WorldWideScience

Sample records for health plan liability

  1. Lessons learned in planning the Canadian Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael E.; Brooks, Sheila M.; Miller, Joan M.; Mason, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    limited available resources of the suppliers to execute the work. Several internal and external reviews of the Program during the start-up phase examined progress and identified several improvements to planning. These improvements included strengthening communications among the groups within the Program, conducting more detailed advance planning of the interlinked activities, and being cautious about making detailed commitments for activities for which major decisions had yet to be made. The second phase was planned using a dedicated core team, and involved much more involvement of the suppliers to ensure feasibility of the proposed program of work and more detailed specification of the required resources. Priorities for executing the diverse activities in the Program were originally set using criteria based on the risks that the liabilities presented to health and safety, to the environment and to AECL's ability to meet its obligations as the owner-operator of licensed nuclear sites. The LMU later recognized that the decision criteria should also explicitly include the value gained in reducing the risks and liabilities for expended funds. Greater consideration should be given to mitigating risks to the execution of the Program that might materialize. In addition, licensing strategies and processes should be better-defined, and waste characterization methods and disposition pathways would have to be put in place, or clearly identified, to deal with the wastes the Program would generate before many of the planned activities could be initiated. The NLLP has developed several processes to assist in the detailed planning of the numerous projects and activities. These include developing a more formal procedure for setting priorities of the different parts of the Program, preparing an Integrated Waste Plan to identify the optimal suite of support facilities to be constructed, the creation of a series of 'pre-project initiation' procedures and documents to guide the development

  2. Medical liability and health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leonard J; Morrisey, Michael A; Becker, David J

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on medical liability and the controversy over whether federal medical reform including a damages cap could make a useful contribution to health care reform. By providing guaranteed access to health care insurance at community rates, the ACA could reduce the problem of under-compensation resulting from damages caps. However, it may also exacerbate the problem of under-claiming in the malpractice system, thereby reducing incentives to invest in loss prevention activities. Shifting losses from liability insurers to health insurers could further undermine the already weak deterrent effect of the medical liability system. Republicans in Congress and physician groups both pushed for the adoption of a federal damages cap as part of health care reform. Physician support for damages caps could be explained by concerns about the insurance cycle and the consequent instability of the market. Our own study presented here suggests that there is greater insurance market stability in states with caps on non-economic damages. Republicans in Congress argued that the enactment of damages caps would reduce aggregate health care costs. The Congressional Budget Office included savings from reduced health care utilization in its estimates of cost savings that would result from the enactment of a federal damages cap. But notwithstanding recent opinions offered by the CBO, it is not clear that caps will significantly reduce health care costs or that any savings will be passed on to consumers. The ACA included funding for state level demonstration projects for promising reforms such as offer and disclosure and health courts, but at this time the benefits of these reforms are also uncertain. There is a need for further studies on these issues.

  3. Lessons learned in planning the Canadian Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, M.; Brooks, S.; Miller, J.; Neal, P.; Mason, R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) began implementing a $7B CDN, 70-year Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP) to deal with legacy decommissioning and environmental issues at AECL nuclear sites. The objective of the NLLP is to safely and cost-effectively reduce the nuclear legacy liabilities and associated risks based on sound waste management and environmental principles in the best interest of Canadians. The NLLP comprises a number of interlinked decommissioning, waste management and environmental restoration activities that are being executed at different sites by various technical groups. Many lessons about planning and executing such a large, diverse Program have been learned in planning the initial five-year 'start-up' phase (concluded 2011 March), in planning the three-year second phase (currently being commenced), and in planning individual and interacting activities within the Program. The activities to be undertaken in the start-up phase were planned by a small group of AECL technical experts using the currently available information on the liabilities. Several internal and external reviews of the Program during the start-up phase examined progress and identified several improvements to planning. These improvements included strengthening communications among the groups within the Program, conducting more detailed advance planning of the interlinked activities, and being cautious about making detailed commitments for activities for which major decisions had yet to be made. The second phase was planned by a dedicated core team. More and earlier input was solicited from the suppliers than in the planning for the first phase. This was to ensure that the proposed program of work was feasible, and to be able to specify in more detail the resources that would be required to carry it out. The NLLP has developed several processes to assist in the detailed planning of the numerous projects and

  4. Understanding legacy liabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossi, G.J. [Venable, LLP (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Among the most immediate issues facing operations with a workforce represented by the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) are the so-called 'legacy liabilities'. Legacy liabilities fall under two categories: retiree health care and pension. The retiree health benefit obligations fall into two categories; statutory - those created under the Coal Industry Retiree Health Benefit Act of 1992 and contractual - the 1993 Employer Benefit Plan and the Individual Employer Plans. The pension liabilities are more straightforward; there are three different retirement plans in the NBCWA; the UMWA 1950 Pension Plan, the UMWA 1974 Pension Plan and the UMWA Cash Deferred Savings Plan of 1988.

  5. [Legal aspects of the health care institution liability for nosocomial infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garus-Pakowska, Anna; Szatko, Franciszek; Pakowski, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the basic concepts concerning the liability of health care institution for nosocomial infections are presented. The principles of ex contracto and ex delicto liabilities, as well as the concept of so-called anonymous guilt are discussed. The range of duties for both the health care institution and the employed medical personnel is indicated, the duties and the consequences of their non-fulfillment are systematized, and the obligatory jurisdiction concerning the functioning of prima facie evidence is considered. The author aimed at explaining the principles governing the civil liability of health care institutions and their employees.

  6. Optimal investment decisions with a liability: the case of defined benefit pension plans

    OpenAIRE

    Josa-Fombellida, Ricardo; Rincón-Zapatero, Juan Pablo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the optimal management of an aggregated dynamic pension fund is studied. To cover the promised liabilities to workers at the age of retirement, the plan sponsor continuously manages time-varying funds. He or she can choose the rate of contribution to the fund, the investment in a given number of risky assets, and a security with constant rate of return. The problem of maximizing the probability that the fund assets achieve some prescribed goal before some undesirable lower value...

  7. Understanding health insurance plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... plan for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  8. Ex Ante Liability Rules in New Zealand's Health and Safety in Employment Act: A Law and Economics Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Gordon; Alan E. Woodfield

    2006-01-01

    In addition to penalties imposed for breaches of statutory duties in the event of workplace accidents involving physical harms, New Zealand's Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992 also provides for penalties where accidents have not occurred. Ordinary negligence rules are ex post in that both an accident and harm must occur before liability accrues, whereas ex ante liability rules create liability for deficient care per se. This paper examines whether liability for breaches of duty that do...

  9. 75 FR 64683 - Liability for Termination of Single-Employer Plans; Treatment of Substantial Cessation of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Termination of Single-Employer Plans; Treatment of Substantial Cessation of Operations AGENCY: Pension Benefit... cessations of operations by employers that maintain single-employer plans. DATES: Comments must be submitted... 4062(e), which provides for reporting of and liability for certain substantial cessations of operations...

  10. The Consumer Protection Act: No-fault liability of health care providers

    OpenAIRE

    Slabbert, M Nöthling; Pepper, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of no-fault or strict liability by the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) poses serious problems in the health care context. With a patient as a consumer' in terms of the CPA, health care practitioners may find themselves as suppliers' or retailers' as part of a supply chain, and potentially liable for harm and loss suffered by a patient in terms of the new no-fault liability provision. The claimant (patient) can sue anyone in the supply chain in terms of this provision...

  11. Marketing nutrition & health-related benefits of food & beverage products: enforcement, litigation & liability issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Sarah; Pippins, Raqiyyah

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the liability risks associated with food and beverage product marketing have increased significantly, particularly with respect to nutrition and health-related product benefit claims. FDA and FTC enforcement priorities appear to have contributed to the increasing liability trends that are associated with these nutrition and health-related claims. This article examines key enforcement and litigation developments involving conventional food and beverage product marketing claims during the first 18 months of President Obama's administration: Part I considers FDA enforcement priorities and recent warning letters; Part II considers FTC enforcement priorities, warning letters, and consent orders; and Part III considers the relationship between FDA and FTC enforcement priorities and recent false advertising cases brought by private parties challenging nutrition and health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products. The article makes recommendations concerning ways in which food and beverage companies can help minimize liability risks associated with health-related marketing claims. In addition, the article suggests that federal policy reforms may be required to counter the perverse chilling effects current food liability trends appear to be having on health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products, and proposes a number of specific reforms that would help encourage the responsible use of well-substantiated marketing claims that can help foster healthy dietary practices. In view of the obesity prevention and other diet-related public health priorities of the Obama administration, the article suggests that this is an opportune time to address the apparent chilling effects increasing food liability risks are having on nutrition and health-related marketing claims for healthy food and beverage products, and potential adverse consequences for public health.

  12. K basins interim remedial action health and safety plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAY, P.T.

    1999-09-14

    The K Basins Interim Remedial Action Health and Safety Plan addresses the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as they apply to the CERCLA work that will take place at the K East and K West Basins. The provisions of this plan become effective on the date the US Environmental Protection Agency issues the Record of Decision for the K Basins Interim Remedial Action, currently planned in late August 1999.

  13. Unresolved legal questions in cross-border health care in Europe: liability and data protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, I N; Commers, M J

    2013-11-01

    Directive 2011/24/EU was designed to clarify the rights of EU citizens in evaluating, accessing and obtaining reimbursement for cross-border care. Based on three regional case studies, the authors attempted to assess the added value of the Directive in helping clarify issues in to two key areas that have been identified as barriers to cross-border care: liability and data protection. Qualitative case study employing secondary data sources including research of jurisprudence, that set up a Legal framework as a base to investigate liability and data protection in the context of cross-border projects. By means of three case studies that have tackled liability and data protection hurdles in cross-border care implementation, this article attempts to provide insight into legal certainty and uncertainty regarding cross-border care in Europe. The case studies reveal that the Directive has not resolved core uncertainties related to liability and data protection issues within cross-border health care. Some issues related to the practice of cross-border health care in Europe have been further clarified by the Directive and some direction has been given to possible solutions for issues connected to liability and data protection. Directive 2011/24/EU is clearly a transposition of existing regulations on data protection and ECJ case law, plus a set of additional, mostly, voluntary rules that might enhance regional border cooperation. Therefore, as shown in the case studies, a practical and case by case approach is still necessary in designing and providing cross-border care. © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Health Workforce Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sawai, Abdulaziz; Al-Shishtawy, Moeness M.

    2015-01-01

    In most countries, the lack of explicit health workforce planning has resulted in imbalances that threaten the capacity of healthcare systems to attain their objectives. This has directed attention towards the prospect of developing healthcare systems that are more responsive to the needs and expectations of the population by providing health planners with a systematic method to effectively manage human resources in this sector. This review analyses various approaches to health workforce planning and presents the Six-Step Methodology to Integrated Workforce Planning which highlights essential elements in workforce planning to ensure the quality of services. The purpose, scope and ownership of the approach is defined. Furthermore, developing an action plan for managing a health workforce is emphasised and a reviewing and monitoring process to guide corrective actions is suggested. PMID:25685381

  15. Estimating end of life liabilities for plant licensing and financial planning for similarly configured stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, G. [TLG Services, Inc. an Entergy Nuclear Co. (United States); Kennard, J. [Ontario Power Generation Inc. (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is required to update estimated waste management and decommissioning costs on a 5-year cycle within the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's (CNSC) regulatory framework and provide a decommissioning cost update and provisions funds status to the Province of Ontario on a similar five-year cycle under the terms of the Ontario Nuclear Funds Agreement (ONFA). The following is an overview of the important steps used to develop OPG's nuclear power station decommissioning cost estimates, including a discussion of the responsibilities of both the owner (OPG) and estimating services vendor (TLG Services). This presentation is related to decommissioning estimating for multi-unit stations; therefore the discussion will be focused on identifying those activities that may be particularly impacted by multi-unit configuration or multiple stations. It should be noted that simultaneously developing decommissioning estimates for multiple multi-unit stations creates the opportunity to achieve economies of scale to more efficiently produce the estimates, and enables the owner and vendor to compare results between stations to identify inconsistencies. However, without careful attention to detail at the planning and execution stage, it also creates the potential liability of backtracking and developing the estimate multiple times, should significant assumptions be revised in mid-project. (authors)

  16. Estimating end of life liabilities for plant licensing and financial planning for similarly configured stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, G.; Kennard, J.

