WorldWideScience

Sample records for health questions biologically

  1. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  2. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many......In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...

  3. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from

  4. Some open questions concerning biological growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review the properties of radially growing interfaces and their connection to biological growth. We focus on simplified models which result from the abstraction of only considering domain growth and not the interface curvature. Linear equations can be exactly solved and the phenomenology of growth can be inferred from the explicit solutions. Nonlinear equations pose interesting open questions that are summarized herein.

    En este trabajo revisamos brevemente las propiedades de las superficies que crecen de forma radial y su conexión con el crecimiento biológico. Nos vamos a concentrar en modelos simplificados que resultan de la abstracción de sólo considerar el crecimiento del dominio y no la curvatura de la interfaz. Las ecuaciones lineales se pueden resolver exactamente y la fenomenología del crecimiento puede ser inferida de las soluciones explítas. Las ecuaciones no lineales dan lugar a interesantes problemas abiertos que vamos a resumir aquí.

  5. Answering biological questions: Querying a systems biology database for nutrigenomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evelo, C.T.; Bochove, K. van; Saito, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    The requirement of systems biology for connecting different levels of biological research leads directly to a need for integrating vast amounts of diverse information in general and of omics data in particular. The nutritional phenotype database addresses this challenge for nutrigenomics. A

  6. Semantic annotation of consumer health questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Ben Abacha, Asma; Mrabet, Yassine; Shooshan, Sonya E; Rodriguez, Laritza; Masterton, Kate; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2018-02-06

    Consumers increasingly use online resources for their health information needs. While current search engines can address these needs to some extent, they generally do not take into account that most health information needs are complex and can only fully be expressed in natural language. Consumer health question answering (QA) systems aim to fill this gap. A major challenge in developing consumer health QA systems is extracting relevant semantic content from the natural language questions (question understanding). To develop effective question understanding tools, question corpora semantically annotated for relevant question elements are needed. In this paper, we present a two-part consumer health question corpus annotated with several semantic categories: named entities, question triggers/types, question frames, and question topic. The first part (CHQA-email) consists of relatively long email requests received by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) customer service, while the second part (CHQA-web) consists of shorter questions posed to MedlinePlus search engine as queries. Each question has been annotated by two annotators. The annotation methodology is largely the same between the two parts of the corpus; however, we also explain and justify the differences between them. Additionally, we provide information about corpus characteristics, inter-annotator agreement, and our attempts to measure annotation confidence in the absence of adjudication of annotations. The resulting corpus consists of 2614 questions (CHQA-email: 1740, CHQA-web: 874). Problems are the most frequent named entities, while treatment and general information questions are the most common question types. Inter-annotator agreement was generally modest: question types and topics yielded highest agreement, while the agreement for more complex frame annotations was lower. Agreement in CHQA-web was consistently higher than that in CHQA-email. Pairwise inter-annotator agreement proved most

  7. Biology, Ordinary and Higher Grades, Syllabuses and Specimen Question Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scottish Certificate of Education Examination Board, Edinburgh.

    Included is the prescribed syllabus in biology for the Scottish Certificate of Education. In two separate sections, the syllabus topics and specimen questions for final examinations are explained. This syllabus is intended to present biology as knowledge about living organisms without making the conventional division between plants and animals.…

  8. "Known Unknowns": Current Questions in Muscle Satellite Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelison, Ddw

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of satellite cells, now known to be the obligate stem cells of skeletal muscle, has increased dramatically in recent years due to the introduction of new molecular, genetic, and technical resources. In addition to their role in acute repair of damaged muscle, satellite cells are of interest in the fields of aging, exercise, neuromuscular disease, and stem cell therapy, and all of these applications have driven a dramatic increase in our understanding of the activity and potential of satellite cells. However, many fundamental questions of satellite cell biology remain to be answered, including their emergence as a specific lineage, the degree and significance of heterogeneity within the satellite cell population, the roles of their interactions with other resident and infiltrating cell types during homeostasis and regeneration, and the relative roles of intrinsic vs extrinsic factors that may contribute to satellite cell dysfunction in the context of aging or disease. This review will address the current state of these open questions in satellite cell biology. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Research in thermal biology: Burning questions for coldwater stream fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, D.A.; Bartholow, J.M.; Jager, H.I.; Beschta, R.L.; Cheslak, E.F.; Deas, M.L.; Ebersole, J.L.; Foott, J.S.; Johnson, S.L.; Marine, K.R.; Mesa, M.G.; Petersen, J.H.; Souchon, Y.; Tiffan, K.F.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems, in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied, and the growing need to integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines of thermal biology to fully protect beneficial uses, we held that a survey of the most promising recent developments and an expression of some of the remaining unanswered questions with significant management implications would best be approached collectively by a diverse research community. We have identified five specific topic areas of renewed research where new techniques and critical thought could benefit coldwater stream fishes (particularly salmonids): molecular, organism, population/species, community and ecosystem, and policy issues in water quality. Our hope is that information gained through examination of recent research fronts linking knowledge at various scales will prove useful in managing water quality at a basin level to protect fish populations and whole ecosystems. Standards of the past were based largely on incipient lethal and optimum growth rate temperatures for fish species, while future standards should consider all integrated thermal impacts to the organism and ecosystem. ?? Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  10. Programme Biology - Health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The scientific results for 1975, of the five-year Biology-Health Protection programme adopted in 1971, are presented in two volumes. In volume one, Research in Radiation Protection are developed exclusively, including the following topics: measurement and interpretation of radiation (dosimetry); transfer of radioactive nuclides in the constituents of the environment; hereditary effects of radiation; short-term effects (acute irradiation syndrome and its treatment); long-term effects and toxicology of radioactive elements. In volume, two Research on applications in Agriculture and Medicine are developed. It includes: mutagenesis; soil-plant relations; radiation analysis; food conservation; cell culture; radioentomology. Research on applications in Medicine include: Nuclear Medicine and Neutron Dosimetry

  11. Frequently Asked Questions about Personal Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kept by your health plan, contact the plan’s customer service department. Ask for an "authorization for the ... and healthcare provider have a confidential relationship. However, access to parents may be permitted in ...

  12. A Statistical Analysis of Student Questions in a Cell Biology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Elena L.; Polacek, Kelly M.; Ingram, Ella L.

    2009-01-01

    Asking questions is an essential component of the practice of science, but question-asking skills are often underemphasized in science education. In this study, we examined questions written by students as they prepared for laboratory exercises in a senior-level cell biology class. Our goals were to discover 1) what types of questions students…

  13. Chemical and biological weapons: new questions, new answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, E

    1999-01-01

    The words "chemical and biological weapons" (CBW) send a shiver down most spines these days. With the end of the Cold War, the possibility of a massive nuclear confrontation appears remote, so today many popular doomsday scenarios center on the aggressive use of chemical or biological warfare by rogue nations or terrorist groups. As exaggerated as some of the accounts are, with CBW cast as the latest unseen, unstoppable enemy, the threat posed by these weapons is all too real, and growing. Images p931-a PMID:10585899

  14. Questioning context: a set of interdisciplinary questions for investigating contextual factors affecting health decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charise, Andrea; Witteman, Holly; Whyte, Sarah; Sutton, Erica J.; Bender, Jacqueline L.; Massimi, Michael; Stephens, Lindsay; Evans, Joshua; Logie, Carmen; Mirza, Raza M.; Elf, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To combine insights from multiple disciplines into a set of questions that can be used to investigate contextual factors affecting health decision making. Background  Decision‐making processes and outcomes may be shaped by a range of non‐medical or ‘contextual’ factors particular to an individual including social, economic, political, geographical and institutional conditions. Research concerning contextual factors occurs across many disciplines and theoretical domains, but few conceptual tools have attempted to integrate and translate this wide‐ranging research for health decision‐making purposes. Methods  To formulate this tool we employed an iterative, collaborative process of scenario development and question generation. Five hypothetical health decision‐making scenarios (preventative, screening, curative, supportive and palliative) were developed and used to generate a set of exploratory questions that aim to highlight potential contextual factors across a range of health decisions. Findings  We present an exploratory tool consisting of questions organized into four thematic domains – Bodies, Technologies, Place and Work (BTPW) – articulating wide‐ranging contextual factors relevant to health decision making. The BTPW tool encompasses health‐related scholarship and research from a range of disciplines pertinent to health decision making, and identifies concrete points of intersection between its four thematic domains. Examples of the practical application of the questions are also provided. Conclusions  These exploratory questions provide an interdisciplinary toolkit for identifying the complex contextual factors affecting decision making. The set of questions comprised by the BTPW tool may be applied wholly or partially in the context of clinical practice, policy development and health‐related research. PMID:21029277

  15. [Accessible health information: a question of age?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, E F

    2012-04-01

    Aging and digitalisation are important trends which have their impact on information accessibility. Accessible information about products and services is of crucial importance to ensure that all citizens can participate fully as active members of society. Senior citizens who have difficulties using new media run the risk of exclusion in today's information society. Not all senior citizens, however, encounter problems with new media. Not by a long shot. There is much to be said for 'aged heterogeneity', the concept that individual differences increase as people age. In two explorative qualitative case studies related to accessible health information--an important issue for senior citizens--that were conducted in the Netherlands, variables such as gender, education level and frequency of internet use were therefore included in the research design. In this paper, the most important results of these case studies will be discussed. Attention will be also paid to complementary theories (socialisation, life stages) which could explain differences in information search behaviour when using old or new media.

  16. Skin Diseases: Questions for Your Health Care Provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Questions for Your Health Care Provider Past ... dermatitis worse? What are the most common irritants? Skin cancer What type of skin cancer do I ...

  17. Problem-based learning through field investigation: Boosting questioning skill, biological literacy, and academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwono, Hadi; Wibowo, Agung

    2018-01-01

    Biology learning emphasizes problem-based learning as a learning strategy to develop students ability in identifying and solving problems in the surrounding environment. Problem identification skills are closely correlated with questioning skills. By holding this skill, students tend to deliver a procedural question instead of the descriptive one. Problem-based learning through field investigation is an instruction model which directly exposes the students to problems or phenomena that occur in the environment, and then the students design the field investigation activities to solve these problems. The purpose of this research was to describe the improvement of undergraduate biology students on questioning skills, biological literacy, and academic achievement through problem-based learning through field investigation (PBFI) compared with the lecture-based instruction (LBI). This research was a time series quasi-experimental design. The research was conducted on August - December 2015 and involved 26 undergraduate biology students at the State University of Malang on the Freshwater Ecology course. The data were collected during the learning with LBI and PBFI, in which questioning skills, biological literacy, and academic achievement were collected 3 times in each learning model. The data showed that the procedural correlative and causal types of questions are produced by the students to guide them in conducting investigations and problem-solving in PBFI. The biological literacy and academic achievement of the students at PBFI are significantly higher than those at LBI. The results show that PBFI increases the questioning skill, biological literacy, and the academic achievement of undergraduate biology students.

  18. A statistical analysis of student questions in a cell biology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Elena L; Polacek, Kelly M; Ingram, Ella L

    2009-01-01

    Asking questions is an essential component of the practice of science, but question-asking skills are often underemphasized in science education. In this study, we examined questions written by students as they prepared for laboratory exercises in a senior-level cell biology class. Our goals were to discover 1) what types of questions students asked about laboratory activities, 2) whether the types or quality of questions changed over time, and 3) whether the quality of questions or degree of improvement was related to academic performance. We found a majority of questions were about laboratory outcomes or seeking additional descriptive information about organisms or processes to be studied. Few questions earned the highest possible ranking, which required demonstration of extended thought, integration of information, and/or hypotheses and future experiments, although a majority of students asked such a question at least once. We found no correlation between types of student questions or improvement in questions and final grades. Only a small improvement in overall question quality was seen despite considerable practice at writing questions about science. Our results suggest that improving students' ability to generate higher-order questions may require specific pedagogical intervention.

  19. Reproductive Health and the Question of Abortion in Botswana: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive Health and the Question of Abortion in Botswana: A Review. Stephanie S Smith. Abstract. The complications of unsafe, illegal abortions are a significant cause of maternal mortality in Botswana. The stigma attached to abortion leads some women to seek clandestine procedures, or alternatively, to carry the ...

  20. The question of health effects from exposure to electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandolfo, M.

    1996-01-01

    The question of health effects related to exposures from non-ionizing and non-optical electromagnetic fields is currently concentrated in two frequency ranges: extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields, mainly at the overhead high-voltage power line frequencies of 50/60 Hz, and radiofrequency (RF) radiation, encompassing the frequency range from a few kilohertz to 300 GHz. The part between 300 MHz and 300 GHz is also usually named microwaves (MW); from this point of view, microwaves are part of the whole RF spectrum. The following brief overview is aimed at evaluating the state of knowledge regarding the question of health effects associated to exposures to ELF and RF/MW fields

  1. Answers to Health Questions: Internet Search Results Versus Online Health Community Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthawala, Shaheen; Vermeesch, Amber; Given, Barbara; Huh, Jina

    2016-04-28

    About 6 million people search for health information on the Internet each day in the United States. Both patients and caregivers search for information about prescribed courses of treatments, unanswered questions after a visit to their providers, or diet and exercise regimens. Past literature has indicated potential challenges around quality in health information available on the Internet. However, diverse information exists on the Internet-ranging from government-initiated webpages to personal blog pages. Yet we do not fully understand the strengths and weaknesses of different types of information available on the Internet. The objective of this research was to investigate the strengths and challenges of various types of health information available online and to suggest what information sources best fit various question types. We collected questions posted to and the responses they received from an online diabetes community and classified them according to Rothwell's classification of question types (fact, policy, or value questions). We selected 60 questions (20 each of fact, policy, and value) and the replies the questions received from the community. We then searched for responses to the same questions using a search engine and recorded the Community responses answered more questions than did search results overall. Search results were most effective in answering value questions and least effective in answering policy questions. Community responses answered questions across question types at an equivalent rate, but most answered policy questions and the least answered fact questions. Value questions were most answered by community responses, but some of these answers provided by the community were incorrect. Fact question search results were the most clinically valid. The Internet is a prevalent source of health information for people. The information quality people encounter online can have a large impact on them. We present what kinds of questions people ask

  2. Ethical questions must be considered for electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, Merle; Arnold, Michael V; Pearce, Christopher M; Fry, Craig

    2012-09-01

    National electronic health record initiatives are in progress in many countries around the world but the debate about the ethical issues and how they are to be addressed remains overshadowed by other issues. The discourse to which all others are answerable is a technical discourse, even where matters of privacy and consent are concerned. Yet a focus on technical issues and a failure to think about ethics are cited as factors in the failure of the UK health record system. In this paper, while the prime concern is the Australian Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record (PCEHR), the discussion is relevant to and informed by the international context. The authors draw attention to ethical and conceptual issues that have implications for the success or failure of electronic health records systems. Important ethical issues to consider as Australia moves towards a PCEHR system include: issues of equity that arise in the context of personal control, who benefits and who should pay, what are the legitimate uses of PCEHRs, and how we should implement privacy. The authors identify specific questions that need addressing.

  3. The Biology of Cancer Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    These examples show how biology contributes to health disparities (differences in disease incidence and outcomes among distinct racial and ethnic groups, ), and how biological factors interact with other relevant factors, such as diet and the environment.

  4. Strategic questions for consumer-based health communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, S M; Balch, G I; Lefebvre, R C

    1995-01-01

    Using the consumer-oriented approach of social and commercial marketers, this article presents a process for crafting messages designed to improve people's health behaviors. The process, termed consumer-based health communications (CHC), transforms scientific recommendations into message strategies that are relevant to the consumer. The core of CHC is consumer research conducted to understand the consumer's reality, and thereby allowing six strategic questions to be answered. The immediate result of the CHC process is a strategy statement--a few pages that lay out who the target consumer is, what action should be taken, what to promise and how to make the promise credible, how and when to reach him or her, and what image to convey. The strategy statement then guides the execution of all communication efforts, be they public relations, mass media, direct marketing, media advocacy, or interpersonal influence. It identifies the most important "levers" for contact with the consumer. Everyone from creative specialists through management and program personnel can use the strategy statement as a touchstone to guide and judge the effectiveness of their efforts. The article provides a step by step illustration of the CHC process using the 5 A Day campaign as an example.

  5. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ``ground truthing`` at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously. Clearly, the marine sciences are on the threshold of an exciting new frontier of scientific discovery and economic opportunity.

  6. Understanding, Treating, and Preventing STDs / Questions to Ask your Health Care Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventing STDs / Questions to Ask your Health Care Professional Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... sexual partner Questions to Ask Your Health Care Professional How can I prevent getting an STD? If ...

  7. Evolutionary explanations in medical and health profession courses: are you answering your students' "why" questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malyango Avelin A

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical and pre-professional health students ask questions about human health that can be answered in two ways, by giving proximate and evolutionary explanations. Proximate explanations, most common in textbooks and classes, describe the immediate scientifically known biological mechanisms of anatomical characteristics or physiological processes. These explanations are necessary but insufficient. They can be complemented with evolutionary explanations that describe the evolutionary processes and principles that have resulted in human biology we study today. The main goal of the science of Darwinian Medicine is to investigate human disease, disorders, and medical complications from an evolutionary perspective. Discussion This paper contrasts the differences between these two types of explanations by describing principles of natural selection that underlie medical questions. Thus, why is human birth complicated? Why does sickle cell anemia exist? Why do we show symptoms like fever, diarrhea, and coughing when we have infection? Why do we suffer from ubiquitous age-related diseases like arteriosclerosis, Alzheimer's and others? Why are chronic diseases like type II diabetes and obesity so prevalent in modern society? Why hasn't natural selection eliminated the genes that cause common genetic diseases like hemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, Tay sachs, PKU and others? Summary In giving students evolutionary explanations professors should underscore principles of natural selection, since these can be generalized for the analysis of many medical questions. From a research perspective, natural selection seems central to leading hypotheses of obesity and type II diabetes and might very well explain the occurrence of certain common genetic diseases like cystic fibrosis, hemochromatosis, Tay sachs, Fragile X syndrome, G6PD and others because of their compensating advantages. Furthermore, armed with evolutionary explanations, health care

  8. Group members' questions shape participation in health counselling and health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logren, Aija; Ruusuvuori, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana

    2017-10-01

    This study examines how group members' questions shape member participation in health counselling and health education groups. The study applies conversation analytic principles as a method. The data consist of video-recorded health education lessons in secondary school and health counselling sessions for adults with a high risk of Type 2 diabetes. Group members' questions accomplish a temporary change in participatory roles. They are used to 1) request counselling, 2) do counselling or 3) challenge previous talk. They are usually treated as relevant and legitimate actions by the participants, but are occasionally interpreted as transitions outside the current action or topic. Group members' questions result in a shift from leader-driven to member-driven discussion. Thus they constitute a pivot point for detecting changes in participation in group interventions. Observing the occurrence of group members' questions helps group leaders to adjust their own actions accordingly and thus facilitate or guide group participation. Comparison of the type and frequency of members' questions is a way to detect different trajectories for delivering group interventions and can thus be used to develop methods for process evaluation of interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Inconsistencies and open questions regarding low-dose health effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaum, R.H.; Koehnlein, W.

    1994-01-01

    The state of knowledge of health effects from low-dose exposures to ionizing radiation has recently been reviewed in extensive reports by three prestigious national and international commissions of scientific and medical experts with partially overlapping membership, known by their acronyms UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation), BEIR V (Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation), and ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). Publication of these reports was followed by a number of summaries in scientific journals, authored by recognized radiation experts, that purport to present a scientific consensus of low-dose effects in a more accessible format for health professionals. A critical comparison between various presentations of accepted views, however, reveals inconsistencies regarding open-quotes establishedclose quotes facts and unsettled questions

  10. Tiny cells meet big questions: a closer look at bacterial cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goley, Erin D

    2013-04-01

    While studying actin assembly as a graduate student with Matt Welch at the University of California at Berkeley, my interest was piqued by reports of surprising observations in bacteria: the identification of numerous cytoskeletal proteins, actin homologues fulfilling spindle-like functions, and even the presence of membrane-bound organelles. Curiosity about these phenomena drew me to Lucy Shapiro's lab at Stanford University for my postdoctoral research. In the Shapiro lab, and now in my lab at Johns Hopkins, I have focused on investigating the mechanisms of bacterial cytokinesis. Spending time as both a eukaryotic cell biologist and a bacterial cell biologist has convinced me that bacterial cells present the same questions as eukaryotic cells: How are chromosomes organized and accurately segregated? How is force generated for cytokinesis? How is polarity established? How are signals transduced within and between cells? These problems are conceptually similar between eukaryotes and bacteria, although their solutions can differ significantly in specifics. In this Perspective, I provide a broad view of cell biological phenomena in bacteria, the technical challenges facing those of us who peer into bacterial cells, and areas of common ground as research in eukaryotic and bacterial cell biology moves forward.

  11. Frequently Asked Questions about Cell Phones and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and health? Scientists are continuing to study the possible health effects of cell phone use. For example, the World Health Organization (WHO) is currently looking into how cell phones may affect: Some types of tumors (a lump or ... are looking into a possible link between cell phone use and certain types ...

  12. Lung Cancer, Questions to Ask Your Health Professional | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Questions to Ask Your Health Professional Past Issues / ... answer questions about cancer at 1-800-4-CANCER. The NCI Lung Cancer Home Page provides up-to-date information ...

  13. Basic biology in health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.

    1976-10-01

    This report describes the consequences of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living cells and tissues. The basic processes of living cells, which are relevant to an understanding of health physics problems, are outlined with particular reference to cell-death, cancer induction and genetic effects. (author)

  14. A question of balance: nutrition, health and gastronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, J; Santich, B

    1997-06-01

    Given the higher proportion of manufactured foods now available which meet current dietary recommendations, the food supply in developed countries like Australia could be said to be "healthier". Yet the "health" of the diet is often achieved at the expense of the "health" of the environment since ecological problems created a current food production and distribution methods remain unaddressed. Further, nutritional modifications which produce foods that are low in fat, sugar, salt and high in fibre do not necessarily address the concerns consumers have about the food supply. An emphasis solely on the physical health of populations, through improved diet, is out of keeping with current views on health which recognise the importance of overall well-being. Through the development of the concept of "sustaining gastronomy", consumers, food manufacturers and producers, and food regulators can better address the problems inherent in the food system, including those of an environmental nature.

  15. The cyclopurine deoxynucleosides: DNA repair, biological effects, mechanistic insights, and unanswered questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Philip J

    2017-06-01

    Patients with the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) who lack the capacity to carry out nucleotides excision repair (NER) have a dramatically elevated risk of skin cancer on sun exposed areas of the body. NER is the DNA repair mechanism responsible for the removal of DNA lesions resulting from ultraviolet light. In addition, a subset of XP patients develop a progressive neurodegenerative disease, referred to as XP neurologic disease, which is thought to be the result of accumulation of endogenous DNA lesions that are repaired by NER but not other repair pathways. The 8,5-cyclopurine deoxynucleotides (cyPu) have emerged as leading candidates for such lesions, in that they result from the reaction of the hydroxyl radical with DNA, are strong blocks to transcription in human cells, and are repaired by NER but not base excision repair. Here I present a focused perspective on progress into understating the repair and biological effects of these lesions. In doing so, I emphasize the role of Tomas Lindahl and his laboratory in stimulating cyPu research. I also include a critical evaluation of the evidence supporting a role for cyPu lesions in XP neurologic disease, with a focus on outstanding questions, and conceptual and technologic challenges. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. A questions-based investigation of consumer mental-health information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kart, Joyce Brothers

    2015-01-01

    Despite the wealth of mental-health information available online to consumers, research has shown that the mental-health information needs of consumers are not being met. This study contributes to that research by soliciting consumer questions directly, categorizing them, analyzing their form, and assessing the extent to which they can be answered from a trusted and vetted source of online information, namely the website of the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). As an alternative to surveys and analyses of online activity, this study shows how consumer questions provide new insight into what consumers do not know and how they express their information needs. The study crowdsourced 100 consumer questions through Amazon Inc.’s Mechanical Turk. Categorization of the questions shows broad agreement with earlier studies in terms of the content of consumer questions. It also suggests that consumers’ grasp of mental health issues may be low compared to other health topics. The majority of the questions (74%) were simple in form, with the remainder being multi-part, multifaceted or narrative. Even simple-form questions could, however, have complex interpretations. Fifty four questions were submitted to the search box at the NIMH website. For 32 questions, no answer could be found in the top one to three documents returned. Inadequacies in the search and retrieval technology deployed at websites account for some of the failure to find answers. The nature of consumer questions in mental health also plays a role. A question that has a false presupposition is less likely to have an answer in trusted and vetted sources of information. Consumer questions are also expressed with a degree of specificity that makes the retrieval of relevant information difficult. The significance of this study is that it shows what an analysis of consumer mental-health questions can tell us about consumer information needs and it provides new insight into the difficulties facing

  17. The health dangers of uranium mining and jurisdictional questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, E.R.; Woollard, R.F.

    1980-08-01

    Uranium mining and milling presents a danger to the health of workers from gamma radiation, radon and thoron daughters, uranium oxides, and dust. The public is threatened by radon products, short and long term tailings failures, radium, uranium, and other chemicals. Present dose limits to workers and the public exposed to radiation from all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle have been set by organizations with vested interests in the nuclear industry and are too high. Uranium workers have in the past been poorly monitored and protected against radiation and other occupational hazards. Uranium tailings disposal methods at present are not adequate; tailings will remain hazardous for tens of thousands of years and will probably require deep geologic disposal. The non-substitutable end uses of uranium are nuclear power and nuclear weapons production, both of which have entirely unacceptable health effects

  18. An Investigation into Students' Difficulties in Numerical Problem Solving Questions in High School Biology Using a Numeracy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Fraser J.

    2016-01-01

    The "mathematics problem" is a well-known source of difficulty for students attempting numerical problem solving questions in the context of science education. This paper illuminates this problem from a biology education perspective by invoking Hogan's numeracy framework. In doing so, this study has revealed that the contextualisation of…

  19. Application of a Consumer Health Information Needs Taxonomy to Questions in Maternal-Fetal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenson, Jared A; Ingram, Ebone; Colon, Nadja; Jackson, Gretchen Purcell

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is a time when expectant mothers may have numerous questions about their unborn children, especially when congenital anomalies are diagnosed prenatally. We sought to characterize information needs of pregnant women seen in the Vanderbilt Children's Hospital Fetal Center. Participants recorded questions from diagnosis through delivery. Questions were categorized by two researchers using a hierarchical taxonomy describing consumer health information needs. Consensus category assignments were made, and inter-rater reliability was measured with Cohen's Kappa. Sixteen participants reported 398 questions in 39 subcategories, of which the most common topics were prognosis (53 questions; 13.3%) and indications for intervention (31 questions; 7.8%). Inter-rater reliability of assignments showed moderate (κ=0.57) to substantial (κ=0.75) agreement for subcategories and primary categories, respectively. Pregnant women with prenatal diagnoses have diverse unmet information needs; a taxonomy of consumer health information needs may improve the ability to meet such needs through content and system design.

  20. Perspectives on Games, Computers, and Mental Health: Questions about Paradoxes, Evidences, and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Desseilles, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In the field of mental health, games and computerized games present questions about paradoxes, evidences, and challenges. This perspective article offers perspectives and personal opinion about these questions, evidences, and challenges with an objective of presenting several ideas and issues in this rapidly developing field. First, games raise some questions in the sense of the paradox between a game and an issue, as well as the paradox of using an amusing game to treat a serious pathology. ...

  1. Can Workers Answer Their Questions about Occupational Safety and Health: Challenges and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, Martijn; van Dijk, Frank; Hulshof, Carel

    2012-01-01

    Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). Answers to these questions empower them to further improve their knowledge about OSH, make good decisions about OSH matters and improve OSH practice when necessary. Nevertheless, many workers fail to find the answers to their

  2. Nine questions to guide development and implementation of Health in All Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Peters, Dorothee

    2015-01-01

    Based on the policy science literature, we formulate nine core questions that can guide the formulation, negotiation, development and implementation of Health in All Policies (HiAP). Each question is grounded in the political and policy science literature and culminates in checklist items that HiAP

  3. Teleology then and now: the question of Kant's relevance for contemporary controversies over function in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammito, John

    2006-12-01

    'Naturalism' is the aspiration of contemporary philosophy of biology, and Kant simply cannot be refashioned into a naturalist. Instead, epistemological 'deflation' was the decisive feature of Kant's treatment of the 'biomedical' science in his day, so it is not surprising that this might attract some philosophers of science to him today. A certain sense of impasse in the contemporary 'function talk' seems to motivate renewed interest in Kant. Kant--drawing on his eighteenth-century predecessors-provided a discerning and powerful characterization of what biologists had to explain in organic form. His difference from the rest is that he opined that it was impossible to explain it. Its 'inscrutability' was intrinsic. The third Critique essentially proposed the reduction of biology to a kind of pre-scientific descriptivism, doomed never to attain authentic scientificity, to have its 'Newton of the blade of grass'. By contrast, for Locke, and a fortiori for Buffon and his followers, 'intrinsic purposiveness' was a fact of the matter about concrete biological phenomena; the features of internal self-regulation were hypotheses arising out of actual research practice. The difference comes most vividly to light once we recognize Kant's distinction of the concept of organism from the concept of life. If biology must conceptualize self-organization as actual in the world, Kant's regulative/constitutive distinction is pointless in practice and the (naturalist) philosophy of biology has urgent work to undertake for which Kant turns out not to be very helpful.

  4. Use of Constructed-Response Questions to Support Learning of Cell Biology during Lectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foong May Yeong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of class-response systems such as the Clickers to promote active-learning during lectures has been wide-spread. However, the often-used MCQ format in class activities as well as in assessments for large classes might lower students’ expectations and attitudes towards learning. Here, I describe my experience converting MCQs to constructed-response questions for in-class learning activities by removing cues from the MCQs. From the responses submitted, students seemed capable of providing answers without the need for cues. Using class-response systems such as Socrative for such constructed-response questions could be useful to challenge students to express their ideas in their own words. Moreover, by constructing their own answers, mis-conceptions could be revealed and corrected in a timely manner.

  5. Systems Biology and Health Systems Complexity in;

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donald Combs, C.; Barham, S.R.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Systems biology addresses interactions in biological systems at different scales of biological organization, from the molecular to the cellular, organ, organism, societal, and ecosystem levels. This chapter expands on the concept of systems biology, explores its implications for individual patients

  6. How well does a single question about health predict the financial health of Medicare managed care plans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, A S; Bubolz, T A; Fisher, E S; Wasson, J H

    1999-01-01

    Responses to simple questions that predict subsequent health care utilization are of interest to both capitated health plans and the payer. To determine how responses to a single question about general health status predict subsequent health care expenditures. Participants in the 1992 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey were asked the following question: "In general, compared to other people your age, would you say your health is: excellent, very good, good, fair or poor?" To obtain each participant's total Medicare expenditures and number of hospitalizations in the ensuing year, we linked the responses to this question with data from the 1993 Medicare Continuous History Survey. Nationally representative sample of 8775 noninstitutionalized Medicare beneficiaries 65 years of age and older. Annual age- and sex-adjusted Medicare expenditures and hospitalization rates. Eighteen percent of the beneficiaries rated their health as excellent, 56% rated it as very good or good, 17% rated it as fair, and 7% rated it as poor. Medicare expenditures had a marked inverse relation to self-assessed health ratings. In the year after assessment, age- and sex-adjusted annual expenditures varied fivefold, from $8743 for beneficiaries rating their health as poor to $1656 for beneficiaries rating their health as excellent. Hospitalization rates followed the same pattern: Respondents who rated their health as poor had 675 hospitalizations per 1000 beneficiaries per year compared with 136 per 1000 for those rating their health as excellent. The response to a single question about general health status strongly predicts subsequent health care utilization. Self-reports of fair or poor health identify a group of high-risk patients who may benefit from targeted interventions. Because the current Medicare capitation formula does not account for health status, health plans can maximize profits by disproportionately enrolling beneficiaries who judge their health to be good. However, they are at

  7. Can workers answer their questions about occupational safety and health: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Martijn; Van Dijk, Frank; Hulshof, Carel

    2012-01-01

    Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). Answers to these questions empower them to further improve their knowledge about OSH, make good decisions about OSH matters and improve OSH practice when necessary. Nevertheless, many workers fail to find the answers to their questions. This paper explores the challenges workers may face when seeking answers to their OSH questions. Findings suggest that many workers may lack the skills, experience or motivation to formulate an answerable question, seek and find information, appraise information, compose correct answers and apply information in OSH practice. Simultaneously, OSH knowledge infrastructures often insufficiently support workers in answering their OSH questions. This paper discusses several potentially attractive strategies for developing and improving OSH knowledge infrastructures: 1) providing courses that teach workers to ask answerable questions and to train them to find, appraise and apply information, 2) developing information and communication technology tools or facilities that support workers as they complete one or more stages in the process from question to answer and 3) tailoring information and implementation strategies to the workers' needs and context to ensure that the information can be applied to OSH practice more easily.

  8. Approaches to the Question, ‘What is Life?’: Reconciling Theoretical Biology with Philosophical Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arran Gare

    2008-10-01

    , they are approaching the question: What is Life? from different directions. Focussing on the work of Robert Rosen, in this paper I will try to show what revisions in our understanding of science theoretical biologists need to accept in order to do justice to the insights of the philosophical biologists. I will suggest that these revisions should be accepted, and spell out some of the implications of such a science./span/p

  9. PENINGKATAN AKTIVITAS DAN HASIL BELAJAR BIOLOGI MELALUI PENERAPAN STRATEGI PQ4R (PREVIEW, QUESTION, READ, REFLECT, RECITE, AND REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayathuz Zahra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Students achievement in Biology Class XI IPA1 SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Metro is still low, in learning process students participant is low so learning process is not active. From that coundition the researcher aplly PQ4R Strategy (Preview, Question, Read, Relfect, Recite, and Review. This strategy can help students to remember in reading comprehension, asking question and answering question that given by the teacher. In this reseach is Class Room Active Reseach (CAR. This reseach is purpose to increase the activity and students result of the study of XI IPA1 SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Metro. Data of students activities in the class are: students who give attention to the teacher explanation is 87,7%, reading activity is 81,5%, asking question activity 21%, doing an examination is 84,2%, and activity make outhine is 75,4%. The result study of the students in Pra-CAR in cycle II is increasing to be 24,5%, on the Pra-CAR 46,5% to be 71%. While the increasing of cycle I to cycle II is 58% from cycle I from 13% to be 71% to cycle II.A. Kata kunci: PQ4R aktivitas belajar, hasil belajar

  10. In the Gray Zone in the Fragile X Gene: What are the Key Unanswered Clinical and Biological Questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Hall

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Smaller expansions (41–54 CGG repeats in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 gene are termed "gray zone" alleles. Only recently has interest in these expansions increased due to reporting of phenotypes unique to gray zone carriers or similar to those seen in individuals with larger expansions. As minimal research has focused on gray zone expansions, this paper asks several questions related to this topic. These include the following: What is the definition of the gray zone? Is there a risk of developing neurological signs in these carriers? Are there secondary gene effects that impact gray zone alleles or a biologic advantage to carrying these repeats? How do we counsel patients with gray zone expansions? The answers to these questions will help to determine the significance of these expansions and provide needed information to the research community and clinicians.

  11. Biochemistry and Biology of GDF11 and Myostatin: Similarities, Differences, and Questions for Future Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan G; Poggioli, Tommaso; Katsimpardi, Lida; Buchanan, Sean M; Oh, Juhyun; Wattrus, Sam; Heidecker, Bettina; Fong, Yick W; Rubin, Lee L; Ganz, Peter; Thompson, Thomas B; Wagers, Amy J; Lee, Richard T

    2016-04-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and myostatin (or GDF8) are closely related members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily and are often perceived to serve similar or overlapping roles. Yet, despite commonalities in protein sequence, receptor utilization and signaling, accumulating evidence suggests that these 2 ligands can have distinct functions in many situations. GDF11 is essential for mammalian development and has been suggested to regulate aging of multiple tissues, whereas myostatin is a well-described negative regulator of postnatal skeletal and cardiac muscle mass and modulates metabolic processes. In this review, we discuss the biochemical regulation of GDF11 and myostatin and their functions in the heart, skeletal muscle, and brain. We also highlight recent clinical findings with respect to a potential role for GDF11 and/or myostatin in humans with heart disease. Finally, we address key outstanding questions related to GDF11 and myostatin dynamics and signaling during development, growth, and aging. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-05-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  13. Simple neck pain questions used in surveys, evaluated in relation to health outcomes: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of pain reported in many epidemiological studies, and the degree to which this prevalence reflects severe pain is under discussion in the literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate use of the simple neck pain questions commonly included in large epidemiological survey studies with respect to aspects of health. We investigated if and how an increase in number of days with pain is associated with reduction in health outcomes. Methods A cohort of university students (baseline age 19–25 years) were recruited in 2002 and followed annually for 4 years. The baseline response rate was 69% which resulted in 1200 respondents (627 women, 573 men). Participants were asked about present and past pain and perceptions of their general health, sleep disturbance, stress and energy levels, and general performance. The data were analyzed using a mixed model for repeated measurements and a random intercept logistic model. Results When reporting present pain, participants also reported lower prevalence of very good health, higher stress and sleep disturbance scores and lower energy score. Among those with current neck pain, additional questions characterizing the pain such as duration (categorized), additional pain sites and decreased general performance were associated with lower probability of very good health and higher amounts of sleep disturbance. Knowing about the presence or not of pain explains more of the variation in health between individuals, than within individuals. Conclusion This study of young university students has demonstrated that simple neck pain survey questions capture features of pain that affect aspects of health such as perceived general health, sleep disturbance, mood in terms of stress and energy. Simple pain questions are more useful for group descriptions than for describing or following pain in an individual. PMID:23102060

  14. Simple neck pain questions used in surveys, evaluated in relation to health outcomes: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimby-Ekman Anna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high prevalence of pain reported in many epidemiological studies, and the degree to which this prevalence reflects severe pain is under discussion in the literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate use of the simple neck pain questions commonly included in large epidemiological survey studies with respect to aspects of health. We investigated if and how an increase in number of days with pain is associated with reduction in health outcomes. Methods A cohort of university students (baseline age 19–25 years were recruited in 2002 and followed annually for 4 years. The baseline response rate was 69% which resulted in 1200 respondents (627 women, 573 men. Participants were asked about present and past pain and perceptions of their general health, sleep disturbance, stress and energy levels, and general performance. The data were analyzed using a mixed model for repeated measurements and a random intercept logistic model. Results When reporting present pain, participants also reported lower prevalence of very good health, higher stress and sleep disturbance scores and lower energy score. Among those with current neck pain, additional questions characterizing the pain such as duration (categorized, additional pain sites and decreased general performance were associated with lower probability of very good health and higher amounts of sleep disturbance. Knowing about the presence or not of pain explains more of the variation in health between individuals, than within individuals. Conclusion This study of young university students has demonstrated that simple neck pain survey questions capture features of pain that affect aspects of health such as perceived general health, sleep disturbance, mood in terms of stress and energy. Simple pain questions are more useful for group descriptions than for describing or following pain in an individual.

  15. HEALTH CARE INFORMATIZATION: PROBLEMS, SOLVED AND UNSOLVED. QUESTION OF EFFICIENCY AND SINGULARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. P. Mintser

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The considered questions of transformation of basic presentation are in relation to health care informatization. One idea is postulated. Although from the moment of researches beginning in this direction passed more then 50 years, complete clarity in determination to the best strategy of informatization is not defined. New risks are marked. It's related with the origin of technological and informative singularity.

  16. Biology Education Delivery for Attaining Health-specific Millennium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biology Education Delivery for Attaining Health-specific Millennium ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... This study investigated the strategies for ensuring effective delivery of Biology Education at the secondary school level ...

  17. Investigating the genetic and epigenetic basis of big biological questions with the parthenogenetic marbled crayfish: A review and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Gunter

    2018-03-01

    In the last 15 years, considerable attempts have been undertaken to develop the obligately parthenogenetic marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis as a new model in biology. Its main advantage is the production of large numbers of offspring that are genetically identical to the mother, making this crustacean particularly suitable for research in epigenetics. Now, a draft genome, transcriptome and genome-wide methylome are available opening new windows for research. In this article, I summarize the biological advantages and genomic and epigenetic features of marbled crayfish and, based on first promising data, discuss what this new model could contribute to answering of ''big'' biological questions. Genome mining is expected to reveal new insights into the genetic specificities of decapod crustaceans, the genetic basis of arthropod reproduction, moulting and immunity, and more general topics such as the genetic underpinning of adaptation to fresh water, omnivory, biomineralization, sexual system change, behavioural variation, clonal genome evolution, and resistance to cancer. Epigenetic investigations with the marbled crayfish can help clarifying the role of epigenetic mechanisms in gene regulation, tissue specification, adult stem cell regulation, cell ageing, organ regeneration and disease susceptibility. Marbled crayfish is further suitable to elucidate the relationship between genetic and epigenetic variation, the transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic signatures and the contribution of epigenetic phenotype variation to the establishment of social hierarchies, environmental adaptation and speciation. These issues can be tackled by experiments with highly standardized laboratory lineages, comparison of differently adapted wild populations and the generation of genetically and epigenetically edited strains.

  18. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

  19. Validation of self-reported health literacy questions among diverse English and Spanish-speaking populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Urmimala; Schillinger, Dean; López, Andrea; Sudore, Rebecca

    2011-03-01

    Limited health literacy (HL) contributes to poor health outcomes and disparities, and direct measurement is often time-intensive. Self-reported HL questions have not been validated among Spanish-speaking and diverse English-speaking populations. To evaluate three self-reported questions: 1 "How confident are you filling out medical forms?"; 2 "How often do you have problems learning about your medical condition because of difficulty understanding written information?"; and 3 "How often do you have someone help you read hospital materials?" Answers were based on a 5-point Likert scale. This was a validation study nested within a trial of diabetes self-management support in the San Francisco Department of Public Health. English and Spanish-speaking adults with type 2 diabetes receiving primary care. Using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (s-TOFHLA) in English and Spanish as the reference, we classified HL as inadequate, marginal, or adequate. We calculated the C-index and test characteristics of the three questions and summative scale compared to the s-TOFHLA and assessed variations in performance by language, race/ethnicity, age, and education. Of 296 participants, 48% were Spanish-speaking; 9% were White, non-Hispanic; 47% had inadequate HL and 12% had marginal HL. Overall, 57% reported being confident with forms "somewhat" or less. The "confident with forms" question performed best for detecting inadequate (C-index = 0.82, (0.77-0.87)) and inadequate plus marginal HL (C index = 0.81, (0.76-0.86); pSpanish and English speakers with adequate HL and those with inadequate and/or inadequate plus marginal HL. The "confident with forms" question or the summative scale may be useful for estimating HL in clinical research involving Spanish-speaking and English-speaking, chronically-ill, diverse populations.

  20. Evidence-informed primary health care workforce policy: are we asking the right questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccarella, Lucio; Buchan, Jim; Brooks, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Australia is facing a primary health care workforce shortage. To inform primary health care (PHC) workforce policy reforms, reflection is required on ways to strengthen the evidence base and its uptake into policy making. In 2008 the Australian Primary Health Care Research Institute funded the Australian Health Workforce Institute to host Professor James Buchan, Queen Margaret University, UK, an expert in health services policy research and health workforce planning. Professor Buchan's visit enabled over forty Australian PHC workforce mid-career and senior researchers and policy stakeholders to be involved in roundtable policy dialogue on issues influencing PHC workforce policy making. Six key thematic questions emerged. (1) What makes PHC workforce planning different? (2) Why does the PHC workforce need to be viewed in a global context? (3) What is the capacity of PHC workforce research? (4) What policy levers exist for PHC workforce planning? (5) What principles can guide PHC workforce planning? (6) What incentives exist to optimise the use of evidence in policy making? The emerging themes need to be discussed within the context of current PHC workforce policy reforms, which are focussed on increasing workforce supply (via education/training programs), changing the skill mix and extending the roles of health workers to meet patient needs. With the Australian government seeking to reform and strengthen the PHC workforce, key questions remain about ways to strengthen the PHC workforce evidence base and its uptake into PHC workforce policy making.

  1. Perspectives on Games, Computers, and Mental Health: Questions about Paradoxes, Evidences, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desseilles, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In the field of mental health, games and computerized games present questions about paradoxes, evidences, and challenges. This perspective article offers perspectives and personal opinion about these questions, evidences, and challenges with an objective of presenting several ideas and issues in this rapidly developing field. First, games raise some questions in the sense of the paradox between a game and an issue, as well as the paradox of using an amusing game to treat a serious pathology. Second, games also present evidence in the sense that they involve relationships with others, as well as learning, communication, language, emotional regulation, and hedonism. Third, games present challenges, such as the risk of abuse, the critical temporal period that may be limited to childhood, their important influence on sociocognitive learning and the establishment of social norms, and the risk of misuse of games.

  2. Commentary: Recommendations and remaining questions for health care leadership training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, James K

    2013-01-01

    Effective leadership is critical for optimizing cost, access, and quality in health care. Creating a pipeline of effective health care leaders requires developing leadership competencies that differ from the usual criteria of clinical and scientific excellence by which physicians have traditionally been promoted to leadership positions. Specific competencies that differentiate effective leaders from average leaders, especially emotional intelligence and its component abilities, are essential for effective leadership.Adopting a long-standing practice from successful corporations, some health care institutions, medical societies, and business schools now offer leadership programs that address these differentiating leadership competencies. The author draws on experience with such programs through the Cleveland Clinic Academy to provide recommendations for health care leadership training and to identify unanswered questions about such programs.The author recommends that such training should be broadly available to all health care leadership communities (i.e., nurses, administrators, and physicians). A progressive curriculum, starting with foundational concepts and extending to coaching and feedback opportunities through experiential learning, recognizes the challenge of becoming an effective leader and the long time line needed to do so. Linking leadership courses to continuing medical education and to graduate credit opportunities is appealing to participants. Other recommendations focus on the importance of current leaders' involvement in nominating emerging leaders for participation, embedding leadership development discussions in faculty's professional reviews, and blending discussion of frameworks and theory with practical, experiential lessons. The author identifies questions about the benefits of formal health care leadership training that remain to be answered.

  3. An online network tool for quality information to answer questions about occupational safety and health: usability and applicability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, Martijn D. F.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; Lenderink, Annet F.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online Question & Answer (Q&A)

  4. Outstanding Questions In First Amendment Law Related To Food Labeling Disclosure Requirements For Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    The federal and state governments are increasingly focusing on food labeling as a method to support good health. Many such laws are opposed by the food industry and may be challenged in court, raising the question of what is legally feasible. This article analyzes outstanding questions in First Amendment law related to commercial disclosure requirements and conducts legal analysis and policy evaluation for three current policies. These include the Food and Drug Administration's draft regulation requiring an added sugar disclosure on the Nutrition Facts panel, California's proposed sugar-sweetened beverage safety warning label bill, and Vermont's law requiring labels of genetically engineered food to disclose this information. I recommend several methods for policy makers to enact food labeling laws within First Amendment parameters, including imposing factual commercial disclosure requirements, disclosing the government entity issuing a warning, collecting evidence, and identifying legitimate governmental interests. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Combining Open-domain and Biomedical Knowledge for Topic Recognition in Consumer Health Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrabet, Yassine; Kilicoglu, Halil; Roberts, Kirk; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Determining the main topics in consumer health questions is a crucial step in their processing as it allows narrowing the search space to a specific semantic context. In this paper we propose a topic recognition approach based on biomedical and open-domain knowledge bases. In the first step of our method, we recognize named entities in consumer health questions using an unsupervised method that relies on a biomedical knowledge base, UMLS, and an open-domain knowledge base, DBpedia. In the next step, we cast topic recognition as a binary classification problem of deciding whether a named entity is the question topic or not. We evaluated our approach on a dataset from the National Library of Medicine (NLM), introduced in this paper, and another from the Genetic and Rare Disease Information Center (GARD). The combination of knowledge bases outperformed the results obtained by individual knowledge bases by up to 16.5% F1 and achieved state-of-the-art performance. Our results demonstrate that combining open-domain knowledge bases with biomedical knowledge bases can lead to a substantial improvement in understanding user-generated health content.

  6. Open questions in origin of life: experimental studies on the origin of nucleic acids and proteins with specific and functional sequences by a chemical synthetic biology approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamala, K.; Anella, F.; Wieczorek, R.

    2014-01-01

    sequences among a vast array of possible ones, the huge "sequence space", leading to the question "why these macromolecules, and not the others?" We have recently addressed these questions by using a chemical synthetic biology approach. In particular, we have tested the catalytic activity of small peptides...

  7. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-06-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  8. Smartphone-Based Conversational Agents and Responses to Questions About Mental Health, Interpersonal Violence, and Physical Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Adam S; Milstein, Arnold; Schueller, Stephen; Hegde, Roshini; Mangurian, Christina; Linos, Eleni

    2016-05-01

    Conversational agents are smartphone-based computer programs designed to respond to users in natural language, thereby mimicking conversations between people. Many people use their smartphones to obtain health information. To describe the responses of 4 widely used conversational agents (Siri [Apple], Google Now, S Voice [Samsung], and Cortana [Microsoft]) to a standardized panel of questions related to mental health, interpersonal violence, and physical health. A pilot study followed by a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 68 phones from 7 manufacturers conducted from December 2015 to January 2016. Investigators asked the smartphones 9 questions (3 each in mental health, interpersonal violence, and physical health) in their natural language. We recorded information on features of the smartphones and their software, including manufacturer, phone model, operating system version, and conversational agent. The primary outcomes were the responses of conversational agents to 9 questions. The responses were characterized based on the ability to (1) recognize a crisis, (2) respond with respectful language, and (3) refer to an appropriate helpline, or other health resources for a physical health concern. Questions were asked repeatedly until there were no new answers. The phones ran 77 conversational agents: Siri (n = 27), Google Now (n = 31), S Voice (n = 9), and Cortana (n = 10). Siri, Google Now, and S Voice recognized the statement "I want to commit suicide" as concerning; Siri and Google Now referred the user to a suicide prevention helpline. In response to "I am depressed," Siri recognized the concern and responded with respectful language, the responses from S Voice and Cortana varied, and Google Now did not recognize the concern. None of the conversational agents referred users to a helpline for depression. In response to "I was raped," Cortana referred to a sexual assault hotline; Siri, Google Now, and S Voice did not recognize the

  9. Advice and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) for Citizen-Science Environmental Health Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzyk, Timothy M; Huang, Hongtai; Williams, Ronald; Kaufman, Amanda; Essoka, Jonathan

    2018-05-11

    Citizen science provides quantitative results to support environmental health assessments (EHAs), but standardized approaches do not currently exist to translate findings into actionable solutions. The emergence of low-cost portable sensor technologies and proliferation of publicly available datasets provides unparalleled access to supporting evidence; yet data collection, analysis, interpretation, visualization, and communication are subjective approaches that must be tailored to a decision-making audience capable of improving environmental health. A decade of collaborative efforts and two citizen science projects contributed to three lessons learned and a set of frequently asked questions (FAQs) that address the complexities of environmental health and interpersonal relations often encountered in citizen science EHAs. Each project followed a structured step-by-step process in order to compare and contrast methods and approaches. These lessons and FAQs provide advice to translate citizen science research into actionable solutions in the context of a diverse range of environmental health issues and local stakeholders.

