private health services, by asset quintile groups, for treatment of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections, proxies for publicly subsidized services. The evidence and theory on using franchise networks to supplement government programmes in the delivery of public health services was assessed. Examples from health franchises in Africa and Asia are provided to illustrate the potential for franchise systems to leverage private providers and so increase delivery-point availability for public-benefit services. We argue that based on the established demand for private medical services in Africa, these providers should be included in future planning on human resources for public health. Having explored the range of systems that have been tested for working with private providers, from contracting to vouchers to behavioural change and provider education, we conclude that franchising has the greatest potential for integration into large-scale programmes in Africa to address critical illnesses of public health importance. PMID:15868018
Achanta, Shanta; Jaju, Jyoti; Kumar, Ajay M V; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Shamrao, Srinivas Rao Motta; Bandi, Sasidhar Kumar; Kumar, Ashok; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Harries, Anthony David; Nair, Sreenivas Achutan; Dewan, Puneet K
Private medical practitioners in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. To evaluate self-reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices amongst private medical practitioners against benchmark practices articulated in the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC), and factors associated with compliance with ISTC. Cross- sectional survey using semi-structured interviews. Of 296 randomly selected private practitioners, 201 (68%) were assessed for compliance to ISTC diagnostic and treatment standards in TB management. Only 11 (6%) followed a combination of 6 diagnostic standards together and only 1 followed a combination of all seven treatment standards together. There were 28 (14%) private practitioners who complied with a combination of three core ISTC (cough for tuberculosis suspects, sputum smear examination and use of standardized treatment). Higher ISTC compliance was associated with caring for more than 20 TB patients annually, prior sensitization to TB control guidelines, and practice of alternate systems of medicine. Few private practitioners in Visakhapatnam, India reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices that met ISTC. Better engagement of the private sector is urgently required to improve TB management practices and to prevent diagnostic delay and drug resistance.
Full Text Available SETTING: Private medical practitioners in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate self-reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices amongst private medical practitioners against benchmark practices articulated in the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC, and factors associated with compliance with ISTC. DESIGN: Cross- sectional survey using semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: Of 296 randomly selected private practitioners, 201 (68% were assessed for compliance to ISTC diagnostic and treatment standards in TB management. Only 11 (6% followed a combination of 6 diagnostic standards together and only 1 followed a combination of all seven treatment standards together. There were 28 (14% private practitioners who complied with a combination of three core ISTC (cough for tuberculosis suspects, sputum smear examination and use of standardized treatment. Higher ISTC compliance was associated with caring for more than 20 TB patients annually, prior sensitization to TB control guidelines, and practice of alternate systems of medicine. CONCLUSION: Few private practitioners in Visakhapatnam, India reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices that met ISTC. Better engagement of the private sector is urgently required to improve TB management practices and to prevent diagnostic delay and drug resistance.
Grech, Victor; Savona-Ventura, Charles; Gatt, Miriam; Attard-Montalto, Simon
In Malta, the health system is hybrid, with similarities to both UK system and the US system, where the National Health Service is supplemented by private practice. This is widely performed either as a primary job or as a supplement to a government salary. This article reviews unfavourable secular trends in Maltese fertility, births, marriages, separations, single parenthood and loans incurred after marriage, and relates them to (equally unfavourable in terms of private practice) escalating numbers of paediatricians working in private practice. Overall, future prospects appear bleak for private practice in this branch of medicine, with a dwindling patient pool being shared by an ever-increasing number of paediatricians. The only identifiable factor that may mitigate is the potential for more private health insurance uptake. This must be coupled with a movement to improve the perception of a substantial proportion of the public that facilities are poorer in the private health sector than in the NHS service. Since Malta is a developed, EU country, these results may (cautiously) be extrapolated to other, larger developed countries.
Full Text Available In Malta, the health system is hybrid, with similarities to both UK system and the US system, where the National Health Service is supplemented by private practice. This is widely performed either as a primary job or as a supplement to a government salary. This article reviews unfavourable secular trends in Maltese fertility, births, marriages, separations, single parenthood and loans incurred after marriage, and relates them to (equally unfavourable in terms of private practice escalating numbers of paediatricians working in private practice. Overall, future prospects appear bleak for private practice in this branch of medicine, with a dwindling patient pool being shared by an ever-increasing number of paediatricians. The only identifiable factor that may mitigate is the potential for more private health insurance uptake. This must be coupled with a movement to improve the perception of a substantial proportion of the public that facilities are poorer in the private health sector than in the NHS service. Since Malta is a developed, EU country, these results may (cautiously be extrapolated to other, larger developed countries.
In this Advanced Introduction, the reader is taken on an intellectual journey through the different facets and dimensions of private law, from the family home to Kuta Beach and from Thomas Piketty to Nina Hagen. This concise book provides an accessible and fresh introduction to private law,
Perotti, E.C.; Guney, S.E.
In recent years a vast transfer of state-owned assets to the private sector has taken place in many countries, irrespective of their level of development or the political affiliation of their government. Privatization is believed to improve economic incentives; attract managerial and technological
Most research on private equity is based on American theory, tested on American empirical data. Nevertheless, the private equity concept has gained a solid foothold in the Nordic region, especially in Sweden. This article analyzes whether American-biased assumptions prevail in the Nordic countries...
Boudreau, Kevin J.; Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Reichstein, Toke
Today's crowdfunding raises funds for tiny, private entrepreneurial ventures without granting funders private claims to a project's future value. Rather than “investments,” these are “contributions.” This paper argues that for such crowdfunding neither producer nor consumer surplus – i.e., project...
In Private Military and Security Contractors: Controlling the Corporate Warrior a multinational team of 16 scholars and a practitioner from political science, sociology, and law address a developing phenomenon: controlling the use of privatized force by states in international politics. Robust...
Institute for College Access & Success, 2014
Private loans are one of the riskiest ways to finance a college education. Like credit cards, they typically have variable interest rates. Both variable and fixed rates are higher for those who can least afford them--as high as 13% in June 2014. Private loans are not eligible for the important deferment, income-based repayment, or loan forgiveness…
Foged, Søren Kjær; Aaskoven, Lasse
Privatization varies considerably among local governments. One of the oft-listed explanations is the ability of public employees to block privatization. However, many studies on the influence of public employees on privatization do not use very precise measures of the influence of public employees...... Danish municipalities in 2012, we are able to measure the strength of the public eldercare union as well as the number of the public eldercare workers relative to the number of local voters. We find that the increased union strength measured in terms of union density at the municipal level leads...... to substantially and significantly less privatization through the voucher market. By comparison, the estimated relationship between the relative number of public workers and privatization does not reach statistical significance. Features of the voucher market and qualitative evidence suggest that the union...
The Frederick National Lab is a founding member of the Accelerating Therapeutics for Opportunities in Medicine (ATOM) Consortium,a public-private partnership with themission oftransforming drug discovery by accelerating the deve
... Prescription Medicines 1 of 7 sections The Basics: Prescription Medicines There are different types of medicine. The 2 ... medicine are prescription and over-the-counter (OTC). Prescription medicines Prescription medicines are medicines you can get only ...
Cronin, Joseph M.; Kenyon, Regan
In examining the state's role in private education, this article discusses court cases bearing on state services to private schools, state regulation of different types of private schools, collaborative efforts between public and private schools, and emerging state attitudes toward private education. (Author/WD)
Mackintosh, Maureen; Channon, Amos; Karan, Anup; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Cavagnero, Eleonora; Zhao, Hongwen
Private health care in low-income and middle-income countries is very extensive and very heterogeneous, ranging from itinerant medicine sellers, through millions of independent practitioners-both unlicensed and licensed-to corporate hospital chains and large private insurers. Policies for universal health coverage (UHC) must address this complex private sector. However, no agreed measures exist to assess the scale and scope of the private health sector in these countries, and policy makers tasked with managing and regulating mixed health systems struggle to identify the key features of their private sectors. In this report, we propose a set of metrics, drawn from existing data that can form a starting point for policy makers to identify the structure and dynamics of private provision in their particular mixed health systems; that is, to identify the consequences of specific structures, the drivers of change, and levers available to improve efficiency and outcomes. The central message is that private sectors cannot be understood except within their context of mixed health systems since private and public sectors interact. We develop an illustrative and partial country typology, using the metrics and other country information, to illustrate how the scale and operation of the public sector can shape the private sector's structure and behaviour, and vice versa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Legal framework for privatization in Croatia was based on two key laws: the Transformation Act of 1991, and the Privatization Act of 1993, amended in 1996. Early start of privatization process in 1990s in Croatia was marked by the transformation of socially-owned companies into stock holding companies or limited liability companies. The first step (1991-1993 of this process of almost 2700 companies which entered privatization was their evaluation and transformation into private ownership entities. The second step (1994- 1997 consisted of privatization of CPF portfolio. The portfolios change constantly, not only as a result of privatization but also because companies themselves change, as does their position in the market. The third step (1998 in the privatization process was voucher privatization. Privatization of large infrastructure and utility companies designated as public enterprises began in 1999 (Croatian Telecom and INA in 2002 (public enterprises are privatized on the basis of separate laws. Attempts to discuss privatization in Croatia in terms of SWOT analysis have been motivated by the stark difference among Croatian professional economists in an appraisal of Croatia's performance during the transition process in general and of the privatization process in particular. Therefore we considered the elements of SWOT analysis to be an acceptable way to delve into the confusing world of bickering arguments on the state and perspective of the Croatia's privatization process. In this paper we have tried to provide an impartial approach by employing two criteria i.e. strength and weaknesses in judging the events and results of the privatization process in Croatia. Strength of the overall privatization process can be mostly ascribed to the institutional swiftness on micro as well as on macro level. On the micro level 80% of the companies were formally privatized in the first two years despite unfavorable external conditions comprising the
José Nel Carreño R., MD, esp.
Full Text Available In order to acquire a real and useful knowledgeof medicine, the practice in the hospital setting is indispensable. Public, former charity hospitals have been the scenary for student practice. In a paternalistic model of medicine this was understandable.Nevertheless now that the model has changed to a more respectful of autonomy and justice this discrimination appears as unethical. There are no real reasons to discriminate educationin such a way. Medical education should happen in both the public and private sector.
Qiu, Lan; Chen, Zi-Ya; Lu, Deng-Yu; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yi-Tao
In recent years, China has experienced tremendous growth in its pharmaceutical industry. Both the Chinese government and private investors are motivated to invest into pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). However, studies regarding the different behaviors of public and private investment in pharmaceutical R&D are scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the current situation of public funding and private investment into Chinese pharmaceutical R&D. The primary data used in the research were obtained from the China High-tech Industry Statistics Yearbook (2002-2012) and China Statistical Yearbook of Science and Technology (2002-2012). We analyzed public funding and private investment in five aspects: total investment in the industry, funding sources of the whole industry, differences between provinces, difference in subsectors, and private equity/venture capital investment. The vast majority of R&D investment was from private sources. There is a significantly positive correlation between public funding and private investment in different provinces of China. However, public funding was likely to be invested into less developed provinces with abundant natural herbal resources. Compared with the chemical medicine subsector, traditional Chinese medicine and biopharmaceutical subsectors obtained more public funding. Further, the effect of the government was focused on private equity and venture capital investment although private fund is the mainstream of this type of investment. Public funding and private investment play different but complementary roles in pharmaceutical R&D in China. While being less than private investment, public funding shows its significance in R&D investment. With rapid growth of the industry, the pharmaceutical R&D investment in China is expected to increase steadily from both public and private sources.
Sharma, S M [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiation Medicine Centre
The article deals with the growth of nuclear medicine in India. Radiopharmaceuticals both in elemental form and radiolabelled compounds became commercially available in India in 1961. Objectives and educational efforts of the Radiation Medicine Centre setup in Bombay are mentioned. In vivo tests of nuclear medicine such as imaging procedures, dynamic studies, dilution studies, thyroid function studies, renal function studies, linear function studies, blood flow, and absorption studies are reported. Techniques of radioimmunoassay are also mentioned.
The area of nuclear medicine, the development of artificially produced radioactive isotopes for medical applications, is relatively recent. Among the subjects covered in a lengthy discussion are the following: history of development; impact of nuclear medicine; understanding the most effective use of radioisotopes; most significant uses of nuclear medicine radioimmunoassays; description of equipment designed for use in the field of nuclear medicine (counters, scanning system, display systems, gamma camera); description of radioisotopes used and their purposes; quality control. Numerous historical photographs are included. 52 refs
Petroleos del Peru predicts a 10% increase in Peru's oil production this year and a further increase in 1994. Petroperu also forecasts a sharp increase in drilling in Peru this year. After several years of declining oil production, a gradual turnaround in the cash strapped country's petroleum industry is largely tied to its progress in privatization. The government last year began a campaign to privatize all state owned companies by the end of July 1995. The paper discusses forecasts by Petroperu; the contract of Occidental del Amazonas Inc.; the Petromar privatization; Great Western's contract; development of the Aguaytia gas field; and refinery contracts
Onisto, Maurizio; Ananian, Viviana; Caenazzo, Luciana
Storage of human biological samples and personal data associated with them is organised in Biobanks. In spite of expectation given by biobanks in medicine, their management involved some ethical questions, for example, the need for policies to regulate economic interests, potential commercial use of data (including patents), private sector financing, ownership of samples and benefit sharing. In the context of contributing to the general public interest, we can consider the act of giving biological material to biobanks as a donation, in which the donation constitutes part of a generalised form of reciprocity in which the act of donation contributes to society's common good. Starting from this perspective, we move into a different situation represented by the biobanking of umbilical cord blood for personal use. We used the example of the private biobanking of umbilical cords to demonstrate the restrictive utility of the collection and preservation of cord blood for personal use in private biobanks, in the context of society's common good. In summary, a system based on solidarity seems to be able to guarantee necessary levels of supply for the donation of biological material to biobanks.
... Regarding Private Education Loans and Private Educational Lenders AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial... Justice and the Federal Trade Commission, to prepare a Report on Private Education Loans and Private... Justice and the Federal Trade Commission, to prepare a Report on Private Education Loans and Private...
This master thesis is trying to describe the situation of private sector in public health care systems. As a private sector we understand patients, private health insurance companies and private health care providers. The focus is placed on private health care providers, especially in ambulatory treatment. At first there is a definition of health as a main determinant of a health care systems, definition of public and private sectors in health care systems and the difficulties at the market o...
Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-
Inglise ja eesti kunstnike ühisprojekt 8. augustini Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis Ungaris. Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. "Private Views" ülesandeks on keskenduda ruumi mõistele naiskunstniku pilgu läbi
We study the capacity of business associations—private, formal, noncommercial organizations designed to promote the common business interests of their members—to support contract enforcement and collective action. Inspired by recent empirical literature, our theoretical framework connects the
Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-
Inglise js eesti kunstnike ühisprojekt 8. augustini Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis Ungaris. Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. 'Private Views' ülesandeks on keskenduda ruumi mõistele naiskunstniku pilgu läbi.
O'Brien, II, James M
...) as defense contractors. The history of privatized security, consideration of ethical and legal issues, and examination of three case studies allows assessment of PMCs in accordance with five criteria for success...
... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...
Relates the experiences of a social worker in private practice who offered house calls as an ongoing setting for counseling and psychotherapy to individuals and families. Describes advantages and disadvantages, liability, and target populations. (JAC)
Bolivia is boldly embracing a free market philosophy that extends to liberalization of the country's petroleum sector. Although petroleum industry privatization is being considered by several South American countries, only Argentina has so far completely opened its oil sector and fully privatized its state oil company. The Bolivian government's own version of privatization, capitalization, is a groundbreaking attempt to attract massive investment from the private sector without leaving the government open to accusations of stripping the country's assets for short term electoral gain. The paper discusses the government's strategy to sell the state owned company either as a single unit or to split it into upstream and downstream units. Questions still to be resolved, international interest in the move, bolivian potential, and the gas supply infrastructure are also discussed
This article argues that the role of Private Security Contractors in Darfur reflects and reinforces neo-liberal governmentality in contemporary security governance. It is an argument (in line with other articles in this special issue) which is more interested in discussing how the privatization....... It underlines that governance is increasingly taking place through a set of (quasi-) markets, it is marked by entrepreneurial values, and a hands off approach to governance. We then discuss the way this overall change is reflected in and reinforced by the role of private security contractors in Darfur. Drawing...... at these processes is necessary to understand the role of private security contractors in Darfur. But more than this, practices in Darfur entrench neo-liberal governmentality in security more generally. The managerial and `de-politicizing' approach to security in Darfur displaces alternative views not only...
Millennium Challenge Corporation — The objective of the Private Sector Development Project activities of the 2005-2010 Cabo Verde Compact was to support Cabo Verde's long-term economic transformation...
Bochner, Arthur P.
In "Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness," Rita Charon paints an original and humane portrait of what it can mean to be a doctor, to live a life immersed in sickness and dedicated to wellness. Charon drops the veil, inviting readers to look at the secret, subjective, emotional face of medicine, a zone of self-censored feelings and…
Meulen, van der Bernd
Under EU medicinal law, substances presented as having properties for treating or preventing disease are medicinal products by virtue of their presentation. EU food law prohibits attributing to any food the property of preventing, treating or curing a disease. However, if certain conditions are
MANGRA MĂDĂLINA GIORGIANA
Full Text Available The lack of sustainability of the public pension system brings into attention the private pension system, either mandatory (Pillar II or optional (Pillar III. Young employees do not perceive the future in bright colours while seeking solutions to shift from consumption to saving for retirement period. As long as the public pension system is weak, an important milestone for individual savings is represented by the private pension.
Evolutionary medicine allows new insights into long standing medical problems. Are we "really stoneagers on the fast lane"? This insight might have enormous consequences and will allow new answers that could never been provided by traditional anthropology. Only now this is made possible using data from molecular medicine and systems biology. Thereby evolutionary medicine takes a leap from a merely theoretical discipline to practical fields - reproductive, nutritional and preventive medicine, as well as microbiology, immunology and psychiatry. Evolutionary medicine is not another "just so story" but a serious candidate for the medical curriculum providing a universal understanding of health and disease based on our biological origin. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Nuclear medicine is a specialized area of radiology that uses very small amounts of radioactive materials to examine organ function and structure. Nuclear medicine is older than CT, ultrasound and MRI. It was first used in patients over 60-70 years ago. Today it is an established medical specialty and offers procedures that are essential in many medical specialities like nephrology, pediatrics, cardiology, psychiatry, endocrinology and oncology. Nuclear medicine refers to medicine (a pharmaceutical) that is attached to a small quantity of radioactive material (a radioisotope). This combination is called a radiopharmaceutical. There are many radiopharmaceuticals like DTPA, DMSA, HIDA, MIBI and MDP available to study different parts of the body like kidneys, heart and bones etc. Nuclear medicine uses radiation coming from inside a patient's body where as conventional radiology exposes patients to radiation from outside the body. Thus nuclear imaging study is a physiological imaging, whereas diagnostic radiology is anatomical imaging. It combines many different disciplines like chemistry, physics mathematics, computer technology, and medicine. It helps in diagnosis and to treat abnormalities very early in the progression of a disease. The information provides a quick and accurate diagnosis of wide range of conditions and diseases in a person of any age. These tests are painless and most scans expose patients to only minimal and safe amounts of radiation. The amount of radiation received from a nuclear medicine procedure is comparable to, or often many times less than, that of a diagnostic X-ray. Nuclear medicine provides an effective means of examining whether some tissues/organs are functioning properly. Therapy using nuclear medicine in an effective, safe and relatively inexpensive way of controlling and in some cases eliminating, conditions such as overactive thyroid, thyroid cancer and arthritis. Nuclear medicine imaging is unique because it provides doctors with
Full Text Available The goal of the entry: “Feasibility of selected private money” is the assessment of practicability of selected private money types as future currency especially in terms of attributes that the currency should meet to fulfil all claims required by its users. In the first step the features that the widely used currency has to have will be described and it will be analysed which of these features are characteristic for nowadays currencies (Czech crown and Euro too. In the second step private (unnationalized money will be described as well as several concepts derived from it. The paper will concern mainly on Hayek’s concept of private money and on particular variations of Local exchange trading systems. In the next part there will be pointed out good and bad features of these types of money, mainly from the view of characteristics that the proper currency should have. At the end it will be carried out the comparison of bad and good effects resulting from using of particular currencies types and I will decide about the applicability of analysed private money types. The paper uses the standard methods of scientific work. Firstly, the method of description is used to describe the development of private money concepts and characteristic features that the currency should have. Then, a comparative analysis is used to discuss the differences between contemporary currencies and unnationalized currencies as well as between required and real features of particular private money. At the end the method of synthesis, deduction and induction is used.
Kjær, Poul F.
A central assumption in much contemporary scholarship is that a central shift has taken place over the course of the last four decades: a shift from a world largely centered on public authority to a world that is increasingly dominated by private authority. The central expression of this shift...... is seen to be a concurring move from public to private law and thus from legislation to contract as the central legal instrument structuring economic as well as other social processes. While developments in this direction can certainly be observed, this article provides a more nuanced perspective....... Outlining a long-term historical perspective, this article reconstructs the manifold and volatile dynamic between institutionalized forms of public and private authority. It does soon the basis of the argument that, in the course of this evolutionary process, the very function and meaning of both public...
Brenda S. Mhlanga
Full Text Available Background: Medicines play an important role in healthcare, but prices can be a barrier to patient care. Few studies have looked at the prices of essential medicines in low- and middle-income countries in terms of patient affordability.Aim: To determine the prices, availability and affordability of medicines along the supply chain in Swaziland.Setting: Private- and public-sector facilities in Manzini, Swaziland.Methods: The standardised methodology designed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International was used to survey 16 chronic disease medicines. Data were collected in one administrative area in 10 private retail pharmacies and 10 public health facilities. Originator brand (OB and lowest-priced generic equivalent (LPG medicines were monitored and these prices were then compared with international reference prices (IRPs. Affordability was calculated in terms of the daily wage of the lowest-paid unskilled government worker.Results: Mean availability was 68% in the public sector. Private sector OB medicines were priced 32.4 times higher than IRPs, whilst LPGs were 7.32 times higher. OBs cost473% more than LPGs. The total cumulative mark-ups for individual medicines range from 190.99% – 440.27%. The largest contributor to add-on cost was the retail mark-up (31% – 53%. Standard treatment with originator brands cost more than a day’s wage.Conclusion: Various policy measures such as introducing price capping at all levels of the medicine supply chain, may increase the availability, whilst at the same time reducing the prices of essential medicines for the low income population.