    2008-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is required to update estimated waste management and decommissioning costs on a 5-year cycle within the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's (CNSC) regulatory framework and provide a decommissioning cost update and provisions funds status to the Province of Ontario on a similar five-year cycle under the terms of the Ontario Nuclear Funds Agreement (ONFA). The following is an overview of the important steps used to develop OPG's nuclear power station decommissioning cost estimates, including a discussion of the responsibilities of both the owner (OPG) and estimating services vendor (TLG Services). This presentation is related to decommissioning estimating for multi-unit stations; therefore the discussion will be focused on identifying those activities that may be particularly impacted by multi-unit configuration or multiple stations. It should be noted that simultaneously developing decommissioning estimates for multiple multi-unit stations creates the opportunity to achieve economies of scale to more efficiently produce the estimates, and enables the owner and vendor to compare results between stations to identify inconsistencies. However, without careful attention to detail at the planning and execution stage, it also creates the potential liability of backtracking and developing the estimate multiple times, should significant assumptions be revised in mid-project. (authors)

  17. Legal liabilities in continuing education: protecting your institution and yourself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, G H; Cava, A

    1988-01-01

    Continuing medical education (CME) activities conducted by medical schools, institutions, or organizations contain inherent liability potentials that should be recognized. Three major areas for potential liability should be carefully regarded by individuals who supervise, organize, or plan educational programs. These are: 1) contract liability--specifically in contracts with hotels, i.e., cancellation clauses, warranties, and indemnifications; 2) liability for ensuring the health and safety of individuals, i.e., fire, security, hazards, emergency procedures, and alcohol at functions; and 3) appropriate and adequate insurance coverage.

  18. Multistate Health Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Moffit PhD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss and evaluate the Multi-State Plan (MSP Program, a provision of the Affordable Care Act that has not been the subject of much debate as yet. The MSP Program provides the Office of Personnel Management with new authority to negotiate and implement multistate insurance plans on all health insurance exchanges within the United States. We raise the concern that the MSP Program may lead to further consolidation of the health insurance industry despite the program’s stated goal of increasing competition by means of health insurance exchanges. The MSP Program arguably gives a competitive advantage to large insurers, which already dominate health insurance markets. We also contend that the MSP Program’s failure to produce increased competition may motivate a new effort for a public health insurance option.

  19. The Consumer Protection Act: no-fault liability of health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabbert, M Nöthling; Pepper, Michael S

    2011-11-01

    The introduction of no-fault or strict liability by the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) poses serious problems in the health care context. With a patient as a 'consumer' in terms of the CPA, health care practitioners may find themselves as 'suppliers' or 'retailers' as part of a supply chain, and potentially liable for harm and loss suffered by a patient in terms of the new no-fault liability provision. The claimant (patient) can sue anyone in the supply chain in terms of this provision, which places the health care practitioner who delivered the care in a very difficult position, as he or she is the most easily and often only identifiable person in the supply chain. Although the causal link between the harm suffered by the complainant will still need to be established on a balance of probabilities, the traditional common law obstacle requiring proof of negligence no longer applies. The article argues that this situation is unsatisfactory, as it places an increasingly onerous burden on certain health care practitioners.

  20. Environmental health and health planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    Areas of environmental concern are identified and recommendations for improving environmental health are proposed by the Environmental Health Task Force of the Western Massachusetts Health Planning Council. Environmental health concerns in Western Massachusetts are in the areas of: air pollution; dental health and the specific problem of water flouridation; housing; injury control, including accidental death and disability; land use, and the specific problem of critical receptors; noise pollution; occupational hazards, specifically occupational accidents; pesticides; radiological exposure, particularly medical X-ray exposure and nuclear exposure; rural health care; sanitation; solid waste; and water quality including private and public water supplies, road salting, and rural sewerages. Each area of concern and specific problem are broken down into sections: background information; comments which incorporate recommendations for general problem-solving activities; and resources, including lists of key organization, individuals, laws and regulations, and publications relevant to the area of concern. Recommendations are presented based on long-term and short-term environmental goals. An inventory of environmental health organizations in Western Massachusetts is included. Appendices contain the charge to the Task Force, a definition of environmental health, sources of drinking water, the sanitation and sanitary codes, and housing and sanitation standards. Portions of this document are not fully legible

  1. ERISA and health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, P; Mazo, J; Ladenheim, K

    1995-11-01

    This Issue Brief is designed to provide a basic understanding of the relationship of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) to health plans. It is based, in part, on an Employee Benefit Research Institute-Education and Research Fund (EBRI-ERF) educational briefing held in March 1995. This report includes a section by Peter Schmidt of Arnold & Porter, a section about multiemployer plans written by Judy Mazo of The Segal Company; and a section about ERISA and state health reform written by Kala Ladenheim of the Intergovernmental Health Policy Project. Starting in the late 1980s, three trends converged to make ERISA a critical factor in state health reforms: increasingly comprehensive state health policy experimentation; changes in the makeup of the insurance market (including the rise in self-insurance and the growth of managed care); and increasingly expansive interpretations of ERISA by federal courts. The changing interpretations of ERISA's relationship to three categories of state health initiatives--insurance mandates, medical high risk pools, and uncompensated care pools--illustrate how these forces are playing out today. ERISA does have a very broad preemptive effect. Federal statutes do not need to say anything about preemption in order to preempt state law. For example, if there is a direct conflict, it would be quite clear under the Supremacy Clause [of the U.S. Constitution] that ERISA, or any federal statue, would preempt a directly conflicting state statute. States can indirectly regulate health care plans that provide benefits through insurance contracts by establishing the terms of the contract. And they also raise money by imposing premium taxes. But they cannot do the same with respect to self-funded plans. That is one of the factors that has caused a great rise in the number of self-funded plans. State regulation [of employee benefits] can create three kinds of problems: cost of taxes, fees, or other charges; cost of dealing

  2. Qualified Health Plan (QHP) Landscape

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — QHP Landscape Files present basic information about certified Qualified Health Plans and Stand-alone Dental Plans for individuals-families and small businesses...

  3. Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find & compare doctors, hospitals, & other providers Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) Plan In most HMO Plans, you generally ... certain service when needed. Related Resources Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) Private Fee-for-Service (PFFS) Special Needs ...

  4. Health and safety plan for operations performed for the Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trippet, W.A. II; Reneau, M.; Morton, S.L.

    1992-04-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the EPR. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP

  5. Health and safety plan for operations performed for the Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippet, W.A. II (IT Corp., (United States)); Reneau, M.; Morton, S.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-04-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the EPR. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP.

  6. Professional dental and oral surgery liability in Italy: a comparative analysis of the insurance products offered to health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Pierpaolo; Paternoster, Mariano; Nugnes, Mariarosaria; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Graziano, Vincenzo; Niola, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    In Italy there has been an increase in claims for damages for alleged medical malpractice. A study was therefore conducted that aimed at assessing the content of the coverage of insurance policy contracts offered to oral health professionals by the insurance market. The sample analysed composed of 11 insurance policy contracts for professional dental liability offered from 2010 to 2015 by leading insurance companies operating in the Italian market. The insurance products analysed are structured on the "claims made" clause. No policy contract examined covers the damage due to the failure to acquire consent for dental treatment and, in most cases, damage due to unsatisfactory outcomes of treatment of an aesthetic nature and the failure to respect regulatory obligations on privacy. On entering into a professional liability insurance policy contract, the dentist should pay particular attention to the period covered by the guarantee, the risks both covered and excluded, as well as the extent of the limit of liability and any possible fixed/percentage excess. When choosing a professional liability contract, a dentist should examine the risks in relation to the professional activity carried out before signing.

  7. Teaching the Interrelationships among Costs, Expense, and Liability of a Defined Benefit Pension Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Arlette C.; Godwin, Norman H.

    2008-01-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) recently issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 158 "Employers' Accounting for Defined Benefit Pension and Other Postretirement Plans" (SFAS #158). Their intent is to comprehensively reconsider the accounting for postretirement benefit plans in phases. The first phase was to provide…

  8. CONFLICT OF DUAL LOYALTY AND ISSUES OF LIABILITY WHEN PROVIDING HEALTH CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sovová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines topical questions of the conflict of dual loyalty when providing health and medical care in the context of the liability of regulated medical professions. The paper specifies, describes and identifies the impact of professional particularities on the sphere of activity of the vocational holder in general and the particularities in the Czech Republic. The conflict of dual loyalty is highlighted in the relations emerging when providing the medical care, in particular in the relation patient - medical professional - provider of medical care. The article is anchored in the methods of the interpretation of law together with the interpretation from the general to the specific. The medical professionals get very often into the dual loyalty conflict, which concerns legal obligations and the ethics of the profession. The paper examines the difference between the conflicts of dual loyalty and interests. Based on the above mentioned the paper concludes that the conflict of the dual loyalty and the responsibility of medical profession have many forms, but there are legal, ethical and economic possibilities to solve in in favour of the patient.

  9. Finance, providers issue brief: insurer liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothouse, M; Stauffer, M

    2000-05-24

    When a health plan denies payment for a procedure on grounds that it is not medically necessary or when it refuses a physician-ordered referral to a specialist, has it crossed the line from making an insurance judgment to practicing medicine? If the patient suffers harm as a result of the decision, is the plan liable for medical malpractice? Those were questions 35 states considered in 1999, and at least 32 states are grappling with this year as they seek to respond to physician and patient pressure to curb the power of the managed care industry. Traditionally, health insurers have been protected by state laws banning "the corporate practice of medicine," which means the patient's only recourse is to sue under a "vicarious liability" theory. Now, however, lawmakers are debating legislation to extend the scope of malpractice liability beyond individual practitioners to insurance carriers and plans themselves.

  10. The Liabilities Management Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, A.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Liabilities Management Group (LMG) was initiated by DTI. It is a cooperative forum which was set up in 1995. The current participants are DTI, UKAEA, NLM (for BNFL), MOD and Magnox Electric. The LMG was initiated to produce closer cooperation between public sector liability management organizations, achieve more cost-effective management of UK nuclear liabilities and enhance development of the UK nuclear decommissioning and waste management strategy. The objectives are to compare practices between liabilities management organizations discuss the scope for collaboration identify priority areas for possible collaboration agree action plans for exploring and undertaking such collaboration.Four task forces have been formed to look at specific areas (R and D, safety, contracts, and project management) and each reports separately to the LMG. The LMG has achieved its original aim of bringing together those with public sector liability management responsibilities. All participants feel that the LMG has been useful and that it should continue. Looking to the future, there is a continuing need for the LMG to facilitate removal of barriers to the achievement of best value for money. The LMG might also consider addressing the 'business process' elements that a liability management organization must be good at in order to define best practice in these. (author)

  11. Health Plan Finder Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act requires that HHS establish a mechanism, including an internet website, through which a resident of, or small business in, any State may...

  12. Health Plans - Trend Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page contains several useful trend and competition indicators. Certain files will be updated monthly while others will be updated quarterly. The files are the...