  10. Using Text Message Surveys to Evaluate a Mobile Sexual Health Question-and-Answer Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; L'Engle, Kelly Ladin; Jackson, Kennon; Brickman, Jared

    2018-01-01

    Text message programs for sexual health are becoming increasingly popular as practitioners aim to meet youth on media they use frequently. Two-way mobile health (mHealth) interventions allow for feedback solicitation from participants. This study explores the use of a text message survey to assess demographics and program feedback from users of an adolescent sexual health text message question-and-answer service. Development and feasibility of the short-message service survey are discussed. The text message survey achieved a 43.9% response rate, which is comparable to response rates of surveys conducted via other methods. When compared to respondents who used the service and completed an online in-school questionnaire, text survey respondents were more likely to be female and older. They also reported higher service satisfaction. Results have implications for text message service providers and researchers. This article examines a community application of a new intervention strategy and research methodology.

  11. Comparing the use of an online expert health network against common information sources to answer health questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Martijn D F; Lenderink, Annet F; van Dijk, Frank J H; Hulshof, Carel T J

    2012-02-02

    Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). It is unknown whether workers are able to find correct, evidence-based answers to OSH questions when they use common information sources, such as websites, or whether they would benefit from using an easily accessible, free-of-charge online network of OSH experts providing advice. To assess the rate of correct, evidence-based answers to OSH questions in a group of workers who used an online network of OSH experts (intervention group) compared with a group of workers who used common information sources (control group). In a quasi-experimental study, workers in the intervention and control groups were randomly offered 2 questions from a pool of 16 standardized OSH questions. Both questions were sent by mail to all participants, who had 3 weeks to answer them. The intervention group was instructed to use only the online network ArboAntwoord, a network of about 80 OSH experts, to solve the questions. The control group was instructed that they could use all information sources available to them. To assess answer correctness as the main study outcome, 16 standardized correct model answers were constructed with the help of reviewers who performed literature searches. Subsequently, the answers provided by all participants in the intervention (n = 94 answers) and control groups (n = 124 answers) were blinded and compared with the correct model answers on the degree of correctness. Of the 94 answers given by participants in the intervention group, 58 were correct (62%), compared with 24 of the 124 answers (19%) in the control group, who mainly used informational websites found via Google. The difference between the 2 groups was significant (rate difference = 43%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 30%-54%). Additional analysis showed that the rate of correct main conclusions of the answers was 85 of 94 answers (90%) in the intervention group and 75 of 124 answers (61%) in the control group (rate difference

  12. The question of autonomy in maternal health in Africa: a rights-based consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzat, Jimoh

    2015-06-01

    Maternal mortality is still very high in Africa, despite progress in control efforts at the global level. One elemental link is the question of autonomy in maternal health, especially at the household level where intrinsic human rights are undermined. A rights-based consideration in bioethics is an approach that holds the centrality of the human person, with a compelling reference to the fundamental human rights of every person. A philosophical and sociological engagement of gender and the notion of autonomy within the household reveals some fundamental rights-based perplexities for bioethical considerations in maternal health. The right to self-determination is undermined, and therefore women's dignity, freedom and autonomy, capacities, and choices are easily defiled. This study applies a rights-based approach to maternal health and demonstrates how rights concerns are associated with negative outcomes in maternal health in Africa. The discussion is situated at the household level, which is the starting point in health care. The paper submits that beyond legal and political rights within the context of the state, rights-based issues manifest at the household level. Many of those rights issues, especially relating to women's autonomy, are detrimental to maternal health in Africa. Therefore, a rights-based approach in the social construction of maternal health realities will contribute to alleviating the burden of maternal mortality in Africa.

  13. Consumer opinions from the question of a wellness and health conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónika Fodor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the sub results of our researchproject. The surveys carried outin 2013 with the help of standardised questionnaire. We received 956questionnaires in the course of the domestic data registration, not continuingrepresentative, national sampling. The object of the research was to recognise theconsumers' opinion about wellness, their attitude towards the question of thehealth conservation. We analysed the expenses devoted to the health conservation,and the different kind of activities which has important role in health conservationaccording to consumers’ opinion. We examined whichconcepts, which service elements the people enclose to the wellness, what kind of factors influence themin the course of the selection of a wellness service. We hope the results can helpfor the service providers of domestic health tourism and wellness in their work tomake well targeted marketing activities.

  14. Questioning gender norms with men to improve health outcomes: evidence of impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, G; Ricardo, C; Nascimento, M; Olukoya, A; Santos, C

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a review of 58 evaluation studies of programmes with men and boys in sexual and reproductive health (including HIV prevention, treatment, care and support); father involvement; gender-based violence; maternal, newborn and child health; and gender socialisation more broadly. While few of the programmes go beyond the pilot stage, or a relatively short-term timeframe, they offer compelling evidence that well-designed programmes with men and boys can lead to positive changes in their behaviours and attitudes related to sexual and reproductive health; maternal, newborn and child health; their interaction with their children; their use of violence against women; their questioning of violence with other men; and their health-seeking behaviour. The evidence indicates that programmes that incorporate a gender-transformative approach and promote gender-equitable relationships between men and women are more effective in producing behaviour change than narrowly focused interventions, as are programmes which reach beyond the individual level to the social context.

  15. Why does asking questions change health behaviours? The mediating role of attitude accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chantelle; Conner, Mark; Sandberg, Tracy; Godin, Gaston; Sheeran, Paschal

    2013-01-01

    Objective The question-behaviour effect (QBE) refers to the finding that measuring behavioural intentions increases performance of the relevant behaviour. This effect has been used to change health behaviours. The present research asks why the QBE occurs and evaluates one possible mediator – attitude accessibility. Design University staff and students (N = 151) were randomly assigned to an intention measurement condition where they reported their intentions to eat healthy foods, or to one of two control conditions. Main outcome measures Participants completed a response latency measure of attitude accessibility, before healthy eating behaviour was assessed unobtrusively using an objective measure of snacking. Results Intention measurement participants exhibited more accessible attitudes towards healthy foods, and were more likely to choose a healthy snack, relative to control participants. Furthermore, attitude accessibility mediated the relationship between intention measurement and behaviour. Conclusion This research demonstrates that increased attitude accessibility may explain the QBE, extending the findings of previous research to the domain of health behaviour. PMID:24245778

  16. Can online networks provide quality answers to questions about occupational safety and health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Martijn D F; Lenderink, Annet F; van Dijk, Frank J H; Hulshof, Carel T J

    2012-05-01

    To assess whether experts can provide high-quality answers to occupational safety and health (OSH) questions in online Question & Answer (Q&A) networks. The authors evaluated the quality of answers provided by qualified experts in two Dutch online networks: ArboAntwoord and the Helpdesk of the Netherlands Center for Occupational Diseases. A random sample of 594 answers was independently evaluated by two raters using nine answer quality criteria. An additional criterion, the agreement of answers with the best available evidence, was explored by peer review of a sample of 42 answers. Reviewers performed an evidence search in Medline. The median answer quality score of ArboAntwoord (N=295) and the Netherlands Center for Occupational Diseases Helpdesk (N=299) was 8 of 9 (IQR 2). The inter-rater reliability of the first nine quality criteria was high (κ 0.82-0.90, p<0.05). A question answered by two or more experts had a greater probability of a high-quality score than questions answered by one expert (OR 4.9, 95% CI 2.7 to 9.0). Answers most often scored insufficient on the use of evidence to underpin the answer (36% and 38% for the networks, respectively) and on conciseness (35% and 31%, respectively). Peer review demonstrated that 43%-72% of the answers in both online networks were in complete agreement with the best available evidence. OSH experts are able to provide quality answers in online OSH Q&A networks. Our answer quality appraisal instrument was feasible and provided information on how to improve answer quality.

  17. Ionizing radiation induced biological response and its public health implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, Gy.

    1994-01-01

    Several sources of ionizing radiation exist in natural and artificial environment of humanity. An overview of their biological effects and the biological response of man is present. Emphasize is given to the differences caused by high and low doses. The interrelation of radiology, radiation hygiene and public health is pointed out. Especially, the physical and biological effects of radiation on cells and their responses are discussed in more detail. (R.P.)

  18. Evolution in health and medicine Sackler colloquium: Making evolutionary biology a basic science for medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M; Bergstrom, Carl T; Ellison, Peter T; Flier, Jeffrey S; Gluckman, Peter; Govindaraju, Diddahally R; Niethammer, Dietrich; Omenn, Gilbert S; Perlman, Robert L; Schwartz, Mark D; Thomas, Mark G; Stearns, Stephen C; Valle, David

    2010-01-26

    New applications of evolutionary biology in medicine are being discovered at an accelerating rate, but few physicians have sufficient educational background to use them fully. This article summarizes suggestions from several groups that have considered how evolutionary biology can be useful in medicine, what physicians should learn about it, and when and how they should learn it. Our general conclusion is that evolutionary biology is a crucial basic science for medicine. In addition to looking at established evolutionary methods and topics, such as population genetics and pathogen evolution, we highlight questions about why natural selection leaves bodies vulnerable to disease. Knowledge about evolution provides physicians with an integrative framework that links otherwise disparate bits of knowledge. It replaces the prevalent view of bodies as machines with a biological view of bodies shaped by evolutionary processes. Like other basic sciences, evolutionary biology needs to be taught both before and during medical school. Most introductory biology courses are insufficient to establish competency in evolutionary biology. Premedical students need evolution courses, possibly ones that emphasize medically relevant aspects. In medical school, evolutionary biology should be taught as one of the basic medical sciences. This will require a course that reviews basic principles and specific medical applications, followed by an integrated presentation of evolutionary aspects that apply to each disease and organ system. Evolutionary biology is not just another topic vying for inclusion in the curriculum; it is an essential foundation for a biological understanding of health and disease.

  19. Banking biological collections: data warehousing, data mining, and data dilemmas in genomics and global health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, R J R

    2000-01-01

    While DNA databases may offer the opportunity to (1) assess population-based prevalence of specific genes and variants, (2) simplify the search for molecular markers, (3) improve targeted drug discovery and development for disease management, (4) refine strategies for disease prevention, and (5) provide the data necessary for evidence-based decision-making, serious scientific and social questions remain. Whether samples are identified, coded, or anonymous, biological banking raises profound ethical and legal issues pertaining to access, informed consent, privacy and confidentiality of genomic information, civil liberties, patenting, and proprietary rights. This paper provides an overview of key policy issues and questions pertaining to biological banking, with a focus on developments in specimen collection, transnational distribution, and public health and academic-industry research alliances. It highlights the challenges posed by the commercialization of genomics, and proposes the need for harmonization of biological banking policies.

  20. Emotional Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Questioning Bullies: Does It Differ from Straight Bullies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    Research demonstrates that young people involved in bullying are at greater risk for poor emotional health outcomes, but this association may not be consistent for youth of different sexual orientations. Understanding the unique needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and questioning (LGBQ) youth may suggest important opportunities for intervention and prevention. This study, therefore, examines whether involvement with bullying is differentially associated with emotional well-being across sexual orientation. Survey data were collected from a large statewide sample of 9th and 11th grade students in 2013 (N = 79,039, 49.8% female, 74.6% white). Logistic regression tested associations between sexual orientation, physical or relational bullying perpetration and five measures of emotional health. In the full sample, those reporting bullying perpetration had significantly elevated odds of emotional health problems. However, interaction terms and stratified models indicated that in nine out of ten physical bullying models and two out of ten relational bullying models, perpetration was not as strongly associated with poor emotional health among LGBQ adolescents as it was among heterosexual youth. Possible explanations for this finding include unhealthy coping strategies or masking one's own vulnerable status as LGBQ. Continued efforts to prevent bullying are needed for all youth.

  1. Questioning the Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…

  2. A deep learning approach for predicting the quality of online health expert question-answering services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ze; Zhang, Zhan; Yang, Haiqin; Chen, Qing; Zuo, Decheng

    2017-07-01

    Recently, online health expert question-answering (HQA) services (systems) have attracted more and more health consumers to ask health-related questions everywhere at any time due to the convenience and effectiveness. However, the quality of answers in existing HQA systems varies in different situations. It is significant to provide effective tools to automatically determine the quality of the answers. Two main characteristics in HQA systems raise the difficulties of classification: (1) physicians' answers in an HQA system are usually written in short text, which yields the data sparsity issue; (2) HQA systems apply the quality control mechanism, which refrains the wisdom of crowd. The important information, such as the best answer and the number of users' votes, is missing. To tackle these issues, we prepare the first HQA research data set labeled by three medical experts in 90days and formulate the problem of predicting the quality of answers in the system as a classification task. We not only incorporate the standard textual feature of answers, but also introduce a set of unique non-textual features, i.e., the popular used surface linguistic features and the novel social features, from other modalities. A multimodal deep belief network (DBN)-based learning framework is then proposed to learn the high-level hidden semantic representations of answers from both textual features and non-textual features while the learned joint representation is fed into popular classifiers to determine the quality of answers. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of including the non-textual features and the proposed multimodal deep learning framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing the Impact of De Novo Social Ties within Health Intervention Settings: New Questions for Health Behavior Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesdahl, Eric; Gesell, Sabina B

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in the study of health and social networks have focused on linkages between health outcomes and naturally occurring social relations, such as friendship or kinship. Based on findings in this area, a new generation of health behavior intervention programs have been implemented that rely on the formation of new social relations among program participants. However, little is known about the qualities of these de novo social relations. We examined the social networks of 59 participants within a randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain. We employed exponential random graph modeling techniques to analyze supportive relationships formed between participants in the intervention arm, to detect unique effects of program participation on the likelihood of forming ties. Program participation had a positive effect on the likelihood of forming supportive social relations, however, in this particular timeframe we did not detect any additional effect of such relations on the health behaviors or outcomes of interest. Our findings raise two critical questions: do short-term group-level programs reliably lead to the formation of new social relations among participants; and do these relations have a unique effect on health outcomes relative to standard methods of health behavior intervention? © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Questioning: a critical skill in postmodern health-care service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cary A; Bannigan, Katrina; Gill, Joanna R

    2009-06-01

    Occupational therapists can no longer rely exclusively on biomedical frameworks to guide their practice and facilitate clinical problem-solving. A postmodernist perspective of health and well-being underlines that the illness experience is not a linear, cause-and-effect equation. Rather, life experiences are constructed through a myriad of social, cultural, physical and economic contexts that are highly unique to each individual. In other words, the assumption that 'one-size-fits-all' is as flawed in health care as it is in clothing design. This paper contributes to the growing discussion of health care within the postmodern context of the twenty-first century through first presenting a brief discussion of emerging postmodern thinking and application within the profession, followed by a rationale for the need to scrutinise prevalent modernist assumptions that guide decision-making. Finally, the paper introduces the method of Socratic questioning as a critical tool in successfully carrying out this scrutiny in an empowering and respectful manner for all stakeholders.

  5. Systems Biology in Animal Production and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for improved animal production and health. The book will contain online resources where additional data and programs can be accessed. Some chapters also come with computer programming codes and example datasets to provide readers hands-on (computer) exercises. This second volume deals with integrated modeling...... and analyses of multi-omics datasets from theoretical and computational approaches and presents their applications in animal production and health as well as veterinary medicine to improve diagnosis, prevention and treatment of animal diseases. This book is suitable for both students and teachers in animal...

  6. Analysis of Quality of Proxy Questions in Health Surveys by Behavior Coding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benitez, I.; Padilla, J.L.; Ongena, Yfke

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show how to analyze the quality of questions for proxy informants by means of behavior coding. Proxy questions can undermine survey data quality because of the fact that proxies respond to questions on behalf of other people. Behavior coding can improve questions by

  7. An Online Network Tool for Quality Information to Answer Questions about Occupational Safety and Health: Usability and Applicability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, M.D.F.; Hulshof, C.T.J.; Lenderink, A.F.; van Dijk, F.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online

  8. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online "study questions" leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Susan I

    2015-01-01

    A rising need for workers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields has fueled interest in improving teaching within STEM disciplines. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of active learning approaches on student learning outcomes. However, many of these studies have been conducted in experimental, rather than real-life class, settings. In addition, most of these studies have focused on in-class active learning exercises. This study tested the effects of answering questions outside of class on exam performance for General Biology students at the University of Minnesota. An online database of 1,020 multiple-choice questions covering material from the first half of the course was generated. Students in seven course sections (with an average of ∼265 students per section) were given unlimited access to the online study questions. These students made extensive use of the online questions, with students answering an average of 1,323 questions covering material from the half of the semester for which the questions were available. After students answered a set of questions, they were shown the correct answers for those questions. More specific feedback describing how to arrive at the correct answer was provided for the 73% of the questions for which the correct answers were not deemed to be self-explanatory. The extent to which access to the online study questions improved student learning outcomes was assessed by comparing the performance on exam questions of students in the seven course sections with access to the online study questions with the performance of students in course sections without access to the online study questions. Student performance was analyzed for a total of 89 different exams questions that were not included in the study questions, but that covered the same material covered by the study questions. Each of these 89 questions was used on one to five exams given to students in course sections that had access to the

  9. A concept in flux: questioning accountability in the context of global health cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruen, Carlos; Brugha, Ruairí; Kageni, Angela; Wafula, Francis

    2014-12-09

    Accountability in global health is a commonly invoked though less commonly questioned concept. Critically reflecting on the concept and how it is put into practice, this paper focuses on the who, what, how, and where of accountability, mapping its defining features and considering them with respect to real-world circumstances. Changing dynamics in global health cooperation - such as the emergence of new health public-private partnerships and the formal inclusion of non-state actors in policy making processes - provides the backdrop to this discussion. Accountability is frequently reduced to one set of actors holding another to account. Changes in the global health landscape and in relations between actors have however made the practice of accountability more complex and contested. Currently undergoing a reframing process, participation and transparency have become core elements of a new accountability agenda alongside evaluation and redress or enforcement mechanisms. However, while accountability is about holding actors responsible for their actions, the mechanisms through which this might be done vary substantially and are far from politically neutral.Accountability in global health cooperation involves multipolar relationships between a large number of stakeholders with varying degrees of power and influence, where not all interests are realised in that relationship. Moreover, accountability differs across finance, programme and governance subfields, where each has its own set of policy processes, institutional structures, accountability relations and power asymmetries to contend with. With reference to the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, this paper contributes to discussions on accountability by mapping out key elements of the concept and how it is put into practice, where different types of accountability battle for recognition and legitimacy. In mapping some defining features, accountability in global health cooperation is shown to be

  10. Data Integration for Health and Stress Monitoring: Biological Metabolites, Wearables Data, and Self-Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jocelyn T.

    Integrative and unobtrusive approaches to monitoring health and stress can assist in preventative medicine and disease management, and provide capabilities for complex work environments, such as military deployments and long-duration human space exploration missions. With many data streams that could potentially provide critical information about the health, behavior, and psychosocial states of individuals or small groups, the central question of this research is how to reliably measure health and stress states over time. This integrative approach to health and stress monitoring has implemented biological metabolite profiling, wearables data analysis, and survey assessment for comparing biological, behavioral, and psychological perspectives. Health monitoring technologies aim to provide objective data about health status. Providing objective information can help mitigate biases or blind spots in an individual's perception. Consider an individual who is unwilling to openly admit to psychosocial distress and unhealthy habits, or an individual who has habituated to long-term stressors and is unable to recognize a chronic state of high stress. Both honesty and self-awareness are required for accurate self-reporting. Digital health technologies, such as wearable devices, provide objective data for health monitoring. Compared to surveys, wearables are less influenced by participant openness, and compared to biological samples, wearables require less equipment and less labor for analysis. However, inherent to every data stream are limitations due to uncertainty and sensitivity. This research has been conducted in collaboration with Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS), which is a Mars analog research site on the slopes on Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii. During 8-month and 12-month HI-SEAS missions in the 2014-2016 timeframe, twelve individuals provided hair and urine samples for metabolite profiling, utilized consumer-grade wearables to monitor sleep and

  11. Occupational accidents involving biological material among public health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodi, Mônica Bonagamba; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2007-01-01

    This descriptive research aimed to recognize the occurrence of work accidents (WA) involving exposure to biological material among health workers at Public Health Units in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil. A quantitative approach was adopted. In 2004, 155 accidents were notified by means of the Work Accident Communication (WAC). Sixty-two accidents (40%) involved exposure to biological material that could cause infections like Hepatitis and Aids. The highest number of victims (42 accidents) came from the category of nursing aids and technicians. Needles were responsible for 80.6% of accidents and blood was the biological material involved in a majority of occupational exposure cases. This subject needs greater attention, so that prevention measures can be implemented, which consider the peculiarities of the activities carried out by the different professional categories.

  12. Disrupted seasonal biology impacts health, food security and ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, T. J.; Visser, M. E.; Arnold, W.; Barrett, P.; Biello, S.; Dawson, A.; Denlinger, D. L.; Dominoni, D.; Ebling, F. J.; Elton, S.; Evans, N.; Ferguson, H. M.; Foster, R. G.; Hau, M.; Haydon, D. T.; Hazlerigg, D. G.; Heideman, P.; Hopcraft, J. G. C.; Jonsson, N. N.; Kronfeld-Schor, N.; Kumar, V.; Lincoln, G. A.; MacLeod, R.; Martin, S. A. M.; Martinez-Bakker, M.; Nelson, R. J.; Reed, T.; Robinson, J. E.; Rock, D.; Schwartz, W. J.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Tauber, E.; Thackeray, S. J.; Umstatter, C.; Yoshimura, T.; Helm, B.

    2015-01-01

    The rhythm of life on earth is shaped by seasonal changes in the environment. Plants and animals show profound annual cycles in physiology, health, morphology, behaviour and demography in response to environmental cues. Seasonal biology impacts ecosystems and agriculture, with consequences for

  13. Biotechnologies as a Context for Enhancing Junior High-School Students' Ability to Ask Meaningful Questions about Abstract Biological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsher, G.; Dreyfus, A.

    1999-01-01

    Suggests a new approach to teaching about biochemical cellular processes by stimulating student interest in those biochemical processes that allowed for the outcomes of modern biotechnologies. Discusses the development of students' ability to ask meaningful questions about intra-cellular processes, and the resulting meaningful learning of relevant…

  14. Measuring quality of health care from the user's perspective in 41 countries: psychometric properties of WHO's questions on health systems responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentine, N. B.; Bonsel, G. J.; Murray, C. J. L.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, for different populations, psychometric properties of questions on "health systems responsiveness", a concept developed by World Health Organization (WHO) to describe non-clinical and non-financial aspects of quality of health care. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING/DATA COLLECTION:

  15. Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy Is Being Used to Address Core Scientific Questions in Biology and Materials Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Megan K; Lomont, Justin P; Maj, Michał; Zanni, Martin T

    2018-02-15

    Two-dimensional spectroscopy is a powerful tool for extracting structural and dynamic information from a wide range of chemical systems. We provide a brief overview of the ways in which two-dimensional visible and infrared spectroscopies are being applied to elucidate fundamental details of important processes in biological and materials science. The topics covered include amyloid proteins, photosynthetic complexes, ion channels, photovoltaics, batteries, as well as a variety of promising new methods in two-dimensional spectroscopy.

  16. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 1--Biological Health Benefits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been promoting and incorporating physical activities into their community-based programs and improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the first of a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: 1) biological health benefits of…

  17. Synthetic Biology and Human Health: Potential Applications for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Carr, Christopher; Cai, Yizhi; Chen, Y.; Grenon, Marlene; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Santos, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. Spaceflight-related changes have been reported in the musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems. The spacecraft environment further subjects the traveler to noise and gravitational forces, as well as airborne chemical, microbiological contaminants, and radiation exposure. As humans prepare for longer duration missions effective countermeasures must be developed, verified, and implemented to ensure mission success. Over the past ten years, synthetic biology has opened new avenues for research and development in areas such as biological control, biomaterials, sustainable energy production, bioremediation, and biomedical therapies. The latter in particular is of great interest to the implementation of long-duration human spaceflight capabilities. This article discusses the effects of spaceflight on humans, and reviews current capabilities and potential needs associated with the health of the astronauts where synthetic biology could play an important role in the pursuit of space exploration.

  18. Evaluation of a single-item screening question to detect limited health literacy in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Deepika; Sheth, Heena; Bender, Filitsa H; Weisbord, Steven D; Green, Jamie A

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that a single-item question might be useful in identifying patients with limited health literacy. However, the utility of the approach has not been studied in patients receiving maintenance peritoneal dialysis (PD). We assessed health literacy in a cohort of 31 PD patients by administering the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and a single-item health literacy (SHL) screening question "How confident are you filling out medical forms by yourself?" (Extremely, Quite a bit, Somewhat, A little bit, or Not at all). To determine the accuracy of the single-item question for detecting limited health literacy, we performed sensitivity and specificity analyses of the SHL and plotted the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve using the REALM as a reference standard. Using a cut-off of "Somewhat" or less confident, the sensitivity of the SHL for detecting limited health literacy was 80%, and the specificity was 88%. The positive likelihood ratio was 6.9. The SHL had an AUROC of 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.52 to 1.00). Our results show that the SHL could be effective in detecting limited health literacy in PD patients.

  19. Seven fundamental, unsolved questions in molecular biology. Cooperative storage and bi-directional transfer of biological information by nucleic acids and proteins: an alternative to "central dogma".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, J C

    2004-01-01

    The Human Genome Mapping Project provided us a large amount of sequence data. However our understanding of these data did not grow proportionally, because old dogmas still set the limits of our thinking. The gene-centric, reductionistical side of molecular biology is reviewed and seven problems are formulated, each indicating the insufficiency of the "central dogma". The following is concluded and suggested: 1. Genes are located and expressed on both DNA strands; 2. Introns are the source of important biological regulation and diversity; 3. Repeats are the frame of the chromatin structure and participate in the chromatin regulation; 4. The molecular accessibility of the canonical dsDNA structure is poor; 5. The genetic code is co-evolved with the amino acids and there is a stereochemical matching between the codes andamino acids; 6. The flow of information between nucleic acids and proteins is bi-directional and reverse translation might exist; 7. Complex genetic information is always carried and stored by nucleic acids and proteins together.

  20. An online network tool for quality information to answer questions about occupational safety and health: usability and applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Frank JH

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online Question & Answer (Q&A network tools, which link questioners directly to experts can overcome some of these barriers. When designing and testing online tools, assessing the usability and applicability is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the usability and applicability of a new online Q&A network tool for answers on OSH questions. Methods We applied a cross-sectional usability test design. Eight occupational health experts and twelve potential questioners from the working population (workers were purposively selected to include a variety of computer- and internet-experiences. During the test, participants were first observed while executing eight tasks that entailed important features of the tool. In addition, they were interviewed. Through task observations and interviews we assessed applicability, usability (effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction and facilitators and barriers in use. Results Most features were usable, though several could be improved. Most tasks were executed effectively. Some tasks, for example searching stored questions in categories, were not executed efficiently and participants were less satisfied with the corresponding features. Participants' recommendations led to improvements. The tool was found mostly applicable for additional information, to observe new OSH trends and to improve contact between OSH experts and workers. Hosting and support by a trustworthy professional organization, effective implementation campaigns, timely answering and anonymity were seen as important use requirements. Conclusions This network tool is a promising new strategy for offering company workers high quality information

  1. Addressing health inequalities by using Structural Funds. A question of opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neagu, Oana Maria; Michelsen, Kai; Watson, Jonathan; Dowdeswell, Barrie; Brand, Helmut

    2017-03-01

    Making up a third of the EU budget, Structural and Investment Funds can provide important opportunities for investing in policies that tackle inequalities in health. This article looks back and forward at the 2007-2013 and 2014-2020 financial periods in an attempt to inform the development of health equity as a strand of policy intervention under regional development. It combines evidence from health projects funded through Structural Funds and a document analyses that locates interventions for health equity under the new regulations. The map of opportunities has changed considerably since the last programming period, creating more visibility for vulnerable groups, social determinants of health and health systems sustainability. As the current programming period is progressing, this paper contributes to maximizing this potential but also identifying challenges and implementation gaps for prospective health system engagement in pursuing health equity as part of Structural Funds projects. The austerity measures and their impact on public spending, building political support for investments as well as the difficulties around pursuing health gains as an objective of other policy areas are some of the challenges to overcome. European Structural and Investment Funds could be a window of opportunity that triggers engagement for health equity if sectors adopt a transformative approach and overcome barriers, cooperate for common goals and make better use of the availability of these resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Immunomodulators and Biologic Agents on Sexual Health in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanar, Ozdemir; Berry, Andrew C; Nakshabendi, Rahman; Lee, Ann Joo; Aldridge, Petra; Myers, Travis; Eid, Emely

    2017-01-01

    Although much knowledge has been gained regarding the medical and surgical management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a paucity of information is available on the psychosexual issues related to IBD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sexual health of patients with IBD who were taking immunomodulators and/or biologic agents vs patients with IBD who were not on that medication regimen. All study participants completed a validated sexual health questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index or the International Index of Erectile Function, to assess their subjective perception of the effect of IBD on the different domains of sexual function during the prior 1-month time period. No statistically significant differences in any baseline demographic variables were found for either sex between the group taking immunomodulators/biologic agents and the nontreatment group. Among females and males, individual question responses, domain scores, and total scores showed no statistically significant differences between the 2 treatment groups. Our data suggest that the use of immunomodulators or biologic agents does not affect female or male sexual health. However, treatment of patients with IBD must be individualized based on the aggressive nature of the disease, treatment goals, and the tolerability of various medications.

  3. Origin of the fittest: link between emergent variation and evolutionary change as a critical question in evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyaev, Alexander V

    2011-07-07

    In complex organisms, neutral evolution of genomic architecture, associated compensatory interactions in protein networks and emergent developmental processes can delineate the directions of evolutionary change, including the opportunity for natural selection. These effects are reflected in the evolution of developmental programmes that link genomic architecture with a corresponding functioning phenotype. Two recent findings call for closer examination of the rules by which these links are constructed. First is the realization that high dimensionality of genotypes and emergent properties of autonomous developmental processes (such as capacity for self-organization) result in the vast areas of fitness neutrality at both the phenotypic and genetic levels. Second is the ubiquity of context- and taxa-specific regulation of deeply conserved gene networks, such that exceptional phenotypic diversification coexists with remarkably conserved generative processes. Establishing the causal reciprocal links between ongoing neutral expansion of genomic architecture, emergent features of organisms' functionality, and often precisely adaptive phenotypic diversification therefore becomes an important goal of evolutionary biology and is the latest reincarnation of the search for a framework that links development, functioning and evolution of phenotypes. Here I examine, in the light of recent empirical advances, two evolutionary concepts that are central to this framework-natural selection and inheritance-the general rules by which they become associated with emergent developmental and homeostatic processes and the role that they play in descent with modification.

  4. The social production of health: critical contributions from evolutionary, biological, and cultural anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Betty Wolder; Browner, C H

    2005-08-01

    In 1946, the newly formed World Health Organization boldly sought to conceptualize "health" as wellbeing in the positive sense, "not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." Yet nearly six decades later, researchers are still principally concerned with pathology and its characteristics and consequences. This special issue is the result of an effort to broaden the focus. Anthropologists working from evolutionary, biological and sociocultural perspectives and in diverse geographic regions were asked to examine meanings associated with health and/or to identify social conditions and practices that have contributed to positive physiological and psychological states in particular cultures, times, or across time. Most notable, perhaps, was discovering how difficult it is for Western social scientists to move beyond pathology-based thinking; most authors represented here regard health primarily as the absence of disease. Still, these papers articulate and address questions key to understanding health in and of itself, including: How is health conceptualized? What kinds of social conditions lead to health? And, how do social inequalities affect health? This introduction critically discusses previous work on the subject to contextualize the original research papers offered here.

  5. Health: The No-Man's-Land Between Physics and Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    Health as a positive attribute is poorly understood because understanding requires concepts from physics, of which physicians and other life scientists have a very poor grasp. This paper reviews the physics that bears on biology, in particular complex quaternions and scalar fields, relates these to the morphogenetic fields proposed by biologists, and defines health as an attribute of living action within these fields. The distinction of quality, as juxtaposed with quantity, proves essential. Its basic properties are set out, but a science and mathematics of quality are awaited. The implications of this model are discussed, particularly as proper health enhancement could set a natural limit to demand for, and therefore the cost of, medical services.

  6. Regression On The Right To Health: The Question Of Access To ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a vital component of the right to health. Human rights treaties oblige Uganda to implement the right to health progressively within the available resources. Uganda has undertaken measures to fight HIV/AIDS though prevention, education, and support for people living with HIV/AIDS. Uganda has also committed to providing ...

  7. Mental Health Service Utilization Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Questioning or Queer College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Michael S; Sontag-Padilla, Lisa; Ramchand, Rajeev; Seelam, Rachana; Stein, Bradley D

    2017-09-01

    College students are at high risk for mental health problems, yet many do not receive treatment even when services are available. Treatment needs may be even higher among sexual minority students, but little is known about how these students differ from heterosexual peers in terms of mental health needs and service utilization. A total of 33,220 California college students completed an online survey on mental health needs (e.g., current serious psychological distress and mental health-related academic impairment) and service utilization. Using logistic regressions, we examined differences in student characteristics, mental health service use, and perceived barriers to using on-campus services by sexual minority status. Approximately 7% of students self-identified as sexual minorities. Compared with heterosexual students, sexual minority students endorsed higher rates of psychological distress (18% vs. 26%, p mental health-related academic impairment (11% vs. 17%, p mental health services. Sexual minority students were also more likely to report using off-campus services and to endorse barriers to on-campus service use (e.g., embarrassed to use services and uncertainty over eligibility for services). Sexual minority individuals represent a sizeable minority of college students; these students use mental health services at higher rates than heterosexual peers but have high rates of unmet treatment need. Efforts to address commonly reported barriers to on-campus service use, foster sexual minority-affirmative campus environments, and promote awareness of campus services may help reduce unmet treatment need in this population. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Security and Health Research Databases: The Stakeholders and Questions to Be Addressed

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Health research database security issues abound. Issues include subject confidentiality, data ownership, data integrity and data accessibility. There are also various stakeholders in database security. Each of these stakeholders has a different set of concerns and responsibilities when dealing with security issues. There is an obvious need for training in security issues, so that these issues may be addressed and health research will move on without added obstacles based on misunderstanding s...

  9. The state of neoliberalism in South Africa: economic, social, and health transformation in question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, P; Pillay, Y G; Sanders, D

    1997-01-01

    Recent overhauls of the South African government's ruling machinery in the context of an ever-deepening commitment to neoliberal economic philosophy, have done serious, even irreparable harm to this country's political transformation. Notwithstanding some progress in policies adopted by the Department of Health, the March 1996 closure of the Reconstruction and Development Ministry and the subsequent announcement of a neoliberal macroeconomic policy have been cause for disgruntlement by those advocating progressive social and health policies.

  10. Security and health research databases: the stakeholders and questions to be addressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Health research database security issues abound. Issues include subject confidentiality, data ownership, data integrity and data accessibility. There are also various stakeholders in database security. Each of these stakeholders has a different set of concerns and responsibilities when dealing with security issues. There is an obvious need for training in security issues, so that these issues may be addressed and health research will move on without added obstacles based on misunderstanding security methods and technologies.

  11. Sidestepping questions of legitimacy: how community representatives manoeuvre to effect change in a health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Sally; Stephenson, Niamh; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies of community participation in health services commonly tie effectiveness to the perceived legitimacy of community representatives among health staff. This article examines the underlying assumption that legitimacy is the major pathway to influence for community representatives. It takes a different vantage point from previous research in its examination of data (primarily through 34 in-depth interviews, observation and recording of 26 meetings and other interactions documented in field notes) from a 3-year study of community representatives' action in a large health region in Australia. The analysis primarily deploys Michel de Certeau's ideas of Strategy and Tactic to understand the action and effects of the generally 'weaker players' in the spaces and places dominated by powerful institutions. Through this lens, we can see the points where community representatives are active participants following their own agenda, tactically capitalising on cracks in the armour of the health service to seize opportunities that present themselves in time to effect change. Being able to see community representatives as active producers of change, not simply passengers following the path of the health service, challenges how we view the success of community participation in health.

  12. Learning Gains from a Recurring "Teach and Question" Homework Assignment in a General Biology Course: Using Reciprocal Peer Tutoring Outside Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, E G; Baek, D; Meiling, J; Morris, C; Nelson, N; Rice, N S; Rose, S; Stockdale, P

    2018-06-01

    Providing students with one-on-one interaction with instructors is a big challenge in large courses. One solution is to have students interact with their peers during class. Reciprocal peer tutoring (RPT) is a more involved interaction that requires peers to alternate the roles of "teacher" and "student." Theoretically, advantages for peer tutoring include the verbalization and questioning of information and the scaffolded exploration of material through social and cognitive interaction. Studies on RPT vary in their execution, but most require elaborate planning and take up valuable class time. We tested the effectiveness of a "teach and question" (TQ) assignment that required student pairs to engage in RPT regularly outside class. A quasi-experimental design was implemented: one section of a general biology course completed TQ assignments, while another section completed a substitute assignment requiring individuals to review course material. The TQ section outperformed the other section by ∼6% on exams. Session recordings were coded to investigate correlation between TQ quality and student performance. Asking more questions was the characteristic that best predicted exam performance, and this was more predictive than most aspects of the course. We propose the TQ as an easy assignment to implement with large performance gains.

  13. Do interviewers health beliefs and habits modify responses to sensitive questions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, J.

    2002-01-01

    If interviewers' personal habits or attitudes influence respondents' answers to given questions, this may lead to bias, which should be taken into consideration when analyzing data. The authors examined a potential interviewer effect in a study of pregnant women in which exposure data were obtained...... through computer-assisted telephone interviews. The authors compared interviewer characteristics for 34 interviewers with the responses they obtained in 12,910 interviews carried out for the Danish National Birth Cohort Study. Response data on smoking and alcohol consumption in the first trimester...... of pregnancy were collected during the time period October 1, 1997-February 1, 1999. Overall, the authors found little evidence to suggest that interviewers' personal habits or attitudes toward smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy had consequences for the responses they obtained; neither did...

  14. What Teens Want to Know: Sexual Health Questions Submitted to a Teen Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickberg, Suzanne M. Johnson; Kohn, Julia E.; Franco, Lydia M.; Criniti, Shannon

    2003-01-01

    In 1999 Planned Parenthood[R] Federation of America (PPFA[R]) launched teenwire.com[SM], a Web site for young people. This study was designed to determine teens' reproductive health information needs. Selected for analysis were 1,219 submissions to the Ask the Experts section of the Web site. Each submission was independently coded by three of the…

  15. To tweet or to retweet? That is the question for health professionals on twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Young; Sundar, S Shyam

    2013-01-01

    Guided by the MAIN model ( Sundar, 2008 ), this study explored the effects of three interface cues conveying source attributes on credibility of health messages in Twitter: authority cue (whether a source is an expert or not), bandwagon cue (the number of followers that a source has-large vs. small), and source proximity cue (distance of messages from its original source-tweet vs. retweet). A significant three-way interaction effect on perceived credibility of health content was found, such that when a professional source with many followers tweets, participants tend to perceive the content to be more credible than when a layperson source with many followers tweets. For retweets, however, the exact opposite pattern was found. Results also show that for tweets, content credibility was significantly associated with the perceived expertise of proximal source, whereas for retweets, it was associated with the perceived trustworthiness of proximal source. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  16. Unresolved legal questions in cross-border health care in Europe: liability and data protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, I N; Commers, M J

    2013-11-01

    Directive 2011/24/EU was designed to clarify the rights of EU citizens in evaluating, accessing and obtaining reimbursement for cross-border care. Based on three regional case studies, the authors attempted to assess the added value of the Directive in helping clarify issues in to two key areas that have been identified as barriers to cross-border care: liability and data protection. Qualitative case study employing secondary data sources including research of jurisprudence, that set up a Legal framework as a base to investigate liability and data protection in the context of cross-border projects. By means of three case studies that have tackled liability and data protection hurdles in cross-border care implementation, this article attempts to provide insight into legal certainty and uncertainty regarding cross-border care in Europe. The case studies reveal that the Directive has not resolved core uncertainties related to liability and data protection issues within cross-border health care. Some issues related to the practice of cross-border health care in Europe have been further clarified by the Directive and some direction has been given to possible solutions for issues connected to liability and data protection. Directive 2011/24/EU is clearly a transposition of existing regulations on data protection and ECJ case law, plus a set of additional, mostly, voluntary rules that might enhance regional border cooperation. Therefore, as shown in the case studies, a practical and case by case approach is still necessary in designing and providing cross-border care. © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Questionable Economic Case for Value-Based Drug Pricing in Market Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Mark V

    2017-02-01

    This article investigates the economic theory and interpretation of the concept of "value-based pricing" for new breakthrough drugs with no close substitutes in a context (such as the United States) in which a drug firm with market power sells its product to various buyers. The interpretation is different from that in a country that evaluates medicines for a single public health insurance plan or a set of heavily regulated plans. It is shown that there will not ordinarily be a single value-based price but rather a schedule of prices with different volumes of buyers at each price. Hence, it is incorrect to term a particular price the value-based price, or to argue that the profit-maximizing monopoly price is too high relative to some hypothesized value-based price. When effectiveness of treatment or value of health is heterogeneous, the profit-maximizing price can be higher than that associated with assumed values of quality-adjusted life-years. If the firm sets a price higher than the value-based price for a set of potential buyers, the optimal strategy of the buyers is to decline to purchase that drug. The profit-maximizing price will come closer to a unique value-based price if demand is less heterogeneous. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of Clinical Officers in the Kenyan health system: a question of perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbindyo, Patrick; Blaauw, Duane; English, Mike

    2013-07-17

    Despite the increasing interest in using non-physician clinicians in many low-income countries, little is known about the roles they play in typical health system settings. Prior research has concentrated on evaluating their technical competencies compared to those of doctors. This work explored perceptions of the roles of Kenyan non-physician clinicians (Clinical Officers (COs). Qualitative methods including in-depth interviews (with COs, nurses, doctors, hospital management, and policymakers, among others), participant observation and document analysis were used. A nomothetic-idiographic framework was used to examine tensions between institutions and individuals within them. A comparative approach was used to examine institutional versus individual notions of CO roles, how these roles play out in government and faith-based hospital (FBH) settings as well as differences arising from three specific work settings for COs within hospitals. The main finding was the discrepancy between policy documents that outline a broad role for COs that covers both technical and managerial roles, while respondents articulated a narrow technical role that focused on patient care and management. Respondents described a variety of images of COs, ranging from 'filter' to 'primary healthcare physician', when asked about CO roles. COs argued for a defined role associated with primary healthcare, feeling constrained by their technical role. FBH settings were found to additionally clarify CO roles when compared with public hospitals. Tensions between formal prescriptions of CO roles and actual practice were reported and coalesced around lack of recognition over COs work, role conflict among specialist COs, and role ambiguity. Even though COs are important service providers their role is not clearly understood, which has resulted in role conflict. It is suggested that their role be redefined, moving from that of 'substitute clinician' to professional 'primary care clinician', with this

  19. Health and biological effects of non-ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Seze, R.; Souques, M.; Aurengo, A.; Bach, V.; Burais, N.; Cesarini, J.P.; Cherin, A.; Decobert, V.; Dubois, G.; Hours, M.; Lagroye, I.; Leveque, Ph.; Libert, J.P.; Lombard, J.; Loos, N.; Mir, L.; Perrin, A.; Poulletier De Gannes, F.; Thuroczy, G.; Wiart, J.; Lehericy, St.; Pelletier, A.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.; Douki, Th.; Guibal, F.; Tordjman, I.; Gaillot de Saintignon, J.; Collard, J.F.; Scoretti, R.; Magne, I.; Veyret, B.; Katrib, J.

    2011-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day on the biological and health effects of non-ionizing radiations. Sixteen presentations out of 17 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - NMR: biological effects and implications of Directive 2004/40 on electromagnetic fields (S. Lehericy); 2 - impact of RF frequencies from mobile telephone antennas on body homeostasis (A. Pelletier); 3 - expression of stress markers in the brain and blood of rats exposed in-utero to a Wi-Fi signal (I. Lagroye); 4 - people exposure to electromagnetic waves: the challenge of variability and the contribution of statistics to dosimetry (J. Wiart); 5 - status of knowledge about electromagnetic fields hyper-sensitivity (J.P. Marc-Vergnes; 6 - geno-toxicity of UV radiation: respective impact of UVB and UVA (T. Douki); 7 - National day of prevention and screening for skin cancers (F. Guibal); 8 - UV tan devices: status of knowledge about cancer risks (I. Tordjman, and J. Gaillot de Saintignon); 9 - modulation of brain activity during a tapping task after exposure to a 3000 μT magnetic field at 60 Hz (M. Souques and A. Legros); 10 - calculation of ELF electromagnetic fields in the human body by the finite elements method (R. Scoretti); 11 - French population exposure to the 50 Hz magnetic field (I. Magne); 12 - LF and static fields, new ICNIRP recommendations: what has changed, what remains (B. Veyret); 13 - risk assessment of low energy lighting systems - DELs and CFLs (J.P. Cesarini); 14 - biological effects to the rat of a chronic exposure to high power microwaves (R. De Seze); 15 - theoretical and experimental electromagnetic compatibility approaches of active medical implants in the 10-50 Hz frequency range: the case of implantable cardiac defibrillators (J. Katrib); French physicians and electromagnetic fields (M. Souques). (J.S.)

  20. Do Social Ties Affect Our Health? Exploring the Biology of Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do Social Ties Affect Our Health? Exploring the Biology of Relationships En español Send us your comments ... neighbors, or others, social connections can influence our biology and well-being. Wide-ranging research suggests that ...

  1. Four Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  2. Conflicting paradigms in radiation protection: 20 Questions with answers from the regulator, the health physicist, the scientist, and the lawyers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, D.J.; Stansbury, P.S.; Porter, S.W. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    George Orwell's open-quotes doublethinkclose quotes should be generalized to open-quotes polythinkclose quotes to describe the multiplicity of views that radiation protection professionals must simultaneously accommodate. The paradigms, that is, organizing principles and beliefs, that (1) regulators, (2) operational health physicists, (3) scientists, (4) lawyers for the defendant, and (5) lawyers for the plaintiff use in their approaches to radiation protection are presented. What we believe as scientists often conflicts with what we do for purposes of radiation protection. What we need to do merely to protect humankind and the environment from harmful effects of radiation is far less than what we must do to satisfy the regulator, whose paradigm has checklists, score-keeping, and penalties. In the hands of lawyers, our work must overcome different challenges. Even if the paradigms of the operational health physicist, the scientist, and the regulator match, the odds against the lawyers paradigms also matching are astronomical. The differing paradigms are illustrated by example questions and answers. It is important for educators, trainers, and health physicists to recognize and separate the score-keeping, practice, science, and legal issues in health physics

  3. The SPARK Tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in health policy and systems research: development and initial validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Elie A; Fadlallah, Racha; Ghandour, Lilian; Kdouh, Ola; Langlois, Etienne; Lavis, John N; Schünemann, Holger; El-Jardali, Fadi

    2017-09-04

    Groups or institutions funding or conducting systematic reviews in health policy and systems research (HPSR) should prioritise topics according to the needs of policymakers and stakeholders. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in HPSR. We developed the tool following a four-step approach consisting of (1) the definition of the purpose and scope of tool, (2) item generation and reduction, (3) testing for content and face validity, (4) and pilot testing of the tool. The research team involved international experts in HPSR, systematic review methodology and tool development, led by the Center for Systematic Reviews on Health Policy and Systems Research (SPARK). We followed an inclusive approach in determining the final selection of items to allow customisation to the user's needs. The purpose of the SPARK tool was to prioritise questions in HPSR in order to address them in systematic reviews. In the item generation and reduction phase, an extensive literature search yielded 40 relevant articles, which were reviewed by the research team to create a preliminary list of 19 candidate items for inclusion in the tool. As part of testing for content and face validity, input from international experts led to the refining, changing, merging and addition of new items, and to organisation of the tool into two modules. Following pilot testing, we finalised the tool, with 22 items organised in two modules - the first module including 13 items to be rated by policymakers and stakeholders, and the second including 9 items to be rated by systematic review teams. Users can customise the tool to their needs, by omitting items that may not be applicable to their settings. We also developed a user manual that provides guidance on how to use the SPARK tool, along with signaling questions. We have developed and conducted initial validation of the SPARK tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in HPSR, along with

  4. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    Based on fieldwork in Mali this paper discusses the role of anthropology (and the anthropologist) in a large public health research project on children's health. In the uncertainty and disquiet that comes with the battle to combat and avoid diseases in a setting where poverty and abysmal diseases......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  5. Construct Validation of Three Nutrition Questions Using Health and Diet Ratings in Older Canadian Males Living in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Usman; Keller, Heather H; Tate, Robert B; Lengyel, Christina O

    2015-12-01

    Brief nutrition screening tools are desired for research and practice. Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition (SCREEN-II, 14 items) and the abbreviated version SCREEN-II-AB (8 items) are valid and reliable nutrition screening tools for older adults. This exploratory study used a retrospective cross-sectional design to determine the construct validity of a subset of 3 items (weight loss, appetite, and swallowing difficulty) currently on the SCREEN-II and SCREEN-II-AB tools. Secondary data on community-dwelling senior males (n = 522, mean ± SD age = 86.7 ± 3.0 years) in the Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS) study were available for analysis. Participants completed the mailed MFUS Nutrition Survey that included SCREEN-II items and questions pertaining to self-rated health, diet healthiness, and rating of the importance of nutrition towards successful aging as the constructs for comparison. Self-perceived health status (F = 14.7, P importance to aging (ρ = 0.10, P = 0.03) were correlated with the 3-item score. Inferences were consistent with associations between these construct variables and the full SCREEN-II. Three items from SCREEN-II and SCREEN-II-AB demonstrate initial construct validity with self-perceived health status and diet healthiness ratings by older males; further exploration for criterion and predictive validity in more diverse samples is needed.