Brenda S. Mhlanga
Full Text Available Background: Medicines play an important role in healthcare, but prices can be a barrier to patient care. Few studies have looked at the prices of essential medicines in low- and middle-income countries in terms of patient affordability. Aim: To determine the prices, availability and affordability of medicines along the supply chain in Swaziland. Setting: Private- and public-sector facilities in Manzini, Swaziland. Methods: The standardised methodology designed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International was used to survey 16 chronic disease medicines. Data were collected in one administrative area in 10 private retail pharmacies and 10 public health facilities. Originator brand (OB and lowest-priced generic equivalent (LPG medicines were monitored and these prices were then compared with international reference prices (IRPs. Affordability was calculated in terms of the daily wage of the lowest-paid unskilled government worker. Results: Mean availability was 68% in the public sector. Private sector OB medicines were priced 32.4 times higher than IRPs, whilst LPGs were 7.32 times higher. OBs cost473% more than LPGs. The total cumulative mark-ups for individual medicines range from 190.99% – 440.27%. The largest contributor to add-on cost was the retail mark-up (31% – 53%. Standard treatment with originator brands cost more than a day’s wage. Conclusion: Various policy measures such as introducing price capping at all levels of the medicine supply chain, may increase the availability, whilst at the same time reducing the prices of essential medicines for the low income population.
Saleh, Kamaruzaman; Ibrahim, Mohamed I M
To assess the pharmaceutical sector to know whether people have access to essential medicines. The study was conducted in 20 public health clinics, five public district drug stores and 20 private retail pharmacies selected randomly in five different areas randomly selected (four states and a federal territory). The methodology used was adopted from the World Health Organization study protocol. The degree of attainment of the strategic pharmaceutical objectives of improved access is measured by a list of tested indicators. Access is measured in terms of the availability and affordability of essential medicines, especially to the poor and in the public sector. The first survey in the public health clinics and public district drug stores gathered information about current availability of essential medicines, prevalence of stock-outs and affordability of treatment (except drug stores). The second survey assessed affordability of treatment in public health clinics and private retail pharmacies. Availability, stock-out duration, percent of medicines dispensed, accessibility and affordability of key medicines. The average availability of key medicines in the public health clinics for the country was 95.4%. The average stock-out duration of key medicines was 6.5 days. However, average availability of key medicines in the public district drug stores was 89.2%; with an average stock-out duration of 32.4 days. Medicines prescribed were 100% dispensed to the patients. Average affordability for public health clinics was 1.5 weeks salary and for the private pharmacies, 3.7 weeks salary. The present pharmaceutical situation in the context of essential medicines list implementation reflected that the majority of the population in Malaysia had access to affordable essential medicines. If medicines need to be obtained from the private sector, they are hardly affordable. Although the average availability of essential medicines in Malaysia was high being more than 95.0%, in certain
... to the biologic humors of the ancient Greek system. Using these concepts, Ayurvedic physicians prescribe individualized treatments, including compounds of herbs or proprietary ingredients, and diet, exercise, and lifestyle recommendations. The majority of India’s population uses Ayurvedic medicine ...
... Education & Training Home Treatment & Programs Medications COPD Medications COPD Medications Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer ... control the symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Most people with COPD take long-acting medicine ...
Blanquet, Paul; Blanc, Daniel.
The applications of radioisotopes in medical diagnostics are briefly reviewed. Each organ system is considered and the Nuclear medicine procedures pertinent to that system are discussed. This includes, the principle of the test, the detector and the radiopharmaceutical used, the procedure followed and the clinical results obtained. The various types of radiation detectors presently employed in Nuclear Medicine are surveyed, including scanners, gamma cameras, positron cameras and procedures for obtaining tomographic presentation of radionuclide distributions [fr
Despite an aggressive, competitive diagnostic radiology department, the University Hospital, London, Ontario has seen a decline of 11% total (in vivo and in the laboratory) in the nuclear medicine workload between 1982 and 1985. The decline of in vivo work alone was 24%. This trend has already been noted in the U.S.. Nuclear medicine is no longer 'a large volume prosperous specialty of wide diagnostic application'
Stevens, P. [University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom). Centre for Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy
It is a commonly held belief at present that privatization will improve the efficiency of the state run energy sector, and benefit customers as well as the new owners, and the government selling the industry. Experience so far has been in well run Western economies, in particular in the UK, and even here many mistakes have been made, leading to increasingly strong intervention by regulators. In developing countries, where corruption is pervasive, efficient regulation is unlikely. Thus, privatisation may prove to be far worse for the consumer than the original state monopoly. The drive for privatization appears to be part ideological, part greed, as far as developing countries are considered. Certainly, political reform is needed before privatization can work in favour of the consumer. Examples are given from the UK electricity, gas, coal and rail industries.
P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)
textabstractWhat considerations lie behind the decision to mount a management buy-out of a publicly listed firm, and should third party investors be involved? Indeed, does the involvement of private equity investors actually aid company performance after a deal is done?
Musgrave, Ralph S.
The majority of the money supply is issued by private banks, not central banks. However a system that restricts money creation to central banks has been advocated for many years by leading economists. There is no reason interest rates would not be at some sort of genuine free market rate under the latter system. In contrast, when private bank money is allowed, those banks undercut the free market rate of interest because it costs them nothing to come by the money they lend out: they effective...
. It begins by pointing to the tension involved in any effort to hold an authority (private or public) accountable, namely the tension between the centrality of acceptance for authority and accountability measures that necessarily involve contestation. It then proceeds to analyse this tension in the case...... of private security companies (PSCs). PSCs have become authorities in their own right in the security sphere. This has raised the question of their accountability and also resulted in considerable efforts to improve the accountability of the firms. This paper looks at why these efforts bear so little fruit...
Van Dijk, F
"The issue is addressed whether assistance to persons in need can be left to the ¿family' and the ¿community'. In that case people depend on their social networks. The support a person receives through a given network of social ties is examined. However, ties are diverse and subject to change. By means of a model of the dynamics of social ties, the conditions for adequate private support are analyzed. The sustainability of private support over time is examined by incorporating the impact on social ties of lending and receiving support. It is shown that support is only an effective alternative in a limited number of situations." excerpt
Scheffer, Mário C; Dal Poz, Mario R
Like other countries, Brazil is struggling with issues related to public policies designed to influence the distribution, establishment, supply and education of doctors. While the number of undergraduate medical schools and places available on medical schools has risen, the increase in the number of doctors in Brazil in recent decades has not benefitted the population homogeneously. The government has expanded the medical schools at the country's federal universities, while providing incentives for the creation of new undergraduate courses at private establishments. This article examines the trends and challenges of the privatization of medical education in Brazil. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study based on secondary data from official government databases on medical schools and courses and institutions offering such courses in Brazil. It takes into account the year when the medical schools received authorization to initiatte the activities, where they are situated, whether they are run by a public or private entity, how many places they offer, how many students they have enrolled, and their performance according to Ministry of Education evaluations. Brazil had 241 medical schools in 2014, offering a total of 20,340 places. The private higher education institutions are responsible for most of the enrolment of medical students nationally (54 %), especially in the southeast. However, enrolment in public institutions predominate more in the capitals than in other cities. Overal, the public medical schools performed better than the private schools in the last two National Exam of Students' (ENADE). The privatization of the teaching of medicine at undergraduate level in Brazil represents a great challenge: how to expand the number of places while assuring quality and democratic access to this form of education. Upon seeking to understand the configuration and trends in medical education in Brazil, it is hoped that this analysis may contribute to a broader
Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian
Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599
Retief, F P; Cilliers, L
Although the Mesopotamian civilisation is as old as that of Egypt and might even have predated it, we know much less about Mesopotamian medicine, mainly because the cuneiform source material is less well researched. Medical healers existed from the middle of the 3rd millennium. In line with the strong theocratic state culture, healers were closely integrated with the powerful priestly fraternity, and were essentially of three main kinds: barû (seers) who were experts in divination, âshipu (exorcists), and asû (healing priests) who tended directly to the sick. All illness was accepted as sent by gods, demons and other evil spirits, either as retribution for sins or as malevolent visitations. Treatment revolved around identification of the offending supernatural power, appeasement of the angry gods, for example by offering amulets or incantations, exorcism of evil spirits, as well as a measure of empirical therapy aimed against certain recognised symptom complexes. Medical practice was rigidly codified, starting with Hammurabi's Code in the 18th century BC and persisting to the late 1st millennium BC. Works like the so-called Diagnostic Handbook, the Assyrian Herbal and Prescription Texts describe the rationale of Mesopotamian medicine, based predominantly on supernatural concepts, although rudimentary traces of empirical medicine are discernible. There is evidence that Egyptian medicine might have been influenced by Mesopotamian practices, but Greek rational medicine as it evolved in the 5th/4th centuries BC almost certainly had no significant Mesopotamian roots.
Ballen, K K; Verter, F; Kurtzberg, J
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a graft source for patients with malignant or genetic diseases who can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but who do not have an appropriately HLA-matched family or volunteer unrelated adult donor. Starting in the 1990s, unrelated UCB banks were established, accepting donations from term deliveries and storing UCB units for public use. An estimated 730 000 UCB units have been donated and stored to date and ~35 000 UCB transplants have been performed worldwide. Over the past 20 years, private and family banks have grown rapidly, storing ~4 million UCB units for a particular patient or family, usually charging an up-front and yearly storage fee; therefore, these banks are able to be financially sustainable without releasing UCB units. Private banks are not obligated to fulfill the same regulatory requirements of the public banks. The public banks have released ~30 times more UCB units for therapy. Some countries have transitioned to an integrated banking model, a hybrid of public and family banking. Today, pregnant women, their families, obstetrical providers and pediatricians are faced with multiple choices about the disposition of their newborn's cord blood. In this commentary, we review the progress of UCB banking technology; we also analyze the current data on pediatric and adult unrelated UCB, including the recent expansion of interest in transplantation for hemoglobinopathies, and discuss emerging studies on the use of autologous UCB for neurologic diseases and regenerative medicine. We will review worldwide approaches to UCB banking, ethical considerations, criteria for public and family banking, integrated banking ideas and future strategies for UCB banking.
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Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...
Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...
... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...
... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...
Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...
Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...
Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, Luc
The renegotiations of public–private partnership (PPP) contracts are commonly considered to be one of the pitfalls of PPPs, as they tend to undermine their (ex ante) efficiency. A renegotiation occurs when specific events change the conditions of a concession, frequently leading to a financial claim
Last week, Mexico's state-owned oil company, Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex), was scheduled to unveil plans for the sale of basic petrochemical plants. The first privatization package - Pemex ammonia plants at Cosoleacaque and Camargo - will involve the sale of securities on the Mexican Stock Exchange, allowing a large number of Mexican investors to acquire parts of the business
Perotti, E.C.; Guney, S.E.
In the last decade, large-scale privatization programs have transformed the structure of corporate ownership in many countries, and are a major cause of the development of their capital markets. They have contributed to nondebt financing of the public deficit, attracted foreign capital and
Bongaerts, D.; Charlier, E.
Regulatory Capital requirements for European banks have been put forward in the Basel II Capital Framework and subsequently in the Capital Requirements Directive (CRD) of the EU. We provide a detailed discussion of the capital requirements for private equity investments under the simple risk weight
Hodge, Graeme; Greve, Carsten
This paper reviews the research agenda lineage on public-private partnerships (PPPs) from Broadbent and Laughlin's seminal piece in 1999. The PPP phenomenon is viewed at five levels: project delivery, organisational form, policy, governance tool and as a phenomenon within a broader historical and...
Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training ..... and ..structures that offer services to private sector enterprises and represent .... investment climate reform and the adoption of good governance practices. ..... Over two-thirds of the labour force in Jordan, the West Bank & Gaza, Iraq and Syria is in the service sector.
Atteridge, A.; Pauw, W.P.; Terpstra, P.; Bedini, F.; Bosi, L; Costella, C.
An emphasis on private finance has emerged in climate finance discussions, particularly in the context of international climate change negotiations. This is partly because the overall volume of finance needed to support adaptation in developing countries is beyond what many expect public finance to
Different types of schools make for different experiences. Pros and cons abound, whether one teaches at a public, private, magnet, or charter school. Although it's certainly true that some individual schools may offer better environments for music education than others, no type of school is categorically the "best." Still, it can be instructive to…
Baylis, R.M.; Burnap, P.; Clatworthy, M.A.; Gad, Mahmoud; Pong, C.K.M.
We study clauses in private lending agreements requiring auditors to assure lenders of borrowers’ compliance with financial covenants. Auditors are required under general purpose financial reporting to review covenant compliance. However, by informing lenders directly that they have no knowledge of
Heyneman, Stephen P.
Mastering the public school curriculum is so important to a child's occupational future that in many regions of the world "shadow" education outside of the public system has now become the norm. In one way, this is excellent news because private investment in human capital is a strong contributor to economic and social development.…
Magdalena Nicoleta Iacob
Network security must be a permanent concern for every company, given the fact that threats are evolving today more rapidly than in the past. This paper contains a general classification of cryptographic algorithms used in today networks and presents an implementation of virtual private networks using one of the most secure methods - digital certificates authentication.
This language is, according to Wittgenstein, impossible because it leads to epistemological and semantic skepticism. The definition of private language contains two elements: the “privacy” and “referring to”. Wittgenstein shows how we may be trapped in solipsism and the only way to avoid this problem is to consider language as a social phenomenon.
A voucher system enabling parents to choose freely the schools their children attend is the most feasible way to improve education. Vouchers will encourage privatization. That will unleash the drive, imagination, and energy of competitive free enterprise to revolutionize the education process. Government schools will be forced to improve to retain…
Bijkerk, W.; Poort, J.; Schuurman, A.
In this study several actual problems with respect to privatization in the Netherlands are discussed, focusing on the production and distribution of electricity, the harbour in Rotterdam and the airport Schiphol, the railway sector, and the waste management and processing sector. For each sector it is discussed what level of government and market involvement is required to give the best results [nl
Rooijen, van M.
Some of the trends incoming for 2011 – greater institutional autonomy, public/private convergence, entrepreneurial management, civic engagement – suggest innovation for hard times, with socio-economic and political rationales increasingly driving borderless developments. Others – open learning and
Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.
We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less
Groeneveld, R.A.; Bush, S.R.; Bailey, M.L.
The United Nations (UN) post-2015 development agenda (United Nations 2015) calls for the establishment of a global partnership for sustainable development, ‘bringing together Governments, civil society, the private sector, the United Nations system and other actors and mobilizing all available
Van der Meersch, H; Verschuere, A P; Bottriaux, F
Pharmaceutical grade cannabis is available to Dutch patients from public pharmacies in the Netherlands. The first part of this paper reviews the pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties of medicinal cannabis. Detailed information about its composition and quality, potential applications, methods of administration, adverse reactions, drug interactions and safety during pregnancy or breastfeeding are given. The second part deals with the legal aspects of dispensing medicinal cannabis through pharmacies in view of the Belgian and Dutch legislation. The last part discusses the present Belgian regulation about the possession of cannabis.
Nuclear medicine as a complex diagnostical method is used mainly to detect functional organic disorders, to locate disorders and for radioimmunologic assays (RIA) in vitro. In surgery, its indication range comprises the thyroid (in vivo and in vitro), liver and bile ducts, skeletal and joint diseases, disorders of the cerebro-spinal liquor system and the urologic disorders. In the early detection of tumors, the search for metastases and tumor after-care, scintiscanning and the tumor marcher method (CEA) can be of great practical advantage, but the value of myocardial sciritiscanning in cardiac respectively coronary disorders is restricted. The paper is also concerned with the radiation doses in nuclear medicine. (orig.) [de
Bay, Bjørn; Hjuler, Kasper Fjellhaugen
medicine. The first part covered high-altitude physiology and medical aspects of objective alpine dangers and the increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This part covers altitude sickness, fluid balance, nutrition, and precautions for patients with pre-existing medical conditions, pregnant women...
engineered anti-TNF-alpha antibody constructs now constitute one of the heaviest medicinal expenditures in many countries. All currently used TNF antagonists may dramatically lower disease activity and, in some patients, induce remission. Unfortunately, however, not all patients respond favorably, and safety...
Boenink, Marianne; ten Have, Henk
In the last part of the twentieth century, predictive medicine has gained currency as an important ideal in biomedical research and health care. Research in the genetic and molecular basis of disease suggested that the insights gained might be used to develop tests that predict the future health
Lindequist, U.; Won Kim, H.; Tiralongo, E.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.
Since beginning of mankind nature is the most important source of medicines. Bioactive compounds produced by living organisms can be used directly as drugs or as lead compounds for drug development. Besides, the natural material can be used as crude drug for preparation of powder or extracts. Plants
Phillipson, J. David
Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)
Regional Integration, Trade and Private Sector Development Program (Namibia) ... (NEPRU's other clients include regional and private sector institutions.) ... New Dutch-Canadian funding for the Climate and Development Knowledge Network.
Vahabi, M.; Jafari, G. R.
Privatization - a political as well as an economic policy - is generally defined as the transfer of a property or the responsibility for it from the public to the private sector. But privatization is not merely the transfer of the ownership and efficiency of the market should be considered. A successful privatization program induces better profitability and efficiency, higher output, more investment, etc. The main method of privatization is through introducing new stocks to the market to motivate competition. However, for a successful privatization the capability of a market for absorbing the new stock should also be considered. Without paying attention to this aspect, privatization through the introduction of new stocks may lead to reduced market efficiency. We study, based on the complexity theory and in particular the concept of Level Crossing, the effect of the stages of the development, activity, risk, and the waiting times for special events on the privatization.
Levin, Arnold M.
Is private practice a superior service delivery mechanism? The author contends that, in affording the client his choice of a helper, private practice embodies the basic values of social work and stimulates workers to become more responsible and knowledgeable.
Ferreira, Fernanda A.
In this paper, we consider a competition in both mixed and privatized markets, in which the firms set prices in a sequential way. We study the effects of optimal production subsidies in both mixed and privatized duopoly.
Perotti, E.C.; van Oijen, P.H.
This paper investigates whether privatization in emerging economies has a significant indirect effect on local stock market development through the resolution of political risk. We argue that a sustained privatization program represents a major political test which gradually resolves uncertainty
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that relies on the use of nuclear technology in the diagnosis and treatment (therapy) of diseases. Nuclear medicine uses the principle that a certain radiopharmaceutical (tracer) will at a certain point in time have a preferential uptake by a particular body, tissue or cell. Unlike other radiation applications for medical use, nuclear medicine uses open (unsealed) sources of radiation. The tracer is introduced into the body of the patient through several routes (oral, intravenous, percutaneous, intradermally, inhalation, intracapsular etc) and s/he becomes the source of radiation. Early diagnosis of diseases coupled with associated timely therapeutic intervention will lead to better prognosis. In a country with an estimated population of 42 million in 2017, Kenya has only two (2) nuclear medicine facilities (units) that is Kenyatta National Hospital - Public facility and Aga Khan University Hospital which is a Private facility. Being a relatively new medical discipline in Kenya, several measures have been taken by the clinical nuclear medicine team to create awareness at various levels. Kenya does not manufacture radiopharmaceuticals. We therefore have to import them from abroad and this makes them quite expensive, and the process demanding. There is no local training in nuclear medicine and staff have to be sent abroad for training, making this quite expensive and cumbersome and the IAEA has been complimenting in this area. With concerted effort by all stakeholders at the individual, national and international level, it is possible for Kenya to effectively sustain clinical nuclear medicine service not only as a diagnostic tool in many disease entities, but also play an increasingly important role in therapy
Artiklen undersøger baggrunden for Senegals regering og præsident Wades bestræbelser på at fremme ”privatisering” af nationalparken ”Niokolo Koba” og andre naturparker i Senegal gennem ”Public Private Partnership” (PPP) – det man på dansk vil kalde udlicitering. Jeg fokuserer på, hvilken form denne...... delvise privatisering tager, under påvirkning af de barrierer og interessekampe den støder på under den igangværende politiske proces. Det er i særdeleshed interessant, hvordan samspillet mellem internationale aktører på naturbevaringsområdet, udenlandske donorer, private investorer, Senegals regering...
Bagley, Constance; Tvarnø, Christina D.
This article provides a game theory and law-and-management analysis of for- profit pharmaceutical public-private partnerships, a complex type of legal arrangement in the highly regulated pharmaceutical industry. A pharmaceutical public-private partnership (PPPP) agreement is a legally binding...... and a practical perspective on how properly crafted PPPP arrangements can promote innovation more efficiently than traditional self-optimizing contracts. In particular, a properly framed binding contract, coupled with respect for positive incentives, can move the parties away from an inefficient prisoners...... systems to build and share innovation. When coupled with appropriate attention to the difficult task of coordinating the actions of interdependent actors, a PPPP arrangement can enhance the likelihood of successful commercialization of pharmacological discoveries by flipping the par- ties’ incentives...