  13. Liability Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Donoghue, K.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear liability conventions try to provide a set of rules to govern third party liability. Not all States are parties to one of the existing liability conventions. There are a number of reasons why individual States may choose not to join one of the existing conventions. These include limits of compensation, jurisdiction issues, complexity, cost and definition of damage among others. This paper looks at the existing conventions and identifies some of the main issues in the existing conventions which prevent some States from signing them. The paper attempts to tease out some of the perceived gaps in the existing conventions and give a brief description of the reasons why non-Contracting Parties have difficulty with the provisions of the conventions. The paper recognizes that there has been work done in this area previously by the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX) and others to try to develop the existing frameworks to enhance global adherence by nuclear and non-nuclear States to an effective nuclear liability regime. (author)

  14. Negative liability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.

    2009-01-01

    Negative and positive externalities pose symmetrical problems to social welfare. The law internalizes negative externalities by providing general tort liability rules. According to such rules, those who cause harm to others should pay compensation. In theory, in the presence of positive

  15. Who plans for health improvement? SEA, HIA and the separation of spatial planning and health planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, Alan; Cave, Ben; Ballantyne, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether there is active planning for health improvement in the English spatial planning system and how this varies across two regions using a combination of telephone surveys and focus group interviews in 2005 and 2010. The spatial planning profession was found to be ill-equipped to consider the health and well-being implications of its actions, whilst health professionals are rarely engaged and have limited understanding and aspirations when it comes to influencing spatial planning. Strategic Environmental Assessment was not considered to be successful in integrating health into spatial plans, given it was the responsibility of planners lacking the capacity to do so. For their part, health professionals have insufficient knowledge and understanding of planning and how to engage with it to be able to plan for health gains rather than simply respond to health impacts. HIA practice is patchy and generally undertaken by health professionals outside the statutory planning framework. Thus, whilst appropriate assessment tools exist, they currently lack a coherent context within which they can function effectively and the implementation of the Kiev protocol requiring the engagement of health professionals in SEA is not to likely improve the consideration of health in planning while there continues to be separation of functions between professions and lack of understanding of the other profession. -- Highlights: ► Health professionals have limited aspirations for health improvement through the planning system. ► Spatial planners are ill-equipped to understand the health and well-being implications of their activities. ► SEA and HIA currently do not embed health consideration in planning decisions. ► The separation of health and planning functions is problematic for the effective conduct of SEA and/or HIA

  16. Who plans for health improvement? SEA, HIA and the separation of spatial planning and health planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [InteREAM (Interdisciplinary Research in Environmental Assessment and Management), School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Cave, Ben, E-mail: ben.cave@bcahealth.co.uk [Ben Cave Associates Ltd., Leeds (United Kingdom); Ballantyne, Rob, E-mail: robdballantyne@gmail.com [Planning and Health Consultant, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-15

    This study examines whether there is active planning for health improvement in the English spatial planning system and how this varies across two regions using a combination of telephone surveys and focus group interviews in 2005 and 2010. The spatial planning profession was found to be ill-equipped to consider the health and well-being implications of its actions, whilst health professionals are rarely engaged and have limited understanding and aspirations when it comes to influencing spatial planning. Strategic Environmental Assessment was not considered to be successful in integrating health into spatial plans, given it was the responsibility of planners lacking the capacity to do so. For their part, health professionals have insufficient knowledge and understanding of planning and how to engage with it to be able to plan for health gains rather than simply respond to health impacts. HIA practice is patchy and generally undertaken by health professionals outside the statutory planning framework. Thus, whilst appropriate assessment tools exist, they currently lack a coherent context within which they can function effectively and the implementation of the Kiev protocol requiring the engagement of health professionals in SEA is not to likely improve the consideration of health in planning while there continues to be separation of functions between professions and lack of understanding of the other profession. -- Highlights: ► Health professionals have limited aspirations for health improvement through the planning system. ► Spatial planners are ill-equipped to understand the health and well-being implications of their activities. ► SEA and HIA currently do not embed health consideration in planning decisions. ► The separation of health and planning functions is problematic for the effective conduct of SEA and/or HIA.

  17. Problematic of mining environmental liabilities in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arango Aramburo, Marcela; Olaya, Yris

    2012-01-01

    Mining environmental liabilities (PAM from its acronym in Spanish) are areas where there is a need for restoration, mitigation or compensation for environmental damage or unmanaged impact, produced by inactive or abandoned mining that threatens health, quality of life or public or private property. In Colombia the environmental liabilities from mining have not been regulated, but given the age and the prevalence of informality in mining, there is increasing interest in defining, regulating and managing these obligations. In this paper we approach the problem of valuing mining environmental liabilities by examining different management approaches for such liabilities around the world. We also identify key information requirements to manage mining environmental liabilities in Colombia.

  18. [Tour operator liability in health protection for not informing travellers about health risks they could be exposed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, P G

    2009-01-01

    Consumer-tourist is considered the weaker bargaining party in an "all included" travel contract, compared with tour organizer and tour vendor. That's why Statute Act protecting consumer's rights provides a specific discipline concerning this particular sector In front of widening of warrants for travellers, obligations for organizer and seller of the travel have been increased, and include now specific duty to inform travellers as well. According to the law such duties of information are consistent with travel contract performance itself. In such way, failing to inform client constitutes a breach of contract liable not only in the field of civil responsibility; the subject liable with such an omission may face criminal prosecution as well. More specifically we are in front of a breach of contract by the tour organizer who will respond of all damages concerned with such a breach. Damages will concern not only the price of the travel package, but also other damages connected with the illness suffered by traveller: compensation for spoiled holidays, biological damages, patrimonial damages (these last ones could include for instance expenses for medical treatments, just to quote the more likely one). In other words, tour organizer has to grant general organization of the tour which has to take place as specified on travel brochure, but traveller have to be provided also with any information, concerning documents necessary for the travel, whether passport or visa are needed or not, vaccinations peremptory or optional. It will be very difficult for tour operator be exempted from liability for damages if traveller hasn't been informed of health risks; the only possibility consists in managing to demonstrate that the obligation hasn't been compelled due to reason for which the operator couldn't be held responsible. Besides as we have already mentioned before, criminal relevance of such omission of information couldn't be excluded. In fact, it's true that such omission

  19. How to choose a health plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000861.htm How to choose a health plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... paperwork for tax purposes. How to Compare Health Plans Employers and government sites, such as the Marketplace , ...

  20. Finance issue brief: insurer liability: year end report-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachern, Lillian

    2003-12-31

    When a health plan denies payment for a procedure on grounds that it is not medically necessary or when it refuses a physician-ordered referral to a specialist, has it crossed the line from making an insurance judgment to practicing medicine? If the patient suffers harm as a result of the decision, is the plan liable for medical malpractice? Those were questions 35 states considered in 1999, and at least 32 states are grappling with this year as they seek to respond to physician and patient pressure to curb the power of the managed care industry. Traditionally, health insurers have been protected by state laws banning "the corporate practice of medicine," which means the patient's only recourse is to sue under a "vicarious liability" theory. Now, however, lawmakers are debating legislation to extend the scope of malpractice liability beyond individual practitioners to insurance carriers and plans themselves.

  1. Finance issue brief: insurer liability: year end report-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rachel; MacEachern, Lillian

    2002-12-31

    When a health plan denies payment for a procedure on grounds that it is not medically necessary or when it refuses a physician-ordered referral to a specialist, has it crossed the line from making an insurance judgment to practicing medicine? If the patient suffers harm as a result of the decision, is the plan liable for medical malpractice? Those were questions 35 states considered in 1999, and at least 32 states are grappling with this year as they seek to respond to physician and patient pressure to curb the power of the managed care industry. Traditionally, health insurers have been protected by state laws banning "the corporate practice of medicine," which means the patient's only recourse is to sue under a "vicarious liability" theory. Now, however, lawmakers are debating legislation to extend the scope of malpractice liability beyond individual practitioners to insurance carriers and plans themselves.

  2. Health care's new game changer. Thinking like a health plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggbeer, Bill; Bowers, Krista

    2014-10-01

    The transition for hospitals from having only a provider's perspective to thinking more like a health plan will require strategic alignment on four fronts: Health plan alignment. Hospital and physician alignment. Leadership alignment. Organizational alignment.

  3. Asset liability management using stochastic programming

    OpenAIRE

    Pirbhai, M; Mitra, G; Kyriakis, T

    2003-01-01

    This chapter sets out to explain an important financial planning model called asset liability management (ALM); in particular, it discusses why in practice, optimum planning models are used. The ability to build an integrated approach that combines liability models with that of asset allocation decisions has proved to be desirable and more efficient in that it can lead to better ALM decisions. The role of uncertainty and quantification of risk in these planning models is con...

  4. Program Planning in Health Professions Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Steven W.; Lawson, Luan

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, the major concepts from program planning in adult education will be applied to health professions education (HPE). Curriculum planning and program planning will be differentiated, and program development and planning will be grounded in a systems thinking approach.

  5. Inpatient Data Supporting the DOD Military Retirement Health Benefits Liability Estimate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    2000-01-01

    .... Military retirement health benefits are post-retirement benefits that DoD provides to military retirees and other eligible beneficiaries through the Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (Purchased Care...

  6. Health and safety plan for operations performed for the Environmental Restoration Program. Task, OU 1-03 and OU 4-10 Track 2 investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippet, W.A. II [IT Corp., (United States); Reneau, M.; Morton, S.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG&G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the EPR. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP.

  7. Implementation of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Health Authority by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 greatly expanded the health authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. One of the federal agencies most affected by SARA is the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) of the U.S. Public Health Service. Among other responsibilities, ATSDR was mandated to conduct health assessments within strict time frames for each site on or proposed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List. The author will review ATSDR's efforts to address this new statutory mandate, especially for federal facilities, and will focus on different conceptual frameworks for implementing the health assessment program

  8. Environmental health action plan for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This Environmental Health Action Plan for Europe was endorsed by the second European Conference on Environment and Health, held in Helsinki, 20 to 22 June 1994. It sets out directions for the attainment of long term environment and health policy objectives define in the European Charter on Environment and Health. The Action Plan is primarily addressed at the public health and environmental protection sectors. 10 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  9. A critical examination of the health workers\\' civil and criminal liabilities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper set out to examine the subject matter of health and welfare administration and the human resources thereto to achieve the set objectives of health and welfare policies of the Government. It also aimed at examining the behaviour of the professionals in the hospitals, the ethical principles, law guiding their behavior ...

  10. [Proper use of pest control products and liability in their use in urban environments, in relation to public health and safety aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, Moreno; Rubbiani, Maristella

    2011-01-01

    Pest control in urban settings is a public health issue that is often overlooked and left to the discretion of those who participate in pest control operations. In this article the authors aim to analyse and provide guidelines regarding liability in the use of pesticides and safety standards that must be adopted during pest control operations in confined areas or open spaces in urban or domestic settings.

  11. Solidarity liability of federative entities and “side effects” for the right to health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Asensi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The judicial enforcement of the right to health in Brazil raises advances and challenges for public policies. This article analyzes two judicial decisions from the 4th Region’s Federal Court in 2014 admitting the concurrent and solidary responsibility of federative entities in the supply of medicines. In both decisions, the appeal was allowed and the idea that federative entities have concurrent competence and solidarity in health was reinforced. On the one hand, a common example of interaction between the law and the health is observed in these decisions; on the other, a production of tensions and contradictions is identified. At first glance, the recognition of the solidary responsibility of federative entities may seem strongly positive from the user’s perspective, and this will lead to having more users going to courts to claim their right to health. However, from a management perspective, it brings challenges as there will be overpayment of some entities of the federation at the expense of others. In this sense, and based on cases, the main rules of competence currently used in health public policies will be presented. Major advances, limits and challenges of recognizing the solidary responsibility of federative entities as well as some “side effects” that some court decisions may bring will also be discussed.