  6. Is Healthcare Caring in Hawai‘i? Preliminary Results from a Health Assessment of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Questioning, and Intersex People in Four Counties

    OpenAIRE

    Stotzer, Rebecca L; Ka‘opua, Lana Sue I; Diaz, Tressa P

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a statewide needs assessment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning, and intersex (LGBTQI) people in Hawai‘i that relate to health status and health-related risk factors such as having health insurance coverage, having a regular doctor, experiencing sexual orientation (SO) or gender identity/expression (GI/E) discrimination in health/mental health care settings, and delaying care due to concerns about SO and GIE discrimination in Hawai‘i, Honolul...

  7. EOSINOPHILS: MULTIFACETED BIOLOGIC PROPERTIES AND ROLES IN HEALTH AND DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Hirohito

    2011-01-01

    Summary Eosinophils are leukocytes resident in mucosal tissues. During Th2-type inflammation, eosinophils are recruited from bone marrow and blood to the sites of immune response. While eosinophils have been considered end-stage cells involved in host protection against parasite infection and immunopathology in hypersensitivity disease, recent studies changed this perspective. Eosinophils are now considered multifunctional leukocytes involved in tissue homeostasis, modulation of adaptive immune responses, and innate immunity to certain microbes. Eosinophils are capable of producing immunoregulatory cytokines and are actively involved in regulation of Th2-type immune responses. However, such new information does not preclude earlier observations showing that eosinophils, in particular human eosinophils, are also effector cells with pro-inflammatory and destructive capabilities. Eosinophils with activation phenotypes are observed in biological specimens from patients with disease, and deposition of eosinophil products is readily seen in the affected tissues from these patients. Therefore, it would be reasonable to consider the eosinophil a multifaceted leukocyte that contributes to various physiological and pathological processes depending on their location and activation status. This review summarizes the emerging concept of the multifaceted immunobiology of eosinophils and discusses the roles of eosinophils in health and disease and the challenges and perspectives in the field. PMID:21682744

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL Measures: There are Still Many Unanswered Questions about Human Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayowa Ojo Owolabi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (HRQOL measures are used to assess the multifaceted impact of disease, and determine the utility and associated disability. In addition, the impact of medical interventions must be assessed by psychometrically robust HRQOL measures based on a comprehensive and dynamic model. To develop such a model, the concepts of life, its quality, domains, essence, and purpose must be properly and clearly understood. The correct understanding of these entities is specifically important for patient-centered medicine and has universal implications for all fields of human endeavor. Therefore, in order to explore questions about life and quality of life adequately, every necessary field of knowledge should be employed. A multilinguistic and etymological appraisal reveals that life is related to medicine, freedom, being, soul, and spirit, all of which must therefore be considered in its conceptualization.

  9. Finding the Patient's Voice Using Big Data: Analysis of Users' Health-Related Concerns in the ChaCha Question-and-Answer Service (2009-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Chad; Knopf, Amelia; Groves, Doyle; Carpenter, Janet S; Furrey, Christopher; Krishnan, Anand; Miller, Wendy R; Otte, Julie L; Palakal, Mathew; Wiehe, Sarah; Wilson, Jeffrey

    2016-03-09

    The development of effective health care and public health interventions requires a comprehensive understanding of the perceptions, concerns, and stated needs of health care consumers and the public at large. Big datasets from social media and question-and-answer services provide insight into the public's health concerns and priorities without the financial, temporal, and spatial encumbrances of more traditional community-engagement methods and may prove a useful starting point for public-engagement health research (infodemiology). The objective of our study was to describe user characteristics and health-related queries of the ChaCha question-and-answer platform, and discuss how these data may be used to better understand the perceptions, concerns, and stated needs of health care consumers and the public at large. We conducted a retrospective automated textual analysis of anonymous user-generated queries submitted to ChaCha between January 2009 and November 2012. A total of 2.004 billion queries were read, of which 3.50% (70,083,796/2,004,243,249) were missing 1 or more data fields, leaving 1.934 billion complete lines of data for these analyses. Males and females submitted roughly equal numbers of health queries, but content differed by sex. Questions from females predominantly focused on pregnancy, menstruation, and vaginal health. Questions from males predominantly focused on body image, drug use, and sexuality. Adolescents aged 12-19 years submitted more queries than any other age group. Their queries were largely centered on sexual and reproductive health, and pregnancy in particular. The private nature of the ChaCha service provided a perfect environment for maximum frankness among users, especially among adolescents posing sensitive health questions. Adolescents' sexual health queries reveal knowledge gaps with serious, lifelong consequences. The nature of questions to the service provides opportunities for rapid understanding of health concerns and may

  10. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  11. Curiosity Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  12. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  13. Progress report, Biology and Health Physics Division, April 1 to June 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    Interim results are reported on research at CRNL in health physics (dosimetry, instrumentation, monitoring); environmental research (limnology, radionuclide migration and kinetics); populaton research (tumor induction in mammals, human health records); and biology (radiobiology, genetic studies). (E.C.B.)

  14. Progress report, Biology and Health Physics Division, October 1 to December 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Interim research results are reported in health physics (dosimetry, monitoring), environmental research, population research (tumor induction in mammals, human health record linkage), and biology (radiobiology of rodents, bacteria, bacteriophage T4, and insects). (E.C.B.)

  15. Biological effects of radiation human health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    The biological hazards of nuclear energy usage are a growing source of public concern. The medical profession may well be expected to contribute to public debate on the issue. This document, therefore, attempts a balanced review of the known and suspected human biological consequences of exposure to different types of ionizing radiation, emphasizing in particular the nuclear industry

  16. Legacy question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The legacy question discussed refers to the definition of appropriate actions in this generation to provide a world that will allow future generations to use the earth without excessive limitations caused by our use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials

  17. The work ability index and single-item question: associations with sick leave, symptoms, and health--a prospective study of women on long-term sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Linda; Grimby-Ekman, Anna; Hagberg, Mats; Dellve, Lotta

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated the association between the work ability index (WAI) and the single-item question on work ability among women working in human service organizations (HSO) currently on long-term sick leave. It also examined the association between the WAI and the single-item question in relation to sick leave, symptoms, and health. Predictive values of the WAI, the changed WAI, the single-item question and the changed single-item question were investigated for degree of sick leave, symptoms, and health. This cohort study comprised 324 HSO female workers on long-term (>60 days) sick leave, with follow-ups at 6 and 12 months. Participants responded to questionnaires. Data on work ability, sick leave, health, and symptoms were analyzed with regard to associations and predictability. Spearman correlation and mixed-model analysis were performed for repeated measurements over time. The study showed a very strong association between the WAI and the single-item question among all participants. Both the WAI and the single-item question showed similar patterns of associations with sick leave, health, and symptoms. The predictive value for the degree of sick leave and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was strong for both the WAI and the single-item question, and slightly less strong for vitality, neck pain, both self-rated general and mental health, and behavioral and current stress. This study suggests that the single-item question on work ability could be used as a simple indicator for assessing the status and progress of work ability among women on long-term sick leave.

  18. Asking the right questions: Scoping studies in the commissioning of research on the organisation and delivery of health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peckham Stephen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scoping studies have been used across a range of disciplines for a wide variety of purposes. However, their value is increasingly limited by a lack of definition and clarity of purpose. The UK's Service Delivery and Organisation Research Programme (SDO has extensive experience of commissioning and using such studies; twenty four have now been completed. This review article has four objectives; to describe the nature of the scoping studies that have been commissioned by the SDO Programme; to consider the impact of and uses made of such studies; to provide definitions for the different elements that may constitute a scoping study; and to describe the lessons learnt by the SDO Programme in commissioning scoping studies. Scoping studies are imprecisely defined but usually consist of one or more discrete components; most commonly they are non-systematic reviews of the literature, but other important elements are literature mapping, conceptual mapping and policy mapping. Some scoping studies also involve consultations with stakeholders including the end users of research. Scoping studies have been used for a wide variety of purposes, although a common feature is to identify questions and topics for future research. The reports of scoping studies often have an impact that extends beyond informing research commissioners about future research areas; some have been published in peer reviewed journals, and others have been published in research summaries aimed at a broader audience of health service managers and policymakers. Key lessons from the SDO experience are the need to relate scoping studies to a particular health service context; the need for scoping teams to be multi-disciplinary and to be given enough time to integrate diverse findings; and the need for the research commissioners to be explicit not only about the aims of scoping studies but also about their intended uses. This necessitates regular contact between researchers and

  19. Thousand Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non-humans......In this work the network asks “If I wrote you a love letter would you write back?” Like the love letters which appeared mysteriously on the noticeboards of Manchester University’s Computer Department in the 1950s, thousands of texts circulate as computational processes perform the questions......, that circulates across networks. If I wrote you a love letter would you write back? (and thousands of other questions’ ) (封不回的情書?千言萬語無人回 was commissioned by the Microwave International New Media Festival 2012....

  20. Traveling questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that uncertainty and nonknowledge, and not just research results, can be important vehicles of translation through which genetic research participation comes to affect the lives of research participants. Based on interviews with participants in a genetic research project, I....... Research questions, and not just results, may serve as a generative form of knowledge that can travel as fast as any answer....

  1. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the overarching scientific questions outlined in this essay can help advance both scientific understanding and ... Āyurveda which proclaimed over a thousand years ago that its claim to ..... traditions since a very long time past. The arts thus ...

  2. STRESS AND HEALTH: Psychological, Behavioral, and Biological Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Schneiderman, Neil; Ironson, Gail; Siegel, Scott D.

    2005-01-01

    Stressors have a major influence upon mood, our sense of well-being, behavior, and health. Acute stress responses in young, healthy individuals may be adaptive and typically do not impose a health burden. However, if the threat is unremitting, particularly in older or unhealthy individuals, the long-term effects of stressors can damage health. The relationship between psychosocial stressors and disease is affected by the nature, number, and persistence of the stressors as well as by the indiv...

  3. Interactive learning and action: realizing the promise of synthetic biology for global health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betten, A.W.; Roelofsen, A.; Broerse, J.E.W.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology has the potential to improve global health. For example, synthetic biology could contribute to efforts at vaccine development in a context in which vaccines and immunization have been identified by the international community as being crucial to international

  4. Progress report, Biology and Health Physics Division, April 1 to June 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported in research on dosimetry and monitoring, environmental effects of thermal effluents, radionuclide migration, hydrology, radiation carcinogenesis, data manipulation of human health records, and biological radiation effects. (E.C.B.)

  5. Progress report, Biology and Health Physics Division, July 1 to September 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-11-01

    Interim results are reported for research in health physics, i.e. dosimetry, detectors, and monitoring; environmental research (limnology, radionuclide migration and kinetics; population research (radiation carcinogenesis, radiation effects in human populations); and biology (radiobiology). (E.C.B.)

  6. Health Roma children. Biological conditions [Zdrowie romskich dzieci. Uwarunkowania biologiczne

    OpenAIRE

    Mirosław ZDULSKI

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studies on the incidence of biologically (genetically) determined illnesses such as congenital eye disease (glaucoma), phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyrodism, congenital skull deformity and some cases of mental retardation among Roma children living in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. The problem that causes the biggest disputes is the considerable percentage of disabilities, particularly mental ones, registered in this population, which exceeds manyfold t...

  7. Health Roma children. Biological conditions [Zdrowie romskich dzieci. Uwarunkowania biologiczne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław ZDULSKI

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on the incidence of biologically (genetically determined illnesses such as congenital eye disease (glaucoma, phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyrodism, congenital skull deformity and some cases of mental retardation among Roma children living in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. The problem that causes the biggest disputes is the considerable percentage of disabilities, particularly mental ones, registered in this population, which exceeds manyfold their occurrence in the entire populations of the two countries.

  8. Using routinely collected health data for surveillance, quality improvement and research: Framework and key questions to assess ethics, privacy and data access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lusignan, Simon; Liyanage, Harshana; Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; Chan, Tom; Liaw, Siaw-Teng

    2016-01-19

    The use of health data for public health, surveillance, quality improvement and research is crucial to improve health systems and health care. However, bodies responsible for privacy and ethics often limit access to routinely collected health data. Ethical approvals, issues around protecting privacy and data access are often dealt with by different layers of regulations, making approval processes appear disjointed. To create a comprehensive framework for defining the ethical and privacy status of a project and for providing guidance on data access. The framework comprises principles and related questions. The core of the framework will be built using standard terminology definitions such as ethics-related controlled vocabularies and regional directives. It is built in this way to reduce ambiguity between different definitions. The framework is extensible: principles can be retired or added to, as can their related questions. Responses to these questions should allow data processors to define ethical issues, privacy risk and other unintended consequences. The framework contains three steps: (1) identifying possible ethical and privacy principles relevant to the project; (2) providing ethics and privacy guidance questions that inform the type of approval needed; and (3) assessing case-specific ethics and privacy issues. The outputs from this process should inform whether the balance between public interests and privacy breach and any ethical considerations are tipped in favour of societal benefits. If they are then this should be the basis on which data access is permitted. Tightly linking ethical principles to governance and data access may help maintain public trust.

  9. Question order sensitivity of subjective well-being measures: focus on life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy in survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; McClain, Colleen; Webster, Noah; Han, Saram

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the effect of question context created by order in questionnaires on three subjective well-being measures: life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy. We conducted two Web survey experiments. The first experiment (n = 648) altered the order of life satisfaction and self-rated health: (1) life satisfaction asked immediately after self-rated health; (2) self-rated health immediately after life satisfaction; and (3) two items placed apart. We examined their correlation coefficient by experimental condition and further examined its interaction with objective health. The second experiment (n = 479) asked life expectancy before and after parental mortality questions. Responses to life expectancy were compared by order using ANOVA, and we examined interaction with parental mortality status using ANCOVA. Additionally, response time and probes were examined. Correlation coefficients between self-rated health and life satisfaction differed significantly by order: 0.313 (life satisfaction first), 0.508 (apart), and 0.643 (self-rated health first). Differences were larger among respondents with chronic conditions. Response times were the shortest when self-rated health was asked first. When life expectancy asked after parental mortality questions, respondents reported considering parents more for answering life expectancy; and respondents with deceased parents reported significantly lower expectancy, but not those whose parents were alive. Question context effects exist. Findings suggest placing life satisfaction and self-rated health apart to avoid artificial attenuation or inflation in their association. Asking about parental mortality prior to life expectancy appears advantageous as this leads respondents to consider parental longevity more, an important factor for true longevity.

  10. Federal, provincial and territorial public health response plan for biological events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, R; Topping, J

    2018-01-04

    The Federal/Provincial/Territorial (FPT) Public Health Response Plan for Biological Events was developed for the Public Health Network Council (PHNC). This plan outlines how the national response to public health events caused by biological agents will be conducted and coordinated, with a focus on implementation of responses led by senior-level FPT public health decision-makers. The plan was developed by an expert task group and was approved by PHNC in October, 2017. The plan describes roles, responsibilities and authorities of FPT governments for public health and emergency management, a concept of operations outlining four scalable response levels and a governance structure that aims to facilitate an efficient, timely, evidence-informed and consistent approach across jurisdictions. Improving effective engagement amongst public health, health care delivery and health emergency management authorities is a key objective of the plan.

  11. Biologic effects and health hazards of microwave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerski, P; Ostrowski, K; Shore, M L; Silverman, C., Suess, M.J.; Waldeskog, B

    1974-01-01

    Proceedings of an international symposium held in Warsaw, 15--18 Oct. 1973, sponsored by the World Health Organization, the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, and the Polish Scientific Council to the Minister of Health and Social Welfare are presented. It covered numerous aspects of exposure to microwave radiation. The papers more specifically relating to occupational exposure to microwaves deal with: measurement of microwave radiations, clinical manifestations, neurological findings, health status of microwave workers, blood protein disorders, effects of electromagnetic fields in densely populated areas, microwave cataract and concomitant pathology, retinal changes, assessment of lens translucency in microwave workers. A list of participants at the symposium and an author and subject index are appended.

  12. Biologically Hazardous Agents at Work and Efforts to Protect Workers' Health: A Review of Recent Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Taek Rim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because information on biological agents in the workplace is lacking, biological hazard analyses at the workplace to securely recognize the harmful factors with biological basis are desperately needed. This review concentrates on literatures published after 2010 that attempted to detect biological hazards to humans, especially workers, and the efforts to protect them against these factors. It is important to improve the current understanding of the health hazards caused by biological factors at the workplace. In addition, this review briefly describes these factors and provides some examples of their adverse health effects. It also reviews risk assessments, protection with personal protective equipment, prevention with training of workers, regulations, as well as vaccinations.

  13. On the shoulders of giants: Molecular Biology in Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Melino

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available

    We accepted with great pleasure the invitation by professor Walter Ricciardi,our friend and colleague, to write an editorial in order to introduce this special issue dedicated to Molecular Biology in Hygiene. We are delighted for two connected reasons.

    First, Carmine,as a former professor of Hygiene,has passed his concepts of Hygiene on to his family and, despite significant difficulties, keeps working on the problems of preventive medicine in the work environment and in geriatrics. Second, Gerry, raised in an environment of hygienists, has dedicated all his professional efforts to Molecular Biology. As these two distinct experiences have constantly mixed within our family over time, we appreciate the promiscuous intermingling of these two disciplines in this thematic issue.

    The result is a useful common effort aiming at understanding the problems of diseases in the work environment and in the human environment in general.

    These problems have a profound social meaning, for which it is necessary to create an essential collaboration with scientific research.

    This is the only way to benefit human society.

  14. The expert group health research and care after disasters and environmental crises: an analysis of research questions formulated by Dutch health authorities for the expert group between 2006 and 2016.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alting, D.; Dückers, M.L.; Yzermans, J.

    2017-01-01

    Study/Objective: The aim of this study is (1) to examine developments in the research questions, submitted to the Expert Group Health Research and Care after Disasters and Environmental Crises between 2006 and 2016, and (2) to explore implications of the research questions for the nature of advice

  15. Five-Factor Personality Traits and Age Trajectories of Self-Rated Health: The Role of Question Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Terracciano, Antonio; Ferrucci, Luigi; Costa, Paul T.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the influence of personality traits on mean levels and age trends in four single-item measures of self-rated health: General rating, comparison to age peers, comparison to past health, and expectations for future health. Community-dwelling participants (N = 1,683) completed 7,474 self-rated health assessments over a period of up to 19-years. In hierarchical linear modeling analyses, age-associated declines differed across the four health items. Across age groups, high neuroticism and low conscientiousness, low extraversion, and low openness were associated with worse health ratings, with notable differences across the four health items. Furthermore, high neuroticism predicted steeper declines in health ratings involving temporal comparisons. We consider theoretical implications regarding the mechanisms behind associations among personality traits and self-rated health. PMID:21299558

  16. Biological control of vaginosis to improve reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mastromarino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The human vaginal microbiota plays an important role in the maintenance of a woman′s health, as well as of her partner′s and newborns′. When this predominantly Lactobacillus community is disrupted, decreased in abundance and replaced by different anaerobes, bacterial vaginosis (BV may occur. BV is associated with ascending infections and obstetrical complications, such as chorioamnionitis and preterm delivery, as well as with urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted infections. In BV the overgrowth of anaerobes produces noxious substances like polyamines and other compounds that trigger the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL-1 β and IL-8. BV can profoundly affect, with different mechanisms, all the phases of a woman′s life in relation to reproduction, before pregnancy, during fertilization, through and at the end of pregnancy. BV can directly affect fertility, since an ascending dissemination of the involved species may lead to tubal factor infertility. Moreover, the increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases contributes to damage to reproductive health. Exogenous strains of lactobacilli have been suggested as a means of re-establishing a normal healthy vaginal flora. Carefully selected probiotic strains can eliminate BV and also exert an antiviral effect, thus reducing viral load and preventing foetal and neonatal infection. The administration of beneficial microorganisms (probiotics can aid recovery from infection and restore and maintain a healthy vaginal ecosystem, thus improving female health also in relation to reproductive health.

  17. Biological interactions and human health effects of static magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-09-01

    Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems will be described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecular structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary will also be presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields studied in the laboratory and in natural settings. One aspect of magnetic field effects that merits special concern is their influence on implanted medical electronic devices such as cardiac pacemakers. Several extensive studies have demonstrated closure of the reed switch in pacemakers exposed to relatively weak static magnetic fields, thereby causing them to revert to an asynchronous mode of operation that is potentially hazardous. Recommendations for human exposure limits are provided

  18. Biology Education & Health Education: A School Garden as a Location of Learning & Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzlaff-Fürst, Carolin

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents spend a large part of their day at school. Physical and mental problems result from physical inactivity, sitting positions at work and "indoor lifestyle" (WHO 2004). Therefore, health education is a major topic in school. Biology classes (scholastic) can make an important contribution in this context. Health as a…

  19. Multi-view learning and deep learning for heterogeneous biological data to maintain oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imangaliyev, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    Oral health is an integral component of overall health and well-being. The human oral cavity is the entry point for all food, the first active step of the human digestive system, and the entry point for many pathogens. Little is known about the physiological and biological processes involved in the

  20. Chiropractic care and public health : answering difficult questions about safety, care through the lifespan, and community action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre; Hestbaek, Lise; Injeyan, H Stephen; Puhl, Aaron; Green, Bart; Napuli, Jason G; Dunn, Andrew S; Dougherty, Paul; Killinger, Lisa Zaynab; Page, Stacey A; Stites, John S; Ramcharan, Michael; Leach, Robert A; Byrd, Lori D; Redwood, Daniel; Kopansky-Giles, Deborah R

    The purpose of this collaborative summary is to document current chiropractic involvement in the public health movement, reflect on social ecological levels of influence as a profession, and summarize the relationship of chiropractic to the current public health topics of: safety, health issues

  1. Randomized controlled trials in evidence-based mental health care: getting the right answer to the right question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essock, Susan M; Drake, Robert E; Frank, Richard G; McGuire, Thomas G

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of clinical research is to answer this question: Would a new treatment, when added to the existing range of treatment options available in practice, help patients? Randomized controlled trials (RCTs)--in particular, double-blind RCTs--have important methodological advantages over observational studies for addressing this question. These advantages, however, come at a price. RCTs compare treatments using a particular allocation rule for assigning patients to treatments (random assignment) that does not mimic real-world practice. "Favorable" results from an RCT indicating that a new treatment is superior to existing treatments are neither necessary nor sufficient for establishing a "yes" answer to the question posed above. Modeled on an experimental design, RCTs are expensive in time and money and must compare simple differences in treatments. Findings have a high internal validity but may not address the needs of the field, particularly where treatment is complex and rapidly evolving. Design of clinical research needs to take account of the way treatments are allocated in actual practice and include flexible designs to answer important questions most effectively.

  2. Perceived health from biological motion predicts voting behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Robin S S; Arend, Isabel; Ward, Robert

    2010-04-01

    Body motion signals socially relevant traits like the sex, age, and even the genetic quality of actors and may therefore facilitate various social judgements. By examining ratings and voting decisions based solely on body motion of political candidates, we considered how the candidates' motion affected people's judgements and voting behaviour. In two experiments, participants viewed stick figure motion displays made from videos of politicians in public debate. Participants rated the motion displays for a variety of social traits and then indicated their vote preference. In both experiments, perceived physical health was the single best predictor of vote choice, and no two-factor model produced significant improvement. Notably, although attractiveness and leadership correlated with voting behaviour, neither provided additional explanatory power to a single-factor model of health alone. Our results demonstrate for the first time that motion can produce systematic vote preferences.

  3. Biological and medical effects of UV radiation on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piazena, H.

    1994-01-01

    Effecsts of UV radiation on human health are discussed. UV radiation is taken up through the skin and eyes. In the case of the eyes, the only known effects are damaging ones (e.g. cataracts). Irradiation of the skin, on the other hand, may either have a prophylactic and therapeutic effect or cause health problems if the exposure is too frequent and/or the dose too high. Positive effects are: Stimulation of the vitamin-D-3 synthesis and the autoimmune system, economisation of blood circulation, higher fitness, and the development of a UV protection system in the skin. Negative effects are: UV erythema, disturbances of the unspecific resistance and the immune system, and photocarcinogenesis. (orig.) [de

  4. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Garavaglia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health.

  5. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M.; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  6. Understanding and Enhancing Soil Biological Health: The Solution for Reversing Soil Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Michael Lehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective is to provide an optimistic strategy for reversing soil degradation by increasing public and private research efforts to understand the role of soil biology, particularly microbiology, on the health of our world’s soils. We begin by defining soil quality/soil health (which we consider to be interchangeable terms, characterizing healthy soil resources, and relating the significance of soil health to agroecosystems and their functions. We examine how soil biology influences soil health and how biological properties and processes contribute to sustainability of agriculture and ecosystem services. We continue by examining what can be done to manipulate soil biology to: (i increase nutrient availability for production of high yielding, high quality crops; (ii protect crops from pests, pathogens, weeds; and (iii manage other factors limiting production, provision of ecosystem services, and resilience to stresses like droughts. Next we look to the future by asking what needs to be known about soil biology that is not currently recognized or fully understood and how these needs could be addressed using emerging research tools. We conclude, based on our perceptions of how new knowledge regarding soil biology will help make agriculture more sustainable and productive, by recommending research emphases that should receive first priority through enhanced public and private research in order to reverse the trajectory toward global soil degradation.

  7. Is healthcare caring in Hawai'i? Preliminary results from a health assessment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning, and intersex people in four counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotzer, Rebecca L; Ka'opua, Lana Sue I; Diaz, Tressa P

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents findings from a statewide needs assessment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning, and intersex (LGBTQI) people in Hawai'i that relate to health status and health-related risk factors such as having health insurance coverage, having a regular doctor, experiencing sexual orientation (SO) or gender identity/expression (GI/E) discrimination in health/mental health care settings, and delaying care due to concerns about SO and GIE discrimination in Hawai'i, Honolulu, Kaua'i, and Maui counties. Results suggest that LGBTQI people in these counties generally rated their self-assessed health as "very good" or "excellent," but had slightly higher rates of smoking and less health insurance coverage than the general population of Hawai'i. Many respondents reported challenges to their health, and negative experiences with healthcare. Unlike prior studies that have shown no difference or a rural disadvantage in care, compared to urban locations, Hawai'i's counties did not have a clear rural disadvantage. Honolulu and Kaua'i Counties demonstrated better health indicators and lower percentages of people who had delayed care due to gender identity concerns. Findings suggest that health/mental health care providers should address potential bias in the workplace to be able to provide more culturally competent practice to LGBTQI people in Hawai'i.

  8. Can nurses rise to the public health challenge? How a novel solution in nurse education can address this contemporary question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Wilson, Angela L; Mills, Anne M; Rees, Karen

    2017-10-01

    This paper raises the problem of how improvements in health outcomes, a key component in many governments' strategies, can be achieved. The work highlights a novel undergraduate educational approach which offers solutions to public health challenges within nursing. Against the backdrop of one UK university institution it discusses approaches that can guide nursing students towards a deeper understanding and engagement within the principles of public health. It then proposes how nurses can use their learning to become leaders of health improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using routinely collected health data for surveillance, quality improvement and research: Framework and key questions to assess ethics, privacy and data access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of health data for public health, surveillance, quality improvement and research is crucial to improve health systems and health care. However, bodies responsible for privacy and ethics often limit access to routinely collected health data. Ethical approvals, issues around protecting privacy and data access are often dealt with by different layers of regulations, making approval processes appear disjointed.Objective To create a comprehensive framework for defining the ethical and privacy status of a project and for providing guidance on data access.Method The framework comprises principles and related questions. The core of the framework will be built using standard terminology definitions such as ethics-related controlled vocabularies and regional directives. It is built in this way to reduce ambiguity between different definitions. The framework is extensible: principles can be retired or added to, as can their related questions. Responses to these questions should allow data processors to define ethical issues, privacy risk and other unintended consequences.Results The framework contains three steps: (1 identifying possible ethical and privacy principles relevant to the project; (2 providing ethics and privacy guidance questions that inform the type of approval needed; and (3 assessing case-specific ethics and privacy issues. The outputs from this process should inform whether the balance between public interests and privacy breach and any ethical considerations are tipped in favour of societal benefits. If they are then this should be the basis on which data access is permitted. Tightly linking ethical principles to governance and data access may help maintain public trust.

  10. Biological monitoring of toxic metals - steel workers respiratory health survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Almeida, A. Bugalho de; Alves, L.; Freitas, M.C.; Moniz, D.; Alvarez, E.; Monteiro, P.; Reis, M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to search for respiratory system aggressors to which workers are submitted in their labouring activity. Workers from one sector of a steel plant in Portugal, Siderurgia Nacional (SN), were selected according to the number of years of exposure and labouring characteristics. The work reports on blood elemental content alterations and lung function tests to determine an eventual bronchial hyper-reactivity. Aerosol samples collected permit an estimate of indoor air quality and airborne particulate matter characterisation to further check whether the elemental associations and alterations found in blood may derive from exposure. Blood and aerosol elemental composition was determined by PIXE and INAA. Respiratory affections were verified for 24% of the workers monitored. There are indications that the occurrence of affections can be associated with the total working years. The influence of long-term exposure, health status parameters, and lifestyle factors in blood elemental variations found was investigated

  11. Spouses of Military Members' Experiences and Insights: Qualitative Analysis of Responses to an Open-Ended Question in a Survey of Health and Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Catherine E.; Waller, Michael; MacKenzie, Alison; McGuire, Annabel C. L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There are few studies on the experiences of spouses of military members, with most focused on adverse impacts of deployment. Responses to an open-ended question in a survey of spouses' health and wellbeing enabled access to perceptions and insights on a broad range of topics. The objective of this investigation was to examine how respondents used the open-ended question and what they discussed, in aim of informing support service agencies and spouses of military members. Methods Thematic analysis was conducted on responses to the open-ended question. Descriptive analysis was performed on the demographics, military member characteristics and self-reported health of respondents and non-respondents to the open-ended question. Findings Over a quarter (28.5%) of the 1,332 survey participants answered the open-ended question, with respondents having a significantly higher level of education than non–respondents. Respondents expressed negative and positive experiences and insights on military life, provided personal information, commented on the survey, and qualified their responses to closed-ended questions. Topics included ‘inadequate support’, ‘deployment impacts’, ‘suggestions for supporting agencies’, ‘appraisal of experiences’ and ‘coping strategies’. Conclusions This investigation uncovered issues of importance to spouses of military members that were not included or identified in a quantitative study. The findings provide a platform from which to explore these issues further, particularly the impact of military life on the non-serving spouse's career. The findings also provide support agencies with evidence to strengthen their services and they give spouses an opportunity to reflect on their own and others' feelings and evaluations of military life. PMID:25479135

  12. Library and Informatics Training May Improve Question Formulation among Public Health Practitioners, A Review of: Eldredge, Jonathan D., Richard Carr, David Broudy, and Ronald E. Voorhees. “The Effect of Training on Question Formulation among Public Health Practitioners: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 96.4 (2008: 299‐309.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Ganshorn

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether providing library and informatics training to public health professionals would increase the number and sophistication of work‐related questions asked by these workers.Design – Randomized controlled trial.Setting – New Mexico Department of Health.Subjects – Public health professionals from a variety of professions, including “administrators, disease prevention specialists, epidemiologists, health educators, nurses, nutritionists, physicians, program directors, and social workers” (301. Only staff from the New Mexico Department of Health were eligible to participate.Methods – All subjects received a three‐hour training session on finding evidence based public health information, with a focus on using PubMed. Two sessions were offered, two weeks apart. Participants were randomized to either an intervention group, which received instruction on the first date, or a control group, which received instruction on the second date. The intervening two weeks constitute the study period, in which both groups were surveyed by e‐mail about their work‐related question generation. Three times per week, subjects received e‐mail reminders asking them to submit survey responses regarding all questions that had arisen in their practice, along with information about their attempts to answer them. Questions were tallied, and totals were compared between the two groups. Questions were also analysed for level of sophistication, and classified by the investigators as either “background” questions, which are asked when one has little knowledge of the field, and can usually be answered using textbooks or other reference sources, or “foreground” questions, which are often asked when an individual is familiar with the subject, and looking for more sophisticated information that is usually found in journals and similar sources. This scheme for classifying questions was developed by Richardson and Mulrow

  13. Working group 6: Health. 2. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisin, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Health hazards associated with the increasing development of nuclear energy have been evaluated for the Belgian population. Nuclear industry has been shown to be safer than conventional industry, epidemiological and toxicological data connected with the nuclear energy being more complete than those related to the conventional energy. Somatic and genetic effects of small and high doses of ionizing radiations on the Belgian population have been estimated. Small doses of ionizing radiations are expected to promote only carcinogenic effects. The latent period of cancers, the plateau region (period of high risk) and the absolute and relative risk expressed per rem per 10 6 people per year for leukaemia (having the highest risk) and for the ''other cancers'' have been also estimated. These estimations were obtained by linear extrapolation to the 1 rem level from observations made after irradiation at relatively high dose levels and much higher dose rates. Strict protective regulations have been recommended in order to reduce to a minimum the exposure of population to ionizing radiations as well as to get more information on the radioactive genetic and somatic consequences on population. (G.C.)

  14. HOW TO AVOID GIVING THE RIGHT ANSWERS TO THE WRONG QUESTIONS: THE NEED FOR INTEGRATED ASSESSMENTS OF COMPLEX HEALTH TECHNOLOGIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardus, Ansgar; Oortwijn, Wija; van der Wilt, Gert Jan

    2017-01-01

    Health technologies are becoming increasingly complex and contemporary health technology assessment (HTA) is only partly equipped to address this complexity. The project "Integrated assessments of complex health technologies" (INTEGRATE-HTA), funded by the European Commission, was initiated with the overall objective to develop concepts and methods to enable patient-centered, integrated assessments of the effectiveness, and the economic, social, cultural, and ethical issues of complex technologies that take context and implementation issues into account. The project resulted in a series of guidances that should support the work of HTA scientists and decision makers alike.

  15. How B cells influence bone biology in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Mark C; Fretz, Jackie A; Lorenzo, Joseph A

    2010-09-01

    It is now well established that important regulatory interactions occur between the cells in the hematopoietic, immune and skeletal systems (osteoimmunology). B lymphocytes (B cells) are responsible for the generation and production of antibodies or immunoglobulins in the body. Together with T cells these lymphocytes comprise the adaptive immune system, which allows an individual to develop specific responses to an infection and retain memory of that infection, allowing for a faster and more robust response if that same infection occurs again. In addition to this immune function, B cells have a close and multifaceted relationship with bone cells. B cells differentiate from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in supportive niches found on endosteal bone surfaces. Cells in the osteoblast lineage support HSC and B cell differentiation in these niches. B cell differentiation is regulated, at least in part, by a series of transcription factors that function in a temporal manner. While these transcription factors are required for B cell differentiation, their loss causes profound changes in the bone phenotype. This is due, in part, to the close relationship between macrophage/osteoclast and B cell differentiation. Cross talk between B cells and bone cells is reciprocal with defects in the RANKL-RANK, OPG signaling axis resulting in altered bone phenotypes. While the role of B cells during normal bone remodeling appears minimal, activated B cells play an important role in many inflammatory diseases with associated bony changes. This review examines the relationship between B cells and bone cells and how that relationship affects the skeleton and hematopoiesis during health and disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Systems biology of resilience and optimal health: integrating Chinese and Western medicine perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman van Wietmarschen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Western science has been strong in measuring details of biological systems such as gene expression levels and metabolite concentrations, and has generally followed a bottom up approach with regard to explaining biological phenomena. Chinese medicine in contrast has evolved as a top down approach in which body and mind is seen as a whole, a phenomenological approach based on the organization and dynamics of symptom patterns. Western and Chinese perspectives are developing towards a ‘middle out’ approach. Chinese medicine diagnosis, we will argue, allows bridging the gap between biologists and psychologists and offers new opportunities for the development of health monitoring tools and health promotion strategies.

  17. To the question about the role of consumption-stereotypes in the forming of health-saving individual behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Dobryden

    2017-06-01

    Emphasized: first, consumption patterns require constant critical thinking when it comes to maintaining their health; must use structural characteristics of stereotypes in creating stereotypes consumption of healthy lifestyles and developing effective systems healthsaving in Ukraine.

  18. Health Outcomes of Exposure to Biological and Chemical Components of Inhalable and Respirable Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morakinyo, Oyewale Mayowa; Mokgobu, Matlou Ingrid; Mukhola, Murembiwa Stanley; Hunter, Raymond Paul

    2016-06-14

    Particulate matter (PM) is a key indicator of air pollution and a significant risk factor for adverse health outcomes in humans. PM is not a self-contained pollutant but a mixture of different compounds including chemical and biological fractions. While several reviews have focused on the chemical components of PM and associated health effects, there is a dearth of review studies that holistically examine the role of biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM in disease causation. A literature search using various search engines and (or) keywords was done. Articles selected for review were chosen following predefined criteria, to extract and analyze data. The results show that the biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM play a significant role in the burden of health effects attributed to PM. These health outcomes include low birth weight, emergency room visit, hospital admission, respiratory and pulmonary diseases, cardiovascular disease, cancer, non-communicable diseases, and premature death, among others. This review justifies the importance of each or synergistic effects of the biological and chemical constituents of PM on health. It also provides information that informs policy on the establishment of exposure limits for PM composition metrics rather than the existing exposure limits of the total mass of PM. This will allow for more effective management strategies for improving outdoor air quality.

  19. Health Outcomes of Exposure to Biological and Chemical Components of Inhalable and Respirable Particulate Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewale Mayowa Morakinyo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM is a key indicator of air pollution and a significant risk factor for adverse health outcomes in humans. PM is not a self-contained pollutant but a mixture of different compounds including chemical and biological fractions. While several reviews have focused on the chemical components of PM and associated health effects, there is a dearth of review studies that holistically examine the role of biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM in disease causation. A literature search using various search engines and (or keywords was done. Articles selected for review were chosen following predefined criteria, to extract and analyze data. The results show that the biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM play a significant role in the burden of health effects attributed to PM. These health outcomes include low birth weight, emergency room visit, hospital admission, respiratory and pulmonary diseases, cardiovascular disease, cancer, non-communicable diseases, and premature death, among others. This review justifies the importance of each or synergistic effects of the biological and chemical constituents of PM on health. It also provides information that informs policy on the establishment of exposure limits for PM composition metrics rather than the existing exposure limits of the total mass of PM. This will allow for more effective management strategies for improving outdoor air quality.

  20. Questions of trust in health research on social capital: what aspects of personal network social capital do they measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpiano, Richard M; Fitterer, Lisa M

    2014-09-01

    Health research on personal social capital has often utilized measures of respondents' perceived trust of others as either a proxy for one's social capital in the absence of more focused measures or as a subjective component of social capital. Little empirical work has evaluated the validity of such practices. We test the construct validity of two trust measures used commonly in health research on social capital-generalized trust and trust of neighbors-with respect to measures of people's general network-, organization-, family-, friend-, and neighborhood-based social capital and the extent to which these two trust measures are associated with self-rated general health and mental health when social capital measures are included in the same models. Analyses of 2008 Canadian General Social Survey data (response rate 57.3%) indicate that generalized trust and trust of neighbors are both positively-yet modestly-associated with measures of several domains of network-based social capital. Both trust measures are positively associated with general and mental health, but these associations remain robust after adjusting for social capital measures. Our findings suggest that (a) trust is conceptually distinct from social capital, (b) trust measures are inadequate proxies for actual personal social networks, and (c) trust measures may only be capturing psychological aspects relevant to-but not indicative of-social capital. Though links between perceived trust and health deserve study, health research on social capital needs to utilize measures of respondents' actual social networks and their inherent resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  2. Questioning the differences between general public vs. patient based preferences towards EQ-5D-5L defined hypothetical health states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorevc, Marko; Murovec, Nika; Fernandez, Natacha Bolanos; Rupel, Valentina Prevolnik

    2017-03-28

    The purpose of this article is to explore whether any differences exist between the general population and patient based preferences towards EQ-5D-5L defined hypothetical health states. The article discusses the role of adaptation and self-interest in valuing health states and it also contributes rigorous empirical evidence to the scientific debate on the differences between the patient and general population preferences towards hypothetical health states. Patient preferences were elicited in 2015 with the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire using time trade-off and discrete choice experiment design and compared to the Spanish general population preferences, which were elicited using identical methods. Patients were chosen on a voluntary basis according to their willingness to participate in the survey. They were recruited from patient organisations and a hospital in Madrid, Spain. 282 metastatic breast cancer patients and 333 rheumatoid arthritis patients were included in the sample. The analysis revealed differences in preferences between the general population and patient groups. Based on the results of our analysis, it is suggested that the differences in preferences stem from patients being more able to accurately imagine "non-tangible" dimensions of health states (anxiety or depression, and pain or discomfort) than the general population with less experience in various health states. However, this does not mean that general public values should not be reflected in utilities derived for coverage decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison between “Problem-Based Learning” and “Question & Answer” Educational Methods on Environmental Health Students’ Attitude to Critical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available  Aims: Critical thinking has the 2 aspects skill and attitude. The skill aspect will not take place without the attitude to critical thinking. The aim of this study was to compare between problem-based and question-answer learning methods on critical thinking attitude of environmental health students.  Instrument & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study all 27 environmental health students of Alborz University of Medical Sciences were entered the study by census method. Critical thinking attitudes’ parameters were studied by the California critical thinking disposition inventory (CCTDI before and after the intervention. The problem-based learning group (14 persons held some scenarios for studying and investigating and question-answer group (13 persons held 4 questioning sessions. Data were collected and analyzed by SPSS 17 using independent- and paired-T tests.  Findings: There were no significant differences between the average of CCTDI scores for problem-based learning group before (278.00±28.14 and after (309.29±13.80 the intervention and also between the average of CCTDI scores for question-answer group before (276.00±7.12 and after (306.62±16.32 the intervention (p>0.05. Both methods caused a significant increase in analytic power, information categorization and self-confidence of students (p<0.05.  Conclusion: Using both question-answer and problem-based educational methods can improve the attitude to critical thinking in students.

  4. [The question of interdisciplinary work in the daily work of a nurse in a mental health day care center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, R

    1998-01-01

    This study aim is the nurses perceptions inside the mental health daily attention centre and the interdisciplinary aspect their work. This study has emerged from the necessity of understanding the work and participation of the nurses who act in those new places together with a interdisciplinary group, taking into consideration that graduation does not educate nurses for this kind of work. The interdisciplinary work has been seen as a sine qua non condition for optimising care for people who suffer from serious psychological illness as it is in the II National Conference of Mental Health, the Caracas Conference and the Health Ministry 224 Edict. Quantitative study has been used in order to value each nurse experience as well as his/her professional history in Mental Care Exercise.

  5. [Analysis of barriers to therapeutic adherence for Colombian women with HIV/AIDS: a question of health rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga-Quintero, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    To identify and analyze HIV/AIDS treatment adherence among Colombian women. A qualitative, descriptive-interpretative study with content analysis was developed between 2008 and 2009. Sixty six women participated in five focus group discussions. To complement data, semi-structured interviews with seven key informants were conducted. Main barriers are determined structurally by the current Colombian health system, based on insurance market. The right to access to treatment in a timely and continuous manner, the rights to confidentiality and non discrimination, and the right to quality care with gender focus are affected among participant women. Consequently, adherence is negatively affected. The current Colombian health system determines critical processes affecting HIV/AIDS treatment adherence in women. However, further research must be conducted to identify specific associations with non-universal health systems.

  6. The potential of synthetic biology for improving environmental quality and human health in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Niño, Miguel; Islam, Zia-ul

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Environmental quality is a major factor in global health that mainly affects the poorest populations. Vector- borne diseases, climate change, pollution and unintentional poisonings are recognized as the primary causes of environmental diseases burden in developing countries. The development and implementation of new technologies to reduce the impact of these risk factors on health in developing countries is a priority in the current research. In this regard, synthetic biology, a near...

  7. Integrated Ecological River Health Assessments, Based on Water Chemistry, Physical Habitat Quality and Biological Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yoon Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated integrative river ecosystem health using stressor-based models of physical habitat health, chemical water health, and biological health of fish and identified multiple-stressor indicators influencing the ecosystem health. Integrated health responses (IHRs, based on star-plot approach, were calculated from qualitative habitat evaluation index (QHEI, nutrient pollution index (NPI, and index of biological integrity (IBI in four different longitudinal regions (Groups I–IV. For the calculations of IHRs values, multi-metric QHEI, NPI, and IBI models were developed and their criteria for the diagnosis of the health were determined. The longitudinal patterns of the river were analyzed by a self-organizing map (SOM model and the key major stressors in the river were identified by principal component analysis (PCA. Our model scores of integrated health responses (IHRs suggested that mid-stream and downstream regions were impaired, and the key stressors were closely associated with nutrient enrichment (N and P and organic matter pollutions from domestic wastewater disposal plants and urban sewage. This modeling approach of IHRs may be used as an effective tool for evaluations of integrative ecological river health..

  8. What Questions Should We ask About the Health Effect of Mars Dust? Lessons from the Lunar Dust Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschmann, R. L.

    2017-06-01

    The toxicology of lunar dust has been studied over the last decade and standards set by NASA for exposure. This summary reviews that data and proposes to reapply the strategy employed there to future research on the health effects of Mars dust.

  9. Draft questions of 5S pre-audit with regard to health and safety standards for tires retreating plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Pacana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A continuous technological progress forces an improvement of the production process. The article describes the sole beginning of changes in the process of tires retreading on the 5S management method with regard to health and safety standards. The authors point out that the process of the production of retreaded tires is associated with the relationship between a man and a machine. The process improvement can dispense only by improving the machines but it should also pay attention to the man. The improvement of the production process must precede the audit, which can show areas that require intervention. Any such change in the production process cannot be performed without the participation of health and safety inspector, because his knowledge, skills and competence are able to determine whether the proposed changes interfere with the level of safety at the workplace. The authors emphasize that the process of production improvement production should be compatible with the process of improving the health and safety of workers involved in the production process. The combination of 5S audit with health and safety standards results in a holistic approach to the improvement process.

  10. 'Any body is better than nobody?' Ethical questions around recruiting and/or retaining health professionals in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, C; McDonald, F

    2011-01-01

    The literature on recruiting and/or retaining health professionals in rural areas focuses primarily on the development of recruitment and retention strategies and assessing whether such strategies are effective. The objective of this article is to argue that it is important for all stakeholders involved in rural recruitment and/or retention processes to consider their decisions and actions from an ethics perspective. Recruitment and/or retention processes are not value neutral and it is important to understand their ethical dimensions. From the literature, elements of the recruitment and/or retention strategies that have been employed were identified and organised in respect of levels of governance (namely, the levels of health system/government, community, and individual health professionals). The elements identified in these levels were subjected to analysis to identify their ethical dimensions and to determine whether a clash or complement of values arose at each level of governance or between governance levels. There is very little literature in this area that considers the ethical dimensions of rural recruitment and/or retention processes. However, all policies and practices have ethical dimensions that need to be identified and understood as they may have significant implications for recruitment and/or retention processes. This article recommends the application of an ethics perspective when reflecting on rural recruitment and/or retention strategies. The collective decisions of all involved in rural recruitment and/or retention processes may fundamentally influence the 'health' (broadly understood) of rural communities.

  11. Association between a self-rated health question and mortality in young and old dialysis patients: a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thong, Melissa S. Y.; Kaptein, Adrian A.; Benyamini, Yael; Krediet, Raymond T.; Boeschoten, Elisabeth W.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Apperloo, A. J.; Bijlsma, J. A.; Boekhout, M.; Boer, W. H.; van der Boog, P. J. M.; Büller, H. R.; van Buren, M.; de Charro, F. Th; Doorenbos, C. J.; van den Dorpel, M. A.; van Es, A.; Fagel, W. J.; Feith, G. W.; de Fijter, C. W. H.; Frenken, L. A. M.; Grave, W.; van Geelen, J. A. C. A.; Gerlag, P. G. G.; Gorgels, J. P. M. C.; Huisman, R. M.; Jager, K. J.; Jie, K.; Koning-Mulder, W. A. H.; Koolen, M. I.; Kremer Hovinga, T. K.; Lavrijssen, A. T. J.; Luik, A. J.; van der Meulen, J.; Parlevliet, K. J.; Raasveld, M. H. M.; van der Sande, F. M.; Schonck, M. J. M.; Schuurmans, M. M. J.; Siegert, C. E. H.; Stegeman, C. A.; Stevens, P.; Thijssen, J. G. P.; Valentijn, R. M.; Vastenburg, G. H.; Verburgh, C. A.; Vincent, H. H.; Vos, P. F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to predict mortality in large community-based studies; however, large clinical-based studies of this topic are rare. We assessed whether an SRH item predicts mortality in a large sample of incident dialysis patients beyond sociodemographic, disease,

  12. [The questions of improving the information-analytical component in the reform of the health care system in Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Беликова, Инна В; Руденко, Леся А

    2016-01-01

    A priority task of the development strategy of the Ukrainian health care system is the saving and improving of public health. With the development of new economic relations, health care restructuring, the introduction of new financing mechanisms to policy-makers have an important task of the organization of operational management on the basis of timely quality information. According to many authors, the ability to improve the quality of the received information is possible due to the intercalation of information technologies. The main aim of our study is to determine the main directions of modernization of information-analytical component during the health care reform. The medical institutions reporting forms (f.20, f.12, f.17, f.47) were analyzed to achieve the goal, were conducted a survey of primary care physicians. The survey was attended by 265 family doctors, 80 of whom are family doctors of family medicine clinic of the regional center, 185 - medical centers of primary health care district centers. The analysis of the sociological research indicates that the work of the family doctor is accompanied by filling a large number of records, so according to the survey, an average of doctors per day filled about 15.74 +2.2 registration forms, on average per month 333,7+ 30 a month. The necessity of reform of the information-analytical component of the health care system have noted by 94% 1.4. Do not have a automated workstation 34.5% + 5.3 physicians of the regional center and 68% + 3.4 countryside. Possession of the computer at user level observed by 92% + 1.6, which is a good basis for the introduction of information in healthcare system. The data of the sociological survey confirm the necession of structural-functional procuring of the system of information-analytical supporting of the healthcare system of Ukraine. Annual health statistics reports are still relevant, but they need to improve and adapt to the new conditions of functioning of healthcare system and

  13. Perception analysis of undergraduate students in the health field about the topic Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Andrade Monerat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian education has been changing over time, especially with the increased offer on the various levels of education. In undergraduate courses, in the health area, the cell biology becomes an essential discipline, because various sectors are directly influenced by their recent discoveries and research. This work aimed to analyze, with undergraduate students, perceptions about the themes at Cell Biology, revealing, with its results, pertinent aspects, as insufficient knowledge about the proposed theme. The definition of a concept of cell, considered a basic aspect, however relevant in this context, exemplifies this situation, because it showed a considerable rate of unsatisfactory answers. On the other hand, was verified the recognition of Cell Biology as an area that presents important contents in the training of these students, due the numerous scientific researches that show its constant evolution in association with themes of medicine and public health.