Background In recent years, China has experienced tremendous growth in its pharmaceutical industry. Both the Chinese government and private investors are motivated to invest into pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). However, studies regarding the different behaviors of public and private investment in pharmaceutical R&D are scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the current situation of public funding and private investment into Chinese pharmaceutical R&D. Methods The primary data used in the research were obtained from the China High-tech Industry Statistics Yearbook (2002–2012) and China Statistical Yearbook of Science and Technology (2002–2012). We analyzed public funding and private investment in five aspects: total investment in the industry, funding sources of the whole industry, differences between provinces, difference in subsectors, and private equity/venture capital investment. Results The vast majority of R&D investment was from private sources. There is a significantly positive correlation between public funding and private investment in different provinces of China. However, public funding was likely to be invested into less developed provinces with abundant natural herbal resources. Compared with the chemical medicine subsector, traditional Chinese medicine and biopharmaceutical subsectors obtained more public funding. Further, the effect of the government was focused on private equity and venture capital investment although private fund is the mainstream of this type of investment. Conclusions Public funding and private investment play different but complementary roles in pharmaceutical R&D in China. While being less than private investment, public funding shows its significance in R&D investment. With rapid growth of the industry, the pharmaceutical R&D investment in China is expected to increase steadily from both public and private sources. PMID:24925505
Differential privacy is a recent notion of privacy for statistical databases that provides rigorous, meaningful confidentiality guarantees, even in the presence of an attacker with access to arbitrary side information. We show that for a large class of parametric probability models, one can construct a differentially private estimator whose distribution converges to that of the maximum likelihood estimator. In particular, it is efficient and asymptotically unbiased. This result provides (furt...
Van der Vleuten-Balkema, F.; Stam, N.
Now that the public private partnerships are seen to be the way forward in solar electrification in developing countries, it is important to question who will be the private partner in the partnership? For decentralized energy technologies such as solar home systems, that are being disseminated to vast numbers of highly dispersed end-users, the private partners of today are the hundreds or thousands of often non specialized local entrepreneurs. The public private partnerships of tomorrow should be reoriented accordingly. (authors)
Any voucher program that is going to have a major impact on the public education system is likely to require an expansion of private schools in order to accommodate increased demand; however, very little is known about where private schools open and, therefore, how a major voucher program might affect private school availability in various communities. This article examines the relationship between the location of private schools and local neighborhood characteristics, hoping to shed some lig...
Privatization of India's petroleum industry is seen as inevitable, even by the staunchest supporters of the state owned sector there. What has become clear is that the huge investments required for Indian exploration, refining, and marketing are beyond the scope of even the biggest state owned firms, such as Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) and Indian Oil Corp. (IOC). A proposal was put forth last fall to offer Bombay High offshore oil fields to leading multinationals for redevelopment to stem the production slide in India's mainstay producing area. Some of those projects could entail capital outlays of as much as $1 billion. In another step to attract foreign investment to the petroleum sector, India last month decided to take steps for phased decontrol of domestic crude oil prices to bring them in line with world market levels and help set the stage for privatization of ONGC. The paper describes major projects, the slide in oil production, price changes, the need for privatization, and the lukewarm interest in exploration
Full Text Available This study is meant, first of all, to analyze the incriminations that the new Romanian Criminal Code sets for the protection of a person’s private life as a social value of maximum significance both for the human being and for any democratic society as a whole.There are two criminal offences treated in this study that are not to be found in the current criminal legislation: violation of private life and criminal trespassing of a legal person’s property. Likewise, the study will bring forth the novelties and the differences regarding the offences of criminal trespassing of a natural person’s property, disclosure of professional secret, violation of secret correspondence, illegal access to computerized system and illegal interception of electronic data transfer – acts that when, directly or indirectly, committed can cause harm to the intimacy of a person’s life.As an expression of the interdisciplinary nature of this subject, the study also sets out, as a subsidiary aspect, an evaluation of the circumstances under which the new criminal proceeding legislation allows public authorities to interfere with an individual’s private life. Thus, the emphasis is on the analysis of the circumstances under which special surveillance and investigation techniques can be used as evidence proceedings regulated by the new Romanian Criminal Procedure Code.
From its conception, the European Review of Private Law has tried, sometimes in vain, to publish Chronicles (‘Chroniques’) or Surveys of the main areas of private law: Contract, Inheritance, Property, Tort, etc. The idea of these Chronicles or Surveys is that, within a specific area of private
... Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of receipt of... International Airport, San Juan, Puerto Rico (SJU) in the Airport Privatization Pilot Program and has determined....S.C. Section 47134 establishes an airport privatization pilot program and authorizes the Department...
Aigner, John; Cheek, Fredricka; Donati, Georgia; Zuravicky, Dori
Includes four theme articles: "The Digital Toolkit: Electronic Necessities for Private Practice" (John Aigner); "Organizing a Private Practice: Forms, Fees, and Physical Set-up (Fredricka Cheek); "Career Development Resources: Guidelines for Setting Up a Private Practice Library" (Georgia Donati); and "Books to…
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can, with...
... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can, with...
Van Hoof, Thomas J.; Sherwin, Tierney E.; Baggish, Rosemary C.; Tacy, Peter B.; Meehan, Thomas P.
Private schools educate a significant percentage of US children and adolescents. Private schools, particularly where students reside during the academic year, assume responsibility for the health and well-being of their students. Children and adolescents experience mental health problems at a predictable rate, and private schools need a mechanism…
Cadigan, Francoise Jane; Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.
Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. Data from The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 were used to examine the achievement of private school students. The study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the students'…
P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)
textabstractPrivate equity has become an increasingly important part of our economy. Around the world the companies owned by private equity investors account for a substantial percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and private sector employment. These investors have recently been under fire in
Beamer, Sarah A.
Private higher education institutions are those entities owned and operated by the private sector, while public institutions are those established, supported, and controlled by a governmental agency, most often a state. Key differences exist between private and public institutions that affect budgeting in critical ways. Such differences include…
Levick, Jeremy; Kribs, David W; Pereira, Rajesh; Jochym-O’Connor, Tomas; Laflamme, Raymond
We generalize a recently discovered example of a private quantum subsystem to find private subsystems for Abelian subgroups of the n-qubit Pauli group, which exist in the absence of private subspaces. In doing so, we also connect these quantum privacy investigations with the theory of quasiorthogonal operator algebras through the use of tools from group theory and operator theory. (paper)
This dissertation consists of three essays that study private labels’ evolution from private labels as brand class to individual private-label brands from three different perspectives. In the second chapter of this dissertation (essay 1), I study the antecedents and performance implications of
'Environmental medicine' deals with the manifold health problems from environmental factors of chemical, physical and psychosocial origin that are possible or have been observed. The book gives insight into the current state of knowledge of environmental medicine institutions, possibilities of diagnosis and therapeutic methods. It offers a systematic overview of pollutant sources and pollutant effects and points out, inter alia, syndromes that are discussed in connection with environmental factors: not only allergies and carcinogenous diseases but also symptom complexes that are hard to diagnose by ordinary methods such as the sick-building syndrome, multiple sensitivity to chemicals, electrosensitivity, amalgam intoxications, disorders due to wood preservatives and fungal diseases. The lingering course of a disease and a set of symptoms varying from one patient to another are the rule, not the exception, because environmental diseases are due above all to the chronic uptake of low pollutant doses (orig./MG) [de
Sibille, L.; Nalda, E.; Collombier, L.; Kotzki, P.O.; Boudousq, V.
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty using the properties of radioactivity. Radioactive markers associated with vectors are used as a tracer or radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic purposes and/or therapy. Since its birth more than half a century ago, it has become essential in the care of many patients, particularly in oncology. After some definitions, this paper presents the main nuclear techniques - imaging for diagnostic, radiopharmaceuticals as therapeutic agents, intra-operative detection, technique of radioimmunoassay - and the future of this field. (authors)
Smit Sibinga CT
Full Text Available Cees Th. Smit Sibinga ID Consulting, Zuidhorn, The NetherlandsTransfusion Medicine is a bridging science, spanning the evidence-based practice at the bedside with the social sciences in the community. Transfusion Medicine starts at the bedside. Surprisingly, only recently that has become rediscovered with the development of ‘patient blood management’ and ‘patient centered’ approaches to allow the growth of an optimal and rational patient care through supportive hemotherapy – safe and effective, affordable and accessible.1 Where transfusion of blood found its origin in the need of a patient, it has drifted away for a long period of time from the bedside and has been dominated for almost a century by laboratory sciences. At least the first ten editions of the famous and well reputed textbook Mollison’s Blood Transfusion in Clinical Medicine contained only a fraction on the actual bedside practice of transfusion medicine and did not focus at all on patient blood management.2 This journal will focus on all aspects of the transfusion chain that immediately relate to the bedside practice and clinical use of blood and its components, and plasma derivatives as integral elements of a human transplant tissue. That includes legal and regulatory aspects, medical, ethical and cultural aspects, pure science and pathophysiology of disease and the impact of transfusion of blood, as well as aspects of the epidemiology of blood transfusion and clinical indications, and cost-effectiveness. Education through timely and continued transfer of up to date knowledge and the application of knowledge in clinical practice to develop and maintain clinical skills and competence, with the extension of current educational approaches through e-learning and accessible ‘apps’ will be given a prominent place.
Srinivasan, T. M.
Energy medicine is the most comprehensive concept introduced in medical diagnostics and therapy to account for a whole range of phenomena and methods available to help an individual proceed from sickness to health. The modern medical theories do not account for, much less accept many traditional therapies due to deep suspicion that the older methods are not scientific. However, the Holistic Health groups around the world have now created an environment for therapies which work at subtle energ...
Murawski, K.; Peetoom, F.
These proceedings contain 24 selections, including papers presented at the conference of American Red Cross held in May 1985, on the Subject of transfusion medicine. Some of the titles are: Fluosol/sup R/-DA in Radiation Therapy; Expression of Cloned Human Factor VIII and the Molecular Basis of Gene Defects that Cause Hemophilia; DNA-Probing Assay in the Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Genome in Human Peripheral Blood Cells; and Monoclonal Antibodies: Convergence of Technology and Application
Forsyth, A.; Mommer, B.; McBeth, B.
Three linked articles explore the current movement towards privatization in the various countries of South America. While the progress away from state control varies from country to country, the first article argues that the movement will offer economic benefits to the Latin American petroleum industry as a whole, despite the political difficulties which must be overcome. In the second article, public distaste for the nationalization of the Venezuelan oil industry back in 1943, petroleum engineers, economists, private sector representatives and oil industry employees all oppose wholesale privatization, favouring national and private investment within Venezuela. The last author argues for an efficient regulatory framework to oversee privatization schemes. (UK)
Full Text Available Health care systems face pressure to increase the quality of health care at the same time with pressure to reduce public spending. The attempt to overcome the gap between needs and opportunities can be resolved through the introduction of public-private partnerships. Goals of this study are to investigate variation of the number, form and efficiency of private providers of general/family medicine services in primary health care and the contribution of socioeconomic and demographic environment on those variations, among counties. Socioeconomic and demographic factors are identified as independent variables that influence the health care need and utilization and consequently the decision of private entities to engage in the provision of health care services. This study extended previous studies because it has introduced socioeconomic and demographic variables. This may shed same new lights on the relationship between private providers of health service and efficiency of providing health service in primary health care.
... for Educators Search English Español Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth / For Teens / Complementary and Alternative Medicine What's ... a replacement. How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...
This report reviews recent global efforts to privatize energy resources and outlines the opportunities and challenges privatization has presented to U.S. and foreign multinational energy companies. The group of energy companies studied in this report includes the major U.S. petroleum companies and many foreign companies. The foreign companies reviewed include state-run energy enterprises, recently privatized energy enterprises, and foreign multinationals that have been privately held. The privatization of non-petroleum energy industries, such as electricity generation and transmission, natural gas transmission, and coal mining, are also discussed. Overseas investments made by electric companies, natural gas companies, and coal companies are included. The report is organized into six chapters: (1) economics of privatization; (2) petroleum privatization efforts among non-U.S. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development nations; (3) petroleum privatization efforts in Latin America; (4) privatization in socialist and former socialist regimes; (5) privatization efforts in global electric power generation, transmission, and distribution industries; and (6) privatization and globalization of world coal.
Full Text Available Private labels have been present on the market since 19th century but their intensive market growth began in the last thirty years after retailers realized what their potential could be in the fight against ever-growing competition. Their market growth has not been distributed equally thought the world so Europe became the region with the highest private label market share, which exceeds 40% on some markets. Although the private label market share in Croatia is considerably smaller, it has also increased steadily over the last decade since private labels were introduced on the market. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in private label development on the Croatian market. The research was conducted through in-depth interviews with private label managers in retail companies in Croatia, and with the managers responsible for private label production in manufacturing companies. The research identified three expected trends of private label development in Croatia and these are: an increase in private label quality, the maintenance of a price gap between private labels and manufacturers’ brands and a further increase in the private label market share.
Casier, Ph.; Lepage, B.
Except for dedicated devices for mobile nuclear cardiology for instance, the market is set on variable angulation dual heads cameras. These cameras are suited for all general applications and their cost effectiveness is optimized. Now, all major companies have such a camera in their of products. But, the big question in nuclear medicine is about the future of coincidence imaging for the monitoring of treatments in oncology. Many companies are focused on WIP assessments to find out the right crustal thickness to perform both high energy FDG procedures and low energy Tc procedures, with the same SPECT camera. The classic thickness is 3/8''. Assessments are made with 1/2'', 5/8'' or 3/4'' crystals. If FDG procedures proved to be of great interest in oncology, it may lead to the design of a dedicated SPECT camera with a 1'' crustal. Due to the short half of FDG, it may be the dawning of slip ring technology. (e.g. Varicam from Elscint). The three small heads camera market seems to be depressed. Will the new three large heads camera unveiled by Picker, reverse that trend? The last important topic in nuclear medicine is the emergence of new flat digital detectors to get rid of the old bulky ones. Digirad is the first company to manufacture a commercial product based on that technology. Bichron, Siemens and General Electric are working on that development, too. But that technology is very expensive and the market for digital detection in nuclear medicine is not as large as the market in digital detection in radiology. (author)
data, we received an ethical review exemption from the. Rwanda National Ethics Committee. Methods ... pharmacies can purchase medicines from private medical stores or receive .... practice for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis laboratory.
Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund
A number of different methods are tested to elucidate the accumulation of synthetic pyrethroids in private homes. When the target pest is resistant, there is a potential risk that persistent synthetic pyrethroids accumulate because of repeated treatments. The highest residue found was 8260 µg lam...... lambda-cyhalothrin in a vacuum-cleaner sample (vacuumed for 10 minutes) and 1252 µg lambda-cyhalothrin in a “cotton sock dosimeter” sample. Similar data for deltamethrin was 805 µg in a vacuum-cleaner sample and 806 µg in a “cotton sock dosimeter” sample....
The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is it intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. This bibliography is organized by subject area. The subjects covered are: waste characterization; pre-treatment; high-level waste immobilization; low-level waste immobilization; low-level waste melter test program; performance assessment; general; and safety.
Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)
private sector . After all, corruption does not just involve government. Business people and lawyers and citizens pay the bribes, even as they condemn bribery. They should be invited to become part of the solution. But how? The first point to note is that business people and citizens know where corruption exists and how corrupt systems work. Citizens understand how bribery shapes the services they receive or don’t receive. Accountants know the illicit games played with audits and taxes. Lawyers understand corrupt legal practices. Business people know all about corrupt
The Seventh Annual Harvard Personalized Medicine Conference was held at The Joseph B Martin Conference Center at the Harvard Medical School in Boston, MA, USA on the 9-10 November 2011. The 2-day conference program was designed to highlight the impact that personalized medicine is currently making clinically as it enters the healthcare delivery system. Going forward, policies, plans and actions of stakeholders including those from government, academia and the private sector need to be informed and guided by recent experience - all of which the conference program set out to explore. The conference attracted over 600 national and international thought leaders all involved in personalized healthcare.
James, A.E. Jr.; Squire, L.F.
The book presents a number of fundamental imaging principles in nuclear medicine. The fact that low radiation doses are sufficient for the study of normal and changed physiological functions of the body is an important advancement brought about by nuclear medicine. The possibility of quantitative investigations of organs and organ regions and of an assessment of their function as compared to normal values is a fascinating new diagnostic dimension. The possibility of comparing the findings with other pathological findings and of course control in the same patient lead to a dynamic continuity with many research possibilities not even recognized until now. The limits of nuclear scanning methods are presented by the imprecise structural information of the images. When scintiscans are compared with X-ray images or contrast angiography, the great difference in the imaging of anatomical details is clearly seen. But although the present pictures are not optimal, they are a great improvement on the pictures that were considered clinically valuable a few years ago. (orig./AJ) [de
The national diarrheal disease control program has made progress against diarrheal illness in Indonesia, but diarrhea still accounts for 130,000 deaths of under-5 year olds annually. The potential of the private sector had been virtually untapped until the PRITECH Project designed and implemented a private sector based program to complement government efforts to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality related to diarrhea. PRITECH wanted to motivate commercial firms to invest the capital necessary to commercialize oral rehydration salts (ORS) so that program self-sufficiency would be maximized over the long term without depending upon donor support. Sections describe the lack of commercial sector ORS promotion, supply and demand factors, raising interest in ORS, conditions for change, the potential market for ORS, demand, production capacity, previous collaborative efforts, areas for improvement, PRITECH's role as catalyst, coordination with commercial companies, marketing workshops, collaboration with the Indonesian Medical Association, the handwashing campaign, and program impact. Although the program has been in place for just 1 year, sales of ORS have increased along with the degree of sustainable collaboration among local institutions. The author stresses that for the model to be successfully replicated elsewhere, the government, medical and pediatric associations, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, groups which can promote oral rehydration therapy, and opinion leaders in the medical community must be involved. Finally, note is made that the image of ORS must be improved and that the work of the public and commercial sectors can be complementary.
Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather
During 2012, the USDHHS?s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center esta...
Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the
The Essenes were a Jewish sect, which flourished around the first century. We have limited our study to hygienic and medical aspects, as documented in the works of Josephus Flavius, Philo of Alexandria, and Pliny the Elder; Josephus and Philo were personally in contact with these sectarian Jews. We have described the regimen of life of these communities, who lived in strictly organised fashion, their meals taken in common, their bathing in cold water, their clothing, the Sabbath rest, the lavatories, and more. Most Essenes remained single, they adopted however small children, and educated them in accordance to their principles. There was no private property, but old people and sick residents were taken care of by the community. The Essenes, as well as the Therapeuts described by Philo, were knowledgeable in medical lore, they treasured old books and studied the virtues of medicinal plants. There is no clear-cut consensus whether the Essenes, the Therapeuts, and the Qumran residents were one and the same sect, or whether they were similar sub-sects. The calm, strictly regulated and frugal way of life of the Essenes enabled them to attain old age, often beyond 100 years.
Hansen, Morten Balle
One of the main endeavors within ”New Public Management” (NPM) since the 1980s has been to encourage various forms of privatization in the public sector. In recent years, the involvement of private players in the provision of services in Danish municipalities has thus been increased, which makes...... it important to study the consequences of this development. In the present article, privatization is understood as the use of private service providers to provide services and focus is on what privatization means for the power of local political players. The point of departure is an expectation that a high...... degree of privatization can have far-reaching consequences for the distribution of local political power. This is illustrated empirically by a questionnaire survey of 896 municipal leaders. The main findings are that the local political actors generally have less power in municipalities with high degrees...
Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of inflation volatility on private sector credit growth. The results indicate that private sector credit growth is positively linked to the one period lagged inflation volatility. Given that past monetary policy actions continue to affect the targeted variables due to the substantial lags in the transmission mechanism, the positive response of private sector credit growth to past inflation volatility suggests a credible monetary policy regime in Uganda, which has led to a reduction in the level of macroeconomic uncertainty and the restoration of favorable economic conditions and prospects, thus increasing the demand for credit. Further, the study finds that the lagged private sector credit growth, nominal exchange rate, and inflation have a statistically significant effect on private sector credit growth while financial innovation, interest rates, and GDP growth appear not to be important determinants of private sector credit growth. The robustness of our findings is confirmed by sensitivity checks.
A number of therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives have been postulated from preclinical investigations. Possible clinical indications include spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, cancer-associated nausea and vomiting, cancer pain and HIV neuropathy. However, evidence is limited, may reflect subjective rather than objective outcomes, and is not conclusive. Controversies lie in how to produce, supply and administer cannabinoid products. Introduction of cannabinoids therapeutically should be supported by a regulatory and educational framework that minimises the risk of harm to patients and the community. The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4.
Hvas, Lotte; Getz, Linn
Dagens allmänmedicin påverkas av ett växande managementtänkandetillsammans med fragmenterande ekonomiska incitament.Vårdens kvaliteter evalueras med nya metoder som ”värdebaseradvård” där värde räknas i kronor och ören. Produktion går före etik,och det intersubjektiva mötet mellan patient och läk...... läkare håller påatt nedvärderas. Perspektiven från narrativ medicin kan bidra tillatt visa vad som står på spel. Vilken blir annars berättelsen omallmänmedicinen?...
Full Text Available Background: Private health care providers are largely the first point of contact for Tuberculosis (TB patients, who either undergo treatment from private practitioners or buy medicines on their own from private pharmacies. Aims: This study assessed the availability, sale and magnitude of anti-tuberculosis drugs dispensing through private pharmacies. Methodology: The present cross sectional study was conducted among private pharmacies located along the national highway from Thalassery to Payyannur in the Kannur district of Kerala, India. A total of 38 private pharmacies located along the national highway were included. Results: The duration that anti–TB drugs had been on sale showed that 74.3% of pharmacies had started to sell these drugs only less than ten years ago. The majority (82.9% of the private pharmacies received up to 5 prescriptions for anti-TB drugs weekly. Out of the total of 35 pharmacies selling these drugs, 22 (62.9% reported an increase in their sales. Nearly 82% of those pharmacies that reported an increase in the sale of anti-TB drugs were selling these drugs for less than the past ten years. Conclusions: The current study shows that a large number of tuberculosis patients are still approaching private pharmacies for anti-tuberculosis drugs. This tendency has to be completely stopped and needs properly planned strategies to encourage private pharmacies to participate actively in the DOTS (Direct Observation Treatment Short course program of the Government, by providing them attractive alternative incentives
Background: Private health care providers are largely the first point of contact for Tuberculosis (TB patients, who either undergo treatment from private practitioners or buy medicines on their own from private pharmacies. Aims: This study assessed the availability, sale and magnitude of anti-tuberculosis drugs dispensing through private pharmacies.