  12. Occupational health nursing interventions to reduce third-party liability in workplace injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delk, Kayla L

    2012-03-01

    This article explores general principles of workers' compensation law and the ability to sue third parties for employee injuries by using case law and the treatise Larson's Workers' Compensation Law. This overview provides occupational health nurses with a background on workers' compensation law, who is liable for employee injuries, and how recovery from third parties is distributed between the employer or insurer and the employee. The author then explores interventions that occupational health nurses can implement to reduce employee injury and employer costs for providing workers' compensation. The goal of this article is to stimulate occupational health nurses' critical-thinking and problem-solving skills so they may identify risks and implement cost-effective solutions that will prevent injuries to employees. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. EM Health and Safety Plan Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This document contains information about the Health and Safety Plan Guidelines. Topics discussed include: Regulatory framework; key personnel; hazard assessment; training requirements; personal protective equipment; extreme temperature disorders or conditions; medical surveillance; exposure monitoring/air sampling; site control; decontamination; emergency response/contingency plan; emergency action plan; confined space entry; and spill containment.

  14. New Trends in European Nuclear Liability Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getz, H.; Steinkemper, M.H.

    1981-10-01

    This paper analyses recent developments in nuclear liability legislation in Europe. The first part deals with the planned revision of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention; the second part focuses on the reforms envisaged in the field in Switzerland and in the Federal Republic of Germany, in particular concerning unlimited liability. Finally, the author concludes that national reform plans and work at international level are not opposed, but supplementary activities. (NEA) [fr

  15. 75 FR 51831 - Request for Measures of Health Plan Efforts To Address Health Plan Members' Health Literacy Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... and health plans. The results of the planned survey may become an important source of information for... services and nurse advice lines, the quality and accessibility of health plan information on coverage...

  16. Consumer-directed health plans: what happened?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Jeff

    2007-08-01

    CDHPs can stabilize growth in health costs, but the health plan-subscriber relationship should be more transparent. CFOs should ensure that increased cost exposure in CDHPs is paired with broad, deep disease management and employee assistance support. Hospitals should plan for the likelihood that, one way or another, consumers will be paying more of their healthcare bill.

  17. Electronic health records and online medical records: an asset or a liability under current conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Graham, Judith; Mitchell, Lauren; Heriot, Natalie; Armani, Roksana; Langton, David; Levinson, Michele; Young, Alan; Smith, Julian A; Kotsimbos, Tom; Wilson, John W

    2018-02-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to audit the current use of medical records to determine completeness and concordance with other sources of medical information. Methods Medical records for 40 patients from each of five Melbourne major metropolitan hospitals were randomly selected (n=200). A quantitative audit was performed for detailed patient information and medical record keeping, as well as data collection, storage and utilisation. Using each hospital's current online clinical database, scanned files and paperwork available for each patient audited, the reviewers sourced as much relevant information as possible within a 30-min time allocation from both the record and the discharge summary. Results Of all medical records audited, 82% contained medical and surgical history, allergy information and patient demographics. All audited discharge summaries lacked at least one of the following: demographics, medication allergies, medical and surgical history, medications and adverse drug event information. Only 49% of records audited showed evidence the discharge summary was sent outside the institution. Conclusions The quality of medical data captured and information management is variable across hospitals. It is recommended that medical history documentation guidelines and standardised discharge summaries be implemented in Australian healthcare services. What is known about this topic? Australia has a complex health system, the government has approved funding to develop a universal online electronic medical record system and is currently trialling this in an opt-out style in the Napean Blue Mountains (NSW) and in Northern Queensland. The system was originally named the personally controlled electronic health record but has since been changed to MyHealth Record (2016). In Victoria, there exists a wide range of electronic health records used to varying degrees, with some hospitals still relying on paper-based records and many using scanned medical records

  18. Genetic liability, prenatal health, stress and family environment: risk factors in the Harvard Adolescent Family High Risk for schizophrenia study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, Deborah J; Faraone, Stephen V; Glatt, Stephen J; Tsuang, Ming T; Seidman, Larry J

    2014-08-01

    The familial ("genetic") high-risk (FHR) paradigm enables assessment of individuals at risk for schizophrenia based on a positive family history of schizophrenia in first-degree, biological relatives. This strategy presumes genetic transmission of abnormal traits given high heritability of the illness. It is plausible, however, that adverse environmental factors are also transmitted in these families. Few studies have evaluated both biological and environmental factors within a FHR study of adolescents. We conceptualize four precursors to psychosis pathogenesis: two biological (genetic predisposition, prenatal health issues (PHIs)) and two environmental (family environment, stressful life events (SLEs)). Participants assessed between 1998 and 2007 (ages 13-25) included 40 (20F/20M) adolescents at FHR for schizophrenia (FHRs) and 55 (31F/24M) community controls. 'Genetic load' indexed number of affected family members relative to pedigree size. PHI was significantly greater among FHRs, and family cohesion and expressiveness were less (and family conflict was higher) among FHRs; however, groups did not significantly differ in SLE indices. Among FHRs, genetic liability was significantly associated with PHI and family expressiveness. Prenatal and family environmental disruptions are elevated in families with a first-degree relative with schizophrenia. Findings support our proposed 'polygenic neurodevelopmental diathesis-stress model' whereby psychosis susceptibility (and resilience) involves the independent and synergistic confluence of (temporally-sensitive) biological and environmental factors across development. Recognition of biological and social environmental influences across critical developmental periods points to key issues relevant for enhanced identification of psychosis susceptibility, facilitation of more precise models of illness risk, and development of novel prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Managing nuclear liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pooley, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of managing liabilities in the nuclear industry and considers the main ingredients which make for successful liabilities management. It looks specifically at UKAEA's experience to date and lists its key management principles, including the use of the liabilities management ratio which is the company's current bottom-line performance measure. (Author)

  20. Family planning and health: the Narangwal experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqee, R

    1983-06-01

    The findings of a 7-year field experiment conducted in the Indian Punjab show that integrating family planning with health services is more effective and efficient than providing family planning separately. The field experiment was conducted between 1968 and 1974 at Narangwal in the Indian State of Punjab. It involved 26 villages, with a total population of 35,000 in 1971-72. The demographic characteristics of the villages were found to be typical of the area. 5 groups of villages were provided with different combinations of services for health, nutrition and family planning. A control group received no project services. A population study was made of the effects of integrating family planning with maternal and child health services. A nutritional study looked at the results of integrating nutritional care and health services. The effectiveness of integration was evaluated by identifying it both with increased use of family planning and improved health. Efficiency was judged by relating effectiveness to input costs. Distribution of the benefits was also examined. The effectiveness of these different combinations of services on the use of family planning was measured: 1) by all changes in the use of modern methods of family planning, 2) by the number of new acceptors, 3) by the changes in the proportion of eligible women using contraceptives, and 4) by how many people started to use the more effective methods. Results showed the use of family planning increased substantially in the experimental groups, whereas the control group remained constant. It was also found that, though the services combining family planning with maternal health care stimulated more use of family planning, they were more costly than the more integrated srevices. The Narangwal experiment provides significant evidence in favor of combining the provision of family planning and health services, but its potential for replication on a large scale needs to be studied.

  1. 75 FR 48283 - Liability for Termination of Single-Employer Plans; Treatment of Substantial Cessation of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ...://www.regulations.gov . Follow the Web site instructions for submitting comments. E-mail: reg.comments... addresses, required data, etc., would be posted on PBGC's Web site.\\7\\ The proposed regulation would also... best served by focusing the administrative resources of PBGC and plan administrators on tracing the...

  2. Health contribution to local government planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    France, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    When local government considers future land-use plans, the local health authorities are not always included as a key partner. In Cambridgeshire, England, the former Cambridgeshire Health Authority formed a partnership with local government to address this issue. The relationship that developed and the subsequent health impact review provided an opportunity to influence strategic policy and ensure that health objectives are taken into account. Through partnership working, lessons were learned about how to incorporate health issues into a strategic land-use planning document to the overall benefit of the community

  3. Eliciting consumer preferences for health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booske, B C; Sainfort, F; Hundt, A S

    1999-10-01

    To examine (1) what people say is important to them in choosing a health plan; (2) the effect, if any, that giving health plan information has on what people say is important to them; and (3) the effect of preference elicitation methods on what people say is important. A random sample of 201 Wisconsin state employees who participated in a health plan choice experiment during the 1995 open enrollment period. We designed a computer system to guide subjects through the review of information about health plan options. The system began by eliciting the stated preferences of the subjects before they viewed the information, at time 0. Subjects were given an opportunity to revise their preference structures first after viewing summary information about four health plans (time 1) and then after viewing more extensive, detailed information about the same options (time 2). At time 2, these individuals were also asked to rate the relative importance of a predefined list of health plan features presented to them. Data were collected on the number of attributes listed at each point in time and the importance weightings assigned to each attribute. In addition, each item on the attribute list was content analyzed. The provision of information changes the preference structures of individuals. Costs (price) and coverage dominated the attributes cited both before and after looking at health plan information. When presented with information on costs, quality, and how plans work, many of these relatively well educated consumers revised their preference structures; yet coverage and costs remained the primary cited attributes. Although efforts to provide health plan information should continue, decisions on the information to provide and on making it available are not enough. Individuals need help in understanding, processing, and using the information to construct their preferences and make better decisions.

  4. Electronuclear Park, Privatization and Civil Strict Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondello, Gerard Camille

    2008-01-01

    The civil strict liability regime of the electronuclear industry is a fundamental variable for preventing risk. Because prices of other energies as oil or gas are becoming higher and unpredictable, nuclear power becomes cost-effective and may favour the partial privatization of nuclear parks. By considering theoretical traditional liability models, we study the conditions that ensure the most efficient safety level when comparing natural monopoly situation and Bertrand duopoly. Our results are that natural monopoly is safer than duopoly only when strict liability is fully applied. We define conditions that neutralize risk for applying some privatization plan to nuclear park

  5. Strategic Teleconference Planning in Rural Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Liza; Boswell, Judy

    1997-01-01

    An introduction to planning interactive health education teleconferences via satellite discusses participant recruitment, satellite transmission coordination, scheduling considerations, format design, and use of site facilitators. Teleconference training of community service providers and community leaders should combine passive delivery of…

  6. Health Plan Performance Measurement within Medicare Subvention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    the causes of poor performance (Siren & Laffel, 1996). Although outcomes measures such as nosocomial infection rates, admission rates for select...defined. Traditional outcomes measures include infection rates, morbidity, and mortality. The problem with these traditional measures is... Maternal /Child Care Indicators Nursing Staffing Indicators Outcome Indicators Technical Outcomes Plan Performance Stability of Health Plan

  7. Health Insurance: Understanding Your Health Plan's Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know what your insurance company is paying…Health Insurance: Understanding What It CoversRead Article >>Insurance & BillsHealth Insurance: Understanding What It CoversYour insurance policy lists a package of medical benefits such as tests, drugs, and treatment services. These ...

  8. A Danish Twin Study of Schizophrenia Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kläning, Ulla; Trumbetta, Susan L; Gottesman, Irving I

    2016-01-01

    whether variance in schizophrenia liability attributable to environmental factors may have decreased with successive cohorts exposed to improvements in public health. ICD-10 diagnoses were determined by clinical interview. Although the best-fitting, most parsimonious biometric model of schizophrenia...