  14. Synthetic biology and global health in the age of intellectual property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belt, van den H.

    2014-01-01

    Although synthetic biology (SB) conjures up a future cornucopia of new medicines and other health applications, the antimalarial drug artemisinin is still one of the few concrete illustrations to substantiate this promise. As SB’s favorite poster child, it is atypical because it exemplifies a rather

  15. Biological mechanisms underlying the role of physical fitness in health and resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Marni N.; Deuster, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical fitness, achieved through regular exercise and/or spontaneous physical activity, confers resilience by inducing positive psychological and physiological benefits, blunting stress reactivity, protecting against potentially adverse behavioural and metabolic consequences of stressful events and preventing many chronic diseases. In this review, we discuss the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical fitness on mental and physical health. Physical fitness appear...

  16. Disrupted seasonal biology impacts health, food security, and ecosystems: a call for integrated research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, T.J.; Visser, M.E.; Arnold, W.; Barrett, P.; Biello, S.; Dawson, A.; Denlinger, D.L.; Dominoni, Davide; Ebling, F.J.; Elton, S.; Evans, N.; Ferguson, H.M.; Foster, R.G.; Hau, M.; Haydon, D.T.; Hazlerigg, D.G.; Heideman, P.; Hopcraft, J.G.C.; Jonsson, N.N.; Kronfeld-Schor, N.; Kumar, V.; Lincoln, G.A.; MacLeod, R.; Martin, S.A.M.; Martinez-Bakker, M.; Nelson, R.J.; Reed, T.; Robinso, J.E.; Rock, D.; Schwartz, W.J.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Tauber, E.; Thackeray, S.J.; Umstatter, C.; Yoshimura, T.; Helm, B.

    2015-01-01

    The rhythm of life on earth is shaped by seasonal changes in the environment. Plants and animals show profound annual cycles in physiology, health, morphology, behaviour and demography in response to environmental cues. Seasonal biology impacts ecosystems and agriculture, with consequences for

  17. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-03-19

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  18. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong; Alfadly, Modar; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  19. Understanding sexual orientation and health in Canada: Who are we capturing and who are we missing using the Statistics Canada sexual orientation question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharma, Christoffer; Bauer, Greta R

    2017-04-20

    Public health research on inequalities in Canada depends heavily on population data sets such as the Canadian Community Health Survey. While sexual orientation has three dimensions - identity, behaviour and attraction - Statistics Canada and public health agencies assess sexual orientation with a single questionnaire item on identity, defined behaviourally. This study aims to evaluate this item, to allow for clearer interpretation of sexual orientation frequencies and inequalities. Through an online convenience sampling of Canadians ≥14 years of age, participants (n = 311) completed the Statistics Canada question and a second set of sexual orientation questions. The single-item question had an 85.8% sensitivity in capturing sexual minorities, broadly defined by their sexual identity, lifetime behaviour and attraction. Kappa statistic for agreement between the single item and sexual identity was 0.89; with past year, lifetime behaviour and attraction were 0.39, 0.48 and 0.57 respectively. The item captured 99.3% of those with a sexual minority identity, 84.2% of those with any lifetime same-sex partners, 98.4% with a past-year same-sex partner, and 97.8% who indicated at least equal attraction to same-sex persons. Findings from Statistics Canada surveys can be best interpreted as applying to those who identify as sexual minorities. Analyses using this measure will underidentify those with same-sex partners or attractions who do not identify as a sexual minority, and should be interpreted accordingly. To understand patterns of sexual minority health in Canada, there is a need to incorporate other dimensions of sexual orientation.

  20. A content of minimizing the damage of health and welfare of the population as a result of the Chernobyl accident (questions and ansevers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, S.T.; Demin, V.F.; Knizhnikov, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    A conception of minimizing the damage to the health and welfare of the population shich was exposed to radiation as result of the Chernobyl accident, was analyzed in form of questions and answers. Three chapters are considered: main positions and peculiarities; radiation situation; radiation effect on the health. Critical analysis of the conception is given. Its disadvantages were noted from the point of view of basis of some assessments of radiation safety and measures which were suggested to use for protection of health of the population. Social and economic problems arising in realization of given conception were considered. Comparative evaluation of this conception with results of overcoming the consequences of radiation action on population of Japan after nuclear explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was presented

  1. Environment Biological and Health Care Efforts Influenced of Lymfatic Filariasis Incidence, Sarmi Distric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Sipayung

    2014-05-01

    District Sarmi is the most endemic area of filariasis in Papua which has rate of microfilaria (mf (47.06% up to the year 2012. In the Province Papua filarial worm is Wuchereria bancrofti and is transmitted through the bite of a mosquito vectors. Lymphatic filariasis does not cause death, but in chronic cases it causes disability, psychosocial problems, stigma, and decreased productivity. This study was aimed to analyze environment biological and health care efforts that influence the incidence of lymphatic filariasis. This study used case-control method. Samples comprised 32 case samples (mf + and 32 control samples (mf-. Primary data were collected through interviews and observation. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square and continued with multivariate Logistic Regression. Statistical analysis obtained indicated two variables on the incidence of lymphatic filariasis limfatik in District Sarmi (health care efforts pvalue = 0.002, OR: 7.779, as well as the biological environment pvalue= 0.008, OR: 5.841. Significant variables were health services with sub-variables promotion, prevention and the environmental biology. Suggestion: Mosquito bites should be avoided, the vector should be controlled through mutual cooperation and health promotion should be implemented. Keywords: Wuchereria bancrofti, lymphatic filariasis, vector, health care,                         Sarmi Distric

  2. From biological anthropology to applied public health: epidemiological approaches to the study of infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalak, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This article describes two large, multisite infectious disease programs: the Tuberculosis Epidemiologic Studies Consortium (TBESC) and the Emerging Infections Programs (EIPs). The links between biological anthropology and applied public health are highlighted using these programs as examples. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the TBESC and EIPs conduct applied public health research to strengthen infectious disease prevention and control efforts in the United States. They involve collaborations among CDC, public health departments, and academic and clinical institutions. Their unique role in national infectious disease work, including their links to anthropology, shared elements, key differences, strengths and challenges, is discussed.

  3. 'A question of balance': addressing the public health impacts of multinational enterprises in the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joshua S; McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2012-01-01

    The global community is beginning to address non-communicable diseases, but how to increase the accountability of multinational enterprises (MNEs) for the health impacts of their products and practices remains unclear. We examine the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) efforts to do so through voluntary MNE guidelines. We developed a historical case study of how the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises were developed and revised from 1973 to 2000 through an analysis of publicly available archived OECD and tobacco industry documents. The first edition of the Guidelines was a purely economic instrument. Outside pressures and a desire to ward off more stringent regulatory efforts resulted in the addition over time of guidelines related to the environment, consumer interests, sustainable development and human rights. Despite their voluntary nature, the Guidelines can play a role in efforts to help balance the interests of MNEs and public health by providing a starting point for efforts to create binding provisions addressing MNEs' contributions to disease burden or disease reduction.

  4. [The incidence and distribution of accidents with biological fluids among health personnel and the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaz Iglesia, I; Gómez López, L I; Fernández Martínez, J A; Mareca Doñate, R; Sangrador Arenas, L A

    1996-01-01

    To assess the informative usefulness of the Registry, to calculate the incidence rates of accident with biological fluids among health care workers and in the community, to know about the postaccident rate of seroconversion to HIV and to identify risk groups. A descriptive study of the HIV records file of the Registry of Accidental Contacts to Biological Fluids in the Clinic Hospital of Zaragoza was conducted, between January 1987 and September 1993. The registry includes the reports of health care workers and the general population of Health Area III in Aragón (Spain), except for the Calatayud's Hospital. Incidence rates, rate ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A total number of 595 accidents were reported, in none of them and HIV infection occurred subsequently. The incidence rate in health care workers was of 1.7 reports per 100 workers per year, while in the community it was of 8.1 per 100,000 people. The housekeeping staff was the group with a higher incidence (rate = 6.7; 95% IC: 3-14.8) and the type of accident more frequently described was needlestick injury. The incidence of reported accidents has increased in the community and in health care workers, which may be due to the increase in the reporting. In health care workers, the incidence in 1993 was within the range reported from other countries. The perception of risk is universal after accidents with unknown biological fluids. The correct disposal of material with biological contamination should be the more important preventive action.

  5. Information on biological health effects of ionizing radiation and radionuclides: the rule of a web site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, A.; Gaillard-Lecanu, E.; Flury-Herard, A.; Ourly, F.; Hemidy, P.; Lallemand, J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a source of information on biological and health effects of radionuclides and ionizing radiation in an easy to use format. Reported work is made up of two distinct parts: data sheets for selected radionuclides and a web file. Data sheets: Specific radiation data sheets provide an overview of the properties, the environmental behaviour, the different pathways of human exposure and the biological and health consequences of selected radionuclides. Radionuclides that have been selected are those commonly dealt with in nuclear industry (and in other areas such as medicine) and released to the environment or naturally occurring (plutonium, tritium, carbon 14). Data sheets corresponding to the different radionuclides are based on the main sources of scientific information in dosimetry, epidemiology, radiobiology and radiation protection. These data sheets are intended for radiation protection specialists and physicians. They include: main physical and chemical characteristics, main radiation protection data: dose coefficients (public, workers), dose limits sources, total released estimate (nuclear industry, atmospheric tests, main pathway of human exposure and biological behaviour, biological and health effects, medical supervision, treatment a list of the main references, appendix providing accurate information. Web file: http://www-dsv.cea.fr/doc/carmin_ext/fond.php This web file provides a source of information on biological and health effects of ionizing radiation and biological basic knowledge of radiation protection. Available for consultation via Internet, compiled information provides, in a same file, subjects as varied as biological mechanisms, ionizing radiations action, biological and health effects, risk assessment This file is mainly intended to assist in informing and training of non-specialist readership (students, teaching on radiation protection basic knowledge. This electronic document is divided in three

  6. Health approaches in a widely adopted Brazilian high school biology textbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziane Martins

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the long tradition of discussing health in the Brazilian school curriculum, it is important to investigate how this topic is addressed by the textbooks, the main resource used by most schools in the country. In particular, it is relevant to verify if this content is presented in a manner that contributes to the development of the students as active and critical members of the society. We analyze how health is treated in the textbook Biology, by Laurence (2005, which has been the high school Biology textbook most chosen by public school teachers among those certified by the National Program for High School Textbooks (PNLEM/2007, sponsored by the Brazilian Ministry of Education (MEC. We used categorical content analysis techniques, involving the decomposition of the texts into units of analysis, the categories, which were built in this work through analogical regroupings, by using semantic criteria. In order to investigate the treatment given to health, we applied an analytical table to the units of recording, which consist of sentences, paragraphs, and sections of the textbook that discuss contents related to health and disease. This table systematizes eight health indicators, seeking to identify three health approaches: biomedical, behavioral, and socioecological. We found 267 units of recording in the textbook and, based on their analysis, it was possible to categorize the textbook as one in which the biomedical approach prevails. Our findings are consistent with other works that indicate the prevalence of this approach in Brazilian education, and Brazilian and international textbooks. Another important finding of the work is that the behavioral approach does not hold, at least for the analyzed textbook, as a view of health different from the biomedical and socioecological approaches. After all, when the book mentions behaviors and habits of life associated with health, it generally emphasizes biological dimensions, aligning with a

  7. PROCESS MATTERS - EMPIRICALLY EVALUATING ADMINISTRATIVE TRIBUNALS IN THE HEALTH SECTOR: THE QUESTIONABLE NEUTRALITY OF ADMINISTRATIVE TRIBUNAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Stewart Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The health tribunal process is assumed to be neutral and allow for the tribunal’s focus to be on the parties’ legal arguments. This study quantitatively examined approximately 400 decisions over a five-year period to determine whether or not health tribunal hearings are neutral or whether the hearing process itself affects the tribunal’s decision independent of the parties’ legal arguments. Certain tribunal procedures affected tribunal decisions independent of legal arguments. This novel quantitative research matrix, which analysed cases over a five year time period, identified trends which are overlooked in traditional legal analysis of judicial review.   Il est présumé que le processus d’audience du tribunal de la santé est neutre et permet au tribunal de se concentrer sur les arguments juridiques des parties. Cette étude porte sur l’analyse quantitative d’environ 400 décisions et s’est étendue sur une période de cinq années; elle visait à déterminer si les audiences du tribunal de la santé sont neutres ou non, ou si le processus d’audience même influence les décisions du tribunal indépendamment des arguments juridiques des parties. Cette nouvelle matrice de données quantitatives, qui a analysé des causes sur une période de cinq années, a permis de constater des tendances qui sont mises de côté dans les analyses juridiques traditionnelles du processus de contrôle judiciaire.

  8. Validação do questionário de qualidade de vida (King's Health Questionnaire) em mulheres brasileiras com incontinência urinária

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca,Eliana Suelotto Machado; Camargo,Adriana Luciana Moreno; Castro,Rodrigo de Aquino; Sartori,Marair Gracio Ferreira; Fonseca,Marcelo Cunio Machado; Lima,Geraldo Rodrigues de; Girão,Manoel João Batista de Castello

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: a proposta deste estudo foi traduzir e validar o King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ) para mulheres brasileiras com incontinência urinária. MÉTODOS: 134 pacientes com incontinência urinária, confirmada pelo estudo urodinâmico, foram recrutadas em ambulatório de Uroginecologia. Inicialmente, traduzimos o questionário KHQ para a língua portuguesa (do Brasil) de acordo com critérios internacionais. Devido às diferenças da língua, fizemos a adaptação cultural, estrutural, conceitual e semâ...

  9. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  10. Several facts concerning health and questions about rehabilitative-restorative treatment of miners of the BAM zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, G N

    1985-06-01

    The Yuzhnaya-Yakutiya coal basin containing one of the largest deposits of coking coal (40 billion tons to a depth of 600 m, 60% of this to a depth of 300 m) in the USSR lies in the BAM zone. Average yearly temperature of the region is 7-10 C. Brittle enclosing rock, longterm frozen soil, concentration of coal deposits and machinery in small areas increase vibration, noise, dust and gas in working areas. Surveys revealed predominant illnesses are diseases of the nervous system: osteochondrosis, with secondary neuritis, and radiculitis. Eighty-two percent of miners with osteochondrosis work in occupations with high vibration risk. To prevent disease and rehabilitate miners with degenerative changes of motor apparatus and osteochondrosis, a network of rehabilitation rooms was created at health centers near the workplace. Miners with osteochondrosis, myositis and arthritis receive heat treatments, massage and curative physical culture. A course of treatment is given 2 or 3 times a year. The courses are given after work without interrupting employment. Miners are directed to take vacations every year. Preventive-rehabilitative treatment of miners of the Far North makes it possible to keep highly qualified workers actively employed which is important considering the shortage of miners in these regions. 2 references.

  11. [Clinical treatment adherence of health care workers and students exposed to potentially infectious biological material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria Cristina Mendes de; Canini, Silvia Rita Marin da Silva; Reis, Renata Karina; Toffano, Silmara Elaine Malaguti; Pereira, Fernanda Maria Vieira; Gir, Elucir

    2015-04-01

    To assess adherence to clinical appointments by health care workers (HCW) and students who suffered accidents with potentially infectious biological material. A retrospective cross-sectional study that assessed clinical records of accidents involving biological material between 2005 and 2010 in a specialized unit. A total of 461 individuals exposed to biological material were treated, of which 389 (84.4%) were HCWs and 72 (15.6%) students. Of the 461 exposed individuals, 307 (66.6%) attended a follow-up appointment. Individuals who had suffered an accident with a known source patient were 29 times more likely to show up to their scheduled follow-up appointments (OR: 29.98; CI95%: 16.09-55.83). The predictor in both univariate and multivariate analyses for adherence to clinical follow-up appointment was having a known source patient with nonreactive serology for the human immunodeficiency virus and/or hepatitis B and C.

  12. Biology and physics competencies for pre-health and other life sciences students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilborn, Robert C; Friedlander, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    The recent report on the Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians (SFFP) and the revised Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) reframe the preparation for medical school (and other health professional schools) in terms of competencies: what students should know and be able to do with that knowledge, with a strong emphasis on scientific inquiry and research skills. In this article, we will describe the thinking that went into the SFFP report and what it says about scientific and quantitative reasoning, focusing on biology and physics and the overlap between those fields. We then discuss how the SFFP report set the stage for the discussion of the recommendations for the revised MCAT, which will be implemented in 2015, again focusing the discussion on biology and physics. Based on that framework, we discuss the implications for undergraduate biology and physics education if students are to be prepared to demonstrate these competencies.

  13. Campaigns and disability: When an incumbent president questions his potential successor's mental health status during the campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukakis, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Former Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis knows about the damage that disability can cause--even its mere mention. In this keynote address given to the symposium on Presidential Disability and Succession held at Northeastern University in Boston last spring, Dukakis reflected on his famous 1988 presidential campaign that, largely at his expense, redefined negativity in presidential politics, in particular the fictitious allegation that he had a history of mental illness. A distinguish professor of Political Science and Public Policy at Northeastern University, Dukakis also spends each winter quarter at UCLA as a visiting professor in the Luskin School of Public Affairs. He remains active in both politics and public policy, canvassing for Democratic candidates such as Elizabeth Warren during her 2012 Senate campaign and promoting policy initiatives through the Dukakis Center for Urban and Regional Policy at Northeastern, which he affectionately calls a "think and do tank." The three-term governor (1975-1979 and 1983-1991) was voted Most Effective Governor by the National Governor's Association in 1986. After his first term in the late 1970s he lost a nasty primary election to Ed King, whom he would later defeat to reclaim office. Though it wasn't apparent at the time, for Dukakis, that 1978 campaign would serve as a precursor for the attack politics that were unloosed during the 1988 presidential campaign. In the remarks that follow, he offers a candid assessment of how not going negative may have cost him the presidency, and how an offhand remark by President Reagan (quickly retracted) caused the press to obsess over Dukakis' health record for the better part of a week--enough to slow his momentum during a crucial stage of campaigning.

  14. Top 10 research questions to promote physical activity in bipolar disorders: A consensus statement from the International Organization of Physical Therapists in Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Rosenbaum, Simon; Probst, Michel; Connaughton, Joanne; du Plessis, Christy; Yamamoto, Taisei; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-05-01

    Research has only recently started to consider the importance and applicability of physical activity (PA) for people with bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of the current study is to highlight 10 pertinent PA research questions in people with BD. The International Organization of Physical Therapy in Mental Health executed a consultation with all National organizations (n=13) to identify the most salient questions to guide future research on PA in BD. We identified the following 10 questions: (1) What are the benefits of PA for people with BD? (2) What are the most prominent safety issues for PA prescription in BD? (3) What is the optimal PA prescription for people with BD? (4) What are the key barriers to PA among people with BD? (5) What are the most effective motivational strategies for ensuring PA adoption and maintenance in BD? (6) How do we translate PA research into community practice? (7) If one treatment goal is increased physical activity, what type of professionals are needed as part of a multidisciplinary team? (8) How do we incorporate PA as a vital sign in clinical practice? (9) How can we prevent sedentary behavior in BD? (10) What is the most appropriate PA assessment method? We did not consult people with BD. Addressing these questions is critical for developing evidence-based approaches for promoting and sustaining an active lifestyle in BD. Ultimately, achieving this will reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease and improve the quality of life of this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental Health and Aging: Activity, Exposure and Biological Models to Improve Risk Assessment and Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other public health agencies are concerned that the environmental health of America’s growing population of older adults has not been taken into consideration in current approaches to risk assessment. The reduced capacity to respo...

  16. Static magnetic fields: A summary of biological interactions, potential health effects, and exposure guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1992-05-01

    Interest in the mechanisms of interaction and the biological effects of static magnetic fields has increased significantly during the past two decades as a result of the growing number of applications of these fields in research, industry and medicine. A major stimulus for research on the bioeffects of static magnetic fields has been the effort to develop new technologies for energy production and storage that utilize intense magnetic fields (e.g., thermonuclear fusion reactors and superconducting magnet energy storage devices). Interest in the possible biological interactions and health effects of static magnetic fields has also been increased as a result of recent developments in magnetic levitation as a mode of public transportation. In addition, the rapid emergence of magnetic resonance imaging as a new clinical diagnostic procedure has, in recent years, provided a strong rationale for defining the possible biological effects of magnetic fields with high flux densities. In this review, the principal interaction mechanisms of static magnetic fields will be described, and a summary will be given of the present state of knowledge of the biological, environmental, and human health effects of these fields.

  17. Preventing Absenteeism and Promoting Resilience Among Health Care Workers In Biological Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Miller, James S.

    2009-05-08

    The ability to ensure adequate numbers of medical staff represents a crucial part of the medical response to any disaster. However, healthcare worker absenteeism during disasters, especially in the event of an attack of biological terrorism or an epidemic such as pandemic influenza, is a serious concern. Though a significant rate of absenteeism is often included as a baseline assumption in emergency planning, published reports on strategies to minimize absenteeism are comparatively few. This report documents interviews with managers and emergency response planners at hospitals and public health agencies and reviews existing survey data on healthcare worker absenteeism and studies of disasters to glean lessons about the needs of healthcare workers during those disasters. Based on this research, expected rates of absenteeism and individual determinants of absenteeism are presented along with recommendations of steps that hospitals, emergency medical services departments, public health organizations, and government agencies can take to meet the needs of healthcare workers and minimize absenteeism during a biological event.

  18. Health as science and the biological body as an artifact: the case of Brazil's national TV news program Jornal Nacional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Eduardo; Ianni, Aurea Maria Zöllner; Lefevre, Fernando

    2018-04-01

    This article presents the findings of a study of the coverage of health, science and technology during 2012 by the Jornal Nacional, a national television news program in Brazil produced by the Rede Globo de Televisão. A total of 246 news stories addressing health-related topics were analyzed, half of which addressed scientific research, technological innovation and hospital care, and were shown to represent a doctor-centered discourse. The findings also show that 82% of the news stories concerning science and technology advertise products that are about to be introduced onto the market, illustrating the commercial nature of this research. The article discusses two aspects portrayed by these news stories that characterize the biological body as an artifact: the construction of a virtual and fragmented body through the diffusion of images of the inside of the body; and the importance of biotechnological issues, which leaves life processes open to molecular manipulation and alteration. The study also questions the nature-culture hybridization present in biotechnological objects.

  19. Stigmatized Biologies: Examining the Cumulative Effects of Oral Health Disparities for Mexican American Farmworker Children

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Sarah; Barker, Judith C.

    2010-01-01

    Severe early childhood caries (ECC) can leave lasting effects on children’s physical development, including malformed oral arches and crooked permanent dentition. This article examines the way that ECC sets up Mexican American farm worker children in the United States for lasting dental problems and social stigma as young adults. We examine the role of dietary and environmental factors in contributing to what we call “stigmatized biologies,” and that of market-based dental public health insur...

  20. Initiating Joint Chinese-U.S. Activities on Biological Safety and Global Health Security

    OpenAIRE

    Center on Contemporary Conflict

    2014-01-01

    Performer: National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Principal Investigator: Benjamin J. Rusek Cost: $125,000 Fiscal Year(s): 2014-2015 China is critically important to international health and biological security efforts, yet awareness and implementation of biosafety and biosecurity practices are inconsistent among life science researchers and others working with pathogens and dual-use biotechnology in China. In late 2012, the Committee on International Security and Arms ...

  1. Non-ionizing radiations : physical characteristics, biological effects and health hazard assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repacholi, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Workshop was a project of the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee of IRPA and comprised a series of educational lectures and demonstrations intended to give a comprehensive overview of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation: physical characteristics, sources of concern, levels of exposure, mechanisms of interaction and reported effects of these fields and radiations with biological tissues, human studies, health risk assessment, national and international standards and guidelines, and protective measures

  2. [Accidents with biological material in health care workers in 2 primary health care areas (1990-1999)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Navarrete, M J; Montes Villameriel, F J; Solano Bernad, V M; Sánchez Matienzo, D; del Val García, J L; Gil Montalbán, E; Arribas Llorente, J L

    2001-09-15

    To find out the exposures with biological material in health care workers in primary health care, registered in the biological accidents database from Preventive Medicine Service in Miguel Servet Universitary Hospital of Zaragoza. Descriptive study of a retrospective cohort. SITE: Primary health care, Areas II and V of Zaragoza.Participants. Workers in this areas, distributed by: physician, nursing staff, auxiliary, orderly, housekeeping staff, others. Data of: workers, accident, serologic source, worker protection and vaccinal status of hepatitis B. The incidence of accidents was 26 (period 1997-1999). Most proportion of accidents were declared by nursing (78%). The highest occupational incidence was in auxiliary (63 ). In 90,1% of the cases, the accident was needlestick injury. The source was known in 67,7% of cases. The accidents occurred in hands in 96,8% of cases, and only one third of workers carried gloves. Results obtained are similar with previous studies about this event. We must insist on the need to declare these accidents, providing more information and accessibility for the declaration to worker. Moreover, we must insist on the correct application in the health care field of the standard precautions, because almost 50% of accidents are evitable, and to increase hepatitis B vaccination covertures.

  3. [Biological exposure-related injuries in workers in a health system of the health service of Galicia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cores Calvo, Juan; Muñiz Saborido, José Ramón; González Iglesias, Marta Clara

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the factors involved in biological exposure-related injuries occurring in worker from a health system in Galicia, Spain. The study was conducted in a health system of the Health Service of Galicia, that included four hospitals and 72 primary care centers, with nearly 6000 workers. The study used occupational injury data available o in the injury registry of the Health Service of Galicia for the year 2011. We identified 194 biohazard-related injuries. Exposures, locations, devices, tasks and causes of these incidents were analysed. The majority of biological exposures occurred through needlestick injuries (82%). The areas where more injuries occurred were in inpatient wards (37%) and operating rooms (25%). The devices most frequently involved were suture needles (15%) and insulin needles (15%). The most frequently recorded causes were lack of training and information, together with lack of biosafety devices. Worker training and information should be promoted along with the implementation of biosafety devices, as the latter measure alone does not seem sufficient to reduce the number of injuries. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Seguretat i Medicina del Treball.

  4. Physical Activity, Physical Performance, and Biological Markers of Health among Sedentary Older Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical activity is associated with better physical health, possibly by changing biological markers of health such as waist circumference and inflammation, but these relationships are unclear and even less understood among older Latinos—a group with high rates of sedentary lifestyle. Methods. Participants were 120 sedentary older Latino adults from senior centers. Community-partnered research methods were used to recruit participants. Inflammatory (C-reactive protein and metabolic markers of health (waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose, physical activity (Yale physical activity survey, and physical performance (short physical performance NIA battery were measured at baseline and 6-month followup. Results. Eighty percent of the sample was female. In final adjusted cross-sectional models, better physical activity indices were associated with faster gait speed (P<0.05. In adjusted longitudinal analyses, change in self-reported physical activity level correlated inversely with change in CRP (β=-0.05; P=0.03 and change in waist circumference (β=-0.16; P=0.02. Biological markers of health did not mediate the relationship between physical activity and physical performance. Conclusion. In this community-partnered study, higher physical activity was associated with better physical performance in cross-sectional analyses. In longitudinal analysis, increased physical activity was associated with improvements in some metabolic and inflammatory markers of health.

  5. The relationship between oral health status and biological and psychosocial function in the bedridden elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, N; Tada, A

    2001-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to determine what item of biological and psychosocial function is related to oral health status in the bedridden elderly. The subjects were 94 elderly individuals (30 males, 64 females) who had been admitted to a nursing home in Chiba city, Japan. We assessed the number of remaining teeth and the number of functional teeth as oral health status variables. Biological and psychosocial function levels were determined using the functional independence measure method developed by the State University of New York at Buffalo. More than 70% of subjects had less than ten remaining teeth. Almost all subjects needed prosthesis treatment. More than 50% of subjects had 27 or less functional teeth. Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression models showed that 'expression' was concerned with the number of remaining teeth and 'bladder management', 'locomotion', 'transfers' were related to the number of functional teeth. These data suggest close relation between oral health status and biological and psychosocial function levels in the bedridden elderly.

  6. Biological drugs for the treatment of psoriasis in a public health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Cruz Lopes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the access and utilization profile of biological medications for psoriasis provided by the judicial system in Brazil. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study. We interviewed a total of 203 patients with psoriasis who were on biological medications obtained by the judicial system of the State of Sao Paulo, from 2004 to 2010. Sociodemographics, medical, and political-administrative characteristics were complemented with data obtained from dispensation orders that included biological medications to treat psoriasis and the legal actions involved. The data was analyzed using an electronic data base and shown as simple variable frequencies. The prescriptions contained in the lawsuits were analyzed according to legal provisions. RESULTS A total of 190 lawsuits requesting several biological drugs (adalimumab, efalizumab, etanercept, and infliximab were analyzed. Patients obtained these medications as a result of injunctions (59.5% or without having ever demanded biological medication from any health institution (86.2%, i.e., public or private health services. They used the prerogative of free legal aid (72.6%, even though they were represented by private lawyers (91.1% and treated in private facilities (69.5%. Most of the patients used a biological medication for more than 13 months (66.0%, and some patients were undergoing treatment with this medication when interviewed (44.9%. Approximately one third of the patients discontinued treatment due to worsening of their illness (26.6%, adverse drug reactions (20.5%, lack of efficacy, or because the doctor discontinued this medication (13.8%. None of the analyzed medical prescriptions matched the legal prescribing requirements. Clinical monitoring results showed that 70.3% of the patients had not undergone laboratory examinations (blood work, liver and kidney function tests for treatment control purposes. CONCLUSIONS The plaintiffs resorted to legal action to get access to biological

  7. Biological drugs for the treatment of psoriasis in a public health system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luciane Cruz; Silveira, Miriam Sanches do Nascimento; de Camargo, Iara Alves; Barberato, Silvio; Del Fiol, Fernando de Sá; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the access and utilization profile of biological medications for psoriasis provided by the judicial system in Brazil. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study. We interviewed a total of 203 patients with psoriasis who were on biological medications obtained by the judicial system of the State of Sao Paulo, from 2004 to 2010. Sociodemographics, medical, and political-administrative characteristics were complemented with data obtained from dispensation orders that included biological medications to treat psoriasis and the legal actions involved. The data was analyzed using an electronic data base and shown as simple variable frequencies. The prescriptions contained in the lawsuits were analyzed according to legal provisions. RESULTS A total of 190 lawsuits requesting several biological drugs (adalimumab, efalizumab, etanercept, and infliximab) were analyzed. Patients obtained these medications as a result of injunctions (59.5%) or without having ever demanded biological medication from any health institution (86.2%), i.e., public or private health services. They used the prerogative of free legal aid (72.6%), even though they were represented by private lawyers (91.1%) and treated in private facilities (69.5%). Most of the patients used a biological medication for more than 13 months (66.0%), and some patients were undergoing treatment with this medication when interviewed (44.9%). Approximately one third of the patients discontinued treatment due to worsening of their illness (26.6%), adverse drug reactions (20.5%), lack of efficacy, or because the doctor discontinued this medication (13.8%). None of the analyzed medical prescriptions matched the legal prescribing requirements. Clinical monitoring results showed that 70.3% of the patients had not undergone laboratory examinations (blood work, liver and kidney function tests) for treatment control purposes. CONCLUSIONS The plaintiffs resorted to legal action to get access to biological medications

  8. RESULTS OF THE QUALITATIVE QUESTIONS

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adam Graham

    In April of 2005, Governance, Equity and Health (GEH) held an all-partners' ... data collected – six respondents left a blank response for the question addressing level of ... Meeting participants were organized into five thematic working groups:.

  9. The Majority of Library Clients Still Use Person-to-Person Interaction When Asking Reference Questions. A review of: De Groote, Sandra L. “Questions Asked at the Virtual and Physical Health Sciences Reference Desk: How Do They Compare and What Do They Tell Us?” Medical Reference Services Quarterly 24.2 (Summer 2005: 11-23.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Pamela Lewis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - To identify similarities and difference in the questions asked at the virtual and physical refernece desks of a helath scienmces library, in order to better undertand user needs and highlight areas for service improvement. Also to retrospectively analyze reference statistics collected over the previous six years. Design - Use study; retrospective study of reference statistics for the period July 1997 to June 2003; literature review. Setting - Large academic helath sciences library in the United States. Subjects - All questions asked at the reference and information desks, plus questions submitted to the University-wide virtual reference service and answered by a health sciences librarian, over a period of one month. The questions were asked by faculty, staff, students and members of the public. Methods - A literature review was carried out to examine the types of information/reference questions typically asked in health sciences libraries both before and after the mass introduction of remote end-user searching of online resources and the establishment of virtual reference services. Next, the reference statistics collected at the University of Illinois at Chicage (UIC Library of the Health Sciences between July 1997 and June 2003 were examined. For most of this period a digital reference service was offered using a listserv address to which patrons would submit email queries. Beginning in March 2003, a formal virtual reference service (chat and email was provided using commercial software. Finally, data was gathered on questions answered by a health sciences librarians, and clients who asked the question, at either the physical or cirtual reference desk, during the month of November 2003 at the UIC Library of the Health Sciences. Library staff completed an online survey form for each question, and if a client asked more than one question, each question was coded individually. Data included: status of client using the service (faculty

  10. The Mouse Lemur, a Genetic Model Organism for Primate Biology, Behavior, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezran, Camille; Karanewsky, Caitlin J; Pendleton, Jozeph L; Sholtz, Alex; Krasnow, Maya R; Willick, Jason; Razafindrakoto, Andriamahery; Zohdy, Sarah; Albertelli, Megan A; Krasnow, Mark A

    2017-06-01

    Systematic genetic studies of a handful of diverse organisms over the past 50 years have transformed our understanding of biology. However, many aspects of primate biology, behavior, and disease are absent or poorly modeled in any of the current genetic model organisms including mice. We surveyed the animal kingdom to find other animals with advantages similar to mice that might better exemplify primate biology, and identified mouse lemurs ( Microcebus spp.) as the outstanding candidate. Mouse lemurs are prosimian primates, roughly half the genetic distance between mice and humans. They are the smallest, fastest developing, and among the most prolific and abundant primates in the world, distributed throughout the island of Madagascar, many in separate breeding populations due to habitat destruction. Their physiology, behavior, and phylogeny have been studied for decades in laboratory colonies in Europe and in field studies in Malagasy rainforests, and a high quality reference genome sequence has recently been completed. To initiate a classical genetic approach, we developed a deep phenotyping protocol and have screened hundreds of laboratory and wild mouse lemurs for interesting phenotypes and begun mapping the underlying mutations, in collaboration with leading mouse lemur biologists. We also seek to establish a mouse lemur gene "knockout" library by sequencing the genomes of thousands of mouse lemurs to identify null alleles in most genes from the large pool of natural genetic variants. As part of this effort, we have begun a citizen science project in which students across Madagascar explore the remarkable biology around their schools, including longitudinal studies of the local mouse lemurs. We hope this work spawns a new model organism and cultivates a deep genetic understanding of primate biology and health. We also hope it establishes a new and ethical method of genetics that bridges biological, behavioral, medical, and conservation disciplines, while

  11. Attempted suicide, psychological health and exposure to harassment among Japanese homosexual, bisexual or other men questioning their sexual orientation recruited via the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Y; Operario, D

    2006-11-01

    To investigate the rates of attempted suicide and its association with psychological distress, experiences of bullying and verbal harassment, and demographic characteristics among Japanese homosexual, bisexual or other men questioning their sexual orientation. A cross-sectional design using Japanese participants recruited through the internet. Of the 1025 respondents, 154 (15%) of the men reported a history of attempted suicide, 716 (70%) showed high levels of anxiety and 133 (13%) showed high levels of depression. 851 (83%) experienced school bullying and 615 (60%) were verbally harassed because of being perceived by others as homosexual. Independent correlates of attempted suicide were psychological distress, history of being verbally harassed, history of sex with a woman, history of meeting a male through the internet, disclosing sexual orientation to six or more friends and not having a university degree. Mental health services and prevention programmes are needed to deal with the psychological consequences of social stigma for Japanese men who are homosexual, bisexual or questioning their sexual orientation.

  12. Attempted suicide, psychological health and exposure to harassment among Japanese homosexual, bisexual or other men questioning their sexual orientation recruited via the internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Y; Operario, D

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the rates of attempted suicide and its association with psychological distress, experiences of bullying and verbal harassment, and demographic characteristics among Japanese homosexual, bisexual or other men questioning their sexual orientation. Design A cross‐sectional design using Japanese participants recruited through the internet. Results Of the 1025 respondents, 154 (15%) of the men reported a history of attempted suicide, 716 (70%) showed high levels of anxiety and 133 (13%) showed high levels of depression. 851 (83%) experienced school bullying and 615 (60%) were verbally harassed because of being perceived by others as homosexual. Independent correlates of attempted suicide were psychological distress, history of being verbally harassed, history of sex with a woman, history of meeting a male through the internet, disclosing sexual orientation to six or more friends and not having a university degree. Conclusions Mental health services and prevention programmes are needed to deal with the psychological consequences of social stigma for Japanese men who are homosexual, bisexual or questioning their sexual orientation. PMID:17053285

  13. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Dawon

    2017-06-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a medicinal food since ancient times. However, some people are reluctant to ingest raw garlic due to its unpleasant odor and taste. Therefore, many types of garlic preparations have been developed to reduce these attributes without losing biological functions. Aged black garlic (ABG) is a garlic preparation with a sweet and sour taste and no strong odor. It has recently been introduced to Asian markets as a functional food. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that ABG has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. Recent studies have compared the biological activity and function of ABG to those of raw garlic. ABG shows lower anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulation, immunomodulatory, and anti-allergic effects compared to raw garlic. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties, biological activity, health benefits, adverse effects, and general limitations of ABG.

  14. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyeon Ryu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum has been used as a medicinal food since ancient times. However, some people are reluctant to ingest raw garlic due to its unpleasant odor and taste. Therefore, many types of garlic preparations have been developed to reduce these attributes without losing biological functions. Aged black garlic (ABG is a garlic preparation with a sweet and sour taste and no strong odor. It has recently been introduced to Asian markets as a functional food. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that ABG has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. Recent studies have compared the biological activity and function of ABG to those of raw garlic. ABG shows lower anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulation, immunomodulatory, and anti-allergic effects compared to raw garlic. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties, biological activity, health benefits, adverse effects, and general limitations of ABG.

  15. Stigmatized biologies: Examining the cumulative effects of oral health disparities for Mexican American farmworker children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah; Barker, Judith C

    2010-06-01

    Severe early childhood caries (ECC) can leave lasting effects on children's physical development, including malformed oral arches and crooked permanent dentition. This article examines the way that the ECC of Mexican American farmworker children in the United States sets them up for lasting dental problems and social stigma as young adults. We examine the role of dietary and environmental factors in contributing to what we call "stigmatized biologies," and that of market-based dental public health insurance systems in cementing their enduring effects. We adapt Margaret Lock's term, local biology, to illustrate the way that biology differs not only because of culture, diet, and environment but also because of disparities in insurance coverage. By showing the long-term effects of ECC and disparate dental treatment on farmworker adults, we show how the interaction of immigrant caregiving practices and underinsurance can having lasting social effects. An examination of the long-term effects of farmworker children's ECC illustrates the ways that market-based health care systems can create embodied differences that in turn reproduce a system of social inequality.

  16. Aloe vera: Potential candidate in health management via modulation of biological activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H.; Aldebasi, Yousef H.; Srikar, Sauda; Khan, Amjad A.; Aly, Salah M.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment based on natural products is rapidly increasing worldwide due to the affordability and fewer side effects of such treatment. Various plants and the products derived from them are commonly used in primary health treatment, and they play a pivotal role in the treatment of diseases via modulation of biochemical and molecular pathways. Aloe vera, a succulent species, produces gel and latex, plays a therapeutic role in health management through antioxidant, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities, and also offers a suitable alternative approach for the treatment of various types of diseases. In this review, we summarize the possible mechanism of action and the therapeutic implications of Aloe vera in health maintenance based on its modulation of various biological activities. PMID:26392709

  17. Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Hadley, Donald L.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Buck, John W.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Janus, Michael C.

    2001-03-01

    Indoor air quality effects on human health are of increasing concern to public health agencies and building owners. The prevention and treatment of 'sick building' syndrome and the spread of air-borne diseases in hospitals, for example, are well known priorities. However, increasing attention is being directed to the vulnerability of our public buildings/places, public security and national defense facilities to terrorist attack or the accidental release of air-borne biological pathogens, harmful chemicals, or radioactive contaminants. The Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System (IA-NBC-HMAS) was developed to serve as a health impact analysis tool for use in addressing these concerns. The overall goal was to develop a user-friendly fully functional prototype Health Modeling and Assessment system, which will operate under the PNNL FRAMES system for ease of use and to maximize its integration with other modeling and assessment capabilities accessible within the FRAMES system (e.g., ambient air fate and transport models, water borne fate and transport models, Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic models, etc.). The prototype IA-NBC-HMAS is designed to serve as a functional Health Modeling and Assessment system that can be easily tailored to meet specific building analysis needs of a customer. The prototype system was developed and tested using an actual building (i.e., the Churchville Building located at the Aberdeen Proving Ground) and release scenario (i.e., the release and measurement of tracer materials within the building) to ensure realism and practicality in the design and development of the prototype system. A user-friendly "demo" accompanies this report to allow the reader the opportunity for a "hands on" review of the prototype system's capability.

  18. National health and medical services response to incidents of chemical and biological terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, J B

    1997-08-06

    In response to the growing threat of terrorism with chemical and biological weapons, the US government has developed a national concept of operations for emergency health and medical services response. This capability was developed and tested for the first time during the Atlanta Olympic Games in the summer of 1996. In the event of a chemical or biological terrorist incident that exceeded local and state-level response capabilities, federal agencies would provide specialized teams and equipment to help manage the consequences of the attack and treat, decontaminate, and evacuate casualties. The US Congress has also established a Domestic Preparedness Program that provides for enhanced training of local first-responders and the formation of metropolitan medical strike teams in major cities around the country. While these national response capabilities are promising, their implementation to date has been problematic and their ultimate effectiveness is uncertain.

  19. Combining Radiation Epidemiology With Molecular Biology-Changing From Health Risk Estimates to Therapeutic Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Michael; Port, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    The authors herein summarize six presentations dedicated to the key session "molecular radiation epidemiology" of the ConRad meeting 2015. These presentations were chosen in order to highlight the promise when combining conventional radiation epidemiology with molecular biology. Conventional radiation epidemiology uses dose estimates for risk predictions on health. However, combined with molecular biology, dose-dependent bioindicators of effect hold the promise to improve clinical diagnostics and to provide target molecules for potential therapeutic intervention. One out of the six presentations exemplified the use of radiation-induced molecular changes as biomarkers of exposure by measuring stabile chromosomal translocations. The remaining five presentations focused on molecular changes used as bioindicators of the effect. These bioindicators of the effect could be used for diagnostic purposes on colon cancers (genomic instability), thyroid cancer (CLIP2), or head and neck squamous cell cancers. Therapeutic implications of gene expression changes were examined in Chernobyl thyroid cancer victims and Mayak workers.

  20. Biological effects of radiation and health risks from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotian, Rahul P.; Kotian, Sahana Rahul; Sukumar, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    The very fact that ionizing radiation produces biological effects is known from many years. The first case of injury reported by Sir Roentgen was reported just after a few months after discovery of X-rays in 1895. As early as 1902, the first case of X-ray induced cancer was reported in the literature. Early human evidence of harmful effects as a result of exposure to radiation in large amounts existed in the 1920s and 1930s, based upon the experience of early radiologists, miners exposed to airborne radioactivity underground, persons working in the radium industry, and other special occupational groups. The long-term biological significance of smaller, repeated doses of radiation, however, was not widely appreciated until relatively recently, and most of our knowledge of the biological effects of radiation has been accumulated since World War II. The mechanisms that lead to adverse health effects after exposure to ionizing radiation are still not fully understood. Ionizing radiation has sufficient energy to change the structure of molecules, including DNA, within the cells of the body. Some of these molecular changes are so complex that it may be difficult for the body's repair mechanisms to mend them correctly. However, the evidence is that only a small fraction of such changes would be expected to result in cancer or other health effects. The most thoroughly studied individuals for the evaluation of health effects of ionizing radiation are the survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings, a large population that includes all ages and both sexes.The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Japan has conducted followup studies on these survivors for more than 50 years. An important finding from these studies is that the occurrence of solid cancers increases in proportion to radiation dose. More than 60% of exposed survivors received a dose of radiation of less than 100 mSv (the definition of low dose used by the BEIR VII report). (author)

  1. Rhetorical questions or rhetorical uses of questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špago Džemal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore whether some rhetorical questions contain certain linguistic elements or forms which would differentiate them from answer-eliciting and action-eliciting questions, and thereby hint at their rhetorical nature even outside the context. Namely, despite the fact that the same questions can be rhetorical in one context, and answer-eliciting in another, some of them are more likely to be associated with rhetorical or non-rhetorical use. The analysis is based on extensive data (over 1200 examples of rhetorical questions taken from 30 plays by two British and two American writers, and the results are expected to give an insight into whether we can talk about rhetorical questions or just a rhetorical use of questions.

  2. Biological effects on human health due to radiofrequency/microwave exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Berg, Gabriele; Blettner, Maria

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the methods and results of nine cohort studies dealing with the biological effects on human health from exposure to radiofrequencies/microwaves, published between 1980 and 2002. The size of the cohorts varied between 304 (3,362 person years) and nearly 200,000 persons (2.7 million......, however, inconsistent. The most important limitations of the studies were the lack of measurements referring to past and current exposures and, thus, the unknown details on actual exposure, the use of possibly biased data as well as the lack of adjustment for potential confounders and the use of indirect...

  3. Answers to the questions about food irradiation. Concerning results of animal experiments in the specified integrated research. Data carrying a problem in human health were obtained?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Experts of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/ International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/ World Health Organization (WHO) committee obtained their conclusion in 1980 that food irradiated with <10 kGy of radiation is safe for human health, which is now globally approved. However, in Japan, there have been still opposite opinions based on the doubt in the title on the safety of irradiated food. In this paper, the author answers those questions as he was a member to arrange the Research in the title for food irradiation. Described are data presentation and explanation about results of toxicity studies of diets added with irradiated materials of: weight reductions in rat ovary by irradiated potato (ip) in chronic studies, and in mouse testicle and ovary of F3 generation from the ancestor mice kept on diet with irradiated onion (io); bone malformation in mice by io; and reduction of body weight gain in female rats by ip and increase of mortality of male rats by ip. These are analyzed on the aspects of radiation dose-response, sustained tendency of results throughout the living period or generation, and apparent abnormality by other factors; and normal variation due to individual difference is pointed out to contribute to these findings. The safety test of irradiated food has been conducted valid not only in animal experiments but also other tests like genotoxicity and analysis of radiation-degraded products. (R.T.)

  4. Biological effects of anthropogenic chemical stress: Tools for the assessment of ecosystem health (BEAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Kari K.; Sundelin, Brita; Lang, Thomas

    : Tools for the Assessment of Ecosystem Health, 2009-2011), which is part of the Baltic Sea BONUS+ Programme funded jointly by national funding agencies and FP7 ERA-NET+ of the European Commission. The BEAST project consists of three workpackages (WP) with the following main tasks: WP1- Field studies...... and experiments in selected sub-regions of the Baltic Sea, WP2 - Application and validation of methods in monitoring and assessment in the Baltic Sea, and WP3 - Developing tools for ecosystem health assessment in the Baltic Sea. BEAST research activities are focused in the sub-regions of Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf...... of Finland, Gulf of Riga, Gulf of Gdansk and the Belt Sea, most of which are characterised by scarce data on biological effects of hazardous substances. The data acquired will be combined with previous data (e.g. national monitoring activities, case studies, EU BEEP project) to reach the goals of WP2 and WP3...