Methodology: The present cross sectional study was conducted among private pharmacies located along the national highway from Thalassery to Payyannur in the Kannur district of Kerala, India. A total of 38 private pharmacies located along the national highway were included.
Results: The duration that anti–TB drugs had been on sale showed that 74.3% of pharmacies had started to sell these drugs only less than ten years ago. The majority (82.9% of the private pharmacies received up to 5 prescriptions for anti-TB drugs weekly. Out of the total of 35 pharmacies selling these drugs, 22 (62.9% reported an increase in their sales. Nearly 82% of those pharmacies that reported an increase in the sale of anti-TB drugs were selling these drugs for less than the past ten years.
Conclusions: The current study shows that a large number of tuberculosis patients are still approaching private pharmacies for anti-tuberculosis drugs. This tendency has to be completely stopped and needs properly planned strategies to encourage private pharmacies to participate actively in the DOTS (Direct Observation Treatment Short course program of the Government, by providing them attractive alternative incentives
C. Alan Garner
This article examines these fundamental issues of economic efficiency and fairness that should be weighed when considering Social Security privatization. The first section summarizes the challenges to the current system and outlines various options for reform. The second section explains how privatization could improve economic efficiency, and briefly considers the difficult issue of the transition costs in moving from the current system to full privatization. The third section discusses impo...
Ghana has a relatively good international reputation with respect to political stability and macroeconomic reforms. However, its success with developing the private sector and attracting investment has at best been mixed. Therefore the new government that came into power in 2001 proclaimed a "Golden Age of Business". Competitiveness and private sector development are closely interlinked. On the one hand the factors that influence the competitiveness of a country are a precondition for private...
To what extent is English Private Law being affected by the United Kingdom’s membership of the European Union? I think we can try to answer this at three levels: (i) The United Kingdom’s compliance with EU legislation; (ii) the influence of European ideas on English Private Law; (iii) the attitude in England towards greater harmonisation or possible unification of European Private Law
Bueno, Roberto; Universidad de San Martín de Porres / Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal
As supposed events being accessible to a unique observer, private events posit an interesting challenge to a behavioristic psychology. Three historical variants of behaviorism dealt with the problem of private events: methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism and interbehaviorism. The basic argument of the two last views, and that distinguishes them from the former, is that private events are comprised into the scope of an objective science of behavior. The analysis of these accounts pe...
Atkins, Jill; Solomon, A.; Norton, S. D.; Joseph, N. L.
Purpose: Private social and environmental reporting (SER) has grown considerably in recent years, consistent with a rise in institutional investor engagement and dialogue with investee companies. We interpret the emergence of integrated private reporting through the lens of institutional logics. We frame the emergence of integrated private reporting as a merging of two hitherto separate and possibly rival institutional logics.\\ud Methodology/Approach: We interviewed 19 companies listed on the...
private sector investigative sources or methods would be useful to the DoD for conducting national security background investigations. The federal government by and large examines more sources and conducts more thorough investigations than industry. In general, private employers (1) have less access to information about applicants...outsource many elements of background checks. It is recommended that the DoD periodically evaluate private sector screening programs and data sources in order to monitor
Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.
Frederiksen, Anders; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Bozeman, Barry
are related to sector switching and the pattern of sector switch, public to private versus private to public. We propose a life stage model arguing that people's needs change in different life stages of their lives. We further suggest that this can help explain why they switch sector. We use unique Danish...... labor market data that include information on all employees in Denmark (both private and public sector). The data are for the period 1980 to 2006, and this longitudinal database includes abundant information about job changes, including sector switching. Our findings indicate mixed support....... Finally, we find that people with more education are likely to switch from private to public sector....
Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office
NPS national security affairs doctoral student Cmdr. Dan Straub weighs the benefits and challenges of using private security contractors for United Nations peacekeeping efforts in his upcoming dissertation.
Full Text Available Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS might develop into a viable alternative to public regulation. However, it turns on the (regulatory circumstances whether that holds true in practice. If public regulation on CSR topics is lacking, governments are unable to agree upon certain topics on a global level or diverging public regulation exists, VSS can be helpful to set global standards. Obviously, private standards will especially be helpful if they are commensurate with local public legislation (and e.g. treaties and/or are accepted by local governments. If one neglects this, numerous domestic structures might exist that frustrate VSS. Furthermore, governments have to remain vigilant as to whether these private regimes do not result in market disruption, consumer detriment or hamper trade. VSS might also compete with public arrangements which might limit the uptake of VSS. However, if public regulation exists VSS might be a viable alternative if compliance with not too compelling public norms by market participants is rather poor and the public policymaker is aiming to incentivize the better performing part of the market to embark on higher standards and thus only desires to regulate the less performing part of the market. However, of paramount importance is the effectiveness of VSS in order to be a viable alternative to public regulation. The effectiveness of VSS should be assessed using an integrated multi-disciplinary (comparative approach entailing legal, impact-assessment, legitimacy, governance and behavioural aspects. Only effective VSS in the aforementioned sense are a true alternative to public regulation.Beyond that, the legal perspective in connection with (the effectiveness of VSS is discussed, featuring FSC and UTZ Certified as an example. It is important from this perspective that VSS have a clear and sufficiently selective objective and sufficiently specific norms, are regularly evaluated, entail ‘conflict of law rules’ and
Mohanta, G P; Manna, P K
Government developed policies and regulations for combating antimicrobial resistance, controlling the prices of medicines, establishing generic medicines stores and advocating for the need for improvement of medicine logistics at state level and prescription auditing system. There is wide variation in medicine procurement and management system among the states. Spending on medicines ranges from as small as 2% of health budget to as high as 17%. The procurement system varies from individual facilities to partial pooled procurement to complete centralised system.There are attempts of developing essential medicine lists, standard treatment guidelines and costing of treatment of common illnesses. Except for the few states, essential medicine list remains an ornamental showpiece. However, with apex court's intervention, the prices are now controlled for all 348 medicines listed in national list. The pharmaceutical companies continue to violate price regulations either through making the medicines at different strengths or new fixed dose combinations (FDCs). Perhaps the largest number of FDCs and many of them with no valid justification are available in the country. Decisions on compulsory licensing have made the new anticancer medicines affordable. Other countries have also benefited from this decision. While some progress has been made for appropriate use of medicines in public health facilities, there are little efforts in private sectors and at community levels. Availability of prescription medicines without much control and free drug advertising are other concerns. Like all other countries irrational use of medicines continues to be of concern in India despite of several attempts of improving use of medicines both in the health system as well as in community. But efforts continue to be made for improving the use of medicines!
Saksena, Priyanka; Xu, Ke; Elovainio, Riku; Perrot, Jean
To document the patterns of health service utilization and health payments at public and private facilities across countries. We used data from the World Health Surveys from 39 low- and low-middle income countries to examine differences between public and private sectors. Utilization of outpatient and inpatient services, out-of-pocket payments (OOP) at public and private facilities, and transportation costs were compared. Utilization and payments to public and private sectors differ widely. Public facilities dominated in most countries for both outpatient and inpatient services. But, whereas use of private facilities is more common among the rich, poor people also use them, to a considerable extent and in almost all the countries in the study. The majority of OOP were incurred at public providers for inpatient services. On average, this was not the case for outpatient services. Medicines accounted for the largest share of OOP for all services except inpatient services at private facilities, where consultation fees did. Transportation costs were considerable. Price competition is certainly not the only factor that guides choice of provider. The results support continued efforts by the governments to engage strategically with the private sector. However, they also highlight the importance of not generalizing conditions across countries. Governments may need to reconsider simplistic user-fee abolition strategies at public providers if they simply focus on consultation fees. Policies to make health services more accessible need to consider a comprehensive benefit package that includes a wider scope of costs related to care such as expenditures on medicines and transportation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
... rate based on the type of POV you actually use (privately owned airplane, privately owned automobile... HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E) 0 29. The authority citation for 41...
... it is candy. What to Do If Your Child Takes Medicine If you think your child has taken medicine, call the poison control center ... blood pressure monitored. Preventing Medicine Mistakes When giving medicine to your young child, follow these safety tips: Use medicine made only ...
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the market shares of private labels in the European Union and on the global market, and to compare the results of the analysis with the level of presence of private labels on the Croatian market. Moreover, through the application of macro and microeconomic tools, the author tried to estimate the future trends of private labels in Croatia.For the purpose of the paper secondary and primary data was used in the research. Relevant scientific and professional literature of local and foreign authors was analyzed. In addition, a few recent research studies were analyzed and their results compared. Field research has been conducted by the survey method, with 225 respondents included in the intentional sample.The main hypothesis of the paper based on research is that, in total sales, private labels are gaining a growing share in all markets, regardless of the development level of those markets. Alongside the main hypothesis of the work, three supporting hypotheses were tested to see which private labels are a good alternative to other brands on the world market. Private labels are generally developed on generic products. The third supporting hypothesis starts from the assumption that the investments in the promotion of private labels are negligible, resulting in lower prices of thoseproducts. The results of research and analyses in the work indicate that the position of private labels will strengthen internationally, as part of the process of liberalization and globalization of trade flows. In the process of purchase of private labels the positioning of the point of sale and price have an increasing contribution. With the concentration of commerce in chain stores, the share of private labels grows, approaching a half of the total sales in some countries. Considering the Croatian market, according to the international product life cycle theory, the share of private labels in the total sales will grow in the future
Brailovskiy Ilya A.
The article is devoted to analysis of interests that stimulate a private partner to joint activity with the state and advantages they obtain from realisation of projects of the state-private partnership (SPP). It marks out main features and fields of application of the state-private partnership. It underlines that an important prerequisite for motivation of the private sector to enter into partnership relations with the state is observance of clear law competent formal rules in the institutio...
Yadav, A; Garg, S K; Chopra, H; Bajpai, S K; Bano, T; Jain, S; Kumar, A
Majority of the qualified medical practitioners in the country are in the private sector and more than half of patients with tuberculosis (TB) seek treatment from them. The present study was conducted with the objective of assessing the treatment modalities in pulmonary tuberculosis by the private physicians in Meerut City, Uttar Pradesh, India. A cross-sectional study was carried out covering all the private physicians (graduates and postgraduates in Medicine and Chest Diseases) registered under the Indian Medical Association, Meerut Branch (n = 154). The physicians were interviewed by a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire about the treatment modalities practiced by them. Only 43.5% private physicians had attended any Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) training in the past five years. Only 33.1% of them were aware of the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC). Fifty-three different regimens were used to treat the patients. Majority of physicians (76%) prescribed daily regimens while 24% administered both daily and intermittent treatment. None of the private physicians prescribed exclusive intermittent regimen. Eighty-seven different treatment regimens were used for the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) with none of them prescribing standard treatment under RNTCP. As majority of private practitioners do not follow RNTCP guidelines for treating TB, there is an urgent need for their continued education in this area.
Martins, Ricardo; Belchior, Ismael
In the last year of secondary school, students studying physics and chemistry are incentivized to do a project where they must put in practice their improvement of scientific knowledge and skills, like observation of phenomena and analysis of data with scientific knowledge. In this project a group of students, tutored by the teacher, wanted to build an instrument that helps people to take their medical drugs at the right time. This instrument must have some compartments with an alarm and an LED light where the people can put their medical drugs. The instrument must be easily programed using an android program that also registers if the medicine has been taken. The students needed to simulate the hardware and software, draw the electronic system and build the final product. At the end of the school year, a public oral presentation was prepared by each group of students and presented to the school community. They are also encouraged to participate in national and international scientific shows and competitions.
In Section I of this annual report, a brief summary of work is presented by the Research Medicine Group. The major emphasis has been the study of the blood system in man with a special emphasis on the examination of platelet abnormalities in human disease. New programs of major importance include the study of aging or dementia of the Alzheimer's type. A differential diagnosis technique has been perfected using positron emission tomography. Studies on the biochemical basis of schizophrenia have proceeded using radioisotope studies which image physiological and biochemical processes. In the investigation of atherosclerosis, techniques have been developed to measure blood perfusion of the heart muscle by labelling platelets and lipoproteins. Progress is reported in a new program which uses NMR for both imaging and spectroscopic studies in humans. The group has determined through an epidemiological study that bubble chamber and cyclotron workers who have been exposed to high electromagnetic fields for two decades have no significant increases in the prevalence of 21 diseases as compared with controls
Private tutoring is a common and worldwide phenomenon. However, there is a dearth of up-to-date research on private tutoring compared with that on institutional one-to-one teaching, which could be explained by challenges associated with data collection. This article proposes using publicly available online advertisements of private tutors as a…
Aziato, Lydia; Antwi, Hannah Ohemeng
The use of complementary and alternative medicine including herbal medicine is increasing in many countries including Ghana. However, there is paucity of research on the perspectives of patrons of herbal medicine regarding the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use. This study sought to investigate the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine among Ghanaian adults who use one form of herbal medicine or the other. The study employed an inductive exploratory qualitative approach. It was conducted at a private herbal clinic in Accra. Purposive sampling was employed to recruit 16 participants. Data collection was through individual face-to-face interviews and these were transcribed and analysed using content analysis procedures. It was realized that the factors that enhanced the use of herbal medicine included use of convincing information to enhance the initiation of herbal medicine use, effectiveness of herbal medicine, personal preference for herbal medicine, perceived ineffectiveness of western medicine and integration of spirituality in herbal medicine. The factors that hindered herbal medicine use included negative perceptions and attitudes about herbal medicine, poor vending environment, poor knowledge of vendors, high cost of herbal products at credible herbal clinics and inconsistent effectiveness of some herbal products. Participants desired that the national health insurance scheme will cover the cost of herbal medicine to alleviate the financial burden associated with herbal medicine use. Although some Ghanaians patronize herbal medicine, the negative perceptions about herbal medicine resulting from deceitful producers and vendors call for enhanced education and monitoring to ensure that effective herbal products are used.
Maldonado, Jesús Adrián; Peinado, José María
The aim of this study was to analyze Internal Medicine as a subject and its requirement in each of the Universities curriculum in Mexico that offers a degree in General Medicine. By the end of the first quarter of 2014, the research was closed and 81 campuses were studied. This research was quantitative, using an analytical technique, written discourse, exploratory and purposive sampling not random and homogeneous type. The Likert questionnaire was used in this study to analyse the following variables: the record of Internal Medicine as a subject, the burden of credit, and the location of the program. The procedure consisted of three phases. First obtaining an official list of all the Universities in the Mexican Association of Colleges and Schools of Medicine. Second, obtaining an analysis of each of the Universities' curriculums, and lastly gathering each variable of the study. The results of the Universities were 63% were public and 37% private. Internal Medicine as a subject in the curriculum was 37.1%, and 20% of the universities include it for six months and 9% offer it the whole year. However, the undergraduate internship in Internal Medicine offers it 100%. In conclusion, Internal Medicine as a subject could disappear from the curriculum in General Medicine before coming to the undergraduate internship, even though the latter is declared required in hospital shifts.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a significant reduction in the number of malaria cases in Guyana and Suriname, this disease remains a major problem in the interior of both countries, especially in areas with gold mining and logging operations, where malaria is endemic. National malaria control programmes in these countries provide treatment to patients with medicines that are procured and distributed through regulated processes in the public sector. However, availability to medicines in licensed facilities (private sector and unlicensed facilities (informal sector is common, posing the risk of access to and use of non-recommended treatments and/or poor quality products. Methods To assess the quality of circulating anti-malarial medicines, samples were purchased in the private and informal sectors of Guyana and Suriname in 2009. The sampling sites were selected based on epidemiological data and/or distance from health facilities. Samples were analysed for identity, content, dissolution or disintegration, impurities, and uniformity of dosage units or weight variation according to manufacturer, pharmacopeial, or other validated method. Results Quality issues were observed in 45 of 77 (58% anti-malarial medicines sampled in Guyana of which 30 failed visual & physical inspection and 18 failed quality control tests. The proportion of monotherapy and ACT medicines failing quality control tests was 43% (13/30 and 11% (5/47 respectively. A higher proportion of medicines sampled from the private sector 34% (11/32 failed quality control tests versus 16% (7/45 in the informal sector. In Suriname, 58 medicines were sampled, of which 50 (86% were Artecom®, the fixed-dose combination of piperaquine-dihydroartemisinin-trimethoprim co-blistered with a primaquine phosphate tablet. All Artecom samples were found to lack a label claim for primaquine, thus failing visual and physical inspection. Conclusions The findings of the studies in both countries point to
Evans, Lawrence; Coignez, Veerle; Barojas, Adrian; Bempong, Daniel; Bradby, Sanford; Dijiba, Yanga; James, Makeida; Bretas, Gustavo; Adhin, Malti; Ceron, Nicolas; Hinds-Semple, Alison; Chibwe, Kennedy; Lukulay, Patrick; Pribluda, Victor
Despite a significant reduction in the number of malaria cases in Guyana and Suriname, this disease remains a major problem in the interior of both countries, especially in areas with gold mining and logging operations, where malaria is endemic. National malaria control programmes in these countries provide treatment to patients with medicines that are procured and distributed through regulated processes in the public sector. However, availability to medicines in licensed facilities (private sector) and unlicensed facilities (informal sector) is common, posing the risk of access to and use of non-recommended treatments and/or poor quality products. To assess the quality of circulating anti-malarial medicines, samples were purchased in the private and informal sectors of Guyana and Suriname in 2009. The sampling sites were selected based on epidemiological data and/or distance from health facilities. Samples were analysed for identity, content, dissolution or disintegration, impurities, and uniformity of dosage units or weight variation according to manufacturer, pharmacopeial, or other validated method. Quality issues were observed in 45 of 77 (58%) anti-malarial medicines sampled in Guyana of which 30 failed visual & physical inspection and 18 failed quality control tests. The proportion of monotherapy and ACT medicines failing quality control tests was 43% (13/30) and 11% (5/47) respectively. A higher proportion of medicines sampled from the private sector 34% (11/32) failed quality control tests versus 16% (7/45) in the informal sector. In Suriname, 58 medicines were sampled, of which 50 (86%) were Artecom®, the fixed-dose combination of piperaquine-dihydroartemisinin-trimethoprim co-blistered with a primaquine phosphate tablet. All Artecom samples were found to lack a label claim for primaquine, thus failing visual and physical inspection. The findings of the studies in both countries point to significant problems with the quality of anti-malarial medicines
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private structures. 27.92 Section 27.92... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.92 Private structures. No..., pier, dock, fence, wall, pile, anchorage, or other structure or obstruction in any national wildlife...
Green, Francis; Machin, Stephen; Murphy, Richard; Zhu, Yu
We analyse the role of private schools in the teachers' labour market. Private schools employ an increasingly-disproportionate share of teachers in Britain, relative to the number of their pupils. Their teachers are more likely than state school teachers to possess post-graduate qualifications, and to be specialists in shortage subjects.…
The study contributes to the literature on private supplementary tutoring by shedding light on this phenomenon in the Czech Republic. The aim of the paper is to identify the reasons for seeking out private supplementary tutoring and to assess the factors underlying its demand. In the representative sample of 1,265 senior upper-secondary school…
Rife, Nora A.; Shnek, Zachary M.; Lauby, Jennifer L.; Lapidus, Leah Blumberg
Determines the language children use to express their feelings of satisfaction with private music lessons. Offers a list of statements from children about private music lessons to be used to assess those feelings. Discusses the effects of age, gender, and musical instruments on satisfaction for music educators. Includes references. (DAJ)
Due to a strike among nurses in the spring of 2008, the existing waiting time guarantee of one month was suspended until June 1, 2009. Regions turned to private hospitals to assist reducing the hump of patients. It has been claimed that the private sector used to be favorably treated by the Liber...
... Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Receipt and... preliminary application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program received under 49 U.S.C... final application to the FAA for exemption under the pilot program. 49 U.S.C. Section 47134 establishes...
... Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Receipt and... application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program received under 49 U.S.C. 47134. The... application to the FAA for exemption under the pilot program. 49 U.S.C. 47134 establishes an airport...
The section on ethics covers the question “ What is mercenaries?, whether private contractors can be ethical, regulating private militaries, bringing just war theory into step with shifts in warfare proper, and efforts to point out the social responsibilities that now seem to accrue. The authors covering policies and law primarily ...
DiMartino, Catherine; Scott, Janelle
Public officials are increasingly contracting with the private sector for a range of educational services. With much of the focus on private sector accountability on cost-effectiveness and student performance, less attention has been given to shifts in democratic accountability. Drawing on data from the state of New York, one of the most active…
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private education. 104.39 Section 104.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides...
J.G. van Erp (Judith)
textabstractThis article analyses how reputation functions as a mechanism for social control in private and public regulation. It discusses three cases of private markets where reputation is a powerful and effective mechanism for social control. From the case studies, four characteristics of markets
Holman, Lance S.
Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…
African Research Review ... This paper seeks to evaluate theoretically and empirically the impact of privatization on economic growth in Nigeria. Using error correlation model (ECM), it was discovered that privatization has not impacted positively on economic growth in Nigeria, and this was blamed on a lot of factors like ...
Robichaud, Robert J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
This session is focused on lessons learned from private sector energy projects that could be applied to the federal sector. This presentation tees up the subsequent presentations by outlining the differences between private and federal sectors in objectives, metrics for determining success, funding resources/mechanisms, payback and ROI evaluation, risk tolerance/aversion, new technology adoption perspectives, and contracting mechanisms.
... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY [No. 2010-N-11] Private Transfer Fee Covenants AGENCY: Federal... Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) is proposing to issue a Guidance, ``Guidance on Private Transfer Fee... fee covenants. Such covenants appear adverse to liquidity, affordability and stability in the housing...
Winchip, Susan M.
Financial difficulties have prompted institutions of higher education to explore private sources of funding. In recent years, public institutions have significantly increased their focus on private giving, with several campaigns having more than $1 billion as a goal. Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals need to be actively involved in…
Wright, Kevin A.