  9. The risks of liability for former mine operators: the implementation of a plan for preventing legal risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinet, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Shutting down mines has 'mechanically' increased the risks of cave-ins. The local (communal and/or departmental) administrations responsible for supervising the situation do not necessarily have the means for managing shafts and tunnels. For this reason, two acts were passed in 1994 and 1999 to reform how mines are managed after shutdowns. Managing post-mining operations has spawned lawsuits against former operators, even though they shut down their mines in compliance with the laws and regulations in force at the time. By virtue of these two acts, administrative authorities are now trying to make the former operators fill in shafts and tunnels. Moreover, individuals often try to obtain compensation for the damages caused by shut-down mines. This situation causes uncertainty for various parties; and the legal settlements being proposed are not sufficiently clear. Information is provided for thinking about how to implement a 'legal risk prevention plan', which former mine operators should bear in mind. (author)

  10. UMTRA Project environmental, health, and safety plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    The basic health and safety requirements established in this plan are designed to provide guidelines to be applied at all Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites. Specific restrictions are given where necessary. However, an attempt has been made to provide guidelines which are generic in nature, and will allow for evaluation of site-specific conditions. Health and safety personnel are expected to exercise professional judgment when interpreting these guidelines to ensure the health and safety of project personnel and the general population. This UMTRA Project Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH ampersand S) Plan specifies the basic Federal health and safety standards and special DOE requirements applicable to this program. In addition, responsibilities in carrying out this plan are delineated. Some guidance on program requirements and radiation control and monitoring is also included. An Environmental, Health, and Safety Plan shall be developed as part of the remedial action plan for each mill site and associated disposal site. Special conditions at the site which may present potential health hazards will be described, and special areas that should should be addressed by the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) will be indicated. Site-specific EH ampersand S concerns will be addressed by special contract conditions in RAC subcontracts. 2 tabs

  11. Nuclear Liability Laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, S.

    2016-01-01

    The principles of the nuclear liability regime, including their application to the case of transport, are described in the IAEA Handbook on Nuclear Law, and will not be repeated in this paper. Rather, this paper examines some specific aspects of liability during transport, and particularly draws on some of the work of the IAEA International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX). In that regard, particular reference is made to the Explanatory Texts published in 2004

  12. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... for policy makers and courts in awarding damages in a large number of real-world accident cases....

  13. General Principles Governing Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a brief review of the basic principles which govern the special regime of liability and compensation for nuclear damage originating on nuclear installations, in particular the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, the provision of a financial security to cover this liability and the limits applicable both in amount and in time. The paper also reviews the most important international agreements currently in force which constitute the foundation of this special regime. (author)

  14. 77 FR 76090 - Pendency of Request for Approval of Special Withdrawal Liability Rules; the I.A.M. National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Liability Rules; the I.A.M. National Pension Fund National Pension Plan AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty... Fund National Pension Plan for approval of a plan amendment providing for special withdrawal liability... on Extension of Special Withdrawal Liability Rules, a multiemployer pension plan may, with PBGC...

  15. Managing UK nuclear liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadnicki, Mike; MacKerron, Gordon.

    1997-01-01

    This paper sets out a framework for a fundamental reappraisal of the management of nuclear liabilities in the United Kingdom, built around two policy objectives, sustainable development and cost-effectiveness. The practical implications of the policy objectives are explored in relation to nuclear liability strategies, such as the adequacy or otherwise of current funding arrangements, the completeness of liability estimates and the distribution of financial responsibility between the public and private sector. A fundamental review of the management of nuclear liabilities is urged in the light of inadequacies identified in this paper. (UK)

  16. The College Professor's Professional Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Walter S.; Rubin, Harvey W.

    1977-01-01

    The growing number of professional liability suits against professors warrants a close examination of the need for and provisions of available insurance coverage. The evolution of tort liability, the question of negligence, and the professional liability policy are discussed. (LBH)

  17. Health and Safety Plan for Operations Performed for the Environmental Restoration Program: Task, Characterization of Potential Waste Sources at Auxiliary Reactor Area-1 Operable Unit 5--07 site ARA-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, S.L.; Morton, S.L.

    1992-06-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the ERP. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP

  18. Health and Safety Plan for Operations Performed for the Environmental Restoration Program: Task, Characterization of Potential Waste Sources at Auxiliary Reactor Area-1 Operable Unit 5--07 site ARA-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, S.L.; Morton, S.L.

    1992-06-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the ERP. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP.

  19. Health and Safety Plan for Operations Performed for the Environmental Restoration Program: Task, Characterization of Potential Waste Sources at Auxiliary Reactor Area-1 Operable Unit 5--07 site ARA-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, S.L.; Morton, S.L.

    1992-06-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG&G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the ERP. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP.

  20. A framework for health care planning and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Elias W.; van Houdenhoven, Mark; Hulshof, P.J.H.

    Rising expenditures spur health care organizations to organize their processes more efficiently and effectively. Unfortunately, health care planning and control lags far behind manufacturing planning and control. Successful manufacturing planning and control concepts can not be directly copied,

  1. Assets, liabilities and risks

    OpenAIRE

    R. Thomson

    2014-01-01

    Financial economists and actuaries do not always talk the same language. One particular difference of concern to actuaries is the method of treatment (or non-treatment) of the liabilities of an investor in the portfolio selection problem. Another difference relates to the way in which liabilities are valued. In this paper, these differences are discussed and possible way forward are suggested.

  2. Nuclear damage - civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is made of the civil liability for nuclear damage since there is a need to adjust the existing rules to the new situations created. The conventions that set up the new disciplining rules not considered in the common law for the liability of nuclear damage are also mentioned. (A.L.) [pt

  3. Romanian Nuclear Liability Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, R.

    2006-01-01

    The regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in the Romanian legislation is defined especially by the Law no. 703/2001 on civil liability for nuclear damage, as well as the Government Decision no. 894/2003 for the approval of the Norms for the enforcement of Law no. 703/2001. These two documents constitute the legal framework that regulates the third party civil liability for nuclear damages. The paper is proposing to present the main elements of the relatively recent legal framework, namely: the principles content in the international acts on civil liability for nuclear damages, the subject to whom such law applies, the regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in Romania and provisions regarding the terrorist acts.(author)

  4. UMTRA Project: Environment, Safety, and Health Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy has prepared this UMTRA Project Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Plan to establish the policy, implementing requirements, and guidance for the UMTRA Project. The requirements and guidance identified in this plan are designed to provide technical direction to UMTRA Project contractors to assist in the development and implementation of their ES and H plans and programs for UMTRA Project work activities. Specific requirements set forth in this UMTRA Project ES and H Plan are intended to provide uniformity to the UMTRA Project's ES and H programs for processing sites, disposal sites, and vicinity properties. In all cases, this UMTRA Project ES and H Plan is intended to be consistent with applicable standards and regulations and to provide guidance that is generic in nature and will allow for contractors' evaluation of site or contract-specific ES and H conditions. This plan specifies the basic ES and H requirements applicable to UMTRA Project ES and H programs and delineates responsibilities for carrying out this plan. DOE and contractor ES and H personnel are expected to exercise professional judgment and apply a graded approach when interpreting these guidelines, based on the risk of operations

  5. 42 CFR 56.105 - Accord with health planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accord with health planning. 56.105 Section 56.105... HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 56.105 Accord with health planning. A grant may be made under this... appropriate health planning agencies have been met. ...

  6. 42 CFR 51c.105 - Accord with health planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accord with health planning. 51c.105 Section 51c... COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.105 Accord with health planning. A grant may be made... approval by the appropriate health planning agencies have been met. ...

  7. 77 FR 38296 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, Attn: National Public Health Action Plan... Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, 4770 Buford Highway NE... topic's public health importance, existing challenges, and opportunities for action to decrease the...

  8. BNFL nuclear decommissioning liabilities management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colquhoun, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe BNFL's policy and strategy for decommissioning and also to summarize the overall scope of nuclear liabilities in the wider field of waste retrieval and storage, as well as the dismantling and demolition aspects of decommissioning. BNFL's recently established organisational arrangements for discharging all types of these liabilities are explained, together with a review of practical progress in dealing with them. Organisational changes in recent years have amalgamated decommissioning work with operations covering waste storage and retrieval operations. A strategy of minimising residual activity in shutdown plants is pursued, followed by dismantling and demolition on appropriate time scales to minimise risk and cost. Since April 1995, a new BNFL subsidiary, Nuclear Liabilities Management Company Limited has taken responsibility for discharge of BNFL's Waste Retrieval and Decommissioning liabilities on all BNFL sites. NLM has the objectives of optimal and lowest cost management of liabilities and much clearer segregation of physical operations from project specification and planning. The Ministry of Defense (MoD) policy, strategy, work programmes and progress for the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) are also outlined. MoD/AEA has established an equivalent strategy for dealing with its liabilities. (J.S.). 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 appends

  9. Public Health Agency Business plan 2010-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    This second corporate business plan explains the purpose of the PHA and focuses on health improvement, health protection and addressing health inequalities. The business plan is available to download below.

  10. [World plan for reproductive autonomy and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, P

    1994-06-01

    The principal objective of the Third International Conference on Population and Development to be held in Cairo in 1994 is to achieve consensus on a Plan of Action to reinforce reproductive rights of individuals, who bear ultimate responsibility for slowing population growth. The Plan of Action should be adopted by all the peoples of the world in order to stabilize population growth during the next twenty years by means of programs to provide family planning and reproductive health services. The preliminary conference document incorporated recommendations and proposals of two preparatory committees, five regional conferences, six expert meetings, 109 countries, and over 400 nongovernmental organizations from around the world. At current rates of growth, the world's 5.7 billion inhabitants will increase to 9.1 billion by the year 2025, vastly increasing pressure on already limited resources and ecosystems. The central theme of the first World Population Conference in Bucharest in 1974 was the close relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development. The 1974 World Population Plan of Action stressed development of strategies to achieve a better quality of life and rapid socioeconomic development. Recommendations of the 1984 World Population Conference in Mexico remained centered on implementation of the Bucharest Plan of Action with a few additions. Although progress has been achieved in meeting the goals of the Bucharest Plan of Action, growth rates of some developing countries have actually increased. Poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, and discrimination against women are still obstacles to socioeconomic development, and contraceptive usage has not reached optimal levels. Urban migration remains excessive. Progress for many countries over the past decade has been directly related to increasing the access of women to health care and family planning. Themes related to women's status and rights will be incorporated in the 1994 Cairo Conference. The

  11. The strategic planning of health management information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the roles and functions of strategic planning of information systems in health services. It selects four specialised methodologies of strategic planning for analysis with respect to their applicability in the health field. It then examines the utilisation of information planning in case studies of three health organisations (two State departments of health and community services and one acute care institution). Issues arising from the analysis concern the planning process, the use to which plans are put, and implications for management.

  12. 48 CFR 1602.170-9 - Health benefits plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-9 Health benefits plan. Health benefits plan means a group insurance policy, contract... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Health benefits plan. 1602...

  13. Assets, liabilities and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Thomson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial economists and actuaries do not always talk the same language. One particular difference of concern to actuaries is the method of treatment (or non-treatment of the liabilities of an investor in the portfolio selection problem. Another difference relates to the way in which liabilities are valued. In this paper, these differences are discussed and possible way forward are suggested.

  14. Organisational travel plans for improving health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Jamie; Macmillan, Alexandra; Connor, Jennie; Bullen, Chris; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2010-03-17

    Dependence on car use has a number of broad health implications, including contributing to physical inactivity, road traffic injury, air pollution and social severance, as well as entrenching lifestyles that require environmentally unsustainable energy use. Travel plans are interventions that aim to reduce single-occupant car use and increase the use of alternatives such as walking, cycling and public transport, with a variety of behavioural and structural components. This review focuses on organisational travel plans for schools, tertiary institutes and workplaces. These plans are closely aligned in their aims and intervention design, having emerged from a shared theoretical base. To assess the effects of organisational travel plans on health, either directly measured, or through changes in travel mode. We searched the following electronic databases; Transport (1988 to June 2008), MEDLINE (1950 to June 2008), EMBASE (1947 to June 2008), CINAHL (1982 to June 2008), ERIC (1966 to June 2008), PSYCINFO (1806 to June 2008), Sociological Abstracts (1952 to June 2008), BUILD (1989 to 2002), Social Sciences Citation Index (1900 to June 2008), Science Citation Index (1900 to June 2008), Arts & Humanities Index (1975 to June 2008), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (to August 2008), CENTRAL (to August 2008), Cochrane Injuries Group Register (to December 2009), C2-RIPE (to July 2008), C2-SPECTR (to July 2008), ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (1861 to June 2008). We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles, conference proceedings and Internet sources. We did not restrict the search by date, language or publication status. We included randomised controlled trials and controlled before-after studies of travel behaviour change programmes conducted in an organisational setting, where the measured outcome was change in travel mode or health. Both positive and negative health effects were included. Two authors independently assessed eligibility, assessed trial

  15. 42 CFR 495.336 - Health information technology planning advance planning document requirements (HIT PAPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health information technology planning advance... STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.336 Health information technology planning advance planning document requirements...