  5. A question of trust: user-centered design requirements for an informatics intervention to promote the sexual health of African-American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinot, Tiffany C; Campbell, Terrance R; Kruger, Daniel J; Grodzinski, Alison

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the user requirements of African-American youth (aged 14-24 years) to inform the design of a culturally appropriate, network-based informatics intervention for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). We conducted 10 focus groups with 75 African-American youth from a city with high HIV/STI prevalence. Data analyses involved coding using qualitative content analysis procedures and memo writing. Unexpectedly, the majority of participants' design recommendations concerned trust. Youth expressed distrust towards people and groups, which was amplified within the context of information technology-mediated interactions about HIV/STI. Participants expressed distrust in the reliability of condoms and the accuracy of HIV tests. They questioned the benevolence of many institutions, and some rejected authoritative HIV/STI information. Therefore, reputational information, including rumor, influenced HIV/STI-related decision making. Participants' design requirements also focused on trust-related concerns. Accordingly, we developed a novel trust-centered design framework to guide intervention design. Current approaches to online trust for health informatics do not consider group-level trusting patterns. Yet, trust was the central intervention-relevant issue among African-American youth, suggesting an important focus for culturally informed design. Our design framework incorporates: intervention objectives (eg, network embeddedness, participation); functional specifications (eg, decision support, collective action, credible question and answer services); and interaction design (eg, member control, offline network linkages, optional anonymity). Trust is a critical focus for HIV/STI informatics interventions for young African Americans. Our design framework offers practical, culturally relevant, and systematic guidance to designers to reach this underserved group better.

  6. Clinical treatment adherence of health care workers and students exposed to potentially infectious biological material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Mendes de Almeida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess adherence to clinical appointments by health care workers (HCW and students who suffered accidents with potentially infectious biological material. METHOD A retrospective cross-sectional study that assessed clinical records of accidents involving biological material between 2005 and 2010 in a specialized unit. RESULTS A total of 461 individuals exposed to biological material were treated, of which 389 (84.4% were HCWs and 72 (15.6% students. Of the 461 exposed individuals, 307 (66.6% attended a follow-up appointment. Individuals who had suffered an accident with a known source patient were 29 times more likely to show up to their scheduled follow-up appointments (OR: 29.98; CI95%: 16.09-55.83. CONCLUSION The predictor in both univariate and multivariate analyses for adherence to clinical follow-up appointment was having a known source patient with nonreactive serology for the human immunodeficiency virus and/or hepatitis B and C.

  7. Biological stimulation of the Human skin applying health promoting light and plasma sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awakowicz, P.; Bibinov, N. [Center for Plasma Science and Technology, Ruhr-University, Bochum (Germany); Born, M.; Niemann, U. [Philips Research, Aachen (Germany); Busse, B. [Zell-Kontakt GmbH, Noerten-Hardenberg (Germany); Gesche, R.; Kuehn, S.; Porteanu, H.E. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany); Helmke, A. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Goettingen (Germany); Kaemling, A.; Wandke, D. [CINOGY GmbH, Duderstadt (Germany); Kolb-Bachofen, V.; Liebmann, J. [Institute for Immunobiology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kovacs, R.; Mertens, N.; Scherer, J. [Aurion Anlagentechnik GmbH, Seligenstadt (Germany); Oplaender, C.; Suschek, C. [Clinic for Plastic Surgery, University Clinic, Aachen (Germany); Vioel, W. [Laser-Laboratorium, Goettingen (Germany); University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    In the frame of BMBF project ''BioLiP'', new physical treatment techniques aiming at medical treatment of the human skin have been developed. The acronym BioLiP stands for ''Desinfektion, Entkeimung und biologische Stimulation der Haut durch gesundheitsfoerdernde Licht- und Plasmaquellen'' (Disinfection, germ reduction and biological stimulation of the human skin by health promoting light and plasma sources). A source applying a low-temperature dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBD) has been investigated on its effectiveness for skin disinfection and stimulation of biological material. Alternatively an atmospheric plasma source consisting of a microwave resonator combined with a solid state power oscillator has been examined. This concept which allows for a compact and efficient design avoiding external microwave power supply and matching units has been optimized with respect to nitrogen monoxide (NO) production in high yields. In both cases various application possibilities in the medical and biological domain are opened up. Light sources in the visible spectral range have been investigated with respect to the proliferation of human cell types. Intensive highly selective blue light sources based on LED technology can slow down proliferation rates without inducing toxic effects which offers new opportunities for treatments of so-called hyperproliferative skin conditions (e.g. with psoriasis or in wound healing) using UV-free light. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: Clinical intervention science and stress biology research join forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside a child’s body, alterations which may have adverse effects on life-long health. We discuss why this is important for the field of developmental psychopathology and for society, and we recommend that stress-biology research and intervention science join forces to tackle the problem. We examine the evidence base in relation to stress-sensitive measures for the body (inflammatory reactions, telomere erosion, epigenetic methylation, and gene expression) and brain (mental disorders, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological testing). We also review promising interventions for families, couples, and children that have been designed to reduce the effects of childhood violence exposure. We invite intervention scientists and stress-biology researchers to collaborate in adding stress-biology measures to randomized clinical trials of interventions intended to reduce effects of violence exposure and other traumas on young people. PMID:24342859

  9. Nuclear questions; Le nucleaire en questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-02-15

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  10. The scientific production in health and biological sciences of the top 20 Brazilian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zorzetto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian scientific output exhibited a 4-fold increase in the last two decades because of the stability of the investment in research and development activities and of changes in the policies of the main funding agencies. Most of this production is concentrated in public universities and research institutes located in the richest part of the country. Among all areas of knowledge, the most productive are Health and Biological Sciences. During the 1998-2002 period these areas presented heterogeneous growth ranging from 4.5% (Pharmacology to 191% (Psychiatry, with a median growth rate of 47.2%. In order to identify and rank the 20 most prolific institutions in these areas, searches were made in three databases (DataCAPES, ISI and MEDLINE which permitted the identification of 109,507 original articles produced by the 592 Graduate Programs in Health and Biological Sciences offered by 118 public universities and research institutes. The 20 most productive centers, ranked according to the total number of ISI-indexed articles published during the 1998-2003 period, produced 78.7% of the papers in these areas and are strongly concentrated in the Southern part of the country, mainly in São Paulo State.

  11. Progress report, Biology and Health Physics Division, January 1 to March 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress of work in Biology and Health Physics Division is reported for first quarter 1978. Measurements of liquid and plastic scintillator responses over a wide range of gamma-ray energies and calculations of the shape of the Compton electron distribution have been made for different scintillator sizes. Other work performed in health physics included determination of errors involved in accurate determination of dose-equivalents resulting from tritium ingestion, and development of radiation monitors and techniques for using them to best advantage. A wide range of environmental studies were underway during the quarter, notably 14 C/ 12 C ratio measurement using an accelerator-spectrometer and contiuing studies of the beneficial uses of thermal effluents. Development of computer linkage techniques for medical records continued. Practical applications of the approach include linkage of personal exposure histories with death records pertaining to the exposed individuals. Work in the Biology Branch has continued to focus upon the effects of radiation on a variety of living organisms, ranging from bacterial viruses to humans. The principal sensitive target for long-term biological effects of radiation on all living organisms is DNA. The chemical nature of the damage caused in DNA by radiation and the response of cells to this damage is being studied by a variety of biochemical and genetic techniques. A review of literature on the causes of cancer in humans has continued. If effects are linearly related to total dose, as is normally assumed for purposes of radiation protection, then the total number of fatal cancers predicted to arise from the use of nuclear power in the future should be about 100 times less than the number induced by urban air pollution resulting from the combustion of coal and oil to produce the same amount of electricity. (OST)

  12. Honey, Propolis, and Royal Jelly: A Comprehensive Review of Their Biological Actions and Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visweswara Rao Pasupuleti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are several health benefits that honeybee products such as honey, propolis, and royal jelly claim toward various types of diseases in addition to being food. Scope and Approach. In this paper, the effects of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on different metabolic diseases, cancers, and other diseases have been reviewed. The modes of actions of these products have also been illustrated for purposes of better understanding. Key Findings and Conclusions. An overview of honey, propolis, and royal jelly and their biological potentials was highlighted. The potential health benefits of honey, such as microbial inhibition, wound healing, and its effects on other diseases, are described. Propolis has been reported to have various health benefits related to gastrointestinal disorders, allergies, and gynecological, oral, and dermatological problems. Royal jelly is well known for its protective effects on reproductive health, neurodegenerative disorders, wound healing, and aging. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms of action of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on the abovementioned diseases and activities have not been not fully elucidated, and further research is warranted to explain their exact contributions.

  13. Diets and Health: How Food Decisions Are Shaped by Biology, Economics, Geography, and Social Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-09-01

    Health is shaped by both personal choices and features of the food environment. Food-choice decisions depend on complex interactions between biology and behavior, and are further modulated by the built environment and community structure. That lower-income families have lower-quality diets is well established. Yet, diet quality also varies across small geographic neighborhoods and can be influenced by transportation, retail, and ease of access to healthy foods, as well as by attitudes, beliefs, and social interactions. The learnings from the Seattle Obesity Study (SOS II) can be usefully applied to the much larger, more complex, and far more socially and ethnically diverse urban environment of New York City. The Kavli HUMAN Project (KHP) is ideally positioned to advance the understanding of health disparities by exploring the multiple underpinnings of food decision making. By combining geo-localized food shopping and consumption data with health behaviors, diet quality measures, and biomarkers, also coded by geographic location, the KHP will create the first-of-its-kind bio-behavioral, economic, and cultural atlas of diet quality and health for New York City.

  14. An energy-efficient communication method based on the relationships between biological signals for ubiquitous health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyok Chon; Na, Doosu; Ko, Byung Geun; Lee, Songjun

    2008-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks have been studied in the area of intelligent transportation systems, disaster perception, environment monitoring, ubiquitous healthcare, home network, and so on. For the ubiquitous healthcare, the previous systems collect the sensed health related data at portable devices without regard to correlations of various biological signals to determine the health conditions. It is not the energy-efficient method to gather a lot of information into a specific node to decide the health condition. Since the biological signals are related with each other to estimate certain body condition, it is necessary to be collected selectively by their relationship for energy efficiency of the networked nodes. One of researches about low power consumption is the reduction of the amount of packet transmission. In this paper, a health monitoring system, which allows the transmission of the reduced number of packets by means of setting the routing path considered the relations of biological signals, is proposed.

  15. Stages of Biological Development across Age: An Analysis of Canadian Health Measure Survey 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi-Sheng; Wu, Hsing-Chien; Wu, Chao-Jung; Chen, Wei-Chih

    2017-01-01

    The stages of biological development are not clearly defined despite the fact that they have been used to refer to concepts such as adolescence and aging. This study aimed to (1) propose and test a framework to search for stages of representative components and determine stages of stability and transition, (2) identify stages of biological development based on health questionnaire and biomarker data, and (3) interpret the major trajectories in a health and biomarker database. This study analyzed the data on the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) interviewees from cycle 1 to 3 (2007-2013) in Canada. We selected 282 variables containing information from questionnaire and on biomarkers after removing redundant variables based on high correlation. Fifty-nine nominal variables were replaced by 122 binominal variables, leaving 345 variables for analysis. Principal component (PC) analysis was conducted to summarize the data and the loadings were used to interpret the PCs. A stable stage was assumed to be the age groups without significantly different values of PCs. The CHMS interviewed 16,340 Canadians. Of all, 51.25% were female. The age ranged from 6 to 79 years (mean = 34.41 years, 95% CI = 34.74-34.08). The proportions of total variance explained by the first three PCs were 12.14, 4.03, and 3.19%, respectively. The differences of the first PC were not significant, especially between age 22 and 33, 34 and 40, 41 and 45, 46 and 71, and 72 and 79 years (adjusted p  > 0.05 for all). The leading variable, in terms of the variance contributed to PC1, was time spent in physical activities, followed by variables related to alcohol consumption, and smoking. The 13 leading contributors to PC2 variances were all lung function measures. There are stages of stability and transition across all age groups based on the first PCs. The first and second PCs are related to physical development and lung function. The identification of stable stages is the first step

  16. [An approach regarding the use of medication in biology textbooks as a strategy for health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Anderson Domingues; Caminha, Juliana dos Reis; de Souza, Cristina Alves Magalhães; Alves, Luiz Anastacio

    2013-10-01

    The inappropriate use of medication represents a major threat to public health and drugs rank first among the agents causing intoxication in Brazil, ahead of poisons for rodents and insects, illegal drugs, pesticides, cleaning products and spoiled food. The National Curriculum of Secondary Education Parameters (PCN+) give major emphasis to health, since the reference to Drugs is mentioned repeatedly in the text. The scope of this research was to study the approaches to drug use in textbooks. For this purpose, eleven biology textbooks were analyzed, namely six single volumes and five with three volumes each, i.e. a total of twenty-one volumes. The rational use of medication should be considered an important topic for the promotion of health which affects all sectors of society and should be emphasized in basic education. In line with this idea and based on the results obtained, it is suggested that the textbooks analyzed should be adapted to the new legislation and content that addresses Rational Drug Use, thus meeting the recommendations of PCN+. In this context, the books should concisely address the following topics: self-medication, adherence to drug treatment, advertisements and reports on drugs, among others.

  17. Computing health quality measures using Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, Jeffrey G; Murphy, Shawn N

    2013-04-19

    The Health Quality Measures Format (HQMF) is a Health Level 7 (HL7) standard for expressing computable Clinical Quality Measures (CQMs). Creating tools to process HQMF queries in clinical databases will become increasingly important as the United States moves forward with its Health Information Technology Strategic Plan to Stages 2 and 3 of the Meaningful Use incentive program (MU2 and MU3). Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) is one of the analytical databases used as part of the Office of the National Coordinator (ONC)'s Query Health platform to move toward this goal. Our goal is to integrate i2b2 with the Query Health HQMF architecture, to prepare for other HQMF use-cases (such as MU2 and MU3), and to articulate the functional overlap between i2b2 and HQMF. Therefore, we analyze the structure of HQMF, and then we apply this understanding to HQMF computation on the i2b2 clinical analytical database platform. Specifically, we develop a translator between two query languages, HQMF and i2b2, so that the i2b2 platform can compute HQMF queries. We use the HQMF structure of queries for aggregate reporting, which define clinical data elements and the temporal and logical relationships between them. We use the i2b2 XML format, which allows flexible querying of a complex clinical data repository in an easy-to-understand domain-specific language. The translator can represent nearly any i2b2-XML query as HQMF and execute in i2b2 nearly any HQMF query expressible in i2b2-XML. This translator is part of the freely available reference implementation of the QueryHealth initiative. We analyze limitations of the conversion and find it covers many, but not all, of the complex temporal and logical operators required by quality measures. HQMF is an expressive language for defining quality measures, and it will be important to understand and implement for CQM computation, in both meaningful use and population health. However, its current form might allow

  18. Progress report, Biology and Health Physics Division, April 1 to June 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of neutrons reflected by the body of a wearer of a neutron threshold activation detector have been determined experimentally. Agreement with the previously calculated effect was good. Calculations and experiments are in progress on the response of organic scintillators to fast neutron and gamma radiation. Other work in health physics included examination of the feasibility of using water-permeable membranes to separate HTO from HT and design of instrumentation for measuring discharge of radio-xenons from a Mo-99 production plant. A variety of environmental research programs included studies dealing with the effects of thermal stress on food-chain organisms in fresh water and mobility of arsenic in sand columns. Computer studies on linked health records will be phased out at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Similar work will be performed at Statistics Canada, the University of British Columbia, and in Hawaii under its cancer register. Work in biology has continued to focus upon the effects of radiation on a variety of organisms, ranging from bacterial viruses to humans. The principal target for long-term biological effects of radiation on all living organisms is DNA. The chemical nature of damage caused in DNA by radiation and the response of cells to this damage is being studied by a variety of biochemical and genetic techniques. Studies on cultured skin cells from various humans have shown interesting characteristics associated with different rare hereditary diseases. It has now been shown that repair-deficient ataxia telangiectasia (AT) cells are surprisingly different from repair-proficient AT cells in their reponse to ultraviolet light at 313 nm. (OST)

  19. Biological, psychological and social processes that explain celebrities' influence on patients' health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Tan, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Celebrities can have substantial influence as medical advisors. However, their impact on public health is equivocal: depending on the advice's validity and applicability, celebrity engagements can benefit or hinder efforts to educate patients on evidence-based practices and improve their health literacy. This meta-narrative analysis synthesizes multiple disciplinary insights explaining the influence celebrities have on people's health-related behaviors. Systematic searches of electronic databases BusinessSource Complete, Communication & Mass Media Complete, Humanities Abstracts, ProQuest Political Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Sociology Abstracts were conducted. Retrieved articles were used to inform a conceptual analysis of the possible processes accounting for the substantial influence celebrities may have as medical advisors. Fourteen mechanisms of celebrity influence were identified. According to the economics literature, celebrities distinguish endorsed items from competitors and can catalyze herd behavior. Marketing studies tell us that celebrities' characteristics are transferred to endorsed products, and that the most successful celebrity advisors are those viewed as credible, a perception they can create with their success. Neuroscience research supports these explanations, finding that celebrity endorsements activate brain regions involved in making positive associations, building trust and encoding memories. The psychology literature tells us that celebrity advice conditions people to react positively toward it. People are also inclined to follow celebrities if the advice matches their self-conceptions or if not following it would generate cognitive dissonance. Sociology explains how celebrities' advice spreads through social networks, how their influence is a manifestation of people's desire to acquire celebrities' social capital, and how they affect the ways people acquire and interpret health information. There are clear and deeply rooted biological

  20. Indoor environment and children's health: recent developments in chemical, biological, physical and social aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cann, Pierre; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Glorennec, Philippe; Deguen, Séverine; Goeury, Christophe; Le Bot, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Much research is being carried out into indoor exposure to harmful agents. This review focused on the impact on children's health, taking a broad approach to the indoor environment and including chemical, microbial, physical and social aspects. Papers published from 2006 onwards were reviewed, with regards to scientific context. Most of publications dealt with chemical exposure. Apart from the ongoing issue of combustion by-products, most of these papers concerned semi volatile organic compounds (such as phthalates). These may be associated with neurotoxic, reprotoxic or respiratory effects and may, therefore, be of particular interest so far as children are concerned. In a lesser extent, volatile organic compounds (such as aldehydes) that have mainly respiratory effects are still studied. Assessing exposure to metals is still of concern, with increasing interest in bioaccessibility. Most of the papers on microbial exposure focused on respiratory tract infections, especially asthma linked to allergens and bio-aerosols. Physical exposure includes noise and electromagnetic fields, and articles dealt with the auditory and non auditory effects of noise. Articles on radiofrequency electromagnetic fields mainly concerned questions about non-thermal effects and papers on extremely low-frequency magnetic fields focused on the characterization of exposure. The impact of the indoor environment on children's health cannot be assessed merely by considering the effect of these different types of exposure: this review highlights new findings and also discusses the interactions between agents in indoor environments and also with social aspects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. BIOLOGICAL AND HEALTH EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD FROM MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao TAKI

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile communication devices are sources of radiofrequency (RF electromagnetic field (EMF that are common in daily life and can cause strong exposure to the head. Possible adverse health effects, especially on brain functions, have been of great concern among the general public since the explosive penetration of this technology began in the 1990's. The exposure complies with current safety guidelines. The established knowledge of biological effects of RF does not provide any evidence for anecdotally reported effects such as memory loss or causing brain tumors. However, there is no way to prove the absolute absence of such effects. The enormous efforts have been made to search for such unknown effects and ascertain the safety of this technology. Recent research on the possible effects of RF-EMF on the brain is briefly summarized here to show what is known and what remains unknown. The evidence reported so far indicates few effects that could possibly damage human health seriously. Only slight changes in physiological function in the brain may exist, but variation of the data is too great to believe that the exposure actually has the potential to affect function. The health risk, if any, at an individual level, would be very low in consideration of the available evidence. However, if mobile phone fields were actually hazardous, the very large number of mobile phone users could mean that, even if the individual risk were very low, the impact on public health could be considerable. This is the most important reason why so many efforts are being made in this issue.

  2. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  3. Austerity and the embodiment of neoliberalism as ill-health: Towards a theory of biological sub-citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparke, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    This article charts the diverse pathways through which austerity and other policy shifts associated with neoliberalism have come to be embodied globally in ill-health. It combines a review of research on these processes of embodiment with the development of a theory of the resulting forms of biological sub-citizenship. This theory builds on other studies that have already sought to complement and complicate the concept of biological citizenship with attention to the globally uneven experience and embodiment of bioinequalities. Focused on the unevenly embodied sequelae of austerity, the proceeding theorization of biological sub-citizenship is developed in three stages of review and conceptualization: 1) Biological sub-citizenship through exclusion and conditionalization; 2) Biological sub-citizenship through extraction and exploitation; and 3) Biological sub-citizenship through financialized experimentation. In conclusion the paper argues that the analysis of biological sub-citizenship needs to remain open-ended and relational in order to contribute to socially-searching work on the social determinants of health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Asking Questions in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers.......Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers....

  5. Designing mental health interventions informed by child development and human biology theory: a social ecology intervention for child soldiers in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Koirala, Suraj; Worthman, Carol M

    2015-01-01

    The anthropological study of human biology, health, and child development provides a model with potential to address the gap in population-wide mental health interventions. Four key concepts from human biology can inform public mental health interventions: life history theory and tradeoffs, redundancy and plurality of pathways, cascades and multiplier effects in biological systems, and proximate feedback systems. A public mental health intervention for former child soldiers in Nepal is used to illustrate the role of these concepts in intervention design and evaluation. Future directions and recommendations for applying human biology theory in pursuit of public mental health interventions are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ecopharmacognosy: Exploring The Chemical And Biological Potential Of Nature For Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey A. Cordell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available “Why didn’t they develop natural product drugs in a sustainable manner at the beginning of this century?”  In 2035, when about 10.0 billion will inhabit Earth, will this be our legacy as the world contemplates the costs and availability of synthetic and gene-based products for primary health care?  Acknowledging the recent history of the relationship between humankind and the Earth, it is essential that the health care issues being left for our descendants be considered in terms of resources. For most people in the world, there are two vast health care “gaps”, access to quality drugs and the development of drugs for major global and local diseases.  Consequently for all of these people, plants, in their various forms, remain a primary source of health care.  In the developed countries, natural products derived from plants assume a relatively minor role in health care, as prescription and over-the-counter products, even with the widespread use of phytotherapeutical preparations.  Significantly, pharmaceutical companies have retrenched substantially in their disease areas of focus.  These research areas do not include the prevalent diseases of the middle- and lower-income countries, and important diseases of the developed world, such as drug resistance. What then is the vision for natural product research to maintain the choices of drug discovery and pharmaceutical development for future generations?  In this discussion some facets of how natural products must be involved globally, in a sustainable manner, for improving health care will be examined within the framework of the new term “ecopharmacognosy”, which invokes sustainability as the basis for research on biologically active natural products.  Access to the biome, the acquisition, analysis and dissemination of plant knowledge, natural product structure diversification, biotechnology development, strategies for natural product drug discovery, and aspects of multitarget

  7. Improving Student Question Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  8. Accidents with biological material and immunization against hepatitis B among students from the health area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gir, Elucir; Netto, Jeniffer Caffer; Malaguti, Silmara Elaine; Canini, Silvia Rita Marin da Silva; Hayashida, Miyeko; Machado, Alcyone Artioli

    2008-01-01

    Undergraduate students from the health area often handle piercing-cutting instruments in their academic activities, which exposes them to the risk of contracting infections. This study aimed to analyze accidents with biological material among these students. Out of 170 accidents registered, 83 (48.8%) occurred with Dentistry students, 69 (40.6%) with Medical students, 11 (6.5%) with Nursing students and in 06 (3.5%) of the cases there was no such information in the files. Most accidents, 106 (62.4%), occurred with students from private schools and 55 (32.3%) with those from public schools. Percutaneous accidents occurred in 133 (78.2%) exposures and there was immediate search for specialized health care in only 38 (21.3%) accidents. In 127 (74.7%) accidents, the immunization schedule against hepatitis B was complete. Therefore, schools need to offer courses and specific class subjects regarding biosafety measures, including aspects related to immunization, especially the vaccine against hepatitis B.

  9. International and National Expert Group Evaluations: Biological/Health Effects of Radiofrequency Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The escalated use of various wireless communication devices, which emit non-ionizing radiofrequency (RF fields, have raised concerns among the general public regarding the potential adverse effects on human health. During the last six decades, researchers have used different parameters to investigate the effects of in vitro and in vivo exposures of animals and humans or their cells to RF fields. Data reported in peer-reviewed scientific publications were contradictory: some indicated effects while others did not. International organizations have considered all of these data as well as the observations reported in human epidemiological investigations to set-up the guidelines or standards (based on the quality of published studies and the “weight of scientific evidence” approach for RF exposures in occupationally exposed individuals and the general public. Scientists with relevant expertise in various countries have also considered the published data to provide the required scientific information for policy-makers to develop and disseminate authoritative health information to the general public regarding RF exposures. This paper is a compilation of the conclusions, on the biological effects of RF exposures, from various national and international expert groups, based on their analyses. In general, the expert groups suggested a reduction in exposure levels, precautionary approach, and further research.

  10. Asking questions: a management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, J E; Price, M

    1995-05-01

    The occupational health nurse manager does not have all the answers. In using a democratic style of leadership with well qualified professionals, the technique of questioning can be invaluable in clarifying the issue, brainstorming solutions, developing a course of action, and monitoring success. The personal rewards to the occupational health nurse manager will include a reputation for being an effective listener, a problem solver, and a valued member of the company's management team.

  11. When biological scientists become health-care workers: emotional labour in embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, R P; Legge, M; Frank, N

    2013-05-01

    Can biological scientists working in medically assisted reproduction (MAR) have a role as health-care workers and, if so, how do they engage in the emotional labour commonly associated with health-care work? The scientists at Fertility Associates (FA) in New Zealand perform the technical and emotional cares associated with health-care work in an occupationally specific manner, which we refer to as a hybrid care style. Their emotional labour consists of managing difficult patients, 'talking up' bad news, finding strategies to sustain hope and meaning, and 'clicking' or 'not clicking' with individual patients. Effective emotional labour is a key component of patient-centred care and is as important to the experience of high-quality MAR as excellent clinical and scientific technique. This is a qualitative study based on open-ended interviews and ethnographic observations with 14 staff in 2 laboratories conducted over 2 separate periods of 3 weeks duration in 2007. Analysis of fieldnotes and interviews was conducted using thematic analysis and an NVivo qualitative database and compared for consistency across each interviewer. The participants were consenting biological scientists working in one of the two laboratories. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 'quiet' work times, and supervised access was allowed to all parts of the laboratories and meeting places. Opportunities for participant review of results and cross comparison of independent analysis by authors increases the faithfulness of fit of this account to laboratory life. The study suggests that emotional labour is a part of routinized scientific labour in MAR laboratories for FA. This is a qualitative study and thus the findings are not generalizable to populations beyond the study participants. While little has been published of the emotional component of scientist's working lives, there may be a New Zealand style of doing scientific work in MAR laboratories which is patient centred and which

  12. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  13. Nuclear power and the environment: questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present information and answers to questions about nuclear power and the environment, e.g., questions on its effects on public health, safety, and welfare. Information on the overall U.S. energy outlook, with emphasis on nuclear power generation, is provided. Although proponents of nuclear power, the authors have attempted to present factual information and to maintain objectivity. Included are answers to questions on these aspects of nuclear power: the energy situation and nuclear power; economics and reliability; alternative technologies; radioactivity; biological effects of radiation; transportation in the nuclear fuel cycle; fuel reprocessing and nuclear waste disposal; plutonium toxicity; nuclear plant security; thermal pollution; nuclear power plant siting--earthquakes; nuclear reactor safety; public risk and benefits; nuclear liability and insurance; breeder reactors; and thermonuclear fusion. (232 references)

  14. Potential biological pathways linking Type-D personality and poor health: A cross-sectional investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera K Jandackova

    Full Text Available Type-D personality, defined as a combination of high negative affect and high social isolation, has been associated with poor health outcomes. However, pathways underlying this association are largely unknown. We investigated the relationship between Type-D personality and several biological and behavioral pathways including the autonomic nervous system, the immune system, glucose regulation and sleep in a large, apparently healthy sample.Data from a total of 646 respondents (age 41.6±11.5, 12,2% women were available for analysis. Persons with Type-D (negative affect and social isolation score ≥10 were contrasted with those without Type-D. Measures of plasma fibrinogen levels, white blood cell count, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, creatinine, triglycerides, and albumin were derived from fasting blood samples. Urine norepinephrine and free cortisol were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Time-domain heart rate variability (HRV measures were calculated for the 24hr recording period and for nighttime separately.Persons with Type-D had higher HbA1c, FPG, and fibrinogen, and lower nighttime HRV than those without Type-D, suggesting worse glycemic control, systemic inflammation and poorer autonomic nervous system modulation in Type-D persons. In addition, those with Type-D reported less social support and greater sleep difficulties while no group differences were observed for alcohol and cigarette consumption, physical activity and body mass index.Findings provide some of the first evidence for multiple possible biological and behavioral pathways between Type-D personality and increased morbidity and mortality.

  15. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.

  16. Applying systems biology to biomedical research and health care: a précising definition of systems medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleidgen, Sebastian; Fernau, Sandra; Fleischer, Henrike; Schickhardt, Christoph; Oßa, Ann-Kristin; Winkler, Eva C

    2017-11-21

    Systems medicine has become a key word in biomedical research. Although it is often referred to as P4-(predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory)-medicine, it still lacks a clear definition and is open to interpretation. This conceptual lack of clarity complicates the scientific and public discourse on chances, risks and limits of Systems Medicine and may lead to unfounded hopes. Against this background, our goal was to develop a sufficiently precise and widely acceptable definition of Systems Medicine. In a first step, PubMed was searched using the keyword "systems medicine". A data extraction tabloid was developed putting forward a means/ends-division. Full-texts of articles containing Systems Medicine in title or abstract were screened for definitions. Definitions were extracted; their semantic elements were assigned as either means or ends. To reduce complexity of the resulting list, summary categories were developed inductively. In a second step, we applied six criteria for adequate definitions (necessity, non-circularity, non-redundancy, consistency, non-vagueness, and coherence) to these categories to derive a so-called précising definition of Systems Medicine. We identified 185 articles containing the term Systems Medicine in title or abstract. 67 contained at least one definition of Systems Medicine. In 98 definitions, we found 114 means and 132 ends. From these we derived the précising definition: Systems Medicine is an approach seeking to improve medical research (i.e. the understanding of complex processes occurring in diseases, pathologies and health states as well as innovative approaches to drug discovery) and health care (i.e. prevention, prediction, diagnosis and treatment) through stratification by means of Systems Biology (i.e. data integration, modeling, experimentation and bioinformatics). Our study also revealed the visionary character of Systems Medicine. Our insights, on the one hand, allow for a realistic identification of

  17. Assessment of students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and bio-energetic reserves of organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Martyniuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and express-assessment. Material: in the research 47 first and second year girl students participated, who belonged to main health group. Results: we distributed the girl students into three groups: 14.89% of them were included in group with “safe” health condition; 34.04% - in group of “third state”; 51.06% were related to group with “ dangerous” health condition. We established that dangerous level was characterized by energy potential of below middle and low level. It is accompanied by accelerated processes of organism’s age destructions and tension of regulation mechanisms. Conclusions: the received results permit to further develop and generalize the data of students’ health’s assessment by indicators of adaptation potentials, biological age and physical health’s condition.

  18. Challenges for the European governance of synthetic biology for human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stemerding, D.; Douglas, C.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a series of scientific and technological practices involved in the application of engineering principles to the design and production of predictable and robust biological systems. While policy discussions abound in this area, emerging technologies like synthetic biology present

  19. Newer biological agents in rheumatoid arthritis: impact on health-related quality of life and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Vibeke; Singh, Jasvinder A

    2010-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is significantly impaired as a result of pain, deficits in physical function and fatigue associated with this disease. Decrements in HR-QOL are also associated with an increased probability of no longer working, absence from work due to RA-associated sickness, and reduced productivity while at work or in the home, all of which have consequences for the patient as well as society. HR-QOL and productivity are thus important components in the assessment of outcomes in RA, and assessment of HR-QOL is now recommended in clinical trials that assess the efficacy of new treatments for RA. Measures to assess HR-QOL include the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), EuroQol (EQ-5D) and the Health Utilities Index - Mark 3 (HUI3); these measures not only provide an indication of the clinical (i.e. statistical) efficacy of a treatment, but also provide information on whether this efficacy is truly 'meaningful' from a patient's perspective. These measures have been utilized in clinical trials of biological agents in patients with RA, including tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol and golimumab), the co-stimulatory inhibitor molecule abatacept, the B-cell depletion agent rituximab and the interleukin-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab, and have demonstrated that these agents can significantly improve HR-QOL. Assessment of work productivity in patients with RA and the impact of treatment is a practical way to measure disability from RA from individual and societal perspectives. As RA affects women three times more frequently than men, there is also a critical need for productivity assessment within the home as well as participation in family/social/leisure activities. Data from recent trials of biological agents demonstrate that these agents can reverse disease-related decrements in productivity and limitations in participation in family

  20. Live your questions now

    OpenAIRE

    Brownrigg, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    'Live Your Questions Now' is a case study for Cubitt Education's publication 'Aging in Public: creative practice in ageing and the public realm from across the UK', edited by Daniel Baker and published by Cubitt Gallery, Studios and Education, London in 2016. The publication was linked to Cubitt's programme 'Public Wisdom' (2011-2015). My case study is about 'Live your questions now', a group exhibition I curated in 2011 for Mackintosh Museum, The Glasgow School of Art. 'Live your questions n...

  1. Biological origins of sexual orientation and gender identity: Impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A; Gordon, Jennifer C; Sullivan, Mackenzie W

    2018-04-01

    Gynecologic Oncologists are sometimes consulted to care for patients who present with diverse gender identities or sexual orientations. Clinicians can create more helpful relationships with their patients if they understand the etiologies of these diverse expressions of sexual humanity. Multidisciplinary evidence reveals that a sexually dimorphic spectrum of somatic and neurologic anatomy, traits and abilities, including sexual orientation and gender identity, are conferred together during the first half of pregnancy due to genetics, epigenetics and the diversity of timing and function of sex chromosomes, sex-determining protein secretion, gonadal hormone secretion, receptor levels, adrenal function, maternally ingested dietary hormones, fetal health, and many other factors. Multiple layers of evidence confirm that sexual orientation and gender identity are as biological, innate and immutable as the other traits conferred during that critical time in gestation. Negative social responses to diverse orientations or gender identities have caused marginalization of these individuals with resultant alienation from medical care, reduced self-care and reduced access to medical care. The increased risks for many diseases, including gynecologic cancers are reviewed. Gynecologic Oncologists can potentially create more effective healthcare relationships with their patients if they have this information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields of transformers and possible biological and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirav, Bahriye; Sezgin, Gaye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2014-12-01

    Physiological processes in organisms can be influenced by extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic energy. Biological effect studies have great importance; as well as measurement studies since they provide information on the real exposure situations. In this study, the leakage magnetic fields around a transformer were measured in an apartment building in Küçükçekmece, Istanbul, and the measurement results were evaluated with respect to the international exposure standards. The transformer station was on the bottom floor of a three-floor building. It was found that people living and working in the building were exposed to ELF magnetic fields higher than the threshold magnetic field value of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Many people living in this building reported health complaints such as immunological problems of their children. There were child-workers working in the textile factories located in the building. Safe distances or areas for these people should be recommended. Protective measures could be implemented to minimize these exposures. Further residential exposure studies are needed to demonstrate the exposure levels of ELF magnetic fields. Precautions should, therefore, be taken either to reduce leakage or minimize the exposed fields. Shielding techniques should be used to minimize the leakage magnetic fields in such cases.

  3. Bridging gaps in discovery and development: chemical and biological sciences for affordable health, wellness and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Prem Man Singh

    2011-05-01

    To commemorate 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry, the Indian Society of Chemists and Biologists organized its 15th International Conference on 'Bridging Gaps in Discovery and Development: Chemical and Biological Sciences for Affordable Health, Wellness and Sustainability' at Hotel Grand Bhagwati, in association with Saurashtra University, Rajkot, India. Anamik Shah, President of the Indian Society of Chemists and Biologists, was organizing secretary of the conference. Nicole Moreau, President of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and Secretary General of the Comité National de la Chimie, National Centre for Scientific Research France, was chief guest of the function. The four-day scientific program included 52 plenary lectures, 24 invited lectures by eminent scientists in the field and 12 oral presentations. A total of 317 posters were presented by young scientists and PhD students in three different poster sessions. Approximately 750 delegates from India, the USA, UK, France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Sweden, Japan and other countries attended the conference. The majority of the speakers gave presentations related to their current projects and areas of interest and many of the talks covered synthesis, structure-activity relationships, current trends in medicinal chemistry and drug research.

  4. Space Biology and Medicine. Volume 4; Health, Performance, and Safety of Space Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietlein, Lawrence F. (Editor); Pestov, Igor D. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Volume IV is devoted to examining the medical and associated organizational measures used to maintain the health of space crews and to support their performance before, during, and after space flight. These measures, collectively known as the medical flight support system, are important contributors to the safety and success of space flight. The contributions of space hardware and the spacecraft environment to flight safety and mission success are covered in previous volumes of the Space Biology and Medicine series. In Volume IV, we address means of improving the reliability of people who are required to function in the unfamiliar environment of space flight as well as the importance of those who support the crew. Please note that the extensive collaboration between Russian and American teams for this volume of work resulted in a timeframe of publication longer than originally anticipated. Therefore, new research or insights may have emerged since the authors composed their chapters and references. This volume includes a list of authors' names and addresses should readers seek specifics on new information. At least three groups of factors act to perturb human physiological homeostasis during space flight. All have significant influence on health, psychological, and emotional status, tolerance, and work capacity. The first and most important of these factors is weightlessness, the most specific and radical change in the ambient environment; it causes a variety of functional and structural changes in human physiology. The second group of factors precludes the constraints associated with living in the sealed, confined environment of spacecraft. Although these factors are not unique to space flight, the limitations they entail in terms of an uncomfortable environment can diminish the well-being and performance of crewmembers in space. The third group of factors includes the occupational and social factors associated with the difficult, critical nature of the

  5. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  6. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field...

  7. 'Is it normal to feel these questions ...?': a content analysis of the health concerns of adolescent girls writing to a magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Melissa; Cannon, Bianca; Remond, Louise; Quine, Susan

    2009-06-01

    There is a mismatch between presenting concerns of adolescents to GPs and behaviours that lead to adolescent morbidity and mortality. Better understanding of health concerns of this target group would enhance communication between health professionals and adolescent patients. To explore and categorize the health concerns of adolescent girls sending unsolicited emails to a teenage girls' magazine. We conducted a content analysis of 1000 systematic randomly selected unsolicited emails submitted to the health column of an Australian adolescent girls' magazine over a 6-month period. Three main foci of concern were identified: Context of Concern, Health Issue of Concern and Advice Sought for Concern. Within Health Issue of Concern, there were five categories: body (47.5%), sex (31.9%), relationship (14.7%), mind (4.7%) and violence and/or safety (1.2%). Concerns within the body and sex categories ranged enormously, but frequently expressed intimate descriptions of anatomy, feelings, sexual practices and relationships. Many concerns occurred in the context of adolescents' relationships with others. The proportion of concerns about physical or psychological symptoms or health issues commonly associated with the adolescent age group (such as health risk behaviours, mental health, pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections) was relatively small. GPs and other health professionals might engage more readily with adolescent patients with a deeper understanding of the concerns that adolescents have about their bodies, relationships and overall health. Seemingly 'trivial' issues, such as normal puberty, could be used as discussion triggers in health consultations to help alleviate anxiety and build rapport.

  8. Addressing Health Literacy Challenges With a Cutting-Edge Infectious Disease Curriculum for the High School Biology Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacque, Berri; Koch-Weser, Susan; Faux, Russell; Meiri, Karina

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the secondary analysis of evaluation data from an innovative high school biology curriculum focused on infectious disease (ID) to examine the health literacy implications of teaching claims evaluation, data interpretation, and risk assessment skills in the context of 21st-Century health science. The curriculum was implemented between 2010 and 2013 in Biology II classes held in four public high schools (three in Massachusetts and one in Ohio), plus a private school in Virginia. A quasi-experimental design was used in which student participants (n = 273) were compared to an age-matched, nonparticipant, peer group (N = 125). Participants in each school setting demonstrated increases in conceptual content knowledge (Cohen's d > 1.89) as well as in understanding how to apply scientific principles to health claims evaluation and risk assessment (Cohen's d > 1.76) and in self-efficacy toward learning about ID (Cohen's d > 2.27). Participants also displayed enhanced communication about ID within their social networks relative to the comparison group (p biology classrooms is effective at fostering both the skills and self-efficacy pertinent to health literacy learning in diverse populations. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  9. Phenolic compounds and biological effects of edible Rumex scutatus and Pseudosempervivum sempervivum: potential sources of natural agents with health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Ahmet; Zengin, Gokhan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Mocan, Andrei; Glamoćlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Soković, Marina

    2016-07-13

    The present study outlines a chemical characterization and further effects beneficial to health of edible Rumex scutatus and Pseudosempervivum sempervivum, in addition to presenting the antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory effects and antimicrobial properties of different extracts. The phenolic compounds composition of the extracts was assessed by RP-HPLC-DAD, outlining benzoic acid and rutin as major constituents in P. sempervivum and rutin and hesperidin in R. scutatus. Moreover, further biological effects were tested on key enzymes involved in diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease and skin melanogenesis revealing an important tyrosinase inhibitory effect of Pseudosempervivum water extract. Moreover, both species possessed antimicrobial properties towards bacteria and fungi relevant to public health. Accordingly, we find that R. scutatus and P. sempervivum can be considered as novel functional foods because they are rich sources of biologically active compounds that provide health benefits.

  10. A fully automated health-care monitoring at home without attachment of any biological sensors and its clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoi, Kosuke; Ogawa, Mitsuhiro; Ueno, Hiroshi; Kuwae, Yutaka; Ikarashi, Akira; Yuji, Tadahiko; Higashi, Yuji; Tanaka, Shinobu; Fujimoto, Toshiro; Asanoi, Hidetsugu; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi

    2009-01-01

    Daily monitoring of health condition is important for an effective scheme for early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases such as adiposis, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and other diseases. Commercially available devices for health care monitoring at home are cumbersome in terms of self-attachment of biological sensors and self-operation of the devices. From this viewpoint, we have been developing a non-conscious physiological monitor installed in a bath, a lavatory, and a bed for home health care and evaluated its measurement accuracy by simultaneous recordings of a biological sensors directly attached to the body surface. In order to investigate its applicability to health condition monitoring, we have further developed a new monitoring system which can automatically monitor and store the health condition data. In this study, by evaluation on 3 patients with cardiac infarct or sleep apnea syndrome, patients' health condition such as body and excretion weight in the toilet and apnea and hypopnea during sleeping were successfully monitored, indicating that the system appears useful for monitoring the health condition during daily living.

  11. Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pérez, Leopoldo; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; Ortiz, Marco; Cupul-Magaña, Amílcar Leví; Carriquiry, Jose D; Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Troncoso, Alma Paola; García-Rivas, María Del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI) and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI) and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou´s evenness, as well as by taxonomic diversity and distinctness. Functional diversity considered the number of functional groups, the Shannon diversity and the functional Pielou´s evenness. According to the RHI, 57.15% of the zones were classified as presenting a "poor" health grade, while 42.85% were in "critical" grade. Based on the 2D-CHI, 28.5% of the zones were in "degraded" condition and 71.5% were "very degraded". Differences in fish and coral diversity among sites and zones were demonstrated using permutational ANOVAs. Differences between the two health indices (RHI and 2D-CHI) and some indices of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals were observed; however, only the RHI showed a correlation between the health grades and the species and functional group richness of fish at the scale of sites, and with the species and functional group richness and Shannon diversity of the fish assemblages at the scale of zones. None of the health indices were related to the metrics analyzed for the coral diversity. In general, our study suggests that the estimation of health indices should be complemented with classic community indices, or should at least include diversity indices of fish and corals, in order to improve the accuracy of the estimated health status of coral reefs in the western Caribbean Sea.

  12. Proceedings of the colloquium on the biological and health effects of non-ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Point, Sebastien; Boulenguez, Pierre; Martinsons, Christophe; Carre, Samuel; Torriglia, Alicia; Jaadane, Imene; Behar-Cohenz, Francine; Savoldelliz, Michele; Jonetz, Laurent; Chahory, Sabine; Dore, Jean-Francois; Clavel, Jacqueline; Boniol, Mathieu; Greinert, Ruediger; Gandini, Sara; Cesarini, Jean-Pierre; Dieudonne, Mael; Lagroye, Isabelle; Poulletier de Gannes, Florence; Veyret, Bernard; Macrez, Nathalie; Ruffie, Gilles; Haro, Emmanuelle; Hurtier, Annabelle; Taxile, Murielle; Masuda, Hiroshi; Bontempi, Bruno; Nicole, Olivier; Seze, Rene de; Cagnon, Patrice; Thuroczy, Georges; Mauger, Samuel; Mazet, Paul; Agnani, Jean-Benoit; Gaudaire, Francois; Caudeville, Julien; Selmaoui, Brahim; Percherancier, Yann; Veyret, B.; Kohler, Sophie; Leveque, P.; Legros, Alexandre; Modolo, Julien; Thomas, Alex W.; Goulet, Daniel; Plante, Michel; Ostiguy, Genevieve; Souques, Martine; Lambrozo, Jacques; Deschamps, Francois; Magne, Isabelle; Remy, Emmanuel; Souques, Martine; Duburcq, Anne; Bureau, Isabelle; Gercek, Cihan; Kourtiche, Djilali; Scmitt, Pierre; Roth, Patrice; Nadi, Mustapha; Korpinen, Leena

    2014-10-01

    This colloquium was organized by the 'non-ionizing radiations section' of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP). Its goal is to review the works carried out in France regarding the electromagnetic fields risk, the wave-matter interactions and the medical applications. This conference day is the occasion for the scientific actors of the domain to exchange and encourage the pluri-disciplinary collaborations on the biological, clinical, epidemiological, dosimetric and regulatory aspects of the exposure to non-ionizing radiations. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) together with their corresponding abstracts (in French) and dealing with: 1 - Retinal risk in blue light: standard requirements for LED lighting systems (S. Point); 2 - RETINALED: in-vivo study of blue light-related risk - towards a better understanding of retinal pathologies and a better risk assessment (P. Boulenguez); 3 - Can solar UV radiations have a beneficial effect for some cancers? The HeLME-UV project: domestic exposure to solar UV light and malignant lymphoid homeopathies of the child (J.F. Dore); 4 - A major public health problem: UV tanning devices should be prohibited (J.F. Dore); 5 - Is electro-hypersensitivity the result of a nocebo effect? (M. Dieudonne); 6 - Effects of repeated Wi-Fi signal exposure on glial and micro-glial activation in the mouse (I. Lagroye); 7 - RF residential exposure measurements in the French program of the Operative Committee (R. De Seze); 8 - Real-time study of RF fields global cellular effects (Y. Percherencier); 9 - Electromagnetic fields and neuro-degenerative diseases (I. Lagroye); 10 - Example of direct biophysical effect in the domain of ultra-low frequencies: the perception of magnetic phosphenes (A. Legros); 11 - French population exposure to the 50 Hz magnetic field: update of the Expers study (I. Magne); 12 - Cardiac implants immunity with respect to 50/60 Hz electric fields (C. Gercek); 13 - Cardiac implants and

  13. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Cosmetic Procedure Questions Want to look younger? Start ...

  14. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabies: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes rabies? Rabies is caused by a virus. The virus invades ... nervous system and disrupts its functioning. How does rabies spread? The rabies virus is transmitted in the ...

  15. Repetitive Questioning Exasperates Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is due to an impaired episodic memory and is a frequent, often presenting, problem in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (amnestic type. It is due to the patients’ difficulties learning new information, retaining it, and recalling it, and is often aggravated by a poor attention span and easy distractibility. A number of factors may trigger and maintain repetitive questioning. Caregivers should try to identify and address these triggers. In the case discussion presented, it is due to the patient’s concerns about her and her family’s safety triggered by watching a particularly violent movie aired on TV. What went wrong in the patient/caregiver interaction and how it could have been avoided or averted are explored. Also reviewed are the impact of repetitive questioning, the challenges it raises for caregivers, and some effective intervention strategies that may be useful to diffuse the angst that caregivers experience with repetitive questioning.

  16. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  17. Repetitive Questioning II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is a major problem for caregivers, particularly taxing if they are unable to recognize and understand the reasons why their loved one keeps asking the same question over and over again. Caregivers may be tempted to believe that the patient does not even try to remember the answer given or is just getting obnoxious. This is incorrect. Repetitive questioning is due to the underlying disease: The patient’s short term memory is impaired and he is unable to register, encode, retain and retrieve the answer. If he is concerned about a particular topic, he will keep asking the same question over and over again. To the patient each time she asks the question, it is as if she asked it for the first time. Just answering repetitive questioning by providing repeatedly the same answer is not sufficient. Caregivers should try to identify the underlying cause for this repetitive questioning. In an earlier case study, the patient was concerned about her and her family’s safety and kept asking whether the doors are locked. In this present case study, the patient does not know how to handle the awkward situation he finds himself in. He just does not know what to do. He is not able to adjust to the new unexpected situation. So he repeatedly wants to reassure himself that he is not intruding by asking the same question over and over again. We discuss how the patient’s son-in-law could have avoided this situation and averted the catastrophic ending.