Private prisons are here to stay irrespective of empirical findings for or against their existence in the corrections industry. It is necessary, therefore, to step back and consider them on a broader level to assess how they can benefit current penological practice. It will be argued that prison privatization creates an opportunity to reassess the…
Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William
Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage.
Beskid, N.J.; Devgun, J.S.; Erickson, M.D.; Zielke, M.M.
This report describes the fiscal year 1990 procurement of contracts with the private sector and the current status of applied research and development conducted for DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD). This report documents the procurement actions, discusses lessons learned from this activity, and disseminates the results of the procurement to interested parties in DOE and in the private sector
Earl C. Leatherberry; Neal P. Kingsley; Thomas W. Birch
Identifies and profiles Michigan's private timberland owners. Estimates the number and distribution of private timberland owners by owner attitudes and objectives concerning forest ownership, management, and use. Provides 45 tables relating to owner and property characteristics for the state and its four survey units.
This article examines the debate between equity theorists (Adam Swift and Harry Brighouse) and adequacy theorists (Elizabeth Anderson and Debra Satz) over elite private schooling and productivity. It challenges the view, presupposed but never defended by adequacy theorists, that private schools can be justified on social productivity grounds, that…
..., projects or activities for which financing from A.I.D. is sought by private applicants, such as PVOs and...) or (d), preliminary proposals for financing submitted by private applicants shall be accompanied by... Environmental Examination. The Threshold Decision shall be made by the Mission Director for the country to which...
Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the educational grants from budget of local government. Author presented procedures about establish private schools and educational institutions and explained selected concepts about units of education. The article presents selected judgment from SN and NSA in disputes about grants for private schools.
Hodge, Graeme A.; Greve, Carsten
Private finance-based infrastructure public–private partnerships (P3s) are globally popular, including renewed interest in the United States, but their performance remains contested. This article explores the meaning of P3 and the notion of P3 success, and points to multiple interpretations of both...
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth / For Teens / Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...
... medical treatments that are not part of mainstream medicine. When you are using these types of care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...
... ingredient. Avoid giving more than one OTC cold medicine to your child. It may cause an overdose with severe side ... the dosage instructions strictly while giving an OTC medicine to your child. When giving OTC cold medicines to your child: ...
... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...
I briefet opsummerer Tina Magaard de vigtigste konklusioner fra konferencen ”Private sector and stabilisation in Afghanistan – a neglected match?”, som blandt andet gav indsigt i udfordringerne og mulighederne for den private sektor i Afghanistan. Ved at kombinere perspektiver fra strategiske...... studier med forretnings- og udviklingsstudier tilbød konferencen en dybere indsigt i udfordringerne og mulighederne for den private sektor i Afghanistan. Samtidig blev der åbnet en række nye perspektiver for interaktionen mellem den private sektor og stabiliseringsoperationer i en post-krigskontekst som...... Afghanistan. Selvom udgangspunktet var Afghanistan, er konferencens konklusioner i høj grad relevante for andre konflikt/post-konfliktområder. Konferencen var organiseret i et samarbejde mellem Centre for Business and Development Studies (Copenhagen Business School), Public-Private Platform (Copenhagen...
This paper presents an analytical framework from which it can be inferred whether sellers or buyers in corporate control transactions value private benefits highest. I am thus able to suggest an answer to the question: Are blocks of shares traded because the buyer is a more efficient monitor...... with high security benefits, or because the buyer has high private benefits from the control rights that come with the shares? Using voting rights as the vehicle for private benefits, I find that the selling shareholders in block transactions attach more value to private benefits than the buyers. In tender...... offer transactions, the answer is that private benefits are insignificant to both sides of the transaction. As an alternative measure of the transaction premium, I calculate the abnormal return premium. This represents the stock market's valuation of the transaction. I find that the stock market puts...
Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A.
We study the evolution of cooperation in a model of indirect reciprocity where people interact in public and private situations. Public interactions have a high chance to be observed by others and always affect reputation. Private interactions have a lower chance to be observed and only occasionally affect reputation. We explore all second order social norms and study conditions for evolutionary stability of action rules. We observe the competition between “honest” and “hypocritical” strategies. The former cooperate both in public and in private. The later cooperate in public, where many others are watching, but try to get away with defection in private situations. The hypocritical idea is that in private situations it does not pay-off to cooperate, because there is a good chance that nobody will notice it. We find simple and intuitive conditions for the evolution of honest strategies. PMID:26606239
Medicinal plants products are part of the natural products that have been in use in traditional medicine and also a source of novel drugs. Therefore, the use of medicinal plant products would be a rational alternative to synthetic drugs. Ethnobotanical surveys carried out in many parts of Kenya have revealed a lot of plants ...
Mohammed, Ezzeldien Mohammed Nour
This study conducted to evaluate the radiation protection in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in four nuclear medicine departments in Sudan. The evaluated procedures followed in these departments were in accordance with the standards, International Recommendations and code of practice for radiation protection in nuclear medicine. The evolution included the optimum design for diagnostic nuclear medicine departments, dealing with radioactive sources, quality assurance and quality control, training and responsibilities for radiation worker taking into account economic factors in Sudan. Evaluation of radiation protection procedures in diagnostic investigations was carried out by taken direct measurements of dose rate and the contamination level in some areas where radiation sources, radiation workers and public are involved. Designated questionnaires covered thirteen areas of radiation protection based on inspection check list for nuclear medicine prepared by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and American Association of Physicist in Medicine (AAPM) were used in the evaluation. This questionnaire has been Filled by Radiation Protection Officer (RPO), nuclear medicine technologist, nuclear medicine specialist in the nuclear medicine departments. Four hospitals, two governmental hospital and two private hospitals, have been assisted, the assessment shows that although the diagnostic nuclear medicine department in Sudan are not applying a fully safety and radiation protection procedures, but the level of radiation dose and the contamination level were found within acceptable limits. The private hospital D scored the higher level of protection (85.25%) while the governmental hospital C scored the lower level of protection (59.02%). Finally, this study stated some recommendations that if implemented could improve the level of radiation protection in nuclear medicine department. One of the most important recommendations is that a proper radiation protection
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obstetric assistance made major advances in the last 20 years: improved surgical technique allows quicker caesarean sections, anaesthesiology procedures such as peripheral anaesthesia and epidural analgesia made safer operative assistance, remarkably reducing perioperative morbidity and mortality, neonatology greatly improved the results of assistance to low birth weight newborns. A new branch of medicine called “obstetric medicine” gained interest and experience after the lessons of distinguished physicians like Michael De Swiet in England. All together these advances are making successful pregnancies that 20 years ago would have been discouraged or even interrupted: that’s what we call high risk pregnancy. High risk of what? Either complications of pregnancy on pre-existing disease or complications of pre-existing disease on pregnancy. Nowadays, mortality in pregnancy has a medical cause in 80% of cases in Western countries (Confidential Enquiry on Maternal Deaths, UK, 2004. DISCUSSION The background is always changing and we have to take in account of: increase of maternal age; widespread use of assisted fertilization techniques for treatment of infertility; social feelings about maternity desire with increasing expectations from medical assistance; immigration of medically “naive” patients who don’t know to have a chronic disease, but apt and ready to conceive; limited knowledge of feasibility of drug use in pregnancy which may induce both patients and doctors to stopping appropriate drug therapy in condition of severe disease. Preconception counseling, planning the pregnancy, wise use of drugs, regular follow-up throughout the pregnancy and, in selected cases, preterm elective termination of pregnancy may result in excellent outcome both for mother and foetus. CONCLUSIONS Highly committed and specifically trained physicians are required to counsel these patients and to plan their treatment before and during pregnancy.
Tsevelvaanchig, Uranchimeg; Gouda, Hebe; Baker, Peter; Hill, Peter S
The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990 severely impacted the health sector in Mongolia. Limited public funding for the post-Soviet model public system and a rapid growth of poorly regulated private providers have been pressing issues for a government seeking to re-establish universal health coverage. However, the evidence available on the role of private providers that would inform sector management is very limited. This study analyses the current contribution of private hospitals in Mongolia for the improvement of accessibility of health care and efficiency. We used mixed research methods. A descriptive analysis of nationally representative hospital admission records from 2013 was followed by semi-structured interviews that were carried out with purposively selected key informants (N = 45), representing the main actors in Mongolia's mixed health system. Private-for-profit hospitals are concentrated in urban areas, where their financial model is most viable. The result is the duplication of private and public inpatient services, both in terms of their geographical location and the range of services delivered. The combination of persistent inpatient-oriented care and perverse financial incentives that privilege admission over outpatient management, have created unnecessary health costs. The engagement of the private sector to improve population health outcomes is constrained by a series of issues of governance, regulation and financing and the failure of the state to manage the private sector as an integral part of its health system planning. For a mixed system like in Mongolia, a comprehensive policy and plan which defines the complementary role of private providers to optimize private public service mix is critical in the early stages of the private sector development. It further supports the importance of a system perspective that combines regulation and incentives in consistent policy, rather than an isolated approach to provide regulation. © The Author
Matei, Magdalena; Matei, Lucian
The paper highlights the benefits and objectives of competition and privatization in the power sector. The reasons for electric utility privatization are numerous and vary from country to country. Some of the more evident reasons include the following: - Raising revenues for the state through asset sales; - Acquiring investment capital; - Improving managerial performance; - Moving toward market-determined prices; - Technology transfer; - Reducing the frequency of power shortages; - Reducing the cost of electricity to consumers through efficiency gain; - Taking advantage of creating national and regional power grids. Several objectives commonly associated with privatization, includes: - Improving access to private capital resources for the rehabilitation, replacement and eventual expansion of the electric power infrastructure; - Improving access to new technology and management practices designed to improve the performance of the sector; - Reducing corruption through the introduction of commercial practices which will lead to strengthened collections, transparent and accountable delivery of electricity and reduced political interference in commercial operations; - Improving customer service and customer choice through continued reform of the power sector as a result of innovation and reform introduced by the new owners; - Human resources development; - Improving environmental performance . The paper addresses the following items: - Some elements of a successful power sector privatization; - Stockholders' position versus privatization in Romania; - Managing 'The Change'; - Power sector privatization in Romania. The paper demonstrates that the power sector privatization is a key condition for EU's support for Romania accession. The international organization push towards this essential economic change, which will guarantee a real competition and a liberalized energy market in facto. Strategic privatization can be a positive step in improving energy service and
Wendling, Wayne R
This paper addresses the private practice model of dental care delivery in the US. The great majority of dental care services are delivered through this model and thus changes in the model represent a means to substantially change the supply and availability of dental services. The two main forces that change how private practices function are broad economic factors, which alter the demand for dental care and innovations in practice structure and function which alter the supply and cost of services. Economics has long recognized that although there are private market solutions for many issues, not all problems can be addressed through this model. The private practice of dentistry is a private market solution that works for a substantial share of the market. However, the private market may not work to resolve all issues associated with access and utilization. Solutions for some problems call for creative private - public arrangements - another form of innovation; and market-based solutions may not be feasible for each and every problem. This paper discusses these economic factors and innovation as they relate to the private practice of dentistry, with special emphasis on those elements that have increased the capacity of the dental practice to offer services to those with limited means to access fee-based care. Innovations are frequently described as new care delivery models or new workforce models. However, innovation can occur on an ongoing and regular basis as dental practices examine new ways to combine capital and human resources and to leverage the education and skill of the dentists to a greater number of patients. Innovation occurs within a market context as the current and projected economic returns reward the innovation. Innovation can also occur through private-public arrangements. There are indications of available capacity within the existing delivery system to expand service delivery. The Michigan Medicaid Healthy Kids Dental program is discussed as
Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... are commonly used to treat allergies. While these sleep aids are not addictive, your body becomes used ...
Lolli, A. (Bologna Univ. (Italy))
This paper reviews the mechanics and first results of deregulation in the electric power industry of the United Kingdom. Several aspects are dealt with, namely: 1983 Energy Act impacts on ownership and subsequent changes brought about by the 1989 Energy Act; the Act's stipulations with regard to share acquisition and distribution; the division of the patrimony of the Area Boards; natural monopolistic characteristics of power distribution; vertical integration in Scotland, target investment limits in Government and public participation; the 'golden share' concept to guarantee public participation; current 40% share ownership by the Government; 15% private ownership limit for individual investors; external control by Government of licensing and rate structure setting; the impacts of organizational changes on the overall cost benefits of deregulation; modified Governmental regulatory powers; measures to ensure competition and consumer protection; provisions regarding misbehaviour; second tier suppliers and reserve fuel supply obligations; deregulation impacts on nuclear power marketing; power pooling regulations; installation of new transmission lines; provisions encouraging the use of diverse energy sources; franchising; interconnection with national grid; regulation of technical operations; standby as it affects rate structure; and spot market pricing.
This article examines the international trend toward private ownership of state-owned power production, transmission and distribution systems. The topics of the article include trends towards private investment in electric power systems, alternative opportunities for private sector investment, investor objectives in private power development and utility privatization, and potential investors in overseas projects
Donald R. Gedney
Timber resource statistics from a 1973-76 inventory are presented for private timberland in western Oregon. Inventories usually classify private owners as either forest industry or nonindustrial private. For this report, however, the nonindustrial private classification has been further disaggregated into farmer, individual, and corporate owners. For all private owner...
Lassmann, M.; Reiners, C.
The installation of a radiology information system (RIS) connected to a hospital information system (HIS) and a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) seems mandatory for a nuclear medicine department in order to guarantee a high patient throughput. With these systems a fast transmission of reports, images to the in- and out-patients' wards and private practitioners is realized. Therefore, since April 2000, at the department of nuclear medicine of the university of Wuerzburg a completely DICOM based PACS has been implemented in addition to the RIS. With this system a DICOM based workflow is realized throughout the department of nuclear medicine for reporting and archiving. The PACS is connected to six gamma-cameras, a PET scanner, a bone densitometry system and an ultrasound device. The volume of image data archived per month is 4 GByte. Patient demographics are provided to the modalities via DICOM-Worklist. With these PACS components a department specific archive purely based on DICOM can be realized. During the installation process problems occurred mainly because of the complex DICOM standard for nuclear medicine. Related to that is the problem that most of the software implementations still contain bugs or are not adapted to the needs of a nuclear medicine department (particularly for PET). A communication software for the distribution of nuclear medicine reports and images based on techniques used for the worldwide web is currently tested. (orig.) [de
Dabare, Panthihage Ruvini L; Wanigatunge, Chandanie A; Beneragama, Bvs Hemantha
Access to medicines is a universal right. Low availability and low affordability of medicines are issues that deny this right to a significant proportion of the world population. The objective of this study was to determine the availability, price and affordability of essential medicines prescribed to treat non communicable diseases in Sri Lanka. Methodology was based on the 2nd edition of the World Health Organization Health Action International Manual. A country survey was conducted and facilities representing both public and private pharmacies were selected. A total of 109 facilities was surveyed. At each facility data on the availability and prices of 50 essential medicines for non communicable diseases were collected. Percentage availability, median price of originator brand and lowest priced generic, median price ratio to the International Reference Price were calculated for surveyed medicines. Affordability was determined using the daily incomes of the lowest--paid unskilled government worker. Semi government community pharmacies had the highest (>80%) availability while outdoor pharmacies of public health care facilities, private pharmacies and outdoor pharmacies of private hospital showed a fairly high availability (50 - 80%) of surveyed medicines.Unit price of 76% of selected individual medicines was less than ten Sri Lankan rupees. Out of these 28% of medicines cost less than one Sri Lanka rupee. For 21 of the surveyed medicines the median price ratio to the international reference price was less than one. The prices of originator brands for 14 surveyed medicines were more than five times that of the lowest price generics.Less than a single day's wages was adequate to purchase a month's supply of the lowest priced generic of more than 67% of surveyed medicines. The availability of selected essential medicines was fairly high in both public and private sectors in Sri Lanka. Most medicines are affordable to the lowest income earners in the community. There
Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beime, Amos [BEN-GURION UNIV.; Nissim, Kobbi [BEN-GURION UNIV.
Learning is a task that generalizes many of the analyses that are applied to collections of data, and in particular, collections of sensitive individual information. Hence, it is natural to ask what can be learned while preserving individual privacy. [Kasiviswanathan, Lee, Nissim, Raskhodnikova, and Smith; FOCS 2008] initiated such a discussion. They formalized the notion of private learning, as a combination of PAC learning and differential privacy, and investigated what concept classes can be learned privately. Somewhat surprisingly, they showed that, ignoring time complexity, every PAC learning task could be performed privately with polynomially many samples, and in many natural cases this could even be done in polynomial time. While these results seem to equate non-private and private learning, there is still a significant gap: the sample complexity of (non-private) PAC learning is crisply characterized in terms of the VC-dimension of the concept class, whereas this relationship is lost in the constructions of private learners, which exhibit, generally, a higher sample complexity. Looking into this gap, we examine several private learning tasks and give tight bounds on their sample complexity. In particular, we show strong separations between sample complexities of proper and improper private learners (such separation does not exist for non-private learners), and between sample complexities of efficient and inefficient proper private learners. Our results show that VC-dimension is not the right measure for characterizing the sample complexity of proper private learning. We also examine the task of private data release (as initiated by [Blum, Ligett, and Roth; STOC 2008]), and give new lower bounds on the sample complexity. Our results show that the logarithmic dependence on size of the instance space is essential for private data release.
This paper reports on Argentina's push to privatize and attract more foreign investment to its petroleum sector which continues to gather momentum. The Argentine government plans by year end 1992 to sell unprofitable assets of Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales, then sell as much as 50% of the state oil company through an international stock offering. If privatization proceeds as expected, YPF Pres. Jose Estenssoro the, the company's stock will be offered to private investors early in 1993. The company was founded in 1922. By March 1992, Argentina also will begin selling all assets of state owned Gas del Estado (GDE) through an international bidding process expected to take about 18 months
Egerod, Benjamin Carl Krag
colleagues -- who now work as lobbyists -- are. I document that when private sector career prospects improve, so does the probability that the average US senator leaves office to take a lobbying job. There is no effect immediately before a senator's pension scheme improves, and senators, who retire from...... working life after Congress or are elected to a safe seat, are unaffected by private sector career prospects. This indicates that senators react to opportunity costs associated with being in office. Finally, while the results suggest that certain ideological types are more attracted by private sector...
Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bruun, Peter
element of this project, this report presents an inventory of public-private partnerships in Denmark. More specifically, it provides an inventory of past, present and proposed research projects related to food quality and food safety involving both public and private partners. Furthermore it points...... to a number of opportunities for developing public-private partnerships.......Food safety and food quality are issues that are high on the public agenda. To ensure that consumers are able to buy and consume safe and high quality foods is not a trivial matter. It involves numerous actors in the food chain, often from several countries as many food products cross national...
Full Text Available As supposed events being accessible to a unique observer, private events posit an interesting challenge to a behavioristic psychology. Three historical variants of behaviorism dealt with the problem of private events: methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism and interbehaviorism. The basic argument of the two last views, and that distinguishes them from the former, is that private events are comprised into the scope of an objective science of behavior. The analysis of these accounts permits us to confirm a gradual advance in behavior theory, in dealing with this issue, toward a totally monistic view.
Human reproduction is interrelated with privacy. However, in most countries where new reproductive technologies are used public regulations have been passed to provide a legal framework for such technologies. This interference in private life can be justified by the need to control medical intervention in the human reproductive process. But in order to find a balance between public regulations and other social regulations, this article analyses the impact private regulation may have on issues raised by reproductive technologies. It also addresses the issue of the influence of private bodies on the drafting of public regulations.
Conclusion: The present study showed that the current status of functional safety in Isfahan private hospitals is not completely satisfactory and the provincial health managers, especially Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, are expected to regularly monitor planning and decision-making about the risks threatening these hospitals, especially in the areas of contingency plans of medical operations and access to medicines as well as equipment and supplies needed in an emergency situation.
tension in many negotiations between the public and private sector in PPPs ... compensates for higher cost of capital used by private sector partners .... this study, both the public sector client and private sector contractor should share the risks.
ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ
Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the
Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather
During 2012, the USDHHS’s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center established a multidisciplinary steering committee, versed in integrative medicine, whose primary aim was to develop integrative medicine core competencies for incorporation into preventive medicine graduate medical education training. The competency development process was informed by central integrative medicine definitions and principles, preventive medicine’s dual role in clinical and population-based prevention, and the burgeoning evidence base of integrative medicine. The steering committee considered an interdisciplinary integrative medicine contextual framework guided by several themes related to workforce development and population health. A list of nine competencies, mapped to the six general domains of competence approved by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education, was operationalized through an iterative exercise with the 12 grantees in a process that included mapping each site’s competency and curriculum products to the core competencies. The competencies, along with central curricular components informed by grantees’ work presented elsewhere in this supplement, are outlined as a roadmap for residency programs aiming to incorporate integrative medicine content into their curricula. This set of competencies adds to the larger efforts of the IMPriME initiative to facilitate and enhance further curriculum development and implementation by not only the current grantees but other stakeholders in graduate medical education around integrative medicine
Continual growth of conventional nuclear capacity requires an assured supply of enriched uranium and, hence, potential expansion of domestic uranium enrichment capacity. The question of ownership of new enrichment capacity, i.e., public or private, entails not only the social-opportunity costs of alternative investments but also technical parameters of uranium utilization and advanced reactor development. Inclusion of risk preferences in both the public and private sectors produces interesting results in terms of optimal investment strategies with respect to choice of technology and scale of investment. Utilization of a nuclear fuel cycle requirements process model allows explicit specification of production technology. Integration of process model output with a least-cost investment model permits flexibility in parametric analysis. Results indicate minimum incentive for Government subsidy of a private enrichment sector through 2000 given moderate to low nuclear growth assumptions. The long-run scenario, to 2020, exhibits potentially greater incentives for private enrichment investment
The following topics were dealt with: Introduction to EBRD; Investment opportunities; Requirements for successful privatization; Challenges; How EBRD can help. 30 EBRD offices in 27 countries of operations (former Soviet and Socialist countries) are presented. (R.P.)