  16. State of emergency preparedness for US health insurance plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Raina M; Finne, Kristen; Lardy, Barbara; Veselovskiy, German; Korba, Caey; Margolis, Gregg S; Lurie, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Health insurance plans serve a critical role in public health emergencies, yet little has been published about their collective emergency preparedness practices and policies. We evaluated, on a national scale, the state of health insurance plans' emergency preparedness and policies. A survey of health insurance plans. We queried members of America's Health Insurance Plans, the national trade association representing the health insurance industry, about issues related to emergency preparedness issues: infrastructure, adaptability, connectedness, and best practices. Of 137 health insurance plans queried, 63% responded, representing 190.6 million members and 81% of US plan enrollment. All respondents had emergency plans for business continuity, and most (85%) had infrastructure for emergency teams. Some health plans also have established benchmarks for preparedness (eg, response time). Regarding adaptability, 85% had protocols to extend claim filing time and 71% could temporarily suspend prior medical authorization rules. Regarding connectedness, many plans shared their contingency plans with health officials, but often cited challenges in identifying regulatory agency contacts. Some health insurance plans had specific policies for assisting individuals dependent on durable medical equipment or home healthcare. Many plans (60%) expressed interest in sharing best practices. Health insurance plans are prioritizing emergency preparedness. We identified 6 policy modifications that health insurance plans could undertake to potentially improve healthcare system preparedness: establishing metrics and benchmarks for emergency preparedness; identifying disaster-specific policy modifications, enhancing stakeholder connectedness, considering digital strategies to enhance communication, improving support and access for special-needs individuals, and developing regular forums for knowledge exchange about emergency preparedness.

  17. Management of UKAEA graphite liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, M.

    2001-01-01

    development of these waste disposal strategies. UKAEA is liasing closely with the disposal organisations to ensure that all their concerns are addressed satisfactorily. This paper will describe: i. the varied nature, inventory and history of UKAEA's graphite liabilities; ii. the options that have been considered for the long-term storage and disposal of UKAEA's graphite liabilities; iii. the technical issues that have been considered in the development of these options; iv. the recent developments in the consideration of Wigner energy. The paper will summarise the current status and future plans of the UKAEA graphite waste packaging strategies, and describe the interactions with the disposal organisations. (author)

  18. Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP) Plan Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — A list of all Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP) plans available in each state, as well as links to the plan brochures, changes for each plan from the...

  19. The law of unintended (financial) consequences: the expansion of HIPAA business associate liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomes, Jonathan P

    2013-01-01

    The recent Omnibus Rule published by the Department of Health and Human Services greatly expanded liability for breaches of health information privacy and security under the HIPAA statute and regulations. This expansion could have dire financial consequences for the health care industry. The Rule expanded the definition of business associates to include subcontractors of business associates and made covered entities and business associates liable for breaches of the entities who perform a service for them involving the use of individually identifiable health information under the federal common law of agency. Thus, if a covered entity or its "do wnstream" business associate breaches security or privacy, the covered entity or "upstream" business associate may face HIPAA's civil money penalties or a lawsuit. Financial managers need to be aware of these changes both to protect against the greater liability and to plan for the compliance costs inherent in effectively, if not legally, making business associates into covered entities.

  20. 42 CFR 424.555 - Payment liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... covered items or services furnished to a Medicare beneficiary by a provider or supplier if the billing... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Billing Privileges § 424.555 Payment liability. (a) No payment may be made for otherwise Medicare covered...

  1. Financial Performance of Health Plans in Medicaid Mana...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This study assesses the financial performance of health plans that enroll Medicaid members across the key plan traits, specifically Medicaid dominant, publicly...

  2. Environment, Safety, Health and Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The mission of the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) is the production of high qaulity uranium metal for use by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in Defense Programs. In order to accomplish this mission and to maintain the FMPC as a viable facility in the DOE production complex, the facility must be brought into full compliance with all federal and state regulations and industry standards for environmental protection and worker safety. Where past practices have resulted in environmental insult, a comprehensive program of remediation must be implemented. The purpose of this combined Environment, Safety, Health and Waste Management Plan is to provide a road map for achieving needed improvements. The plan is structured to provide a comprehensive projection from the current fiscal year (FY) through FY 1994 of the programs, projects and funding required to achieve compliance. To do this, the plan is subdivided into chapters which discuss the applicable regulations;project schedules and funding requirements;details of the various programs for environment, safety, health and waste management;details of the ongoing National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA);the quality assurance program and the environmental monitoring program. 14 refs., 30 figs., 29 tabs

  3. How to inject consumerism into your existing health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, Linda J; McAllister, Michael F; Slavney, David H

    2003-09-01

    Consumerism seeks to create a behavior change on the part of consumers so that they become accountable, knowledgeable and actively engaged in managing their health. It can be used in any existing health plan through targeted plan design changes and consumer education efforts. Employers have many options in addition to consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs).

  4. 7 CFR 1400.204 - Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships..., limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar legal entities. (a) A limited partnership, limited liability partnership, limited liability company, corporation...

  5. 42 CFR 455.202 - Limitation on contractor liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on contractor liability. 455.202 Section... § 455.202 Limitation on contractor liability. (a) A program contractor, a person, or an entity employed... contractor will not be held to have violated any criminal law and will not be held liable in any civil action...

  6. 76 FR 46677 - Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Coverage of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Coverage of Preventive Services... regulations published July 19, 2010 with respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage offered... plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health insurance coverage. The text of those...

  7. Liability in nuclear establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockli, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper gives a history of safety legislation in nuclear plants. A change has been suggested to the present law which would put total liability for damage or injury on the owner of the plant. This new legislation is being introduced in Switzerland. It covers even natural disasters as well as acts of war, but excludes injuries caused through negligence or irresponsibility of employee, however, third party injured as a consequence is to be compensated. The liability stretches over 30 years after the event. (G.R.S.)

  8. Limitation of Auditors' Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Foged-Ladefoged, Lise Kolding

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the question of whether rules on the limitation of auditors’ liability within the perspective of EU law are needed, and if so, which rules can provide an appropriate balance between the potential injured party’s interests and those of the auditing sector, including with respect...... to the fact that the insurance premiums associated with an unlimited liability must of course make the auditor’s tasks more expensive. Relevant EU recommendations and a comparative glance at other EU countries’ proposed solutions to the problem are included....

  9. 75 FR 76946 - Demurrage Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... because the warehouseman--which otherwise has no incentive to agree to liability--can avoid liability... based on an unjust enrichment theory? The court rejected such an approach in Middle Atlantic, 353 F...

  10. [Consumer satisfaction study in philanthropic hospital health plans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerschman, Silvia; Veiga, Luciana; Guimarães, César; Ugá, Maria Alicia Dominguez; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Vasconcellos, Miguel Murat; Barbosa, Pedro Ribeiro; Lima, Sheyla Maria Lemos

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of research aimed at identifying and analyzing the argumentation and rationale that justify the satisfaction of consumers with their health plans. The qualitative method applied used the focus group technique, for which the following aspects were defined: the criteria for choosing the health plans which were considered, the composition of the group and its distribution, recruitment strategy, and infrastructure and dynamics of the meetings. The health plan beneficiaries were classified into groups according to their social class, the place where they lived, mainly, the relationship that they established with the health plan operators which enabled us to develop a typology for the plan beneficiaries. Initially, we indicated how the health plan beneficiaries assess and use the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), and, then, considering the types of plans defined, we evaluated their degree of satisfaction with the different aspects of health care, and identified which aspects mostly contributed explain their satisfaction.

  11. Civil liability versus state liability in case of a nuclear incident - some thoughts inspired by the Vienna Convention revision exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1992-01-01

    The juridical reconstruction involved in the current work in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for revision of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage is not simply a matter of re-surfacing the edifice of private law liability. It has also led certain architects to draw up plans for the foundations of a regime of State responsibility in this field, based on the strict liability of States to compensate for transfrontier damage. Following the post-Chernobyl stocktaking by the author and Otto von Busckist for the Tokyo Congress in 1989, this report sets out to analyse the question of the implementation of States' liability in the case of a nuclear accident, from the viewpoints of positive law, the work of the International Law Commission and specific aspects linked to the nuclear risk. It also examines the proposals in this regard deposited with the IAEA Standing Committee on Liability for Nuclear Damage. (author)

  12. Standards and producers' liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmer, F.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses the liability of producers and the diligence required, which has to come up to technical standards and the latest state of technology. The consequences of this requirement with regard to claims for damages are outlined and proposals for reforms are pointed out. (HSCH) [de

  13. Cargo liability regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    There are at present at least three international regimes of maritime cargo liability in force in different countries of the world - the original Hague rules (1924), the updated version known as the Hague-Visby rules (1968, further amended 1979), and...

  14. Managing 'tail liability'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Richard C; Weber, Ryan J

    2013-11-01

    To reduce and control their level of tail liability, hospitals should: Utilize a self-insurance vehicle; Consider combined limits between the hospital and physicians; Communicate any program changes to the actuary, underwriter, and auditor; Continue risk management and safety practices; Ensure credit is given to the organization's own medical malpractice program.

  15. [The "specific" liability regime for blood products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2017-10-13

    Based on the system of liability for defective products as organized by the European Directive of 25 July 1985, responsibility for blood products does not therefore constitute a genuine specific regime. However, European law leaves States a margin of discretion in the implementation of the Directive with regard to health products. This is the case in particular with the exemption for development risk.

  16. The Hemophilia Games: An Experiment in Health Education Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    The Hemophilia Health Education Planning Project was designed to (1) create a set of tools useful in hemophilia planning and education, and (2) create a planning model for other diseases with similar factors. The project used the game-simulations technique which was felt to be particularly applicable to hemophilia health problems, since as a…

  17. Health, family planning and population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, A; Standley, C C

    1973-01-01

    Maternal age over 35, close spacing of births, parity over 4, and unwanted pregnancy are discussed as factors that are associated with increased maternal and infant mortality. The likelihood of death due to childbearing is twice as high in the 30-40 age group as in the 20-30 age group and increases 4-to five-fold in the 40+ group. Brith Birth of less than 24-30 months are associated with a two-fold increase in neonatal and infant deaths. Health objectives of large scale family planning programs are geared toward avoiding such births. This paper proposes that these objectives would result in a decrease in maternal and child deaths and thereby lead to growth. A simultaneous lowering of birth rates, however, should offset this growth.