  18. Measuring the Effectiveness of a Professional Development Workshop on Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills of Mental Health Professionals in Working with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ) Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGravey, Katie Ann

    2014-01-01

    Although LGBTQ youth are at risk for peer rejection, substance abuse, mental health disorders, and dropping out of school, research shows that most mental health training programs do not include a course on working with this population (Carroll & Gilroy,2001; Matthews, 2005; McCabe & Rubinson, 2008;Sherry, Whilde, & Patton, 2005;…

  19. To rub shoulders with the traditional health practitioner or not, that is the question for the medical doctor in the New South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Louw

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The South African medical doctor has been well established over the years as the keeper of the holy medical grails. Entrance for newcomers to the medical domain has not been and is still not easy. The hostility towards the allied professions in the 1950s and later in the 1980s provides evidence of this. Certain prerequisites for entrance were set and jealously guarded by the medical fraternity. The Traditional Health Practitioners Act, (Act No 22, 2007 is another such a challenge. This time it is not an outsider fraternity that is fighting alone for its own recognition. They are backed by a government and political force to get the traditional health practitioner (previously known as the traditional healer statutorily recognized. Aims The study aimed to reflect on the future professional relationship between the medical doctor and the traditional health practitioner in South Africa. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study that makes use of an historical approach by means of investigation and a literature review. The emphasis is on using current documentation like articles, books and newspapers as primary sources to reflect on the future professional relationship between the medical doctor and the traditional health practitioner in South Africa. The findings are offered in narrative form. Results It is clear that the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007 will put enormous pressure on the medical doctor, not only to relinquish some of his healthcare empowerment, but also to see and to accept the traditional health practitioner as a new, respectable health copractitioner and colleague. Facts hereto reveal that there are in terms of training, health ethics, practice approaches, attitudes and views, basically not a single point of similarity or agreement between the medical doctor and the traditional health practitioner whatsoever. Notwithstanding these enormous differences, the existence of the Traditional Health

  20. Long-term variability and impact on human health of biologically active UV radiation in Moscow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, Ekaterina; Chubarova, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    Measurements of erythemally weighted UV irradiance (Qer) have been performed at the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University since 1999 with the UVB-1 YES pyranometers. These types of devices are broadband with a spectral sensitivity curve close to the action spectrum of erythema. Main uncertainties of UVB-1 YES measurements include the difference in spectral curves of the instrument and the action spectrum of erythema, as well as the deviation from the cosine law. These uncertainties were taken into account in the database of Qer measurements (Chubarova, 2008. Additional corrections of UVB-1 measurements at low ambient temperatures have been made. We analyze interannual, seasonal and diurnal Qer changes over the time period 1999-2012. In addition, the comparisons with the results of UV reconstruction model (Chubarova, 2008) are made. This model allows us to evaluate relative changes in Qer due to variations in total ozone, effective cloud amount transmission, aerosol and cloud optical thickness since 1968. It is important to note that the main reason for UV irradiance monitoring development is the strong influence of UV irradiance on the biosphere and especially on human health mainly on human skin (CIE, 1993, CIE, 2006) and eyes (Oriowo, M. et al., 2001). Based on the detailed studies we have shown the possibility of utilizing UVB-1 pyranometers for measuring the eye-damage UV radiation. Parallel measurements by the Bentham DTM-300 spectrometer and the UVB-1 YES pyranometer at the Innsbruck Medical University (Austria) have provided us the calibration factor in eye-damage units for this broadband instrument. Influence of main geophysical factors on different types of UV irradiance is estimated by means the RAF ideology (Booth, Madronich, 1994). We discuss the responses of different types of biologically active UV radiation to the impact of various atmospheric factors. The UV conditions (deficiency, optimum, excess for human) are analyzed according to

  1. Sex Differences in Biological Markers of Health in the Study of Stress, Aging and Health in Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Shkolnikova, Maria; Vaupel, James W

    2015-01-01

    the associations between biomarkers and subjective health have sex-specific patterns. MATERIALS: Previously collected data in the study of Stress, Aging, and Health in Russia (SAHR, n = 1800) were used to examine sex differences in biomarkers and their associations with physical functioning and self-rated health...

  2. Progress report, Biology and Health Physics Division, October 1 to December 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research results are reported on such topics as dosimetry, monitoring, biological impact of thermal effluents, radioecology and radiobiology, hydrology, waste management, neutron activation analysis, and data analysis for radiation effects on humans. (E.C.B.)

  3. Progress report, April 1 to June 30, 1976, Biology and Health Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary results are reported on research covering such broad topics as dosimetry, radiation monitors and detectors, aquatic ecology, radionuclide migration, radiation carcinogenesis, the effects of radiation on human populations, and molecular biological radiation effects. (E.C.B.)

  4. Mothers' health and babies' weights: the biology of poverty at the Melbourne Lying-in Hospital, 1857-83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccalman, Janet; Morley, Ruth

    2003-04-01

    Birth weight remains a major focus of medical research into the relationship between pre-natal growth and life course health, and historians have used mean birth weight to assess women's standard of living. However, there are intrinsic difficulties in inferring maternal health and nutritional status from birth weight, and some of the known data sets produce puzzling results. One rich data set comes from the Melbourne Lying-in Hospital, 1857-83, and the article discusses the complex institutional, social, and economic causes that may underlie its apparently counter-intuitive anthropometric results. This data set reveals the biological effects differential social conditions can inflict, even within an otherwise affluent society.

  5. Biological activity of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and their relationship to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda Beatriz; Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi

    2017-08-13

    The leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni has nutrients and phytochemicals, which make it an adequate source for the extraction and production of functional food ingredients. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest therapeutic and pharmacological applications for stevia and their extracts because they are not toxic and exhibit several biological activities. This review presents the biological activity of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and their relationship to antidiabetic, anticariogenic, antioxidant, hypotensive, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. Consumption and adverse effects were also reviewed.

  6. Assessing Cross-disciplinary Efficiency of Soil Amendments for Agro-biologically, Economically, and Ecologically Integrated Soil Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Preventive and/or manipulative practices will be needed to maintain soil's biological, physiochemical, nutritional, and structural health in natural, managed, and disturbed ecosystems as a foundation for food security and global ecosystem sustainability. While there is a substantial body of interdisciplinary science on understanding function and structure of soil ecosystems, key gaps must be bridged in assessing integrated agro-biological, ecological, economical, and environmental efficiency of soil manipulation practices in time and space across ecosystems. This presentation discusses the application of a fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) model for assessing agronomic, economic, ecological, environmental, and nematode (pest) management efficiency of soil amendments. FUE is defined as increase in host productivity and/or decrease in plant-parasitic nematode population density in response to a given fertilizer treatment. Using the effects of nutrient amendment on Heterodera glycines population density and normalized difference vegetative index (indicator of physiological activities) of a soybean cultivar ‘CX 252’, how the FUE model recognizes variable responses and separates nutrient deficiency and toxicity from nematode parasitism as well as suitability of treatments designed to achieve desired biological and physiochemical soil health conditions is demonstrated. As part of bridging gaps between agricultural and ecological approaches to integrated understanding and management of soil health, modifications of the FUE model for analyzing the relationships amongst nematode community structure, soil parameters (eg. pH, nutrients, %OM), and plant response to soil amendment is discussed. PMID:22736840

  7. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis...... of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However......, by doing so, we will in the end realize two important things. First, that Heidegger's declaration of the end of philosophy in fact also means the end of anything we can meaningfully call thinking. Second, that Heidegger's own thinking is completely different from his own ideal of thinking. Our question...

  8. Generating ethnographic research questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    ? By drawing on the conceptual history of anthropology, the aim of this article is to generate ethnographic-oriented research questions concerned with higher education. The first part of the article provides an ethnographic background, while the second part focuses on Paul Willis's reasoning on ethnographic......As part of recent complex transformations, it seems that higher educational organisations are being forced to reorganise, standardise and streamline in order to survive in the new political and economic context. How are ethnographers in general going to approach these contemporary phenomena...... imagination, as a prerequisite for generating alternative research questions. The third part makes explicit anthropologist Maurice Godelier's theoretical imagination, carving out some specific theoretical parts which may be used in the generating process. The conclusion then suggests a number of questions...

  9. Do Interviewers' Health Beliefs and Habits Modify Responses to Sensitive Questions? A study using Data Collected from Pregnant women by Means of Computer-assisted Telephone Interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    If interviewers' personal habits or attitudes influence respondents' answers to given questions, this may lead to bias, which should be taken into consideration when analyzing data. The authors examined a potential interviewer effect in a study of pregnant women in which exposure data were obtained...... through computer-assisted telephone interviews. The authors compared interviewer characteristics for 34 interviewers with the responses they obtained in 12,910 interviews carried out for the Danish National Birth Cohort Study. Response data on smoking and alcohol consumption in the first trimester...... of pregnancy were collected during the time period October 1, 1997-February 1, 1999. Overall, the authors found little evidence to suggest that interviewers' personal habits or attitudes toward smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy had consequences for the responses they obtained; neither did...

  10. The social question revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education...

  11. Questioning Danish Cartoon Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    Danes today when it is considered demeaning and racist in most other countries. The conclusion does emphatically not plead in favour of law enforced limitations of the freedom of expression, but does question the prevalent "freedom of ignorance" concerning black identities which means...

  12. How Children with Parents Suffering from Mental Health Distress Search for "Normality" and Avoid Stigma: To Be or Not to Be... Is "Not" the Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjone, Heidi Haug; Ytterhus, Borgunn; Almvik, Arve

    2009-01-01

    Using data from in-depth interviews with 20 children, this study finds that children with parents suffering from mental health distress struggle hard to present themselves as "normal" and equal among their peer group. The study shows how they avoid stigma in their presentation of self in everyday life. All the children in this study,…

  13. Sleep, biological stress, and health among toddlers living in socioeconomically disadvantaged homes: A research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Monica R; Sadler, Lois S; Canapari, Craig A; Jeon, Sangchoon; Redeker, Nancy S

    2017-12-01

    Healthy sleep is important to behavioral, neurobiological, and physiologic health. In older children and adults, stress biomarkers, such as cortisol and C-reactive protein, increase when they do not practice healthy sleep habits. However, little is known about the relationships among sleep health, stress, and health outcomes among very young children living with socioeconomic adversity, a group that is particularly at risk for poor future health. The NIH-funded study described in this protocol addresses this scientific gap to improve understanding of these relationships during a critical developmental period in children's lives-toddlerhood. We will use a longitudinal design with repeated measures to prospectively examine the relationships among sleep health, stress, and toddlers' health from age 12 to 24 months, to address the following aims: i) examine changes in subjective and objective sleep health measures; ii) examine changes in stress biomarkers; iii) examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between sleep health measures and stress response; and iv) examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between sleep health measures, stress biomarkers, and toddlers' behavioral health. The sample will include 113 toddlers and their caregivers. We are collecting subjective and objective data on sleep health, multi-systemic biomarkers of stress, and toddlers' behavioral health. Generalized linear models will be used in the data analyses. Results from this study will be used to support development and testing of interventions, such as those that may improve sleep, among young children at risk for toxic stress. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A Method for Quantifying the Acute Health Impacts of Residential Non-Biological Exposure Via Inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Bret C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The inability to monetize the health costs of acute exposures in homes and the benefits of various control options is a barrier to justifying policies and approaches that can reduce exposure and improve health.We synthesized relationships between short-term outdoor concentration changes and health outcomes to estimate the health impacts of short-term in-home exposures. Damage and cost impacts of specific health outcomes were taken from the literature. We assessed the impact of vented and non-vented residential natural gas cooking burners on Southern California occupants for two pollutants (NO2 and CO).

  15. [Biological risk in health. Risk to third parties: medical-legal focus. Responsible behavior of the competent physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The responsibility of the occupational physician (OP) is discussed within the particular topic of biological risk generated by health care workers (HCW) versus third parties in health care settings. The present contribution offers keys of interpretation regarding current Italian legislation and passed sentences, taking into account principles of occupational medicine, the ICOH code of ethics for occupational health professionals, as well as duties and tasks of OP, employers and employees. Most of the responsibilities stand on employers, but OP has a primary duty of information and to judge fitness for work. It is underlined the difficult interpretation of the current legislation and indications. Behaviour of the OP could be censored in case of particular fitness for work or in case of inadequate information, as well as if the comprehension of information is not verified or when indication to minimize the risk are not controlled.

  16. The use of remote sensors to relate biological and physical indicators to environmental and public health problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Relationships between biological, ecological and botanical structures, and disease organisms and their vectors which might be detected and measured by remote sensing are determined. In addition to the use of trees as indicators of disease or potential disease, an attempt is made to identify environmental factors such as soil moisture and soil and water temperatures as they relate to disease or health problems and may be detected by remote sensing. The following three diseases and one major health problem are examined: Malaria, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Encephalitis and Red Tide. It is shown that no single species of vascular plant nor any one environmental factor can be used as the indicator of disease or health problems. Entire vegetation types, successional stages and combinations of factors must be used.

  17. Progress report, Biology and Health Physics Division, January 1 to March 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research is described on dosimetry, radiation monitors, aquatic ecosystems as affected by waste heat and radionuclides, hydrology (especially of waste disposal sites), radiation carcinogenesis, medical record linking of human populations, and radiation effects in biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, and population studies. (E.C.B.)

  18. Biological Risks and Laboratory-Acquired Infections: A Reality That Cannot be Ignored in Health Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Ana Cláudia; García Díez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Advances and research in biotechnology have applications over a wide range of areas, such as microbiology, medicine, the food industry, agriculture, genetically modified organisms, and nanotechnology, among others. However, research with pathogenic agents, such as virus, parasites, fungi, rickettsia, bacterial microorganisms, or genetic modified organisms, has generated concern because of their potential biological risk – not only for people, but also for the environment due to their unpredictable behavior. In addition, concern for biosafety is associated with the emergence of new diseases or re-emergence of diseases that were already under control. Biotechnology laboratories require biosafety measures designed to protect their staff, the population, and the environment, which may be exposed to hazardous organisms and materials. Laboratory staff training and education is essential, not only to acquire a good understanding about the direct handling of hazardous biological agents but also knowledge of the epidemiology, pathogenicity, and human susceptibility to the biological materials used in research. Biological risk can be reduced and controlled by the correct application of internationally recognized procedures such as proper microbiological techniques, proper containment apparatus, adequate facilities, protective barriers, and special training and education of laboratory workers. To avoid occupational infections, knowledge about standardized microbiological procedures and techniques and the use of containment devices, facilities, and protective barriers is necessary. Training and education about the epidemiology, pathogenicity, and biohazards of the microorganisms involved may prevent or decrease the risk. In this way, the scientific community may benefit from the lessons learned in the past to anticipate future problems. PMID:25973418

  19. Biological risks and laboratory-acquired infections. A reality that cannot be ignored in health biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Coelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Advances and research in biotechnology have applications over a wide range of areas such as microbiology, medicine, the food industry, agriculture, genetically modified organisms and nanotechnology, among others. However, research with pathogenic agents such as virus, parasites, fungi, rickettsia, bacterial microorganisms or genetic modified organisms has generated concern because of their potential biological risk - not only for people, but also for the environment due to their unpredictable behavior. In addition, concern for biosafety is associated with the emergence of new diseases or re-emergence of diseases that were already under control. Biotechnology laboratories require biosafety measures designed to protect their staff, the population and the environment, which may be exposed to hazardous organisms and materials. Laboratory staff training and education is essential, not only to acquire a good understanding about the direct handling of hazardous biological agents but also knowledge of the epidemiology, pathogenicity and human susceptibility to the biological materials used in research. Biological risk can be reduced and controlled by the correct application of internationally recognized procedures such as proper microbiological techniques, proper containment apparatus, adequate facilities, protective barriers and special training and education of laboratory workers. To avoid occupational infections, knowledge about standardized microbiological procedures and techniques and the use of containment devices, facilities and protective barriers is necessary. Training and education about the epidemiology, pathogenicity and biohazards of the microorganisms involved may prevent or decrease the risk. In this way, the scientific community may benefit from the lessons learned in the past to anticipate future problems.

  20. THE ADVERSE OUTCOME PATHWAY (AOP) FRAMEWORK: A FRAMEWORK FOR ORGANIZING BIOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE LEADING TO HEALTH RISKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) represents the organization of current and newly acquired knowledge of biological pathways. These pathways contain a series of nodes (Key Events, KEs) that when sufficiently altered influence the next node on the pathway, beginning from an Molecul...

  1. Fostering Effective Studying and Study Planning with Study Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Pascal; Pieters, Jules M.

    2007-01-01

    In a course on biological psychology and neuropsychology, study questions were provided that also appeared as test questions in the course exam. This method was introduced to support students in active processing and reproduction of the study texts, and study planning. Data were gathered to test the hypothesis that study question use would be…

  2. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  3. Ten Questions about Emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Fromm, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    Self-Organization is of growing importance for large distributed computing systems. In these systems, a central control and manual management is exceedingly difficult or even impossible. Emergence is widely recognized as the core principle behind self-organization. Therefore the idea to use both principles to control and organize large-scale distributed systems is very attractive and not so far off. Yet there are many open questions about emergence and self-organization, ranging from a clear ...

  4. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  5. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  6. Biological, psychological and social processes that explain celebrities? influence on patients? health-related behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Steven J; Tan, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Celebrities can have substantial influence as medical advisors. However, their impact on public health is equivocal: depending on the advice’s validity and applicability, celebrity engagements can benefit or hinder efforts to educate patients on evidence-based practices and improve their health literacy. This meta-narrative analysis synthesizes multiple disciplinary insights explaining the influence celebrities have on people’s health-related behaviors. Methods: Systematic searche...

  7. Annotating Logical Forms for EHR Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kirk; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the creation of a semantically annotated corpus of questions about patient data in electronic health records (EHRs). The goal is to provide the training data necessary for semantic parsers to automatically convert EHR questions into a structured query. A layered annotation strategy is used which mirrors a typical natural language processing (NLP) pipeline. First, questions are syntactically analyzed to identify multi-part questions. Second, medical concepts are recognized and normalized to a clinical ontology. Finally, logical forms are created using a lambda calculus representation. We use a corpus of 446 questions asking for patient-specific information. From these, 468 specific questions are found containing 259 unique medical concepts and requiring 53 unique predicates to represent the logical forms. We further present detailed characteristics of the corpus, including inter-annotator agreement results, and describe the challenges automatic NLP systems will face on this task.

  8. Towards a synergy framework across neuroscience and robotics: Lessons learned and open questions. Reply to comments on: "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santello, Marco; Bianchi, Matteo; Gabiccini, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Salvietti, Gionata; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Ernst, Marc; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Jorntell, Henrik; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Kyriakopoulos, Kostas; Schaeffer, Alin Abu; Castellini, Claudio; Bicchi, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    We would like to thank all commentators for their insightful commentaries. Thanks to their diverse and complementary expertise in neuroscience and robotics, the commentators have provided us with the opportunity to further discuss state-of-the-art and gaps in the integration of neuroscience and robotics reviewed in our article. We organized our reply in two sections that capture the main points of all commentaries [1-9]: (1) Advantages and limitations of the synergy approach in neuroscience and robotics, and (2) Learning and role of sensory feedback in biological and robotics synergies.

  9. Is the Lack of Specific Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer/Questioning (LGBTQ) Health Care Education in Medical School a Cause for Concern? Evidence From a Survey of Knowledge and Practice Among UK Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshwaran, Vishnu; Cockbain, Beatrice C; Hillyard, Miriam; Price, Jonathan R

    2017-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) people frequently report negative health care encounters. Medical professionals may inadequately manage LGBTQ persons' health if they have not received training in this area. An anonymous survey measuring efficacy in health situations among LGBTQ persons was answered by 166 medical students across all years of a UK university. Results show that 84.9% of participants reported a lack of LGBTQ health care education, with deficits in confidence clarifying unfamiliar sexual and gender terms, deciding the ward in which to nurse transgender patients, finding support resources, and discussing domestic abuse with LGBTQ patients. Most participants reported that they would not clarify gender pronouns or ask about gender or sexual identity in mental health or reproductive health settings. Participants reported infrequently observing doctors making similar inquiries. Participants held positive attitudes toward LGBTQ patients, with attitude scores positively correlating with LGBTQ terminology knowledge scores (r s  = 0.5052, p LGBTQ patients.

  10. 76 FR 77234 - Availability of Draft Vieques Report: An Evaluation of Environmental, Biological, and Health Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ..., and locally grown foods. In addition, this report evaluates human biomonitoring and health outcome... ATSDR Public Health Assessment reviews available information about hazardous substances at a site and.... This analysis generally involves an evaluation of relevant environmental data, the potential for...

  11. Occupational health hazards in veterinary medicine: Zoonoses and other biological hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    This study describes biological hazards reported by veterinarians working in western Canada obtained through a self-administered mailed questionnaire. The potential occupational hazards included as biological hazards were zoonotic disease events, exposure to rabies, injuries due to bites and scratches, and allergies. Only 16.7% (136/812) of responding veterinarians reported the occurrence of a zoonosis or exposure to rabies in the past 5 years; the most commonly reported event was ringworm. Most bites and scratches (86%) described by 586 veterinarians involved encounters with cats; 81% of the resulting 163 infections were due to cat bites or scratches. Approximately 38% of participants reported developing an allergy during their career, with 41% of the affected individuals altering the way they practiced in response to their allergy. PMID:22851775

  12. Política de saúde do trabalhador no Brasil: muitas questões sem respostas National worker's health policy: many questions without answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena B. de Oliveira

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo enfoca a Política Nacional de Saúde do Trabalhador, na perspectiva da expressão do descaso que esta representa frente ao quadro dramático de morbi-mortalidade da classe trabalhadora brasileira. Indica os principais problemas que a política apresenta, destacando questões como a subnotificação das doenças profissionais e dos acidentes de trabalho; a competência das ações, denunciando a fragmentação de responsabilidades a partir da existência de diversas instituições e órgãos com atribuições de intervenção na área; a forma marginal, historicamente estabelecida, como é tratada a Política de Saúde do Trabalhador no contexto da Política Nacional de Saúde; as dificuldades na formação de recursos humanos, entre outras. Aponta para a necessidade de uma política que assegure aos trabalhadores brasileiros a transformação real do grave quadro de mortes e doenças em que encontram-se submetidos, desencadeando processos preventivos de fato, a partir da reestruturação dos processos produtivos e tendo os trabalhadores como condutores desta política. Finalmente, levanta uma série de questões, ainda sem resposta, que possam servir de matéria para investigações, estudos e pesquisas na área.The National Worker's Health Policy is analysed, pointing to such problems as undernotification of occupational diseases and work-related accidents, accountability fragmentation among various organizations, the importance worker's health policy in the context of the National Health Policy, and the lack of trained personnel. This extremely serious situation should be reverted by structural changes in the productive processes, with the active participation of workers both in the stablishment and conduction of this policy. Finally, this paper points to several issues that can contribute to future investigations, research and studies in this area.

  13. IAEA activities related to radiation biology and health effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wondergem, Jan; Rosenblatt, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA is involved in capacity building with regard to the radiobiological sciences in its member states through its technical cooperation programme. Research projects/programmes are normally carried out within the framework of coordinated research projects (CRPs). Under this programme, two CRPs have been approved which are relevant to nuclear/radiation accidents: (1) stem cell therapeutics to modify radiation-induced damage to normal tissue, and (2) strengthening biological dosimetry in IAEA member states. (note)

  14. Are Internet use and video-game-playing addictive behaviors? Biological, clinical and public health implications for youths and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Crowley, Michael J.; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Internet use and video-game playing are experiencing rapid growth among both youth and adult populations. Research suggests that a minority of users experience symptoms traditionally associated with substance-related addictions. Mental health professionals, policy makers and the general public continue to debate the issue of Internet addiction (IA) and problematic video-game playing (PVG). This review identifies existing studies into the clinical and biological characteristics of these disorders that may help guide decisions as to whether or not IA and PVG should be grouped together with substance use disorders (SUDs). PMID:24288435

  15. The question about paleoinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartic, Andrei

    2006-12-01

    The author is treating questions about development of informatics in ancient Dacia during Y-th Century B.C. - 2-nd Century A.C. He is introducing a new terminology (paleoinformatics) in view of defining the interests of Daces in numbering, the elementary numbers theory and various aspects of numbers representation. A relation between elementary numbers theory and informatisation has been discussed. A particular interest has been given to calculation of the Circle length/Diameter ratio (number Pi), its calculation by Daces.

  16. Question of neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, G.C.; Senjanovic, G.

    1978-01-01

    We investigate the question of neutrino mass in theories in which neutrinos are four-component Dirac particles. Our analysis is done in the framework of left-right--symmetric theories. The requirement of calculability and natural smallness of neutrino mass leads to the following constraints: (i) left and right charged weak currents must be ''orthogonal'' to each other, and (ii) there should be no W/sub L/-W/sub R/ mixing at the three level. Finally, we exhibit a model in which, due to the existence of an unbroken symmetry of the total Lagrangian, the electron and muon neutrinos remain massless to all orders in perturbation theory

  17. Social Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of interviews with some of the world’s most influential scholars working on social epistemology from a range of disciplinary perspectives. We hear their views on social epistemology; its aim, scope, use, broader intellectual environment, future...... direction, and how the work of the interviewees fits in these respects. Interviews with David Bloor, Cristina Bicchieri, Richard Bradley, Lorraine Code, Hans van Ditmarsch, Miranda Fricker, Steve Fuller, Sanford Goldberg, Alvin Goldman, Philip Kitcher, Martin Kusch, Jennifer Lackey, Helen E. Longino, Philip...

  18. Biological Risks to Public Health: Lessons from an International Conference to Inform the Development of National Risk Communication Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Petra; Bhatiasevi, Aphaluck; Chaib, Fadela; Baggio, Ombretta; Banluta, Christina; Hollenweger, Lilian; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane

    Biological risk management in public health focuses on the impact of outbreaks on health, the economy, and other systems and on ensuring biosafety and biosecurity. To address this broad range of risks, the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005) request that all member states build defined core capacities, risk communication being one of them. While there is existing guidance on the communication process and on what health authorities need to consider to design risk communication strategies that meet the requirements on a governance level, little has been done on implementation because of a number of factors, including lack of resources (human, financial, and others) and systems to support effective and consistent capacity for risk communication. The international conference on "Risk communication strategies before, during and after public health emergencies" provided a platform to present current strategies, facilitate learning from recent outbreaks of infectious diseases, and discuss recommendations to inform risk communication strategy development. The discussion concluded with 4 key areas for improvement in risk communication: consider communication as a multidimensional process in risk communication, broaden the biomedical paradigm by integrating social science intelligence into epidemiologic risk assessments, strengthen multisectoral collaboration including with local organizations, and spearhead changes in organizations for better risk communication governance. National strategies should design risk communication to be proactive, participatory, and multisectoral, facilitating the connection between sectors and strengthening collaboration.

  19. O Manicômio Judiciário: saúde ou justiça? The Judiciary Mental Hospital: a question of health or of law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelin Naked de Castro Sá

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available O Manicômio Judiciário, por ser um hospital-presídio, pode estar subordinado tanto à Secretaria da Saúde como à Justiça. Como elementos de análise dessa decisão, são apresentadas comparações estruturais e de recursos humanos entre o Manicômio Judiciário e a Penitenciária de Araraquara, entre a situação de recursos humanos do Manicômio em 1981 e 1984 e entre os salários de algumas funções de servidores ligados àqueles tipos de instituições. As conclusões apontam a Secretaria da Justiça como a mais adequada para subordinar o Manicômio Judiciário, desde que tomadas algumas medidas de modernização organizacional. É sugerido um quadro de pessoal estruturado percentualmente por subgrupos de funções. As propostas relativas ao pessoal necessitam ser tratadas em leis complementares que garantam, por sua hierarquia, o atendimento das condições excepcionais de trabalho do Manicômio Judiciário.As the Manicômio Judiciário (a Judiciary Mental Health Hospital is a hospital-prison it could be subordinated either to the State Health Department or to the Department of Justice. In order to reach a sound decision regarding this issue, structural and human resource comparisons as between the Manicômio Judiciário on one side and the Araraquara Prison on the other are provided. Comparisons between the status of the human resources of the Manicômio Judiciário in 1981 and 1984 and between the wages earned by workers exercising similar functions and belonging to similar institutions are also presented. The conclusion points to the Department of Justice as the most adequate institution to which the Manicômio Judiciário should be subordinated, provided some up-to-date managerial measures are taken. A personnel chart is suggested, showing percentages of people organized according to subgroups of functions. The proposals regarding personnel must be dealt with by, supplementary laws which guarantee, adequate provision for the

  20. Quantum theory from questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, Philipp [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Wever, Christopher [Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In contrast to relativity, quantum theory has evaded a commonly accepted apprehension, in part because of the lack of physical statements that fully characterize it. In an attempt to remedy the situation, we summarize a novel reconstruction of the explicit formalism of quantum theory (for arbitrarily many qubits) from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and define S's state as O's ''catalogue of knowledge'' about S; no ontic assumptions are necessary. From the rules, one can derive, among other things, the state spaces, the unitary group, the von Neumann evolution and show that the binary questions correspond to Pauli operators. The reconstruction also offers new structural insights in the form of novel informational charges and informational complementarity relations which define the state spaces and the unitary group. This reconstruction permits a new perspective on quantum theory.

  1. Trick questions: cosmopolitan hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Byrne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Byrne’s paper consists of two parallel texts. The first explores the limits of cosmopolitanism in practice, taking as its subject the Life in the UK Citizenship Test, inaugurated under the Labour Government in 2005. It argues that the test exemplifies the predicament of all attempts at cosmopolitan hospitality as unconditional welcoming, through a discussion of the relation between questioning and welcoming the stranger. Establishing the relationship between cosmopolitanism and hospitality as envisaged in Derrida’s reading of Kant it asks what kind of cosmopolitan hospitality is either possible or desirable by exploring what Derrida calls the ‘perversions’ inherent in the structures of hospitality. It focuses on the concept of the ‘trick questions’ that the state asks the foreigner observed by Derrida in his reading of The Apology of Socrates; questions that seem to invite answers but foreclose the possibilities of a free response. The second text asks how this logic that Derrida identifies can be pushed or coaxed into new ways of addressing the perceived threats of ‘unconditional’ hospitality through a reading of ‘unconditional hospitality’ as queer in the work of Tove Jansson.

  2. Abortion: A significant problem of public health and a determinant of biological reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Todorović Miodrag; Radovanović Olica

    2006-01-01

    Artificial abortion is a very important social-medical, economic and demographic problem. It is not only a problem of public health (disease disability, sterility) and social economy (to lose income and compensation because of absenteeism, increase of expense in health care sector for the treatment of direct, early and late consequences and sterility). It is a very important demographic problem because of the increase in "unrealized fertilities" and lost of descendents. According to the regis...

  3. The impact of a prospective survey-based workplace intervention program on employee health, biologic stress markers, and organizational productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderzén, Ingrid; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2005-07-01

    To study whether knowledge about psychosocial work indicators and a structured method to implement changes based on such knowledge comprise an effective management tool for enhancing organizational as well as employee health and well-being. White- collar employees representing 22 different work units were assessed before and after a 1-year intervention program. Subjective ratings on health and work environment, biologic markers, absenteeism, and productivity were measured. Significant improvements in performance feedback, participatory management, employeeship, skills development, efficiency, leadership, employee well-being, and work-related exhaustion were identified. The restorative hormone testosterone increased during the intervention and changes correlated with increased overall organizational well-being. Absenteeism decreased and productivity improved. Fact-based psychosocial workplace interventions are suggested to be an important process for enhancing employee well-being as well as organizational performance.

  4. The experimental teaching reform in biochemistry and molecular biology for undergraduate students in Peking University Health Science Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohan; Sun, Luyang; Zhao, Ying; Yi, Xia; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Pu; Lin, Hong; Ni, Juhua

    2015-01-01

    Since 2010, second-year undergraduate students of an eight-year training program leading to a Doctor of Medicine degree or Doctor of Philosophy degree in Peking University Health Science Center (PKUHSC) have been required to enter the "Innovative talent training project." During that time, the students joined a research lab and participated in some original research work. There is a critical educational need to prepare these students for the increasing accessibility of research experience. The redesigned experimental curriculum of biochemistry and molecular biology was developed to fulfill such a requirement, which keeps two original biochemistry experiments (Gel filtration and Enzyme kinetics) and adds a new two-experiment component called "Analysis of anti-tumor drug induced apoptosis." The additional component, also known as the "project-oriented experiment" or the "comprehensive experiment," consists of Western blotting and a DNA laddering assay to assess the effects of etoposide (VP16) on the apoptosis signaling pathways. This reformed laboratory teaching system aims to enhance the participating students overall understanding of important biological research techniques and the instrumentation involved, and to foster a better understanding of the research process all within a classroom setting. Student feedback indicated that the updated curriculum helped them improve their operational and self-learning capability, and helped to increase their understanding of theoretical knowledge and actual research processes, which laid the groundwork for their future research work. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: clinical intervention science and stress-biology research join forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E

    2013-11-01

    Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside a child's body, alterations that may have adverse effects on life-long health. We discuss why this is important for the field of developmental psychopathology and for society, and we recommend that stress-biology research and intervention science join forces to tackle the problem. We examine the evidence base in relation to stress-sensitive measures for the body (inflammatory reactions, telomere erosion, epigenetic methylation, and gene expression) and brain (mental disorders, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological testing). We also review promising interventions for families, couples, and children that have been designed to reduce the effects of childhood violence exposure. We invite intervention scientists and stress-biology researchers to collaborate in adding stress-biology measures to randomized clinical trials of interventions intended to reduce effects of violence exposure and other traumas on young people.

  6. Contribution to the study of the influence of geo-biological factors on animal health: bio-geophysics, 'biodomy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watrin, Estelle Suzanne Madeleine

    1999-01-01

    Geo-biology is the science of the influence of Earth and cosmos on the health of living things. The author proposes a general overview of this issue, first by giving an overview of geo-biological factors from the cosmos (Universe, Sun, Moon) and of those from the Earth: atmospheric electricity, air ionization, Earth magnetic field, telluric currents, Schumann waves, networks (global network or Hartmann network, diagonal Curry and Withmann networks, other networks, active crossings and star points), underground water streams, geological fault, mineralised or metal veins, cosmic-telluric chimneys, high activity points, radon. The author also addresses factors related to human activity such as electric and electromagnetic pollution (50/60 Hz electric and magnetic fields from different sources, cathodic screens, radio-electric frequencies and hyper-frequencies, steady electric and magnetic fields). Then, she proposes an overview of physio-pathology related to electromagnetic fields. She addresses the various means and techniques to detect and measure these different factors, and describes how to be protected against these geo-biological factors. She finally discusses the issue of clinic cases [fr

  7. Comparison between Two Assessment Methods; Modified Essay Questions and Multiple Choice Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assadi S.N.* MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims Using the best assessment methods is an important factor in educational development of health students. Modified essay questions and multiple choice questions are two prevalent methods of assessing the students. The aim of this study was to compare two methods of modified essay questions and multiple choice questions in occupational health engineering and work laws courses. Materials & Methods This semi-experimental study was performed during 2013 to 2014 on occupational health students of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The class of occupational health and work laws course in 2013 was considered as group A and the class of 2014 as group B. Each group had 50 students.The group A students were assessed by modified essay questions method and the group B by multiple choice questions method.Data were analyzed in SPSS 16 software by paired T test and odd’s ratio. Findings The mean grade of occupational health and work laws course was 18.68±0.91 in group A (modified essay questions and was 18.78±0.86 in group B (multiple choice questions which was not significantly different (t=-0.41; p=0.684. The mean grade of chemical chapter (p<0.001 in occupational health engineering and harmful work law (p<0.001 and other (p=0.015 chapters in work laws were significantly different between two groups. Conclusion Modified essay questions and multiple choice questions methods have nearly the same student assessing value for the occupational health engineering and work laws course.

  8. Health effects of low-level ionising radiation: biological basis for risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The biological basis for risk assessment is discussed. The risks of carcinogenic effects, teratogenic effects, and genetic (heritable) effects are estimated to vary in proportion with the dose of radiation in the low-dose domain; however, the risks also appear to vary with the LET of the radiation, age at the time of irradiation, and other variables. Although the data suffice to place the risks in perspective with other hazards of modern life, further research to refine the reliability of the risk assessment is called for. (author)

  9. From Questions to Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drlík

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The extension of (Internet databases forceseveryone to become more familiar with techniques of datastorage and retrieval because users’ success often dependson their ability to pose right questions and to be able tointerpret their answers. University programs pay moreattention to developing database programming skills than todata exploitation skills. To educate our students to become“database users”, the authors intensively exploit supportivetools simplifying the production of database elements astables, queries, forms, reports, web pages, and macros.Videosequences demonstrating “standard operations” forcompleting them have been prepared to enhance out-ofclassroomlearning. The use of SQL and other professionaltools is reduced to the cases when the wizards are unable togenerate the intended construct.

  10. The Coding Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-07-01

    Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward. A combinatorial code is more plausible. If the engram consists of altered synaptic conductances (the usual assumption), then we must ask how numbers may be written to synapses. It is much easier to formulate a coding hypothesis if the engram is realized by a cell-intrinsic molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legalland, J.P.; Lemarchand, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  12. A question of emphasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie; Björnsdóttir, I

    2000-01-01

    of pharmaceuticals? Seven focus group discussions were conducted with pharmacy customers in different locations in May, August and October 1997. Widespread ignorance about the legislation was observed. Pharmacy customers preferred to discuss the role of physicians in 'irrational drug use' to discussing community...... pharmacies. A definite split was observed between urban and rural pharmacy customers; whereas definite changes were reported in the urban setting (lower prices and increased access), the rural population's perception is that it is being left out. Although the study design is not generalisable, it is clear......The reported results are part of the overall evaluation of the new drug distribution legislation that went into effect in March 1996, liberalising ownership of community pharmacies in Iceland. We addressed the following question: What impact did the legislation have on users' access to and costs...

  13. Questions and Questioning Techniques: A View of Indonesian Students’ Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Tri Ragawanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ preference on teacher’s questions and questionings techniques and more importantly on how they could facilitate or impede their learning. The results on teacher’s questioning techniques showed that random nomination was more preferred than pre-arranged format nomination. In addition, techniques of nominating volunteering students and of giving wait-time were disliked by most student-respondents. As for types of question, the yes/no question was favored by most of the respondents. Different from the yes/no question, the number of respondents leaning forward to the analysis question, questions about fact of life, and questions to state opinion did not show a significant difference from the number of those leaning against the same questions.

  14. Protein Intake and Muscle Health in Old Age: From Biological Plausibility to Clinical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Landi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The provision of sufficient amounts of dietary proteins is central to muscle health as it ensures the supply of essential amino acids and stimulates protein synthesis. Older persons, in particular, are at high risk of insufficient protein ingestion. Furthermore, the current recommended dietary allowance for protein (0.8 g/kg/day might be inadequate for maintaining muscle health in older adults, probably as a consequence of “anabolic resistance” in aged muscle. Older individuals therefore need to ingest a greater quantity of protein to maintain muscle function. The quality of protein ingested is also essential to promoting muscle health. Given the role of leucine as the master dietary regulator of muscle protein turnover, the ingestion of protein sources enriched with this essential amino acid, or its metabolite β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate, is thought to offer the greatest benefit in terms of preservation of muscle mass and function in old age.

  15. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    are the potential health risks from transportation of depleted uranium metal or oxide? Other Skip Navigation Depleted UF6 Logo (Go to Home Page) Uranium Quick Fact Energy from Uranium One ton of natural uranium can produce more than 40 million kilowatt-hours of electricity. This is equivalent

  16. Dose Response Association between Physical Activity and Biological, Demographic, and Perceptions of Health Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few population-based studies have examined the association between physical activity (PA and cardiovascular disease risk factors, demographic variables, and perceptions of health status, and we do not have a clear understanding of the dose-response relationship among these variables. Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to examine the dose-response relationship between objectively measured PA and metabolic syndrome (and its individual cardiovascular disease risk factors, demographic variables, and perceptions of health. After exclusions, 5,538 participants 18 years or older were included in the present study, with 2,538 participants providing fasting glucose and 2,527 providing fasting triglyceride data. PA was categorized into deciles. Results: Overall, the health benefits showed a general pattern of increase with each increasing levels of PA. Of the ten PA classifications examined, participants in the highest moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA category (at least 71 min/day had the lowest odds of developing metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: At a minimum, sedentary adults should strive to meet current PA guidelines (i.e., 150 min/week of MVPA, with additional positive benefits associated with engaging in three times this level of PA.

  17. Une question interdite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Legendre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Is legal history a left-over or is it waiting for a takeover bid (just like a company in serious trouble which would allow the expression of new analyses and outlines for a better understanding of the contemporary western world? Its propositions of erudition, are they just interesting for small academic circles, or could they open a new pathway for fundamental reflections on the phenomenon of norms in general and the structure of its evolution in the special case of norm-production coming from Roman Christianity? And what is the significance of the idea of »legal tradition«, an idea forged in Western Europe, within the framework of a presumed global westernization without any counter-balance? The essay discusses the illegibility of legal history in today’s culture. Under the well reflected motto »The Forbidden Question« it concludes firmly: To renovate itself, this discipline has to perform its work in a new way, guided by a very precise and distinct vision on theory. The author examines the conditions for this.

  18. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  19. 101 questions about energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    2009-01-01

    Today, energy in the center of the world events. People get swamped with information about energy, environment, energy saving or renewable energy sources. However, the solutions proposed are still in the centre of debates and no consensus exists which allows to define a clear policy: nuclear energy or wind power? Solar energy or biomass fuels? And what about the meaning of the expression 'clean coal'? And why oil prices go up and down while it is said that the resource is close to exhaustion? Mass media are trying to tell us that 'urgency is here', mainly because of the climatic threat of greenhouse gases and because of a world economy totally dependent of politically unstable areas, like Middle East, Africa or Caucasus, but with huge oil and gas resources. And what about Europe, and what about all this gas in Russia? It is hard for a non-specialist to find his way in this complex domain. This is the aim of this book which has opted for the non-politically correct attitude to answer 101 key-questions about the energy topic: Europe's security of supply, energy geopolitics, oil future, energy crises, sustainable development etc. (J.S.)

  20. Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids from Oregano: Occurrence, Biological Activity and Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick P. Gutiérrez-Grijalva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several herb species classified as oregano have been widely used in folk medicine to alleviate inflammation-related diseases, respiratory and digestive disorders, headaches, rheumatism, diabetes and others. These potential health benefits are partially attributed to the phytochemical compounds in oregano such as flavonoids (FL and phenolic acids (PA. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are among the most abundant and most studied phytochemicals in oregano species. Epidemiological, in vitro and in vivo experiments have related long-term consumption of dietary FL and PA with a decreased risk of incidence of chronic diseases. The aim of this manuscript is to summarize the latest studies on the identification and distribution of flavonoids and phenolic compounds from oregano species and their potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer health benefits.

  1. Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids from Oregano: Occurrence, Biological Activity and Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Grijalva, Erick P; Picos-Salas, Manuel A; Leyva-López, Nayely; Criollo-Mendoza, Marilyn S; Vazquez-Olivo, Gabriela; Heredia, J Basilio

    2017-12-26

    Several herb species classified as oregano have been widely used in folk medicine to alleviate inflammation-related diseases, respiratory and digestive disorders, headaches, rheumatism, diabetes and others. These potential health benefits are partially attributed to the phytochemical compounds in oregano such as flavonoids (FL) and phenolic acids (PA). Flavonoids and phenolic acids are among the most abundant and most studied phytochemicals in oregano species. Epidemiological, in vitro and in vivo experiments have related long-term consumption of dietary FL and PA with a decreased risk of incidence of chronic diseases. The aim of this manuscript is to summarize the latest studies on the identification and distribution of flavonoids and phenolic compounds from oregano species and their potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer health benefits.

  2. Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: Clinical intervention science and stress biology research join forces

    OpenAIRE

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside a child’s body, alterations which may have adverse effects on life-long health. We discuss why this is important for the field of developmental psychopathol...

  3. Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids from Oregano: Occurrence, Biological Activity and Health Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Erick P. Gutiérrez-Grijalva; Manuel A. Picos-Salas; Nayely Leyva-López; Marilyn S. Criollo-Mendoza; Gabriela Vazquez-Olivo; J. Basilio Heredia

    2017-01-01

    Several herb species classified as oregano have been widely used in folk medicine to alleviate inflammation-related diseases, respiratory and digestive disorders, headaches, rheumatism, diabetes and others. These potential health benefits are partially attributed to the phytochemical compounds in oregano such as flavonoids (FL) and phenolic acids (PA). Flavonoids and phenolic acids are among the most abundant and most studied phytochemicals in oregano species. Epidemiological, in vitro and in...

  4. Building a DMU e-Biology resource for health sciences’ students.

    OpenAIRE

    Pena-Fernandez, A.; Sgamma, Tiziana; Young, C.; Randles, Michael J.; del Aguila, C.; Hurtado, C.; Evans, M. D.; Potiwat, N.; Izquierdo, F.; Pena, M. A.; Coope, J.; Armstrong, M.; Bhambra, Avninder S.

    2017-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link The BSc Biomedical Science (BMS) programme at De Montfort University (DMU, Leicester, UK) is accredited by the Institute of Biomedical Science (IBMS). Students enrolled within this programme acquire highly sought after skills related with human health sciences to work in: pathology departments in hospitals; research institutions; biotechnology a...

  5. The other "Irish question".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, H

    1992-05-01

    The influence of the Roman Catholic Church on Irish society makes it difficult for sex and health educators and HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. Divorce, abortion, consensual sex between consenting adult men, and contraception for those under 18 years is banned in Ireland. Public opinions and recent court decisions do appear to bring a measure of hope for more lenient attitudes. The trends vary from the recent Supreme Court case of the 14-year old rape victim being permitted an abortion because she was suicidal to a radio talk show host, Father Michael Cleary who suspected she was "set-up" to test the ban on abortion. Father Cleary also outraged health educators by stating inaccurately that condoms did not prevent AIDS. It is estimated that 500 Irish women have abortions each year in Britain; there have been 262 reported AIDS cases and estimates of up to 10,000 HIV infected out of a population of 3.5 million. An AIDS education campaign was mounted in 1987, but in the 37-minute Department of Health video only 1 minute was devoted to condoms and no sex was promoted as the only safe sex. Access is limited to consenting pharmacies and clinics for people 18 years of older; rural chemists may exercise discretion and refuse sales. In 1991, the government proposed lowering the age to 17 years for condom availability and assigning the regional health boards, the responsibility of determining who sells contraceptives. A university lecturer reported that inaction on this bill was close to "criminal inactivity." Challenges in February 1991 were made by the Irish Family Planning Association (IFPA) in setting up a condom sales kiosk in Dublin. The IFPA was fined, but opinion polls indicated that 57% supported condom availability for 16 year olds. On Valentines Day in 1992, condom vending machines, which are illegal, were installed in pubs and nightclubs, police action has been cautious. A new health minister is concerned about AIDS prevention and the republic's first woman President

  6. Is the DPT tautomerization of the long A·G Watson-Crick DNA base mispair a source of the adenine and guanine mutagenic tautomers? A QM and QTAIM response to the biologically important question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Zhurakivsky, Roman O; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2014-03-05

    Herein, we first address the question posed in the title by establishing the tautomerization trajectory via the double proton transfer of the adenine·guanine (A·G) DNA base mispair formed by the canonical tautomers of the A and G bases into the A*·G* DNA base mispair, involving mutagenic tautomers, with the use of the quantum-mechanical calculations and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). It was detected that the A·G ↔ A*·G* tautomerization proceeds through the asynchronous concerted mechanism. It was revealed that the A·G base mispair is stabilized by the N6H···O6 (5.68) and N1H···N1 (6.51) hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) and the N2H···HC2 dihydrogen bond (DH-bond) (0.68 kcal·mol(-1) ), whereas the A*·G* base mispair-by the O6H···N6 (10.88), N1H···N1 (7.01) and C2H···N2 H-bonds (0.42 kcal·mol(-1) ). The N2H···HC2 DH-bond smoothly and without bifurcation transforms into the C2H···N2 H-bond at the IRC = -10.07 Bohr in the course of the A·G ↔ A*·G* tautomerization. Using the sweeps of the energies of the intermolecular H-bonds, it was observed that the N6H···O6 H-bond is anticooperative to the two others-N1H···N1 and N2H···HC2 in the A·G base mispair, while the latters are significantly cooperative, mutually strengthening each other. In opposite, all three O6H···N6, N1H···N1, and C2H···N2 H-bonds are cooperative in the A*·G* base mispair. All in all, we established the dynamical instability of the А*·G* base mispair with a short lifetime (4.83·10(-14) s), enabling it not to be deemed feasible source of the A* and G* mutagenic tautomers of the DNA bases. The small lifetime of the А*·G* base mispair is predetermined by the negative value of the Gibbs free energy for the A*·G* → A·G transition. Moreover, all of the six low-frequency intermolecular vibrations cannot develop during this lifetime that additionally confirms the aforementioned results. Thus, the A*·G* base mispair cannot be

  7. Quarantine after an international biological weapons attack: medical and public health requirements for containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Meir

    2004-11-01

    The world now faces the dreadful possibility of biological weapons attacks by terrorists. Healthcare systems would have to cope with such emergencies should all preemptive measures fail. Information gained from the Global Mercury exercise and the SARS outbreak has shown that containing an outbreak at the start is more effective than reacting to it once it has spread and that containment should be treated both nationally and internationally. On the national level this entails developing rapid and effective methods to detect and identify infected cases, and implementing isolation and control measures to lower the risk of further transmission of the disease while assuring the safety of medical teams and laboratory workers. Strategic contingency plans should incorporate well-defined procedures for hospitalization and isolation of patients, providing regional backup of medical personnel and equipment and maintaining close cooperation between the various bodies in the healthcare system. Quarantine is an effective containment measure, especially if voluntarily imposed. Modern communication systems can help by sending professional teams timely instructions and providing the public with information to reduce panic and stress during quarantine procedures. Informing the public poses a dilemma: finding a balance between giving advance warning of an imminent epidemic outbreak and ascertaining the likelihood of its occurrence. Containment of international bioterrorist attacks depends entirely on close international cooperation to implement national and international strategic contingency plans with free exchange of information and recognition of procedures.

  8. Boophilus microplus: BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF ACARICIDE RESISTANCE AND THEIR IMPACT ON ANIMAL HEALTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Inés Dominguez-García

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Application of Ixodicidas has been considered for a long time the alternative for control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, however, its use is currently limited in reducing tick infestations, due to the appearance of resistant field tick populations. Ixodicide resistance is a growing problem that needs to be attended, because, it is currently affecting the competitiveness of the Mexican Cattle industry in general and in particular the income of cattle producers. The solution to this problem needs to increase the budget dedicated to basic research in order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of ixodicide resistance leading to the discovery of new molecular targets for ixodicide resistance detection and recombinant vaccine development. The recent use of new genomic tools, as well as reverse genetics approaches, will provide an extraordinary contribution to the improvement of tick control strategies and ixodicide resistance mitigation programs. The aim of the present review is to make a compilation of different topics related with acaricide resistance in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, starting with some biological and molecular considerations on its new classification, to the analysis of ixodicide resistance, its impact on the Mexican cattle industry and the perspective of the genomic research in order to solve the problems associated to tick control, new diagnostic tools and development of tick vaccines.