Full Text Available During the past few years, there has been growing interests in reducing cost of products and services among developing countries. Privatization is believed to be one of the most important techniques to increase relative efficiencies of publically held organizations. In this paper, we study important barriers on privatization of television (TV media industry in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs and distributes a questionnaire using a sample of 234 out of 600 graduate students who were enrolled in media communication studies and examined six hypotheses based on one-side t-student. The survey considers different factors influencing privatization of TV media industry. The results of the investigation indicate that the cost of TV production, short and long-term investment security, people's interest on investing on TV media industry, building appropriate culture, cultural obstacles and economic barriers influence media privatization, significantly.
work.10 Military history has recorded a strong role for private actors in military affairs firmly ..... Evidence records that, while the state military officers found by a military ... Should it be the chief executive officer (CEO) of .... The Financial Times.
Full Text Available The involvement of the private sector in providing education for Syrian refugees has much to commend it but greater consideration needs to be paid to the ethical and practical concerns that may arise.
Dahler-Larsen, Peter; Foged, Søren Kjær
is that dissimilar functional areas are studied which makes it difficult to isolate effects of privatization as such. We respond to these challenges by carrying out an empirical analysis of job satisfaction among teachers who teach Danish to immigrants. The teachers work in comparable schools, carry out the same...... task, and are subject to the same performance management system, but some of the schools are public, some are private, and some have been subject to competitive tendering. We demonstrate that competition has a greater impact than ownership upon job satisfaction. We also show that one of the key...... mechanisms which translate competition into reduced job satisfaction relates to changing relations between managers and employees. Advocates and opponents of privatization alike should pay more attention to specific aspects and mechanisms related to privatization, in particular the element of competition....
...." The reason outsourcing and privatization is so important---moneyZ A conscientious decision to fund operations and maintenance accounts to maintain readiness in light of a very high operations tempo...
In the context of shifting regulatory approaches and changing provision structures in many Western rental housing systems, the notion of competition between social and private rental housing has received increasing attention from practitioners and academic researchers. This thesis explores and
US Agency for International Development — This dataset brings together information collected since 2001 on PPPs that have been supported by USAID. For the purposes of this dataset a Public-Private...
Otahal, P.; Merta, J.; Burian, I.
At least 10 % of inhabitants in the Czech Republic are supplied with water from private sources (private wells, boreholes). With the increasing cost of water, the number of people using their own sources of drinking water will be likely to increase. According to the Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety about the Radiation Protection 307/2002 as amended by Decree 499/2005, the guideline limit for the supplied drinking water ('drinking water for public supply') for radon concentration is 50 Bq.l -1 . This guideline does not apply to private sources of drinking water. Radon in water influences human health by ingestion and also by inhalation when radon is released from water during showering and cooking. This paper presents results of measurements of radon concentrations in water from private wells in more than 300 cases. The gross concentration of alpha-emitting radionuclides and the concentrations of radium and uranium were also determined. (authors)
Full Text Available Background: In political and other debates much of attention is paid to public – private partnerships (PPPs. These partnerships are perceived as a tool of meeting public demand by private supply. In theory there are at least four different forms of contract partnerships according to the amount of risks transferred to the private sector.Conclusions: Public – private partnerships are neither the only neither the preferred way of providing public service. On one hand they tend to lower financial burden of the public sector but on the other hand PPPs require complex ways of management and monitoring. It is highly important to consider specific circumstances of individual projects in question.
Full Text Available Civil and the common law approaching Europe is no longer a “future project”, but more and more rather a present attempt (Kötz, 2003 – 2004. In this prism, concentrating on the European International Private Law within the space of mixed jurisdictions, it may seem surprising in light of the attempts to create a new European ius commune. But is it possible that a unification of the material law may sign the start of the end of the European conflicts of laws? Last but not the least private international law is not just a choice of law. The unification of the private law, in its definition as a concept, does not influence two of the three pillars of the private international law: respectively, that of the jurisdiction and recognition as well as implementation of foreign decisions.
Dec 2, 2004 ... and the manager of public utilities gains comparative adVantages in capturing ... managerial decision—making,and makes evaluation and monitoring .... tion, since in theory the private company should be concerned about.
This report examines and analyzes technical and institutional issues associated with the use of private sector travel time and speed data for public sector performance management. The primary data needs for congestion performance measures are outline...
... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on ... remove lead from my drinking water? What is lead? Lead is a naturally occurring bluish-gray metal ...
Portugal's recently privatized state oil company Petrogal is about to embark on a major expansion worldwide. That comes against the backdrop of major change in Portugal's energy sector and the rocky road to Petrogal's partial privatization. Despite the controversy, there remain opportunities for foreign companies investing in Portugal's energy sector. The most attractive opportunities are in Portugal's downstream petroleum sector and in the country's continuing campaign to develop its natural gas industry. Typical of the latter is Portugal's participation in the Trans-Maghreb gas pipeline megaproject. The paper discusses the background to privatization, its current status, Petrogal strategy, modernization of refineries, a joint partnership with Venezuela, constraints, energy policy program, gas pipeline privatization, and concerns of the gas industry
Butt, Mohsin Muhammad; de Run, Ernest Cyril
This paper seeks to develop and test the SERVQUAL model scale for measuring Malaysian private health service quality. The study consists of 340 randomly selected participants visiting a private healthcare facility during a three-month data collection period. Data were analyzed using means, correlations, principal component and confirmatory factor analysis to establish the modified SERVQUAL scale's reliability, underlying dimensionality and convergent, discriminant validity. Results indicate a moderate negative quality gap for overall Malaysian private healthcare service quality. Results also indicate a moderate negative quality gap on each service quality scale dimension. However, scale development analysis yielded excellent results, which can be used in wider healthcare policy and practice. Respondents were skewed towards a younger population, causing concern that the results might not represent all Malaysian age groups. The study's major contribution is that it offers a way to assess private healthcare service quality. Second, it successfully develops a scale that can be used to measure health service quality in Malaysian contexts.
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer represents the areas of Minnesota that MNDNR Wildlife Private Lands Specialists cover. These boundaries are provided for support mapping and to show...
Vestergaard, Stense; Ravn, Pernille; Hallgreen, Christine Erikstrup; Kaae, Susanne
Background Evidence suggests that there are differences in medicine habits among adolescents with different sociodemographic backgrounds and that peers might also influence medicine use. More knowledge is needed regarding how these aspects together affect how different young people use medicines. Objective To explore the differences in medicine use, perceptions and sharing between adolescents at two different educational (and socio-demographic) settings and assess the influence of parents and peers. Subjects Fifty-nine students from a private high school (HS) and 34 students from a public vocational school (VS) in Denmark between the ages of 15 and 19 years old were subjects in this study. Methods A questionnaire was used that included background, medicine consumption, perceptions and social interaction. Descriptive analyses along with a Fishers test were used to determine differences and similarities between students' medicine patterns at the school settings. Results Of the 93 respondents, 74% used medicine within the past month, with females using more medicines. A significant difference was found with students at the VS using a higher number of medicines. Analgesics were the most frequently consumed medicine; however, reasons for using medicines appear to vary between the schools. Similarities between the schools were identified for perception of safety, sharing medicine and talking primarily with parents about medicine. Conclusion Fewer differences between students' medicine use at two educational settings than expected were identified, showing that aspects other than social background influence adolescents' use of medicine. A general tendency among young people believing that using medicines is a safe might explain these findings.
Gabriella Chiesa; Giovanna Nicodano
Stock market capitalization in developed countries grew while massive privatization plans were in progress. It is however possible that stock market development would have occurred anyway. Below we identify features that are specific to share-issue privatizations (SIPs) and should a priori impact on market liquidity and market size. A positive correlation between such features and market development in a cross section of countries would support the claim that certain types of SIPs contribute ...
This article examines private international law issues raised by transnational contractual networks. The focus is on choice-of-law questions that arise in the context of 1) relations between network members who are contractually bound to one another, 2) relations between network members not connected directly by bonds of contract, and 3) relations between the network and the outsiders. The aim is to assess whether, and to what extent, European private international law is capable of dealing w...
M.Comm. Since the creation of private banking in the 16th century, it has evolved from a discreet service for the wealthy few to a broader base of services provided for high net worth individuals. Private banking today offers a complex, highly diverse array of personalised wealth preservation, -creation and —management services for a growing population of sophisticated and affluent individuals. Such people have multiple needs that range from banking services to investment and estate planni...
In many welfare states, tightening financial constraints suggest excluding some medical services, including new ones, from social security coverage. This may create opportunities for private health insurance. This study analyses the performance of supplementary private health insurance (SPHI) in markets for excluded services in terms of population covered, risk selection and insurer profits. Using a utility-based simulation model, the insurance market is described as a composite of sub-market...
Perritt, Stuart E.
CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited Privatization does save money for the vast majority of functions. The clearest evidence to support this is a Pentagon study of 235 separate privatization competitions between 1980 and 1982. Follow-up studies indicated that competitive contracting saved 22%. A side benefit was that the in-house organizations that won their competitions improved on their precompetition costs by 18%. Publ...
Brotman, Billie Ann
This article examines demand factors for sophisticated medical treatments offered by private hospitals operating in India. Three types of medical tourism exist: Outbound, Inbound, and Intrabound. Increased profitability and positive growth trends by private hospital chains can be attributed to rising domestic income levels within India. Not all of the chains examined were financially solvent. Some of the hospital groups in this sample that advertised directly to potential Inbound medical tourists appear to be experiencing negative cash flows.
Gustavo E. Fischman
Full Text Available Local actors' perceptions of curricular and management changes in two private schools and one neighboring public secondary school in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, are analyzed. An exploration was conducted of how, within an ideologically and politically pro-reform context and a widespread acceptance of the "private school advantage," principals, teachers, and students in these schools evaluated the changes (or lack of them in management, teaching, and curriculum orientations of the secondary education sector.
conceptualization and planning are required when pursuing privatization projects. In fact, privatization project proponents need to know how to...selection of projects for analysis, methods of acquiring information about these projects, and the analysis framwork . Chapter IV includes the analysis. A...performed an analysis to determine cormion conceptual and creative approaches and lessons learned. This analysis was then used to develop criteria for
Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from
Xara-Brasil, Duarte; Marreiros, Cristina; Dionísio, Andreia
Trabalho apresentado na AMA/ACRA First Triennial Conference, 18-21 de abril de 2012, Seattle, USA This paper presents a conceptual framework to analyze private label brand equity in a retail context. Several authors proposed brand equity models as Aaker (1996), Keller (1993) and Yoo and Donthu (2001), and specific research has been done in retail industry (Jara & Cliquet, 2009), (Pappu & Quester, 2006). To study private label brand equity, we suggest a framework based on the Yo...
Wolfe, Kristin Roeschenthaler
Public vs. private is an ongoing concern in communication. This book examines this phenomenon through self-representational writing and the philosophical lens of Hannah Arendt's public vs. private theory, the Boundary Management theory, and the Parasocial Framework theory to examine the first social networking platform: personal blogs. By starting with a look back at self-representational writing, the book also examines how much information individuals have shared with each other through this format historically.
Figueroa, Maria Josefina; Greve, Carsten
The provision of transport infrastructure and services creates fundamental value to society. With traditional sources of transport public funding running short, governments around the world are increasingly turning to public-private finance (PPPs) as a promising tool of public infrastructure...... of the public but of the private actor as well, to act perhaps motivated by corporate social responsibility, committing to bringing innovation and transparency in their efforts for advancing sustainability....
Gustavo E. Fischman
Local actors' perceptions of curricular and management changes in two private schools and one neighboring public secondary school in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, are analyzed. An exploration was conducted of how, within an ideologically and politically pro-reform context and a widespread acceptance of the "private school advantage," principals, teachers, and students in these schools evaluated the changes (or lack of them) in management, teaching, and curriculum orientations of the se...
Reichert, Janice M; Milne, Christopher-Paul
Recently, well-publicized reports by Public Citizen and the Joint Economic Committee (JEC) of the US Congress questioned the role of the drug industry in the discovery and development of therapeutically important drugs. To gain a better understanding of the relative roles of the public and private sectors in pharmaceutic innovation, the Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development evaluated the underlying National Institutes of Health (NIH) and academic research cited in the Public Citizen and JEC reports and performed its own assessment of the relationship between the private and public sectors in drug discovery and development of 21 "impact" drugs. We found that, ultimately, any attempt to measure the relative contribution of the public and private sectors to the research and development (R&D) of therapeutically important drugs by output alone, such as counting publications or even product approvals, is flawed. Several key factors (eg, degree of uncertainty, expected market value, potential social benefit) affect investment decisions and determine whether public or private sector funds, or both, are most appropriate. Because of the competitiveness and complexity of today's R&D environment, both sectors are increasingly challenged to show returns on their investment and the traditional boundaries separating the roles of the private and public research spheres have become increasingly blurred. What remains clear, however, is that the process still starts with good science and ends with good medicine.
The issue of energy privatization in the Middle East was discussed with particular examples from Kuwait. The development of Kuwait's domestic political institutions is unique in the Arab Gulf which makes privatization more complicated than in other Middle Eastern countries. The major issue in Kuwait is whether foreign investors and domestic private investors will be allowed equity participation in oil and gas production projects. It was suggested that the answer depends on general assessments of national financial and state security interests and on individual case judgements respecting each potential partnership. Historically, one of the main reasons for nationalization of private investment in oil and gas in the Middle East was the desire of governments to increase state revenues. Nationalization permitted states to set prices and production levels themselves and to keep the difference between costs and prices instead of sharing it with corporate owners. However, nationalization is not without its problems as indicated by the difficulties encountered by governments in trying to make the the OPEC-managed hydrocarbon regime work. The three main reasons for the current willingness of Middle Eastern governments to consider re-admitting private companies as equity participants in their energy industries, namely market share and terms of access, interstate disputes, and desire to minimize corruption, were also discussed. It was suggested that these are strong arguments that support taking another look at privatization as a strategy that is in the long-term interest of Middle Eastern oil producing states. 19 refs
Barberis, M; Paxman, J M
Private support for the development of family planning programs continues to grow and now includes industries that provide family planning services, commercial outlets that distribute contraceptives, community groups that help to build demand, private medical practitioners who include contraception as a part of health care, organizations that provide technical and financial assistance to developing country programs, pharmaceutical firms, and foundations that underwrite contraceptive research. Although the mix of private and public programs differs from country to country, these 2 family planning programs complement each other and often work in close partnership. The private sector has the advantages of being able to pioneer innovative programs the public sector is unwilling or unable to pursue, to bring foreign financial and technical assistance to developing countries without political implications, and to achieve financially self-sustaining family planning efforts that are linked to other development efforts. In many countries, the private sector has been instrumental in developing a national family planning program and in eliminating barriers to family planning in countries with restrictive laws and policies. The private sector has been especially important in pioneering grassroots programs that improve the status of women through education, health care, training, and economic opportunity.
Mauricio Olivera; Felipe Barrera
This paper studies the effects of water sector privatization on consumers’ welfare in 46 municipalities in Colombia. First, the privatization process is described. Second, the paper evaluates the impact of privatization on access, price, and quality of water as well as health outcomes using differences-in-differences methodology with variation across time (before and after privatization) and between treatment and control groups (privatized and non-privatized municipalities) and controlling fo...
Private equity has been the best performing asset class for institutional investors. Meanwhile, retail investors have been left out from the asset class for several reasons, such as legislation and wealth profiling. This study aims at assessing the types of private equity vehicles that could be the most appropriate for Finnish retail investors. The study solely focuses on the investment opportunities, hence it does not cover investment behaviour. Private equity should not be a primary as...
Doherty, Jane E
International evidence shows that, if poorly regulated, the private health sector may lead to distortions in the type, quantity, distribution, quality and price of health services, as well as anti-competitive behaviour. This article provides an overview of legislation governing the for-profit private health sector in East and Southern Africa. It identifies major implementation problems and suggests strategies Ministries of Health could adopt to regulate the private sector more effectively and in line with key public health objectives. This qualitative study was based on a document review of existing legislation in the region, and seven semi-structured interviews with individuals selected purposively on the basis of their experience in policymaking and legislation. Legislation was categorized according to its objectives and the level at which it operates. A thematic content analysis was conducted on interview transcripts. Most legislation focuses on controlling the entry of health professionals and organizations into the market. Most countries have not developed adequate legislation around behaviour following entry. Generally the type and quality of services provided by private practitioners and facilities are not well-regulated or monitored. Even where there is specific health insurance regulation, provisions seldom address open enrolment, community rating and comprehensive benefit packages (except in South Africa). There is minimal control of prices. Several countries are updating and improving legislation although, in most cases, this is without the benefit of an overarching policy on the private sector, or reference to wider public health objectives. Policymakers in the East and Southern African region need to embark on a programme of action to strengthen regulatory frameworks and instruments in relation to private health care provision and insurance. They should not underestimate the power of the private health sector to undermine efforts for increased
Full Text Available Background: Improvement of medical education is necessary for meeting health care demands. Participation of private practice physicians in ambulatory care training is an effective method for enhancing medical students' skills. Purpose This study was undertaken to determine clinical professors' views about participation of physicians with private office in ambulatory care training. Methods: Participants composed of 162 Shiraz Medical University faculty members from 12 disciplines. A questionnaire requesting faculty members' views on different aspects of ambulat01y care teaching and interaction of community-based organizations was distributed. Results: Of 120 (74.1% respondents, 64 (54.2% believed that clinical settings of medical university are appropriate for ambulatory care training. Private practice physicians believed more than academic physicians without private office that private offices have wider range of patients, more common cases, and better follow up chance; and is also a better setting for learning ambulatory care compared with medical university clinical centers. Overall, 32 (29.1% respondent’s found the participation of physicians with private practice on medical education positive. Key words medical education, ambulatory medicine, private practice
Carrasco-Ramiro, F; Peiró-Pastor, R; Aguado, B
The completion of the Human Genome Project (HGP) in 2001 opened the floodgates to a deeper understanding of medicine. There are dozens of HGP-like projects which involve from a few tens to several million genomes currently in progress, which vary from having specialized goals or a more general approach. However, data generation, storage, management and analysis in public and private cloud computing platforms have raised concerns about privacy and security. The knowledge gained from further research has changed the field of genomics and is now slowly permeating into clinical medicine. The new precision (personalized) medicine, where genome sequencing and data analysis are essential components, allows tailored diagnosis and treatment according to the information from the patient's own genome and specific environmental factors. P4 (predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory) medicine is introducing new concepts, challenges and opportunities. This review summarizes current sequencing technologies, concentrates on ongoing human genomics projects, and provides some examples in which precision medicine has already demonstrated clinical impact in diagnosis and/or treatment.
Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce a new strategic direction for the multinational pharmaceutical companies in terms of the access to essential, life-saving medicines. The multinational pharmaceutical companies have been severely criticized by their various stakeholders because of their business models, particularly because of the stringent patent protection on the pharmaceutical products. The multinational pharmaceutical companies should find a new strategic direction to balance their R&D-intensive, expensive business with the access to essential, lifesaving medicines since favorable public relations are critical for the multinational pharmaceutical companies to maintain their profitable business. This paper adopts an Analogical Reasoning Model (ARM to propose a new strategic direction for the multinational pharmaceutical companies in an effort to balance their expensive business with the enhanced social responsibility. In essence, the ARM helps the multinational pharmaceutical companies formulate viable strategies that can realize a win-win situation not only for their stakeholders but also for the pharmaceutical companies themselves. The ARM is constructed, analyzing the food and beverage industry as a source environment, and suggests a comprehensive, industry-wide, multi-stakeholder public-private partnership, led not by the public sector but by the multinational pharmaceutical companies.
Miettinen, Olli S
Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian
Randomness is an important resource for many applications, from gambling to secure communication. However, guaranteeing that the output from a candidate random source could not have been predicted by an outside party is a challenging task, and many supposedly random sources used today provide no such guarantee. Quantum solutions to this problem exist, for example a device which internally sends a photon through a beamsplitter and observes on which side it emerges, but, presently, such solutions require the user to trust the internal workings of the device. Here, we seek to go beyond this limitation by asking whether randomness can be generated using untrusted devices-even ones created by an adversarial agent-while providing a guarantee that no outside party (including the agent) can predict it. Since this is easily seen to be impossible unless the user has an initially private random string, the task we investigate here is private randomness expansion. We introduce a protocol for private randomness expansion with untrusted devices which is designed to take as input an initially private random string and produce as output a longer private random string. We point out that private randomness expansion protocols are generally vulnerable to attacks that can render the initial string partially insecure, even though that string is used only inside a secure laboratory; our protocol is designed to remove this previously unconsidered vulnerability by privacy amplification. We also discuss extensions of our protocol designed to generate an arbitrarily long random string from a finite initially private random string. The security of these protocols against the most general attacks is left as an open question.
Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian
Randomness is an important resource for many applications, from gambling to secure communication. However, guaranteeing that the output from a candidate random source could not have been predicted by an outside party is a challenging task, and many supposedly random sources used today provide no such guarantee. Quantum solutions to this problem exist, for example a device which internally sends a photon through a beamsplitter and observes on which side it emerges, but, presently, such solutions require the user to trust the internal workings of the device. Here, we seek to go beyond this limitation by asking whether randomness can be generated using untrusted devices—even ones created by an adversarial agent—while providing a guarantee that no outside party (including the agent) can predict it. Since this is easily seen to be impossible unless the user has an initially private random string, the task we investigate here is private randomness expansion. We introduce a protocol for private randomness expansion with untrusted devices which is designed to take as input an initially private random string and produce as output a longer private random string. We point out that private randomness expansion protocols are generally vulnerable to attacks that can render the initial string partially insecure, even though that string is used only inside a secure laboratory; our protocol is designed to remove this previously unconsidered vulnerability by privacy amplification. We also discuss extensions of our protocol designed to generate an arbitrarily long random string from a finite initially private random string. The security of these protocols against the most general attacks is left as an open question.
Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)
Randomness is an important resource for many applications, from gambling to secure communication. However, guaranteeing that the output from a candidate random source could not have been predicted by an outside party is a challenging task, and many supposedly random sources used today provide no such guarantee. Quantum solutions to this problem exist, for example a device which internally sends a photon through a beamsplitter and observes on which side it emerges, but, presently, such solutions require the user to trust the internal workings of the device. Here, we seek to go beyond this limitation by asking whether randomness can be generated using untrusted devices-even ones created by an adversarial agent-while providing a guarantee that no outside party (including the agent) can predict it. Since this is easily seen to be impossible unless the user has an initially private random string, the task we investigate here is private randomness expansion. We introduce a protocol for private randomness expansion with untrusted devices which is designed to take as input an initially private random string and produce as output a longer private random string. We point out that private randomness expansion protocols are generally vulnerable to attacks that can render the initial string partially insecure, even though that string is used only inside a secure laboratory; our protocol is designed to remove this previously unconsidered vulnerability by privacy amplification. We also discuss extensions of our protocol designed to generate an arbitrarily long random string from a finite initially private random string. The security of these protocols against the most general attacks is left as an open question.
Linder, R.; Rodriguez, J.
Due to the unintended disposal of radioactive legacies (waste from medicine, industry or private persons) radioactive material occasionally enters the disposal ways of conventional waste. The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (SFOPH) and the Swiss accident Insurance Fund (Swiss) are the licensing authorities and regulatory agencies of the handling with radioactive materials for non-nuclear use. The aim is to avoid such incidents with concrete measures and so to preserve men and environment from the negative effect of not correctly disposed radioactive waste. (orig.)
Gregebo, Birgitta; Dai, Deliang; Schillberg, Birgitta; Baehr, Martin; Nyström, Bo; Taube, Adam
In the 2006 yearly report from the Swedish National Register for Lumbar Spine Surgery it was claimed that international studies show obvious differences between private and non-private patients with regard to results from back surgery. Therefore our aim was to reveal such possible differences by comparing the two categories of patients at a private clinic. The material comprises 1184 patients operated on for lumbar disc herniation during the period of 1987 to 2007. Basic pre-operative data were obtained from the medical records and follow-up was performed by a questionnaire around 5 years post-operatively. Small but statistically significant differences between private and non-private patients were seen pre-operatively regarding the proportions of a/ men and women in the samples, b/ those with physically demanding jobs, c/ those on sick leave and d/ those with lumbar pain. Over the years the admitted private patients had a decreasing mean duration of symptoms which was not seen in the non-private patients. No apparent differences (n.s.) were seen between the two categories of patients pre-operatively regarding age, presence and level of leg pain or the proportion who smoked. Post-operative improvement in leg and lumbar pain was very similar in private and non-private patients as was satisfaction with the results and the proportion of patients returning to work. Despite small pre-operative differences concerning some variables and a significant difference in symptom duration between private and non-private disc herniation patients, the final clinical results were very similar.
Ridoutt, L.; Cowell, S.; Bush, V.
A workforce study of 30 organisations was conducted in response to staffing difficulties in public hospital nuclear medicine departments. It was found that out of a total of 165.5 full-time equivalent establishment positions existed in public hospitals and the private sector, only 135.38 were filled. The vacancy level of about 15% was considered to be above the acceptable norm. Growth in demand between 1989 and 1993 is estimated at 46.7% and 89.1% in the public and private sector respectively. Recommendations are made to reduce losses from the workforce. 2 figs., tabs
Personalized healthcareor what the award-winning author Donna Dickenson calls Me Medicine"is radically transforming our longstanding, one-size-fits-all" model. Technologies such as direct-to-consumer genetic testing, pharmacogenetics in cancer care, private umbilical cord blood banking, and neurocognitive enhancement claim to cater to an individual's specific biological character. In some cases, these technologies have shown powerful potential, yet in others, they have produced negligible or even negative results. Whatever is behind the rise of Me Medicine, it isn't just science. So why is Me Medicine rapidly edging out We Medicine, and how has our commitment to collective health suffered as a result? In her balanced, provocative analysis, Dickenson examines the economic and political factors fueling the Me Medicine phenomenon and explores whether it may, over time, damage our individual health as well as our collective well-being. Historically, it is the measures of We Medicine," such as vaccinatio...
The world scene is sketched in which nuclear power already contributes 600 Mtce/year to world energy but where public attitudes in the developed world have become largely hostile. This is despite the proven technology of nuclear power, its safety record (Chernobyl notwithstanding) and its environmentally benign aspects. The United Kingdom government's determination to ensure a continuing role for nuclear power in a privatized electricity supply industry is seen against this background. The structure of the British nuclear power industry undoubtedly presents difficulties for privatization but solutions are available and precedents for private sector nuclear power exist in other countries. Private sector operators will be required to meet the exacting standards set by the independent licensing authority but in view of the public concern redoubled efforts and new approaches will be necessary in public persuasion. Waste disposal is another issue which may have implications for the acceptability of nuclear power in the public sector. Finally, the prospects for investment in new nuclear plant by private generation companies are examined. (U.K.)
Van Den Heever, A M
This paper discusses some of the trends, debates and policy proposals in relation to the financing of the private health sector in South Africa. The public and private sectors in South Africa are of equivalent size in terms of overall expenditure, but cover substantially different population sizes. Within this context the government has reached the unavoidable conclusion that the private sector has to play some role in ensuring that equity, access and efficiency objectives are achieved for the health system as a whole. However, the private sector is some way off from taking on this responsibility. Substantial increases in per capita costs over the past 15 years, coupled with a degree of deregulation by the former government, have resulted in increasing instability and volatility. The development of a very competitive medical scheme (health insurance) market reinforced by intermediaries with commercial interests has accelerated trends toward excluding high health risks from cover. The approach taken by the government has been to define a new environment which leaves the market open for extensive competition, but removes from schemes the ability to compete by discriminating against high health risks. The only alternatives left to the private market, policy makers hope, will be to go out of business, or to survive through productivity improvements.
Full Text Available Cell-cell communication, also termed quorum sensing (QS, is a widespread process that coordinates gene expression in bacterial populations. The generally accepted view is that QS optimizes the cell density-dependent benefit attained from cooperative behaviors, often in the form of secreted products referred to as “public goods.” This view is challenged by an increasing number of cell-associated products or “private goods” reported to be under QS-control for which a collective benefit is not apparent. A prominent example is nucleoside hydrolase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a periplasmic enzyme that catabolizes adenosine. Several recent studies have shown that private goods can function to stabilize cooperation by co-regulated public goods, seemingly explaining their control by QS. Here we argue that this property is a by-product of selection for other benefits rather than an adaptation. Emphasizing ecophysiological context, we propose alternative explanations for the QS control of private goods. We suggest that the benefit attained from private goods is associated with high cell density, either because a relevant ecological condition correlates with density, or because the private good is, directly or indirectly, involved in cooperative behavior. Our analysis helps guide a systems approach to QS, with implications for antivirulence drug design and synthetic biology.
Full Text Available The Republic of Serbia is one of the last countries that legally regulate the private security sector, which is a new conceptual system of the national security system. Since the law is expected to solve many issues and dilemmas, and bring order to the area, which by some accounts is a very profitable branch of economy. Expectations were that by the end to regulate issues such as: 1 the need for institutionalization of partnership between the public and private sectors for mutual benefit, 2 the need of expressing mutual interest to establish the desired condition of security in the entire society and 3 the need to define the mechanisms and authority to achieve mentioned above. Based on this, legal framework of private security should explicitly provide: 1 a new role of the private sector, 2 communication and data exchange between the public and private sector, 3 mandatory notification about prepared or committed criminal acts on which there is information, 4 cooperation in the tasks of necessarily protected facilities, 4 cooperation in crisis situations including natural disasters, traffic accidents, strikes, sabotage, terrorist attacks, etc., 5 cooperate in the selection and training of staff and 6 cooperation in planning activities and project design of security. This paper presents a critical review of some theoretical and professional controversies in the solutions provided by law, for the purpose of answering whether it is achieving the purpose of passing of such a legal act.
Full Text Available ... are small, diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures result in low radiation exposure, acceptable for diagnostic exams. Thus, the radiation risk is very low compared with the potential benefits. Nuclear medicine diagnostic ...
Full Text Available ... What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed to help diagnose childhood disorders that are congenital (present at birth) or that develop during childhood. Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to ...
Full Text Available ... Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special ... is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine ...
Full Text Available ... Tell your doctor about your child’s recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications and allergies. Depending on the type ... Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material ...
Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. In many centers, nuclear medicine images can ...
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Full Text Available ... interventions. Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine refers to imaging examinations done in babies, young children and teenagers. Nuclear ... nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is made by passing x-rays ...
Of the 58 men who tested positive for oral gonorrhoea, 33 were randomly ... Medicine suggests that compressing this amount of physical activity into a weekend ... practise medicine differently; for example, women are more likely to adhere to ...
Full Text Available ... MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... at birth) or that develop during childhood. Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to evaluate organ systems, including ...
... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Herbal Medicine URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...
Full Text Available ... child is taking as well as vitamins and herbal supplements and if he or she has any ... What are the limitations of Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine procedures can be time consuming. It ...
Full Text Available ... Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? What are some common uses of the procedure? How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? What does the equipment look like? How is ...
Full Text Available ... that are congenital (present at birth) or that develop during childhood. Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to evaluate organ ... Nuclear medicine scans are typically used to ...
Full Text Available ... referring physician. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits The information provided by nuclear medicine examinations is ... risk is very low compared with the potential benefits. Nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures have been used for ...
Full Text Available ... Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...
Full Text Available In this paper, first, I want to clarify the nature and function of private property. Second, I want to clarify the distinction between “common” goods and property and “public” goods and property, and explain the construction error inherent in the institution of public goods and property. Third, I want to explain the rationale and principle of privatization.
Private tutoring has become popular throughout the world. However, evidence for the effect of private tutoring on students' academic outcome is inconclusive; therefore, this paper presents an alternative framework: a nonparametric bounds method. The present examination uses, for the first time, a large representative data-set in a European setting…
This article examines the emergence of the public university in Kenya as a key provider of private higher education, characterised mainly by the phenomenon of the "private public university student." It probes the broader socio-economic reforms circumscribing the privatisation of Kenya's public universities and the local and global…
Lane, Jason E.; Kinser, Kevin
Privatization trends in higher education have typically been analyzed from the perspective of the institution and its relationship with the sponsoring state. The recent phenomenon of international cross-border higher education, however, represents a more complicated picture of privatization. Geographic separation from the sponsoring state is an…
Lau, Cheng Man Diana; Yuen, Pong Kau
The development of private higher education in Macau has experienced rapid growth in the past two decades. The purpose of this paper is to understand this trend by investigating the facts and figures supplied by official sources and to analyze the role between the Government and the private sector. This paper shows that the attitude of the Macau…
Adams, Olin L., III; Robichaux, Rebecca R.; Guarino, A. J.
This research compares the status of managerial accounting practices in public four-year colleges and universities and in private four-year colleges and universities. The investigators surveyed a national sample of chief financial officers (CFOs) at two points in time, 1998-99 and 2003-04. In 1998-99 CFOs representing private institutions reported…
Pazzagli, M.; Malentacchi, F.; Mancini, I.
diagnostic tools and expertise and commands proper state-of-the-art knowledge about Personalized Medicine and Laboratory Medicine in Europe, the joint Working Group "Personalized Laboratory Medicine" of the EFLM and ESPT societies compiled and conducted the Questionnaire "Is Laboratory Medicine ready...... in "omics"; 2. Additional training for the current personnel focused on the new methodologies; 3. Incorporation in the Laboratory of new competencies in data interpretation and counselling; 4. Improving cooperation and collaboration between professionals of different disciplines to integrate information...
The Annals of African Medicine is published by the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria and the Annals of African Medicine Society. The Journal is intended to serve as a medium for the publication of research findings in the broad field of Medicine in Africa and other developing countries, and ...
Houser, Daniel; Montinari, Natalia; Piovesan, Marco
impulse for several minutes in order to benefit others. In Public Condition children make decisions in public view of the group of other participants, while in Private Condition they have the possibility to decide privately. We find that children aged 9 and higher are better able to resist selfish......Are selfish impulses less likely to be pursued when decisions are publicly observable? Is the presence of peers a potential solution to social dilemmas? In this paper we report data on the self-control decisions of children aged 6 to 11 who participated in games that require one to resist a selfish...... impulses in public environments. Younger children, however, display no such effect. Further, we find self-control substantially impacted by group size. When decisions are public, self-control is better in larger groups, while in private condition the opposite holds....
Full Text Available This study investigates Loyalty Model of Private University Student by using STIKOM London School of Public Relation as a study case. This study examined the model from service quality, college image, price, trust and satisfaction perspective. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine and analyze the effect of service quality, college image, tuition fee, trust and satisfaction towards students’ loyalty; the effect of service quality, college image, price and satisfaction towards trust; and the effect of service quality, college image and price towards satisfaction. This study used survey methodology with causal design. The samples of the study are 320 college students. The gathering of data is conducted by using questionnaire in likert scale. The analysis of the data used a Structural Equation Model (SEM approach. The implication of this study is portraying a full contextual description of loyalty model in private university by giving an integrated and innovated contribution to Student Loyalty Model in private university..
Rogers, W.L.; Bourgeacq, J.P.
This paper addresses different aspects of exporting the American knowledge and experience in the private development of small-scale hydropower projects. It details the 'export' and 'adaptation/translation' of American PURPA philosophy to other countries. The major stumbling blocks on the road to exportation are listed. The subject countries'market evaluation is explained, as well as methods for researching and gathering the necessary information on a specific country. Methods of choosing a target country are discussed, and the criteria necessary for making a choice are detailed. The subject of legal framework and privatization of power generation issues overseas and the ways and means to help the 'export of U.S. expertise' through U.S. Government programs are described. The subjects of financing and joint ventures with local entities are also included in this paper. Various scenarios for private development overseas are presented
Buser, Martine; Koch, Christian
these various sectors in producing present public services. The paper analyse the emergent network and the metagovernance frame. Examples of Danish PPP are given highlighting the role of the construction firms. The experiences illustrate the importance of recognizing public private partnerships as emergent......The establishment of private public partnerships in Denmark in relation to construction has been a long and reluctant process. In the spring of 2004 however the government launched an action plan and PPP arrangements are now emerging. A first wave of PPP arrangements started flourishing however...... of networking, learning and establishing of institutions. Drawing on new public management perspectives it is argued that the future model of public services is the network of a mixed set of players (private, voluntary and public). Such networks might be strong in combining forces and strength from...
Alford, John; Greve, Carsten
Strategic concepts and practices first evolved in the private sector, so they evoked much controversy when they migrated to the public sector from the late 1970s onwards. Partly this was about their (in)applicability to the distinctive features of government organizations, in particular their focus...... on public as well as private value, their situation in a political rather than a market environment, their almost exclusive capacity to use legal authority to achieve purposes, and the extent to which they often need to share power over personnel and resources with other public sector agencies....... These and other factors complicated efforts to apply New Public Management and similar frameworks in strategy concepts in a governmental context. Partly also the traditional private-sector focus on single organizations did not resonate with the growth of network governance from the 1990s. The authors argue...
The health insurance business in India has seen a growth of over 25% per annum in the last few years with the expansion of the private health insurance sector. The premium incomes of health insurance have crossed the Rs 8,000 crore mark with the share of private companies increasing to over 41%. This is despite the fact that from the perspective of patients, health insurance is not a good deal, especially when they need it most. This raises a number of ethical issues regarding how the health insurance business runs and how medical practice adjusts to it for profiteering. This article uses the personal experience of the author to argue that health insurance in an unregulated environment can only lead to unethical practices, further victimising the patient. Further, publicly financed healthcare which operates in an environment regulating both public and private healthcare provisioning is the only way to assure access to ethical and equitable healthcare to people.
Full Text Available This study investigates Loyalty Model of Private University Student by using STIKOM London School of Public Relation as a study case. This study examined the model from service quality, college image, price, trust and satisfaction perspective. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine and analyze the effect of service quality, college image, tuition fee, trust and satisfaction towards students’ loyalty; the effect of service quality, college image, price and satisfaction towards trust; and the effect of service quality, college image and price towards satisfaction. This study used survey methodology with causal design. The samples of the study are 320 college students. The gathering of data is conducted by using questionnaire in likert scale. The analysis of the data used a Structural Equation Model (SEM approach. The implication of this study is portraying a full contextual description of loyalty model in private university by giving an integrated and innovated contribution to Student Loyalty Model in private university.
Daniel R. Tomal
Full Text Available Massive open online courses (MOOCs and public and private cloud communities continue to flourish in the field of higher education. However, MOOCs have received criticism in recent years and offer little benefit to students already enrolled at an institution. This article advocates for the collaborative creation and use of institutional, program or student-specific private cloud communities developed as a way to promote academic identity, information dissemination, social discourse, and to form a bridge between faculty, administration and students. Concrete steps to build a private cloud are described. Placing a greater emphasis on meeting the needs of enrolled students versus engaging the masses in a MOOC for “edutainment” purposes is recommended.
Andrew Metrick; Ayako Yasuda
We review the theory and evidence on venture capital (VC) and other private equity: why professional private equity exists, what private equity managers do with their portfolio companies, what returns they earn, who earns more and why, what determines the design of contracts signed between (i) private equity managers and their portfolio companies and (ii) private equity managers and their investors (limited partners), and how/whether these contractual designs affect outcomes. Findings highlig...
... assessments to private schools and private school students. (a) Nothing in § 200.1 or § 200.2 requires a... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of a State's academic assessments to private schools and private school students. 200.10 Section 200.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of...
Sandra Rubin Glass
Full Text Available
School choice is the most controversial education policy issue of the 1990s. John Chubb and Terry Moe's Politics, Markets and America's Schools stimulated this investigation. They concluded that teacher and administrator autonomy was the most important influence on student achievement. They assumed that the organization of private schools offered greater autonomy resulting in higher student achievement and that the bureaucracy of public schools stifles autonomy limiting student achievement. The research undertaken here elaborates, elucidates, and fills in the framework of teacher and principal autonomy in public and private secondary schools. Interviews of more than thirty teachers and administrators in six high schools, observations, field notes, and analysis of documents collected in the field form the empirical base of this work. The sites included three private, independent, nondenominational secondary schools which are college preparatory and three public secondary schools noted for high graduation rates and offering numerous advanced placement courses.
The feelings expressed by both public and private school participants in this study testify to equally high degrees of autonomy. Issues that emerged from data analysis in this study which mitigate and shape autonomy include the following: conflicting and contradictory demands, shared beliefs, layers of protection, a system of laws, funding constraints and matters of size of the institution. These issues challenge oversimplified assertions that differences of any importance exist between the autonomy experienced by professionals in public and private high schools. This study reveals the complexity of the concept of autonomy and challenges the myth that teachers and principals in private schools enjoy autonomy and freedom from democratic bureaucracy that their public school counterparts do not.
... Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine Small Text Medium Text Large Text Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine YESTERDAY ...
Mondello, Gerard Camille
The civil strict liability regime of the electronuclear industry is a fundamental variable for preventing risk. Because prices of other energies as oil or gas are becoming higher and unpredictable, nuclear power becomes cost-effective and may favour the partial privatization of nuclear parks. By considering theoretical traditional liability models, we study the conditions that ensure the most efficient safety level when comparing natural monopoly situation and Bertrand duopoly. Our results are that natural monopoly is safer than duopoly only when strict liability is fully applied. We define conditions that neutralize risk for applying some privatization plan to nuclear park
De Martini, Francesco; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo; Nagali, Eleonora; Sansoni, Linda; Sciarrino, Fabio
The quantum private query is a quantum cryptographic protocol to recover information from a database, preserving both user and data privacy: the user can test whether someone has retained information on which query was asked and the database provider can test the amount of information released. Here we discuss a variant of the quantum private query algorithm that admits a simple linear optical implementation: it employs the photon's momentum (or time slot) as address qubits and its polarization as bus qubit. A proof-of-principle experimental realization is implemented.
Full Text Available Restaurant Management System over Private Network is an automated business environment which allows restaurants to reduce operational costs increase efficiency of business improve customer satisfaction cut down labour costs decrease order processing time and provide better Quality-of-ServiceQ-S. This system manages a digital menu allowing the customers to place orders easily. Authentication fields for employees enable better administration of the restaurant. The whole restaurant is integrated into one private network thereby improving security and eliminating the need for a constant internet connection.
Andersen, Simon Calmar; Serritzlew, Søren
We examine whether competition from private schools improves public school performance and expenditure. It is difficult methodologically to isolate the effect of competition, but we use new measures of competition in both the public and the private school sector and a data set comprising detailed...... background information on more than 35,000 public school students in the Danish voucher system. This design provides a relatively firm support for the conclusion that competition does not improve achievement of public school students but that it increases public expenditure per student. Finally, we argue...
Nissen, Helle Aarøe
The article explores the interplay between conflicting logics, when private firms interact with potential public customers, as the firms aim to commercialize welfare innovations developed through Public Private Innovation (PPI) projects. Commercialization of welfare innovations in healthcare may...... be challenging, as a ‘not invented here’ (NIH) logic is perceived as present across hospitals in the Danish healthcare system. Based on a study of 17 PPI projects 5 cases are investigated consisting of 5 PPI projects, where 1 extreme case is illustrated in depth. The findings show that firms experience...