  18. Environment, safety, and health regulatory implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    To identify, document, and maintain the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project's environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) regulatory requirements, the US Department of Energy (DOE) UMTRA Project Office tasked the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to develop a regulatory operating envelope for the UMTRA Project. The system selected for managing the UMTRA regulatory operating envelope data bass is based on the Integrated Project Control/Regulatory Compliance System (IPC/RCS) developed by WASTREN, Inc. (WASTREN, 1993). The IPC/RCS is a tool used for identifying regulatory and institutional requirements and indexing them to hardware, personnel, and program systems on a project. The IPC/RCS will be customized for the UMTRA Project surface remedial action and groundwater restoration programs. The purpose of this plan is to establish the process for implementing and maintaining the UMTRA Project's regulatory operating envelope, which involves identifying all applicable regulatory and institutional requirements and determining compliance status. The plan describes how the Project will identify ES ampersand H regulatory requirements, analyze applicability to the UMTRA Project, and evaluate UMTRA Project compliance status

  19. Nuclear Liability Legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in Slovenia legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It is worth mentioning that legal instruments covering third party liability and compulsory insurance of such liability exist in Slovenia for almost 20 years and that our nuclear facilities are covered by relevant international treaties and conventions in this field, among them also by the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (from 1977) and the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention (from 1994). (author)

  20. Health Canada unveils plan to distribute marijuana for medical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaczuk, Derek

    2003-08-01

    Under pressure from the courts, Health Canada reluctantly comes up with a distribution plan to provide dried cannabis and seeds to patients using medical marijuana. The plan has been greeted with considerable criticism

  1. 29 CFR 4281.18 - Outstanding claims for withdrawal liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INSOLVENCY, REORGANIZATION, TERMINATION, AND OTHER RULES APPLICABLE TO MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS DUTIES OF PLAN... in insolvency proceedings. The plan sponsor shall value an outstanding claim for withdrawal liability... title 11, United States Code, or any case or proceeding under similar provisions of state insolvency...

  2. Phase 2 sampling and analysis plan, Quality Assurance Project Plan, and environmental health and safety plan for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation: An addendum to the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, R.B.; Adams, S.M.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Blaylock, B.G.; Brandt, C.C.; Etnier, E.L.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Gentry, M.J.; Greeley, M.S.; Halbrook, R.S.; Harris, R.A.; Holladay, S.K.; Hook, L.A.; Howell, P.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Levine, D.A.; Skiles, J.L.; Suter, G.W.

    1992-12-01

    This document contains a three-part addendum to the Clinch River Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation Plan. The Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation began in 1989, as part of the comprehensive remediation of facilities on the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The ORR was added to the National Priorities List in December 1989. The regulatory agencies have encouraged the adoption of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) terminology; therefore, the Clinch River activity is now referred to as the Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI), not the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation. Part 1 of this document is the plan for sampling and analysis (S A) during Phase 2 of the CRRI. Part 2 is a revision of the Quality Assurance Project Plan for the CRRI, and Part 3 is a revision of the Environmental Health and Safety Plan for the CRRI. The Clinch River RI (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants (radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds) released from the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. Primary areas of investigation are Melton Hill Reservoir, the Clinch River from Melton Hill Dam to its confluence with the Tennessee River, Poplar Creek, and Watts Bar Reservoir. The contaminants identified in the Clinch River/Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) downstream of the ORR are those associated with the water, suspended particles, deposited sediments, aquatic organisms, and wildlife feeding on aquatic organisms. The purpose of the Phase 2 S A Plan is to describe the proposed tasks and subtasks developed to meet the primary objectives of the CRRI.

  3. Phase 2 sampling and analysis plan, Quality Assurance Project Plan, and environmental health and safety plan for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation: An addendum to the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.B.; Adams, S.M.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Blaylock, B.G.; Brandt, C.C.; Etnier, E.L.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Gentry, M.J.; Greeley, M.S.; Halbrook, R.S.; Harris, R.A.; Holladay, S.K.; Hook, L.A.; Howell, P.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Levine, D.A.; Skiles, J.L.; Suter, G.W.

    1992-12-01

    This document contains a three-part addendum to the Clinch River Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation Plan. The Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation began in 1989, as part of the comprehensive remediation of facilities on the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The ORR was added to the National Priorities List in December 1989. The regulatory agencies have encouraged the adoption of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) terminology; therefore, the Clinch River activity is now referred to as the Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI), not the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation. Part 1 of this document is the plan for sampling and analysis (S ampersand A) during Phase 2 of the CRRI. Part 2 is a revision of the Quality Assurance Project Plan for the CRRI, and Part 3 is a revision of the Environmental Health and Safety Plan for the CRRI. The Clinch River RI (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants (radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds) released from the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. Primary areas of investigation are Melton Hill Reservoir, the Clinch River from Melton Hill Dam to its confluence with the Tennessee River, Poplar Creek, and Watts Bar Reservoir. The contaminants identified in the Clinch River/Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) downstream of the ORR are those associated with the water, suspended particles, deposited sediments, aquatic organisms, and wildlife feeding on aquatic organisms. The purpose of the Phase 2 S ampersand A Plan is to describe the proposed tasks and subtasks developed to meet the primary objectives of the CRRI

  4. Iran's Health Reform Plan: Measuring Changes in Equity Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari Arani, Abbas; Atashbar, Tohid; Antoun, Joseph; Bossert, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Two years after the implementation of the Health Sector Evolution Plan (HSEP), this study evaluated the effects of the plan on health equity indices. The main indices assessed by the study were the Out-of-Pocket (OOP) health expenditures, the Fairness in Financial Contribution (FFC) to the health system index, the index of households' Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) and the headcount ratio of Impoverishing Health Expenditure (IHE). The per capita share of costs for total health services has been decreased. The lowered costs have been more felt in rural areas, generally due to sharp decrease in inpatient costs. Per capita pay for outpatient services is almost constant or has slightly increased. The reform plan has managed to improve households' Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) index from an average of 2.9% before the implementation of the plan to 2.3% after the plan. The Fairness in Financial Contribution (FFC) to the health system index has worsened from 0.79 to 0.76, and the headcount ratio of Impoverishing Health Expenditure (IHE) index deteriorated after the implementation of plan from 0.34 to 0.50. Considerable improvement, in decreasing the burden of catastrophic hospital costs in low income strata which is about 26% relative to the time before the implementation of the plan can be regarded as the main achievement of the plan, whereas the worsening in the headcount ratio of IHE and FFC are the equity bottlenecks of the plan.

  5. From chain liability to chain responsibility: MNE approaches to implement safety and health codes in international supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tulder, R.; van Wijk, J.; Kolk, A.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether the involvement of stakeholders in the design of corporate codes of conduct leads to a higher implementation likelihood of the code. The empirical focus is on Occupational Safety and Health (OSH). The article compares the inclusion of OSH issues in the codes of conduct

  6. Evaluating public relations effectiveness in a health care setting. The identification of communication assets and liabilities via a communication audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Julie K

    2005-01-01

    The practice of public relations has experienced tremendous growth and evolution over the past 25 years, especially in the area of medical public relations. The constant changes in health care delivery have often led to increased need for communication with important publics. At the same time, practitioners in all fields of public relations have explored methods of accurately measuring the effectiveness of public relations programs. One such method of evaluation is the communication audit. This paper includes a brief overview of the communication audit concept followed by a case study based on an audit conducted for a small, multicultural non-profit health-care agency. Steps taken to conduct the audit and the methodology used are discussed. An analysis of the data is used to address two research questions regarding the efficacy of the Center's mission and vision. Suggestions for future audits are provided.

  7. School-Sponsored Health Insurance: Planning for a New Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bryan A.

    2010-01-01

    Health care reform efforts in both the Clinton and Obama administrations have attempted to address college and university health. Yet, although the world of health care delivery has almost universally evolved to managed care, school health programs have not. In general, school-sponsored health plans do little to improve access and have adopted…

  8. Provider-Sponsored Health Plans: Lessons Learned over Three Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breon, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare's movement to value-based care is causing health systems across the country to consider whether owning or partnering with a health plan could benefit their organizations. Although organizations have different reasons for wanting to enter the insurance business, potential benefits include improving care quality, lowering costs, managing population health, expanding geographic reach, and diversifying the organization's revenue stream. However, the challenges and risks of owning a health plan are formidable: Assuming 100 percent financial risk for a patient population requires considerable financial resources, as well as competencies that are wholly different from those needed to run a hospital or physician group. For Spectrum Health, an integrated, not-for-profit health system based in Grand Rapids, Michigan, owning a health plan has been vital to fulfilling its mission of improving the health of the communities it serves, as well as its value proposition of providing highquality care at lower costs. This article weighs the pros and cons of operating a health plan; explores key business factors and required competencies that organizations need to consider when deciding whether to buy, build, or partner; examines the current environment for provider-sponsored health plans; and shares some of the lessons Spectrum Health has learned over three decades of running its health plan, Priority Health.

  9. Quality of Family Planning Services in Primary Health Centers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Good quality of care in family planning (FP) services help individuals and couples to meet their reproductive health needs safely and effectively. Therefore, assessment and improvement of the quality of family planning services could enhance family planning services utilization. This study was thus conducted ...

  10. Consumer experiences in a consumer-driven health plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Jon B; Parente, Stephen T; Feldman, Roger

    2004-08-01

    To assess the experience of enrollees in a consumer-driven health plan (CDHP). Survey of University of Minnesota employees regarding their 2002 health benefits. Comparison of regression-adjusted mean values for CDHP and other plan enrollees: customer service, plan paperwork, overall satisfaction, and plan switching. For CDHP enrollees only, use of plan features, willingness to recommend the plan to others, and reports of particularly negative or positive experiences. There were significant differences in experiences of CDHP enrollees versus enrollees in other plans with customer service and paperwork, but similar levels of satisfaction (on a 10-point scale) with health plans. Eight percent of CDHP enrollees left their plan after one year, compared to 5 percent of enrollees leaving other plans. A minority of CDHP enrollees used online plan features, but enrollees generally were satisfied with the amount and quality of the information provided by the CDHP. Almost half reported a particularly positive experience, compared to a quarter reporting a particularly negative experience. Thirty percent said they would recommend the plan to others, while an additional 57 percent said they would recommend it depending on the situation. Much more work is needed to determine how consumer experience varies with the number and type of plan options available, the design of the CDHP, and the length of time in the CDHP. Research also is needed on the factors that affect consumer decisions to leave CDHPs.

  11. Criminal liability of physicians and other health care professionals in Hungary (review of case law between 1996-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, T; Szabó, A; Dósa, A; Bartha, F

    2006-12-01

    The authors examine the criminal cases involving physicians and other health care workers between January 1996 and December 2000 inclusive. in Hungary. The data are based on the registry of the Criminal Prosecutor's Office. Altogether 94 cases were initiated in this period of time, the accused of the criminal proceeding was a registered nurse in 9 cases, an ambulance paramedic in 5 cases, a pharmacist in 3, and a physician in 77 cases. In cases where registered nurses were involved, the most common act was negligent change of medication or providing inadequate custody of a patient in need, pharmacists were also accused for negligent change of medicinal products. In case of ambulance assistants the most common violation of the professional rules was diagnostic failure or not responding to the call in time. As to physicians, mostly primary care physicians were accused (29%), usually for failing to examine the patient or for diagnostic error, obstetricians-gynecologists (17 %) and traumatologists (12 %) were also frequently accused.

  12. Civil liability on nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittar, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The civil liability theory in the actual context is shown in the first and second part of this thesis, including some considerations about concepts and types of liability in dangerous and not dangerous activities. In the third part, the legal aspects of civil liability for the nuclear activities are analyzed, with a brief description of the history evolution, standard systems, inspection corporation and juridical regulation. (C.G.C.). 239 refs

  13. 45 CFR 162.925 - Additional requirements for health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clearinghouse to receive, process, or transmit a standard transaction may not charge fees or costs in excess of... RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS General Provisions for Transactions § 162.925 Additional... transaction as a standard transaction, the health plan must do so. (2) A health plan may not delay or reject a...

  14. Risk sharing between competing health plans and sponsors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. van Barneveld (Erik); W.P.M.M. van de Ven (Wynand); R.C.J.A. van Vliet (René)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn many countries, competing health plans receive capitation payments from a sponsor, whether government or a private employer. All capitation payment methods are far from perfect and have raised concerns about risk selection. Paying health plans partly on the basis

  15. A CONCEPTUAL PERSPECTIVE REGARDING PRODUCT LIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela POPESCU

    2010-01-01

    : organisation, education, new revision of the products, initial revision of the products, periodical control of production, warranties control, warning of the contracts, complaints and claims, revocation plan, subrogation, risk criteria, standards, services control, reparation, etc. All these elements are described according to their own characteristics, as well as to the specific situation from the USA economy. There have also been outlined some characteristics of these elements which could allow for a product liability prevention program in other countries. That is why these elements have an important role in the economy of this material and underline once again the theoretical and practical importance of the studied problem.