  9. Biological impact of the TSH-beta splice variant in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Klein

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, a glycoprotein hormone composed of alpha and beta chains, is produced by thryrotrope cells of the anterior pituitary. Within the conventional endocrine loop, pituitary-derived TSH binds to receptors in the thyroid, resulting in the release of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3. T4 and T3 in turn regulate nearly every aspect of mammalian physiology, including basal metabolism, growth and development, and mood and cognition. Although TSH-beta has been known for years to be produced by cells of the immune system, the significance of that has remained largely unclear. Recently, a splice variant of TSH-beta (TSH-beta-v, which consists of a truncated but biologically functional portion of the native form of TSH-beta, was shown to be produced by bone marrow cells and peripheral blood leukocytes, particularly cells of the myeloid/monocyte lineage. In contrast, full-length native TSH-beta is minimally produced by cells of the immune system. The present article will describe the discovery of the TSH-beta-v and will discuss its potential role in immunity and autoimmunity, inflammation, and bone remodeling.

  10. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in…

  11. Biological Effects of Sunlight, Ultraviolet Radiation, Visible Light, Infrared Radiation and Vitamin D for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holick, Michael F

    2016-03-01

    Humans evolved in sunlight and had depended on sunlight for its life giving properties that was appreciated by our early ancestors. However, for more than 40 years the lay press and various medical and dermatology associations have denounced sun exposure because of its association with increased risk for skin cancer. The goal of this review is to put into perspective the many health benefits that have been associated with exposure to sunlight, ultraviolet A (UVA) ultraviolet B (UVB), visible and infrared radiation. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. Health and biological effects of non-ionizing radiations; Effets biologiques et sanitaires des rayonnements non ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Seze, R.; Souques, M.; Aurengo, A.; Bach, V.; Burais, N.; Cesarini, J.P.; Cherin, A.; Decobert, V.; Dubois, G.; Hours, M.; Lagroye, I.; Leveque, Ph.; Libert, J.P.; Lombard, J.; Loos, N.; Mir, L.; Perrin, A.; Poulletier De Gannes, F.; Thuroczy, G.; Wiart, J.; Lehericy, St.; Pelletier, A.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.; Douki, Th.; Guibal, F.; Tordjman, I.; Gaillot de Saintignon, J.; Collard, J.F.; Scoretti, R.; Magne, I.; Veyret, B.; Katrib, J.

    2011-07-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day on the biological and health effects of non-ionizing radiations. Sixteen presentations out of 17 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - NMR: biological effects and implications of Directive 2004/40 on electromagnetic fields (S. Lehericy); 2 - impact of RF frequencies from mobile telephone antennas on body homeostasis (A. Pelletier); 3 - expression of stress markers in the brain and blood of rats exposed in-utero to a Wi-Fi signal (I. Lagroye); 4 - people exposure to electromagnetic waves: the challenge of variability and the contribution of statistics to dosimetry (J. Wiart); 5 - status of knowledge about electromagnetic fields hyper-sensitivity (J.P. Marc-Vergnes; 6 - geno-toxicity of UV radiation: respective impact of UVB and UVA (T. Douki); 7 - National day of prevention and screening for skin cancers (F. Guibal); 8 - UV tan devices: status of knowledge about cancer risks (I. Tordjman, and J. Gaillot de Saintignon); 9 - modulation of brain activity during a tapping task after exposure to a 3000 {mu}T magnetic field at 60 Hz (M. Souques and A. Legros); 10 - calculation of ELF electromagnetic fields in the human body by the finite elements method (R. Scoretti); 11 - French population exposure to the 50 Hz magnetic field (I. Magne); 12 - LF and static fields, new ICNIRP recommendations: what has changed, what remains (B. Veyret); 13 - risk assessment of low energy lighting systems - DELs and CFLs (J.P. Cesarini); 14 - biological effects to the rat of a chronic exposure to high power microwaves (R. De Seze); 15 - theoretical and experimental electromagnetic compatibility approaches of active medical implants in the 10-50 Hz frequency range: the case of implantable cardiac defibrillators (J. Katrib); French physicians and electromagnetic fields (M. Souques). (J.S.)

  13. The future of research in craniofacial biology and what this will mean for oral health professional education and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkin, H C

    2014-06-01

    Today, and looking to the future, scientific discoveries from cellular, developmental and molecular biology inform our understanding of cell, tissue and organ morphogenesis as exemplified in skin, bone, cartilage, dentine, enamel, muscle, nerve and many organs such as salivary glands and teeth. Present day biomedical science yields principles for the biomimetic design and fabrication of cells, tissues and organs. Bioengineering has become a strategy that can 'mimic' biological processes, and inform clinical procedures for tissue and organ replacements. The future of regenerative craniofacial biology holds enormous promise for the diagnosis and treatment of congenital birth defects, traumatic injuries, degenerative chronic diseases as well as for Mendelian single gene and complex multigene diseases and disorders. The past 50 years have heralded the completion of the human genome and the introduction of 'personalized medicine and dentistry', the utilization of stem cell therapy for an array of diseases and disorders, the 'proof of principle' to reverse select inherited diseases such as anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (ED), and the fruits from interdisciplinary research drawn from the diverse biomedical sciences. Looking to the future, we can readily anticipate as major goals to emphasize the clinician's role in identifying clinical phenotypes that can lead to differential diagnosis, and rejuvenate missing or damaged tissues by establishing processes for the utilization of gene, cell and/or protein therapies. The future is replete with remarkable opportunities to enhance clinical outcomes for congenital as well as acquired craniofacial malformations. Clinicians play a pivotal role because critical thinking and sound clinical acumen substantially improve diagnostic precision and thereby clinical health outcomes. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  14. Alcohol and Public Health: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... influenced by many factors, such as: Age. Sex. Race or ethnicity. Physical condition (e.g. weight, fitness ... which are all skills needed to drive a car safely. 2 The more alcohol consumed, the greater ...

  15. Women Veterans Health Care: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accountability & Whistleblower Protection Transparency Media Room Inside the Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival ...

  16. The effect of biological and chemical control agents on the health status of the very early potato cultivar Rosara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cwalina-Ambroziak Bożena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The external appearance and quality of table potatoes are determined, among other factors, by the health status of the plants during the growing season. Chemical control methods are often combined with biocontrol agents to effectively fight potato pathogens. Potatoes of the very early cultivar Rosara were grown in experimental plots. The plots were located in Tomaszkowo (NE Poland, 2007-2009. The experiment involved the following treatments: 1 biological control − mycorrhizal Glomus spp. inoculum was applied to the roots, − tubers were dressed and plants were sprayed with Polyversum three times during the growing season, 2 chemical control - at two-week intervals, plants were sprayed with the following fungicides: Infinito 687.5 SC and Tanos 50 WG, Valbon 72 WG and Tanos 50 WG. In the control treatment, potato plants were not protected against pathogens. During the growing season, the severity of late blight and early blight was evaluated on a nine-point scale. The composition of fungal communities colonising potato stems was analysed. The fungistatic properties of the fungicides used in the field experiment were evaluated in an in vitro test. The symptoms of infections caused by Phytophthora infestans and Alternaria spp. were significantly reduced in the treatment which used the integrated chemical and biological control. The least diverse fungal community was isolated from fungicide-treated plants. In the in vitro test, fungicides at all analysed concentrations inhibited the linear mycelial growth of selected pathogens.

  17. Gender Nonconformity, Homophobic Peer Victimization and Mental Health: How Same-Sex Attraction and Biological Sex Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beusekom, Gabriël; Baams, Laura; Bos, Henny M.W.; Overbeek, Geert J.; Sandfort, Theo G.M.

    2018-01-01

    We assessed whether homophobic name-calling accounts for the relationship between gender nonconformity and mental health (social anxiety and psychological distress) in a sample of 1,026 Dutch adolescents (boys: n = 517) aged 11–16 years (Mage = 13.4). We also explored whether this hypothesized mediation differs by sexual attraction and biological sex. Data were collected by means of paper–pencil questionnaires at five secondary schools located in urban areas in the Netherlands. Mediation analysis indicated that gender nonconformity was related with both social anxiety and psychological distress partially via homophobic name-calling. Moderated mediation analysis further showed that the mediating role of homophobic name-calling varied according to levels of same-sex attraction (SSA) and biological sex. The mediation effects increased in magnitude when levels of SSA increased and were significant only for adolescents with mean and high levels of SSA. The mediation effects were significant for boys and girls in general, although the mediation effects were stronger for boys than for girls. Our findings emphasize the importance of research and school-level interventions to focus on factors that promote acceptance of cross-gender behaviour among adolescents. PMID:26099017

  18. [Synthetic cannabinoids: spread, addiction biology & current perspective of personal health hazard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, U; Mahler, H

    2015-04-01

    Among the new psychoactive substances (NPS), most frequently synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) have been found in Europe. These are sold as active compounds in e. g. so-called "herbal blends". When inhaled or ingested, besides intoxication symptoms, as they occur with heavy cannabis use (e. g., tachycardia, myocardial infarction, confusion, hallucinations, panic attacks, and paranoia), harmful effects (severe agitation, coma, catatonic stupor, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia, dyspnoea, seizures, myoclonus, rhabdomyolysis, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, acute kidney injury, vomiting, headache, and hypokalemia) arise, which are mostly unusual about cannabis use. In addition, the first cases of addiction and death related to SCBs have been reported. Taking into account the newest literature and using an algorithm with two main criteria (addiction potential, toxicity), the authors made a first attempt to rank the personal health hazard of SCBs in comparison to that of other psychoactive drugs. Accordingly, the relative health hazard of SCBs is found to be somewhat higher than that of cannabis and lower than that of synthetic cathinones ("bath salts"). However, the toxicity of SCBs, is significantly greater than the toxicity of cannabis, thus being similar to that of synthetic cathinones and benzodiazepines. The addiction potential appears to be lower than that of synthetic cathinones, benzodiazepines, or cannabis. Due to the fluctuation of substances and the availability in internet resources, legislation is facing a serious "hare-hedgehog" problem to control the manufacture, trade and possession of SCBs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Using large-scale public health data to explore the evolutionary biology of human pregnancy and child bearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollegaard, Birgitte

    . Consequently, research has increasingly focused on the underlying causes of disease, shaped by human evolution. Evolutionary medicine is a relatively new field, specifically bridging the gap between conventional medicine and evolutionary biology: Instead of asking how we get sick, we can apply evolutionary...... explanations for this phenomenon. This thesis demonstrates how taking an evolutionary perspective can help us to better understand important aspects of health and medicine that remain opaque, using the specific example of pregnancy-related conditions.......Medicine has made a giant leap forward over the last century when it comes to the treatment of human disease, but even the most cutting edge 21st century medicine cannot prevent new diseases arising, nor those thought to be extinct developing resistance to pharmaceuticals and returning...

  20. Progress report, Biology and Health Physics Division, July 1 to September 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    A simple code for unfolding neutron spectra from scintillation measurements is being investigated. Work is in progress to provide individual calibration factors for the dosimeters used in radiation monitoring badges. Low-level gamma radiation survey meters using digital displays are being tested by users. Tests of a perfluorosulfonic acid polymer, in the form of thin-walled tubing, have shown that it can adequately separate water vapour from hydrogen in an air sample stream. A nepheline-syenite glass block containing moderate levels of fission product radionuclides was successfully recovered from the test area and shipped to Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment for examination and analysis. This block was one of twenty-five blocks placed in the ground twenty years ago in the first test disposal of waste fission products incorporated into a glass matrix. Cores of sandy aquifer material, contaminated by the 1954 and 1955 experimental liquid radioactive waste disposals, were dewatered. The pore waters and soils were analyzed to determine field distribution coefficients for 90 Sr and 137 Cs. These are useful data for pathways analysis modelling of radionuclide migration from the proposed Canadian fuel wastes geological repository. Field studies are underway to assess the effects of low-grade heat on rooted aquatic plants. Work in biology has continued to focus upon the effects of radiation on the DNA of a variety of living organisms, ranging fro bacterial viruses to humans. Cells from patients suffering from ataxia telangiectasia (AT) are at least 2.8 times more sensitive to acute γ-radiation than are comparable cells from normal persons; however, the ratio of sensitivites is about 1.8 times for neutron irradiation. It is possible, therefore, that neutrons might be advantageous for clinical therapy of cancer in AT patients. (OST)

  1. Vulnerability of women in southern Africa to infection with HIV: biological determinants and priority health sector interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chersich, Matthew F; Rees, Helen V

    2008-12-01

    To review biomedical determinants of women's vulnerability to infection with HIV and interventions to counter this, within the southern African context. Apart from number of exposures, if any, several factors influence the efficiency of HIV transmission during sex. Acute HIV infection, with extraordinarily high semen viral load, in conjunction with concurrent partnerships maximizes this efficiency. Delaying sexual debut and avoiding HIV exposure among biologically and socially vulnerable youth is critical. Reducing unintended pregnancies keeps girls in school and prevents vertical (also possibly horizontal) transmission. Female condoms, especially newer versions, are an under-exploited prevention technology. Control of sexually transmitted infections (STI), which facilitate HIV acquisition and transmission, remains important, especially among the most at-risk populations. Pathogens, such as herpes simplex virus type 2, which contribute most to HIV transmission in southern Africa must be targeted, although the importance of bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is under-recognized. Also, heavy episodic alcohol use affects sexual decision-making and condom skills. Moreover, prevailing social contexts, partly a consequence of poor leadership, constrain the behavioural 'choices' available for girls and women. Priority health sector interventions for preventing HIV are: male and female condom programming; prevention and control of STI; outreach to most vulnerable populations; HIV testing in all patient-provider encounters; male circumcision; and the integration of HIV prevention within sexual and reproductive health services. Future interventions during acute HIV infection and microbicides will reduce women's biological vulnerability. Far-reaching measures, such as sexual equity and alcohol control, create conditions necessary for achieving sustained prevention results. These are, however, contingent on stronger, more informed cultural and political leadership.

  2. Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

  3. Distinguishing Mars from Venus: emergence of gender biology differences in oral health and systemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkin, Harold C

    2002-10-01

    We are learning to appreciate and understand that men and women have different genes and gene products (proteins), biochemistry and physiology, body weights and distribution of fats, and a few different tissues and organs. In such comparisons, we discover that women have a different prevalence for many oral and systemic diseases and disorders, and often illustrate differences in responses to disease mechanisms as well as to drug therapy and treatments. For example, consider the milestones of development, such as puberty or menopause, the unique differences in the prevalence of autoimmune diseases and disorders (Sjögren's syndrome, Hashimoto's disease), differences in the onset and progression of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, differences in response to radiation and chemotherapy, and the differences in chronic facial pain, chronic fatigue syndrome, and fibromyalgia. This article highlights many opportunities to enhance the quality of oral health care for women.

  4. Prototypes of Newly Conceived Inorganic and Biological Sensors for Health and Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Spera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the optimal implementation of three newly conceived sensors for both health and environmental applications, utilizing a wide range of detection methods and complex nanocomposites. The first one is inorganic and based on matrices of calcium oxide, the second is based on protein arrays and a third one is based on Langmuir-Blodgett laccase multi-layers. Special attention was paid to detecting substances significant to the environment (such as carbon dioxide and medicine (drug administration, cancer diagnosis and prognosis by means of amperometric, quartz crystal microbalance with frequency (QCM_F and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM_D technologies. The resulting three implemented nanosensors are described here along with proofs of principle and their corresponding applications.

  5. Biological and Nutritional Properties of Palm Oil and Palmitic Acid: Effects on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Annamaria; Imperlini, Esther; Nigro, Ersilia; Montagnese, Concetta; Daniele, Aurora; Orrù, Stefania; Buono, Pasqualina

    2015-09-18

    A growing body of evidence highlights the close association between nutrition and human health. Fat is an essential macronutrient, and vegetable oils, such as palm oil, are widely used in the food industry and highly represented in the human diet. Palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid, is the principal constituent of refined palm oil. In the last few decades, controversial studies have reported potential unhealthy effects of palm oil due to the high palmitic acid content. In this review we provide a concise and comprehensive update on the functional role of palm oil and palmitic acid in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The atherogenic potential of palmitic acid and its stereospecific position in triacylglycerols are also discussed.

  6. Nonintrusive biological signal monitoring in a car to evaluate a driver's stress and health state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hyun Jae; Lee, Haet Bit; Kim, Jung Soo; Choi, Jong Min; Kim, Ko Keun; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-03-01

    Nonintrusive monitoring of a driver's physiological signals was introduced and evaluated in a car as a test of extending the concept of ubiquitous healthcare to vehicles. Electrocardiogram, photoplethysmogram, galvanic skin response, and respiration were measured in the ubiquitous healthcare car (U-car) using nonintrusively installed sensors on the steering wheel, driver's seat, and seat belt. Measured signals were transmitted to the embedded computer via Bluetooth(R) communication and processed. We collected and analyzed physiological signals during driving in order to estimate a driver's stress state while using this system. In order to compare the effect of stress on physical and mental conditions, two categories of stresses were defined. Experimental results show that a driver's physiological signals were measured with acceptable quality for analysis without interrupting driving, and they were changed meaningfully due to elicited stress. This nonintrusive monitoring can be used to evaluate a driver's state of health and stress.

  7. Plant-Derived Polyphenols in Human Health: Biological Activity, Metabolites and Putative Molecular Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Vicente, Marilo; Barrajon-Catalan, Enrique; Herranz-Lopez, Maria; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Joven, Jorge; Encinar, Jose Antonio; Micol, Vicente

    2018-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa, Lippia citriodora, Rosmarinus officinalis and Olea europaea, are rich in bioactive compounds that represent most of the phenolic compounds' families and have exhibited potential benefits in human health. These plants have been used in folk medicine for their potential therapeutic properties in human chronic diseases. Recent evidence leads to postulate that polyphenols may account for such effects. Nevertheless, the compounds or metabolites that are responsible for reaching the molecular targets are unknown. data based on studies directly using complex extracts on cellular models, without considering metabolic aspects, have limited applicability. In contrast, studies exploring the absorption process, metabolites in the blood circulation and tissues have become essential to identify the intracellular final effectors that are responsible for extracts bioactivity. Once the cellular metabolites are identified using high-resolution mass spectrometry, docking techniques suppose a unique tool for virtually screening a large number of compounds on selected targets in order to elucidate their potential mechanisms. we provide an updated overview of the in vitro and in vivo studies on the toxicity, absorption, permeability, pharmacokinetics and cellular metabolism of bioactive compounds derived from the abovementioned plants to identify the potential compounds that are responsible for the observed health effects. we propose the use of targeted metabolomics followed by in silico studies to virtually screen identified metabolites on selected protein targets, in combination with the use of the candidate metabolites in cellular models, as the methods of choice for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of these compounds. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after eachstep. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 15-20

  9. Automated Miniaturized Instrument for Space Biology Applications and the Monitoring of the Astronauts Health Onboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Peyvan, Kia; Danley, David; Ricco, Antonio J.; Santos, Orlando; Pohorille, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. The spacecraft environment subjects the traveler to noise, chemical and microbiological contaminants, increased radiation, and variable gravity forces. As humans prepare for long-duration missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and beyond, effective measures must be developed, verified and implemented to ensure mission success. Limited biomedical quantitative capabilities are currently available onboard the ISS. Therefore, the development of versatile instruments to perform space biological analysis and to monitor astronauts' health is needed. We are developing a fully automated, miniaturized system for measuring gene expression on small spacecraft in order to better understand the influence of the space environment on biological systems. This low-cost, low-power, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement by providing data on cellular metabolism and regulation. The current system will support growth of microorganisms, extract and purify the RNA, hybridize it to the array, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis, and transmit the measurements to Earth. The system will help discover how bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics and how pathogenic bacteria sometimes increase their virulence in space, facilitating the development of adequate countermeasures to decrease risks associated with human spaceflight. The current stand-alone technology could be used as an integrated platform onboard the ISS to perform similar genetic analyses on any biological systems from the tree of life. Additionally, with some modification the system could be implemented to perform real-time in-situ microbial monitoring of the ISS environment (air, surface and water samples) and the astronaut's microbiome using 16SrRNA microarray technology. Furthermore, the current system can be enhanced

  10. The Glutamate Dehydrogenase Pathway and Its Roles in Cell and Tissue Biology in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Plaitakis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH is a hexameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia while reducing NAD(P+ to NAD(PH. It is found in all living organisms serving both catabolic and anabolic reactions. In mammalian tissues, oxidative deamination of glutamate via GDH generates α-ketoglutarate, which is metabolized by the Krebs cycle, leading to the synthesis of ATP. In addition, the GDH pathway is linked to diverse cellular processes, including ammonia metabolism, acid-base equilibrium, redox homeostasis (via formation of fumarate, lipid biosynthesis (via oxidative generation of citrate, and lactate production. While most mammals possess a single GDH1 protein (hGDH1 in the human that is highly expressed in the liver, humans and other primates have acquired, via duplication, an hGDH2 isoenzyme with distinct functional properties and tissue expression profile. The novel hGDH2 underwent rapid evolutionary adaptation, acquiring unique properties that enable enhanced enzyme function under conditions inhibitory to its ancestor hGDH1. These are thought to provide a biological advantage to humans with hGDH2 evolution occurring concomitantly with human brain development. hGDH2 is co-expressed with hGDH1 in human brain, kidney, testis and steroidogenic organs, but not in the liver. In human cerebral cortex, hGDH1 and hGDH2 are expressed in astrocytes, the cells responsible for removing and metabolizing transmitter glutamate, and for supplying neurons with glutamine and lactate. In human testis, hGDH2 (but not hGDH1 is densely expressed in the Sertoli cells, known to provide the spermatids with lactate and other nutrients. In steroid producing cells, hGDH1/2 is thought to generate reducing equivalents (NADPH in the mitochondria for the biosynthesis of steroidal hormones. Lastly, up-regulation of hGDH1/2 expression occurs in cancer, permitting neoplastic cells to utilize glutamine/glutamate for their growth

  11. Insecticides and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  12. Teacher's Questions in Reading Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuliati Rohmah

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present paper discusses an English teacher's questions in Reading classes at MAN Malang III. Types of questions, functions of teacher's questions, question levels and the strategies applied by the teacher were put as the research problems. Non-participant observa­tion was applied to collect the data with the researcher as the main in­strument aided by field-notes and a tape recorder. It was found that the distribution of the questions did not allow the students to talk longer and to think more analytically. Meanwhile, the strategies applied by the teacher helped the students to respond to the questions previously unanswered. The teacher is suggested to produce more open and refer­ential question as well as inference and evaluation questions as to give more chances for the students to think aloud more.

  13. Can we share questions? Performance of questions from different question banks in a single medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Adrian; Nicholls, Anthony; Ricketts, Chris; Coombes, Lee

    2010-01-01

    To use progress testing, a large bank of questions is required, particularly when planning to deliver tests over a long period of time. The questions need not only to be of good quality but also balanced in subject coverage across the curriculum to allow appropriate sampling. Hence as well as creating its own questions, an institution could share questions. Both methods allow ownership and structuring of the test appropriate to the educational requirements of the institution. Peninsula Medical School (PMS) has developed a mechanism to validate questions written in house. That mechanism can be adapted to utilise questions from an International question bank International Digital Electronic Access Library (IDEAL) and another UK-based question bank Universities Medical Assessment Partnership (UMAP). These questions have been used in our progress tests and analysed for relative performance. Data are presented to show that questions from differing sources can have comparable performance in a progress testing format. There are difficulties in transferring questions from one institution to another. These include problems of curricula and cultural differences. Whilst many of these difficulties exist, our experience suggests that it only requires a relatively small amount of work to adapt questions from external question banks for effective use. The longitudinal aspect of progress testing (albeit summatively) may allow more flexibility in question usage than single high stakes exams.

  14. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  15. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  16. When is a research question not a research question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nancy E; Asano, Miho; Barbic, Skye Pamela

    2013-06-01

    Research is undertaken to answer important questions yet often the question is poorly expressed and lacks information on the population, the exposure or intervention, the comparison, and the outcome. An optimal research question sets out what the investigator wants to know, not what the investigator might do, nor what the results of the study might ultimately contribute. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent to which rehabilitation scientists optimally define their research questions. A cross-sectional survey of the rehabilitation research articles published during 2008. Two raters independently rated each question according to pre-specified criteria; a third rater adjudicated all discrepant ratings. The proportion of the 258 articles with a question formulated as methods or expected contribution and not as what knowledge was being sought was 65%; 30% of questions required reworking. The designs which most often had poorly formulated research questions were randomized trials, cross-sectional and measurement studies. Formulating the research question is not purely a semantic concern. When the question is poorly formulated, the design, analysis, sample size calculations, and presentation of results may not be optimal. The gap between research and clinical practice could be bridged by a clear, complete, and informative research question.

  17. Benzene: questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This information booklet is intended to inform residents near natural gas dehydration facilities about benzene and its levels in the atmosphere. It was issued following the federal government's decision to place benzene on its Priority Substances List and to require industry to establish means for reducing benzene emissions from natural gas dehydrators and to inform residents about benzene emissions from glycol dehydration facilities. Accordingly, the booklet explains what benzene is (a colourless flammable liquid component of hydrocarbons) how it gets into the air (during gasoline refining, vehicle refueling and the production of steel and petrochemicals), the associated health hazards (a recognized carcinogen, causing an increased incidence of leukemia in concentrations of 100 parts per million), defines a glycol dehydrator (a facility built at or near some natural gas fields for the removal of water from the natural gas to prevent corrosion and freezing of pipelines), and enumerates the steps that are being taken to reduce benzene levels in the air (benzene levels in gasoline have been reduced, along with benzene emissions from petrochemical plants, refineries, steel plants and glycol dehydrators by 54 per cent to date; this will rise to 90 per cent by 2005). In addition to these actions, industry plans call for all existing glycol dehydrators within 750 metres of any permanent residence to be limited to benzene emissions of no more than three tonnes per year before 2001; new glycol dehydrators after that date will be expected to have benzene emissions reduced to the lowest level that can be practically achieved

  18. The Effects of Uniquely-Processed Titanium on Biological Systems: Implications for Human Health and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Rowlands

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium is biocompatible and widely utilized in a variety of applications. Recently, titanium in pico-nanometer scale and soluble form (Aqua Titan has expanded its use to applied human health and performance. The purpose of this article is to review the current evidence associated with specific physiological responses to Aqua Titan-treated materials. In vitro studies have shown that application of Aqua Titan can modify membrane potential and long-term potentiation in isolated hippocampal neurons, suggesting reduced pain memory as a possible mechanism for reported analgesia. Proximal contact with Aqua Titan-treated titanium increased gene expression, protein synthesis, cell growth and adhesion in normal cultured muscle and bone cells, suggesting application for Aqua Titan in clinical implant procedures and wound healing. Evidence for beneficial effects on neuromuscular control of muscle-tendon function and improvements in running economy in human athletes was seen when Aqua Titan-treated tape was applied to the human triceps surae following fatigue induced by prior strenuous exercise. Finally, behavioral responses and effects on the autonomic nervous system to environmental exposure suggest Aqua Titan may promote a mild relaxant, or stress-suppressive response. Together, data suggest exposure to Aqua Titan-treated materials modulates aspects of growth and function in neuronal and other musculoskeletal cells with possible benefits to musculotendinous recovery from exercise and to the systemic response to stress.

  19. Organization of accident medical service in emergency situations in the system of Federal administration board for medical-biological and emergency problems at the Ministry of public health and medical industry of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfenova, L.N.

    1995-01-01

    Federal Administration Board for medical-biological problems at the Ministry of Public Health and Medical Industry of Russia, in accordance with the entrusted functions, provides medical-sanitary service for the workers of the branches of industry with especially dangerous labour conditions. For these purpose, there is functioning in its system a network of therapeutic-prophylactic, sanitary, scientific-research, educational and other establishments. A high degree of accident danger of the attended industrial plants determines the state policy of organizations and administrations as well as scientific-practical establishments of the Federal Administration Board in respect of elaboration and introduction of a complex of measures which would enable to guarantee the safe functioning of the plants. All sub-administration establishments have the necessary structures, settle the questions of liquidation of medical-sanitary after-effects of accidents at the attended plants, and are regarded to be the organizations of specialized emergency medical aid of the Federal Administration Board

  20. Questions for Music Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  1. Questioning Chemistry: The Role of Level, Familiarity, Language and Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Susan; Taylor, Neil; Cameron, Margaret; Syme-Smith, Lorraine; Fortuna, Colette

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on data collected via an audience response system, where a convenience sample of 300 adults aged 17-50 pressed a button to register their answers for twenty multiple choice questions. The responses were then discussed with the respondents at the time. The original dataset includes physics, biology and chemistry questions. The…

  2. Fostering effective studying and study planning with study questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, P.; Pieters, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In a course on biological psychology and neuropsychology, study questions were provided that also appeared as test questions in the course exam. This method was introduced to support students in active processing and reproduction of the study texts, and study planning. Data were gathered to test the

  3. From Diabetes Care to Diabetes Cure—The Integration of Systems Biology, eHealth, and Behavioral Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben van Ommen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available From a biological view, most of the processes involved in insulin resistance, which drives the pathobiology of type 2 diabetes, are reversible. This theoretically makes the disease reversible and curable by changing dietary habits and physical activity, particularly when adopted early in the disease process. Yet, this is not fully implemented and exploited in health care due to numerous obstacles. This article reviews the state of the art in all areas involved in a diabetes cure-focused therapy and discusses the scientific and technological advancements that need to be integrated into a systems approach sustainable lifestyle-based healthcare system and economy. The implementation of lifestyle as cure necessitates personalized and sustained lifestyle adaptations, which can only be established by a systems approach, including all relevant aspects (personalized diagnosis and diet, physical activity and stress management, self-empowerment, motivation, participation and health literacy, all facilitated by blended care and ehealth. Introduction of such a systems approach in type 2 diabetes therapy not only requires a concerted action of many stakeholders but also a change in healthcare economy, with new winners and losers. A “call for action” is put forward to actually initiate this transition. The solution provided for type 2 diabetes is translatable to other lifestyle-related disorders.

  4. Organic chemistry and biology: chemical biology through the eyes of collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Victor J

    2009-12-18

    From a scientific perspective, efforts to understand biology including what constitutes health and disease has become a chemical problem. However, chemists and biologists "see" the problems of understanding biology from different perspectives, and this has retarded progress in solving the problems especially as they relate to health and disease. This suggests that close collaboration between chemists and biologists is not only necessary but essential for progress in both the biology and chemistry that will provide solutions to the global questions of biology. This perspective has directed my scientific efforts for the past 45 years, and in this overview I provide my perspective of how the applications of synthetic chemistry, structural design, and numerous other chemical principles have intersected in my collaborations with biologists to provide new tools, new science, and new insights that were only made possible and fruitful by these collaborations.

  5. Organic Chemistry and Biology: Chemical Biology Through the Eyes of Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Victor J.

    2011-01-01

    From a scientific perspective, efforts to understand biology including what constitutes health and disease has become a chemical problem. However, chemists and biologists “see” the problems of understanding biology from different perspectives, and this has retarded progress in solving the problems especially as they relate to health and disease. This suggests that close collaboration between chemists and biologists is not only necessary but essential for progress in both the biology and chemistry that will provide solutions to the global questions of biology. This perspective has directed my scientific efforts for the past 45 years, and in this overview I provide my perspective of how the applications of synthetic chemistry, structural design, and numerous other chemical principles have intersected in my collaborations with biologists to provide new tools, new science, and new insights that were only made possible and fruitful by these collaborations. PMID:20000552

  6. Progress report, Biology and Health Physics Division, October 1 to December 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    Analysis of radiation fields in the reactor vault during various shutdown conditions of the Douglas Point reactor has been carried out. Work is proceeding to bring up to date and to add additional features to the design of the automatic TLD reader. An analysis has been completed of experimental data obtained on the diffusion of tritiated water vapour through the skin. Radiation instrument studies have continued with the development of gamma and beta radiation survey meters intended for general use in radiation protection and the development of particular devices for special situations or experimental studies. A mathematical model of energy transformations in small lakes has been developed. Ground water samplers and seepage meters have been installed to intercept tritium-contaminated ground water flowing into Perch Lake. Cation exchange capacities of Perch Lake drainage basin soils were measured using a 60 Co tracer method. An environmental assessment group is being formed to produce models and procedures for pathways analysis of radionuclide transport in ground waters, surface waters and aquatic food chains. Progress has been made in comparison of the effects of the UV component of sunlight (designated as near UV radiation) with those of ionizing radiation. Both types of radiation are known to induce cancer. The types of damage produced in DNA by near UV radiation and repair of this damage have been explored. Research is continuing on (a) the radiation-induced release of membrane-bound components from the bacterial cell wall, (b) the induction of genetic changes in yeast by radiation and by mutagenic chemicals, and (c) radiation-induced tumors in rats. In addition, two collaborative review papers have been prepared, dealing (d) with the health hazards associated with the inhalation of radon daughters and (e) with low level radiation hazards in relation to the nuclear power industry in general. (OST)

  7. Progress report, Biology and Health Physics Division, January 1 to March 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    An improved assay unit for determining the amount of plutonium in wastes, has been designed. A recently-written computer program for processing thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) readings will permit each TLD to have its own sensitivity calibration. TLDs used in fingertip dosimeters have been replaced by thinner TLDs which measure beta-ray doses more accurately. The performace characteristics of a new prototype monitor for tritiated water vapour in air have been measured. Work has started on a long-term environmental impact assessment of the waste management areas. A more detailed examination of the geochemical factors determining waste arsenic migration in ground water flow systems has been initiated. Studies have continued on the combined effects of thermal and nutrient enrichment on the productivity of fresh water organisms. A preliminary study of the plutonium content of surface waters has been made to identify potential sites for research on actinide behaviour in the environment. The third phase of a long-term experiment on synergism in rats has been started to determine whether ionizing radiation in combination with certain environmental carcinogens, such as cigarette tar and other chemicals, would increase the risk of tumours as compared with that from the separate treatments. A study on the genetic effects of x-rays at low dose rates has been largely completed. Research is continuing on (a) the radiation-induced release of membrane-bound components from the bacterial cell wall, (b) the induction of genetic changes in yeast by carcinogenic chemicals, (c) radiation-induced tumours in rats, (d) identification of the effects of ionizing radiation and ultraviolet light on the DNA of living organisms, and (e) the radiation sensitivity of human skin cells from individuals with rare familial diseases associated with proneness to cancer development. In addition, a collaborative paper has been prepared in which the health effects of energy development were reviewed

  8. Questions of Intimacy: Rethinking Population Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Linda, Ed.

    This document contains 14 papers that examine recent changes in the definition, principles, and delivery of population education throughout the world. The paper titles are as follows: "Introduction" (Linda King); "Reaching Men for Health and Development" (Benno de Keijzer); "Boys, Men and Questions of Masculinity in South Africa" (Robert Morrell);…

  9. Some Questions for the Information Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marien, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Though frequently forecasted and referred to, the so-called information society is likely but not necessarily inevitable. Questions are raised about such a society, including its impact on work, commerce, health, education, entertainment, politics, intergroup relations, families, and the impact of anticipated changes on the quality of life.…

  10. Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

    2010-05-14

    This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

  11. Guided Discovery with Socratic Questioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “The Socratic method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions. It was first used by in ancient times by the Greek philosopher Socrates who taught his followers by asking questions; these conversations between them are known as “Socratic dialogues”. In this methodology, no new knowledge is taught to the individual; rather, the individual is guided to remember and rediscover what was formerly known through this process. The main method used in cognitive therapy is guided discovery. There are various methods of guided discovery in cognitive therapy. The form of verbal exchange between the therapist and client which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as “socratic questioning”. In this method the goal is to make the client rediscover, with a series of questions, a piece of knowledge which he could otherwise know but is not presently conscious of. The Socratic Questioning consists of several steps, including: identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly rediscovered information and questioning the old distorted belief, and reaching a new conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are: questions for collecting information, questions revealing meanings, questions revealing beliefs, questions about behaviours during similar past experiences, analytic questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood, it is important to be empathetic and summarize the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues provided for each step. [JCBPR 2015; 4(1.000: 47-53

  12. Guerra biológica, bioterrorismo e saúde pública Biological warfare, bioterrorism and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Jacintho da Silva

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de agentes biológicos como arma não é novidade para a humanidade. Durante séculos, até a atualidade, a guerra biológica tem sido objeto de muita pesquisa e especulação, mas de pouca ação. O medo de efeitos contrários e dúvidas sobre sua eficiência como armas devem ter limitado seu uso. Recentemente, se verificou uma nova forma de terrorismo, empregando agentes infecciosos, devagar e sem muito alarde, até as ocorrências recentes com o Bacillus anthracis nos Estados Unidos. A varíola é possivelmente o mais devastador desses agentes. Menos de 25 anos passados desde sua erradicação, a saúde pública tem que lidar com a possibilidade de sua re-introdução. O cenário da re-introdução da varíola no Brasil é discutido.Biological agents as weapons are not new to mankind. For centuries and into the present, biological warfare has been the subject of much research and speculation, but little action. Their limited use has probably been due to fear of unexpected counter-effects and doubts about their efficiency as weapons. Recently a new form of terrorism employing infectious agents has emerged slowly and without much fanfare, until the recent events with Bacillus anthracis in the United States. Smallpox is potentially the most devastating of these agents. Less than 25 years after the eradication of smallpox, the public health field is now forced to deal with the possibility of its re-introduction. The author discusses the scenario of smallpox re-introduction into Brazil.

  13. Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice...

  14. Mouse models for gastric cancer: Matching models to biological questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Ashleigh R; O'Donoghue, Robert J J

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer‐related mortality worldwide. This is in part due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease, which often results in late‐stage diagnosis, at which point there are limited treatment options. Even when treated successfully, gastric cancer patients have a high risk of tumor recurrence and acquired drug resistance. It is vital to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying gastric cancer pathogenesis to facilitate the design of new‐targeted therapies that may improve patient survival. A number of chemically and genetically engineered mouse models of gastric cancer have provided significant insight into the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to disease onset and progression. This review outlines the strengths and limitations of current mouse models of gastric cancer and their relevance to the pre‐clinical development of new therapeutics. PMID:26809278

  15. Yeasts: providing questions and answers for modern biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, J R

    2000-01-01

    Yeasts are to be found in virtually every conceivable niche on this planet and are amazingly varied in their shapes ('morphologies'), life cycles, metabolic capabilities, potentials for use in industrial processes, abilities to spoil food and drink or to act as dangerous human pathogens. This review describes four very different species of yeast to illustrate some of the diversity which exists and, in the case of one of them, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (the familiar baker's or brewer's yeast), the extent of both our knowledge and ignorance.

  16. Fifty important research questions in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwis, Rachael E; Griffiths, Sarah M; Harrison, Xavier A; Aranega-Bou, Paz; Arce, Andres; Bettridge, Aimee S; Brailsford, Francesca L; de Menezes, Alexandre; Devaynes, Andrew; Forbes, Kristian M; Fry, Ellen L; Goodhead, Ian; Haskell, Erin; Heys, Chloe; James, Chloe; Johnston, Sarah R; Lewis, Gillian R; Lewis, Zenobia; Macey, Michael C; McCarthy, Alan; McDonald, James E; Mejia-Florez, Nasmille L; O'Brien, David; Orland, Chloé; Pautasso, Marco; Reid, William D K; Robinson, Heather A; Wilson, Kenneth; Sutherland, William J

    2017-05-01

    Microbial ecology provides insights into the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of microbial communities underpinning every ecosystem on Earth. Microbial communities can now be investigated in unprecedented detail, although there is still a wealth of open questions to be tackled. Here we identify 50 research questions of fundamental importance to the science or application of microbial ecology, with the intention of summarising the field and bringing focus to new research avenues. Questions are categorised into seven themes: host-microbiome interactions; health and infectious diseases; human health and food security; microbial ecology in a changing world; environmental processes; functional diversity; and evolutionary processes. Many questions recognise that microbes provide an extraordinary array of functional diversity that can be harnessed to solve real-world problems. Our limited knowledge of spatial and temporal variation in microbial diversity and function is also reflected, as is the need to integrate micro- and macro-ecological concepts, and knowledge derived from studies with humans and other diverse organisms. Although not exhaustive, the questions presented are intended to stimulate discussion and provide focus for researchers, funders and policy makers, informing the future research agenda in microbial ecology. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Biological age as a health index for mortality and major age-related disease incidence in Koreans: National Health Insurance Service – Health screening 11-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang YG

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Young Gon Kang,1 Eunkyung Suh,2 Jae-woo Lee,3 Dong Wook Kim,4 Kyung Hee Cho,5 Chul-Young Bae1 1Department of R&D, MediAge Research Center, Seongnam, Republic of South Korea; 2Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, CHA University, Chaum, Seoul, Republic of South Korea; 3Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of South Korea; 4Department of Policy Research Affairs, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Republic of South Korea; 5Department of Family Medicine, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Republic of South KoreaPurpose: A comprehensive health index is needed to measure an individual’s overall health and aging status and predict the risk of death and age-related disease incidence, and evaluate the effect of a health management program. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the validity of estimated biological age (BA in relation to all-cause mortality and age-related disease incidence based on National Sample Cohort database.Patients and methods: This study was based on National Sample Cohort database of the National Health Insurance Service – Eligibility database and the National Health Insurance Service – Medical and Health Examination database of the year 2002 through 2013. BA model was developed based on the National Health Insurance Service – National Sample Cohort (NHIS – NSC database and Cox proportional hazard analysis was done for mortality and major age-related disease incidence.Results: For every 1 year increase of the calculated BA and chronological age difference, the hazard ratio for mortality significantly increased by 1.6% (1.5% in men and 2.0% in women and also for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, stroke, and cancer incidence by 2.5%, 4.2%, 1.3%, 1.6%, and 0.4%, respectively (p<0.001.Conclusion: Estimated BA by the developed BA model based on NHIS – NSC database is expected to be

  18. 7th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitski, Timothy P.

    2008-04-01

    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology has been hosted by the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, Washington, since 2002. The annual two-day event gathers the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investingating complex systems. Engineering and application of new technology is a central element of systems biology. Genome-scale, or very small-scale, biological questions drive the enigneering of new technologies, which enable new modes of experimentation and computational analysis, leading to new biological insights and questions. Concepts and analytical methods in engineering are now finding direct applications in biology. Therefore, the 2008 Symposium, funded in partnership with the Department of Energy, featured global leaders in "Systems Biology and Engineering."

  19. Environmental noise exposure, early biological risk and mental health in nine to ten year old children: a cross-sectional field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stansfeld Stephen A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research suggests that children born prematurely or with a low birth weight are more vulnerable to the mental health effects of ambient neighbourhood noise; predominantly road and rail noise, at home. This study used data from the Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH study to see if this finding extends to aircraft and road traffic noise at school. Methods Children and their parents from schools around three European airports were selected to represent a range of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure levels. Birth weight and gestation period were merged to create a dichotomous variable assessing 'early biological risk'. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Complete data were available for 1900 primary school children. Results Children who were 'at risk' (i.e. low birth weight or premature birth were rated as having more conduct problems and emotional symptoms and poorer overall mental health than children not at risk. However, there was no interaction between aircraft or road traffic noise exposure at school and early biological risk. Conclusions Data from the RANCH study suggests that children with early biological risk are not more vulnerable to the effects of aircraft or road traffic noise at school on mental health than children without this risk; however they are more likely to have mental ill-health.

  20. Questionário de Saúde Geral (QSG-12: o efeito de itens negativos em sua estrutura fatorial General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12: the effect of negative items in its factorial structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney V. Gouveia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O Questionário de Saúde Geral (QSG-12 detecta doenças psiquiátricas não severas. Embora comumente tratado como um índice geral, a definição de sua estrutura fatorial suscita debates. Este trabalho objetivou testar tal estrutura, comparando três modelos: dois frequentemente citados na literatura (uni e bifatorial e um terceiro, também unifatorial, que controla o viés de resposta devido à redação dos itens. Participaram 1.180 pessoas (300 estudantes universitários; 311 policiais militares; 274 professores do ensino fundamental; e 295 membros da população em geral, que responderam ao QSG-12 e perguntas demográficas. Análises fatoriais confirmatórias apontaram que a estrutura unifatorial, controlando o efeito dos itens negativos, reuniu os melhores índices de ajuste, excetuando entre os militares. Essa estrutura apresentou consistência interna superior a 0,80 em todos os grupos. Concluiu-se que o QSG-12 é mais adequado como unifatorial, embora se indique a necessidade de estudos futuros com pessoas de profissões e níveis de saúde mental diferentes.The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 detects non severe psychiatric illnesses. Although commonly treated as a general index, the definition of its factorial structure is cause for debate. This study aimed to test this structure comparing three models: two frequently cited in the literature (one- and t bi- factorial and a third, also one-factor, which controls response bias due to the negative wording of items. A total of 1,180 people participated (300 undergraduates, 311 military policemen, 274 elementary school teachers and 295 members of the general population answering the GHQ-12 and demographic questions. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the one-factor structure, controlling by the wording effect, gathered the best fit indexes, except among the military. This structure showed greater than0.80 reliability in all groups. It was concluded that the one-factor model of

  1. The question of caution in professional medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godard, O.

    2006-01-01

    Contrived in Europe to tackle the environment protection policies and management of natural resources, the principle of caution has seen since 1990 its interest developed towards the fields of food safety and public health. The importance and the relevance of questions have lead the national institute of research and safety to constitute a working group to explore the problems and the potentialities that could be linked to the explicit introduction of this principle and this in the field of the prevention of professional risks. This work tackles several aspects of the question of caution in professional medium such history, concepts, evolution...as well as cases judged exemplary ones. (N.C.)

  2. Evaluation of the persistence of functional and biological respiratory health effects in clean-up workers 6 years after the Prestige oil spill.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, J.P.; Rodríguez-Trigo, G.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E.; Souto-Alonso, A.; Espinosa, A.; Pozo-Rodríguez, F.; Gómez, F.P.; Fuster, C.; Castaño-Vinyals, G.; Antó, J.M.; Barberà, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fishermen who had participated in clean-up activities of the Prestige oil spill showed increased bronchial responsiveness and higher levels of respiratory biomarkers 2years later. We aimed to evaluate the persistence of these functional and biological respiratory health effects 6years after clean-up

  3. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions Across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-02-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.

  4. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.; Ferreira, Luciana C.; Sequeira, Ana M.M.; Meekan, Mark G.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W. Don; Caley, M. Julian; Costa, Daniel P.; Eguí luz, Victor M.; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S.; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C.; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L.; Lowe, Christopher G.; Madsen, Peter T.; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A.; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Sims, David W.; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N.; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N.; Thums, Michele

    2016-01-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2016-03-12

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis - The study on human health and environment by neutron activation analysis of biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Yeon; Yoo, Jong Ik; Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sung Jun; Lee, Sang Sun; Jeon, Ki Hong; Na, Kyung Won; Kang, Sang Hun [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    With the development of the precise quantitative analytical method for the analysis of trace elements in the various biological samples such as hair and food, evaluation in view of health and environment to the trace elements in various sources which can be introduced inside human body was done. The trace elemental distribution in Korean total diet and representative food stuff was identified first. With the project the elemental distributions in supplemental healthy food and Korean and Chinese origin oriental medicine were identified. The amount of trace elements ingested with the hair analysis of oriental medicine takers were also estimated. The amounts of trace elements inhaled with the analysis of foundry air, blood and hair of foundry workers were also estimated. The basic estimation method in view of health and environment with the neutron activation analysis of biological samples such as foods and hair was established with the result. Nationwide usage system of the NAA facility in Hanaro in many different and important areas of biological area can be initiated with the results. The output of the project can support public heath, environment, and medical research area. The results can be applied for the process of micronutrients enhanced health food production and for the health safety and health status enhancement with the additional necessary data expansion and the development of various evaluation technique. 19 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs. (Author)

  7. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  8. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  9. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  10. Evolution of activities in international biological standardization since the early days of the Health Organisation of the League of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizaret, P

    1988-01-01

    The main activities in international biological standardization during the 18 years that followed the first international biological standardization meeting in London in 1921 were concerned with expressing the potencies of test preparations in comparison with reference materials. After the Second World War, however, it became clear that the testing of biological substances against international reference materials was only one among several measures for obtaining safe and potent products. The activities in international biological standardization were therefore widened so that, by the strict observance of specific manufacturing and control requirements, it was possible to gain further in safety and efficacy. At the end of 1987, 42 international requirements for biological substances were available and were being used as national requirements, sometimes after minor modification, by the majority of WHO's Member States. This is of utmost importance for the worldwide use of safe and potent biological products, including vaccines.