Judit Creixans Tenas
Full Text Available Purpose: The present study reflects the economic and financial analysis of private hospitals with non-charitable character in Catalonia 2008-2013. The private health sector is considered to be a service activity that develops an important social role. The study positions these analysed centers in the Catalan and Spanish health sector and presents the main economic and financial indicators to diagnose the situation of these companies during the period indicated by analysing short and long-term results and analysis of changes in equity and cash flows of the wineries. Design/methodology/approach: The data used comes from the statements of the Catalan hospital centers in the period 2008-2013 and in particular, it contains a sample of 94 Catalan private hospitals, that mostly are considered large-level accounting (according to the General Accounting Plan. The economic and financial analysis has carried out using descriptive statistics and analysis results and conclusions have been reached. Findings: The study noted that enables private hospitals in this period have a healthy economic and financial status, although it should improve the management of assets. Most sales are concentrated with a small number of hospitals and, regarding the evolution of the results, produces two distinct stages, the first period of decrease (2008-2010 and the second period of growth and recovery from 2011.. Research limitations/implications: It would be desirable to perform the same study by the Spanish private hospitals in order to compare the economic and financial analysis of the Catalan private sector with the Spanish private sector. Practical implications: It allows us to assess the projection of this sector in recent years in Catalonia in order to take the appropriate economic decisions in this regard. Social implications: The results show the changes that have occurred over the years in the economic crisis of the period analysed. Originality / value: For
Argentina's Congress has voted to fully privatize state petroleum company Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF), a move the government expects to net at least $8 billion. Despite some political opposition, the vote was 119-10 in favor, with one abstention and opposition party members refusing to participate in the vote. Argentina's President Carlos Menem had threatened to authorize YPF privatization by decree if there was no quorum for a vote. YPF is responsible for 40% of Argentina's oil production. The country h as been self-sufficient in crude since 1982. Current production is 563,472 b/d, and proved reserves of oil and gas are valued at $7 billion
Claire Starry; Gerald W Bernstein
The use of private air travel for business trips has expanded rapidly over the past few decades. We estimate that the number of U.S. domestic passenger trips per year on business aircraft exceeded 17 million in 2007, or a number equal to about 40 percent of combined domestic first-class, business-class, and full-fare coach airline trips—travel options for which passengers also pay a premium for timeliness, comfort, or privacy. Once a company determines that it can benefit from private busines...
Various fiscal considerations frequently encountered in the context of the planning of private electricity production projects were described. Two major themes were discussed: 1) the different jurisdictional vehicles that can be used during the planning of private electricity production projects and the associated fiscal considerations, and 2) the two main fiscal incentives of the Income Tax Act (Canada) which could impact on the financing and operation costs of such a project, namely the accelerated amortization and the possibility of deducting the costs associated to renewable energies and energy savings in Canada. This was a general presentation that did not go into specific details and did not represent a legal opinion. refs
Villefrance, Rasmus; Brandt, Jonas; Eriksen, Poul Svante
We describe and consider how the potential of energy savings may drive the penetration of smart grid technology into private homes. We assess the sociological processes which lead to energy savings when the residents have access to smart grid technology. We propose a way to establish a cash flow...... from consumers via electrical distribution companies to smart grid technology providers on the Danish market. Finally, we assess the impact of such a business development on the society, as well as relating the penetration of smart grid technology in private homes to the societal goal of 100% renewable...
Hospital Casemix Protocol data provide a brief summary outlining morbidity data and costs associated with an episode of care. Federal government legislation requires that hospitals report this information to private health insurers who, in turn, merge these data with benefit outlays and report their findings to the Department of Health and Ageing (DoHA). This article gives a brief outline of the collection, cleansing and processing of these data and subsequent reporting to DoHA by Medibank Private, which accounts for approximately 30% of collected data.
Full Text Available The present paper approaches the notion of public and private pension in Romania. Pension can be seen in terms of a replacement income to individuals whose age no longer affords to operate in the labour market. Pension reform in Romania has allowed besides the public pension system, called Pillar I, which is a distributive system based on solidarity between generations also a private pension system that records the contributions of participants in individual accounts, based on capitalization, investment and accumulation of these contributions.
De Lima, Joao Jose
Edited by a renowned international expert in the field, Nuclear Medicine Physics offers an up-to-date, state-of-the-art account of the physics behind the theoretical foundation and applications of nuclear medicine. It covers important physical aspects of the methods and instruments involved in modern nuclear medicine, along with related biological topics. The book first discusses the physics of and machines for producing radioisotopes suitable for use in conventional nuclear medicine and PET. After focusing on positron physics and the applications of positrons in medicine and biology, it descr
Full Text Available Background: Despite the important and essential role that medicines play in any society, all medicines, including those identified as essential, are uniformly subjected to 14% value added tax (VAT, regardless of their therapeutic value in the private healthcare sector of South Africa. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the potential cost-saving attained from the removal of VAT from the private sector pricing of essential medicines, using antiretroviral treatment as an example. Methods: An empirical analysis was undertaken to illustrate the potential cost-saving achieved by removing VAT from the Single Exit Price and the dispensing fee of essential medicines. This outcome was demonstrated by applying the methodology to an adult fixed dose combination 1st line antiretroviral regimen as well as to a group of 3rd line antiretroviral medicines. Results: The potential saving for the lowest priced generic and originator 1st line antiviral regimen accrued to ZAR 693.84 and ZAR 1085.04 over a year respectively. Regarding the 3rd line antiretroviral drugs, results yielded an annual saving of ZAR 1678.68 (darunavir, ZAR5741.04 (maraviroc and ZAR 159.48 (rilpivirine. Conclusions: Lobbying for the removal of VAT from the supply chain of medicines should be intensified. Policy development to monitor and recover lost government revenue through the removal of taxes should be explored.
Laios, K; Moschos, M M; Koukaki, E; Vasilopoulos, E; Karamanou, M; Kontaxaki, M-I; Androutsos, G
Dreams preoccupied the Greek and Roman world in antiquity, therefore they had a prominent role in social, philosophical, religious, historical and political life of those times. They were considered as omens and prophetic signs of future events in private and public life, and that was particularly accentuated when elements of actions which took place in the plot of dreams were associated directly or indirectly with real events. This is why it was important to use them in divination, and helped the growth of superstition and folklore believes. Medicine as a science and an anthropocentric art, could not ignore the importance of dreams, having in mind their popularity in antiquity. In ancient Greek medicine dreams can be divided into two basic categories. In the first one -which is related to religious medicine-dreams experienced by religionists are classified, when resorted to great religious sanctuaries such as those of Asclepius (Asclepieia) and Amphiaraos (Amfiaraeia). These dreams were the essential element for healing in this form of religious medicine, because after pilgrims underwent purifications they went to sleep in a special dwelling of the sanctuaries called "enkoimeterion" (Greek: the place to sleep) so that the healing god would come to their dreams either to cure them or to suggest treatment. In ancient Greek literature there are many reports of these experiences, but if there may be phenomena of self-suggestion, or they could be characterized as propaganda messages from the priesthood of each sanctuary for advertising purposes. The other category concerns the references about dreams found in ancient Greek medical literature, where one can find the attempts of ancient Greek physicians to interpret these dreams in a rational way as sings either of a corporal disease or of psychological distress. This second category will be the object of our study. Despite the different ways followed by each ancient Greek physician in order to explain dreams, their
Zuckerman, Jane N; Leggat, Peter
This 1st edition of Essential Travel Medicine provides an excellent concise introduction to the specialty of Travel Medicine. This core text will enable health care practitioners particularly those new to the clinical practice of Travel Medicine, to gain a fundamental understanding of the diverse and complex issues which can potentially affect the health of the many millions of people who undertake international travel. Jane N Zuckerman is joined by Gary W Brunette from CDC and Peter A Leggat from Australia as Editors. Leading international specialists in their fields have contributed authoritative chapters reflecting current knowledge to facilitate best clinical practice in the different aspects of travel medicine. The aim of Essential Travel Medicine is to provide a comprehensive guide to Travel Medicine as well as a fundamental knowledge base to support international undergraduate and postgraduate specialty training programmes in the discipline of Travel Medicine. The 1st edition of Essential Travel ...
Alazraki, N.P.; Mishkin, F.S.
This guidebook for clinical nuclear medicine is written as a description of how nuclear medicine procedures should be used by clinicians in evaluating their patients. It is designed to assist medical students and physicians in becoming acquainted with nuclear medicine techniques for detecting and evaluating most common disorders. The material provides an introduction to, not a textbook of, nuclear medicine. Each chapter is devoted to a particular organ system or topic relevant to the risks and benefits involved in nuclear medicine studies. The emphasis is on presenting the rationales for ordering the various clinical imaging procedures performed in most nuclear medicine departments. Where appropriate, alternative imaging modalities including ultrasound, computed tomography imaging, and radiographic special procedures are discussed. Comparative data between nuclear medicine imaging and other modalities are presented to help guide the practicing clinician in the selection of the most appropriate procedure for a given problem.
Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are drugs you can buy without a prescription. Some OTC medicines relieve aches, pains and itches. ... medicine is safe enough to sell over-the-counter. Taking OTC medicines still has risks. Some interact ...
Utkarsh Shah, Ragini Mohanty
Full Text Available This research paper attempts to collate literature from various sources, in an attempt to answer three pertinent questions related to healthcare in India. Firstly, what is it meant by ‘private sector’ in healthcare delivery system of India, secondly how has the private sector evolved over the decades and what has been the role of the government in propelling the growth. Finally, the paper tries to highlight some of the factors that have promoted the growth of private sector in India with specific reference to quality of medical care. The paper explicitly indicates that the deficiencies in the public health delivery system of India, was the key to growth of private infrastructure in healthcare.The shift of hospital industry for ‘welfare orientation’ to ‘business orientation’ was marked by the advent of corporate hospitals, supported by various policy level initiatives made by the government. Today, there are over 20 international healthcare brands in India with several corporate hospitals.However, a large section of the ‘private healthcare delivery segment’ is scattered and quality of medical care continues to remain a matter of concern. This paper tracks the various government initiatives to promote private investment in healthcare and attempts to explore the reasons for preference of the private sector. Surprisingly, in contrast to contemporary belief, quality of medical care doesn’t seem to be the leading cause for preference of the private sector. Except for a few select corporate and trust hospitals, quality of medical care in private sector seems to be poor and at times compromised.
In 2014, the Japanese National Diet introduced new laws aimed at promoting the clinical translation of stem cells and regenerative medicine. The basic action of these laws is to allow the early introduction of regenerative medicine products into the Japanese market through an accelerated approval process, while providing patients with access to certain types of stem cell and cell-based therapies in the context of private clinical practice. While this framework appears to offer enormous opportunities for the translation of stem cell science, it raises ethical challenges that have not yet been fully explored. This paper critically analyzes this framework with respect to the prioritization of safety over clinical benefit, distributive justice and public trust in science and medicine. It is argued that the framework unfairly burdens patients and strained healthcare systems without any clear benefits, and may undermine the credibility of the regenerative medicine field as it emerges.
Gong, Yanhong; Yang, Chen; Yin, Xiaoxv; Zhu, Minmin; Yang, Huajie; Wang, Yunxia; Li, Yongbin; Liu, Liqun; Dong, Xiaoxin; Cao, Shiyi; Lu, Zuxun
Irrational use of medicines is a serious problem in China and has been the primary target of China's national essential medicines programme (NEMP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the NEMP on rational use of medicines in China. A nationwide sample of 3 76 700 prescriptions written by primary care providers from 2007 to 2011 was obtained following a multistage sampling process. Six prescribing indicators were measured: average number of drugs prescribed per prescription, average expenditure per prescription, percentage of prescriptions with antibiotics, with injections, with two or more antibiotics and with corticosteroids. The pre-post with control study design and the difference-in-difference (DID) methodology were employed to evaluate the effect of NEMP. Prescriptions from primary care institutions with the NEMP implementation were better than those without NEMP implementation. Adjusting for the institution's sizes, ownership, economic geographic regions and the year of NEMP implementation, the DID estimator was statistically significant in all prescribing indicators except for the percentage of prescriptions with injection. The number of drugs per prescription decreased by 0.2 per prescription [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.3, -0.1] after the NEMP was implemented; the percentages of prescriptions with antibiotics, with corticosteroids and with two or more antibiotics decreased by 7% (95% CI: -10, -4), 1% (95% CI: -2, 0) and 2% (95% CI: -3, 0), respectively; and the average expenditure per prescription decreased by eight Renminbi Yuan (95% CI: -14, -2). The effect of NEMP on reducing irrational prescribing was greater in public institutions than in private institutions (P rational use of medicines, and the effect is greater in public institutions than in private institutions. However, the irrational use is still high, pointing to the need for further reforms to tackle the underlying causes, such as clinical guidelines and patient
Ros, Bandeth; Lê, Gillian; McPake, Barbara; Fustukian, Suzanne
Globally, traditional medicine has long been used to address relatively common illness, mental ill health and during childbirth and post-natal care. However, traditional medicine is primarily provided by the private sector and it is unclear how far expenditures on traditional medicine contribute to household impoverishment. A life history method was used to understand the health seeking experience of 24 households over the last 60 years in Cambodia, a country with high out-of-pocket expenditures for health. The life histories suggest that traditional medicine in Cambodia has been undergoing a process of commercialization, with significant impacts on poor households. In the earlier lives of respondents, payments for traditional medicine were reported to have been flexible, voluntary or appropriate to patients' financial means. In contrast, contemporary practitioners appear to seek immediate cash payments that have frequently led to considerable debt and asset sales by traditional medicine users. Given traditional medicine's popularity as a source of treatment in Cambodia and its potential to contribute to household impoverishment, we suggest that it needs to be included in a national conversation about achieving Universal Health Coverage in the country. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
The prospects for hydropower around the world is briefly reviewed. The resurgence in private development of energy sources means there is a potentially huge market which has still to be developed. Topics include site and scheme layout, hydrology and sizing, hydrological risk and financing. (UK)
Walter E. Block
Full Text Available According to libertarian law, upon what occasions may a person’s private property rights in goods, commodities, in himself, be alienated from him? The present paper is an attempt to wrestle with this question. We consider abandonment, punishment, salvage, misplacement, liberation of property.
... infrastructure (e.g., base stations, mobile stations, or other related elements). In a private commons... radiofrequency radiation) and maintaining the ability to ensure such compliance; and, (3) Retains direct... applicable technical and service rules, including requirements relating to radiofrequency radiation and...
This article begins by examining the role of records management in private organizations. It identifies the major reason why organizations ought to manage their records effectively and efficiently. Its major emphasis is that a sound records management programme is a pre-requisite to quality management system programme ...
van der Burg, Tsjalle; Dolfsma, W.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.
The authors propose the notion of an "arts fund", a publicly traded investment fund for the purpose of acquiring increasingly costly art works to be displayed in museums. Public as well as private museums stand to benefit greatly from such an approach to financially supporting the arts. A
Roach, Arthur H.
This report examines the process behind setting up and implementing a "capital campaign": a program for raising money for new or renovated facilities at private K-12 schools. The report covers tax information regarding gifts to institutions then offers advice for setting up a comprehensive development program, including fundraising software and…
Abstract The private sector is one of the sources of finance included in developed countries’ pledge in the UN climate negotiations to mobilise $100 billion annually by 2020 to support developing countries’ efforts to address climate change. For adaptation in particular, it remains unclear what
The Forum's work led to advice to the Scottish Government concluding that ... respect of the facilitation and upholding of access rights. This is ...... particular protection of a person's rights in respect of private and family life and the home under ... jurisprudence emphasising the necessity of a balancing-of-interests approach.
Khajuria, Samant; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup
Privacy has become a leading concern for manyusers using online services of any kind: social media activities, health care or shopping. As a consequence, targeted services offer information visualizations of private data for users on a browser or app level. This paper focuses on comparing existing...
Privatisation in higher education is not a new phenomenon for Western European countries. Authors like Geiger (1986), Levy (2008) and Altbach (1999) made challenging predictions in the 1970s and early 1980s that the private sector would inexorably diminish in size and significance. These predictions were triggered by globalisation and the…
Forvaltningsretten regulerer forvaltningsmyndigheder, når disse udøver forvaltningsvirksomhed. I nogle tilfælde bestemmes det ved lov, at private skal udføre forvaltningsvirksomhed. Dette betyder imidlertid ikke, at forvaltningsretten samtidig automatisk følger med. Artiklen analyserer, hvordan f...
... Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Receipt and... pilot program received under 49 U.S.C. Section 47134. The preliminary application is accepted for review... operator, negotiate an agreement and submit a final application to the FAA for exemption under the pilot...
Beuselinck, C.A.C.; Deloof, M.; Manigart, S.
In the current study, we dynamically analyze unlisted firms’ voluntary disclosure decisions around private equity (PE) participation. First, we disentangle the role of disclosure in attracting PE investments. In addition, we examine the extent to which a firm’s disclosure policy is affected by the
Tomal, Daniel R.; Grant, Cynthia
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) and public and private cloud communities continue to flourish in the field of higher education. However, MOOCs have received criticism in recent years and offer little benefit to students already enrolled at an institution. This article advocates for the collaborative creation and use of institutional, program…
This paper presents an analytical framework from which it can be inferred whether sellers or buyers in corporate control transactions value private benefits highest. I am thus able to suggest an answer to the question: Are blocks of shares traded because the buyer is a more efficient monitor...
This paper presents an analytical framework from which it can be inferred whether sellers or buyers in block transactions value private benefits highest. I am thus able to suggest an answer to the question: Are blocks of shares traded because the buyer has high security benefits, or because the b...
Dr. Dirk Hansohm. Institution. Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit. Pays d' institution. Namibia. Site internet. http://www.nepru.org.na. Extrants. Rapports. Regional integration, trade and private sector development : final report. Contenus connexes. L'Initiative des conseils subventionnaires de la recherche scientifique ...
Reynaers, A.; de Graaf, G.
Although public-private partnerships (PPPs) are often evaluated in terms of efficiency, their impact on public values is often neglected. In order to find out what we know about the public values-PPPs relation, this article reviews public administration literature and describes two opposite
Although public-private partnerships (PPPs) are frequently analyzed and lauded in terms of efficiency, their impact on public values is often neglected. As a result, there is little empirical evidence supporting or rejecting the claim that PPPs have a negative effect on public values. This case
Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Akintoye, A.; Beck, M.; Kumaraswamy, M.
This paper documents the Portuguese experience in Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). Since 1993, Portugal has been using PPPs intensively, mainly for highway construction and in the health sector. This has enabled the country to close the infrastructure gap and avoid the budget constraints at the
van der Elst, C.F.; Vermeulen, E.P.M.; De Cordt, Y.; Navez, E.J.
This Chapter in a comparative book on private limited liability companies starts with an illustration of the former success of the Dutch limited liability company (BV). Next it addresses the competitive European legal environment within which the Dutch BV has to operate. The study shows how the
The Danish government ordered that an investigation of the economy of privately owned windmills be undertaken from 1991. Updating is a part of the follow-up of Danish energy policy designated ''Energi 2000'' (Energy 2000). The report contains descriptions of the calculation methods used and related conditions, data on individual privately owned windmills, a summary of the most important tax and duty regulations, details of conditions for private windmill owners, a sensitivity analysis and an analysis of the development of the economy of privately owned windmills since 1991. It is concluded that, based on the current values named in the 1991 report, there is a drop in the case of cooperatively owned windmills of ca. 235,000 DKr and a rise in current value in the case of one-man owned windmills of 270,000 DKr. It is concluded that the changed conditions of the economy since 1991 has resulted in a poorer economy in relation to cooperatively owned windmills and an improvement in single-ownership windmills so that the current value in the latter is now positive. (AB)
The end of the Cold War witnessed the growth and spread of legally established private military contractors (PMCs) playing largely undefined roles in wars, international security and post-conflict reconstruction. The operations of PMCs in Iraq and Afghanistan in the 21st century have been marked by gross human rights ...
... ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Enforcement § 36.501 Private suits. (a) General. Any person who is... order. Upon timely application, the court may, in its discretion, permit the Attorney General to... general public importance. Upon application by the complainant and in such circumstances as the court may...
Full Text Available Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs have emerged along with the growing role of corporations in global development. One of the largest forms of PPP today is the UN Global Compact. The UN Global Compact involves of companies, NGOs, IGOs and state governments. All of them are trying to realize globalization with a more humanist face with attention to the protection of human rights, environment, labor standards and anti-corruption. Engaging private actors in global governance, The UN Global Compact raises many issues such as power, authority, and legitimacy. The effort to tackle it all is to increase PPP accountability. This research seeks to describe what efforts can be made to enhance private accountability within the international regime. The research undertaken is a descriptive study, focuses on public-private partnerships in the UN Global Compact regime. The study found that there were two attempts that could be done. First, by involving the stakeholders in the development of procedures, mechanisms, reporting and monitoring associated with trying to improve the company’s reputation. Second, by looking at corporate relations as agent and UN Global Compact as principal in principal-agent relation in the international regime.
Hesselink, M.W.; Bernitz, U.; Groussot, X.; Schulyok, F.
This paper discusses the legitimacy of general principles of private law as they have been formulated recently by the Court of Justice of the European Union and proposed by the European Commission. It addresses challenges from different strands in political theory including liberal perfectionism,
Kinsbergen, Sara; Schulpen, Lau; Ruben, Ruerd
In the Netherlands, there is a large group of small-scale, voluntary development organisations, referred to as Private Development Initiatives (PDIs). By classifying PDI interventions based on their potential sustainability, we aim to enhance our understanding of PDIs as alternative development
The state-owned utility Nuclear Electric, which is responsible for nuclear power generation in England and Wales, was created in 1990 following withdrawal of nuclear from electricity privatisation. Having successfully made itself much more commercial, Nuclear Electric would like the freedom of operating in the private sector. (author)
Nielsen, Thomas; Iversen, Christian; Bonnet, Philippe
With the advent of private clouds, the challenge of configuring a mix of physical and virtual machines is no longer reserved to a few system administrator gurus. How to assign virtual machines onto physical machines to leverage the available resources? How to maintain the virtual machine...
First tested in Mexico in 2003, and most recently applied in 2009 in Argentina, the World Bank has developed a model to incorporate gender equity into private sector organizations while simultaneously enhancing their business. Under the model, participating organizations conduct a self-diagnosis to identify gender biases and gaps in the operations. This baseline is then used to create and ...