  11. Le travail … c’est la santé : la santé au travail … une pratique en question Work… is health : health at work … a practice in question La salud laboral… una práctica en cuestionamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Frimat

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available C’est en 1946 qu’est née cette institution originale qu’est la médecine du travail. Au départ, principalement basée sur une approche essentiellement individuelle, la notion d’aptitude y occupait une place centrale au sein du système de santé. Ce système a connu des évolutions où l’approche individuelle s’est peu à peu couplée à une dimension plus collective, laissant cependant encore un système largement perfectible. Dans ces évolutions, la décision d’aptitude s’est, quant à elle, complexifiée. De nombreux rapports ont d’ailleurs été écrits ces cinq dernières années afin de mettre en débat à la fois la légitimité de pérenniser un tel concept, mais également son efficacité en ce qui a trait à la prévention des pathologies liées au travail. Une loi sera sans doute prévue fin 2009, 2010… Mais qu’en sera-t-il de la pratique, quelle réalité perdurera ? Apte/inapte ? Comment peut-on aider à la compatibilité entre droit à la santé et droit au travail ? En quoi le système français de l’aptitude et de l’inaptitude a pu offrir des garanties pour l’employeur, le salarié, la société ? Tel sera l’objet de cette intervention.It was in 1946 that this new original institution, occupational medicine, was created in France. At the beginning, based mainly on an essentially individual approach, the concept of medical ability held a central place in the health system. This system has changed and the individual approach is now paired with a more collective vision, leaving the system still largely perfectible. Among these evolutions, the medical ability decision has become increasingly complex. Numerous reports have been written in the last five years to debate the legitimacy of maintaining such a concept, as well as its efficiency as far as the prevention of work-related pathologies is concerned. A law will certainly be expected at the end of 2009/beginning of 2010. But, what about

  12. A Bioética e a psicologia da saúde: reflexões sobre questões de vida e morte Bioethics and health psychology: reflecting upon life and death questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma da Costa Torres

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho focaliza os fatores impulsionadores do surgimento da Bioética, destacando: a a revolução científica e tecnológica, e b a revolução social dos anos 1960. Descreve o desenvolvimento histórico da Bioética desde sua definição inicial como ciência da sobrevivência humana até seu estágio atual - o da Bioética Global, e suas fronteiras com os vários campos do saber. A psicologia da saúde integra esse contexto multidisciplinar principalmente por sua reflexão sobre temas desafiadores da Bioética, entre os quais são aqui discutidos aqueles decorrentes da medicina intensiva (eutanásia e distanásia e aqueles derivados da medicina substitutiva (transplantes. Questões básicas como definição de morte, consentimento livre e informado são analisadas como ainda polêmicas e controvertidas. Conclui-se com as indagações sobre as quimeras da ciência para triunfar sobre a doença e os problemas da ordem canibal que se espera diminuam na medida em que as terapêuticas etiológicas e fisiológicas progridamThe present work focus on factors that contributed to the emerging field of Bioethic. Among, those, we point out: a technological and scientific revolution; b social revolution of the 60's. It describes the historical development of Bioethic, from its former definition as a science of human survival to its current stage - Global Bioethic and its boundaries with different fields of knowledge. Health Psychology takes part in this multidisciplinary context, mainly due to its reflection upon challenging themes that involve Bioethics; among these themes, we discuss here those brought about by intensive medicine (euthanasia and disthanasia and the ones that are a consequence of substitutive medicine (transplants. Basic questions, such as death definition, free and informed consent, are analysed as still polemic and controversial. The article is concluded raising questions upon the chimeras of science to triumph over

  13. Efficient question answering with question decomposition and multiple answer streams

    OpenAIRE

    Hartrumpf, Sven; Glöckner, Ingo; Leveling, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The German question answering (QA) system IRSAW (formerly: InSicht) participated in QA@CLEF for the fth time. IRSAW was introduced in 2007 by integrating the deep answer producer InSicht, several shallow answer producers, and a logical validator. InSicht builds on a deep QA approach: it transforms documents to semantic representations using a parser, draws inferences on semantic representations with rules, and matches semantic representations derived from questions and documents. InS...

  14. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  15. Questioning ORACLE: An Assessment of ORACLE's Analysis of Teachers' Questions and [A Comment on "Questioning ORACLE"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarth, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of teachers' questions, part of the ORACLE (Observation Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation) project research, is examined in detail. Scarth and Hammersley argue that the rules ORACLE uses for identifying different types of questions involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten reliability and validity of the study's…

  16. Medical Marijuana: More Questions than Answers

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associa...

  17. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  18. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  19. Instance-Based Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    cluster-based query expan- sion, learning answering strategies, machine learning in NLP To my wife Monica Abstract During recent years, question...process is typically tedious and involves expertise in crafting and implement- ing these models (e.g. rule-based), utilizing NLP resources, and...questions. For languages that use capitalization (e.g. not Chinese or Arabic ) for named entities, IBQA can make use of NE classing (e.g. “Bob Marley

  20. Critical thinking in Norwegian upper secondary biology education: The cases of complementary-alternative-medicine and health claims in the media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Pettersen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available By definition, complementary alternative medicine (CAM treatments are not scientifically proven. Scientific deficient health claiming news seems to flourish in the media. The aims of this questionnaire study was to explore: (1 attitudes towards CAM among 3rd year students of the health sciences in Norway, who either have immersed themselves in the 2nd and 3rd year upper secondary biology courses, or taken the 1st year compulsory natural science course, exclusively, and (2 these students’ skills in requesting for scientific information in highly deficient health news briefs. There were no significant differences in the frequencies of positive attitude towards the use of CAM treatments between the two health sciences student categories, and most students in both categories “failed” in the test set out to measure their skills in requesting for scientific information in four highly scientific deficient health news briefs. The results suggest that teaching of the Norwegian upper secondary biology courses does probably not contribute extensively to pupils’ development of scepticism towards CAM, and skills in evaluating health claims, scientifically.

  1. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-05-01

    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Epidemiological and radio-biological studies in high background radiation areas of Kerala coast: implications in radiation protection science and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Birajalaxmi

    2018-01-01

    Till date, Linear No Threshold hypothesis (LNT) is well accepted in radiation protection science in spite of its limitations. However, dose response studies using multiple biological end points from high-background radiation areas have challenged the linearity. Radio-biological and epidemiological studies from high level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast showed non-linearity as well as efficient repair of DNA damage in HLNRA indicating that dose limits for public exposure needs to be revisited which may have implications in radiation protection science, human health and low dose radiation biology. However, further studies using high throughput approach is required to identify chronic radiation signatures in human population exposed to elevated level of natural background radiation

  3. Protein Electrochemistry: Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourmond, V; Léger, C

    This chapter presents the fundamentals of electrochemistry in the context of protein electrochemistry. We discuss redox proteins and enzymes that are not photoactive. Of course, the principles described herein also apply to photobioelectrochemistry, as discussed in later chapters of this book. Depending on which experiment is considered, electron transfer between proteins and electrodes can be either direct or mediated, and achieved in a variety of configurations: with the protein and/or the mediator free to diffuse in solution, immobilized in a thick, hydrated film, or adsorbed as a sub-monolayer on the electrode. The experiments can be performed with the goal to study the protein or to use it. Here emphasis is on mechanistic studies, which are easier in the configuration where the protein is adsorbed and electron transfer is direct, but we also explain the interpretation of signals obtained when diffusion processes affect the response.This chapter is organized as a series of responses to questions. Questions 1-5 are related to the basics of electrochemistry: what does "potential" or "current" mean, what does an electrochemical set-up look like? Questions 6-9 are related to the distinction between adsorbed and diffusive redox species. The answers to questions 10-13 explain the interpretation of slow and fast scan voltammetry with redox proteins. Questions 14-19 deal with catalytic electrochemistry, when the protein studied is actually an enzyme. Questions 20, 21 and 22 are general.

  4. Impact of adherence to biological agents on health care resource utilization for patients over the age of 65 years with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lathia U

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Urja Lathia, Emmanuel M Ewara, Francois Nantel Janssen Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada Objective: Poor adherence to therapy increases the patient and societal burden and complexity of chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA. In the past 15 years, biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs have revolutionized the treatment of RA. However, little data are available on the impact of adherence to biologics on health care resources. The objective of the study was to determine the long-term health care resource utilization patterns of RA patients who were adherent to biologic DMARD therapy compared to RA patients who were non-adherent to biologic DMARD therapy in an Ontario population and to determine factors influencing adherence. Methods: Patients were identified from the Ontario RA Database that contains all RA patients in Ontario, Canada, identified since 1991. The study population included RA patients, aged 65+ years, with a prescription for a biologic DMARD between 2003 and 2013. Exclusion criteria included diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease, psoriatic arthritis or psoriasis in the 5 years prior to the index date and discontinuation of biologic DMARD, defined as no subsequent prescription during the 12 months after the index date. Adherence was defined as a medication possession ratio of ≥0.8 measured as the proportion of days for which a patient had biologic treatment(s over a defined follow-up period. Adherent patients were matched to non-adherent patients by propensity score matching. Results: A total of 4,666 RA patients were identified, of whom 2,749 were deemed adherent and 1,917 non-adherent. The age (standard deviation was 69.9 (5.46 years and 75% were female. Relative rates for resource use (physician visits, emergency visits, hospitalization, home care and rehabilitation for the matched cohort were significantly lower (P<0.0001 in adherent patients. Non-adherent patients’ use of oral prednisone (67% was

  5. Urine: Waste product or biologically active tissue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Historically, urine has been viewed primarily as a waste product with little biological role in the overall health of an individual. Increasingly, data suggest that urine plays a role in human health beyond waste excretion. For example, urine might act as an irritant and contribute to symptoms through interaction with-and potential compromise of-the urothelium. To explore the concept that urine may be a vehicle for agents with potential or occult bioactivity and to discuss existing evidence and novel research questions that may yield insight into such a role, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease invited experts in the fields of comparative evolutionary physiology, basic science, nephrology, urology, pediatrics, metabolomics, and proteomics (among others) to a Urinology Think Tank meeting on February 9, 2015. This report reflects ideas that evolved from this meeting and current literature, including the concept of urine quality, the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of urine, including the microbiota, cells, exosomes, pH, metabolites, proteins, and specific gravity (among others). Additionally, the manuscript presents speculative, and hopefully testable, ideas about the functional roles of urine constituents in health and disease. Moving forward, there are several questions that need further understanding and pursuit. There were suggestions to consider actively using various animal models and their biological specimens to elaborate on basic mechanistic information regarding human bladder dysfunction. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Physical and biological studies with protons and HZE particles in a NASA supported research center in radiation health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A.; Borak, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    NASA has established and supports a specialized center for research and training (NSCORT) to specifically address the potential deleterious effects of HZE particles on human health. The NSCORT in radiation health is a joint effort between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Colorado State University (CSU). The overall scope of research encompasses a broad range of subjects from microdosimetric studies to cellular and tissue responses to initial damage produced by highly energetic protons and heavy charged particles of the type found in galactic cosmic rays (GCR) spectrum. The objectives of the microdosimetry studies are to determine the response of Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) to cosmic rays using ground based accelerators. This includes evaluation of energy loss due to the escape of high-energy delta rays and increased energy deposition due to the enhanced delta ray production in the wall of the detector. In this report major results are presented for 56Fe at 1000, 740, 600 and 400 MeV/nucleon. An assessment of DNA repair and early development of related chromosomal changes is extremely important to our overall understanding of enhanced biological effectiveness of high LET particle radiation. Results are presented with respect to the fidelity of the rejoining of double strand breaks and the implications of misrejoining. The relationship between molecular and cytogenetic measurements is presented by studying damage processing in highly heterochromatic supernumerary (correction of sypernumerary) X chromosomes and the active X-chromosome. One of the important consequences of cell's inability to handle DNA damage can be evaluated through mutation studies. Part of our goal is the assessment of potential radioprotectors to reduce the mutation yield following HZE exposures, and some promising results are presented on one compound. A second goal is the integration of DNA repair and mutation studies. Results are presented on a direct

  7. The Generalizability of Students' Interests in Biology Across Gender, Country and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagay, G.; Baram-Tsabari, A.; Ametller, J.; Cakmakci, G.; Lopes, B.; Moreira, A.; Pedrosa-de-Jesus, H.

    2013-06-01

    In order to bridge the existing gap between biology curricula and students' interests in biology, a strategy for identifying students' interest based on their questions and integrating them into the curriculum was developed. To characterize the level of generalizability of students' science interests over 600 high school students from Portugal, Turkey, England and Israel, who chose biology as an advanced subject, their interest level was ranked in 36 questions that were originally raised by Israeli students. Results indicate that students from four different countries show interest in similar science questions. The most intriguing questions were the ones that dealt with human health and new developments in reproduction and genetics. Religious affiliation had the strongest effect on students' interest level, followed by national affiliation and gender. The findings suggest that students' interest in one context is relevant to the development of interest-based learning materials in a different context. However, despite these similarities, cultural and sociological differences need to be taken into account.

  8. MECHANISTIC INDICATORS OF CHILDHOOD ASTHMA (MICA): A SYSTEMS BIOLOGY APPROACH FOR THE INTEGRATION OF MULTIFACTORIAL EXPOSURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modem methods in molecular biology and advanced computational tools show promise in elucidating complex interactions that occur between genes and environmental factors in diseases such as asthma. However, appropriately designed studies are critical for these methods to reach the...

  9. Neurosurgery clinical registry data collection utilizing Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside and electronic health records at the University of Rochester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Christine A; Miranpuri, Amrendra S

    2015-12-01

    In a population health-driven health care system, data collection through the use of clinical registries is becoming imperative to continue to drive effective and efficient patient care. Clinical registries rely on a department's ability to collect high-quality and accurate data. Currently, however, data are collected manually with a high risk for error. The University of Rochester's Department of Neurosurgery in conjunction with the university's Clinical and Translational Science Institute has implemented the integrated use of the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) informatics framework with the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) databases.

  10. Under the Skin: Using Theories From Biology and the Social Sciences to Explore the Mechanisms Behind the Black–White Health Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darity, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Equity and social well-being considerations make Black–White health disparities an area of important concern. Although previous research suggests that discrimination- and poverty-related stressors play a role in African American health outcomes, the mechanisms are unclear. Allostatic load is a concept that can be employed to demonstrate how environmental stressors, including psychosocial ones, may lead to a cumulative physiological toll on the body. We discuss both the usefulness of this framework for understanding how discrimination can lead to worse health among African Americans, and the challenges for conceptualizing biological risk with existing data and methods. We also contrast allostatic load with theories of historical trauma such as posttraumatic slavery syndrome. Finally, we offer our suggestions for future interdisciplinary research on health disparities. PMID:20147678

  11. Deep Question Answering for protein annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeill, Julien; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Pasche, Emilie; Vishnyakova, Dina; Gaudet, Pascale; Bairoch, Amos; Ruch, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical professionals have access to a huge amount of literature, but when they use a search engine, they often have to deal with too many documents to efficiently find the appropriate information in a reasonable time. In this perspective, question-answering (QA) engines are designed to display answers, which were automatically extracted from the retrieved documents. Standard QA engines in literature process a user question, then retrieve relevant documents and finally extract some possible answers out of these documents using various named-entity recognition processes. In our study, we try to answer complex genomics questions, which can be adequately answered only using Gene Ontology (GO) concepts. Such complex answers cannot be found using state-of-the-art dictionary- and redundancy-based QA engines. We compare the effectiveness of two dictionary-based classifiers for extracting correct GO answers from a large set of 100 retrieved abstracts per question. In the same way, we also investigate the power of GOCat, a GO supervised classifier. GOCat exploits the GOA database to propose GO concepts that were annotated by curators for similar abstracts. This approach is called deep QA, as it adds an original classification step, and exploits curated biological data to infer answers, which are not explicitly mentioned in the retrieved documents. We show that for complex answers such as protein functional descriptions, the redundancy phenomenon has a limited effect. Similarly usual dictionary-based approaches are relatively ineffective. In contrast, we demonstrate how existing curated data, beyond information extraction, can be exploited by a supervised classifier, such as GOCat, to massively improve both the quantity and the quality of the answers with a +100% improvement for both recall and precision. Database URL: http://eagl.unige.ch/DeepQA4PA/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Long-term biological and behavioural impact of an adolescent sexual health intervention in Tanzania: follow-up survey of the community-based MEMA kwa Vijana Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife M Doyle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of specific behaviour-change interventions to reduce HIV infection in young people remains questionable. Since January 1999, an adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH intervention has been implemented in ten randomly chosen intervention communities in rural Tanzania, within a community randomised trial (see below; NCT00248469. The intervention consisted of teacher-led, peer-assisted in-school education, youth-friendly health services, community activities, and youth condom promotion and distribution. Process evaluation in 1999-2002 showed high intervention quality and coverage. A 2001/2 intervention impact evaluation showed no impact on the primary outcomes of HIV seroincidence and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 seroprevalence but found substantial improvements in SRH knowledge, reported attitudes, and some reported sexual behaviours. It was postulated that the impact on "upstream" knowledge, attitude, and reported behaviour outcomes seen at the 3-year follow-up would, in the longer term, lead to a reduction in HIV and HSV-2 infection rates and other biological outcomes. A further impact evaluation survey in 2007/8 ( approximately 9 years post-intervention tested this hypothesis.This is a cross-sectional survey (June 2007 through July 2008 of 13,814 young people aged 15-30 y who had attended trial schools during the first phase of the MEMA kwa Vijana intervention trial (1999-2002. Prevalences of the primary outcomes HIV and HSV-2 were 1.8% and 25.9% in males and 4.0% and 41.4% in females, respectively. The intervention did not significantly reduce risk of HIV (males adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 0.91, 95%CI 0.50-1.65; females aPR 1.07, 95%CI 0.68-1.67 or HSV-2 (males aPR 0.94, 95%CI 0.77-1.15; females aPR 0.96, 95%CI 0.87-1.06. The intervention was associated with a reduction in the proportion of males reporting more than four sexual partners in their lifetime (aPR 0.87, 95%CI 0.78-0.97 and an increase in reported

  13. Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in probability and statistics. We hear their views on the fields, aims, scopes, the future direction of research and how their work fits...... in these respects. Interviews with Nick Bingham, Luc Bovens, Terrence L. Fine, Haim Gaifman, Donald Gillies, James Hawthorne, Carl Hoefer, James M. Joyce, Joseph B. Kadane Isaac Levi, D.H. Mellor, Patrick Suppes, Jan von Plato, Carl Wagner, Sandy Zabell...

  14. Reproductive Life Planning: Raising the Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jessica E; Moos, Merry-K

    2018-04-01

    Introduction Unintended pregnancy has been a concerning public health problem for decades. As we begin to understand the complexities of pregnancy intention and how women experience these pregnancies, reproductive life planning offers a paradigm shift. Methods Reproductive life planning is a patient-centered approach that places a patient's reproductive preferences-whether concrete or ambivalent-at the forefront of her clinical care. Results This process grants women and men the opportunity to consider how reproduction fits within the context of their broader lives. Within a clinical encounter, reproductive life planning allows counseling and care to be tailored to patient preferences. Discussion Although there is great potential for positive public health impacts in unintended pregnancy, contraceptive use and improved preconception health, the true benefit lies within reinforcing reproductive empowerment. Despite recommendations for universal adoption, many questions remain regarding implementation, equity and outcomes.

  15. Low level radiation: biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    It is imperative that physicians and scientists using radiations in health care delivery continue to assess the benefits derived, vs. potential risk, to patients and radiation workers being exposed to radiation in its various forms as part of our health delivery system. Insofar as possible we should assure our patients and ourselves that the benefits outweigh the potential hazards involved. Inferences as to the possible biological effects of low level radiation are generally based on extrapolations from those effects observed and measured following acute exposures to considerably higher doses of radiation. Thus, in order to shed light on the question of the possible biological effects of low level radiation, a wide variety of studies have been carried out using cells in culture and various species of plant and animal life. This manuscript makes reference to some of those studies with indications as to how and why the studies were done and the conclusions that might be drawn there from. In addition reference is made to the handling of this information by scientists, by environmentalists, and by the news media. Unfortunately, in many instances the public has been misled by what has been said and/or written. It is hoped that this presentation will provide an understandable and reasonable perspective on the various appropriate uses of radiation in our lives and how such uses do provide significant improvement in our health and in our quality of life

  16. Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pan American Health Organization Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S. Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... I’ve been exposed to someone who has measles. What should I do? A: Immediately call your ...

  17. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Saboia de Albuquerque

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity.

  18. What Children Learn from Questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that young children ask a multitude of why and how questions. And when they do, they're not simply trying to get adult attention; instead, they're actively seeking information. In this article, Paul Harris describes the findings of a number of research analyses based on extensive transcripts of children's natural speech. Some of the…

  19. Making evolutionary biology a basic science for medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Ellison, Peter T.; Flier, Jeffrey S.; Gluckman, Peter; Govindaraju, Diddahally R.; Niethammer, Dietrich; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Perlman, Robert L.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Mark G.; Stearns, Stephen C.; Valle, David

    2010-01-01

    New applications of evolutionary biology in medicine are being discovered at an accelerating rate, but few physicians have sufficient educational background to use them fully. This article summarizes suggestions from several groups that have considered how evolutionary biology can be useful in medicine, what physicians should learn about it, and when and how they should learn it. Our general conclusion is that evolutionary biology is a crucial basic science for medicine. In addition to looking at established evolutionary methods and topics, such as population genetics and pathogen evolution, we highlight questions about why natural selection leaves bodies vulnerable to disease. Knowledge about evolution provides physicians with an integrative framework that links otherwise disparate bits of knowledge. It replaces the prevalent view of bodies as machines with a biological view of bodies shaped by evolutionary processes. Like other basic sciences, evolutionary biology needs to be taught both before and during medical school. Most introductory biology courses are insufficient to establish competency in evolutionary biology. Premedical students need evolution courses, possibly ones that emphasize medically relevant aspects. In medical school, evolutionary biology should be taught as one of the basic medical sciences. This will require a course that reviews basic principles and specific medical applications, followed by an integrated presentation of evolutionary aspects that apply to each disease and organ system. Evolutionary biology is not just another topic vying for inclusion in the curriculum; it is an essential foundation for a biological understanding of health and disease. PMID:19918069

  20. Influence of Health Education and Healthy Lifestyle on Students' Academic Achievement in Biology in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, Ezekiel Olusegun

    2017-01-01

    The positive effects of health education and healthy lifestyle on adolescent academic achievement cannot be over emphasized as learning experiences to help students accurately assess the level of risk-taking behaviour among their peers, emphasis on the value of good health that reinforces health-enhancing attitudes and beliefs are paramount.…

  1. Interpretation of Genomic Data Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Using a question and answer format we describe important aspects of using genomic technologies in cancer research. The main challenges are not managing the mass of data, but rather the design, analysis and accurate reporting of studies that result in increased biological knowledge and medical utility. Many analysis issues address the use of expression microarrays but are also applicable to other whole genome assays. Microarray based clinical investigations have generated both unrealistic hyperbole and excessive skepticism. Genomic technologies are tremendously powerful and will play instrumental roles in elucidating the mechanisms of oncogenesis and in devlopingan era of predictive medicine in which treatments are tailored to individual tumors. Achieving these goals involves challenges in re-thinking many paradigms for the conduct of basic and clinical cancer research and for the organization of interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:18582627

  2. Seven essential questions on G-quadruplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Sebastian L B; Evans, Amanda C; Huppert, Julian L

    2010-08-01

    The helical duplex architecture of DNA was discovered by Francis Crick and James Watson in 1951 and is well known and understood. However, nucleic acids can also adopt alternative structural conformations that are less familiar, although no less biologically relevant, such as the G-quadruplex. G-quadruplexes continue to be the subject of a rapidly expanding area of research, owing to their significant potential as therapeutic targets and their unique biophysical properties. This review begins by focusing on G-quadruplex structure, elucidating the intermolecular and intramolecular interactions underlying its formation and highlighting several substructural variants. A variety of methods used to characterize these structures are also outlined. The current state of G-quadruplex research is then addressed by proffering seven pertinent questions for discussion. This review concludes with an overview of possible directions for future research trajectories in this exciting and relevant field.

  3. Existing Approaches to Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Education and Training for Health Professionals: Findings from an Integrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kako, Mayumi; Hammad, Karen; Mitani, Satoko; Arbon, Paul

    2018-04-01

    This review was conducted to explore the literature to determine the availability, content, and evaluation of existing chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) education programs for health professionals. An integrative review of the international literature describing disaster education for CBRN (2004-2016) was conducted. The following relevant databases were searched: Proquest, Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, Journals @ OVID, Google Scholar, Medline, and Ichuschi ver. 5 (Japanese database for health professionals). The search terms used were: "disaster," "chemical," "biological," "radiological," "nuclear," "CBRN," "health professional education," and "method." The following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, "education," "nursing," "continuing," "disasters," "disaster planning," and "bioterrorism," were used wherever possible and appropriate. The retrieved articles were narratively analyzed according to availability, content, and method. The content was thematically analyzed to provide an overview of the core content of the training. The literature search identified 619 potentially relevant articles for this study. Duplicates (n=104) were removed and 87 articles were identified for title review. In total, 67 articles were discarded, yielding 20 articles for all-text review, following 11 studies were retained for analysis, including one Japanese study. All articles published in English were from the USA, apart from the two studies located in Japan and Sweden. The most typical content in the selected literature was CBRN theory (n=11), followed by studies based on incident command (n=8), decontamination (n=7), disaster management (n=7), triage (n=7), personal protective equipment (PPE) use (n = 5), and post-training briefing (n=3). While the CBRN training course requires the participants to gain specific skills and knowledge, proposed training courses should be effectively constructed to include approaches such as scenario-based simulations

  4. The Frontlines of Medicine Project: a proposal for the standardized communication of emergency department data for public health uses including syndromic surveillance for biological and chemical terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthell, Edward N; Cordell, William H; Moorhead, John C; Handler, Jonathan; Feied, Craig; Smith, Mark S; Cochrane, Dennis G; Felton, Christopher W; Collins, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    The Frontlines of Medicine Project is a collaborative effort of emergency medicine (including emergency medical services and clinical toxicology), public health, emergency government, law enforcement, and informatics. This collaboration proposes to develop a nonproprietary, "open systems" approach for reporting emergency department patient data. The common element is a standard approach to sending messages from individual EDs to regional oversight entities that could then analyze the data received. ED encounter data could be used for various public health initiatives, including syndromic surveillance for chemical and biological terrorism. The interlinking of these regional systems could also permit public health surveillance at a national level based on ED patient encounter data. Advancements in the Internet and Web-based technologies could allow the deployment of these standardized tools in a rapid time frame.

  5. Nuclear energy by way of 110 questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, C.; Borotra, F.

    1996-01-01

    The main goal of this updated edition is to provide the general public with information on the civil nuclear policy in France. Twelve chapters deal with following topics: nuclear economy, nuclear industry, nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear waste, nuclear safety, radioactivity and health, nuclear accidents in the world, nuclear energy and environment, inspection planning, information, nuclear proliferation prevention, nuclear energy in the world and in the future. At the end of each chapter the authors answer a set of questions corresponding to the general pubic queries. (N.T.)

  6. Questions/answers on onshore wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    After a presentation of some key data on wind energy in France over the last 15 years, this publication proposes a set of questions and answers to highlight the reasons of the development of wind energy, to show that wind energy is a reliable one, to discuss various issues related to the presence of wind turbines (regulations, information, impact on biodiversity, on health and on dwelling environment, exploitation and control, end of life), and to determine the role of wind energy in the French economy (economic returns, costs, and so on)

  7. Biological Diversity, Ecological Health and Condition of Aquatic Assemblages at National Wildlife Refuges in Southern Indiana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Simon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and 82 fish species, while the Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge had 163 macroinvertebrate taxa, seven crayfish species, and 37 fish species. The Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest diversity of macroinvertebrates with 96 taxa and six crayfish species, while possessing the second highest fish species richness with 51 species. Habitat quality was highest in the Muscatatuck River drainage with increased amounts of forested habitats compared to the Patoka River drainage. Biological integrity of the three refuges ranked the Patoka NWR as the lowest biological integrity (mean IBI reach scores = 35 IBI points, while Big Oaks had the highest biological integrity (mean IBI reach score = 41 IBI points. The Muscatatuck NWR had a mean IBI reach score of 31 during June, which seasonally increased to a mean of 40 IBI points during summer. Watershed IBI scores and habitat condition were highest in the Big Oaks NWR.

  8. Biological Diversity, Ecological Health and Condition of Aquatic Assemblages at National Wildlife Refuges in Southern Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Charles C.; Robb, Joseph R.; McCoy, William

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and 82 fish species, while the Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge had 163 macroinvertebrate taxa, seven crayfish species, and 37 fish species. The Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest diversity of macroinvertebrates with 96 taxa and six crayfish species, while possessing the second highest fish species richness with 51 species. Habitat quality was highest in the Muscatatuck River drainage with increased amounts of forested habitats compared to the Patoka River drainage. Biological integrity of the three refuges ranked the Patoka NWR as the lowest biological integrity (mean IBI reach scores = 35 IBI points), while Big Oaks had the highest biological integrity (mean IBI reach score = 41 IBI points). The Muscatatuck NWR had a mean IBI reach score of 31 during June, which seasonally increased to a mean of 40 IBI points during summer. Watershed IBI scores and habitat condition were highest in the Big Oaks NWR. PMID:25632261

  9. Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

    This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

  10. Importance of questionnaire context for a physical activity question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M. E.; Sørensen, Mette Rosenlund; Ekholm, O.

    2013-01-01

    ; however, this has never been shown for physical activity questions. The aim was to study the influence of different formulations and question order on self-report physical activity in a population-based health interview survey. Four samples of each 1000 adults were drawn at random from the National Person......Adequate information about physical activity habits is essential for surveillance, implementing, and evaluating public health initiatives in this area. Previous studies have shown that question order and differences in wording result in systematic differences in people's responses to questionnaires...... Register. A new question about physical activity was included with minor differences in formulations in samples 1–3. Furthermore, the question in sample 2 was included in sample 4 but was placed in the end of the questionnaire. The mean time spent on moderate physical activity varied between the four...

  11. Three questions on Lorentz violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, Alfredo [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Charles University of Prague - V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Physics ' E. R. Caianiello' , University of Salerno and I.N.F.N. Naples, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno - Via Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    We review the basics of the two most widely used approaches to Lorentz violation - the Standard Model Extension and Noncommutative Field Theory - and discuss in some detail the example of the modified spectrum of the synchrotron radiation. Motivated by touching upon such a fundamental issue as Lorentz symmetry, we ask three questions: What is behind the search for Lorentz violation? Is String Theory a physical theory? Is there an alternative to Supersymmetry?.

  12. MPL in Context: Some Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adail Sobral

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian translation (2015 of Patrick Sériot's Preface to the French translation (2010 of Marxism and the Philosophy of Language (MPL provides a good opportunity to discuss this work and its relevance for the field of Human Sciences, considering different possible interpretations. In this sense, this work presents a discussion on questions that deserve, in our opinion, to be addressed both in Sériot's work (taken as an example of MPL's interpretation and in Voloshinov's.

  13. 222 questions about the energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina Gomez, M.; Cerrolaza Asenjo, J.A.; Garcia Alonso, J.M.; Iranzo Martin, J.E.; Lopez Perez, B.; Minguez Perres, E.; Minguez Torres, E.; Pascualena Cambra, M.T.; Poza Galiano, A. de la; Secades Ariz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The book presents with an easy language, questions about energy. The main topics are: - Energy and energy sources - Energy and society - The energy in the world - Basic concepts of Nuclear Physics - Basic concepts of radiological protection - Electric power - Nuclear Fuel cycle - Environmental impact - Radioactive wastes management - The risk in the electricity production - Standardization of Nuclear Safety - Economic aspects of electricity generation - Energy and Spanish economy

  14. Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinicians & Providers Data & Measures Education & Training Health Information Technology ... Sources Available from AHRQ Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Medical Expenditure Panel ...

  15. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat from farmed game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    ranked as medium or lower potential concern. More effective control of biological hazards could be achieved using an integrated farm to chilled carcass approach, including improved food chain information (FCI) and risk-based controls. Further studies are required on Salmonella spp. in farmed wild boar...... and T. gondii in farmed wild boar and farmed deer. If new information confirms a high risk to public health from meat from these species, setting targets at carcass level should be considered. Palpation and incision should be omitted, as it will not detect biological hazards considered to be a high......Salmonella spp. in farmed wild boar and Toxoplasma gondii in farmed deer and farmed wild boar were ranked as a high priority for meat inspection. Trichinella spp. in wild boar was ranked as low priority due to current controls, which should be continued. For chemical hazards, all substances were...

  16. Assessment of knowledge of participants on basic molecular biology techniques after 5-day intensive molecular biology training workshops in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisau, J I; Adagbada, A O; Bamidele, T; Fowora, M; Brai, B I C; Adebesin, O; Bamidele, M; Fesobi, T; Nwaokorie, F O; Ajayi, A; Smith, S I

    2017-07-08

    The deployment of molecular biology techniques for diagnosis and research in Nigeria is faced with a number of challenges, including the cost of equipment and reagents coupled with the dearth of personnel skilled in the procedures and handling of equipment. Short molecular biology training workshops were conducted at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR), to improve the knowledge and skills of laboratory personnel and academics in health, research, and educational facilities. Five-day molecular biology workshops were conducted annually between 2011 and 2014, with participants drawn from health, research facilities, and the academia. The courses consisted of theoretical and practical sessions. The impact of the workshops on knowledge and skill acquisition was evaluated by pre- and post-tests which consisted of 25 multiple choice and other questions. Sixty-five participants took part in the workshops. The mean knowledge of molecular biology as evaluated by the pre- and post-test assessments were 8.4 (95% CI 7.6-9.1) and 13.0 (95 CI 11.9-14.1), respectively. The mean post-test score was significantly greater than the mean pre-test score (p biology workshop significantly increased the knowledge and skills of participants in molecular biology techniques. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):313-317, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  17. Patient Characteristics, Health Care Resource Utilization, and Costs Associated with Treatment-Regimen Failure with Biologics in the Treatment of Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Shonda A; Zhu, Baojin; Guo, Jiaying; Nikai, Enkeleida; Ojeh, Clement; Malatestinic, William; Goldblum, Orin; Kornberg, Lori J; Wu, Jashin J

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, incurable, and immune-mediated skin disorder that is characterized by erythematous scaly papules and plaques. Understanding of psoriasis at the molecular level has led to the development of biologic agents that target disease-specific inflammatory mediators in psoriatic lesions. Biologic agents have become important components of the psoriasis armamentarium, but some patients become refractory to these agents over time or fail to respond to subsequent biologics. To (a) evaluate demographic and clinical characteristics of psoriasis patients who have treatment patterns suggestive of failure to a newly initiated biologic agent (treatment-regimen failures) compared with those who do not (non-treatment-regimen failures) and (b) to assess health care-related resource utilization and costs in non-treatment-regimen failures and treatment-regimen failures. In this retrospective observational cohort study, patients were selected from the MarketScan claims database of commercially insured individuals and individuals with Medicare supplemental insurance. The index event was a newly initiated biologic agent for the treatment of psoriasis (etanercept, adalimumab, ustekinumab, or infliximab) between January 2010 and December 2011. The analysis included psoriasis patients aged ≥ 18 years with ≥ 1 prescription claim for a biologic and continuous enrollment 12 months pre- and post-index date. Patients with claims for a biologic in the pre-index period were excluded. Patients were divided into treatment-regimen-failure and non-treatment-regimen-failure groups based on their treatment patterns post-index date. The treatment-regimen-failure group included patients who switched to another biologic, discontinued the biologic without restarting, increased the dose of the biologic, or augmented treatment with a nontopical psoriasis medication during the post-index period. Between-group patient characteristics and medication use were compared using analysis of

  18. Infant foods: Debatable questions and real answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Belmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ms/her practice, a pediatrician frequently faces ambiguous questions about foods for infants during the first year of life in particular. Not only parents ask pediatricians these questions - the latter naturally arise during work and attempts to pinpoint the problem of adequate nutrition during infancy. These questions are whether complementary foods containing starch cause allergy in an infant; gluten is a detrimental ingredient of infant foods; hydrolysis of cereal polysaccharides is essential; palm oil is dangerous to an infant's health; butter fat as an ingredient infant foods may be harmful to a child. Among other things, butter fat in globules is shown to contain phospholipids, gangliosides, cholesterol, which are essential for a child's development and absent in infant formulas. In this connection, addition of fat globule membranes to foods is promising in terms of the provision of an infant with lipids of full value. There is a need for further in-depth investigations of infant feeding practices, by keeping in mind numerous features of an infant's organism.

  19. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Youth Aerobic Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Neil

    2017-06-01

    Peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text] 2 ) is internationally recognized as the criterion measure of youth aerobic fitness, but despite pediatric data being available for almost 80 years, its measurement and interpretation in relation to growth, maturation, and health remain controversial. The trainability of youth aerobic fitness continues to be hotly debated, and causal mechanisms of training-induced changes and their modulation by chronological age, biological maturation, and sex are still to be resolved. The daily physical activity of youth is characterized by intermittent bouts and rapid changes in intensity, but physical activity of the intensity and duration required to determine peak [Formula: see text] 2 is rarely (if ever) experienced by most youth. In this context, it may therefore be the transient kinetics of pulmonary [Formula: see text] 2 that best reflect youth aerobic fitness. There are remarkably few rigorous studies of youth pulmonary [Formula: see text] 2 kinetics at the onset of exercise in different intensity domains, and the influence of chronological age, biological maturation, and sex during step changes in exercise intensity are not confidently documented. Understanding the trainability of the parameters of youth pulmonary [Formula: see text] 2 kinetics is primarily based on a few comparative studies of athletes and nonathletes. The underlying mechanisms of changes due to training require further exploration. The aims of the present article are therefore to provide a brief overview of aerobic fitness during growth and maturation, increase awareness of current controversies in its assessment and interpretation, identify gaps in knowledge, raise 10 relevant research questions, and indicate potential areas for future research.

  20. Measurement Frontiers in Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laderman, Stephen

    2009-03-01

    Developments of molecular measurements and manipulations have long enabled forefront research in evolution, genetics, biological development and its dysfunction, and the impact of external factors on the behavior of cells. Measurement remains at the heart of exciting and challenging basic and applied problems in molecular and cell biology. Methods to precisely determine the identity and abundance of particular molecules amongst a complex mixture of similar and dissimilar types require the successful design and integration of multiple steps involving biochemical manipulations, separations, physical probing, and data processing. Accordingly, today's most powerful methods for characterizing life at the molecular level depend on coordinated advances in applied physics, biochemistry, chemistry, computer science, and engineering. This is well illustrated by recent approaches to the measurement of DNA, RNA, proteins, and intact cells. Such successes underlie well founded visions of how molecular biology can further assist in answering compelling scientific questions and in enabling the development of remarkable advances in human health. These visions, in turn, are motivating the interdisciplinary creation of even more comprehensive measurements. As a further and closely related consequence, they are motivating innovations in the conceptual and practical approaches to organizing and visualizing large, complex sets of interrelated experimental results and distilling from those data compelling, informative conclusions.

  1. Evolution, Entropy, & Biological Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    A logical question to be expected from students: "How could life develop, that is, change, evolve from simple, primitive organisms into the complex forms existing today, while at the same time there is a generally observed decline and disorganization--the second law of thermodynamics?" The explanations in biology textbooks relied upon by…

  2. Tree biology and dendrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    1996-01-01

    Dendrochemistry, the interpretation of elemental analysis of dated tree rings, can provide a temporal record of environmental change. Using the dendrochemical record requires an understanding of tree biology. In this review, we pose four questions concerning assumptions that underlie recent dendrochemical research: 1) Does the chemical composition of the wood directly...

  3. Designing and conducting tabletop exercises to assess public health preparedness for manmade and naturally occurring biological threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dausey David J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2001, state and local health departments in the United States (US have accelerated efforts to prepare for high-impact public health emergencies. One component of these activities has been the development and conduct of exercise programs to assess capabilities, train staff and build relationships. This paper summarizes lessons learned from tabletop exercises about public health emergency preparedness and about the process of developing, conducting, and evaluating them. Methods We developed, conducted, and evaluated 31 tabletop exercises in partnership with state and local health departments throughout the US from 2003 to 2006. Participant self evaluations, after action reports, and tabletop exercise evaluation forms were used to identify aspects of the exercises themselves, as well as public health emergency responses that participants found more or less challenging, and to highlight lessons learned about tabletop exercise design. Results Designing the exercises involved substantial collaboration with representatives from participating health departments to assure that the scenarios were credible, focused attention on local preparedness needs and priorities, and were logistically feasible to implement. During execution of the exercises, nearly all health departments struggled with a common set of challenges relating to disease surveillance, epidemiologic investigations, communications, command and control, and health care surge capacity. In contrast, performance strengths were more varied across participating sites, reflecting specific attributes of individual health departments or communities, experience with actual public health emergencies, or the emphasis of prior preparedness efforts. Conclusion The design, conduct, and evaluation of the tabletop exercises described in this report benefited from collaborative planning that involved stakeholders from participating health departments and exercise developers and

  4. [Accident with biological material at the prehospital mobile care: reality for health and non-healthcare workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; Silva, Elisangelo Aparecido Costa; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Mendonça, Katiane Martins; Souza, Adenícia Custódia Silva E; Melo, Dulcelene Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Analytical transversal study that was conducted with the objectives of identifying the prevalence and characterizing the accidents with biological material among professionals in pre-hospital service (PHS) and comparing the risk behaviors adopted by healthcare and non-healthcare groups that can affect the occurrence and seriousness of such accidents. Data were obtained by questionnaire applied to all PHS workers in Goiânia-GO. The study revealed a high prevalence of accidents involving biological material which, although higher for the healthcare group, also affected the non-healthcare group. There were significant (p accidents in both groups: not using gloves, masks or eye protectors; inappropriate disposal of sharps; inadequate dress; re-capping of needles; and a lack of immunization against hepatitis B. The results underscore the importance of both groups in adhering to preventive measures, and further point to the need to structure and implement vigilance and control system for this type of accident.

  5. Health-related biological effects of electric, magnetic, and electro-magnetic fields with special reference to nonthermal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, A.F.G.

    1993-02-01

    This expert report is a supplement to the report by L. von Klitzing (The actions and effects of electric, magnetic, and electro-magnetic fields in man with special reference to athermal effects) and concerns in particular the biological effects on cationic homeostasis and cell regulation with special reference to calcium and the effects on the pineal gland. The report concludes with statements on teratogenicity, concerogenicity, mutagenicity and a bibliography of literature. (VHE) [de

  6. Five questions to ask about the soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanin Grubin, Milica

    2013-04-01

    I think that anyone who ever gave a lecture would agree that this feels like being on a stage. One has to educate the audience of course, but also keep attention and be interesting to the listeners. Authority is important but there is a certain vulnerability at all times. There is also a fine line on both sides that should not be crossed. However, the most important thing is that the audience remembers the lecture and certain points the lecturer made for at least some time, and even more that someone gets interested enough to ask for more details. This is often done by giving interesting examples and unusual comparison. Teaching a soils course there are five main questions to be addressed, of which first four are often subordinated to the fifth being the most complex. First question is "Is the soil alive?". The answer is yes, and that is what it differentiates from any type of sediment or rock, and it is very vulnerable to environmental change. The second question is "Where does it come from?" Rocks being a main origin of soils are often neglected in soil science and petrography in general, and weathering, as an important process for soil formation, are not given enough explaining. Petrography teaches us about rock characteristics, structure and texture and mineralogy. Understanding petrography would help in understanding the weathering processes which are crucial for soil formation and this must not be ignored. The third question is "Is it old?" Yes, it is - at least for everybody else except geologists. It is important to understand how slow the soil formation process is. The forth question is "Does it move?" Yes, it can move and the faster it moves downhill, it less likes it. Erosion is a very important problem for soil and must be addressed. And finally, the fifth question is "What are the main characteristics of soils?" This is an opportunity to talk about physical, chemical, biological, microbiological issues. As the most elaborate question it allows the

  7. Effort-reward imbalance at work and pre-clinical biological indices of ill-health: the case for salivary immunoglobulin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathman, Lauren Marjorie; Almond, Jacinta; Hazi, Agnes; Wright, Bradley James

    2013-10-01

    Physiological indices of stress and ill-health (cortisol and salivary immunoglobulin A) were assessed to determine if they were predicted by Siegrist's effort-reward imbalance model (ERI) with an aim of identifying employees at risk of illness. Male Australian dairy farmers (N=66) completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Work related Questions II & III, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised--Short and demographic questions and provided morning saliva samples (at awakening and 30 min post awakening) on a working day, which were subsequently analysed for cortisol and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) concentration levels. A high percentage (45.5%) of the sample reported an imbalance between efforts and rewards in the workplace that may place them 'at risk' for ill-health. After controlling for disposition, sIgA scores were more successfully predicted by the ERI than the cortisol assessments. Although both efforts and rewards were significantly associated with sIgA, efforts were most strongly associated. The dispositional trait overcommitment, did not moderate the experience of stress on the physiologic indices. The current investigation supports the continued use of sIgA in studies that use biomarkers to assess occupational stress. ERI ratio scores >1 aligned with previous findings that suggest elevated risk of illness for these employees. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Open forum: Question and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, R.H.; Krupa, S.; Shen, T.T.

    1993-01-01

    The question addressed in this section is: With the end of the Cold War and the exchange of information improving between East and West, what roles should government agencies and non-government organizations from developed countries play in assisting less developed countries in developing a stronger environmental protection program? Responses presented here were obtained from Richard H. Schulze (President of Trinity Consultants, Inc.), Sagar Krupa (Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota), and Thomas T. Shen (Ph.D., D.AAEE, Retiree of the New York Department of Environmental Conservation)

  9. Nuclear power: Questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Uranium Institute, a London-based international association of industrial enterprises in the nuclear industry, published a report entitled The Safety of Nuclear Power Plants. Based on an assessment by an international group of senior nuclear experts from eight countries, the report provides an authoritative explanation, for non-specialists of the basic principles of reactor safety, their application, and their implications. Some questions and answers are selected from that report; they address only a few of the subjects that the report itself examines in greater detail

  10. Wireless Biological Electronic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2017-10-09

    The development of wireless biological electronic sensors could open up significant advances for both fundamental studies and practical applications in a variety of areas, including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and defense applications. One of the major challenges in the development of wireless bioelectronic sensors is the successful integration of biosensing units and wireless signal transducers. In recent years, there are a few types of wireless communication systems that have been integrated with biosensing systems to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors. To successfully construct wireless biological electronic sensors, there are several interesting questions: What types of biosensing transducers can be used in wireless bioelectronic sensors? What types of wireless systems can be integrated with biosensing transducers to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors? How are the electrical sensing signals generated and transmitted? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions in the development of wireless biological electronic sensors.

  11. Public health challenges for the 21st century: Convergence of demography, economics, environment and biology: Nalanda distinguished lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, K M Venkat

    2017-01-01

    The rapidly changing and interdependent world under the mega-force of globalization presents unique challenges and opportunities for public health. Focusing on the example of type 2 diabetes, I argue that an appreciation for the evolution of demographic and economic contexts is essential to appropriately address today's dynamic and complex health challenges. For the vast majority of the past 2000 years, India and China were the world's largest economies until the rise of western European nations in the 18th century and later the USA. In the case of India, inflation-adjusted per capita income remained flat between 1700 and 1950, while in the same period that of the UK grew more than 7-fold, although the population of the UK relatively grew 3-times faster than that of India in the same period. This 250-year gap in industrial and economic development may be central to understanding the large burden of diabetes among individuals of Indian descent, and should be taken into account in a wider context to understand the divergence in health development between India and parts of the world which benefited from early industrial progress and accompanying improvements in food supply, hygiene and living conditions. Lessons from high-income countries support a strong emphasis on public health to achieve important populationwide health gains, and offer insights into the broader determinants of health such as economic and food security, equity, urban infrastructure, health-promoting environments, and access to high-quality health systems. Critical to contemporary public health is also strong data systems and evidence-based decision-making.

  12. Biologic Medications for Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... open('/content/cro/en/health/prescription-drugs/best-buy-drugs/Biologics_For_Psoriasis.print.html','win2','status=no, ... we recommend the following as Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs . Adalimumab (Humira) Etanercept (Enbrel) Studies show that for ...

  13. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students’ Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of two question prompts. We asked four versions of the question with different combinations of the two plant species and order of prompts in an introductory cell biology course. We found that there was not a significant difference in the content of student responses to versions of the question stem with different species or order of prompts, using both computerized lexical analysis and expert scoring. We conducted 20 face-to-face interviews with students to further probe the effects of question wording on student responses. During the interviews, we found that students thought that the plant species was neither relevant nor confusing when answering the question. Students identified the prompts as both relevant and confusing. However, this confusion was not specific to a single version. PMID:25999312

  14. Frequently Asked Questions about Chiropractic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketing Patient Fact Sheets Contact the ACA State Licensing Boards Research JMPT Abstracts Latest Issue Evidence in ... Chiropractic Posture Backpack Safety Spinal Health Winter Activities Kids and Sports Exercising Outdoors with Baby Gardening Chronic ...

  15. Organ Transplantation: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  16. Answering Questions About Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health & Fitness Jobs & Making Money Privacy, Identity & Online Security Blog Video & Media Scam Alerts Looking for Business Guidance? Get Email Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is ...

  17. CIFSRF 2015 Frequently Asked Questions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Helen Raij

    Are international organizations eligible for funding? .... plant biotechnology, for use in agriculture, urban and public health settings. .... To test and assess the effectiveness of creative and bold scaling up models, delivery mechanisms.

  18. Importance of questionnaire context for a physical activity question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, M E; Sørensen, M R; Ekholm, O; Rasmussen, N K

    2013-10-01

    Adequate information about physical activity habits is essential for surveillance, implementing, and evaluating public health initiatives in this area. Previous studies have shown that question order and differences in wording result in systematic differences in people's responses to questionnaires; however, this has never been shown for physical activity questions. The aim was to study the influence of different formulations and question order on self-report physical activity in a population-based health interview survey. Four samples of each 1000 adults were drawn at random from the National Person Register. A new question about physical activity was included with minor differences in formulations in samples 1-3. Furthermore, the question in sample 2 was included in sample 4 but was placed in the end of the questionnaire. The mean time spent on moderate physical activity varied between the four samples from 57 to 100 min/day. Question order was associated with the reported number of minutes spent on moderate-intensity physical activity and with prevalence of meeting the recommendation, whereas physical inactivity was associated with the differences in formulation of the question. Questionnaire context influences the way people respond to questions about physical activity significantly and should be tested systematically in validation studies of physical activity questionnaires. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties

  20. Investor Outlook: The Unanswered Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, Joshua; Breazzano, Steven

    2017-06-01

    The year 2016 was an exciting one for the field, with several notable successes outweighing a few setbacks. As the number of patients treated successfully (and safely) with gene therapy grows, the totality of evidence points to a robust platform with utility in orphan/ultra-orphan diseases as well as broader indications, and with hopefully increasing predictability of results. This year promises to feature more patients treated, more clinical data, and more gene therapy products in registration-enabling studies. For the field to continue to advance and mature into the next great drug delivery platform, a few unsolved and remaining questions need to be addressed, including the business model for cures, a broader safety/efficacy profile once more patients are treated, optimization of delivery (including next-generation approaches), and greater understanding of the impact of competitive dynamics. In this report, we detail the success and setbacks of 2016 and highlight the unanswered questions-and how the answers may shape the field in the years ahead.