  16. Information Processing and Limited Liability

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Mackowiak; Mirko Wiederholt

    2012-01-01

    Decision-makers often face limited liability and thus know that their loss will be bounded. We study how limited liability affects the behavior of an agent who chooses how much information to acquire and process in order to take a good decision. We find that an agent facing limited liability processes less information than an agent with unlimited liability. The informational gap between the two agents is larger in bad times than in good times and when information is more costly to process.

  17. [Planning a Health Residence for Prison Security Measures, Tuscany (Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfido, Eugenio; Colombai, Renato; Scarpa, Franco; Totaro, Michele; Tani, Luca; Baldini, Claudio; Baggiani, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Health Residences for Prison Security Measures are facilities hosting psychotic persons who have committed crimes and providing them with personalized rehabilitation and treatment plans to promote their reinstatement in society. The aim of this study was to describe the criteria for planning and designing a prison health residence in the Tuscany region (Italy), to be managed by the regional healthcare service, in line with current regulations, with dedicated staff for providing specific treatment plans and programmes.

  18. Policy Watch: The Federal Employees Health Benefits Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Feldman; Kenneth E. Thorpe; Bradley Gray

    2002-01-01

    This short feature describes the Federal Employees Health Benefits Plan (FEHBP), which provides health insurance benefits to active and retired federal employees and their dependents. The article discusses the FEHBP as a touchstone for research on employment-based health insurance and as a touchstone for health policy reform.

  19. Civil liability related to imaging exams in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Mathias Pante; Liedke, Gabriela Salatino; Fontoura, Helena da Silveira; Silveira, Heraldo Luis Dias da; Silveira, Heloísa Emilia Dias da

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To analyze all court lawsuits in Brazil in relation to civil liability involving radiographic and tomographic images up to February 2014. Methods: All Brazilian courts were surveyed for “civil liability,” “error,” “radiology,” “radiography,” and “tomography,” returning 3923 second-instance lawsuits. Out of them were excluded labor legislation, health insurance coverage of radiological examinations, and criminal liability cases and 359 were selected. Compliance with expert reports, involv...

  20. Health plans' disease management programs: extending across the medical and behavioral health spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Elizabeth Levy; Horgan, Constance M; Garnick, Deborah W; Hodgkin, Dominic; Morley, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Although the disease management industry has expanded rapidly, there is little nationally representative data regarding medical and behavioral health disease management programs at the health plan level. National estimates from a survey of private health plans indicate that 90% of health plan products offered disease management for general medical conditions such as diabetes but only 37% had depression programs. The frequency of specific depression disease management activities varied widely. Program adoption was significantly related to product type and behavioral health contracting. In health plans, disease management has penetrated more slowly into behavioral health and depression program characteristics are highly variable.

  1. Fukushima: liability and compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez-Maignan, Ximena

    2012-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, Japan endured one of the worst natural disasters in its history when a massive earthquake struck the Pacific coast of the country and was followed by a tsunami which led to considerable loss of lives. It also led to a major accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Soon afterwards, the operator of the plant, Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), assumed responsibility and liability for the nuclear accident. On 28 April 2011, TEPCO established a dedicated contact line to provide consulting services for financial compensation related to the damage caused

  2. Public Health Climate Change Adaptation Planning Using Stakeholder Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidson, Millicent; Clancy, Kathleen A; Birkhead, Guthrie S

    2016-01-01

    Public health climate change adaptation planning is an urgent priority requiring stakeholder feedback. The 10 Essential Public Health Services can be applied to adaptation activities. To develop a state health department climate and health adaptation plan as informed by stakeholder feedback. With Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funding, the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) implemented a 2010-2013 climate and health planning process, including 7 surveys on perceptions and adaptation priorities. New York State Department of Health program managers participated in initial (n = 41, denominator unknown) and follow-up (72.2%) needs assessments. Surveillance system information was collected from 98.1% of surveillance system managers. For adaptation prioritization surveys, participants included 75.4% of NYSDOH leaders; 60.3% of local health departments (LHDs); and 53.7% of other stakeholders representing environmental, governmental, health, community, policy, academic, and business organizations. Interviews were also completed with 38.9% of other stakeholders. In 2011 surveys, 34.1% of state health program directors believed that climate change would impact their program priorities. However, 84.6% of state health surveillance system managers provided ideas for using databases for climate and health monitoring/surveillance. In 2012 surveys, 46.5% of state health leaders agreed they had sufficient information about climate and health compared to 17.1% of LHDs (P = .0046) and 40.9% of other stakeholders (nonsignificant difference). Significantly fewer (P climate and health into planning compared to state health leaders (55.8%) and other stakeholders (68.2%). Stakeholder groups agreed on the 4 highest priority adaptation categories including core public health activities such as surveillance, coordination/collaboration, education, and policy development. Feedback from diverse stakeholders was utilized by NYSDOH to develop its Climate and Health

  3. Site specific health and safety plan, 233-S decontamination and decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. Fasso

    1997-12-31

    The deactivated 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility, located in the 200 Area at the Hanford Site, is the subject of this Health and Safety Plan.The 233-S Facility operated from January 1952 until July 1967 at which time the building entered the U.S. Department of Energy`s Surplus Facility Management Program as a retired facility. The facility has since undergone severe degradation due to exposure to extreme weather conditions. Additionally, the weather caused existing cracks in concrete structures of the building to lengthen, thereby increasing the potential for failed confinement of the radioactive material in the building. Differential settlement has also occurred causing portions of the facility to separate from the main building structure, increasing the potential for release of radioactive material to the environment. An expedited response is proposed to remove this threat and ensure protection of human health and the environment. On this premise it is intended that the 233-S Facility removal action be performed as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Time-Critical Project being conducted under the Pilot Hanford Environmental Restoration (ER) Initiative

  4. Hawaii State Plan for Occupational Safety and Health. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    This document announces the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) decision to modify the Hawaii State Plan's ``final approval'' determination under Section 18(e) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (the Act) and to transition to ``initial approval'' status. OSHA is reinstating concurrent federal enforcement authority over occupational safety and health issues in the private sector, which have been solely covered by the Hawaii State Plan since 1984.

  5. [Occupational health protection in business economics--business plan for health intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2011-01-01

    One of the company's actions for strengthening human capital is the protection of health and safety of its employees. Its implementation needs financial resources, therefore, employers expect tangible effectiveness in terms of health and economics. Business plan as an element of company planning can be a helpful tool for new health interventions management. The aim of this work was to elaborate a business plan framework for occupational health interventions at the company level, combining occupational health practices with company management and economics. The business plan of occupational health interventions was based on the literature review, the author's own research projects and meta-analysis of research reports on economic relations between occupational health status and company productivity. The study resulted in the development of the business plan for occupational health interventions at the company level. It consists of summary and several sections that address such issues as the key elements of the intervention discussed against a background of the company economics and management, occupational health and safety status of the staff, employees' health care organization, organizational plan of providing the employees with health protection, marketing plan, including specificity of health interventions in the company marketing plan and financial plan, reflecting the economic effects of health care interventions on the overall financial management of the company. Business plan defines occupational health and safety interventions as a part of the company activities as a whole. Planning health care interventions without relating them to the statutory goals of the company may have the adverse impact on the financial balance and profitability of the company. Therefore, business plan by providing the opportunity of comparing different options of occupational health interventions to be implemented by employers is a key element of the management of employees

  6. Health Information Search and Retirement Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Nicholas A.; Sages, Ronald A.; Fernatt, Frederick R.; Nabeshima, George G.; Grable, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has found a relationship between the health habits of individuals and their financial well-being. Little research has been conducted, however, to explore the nature of the health-wealth connection. The purpose of this study was to explore and test the association of physical health behaviors, namely exercise and diet, and health…

  7. 42 CFR 417.464 - End of CMS's liability for payment: Disenrollment of beneficiaries and termination or default of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false End of CMS's liability for payment: Disenrollment... Enrollment, Entitlement, and Disenrollment under Medicare Contract § 417.464 End of CMS's liability for... disenrollment: General rule. (1) CMS's liability for monthly capitation payments to the HMO or CMP generally...

  8. Health Careers Planning Guide--Illinois. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Champaign.

    This notebook of career counseling materials is a compilation of career information on nursing and the allied health fields. The first section provides general information useful in choosing a health career on such topics as career planning, career mobility, employment prospects, financial aid, terminology in health job titles, and an annotated…

  9. Common and Critical Components Among Community Health Assessment and Community Health Improvement Planning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennel, Cara L; Burdine, James N; Prochaska, John D; McLeroy, Kenneth R

    Community health assessment and community health improvement planning are continuous, systematic processes for assessing and addressing health needs in a community. Since there are different models to guide assessment and planning, as well as a variety of organizations and agencies that carry out these activities, there may be confusion in choosing among approaches. By examining the various components of the different assessment and planning models, we are able to identify areas for coordination, ways to maximize collaboration, and strategies to further improve community health. We identified 11 common assessment and planning components across 18 models and requirements, with a particular focus on health department, health system, and hospital models and requirements. These common components included preplanning; developing partnerships; developing vision and scope; collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data; identifying community assets; identifying priorities; developing and implementing an intervention plan; developing and implementing an evaluation plan; communicating and receiving feedback on the assessment findings and/or the plan; planning for sustainability; and celebrating success. Within several of these components, we discuss characteristics that are critical to improving community health. Practice implications include better understanding of different models and requirements by health departments, hospitals, and others involved in assessment and planning to improve cross-sector collaboration, collective impact, and community health. In addition, federal and state policy and accreditation requirements may be revised or implemented to better facilitate assessment and planning collaboration between health departments, hospitals, and others for the purpose of improving community health.

  10. Empowering health personnel for decentralized health planning in India: The Public Health Resource Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Vandana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Public Health Resource Network is an innovative distance-learning course in training, motivating, empowering and building a network of health personnel from government and civil society groups. Its aim is to build human resource capacity for strengthening decentralized health planning, especially at the district level, to improve accountability of health systems, elicit community participation for health, ensure equitable and accessible health facilities and to bring about convergence in programmes and services. The question confronting health systems in India is how best to reform, revitalize and resource primary health systems to deliver different levels of service aligned to local realities, ensuring universal coverage, equitable access, efficiency and effectiveness, through an empowered cadre of health personnel. To achieve these outcomes it is essential that health planning be decentralized. Districts vary widely according to the specific needs of their population, and even more so in terms of existing interventions and available resources. Strategies, therefore, have to be district-specific, not only because health needs vary, but also because people's perceptions and capacities to intervene and implement programmes vary. In centrally designed plans there is little scope for such adaptation and contextualization, and hence decentralized planning becomes crucial. To undertake these initiatives, there is a strong need for trained, motivated, empowered and networked health personnel. It is precisely at this level that a lack of technical knowledge and skills and the absence of a supportive network or adequate educational opportunities impede personnel from making improvements. The absence of in-service training and of training curricula that reflect field realities also adds to this, discouraging health workers from pursuing effective strategies. The Public Health Resource Network is thus an attempt to reach out to motivated

  11. Empowering health personnel for decentralized health planning in India: The Public Health Resource Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Anuska; Zaidi, Sarover; Prasad, Vandana; Raman, V R

    2009-07-20

    The Public Health Resource Network is an innovative distance-learning course in training, motivating, empowering and building a network of health personnel from government and civil society groups. Its aim is to build human resource capacity for strengthening decentralized health planning, especially at the district level, to improve accountability of health systems, elicit community participation for health, ensure equitable and accessible health facilities and to bring about convergence in programmes and services. The question confronting health systems in India is how best to reform, revitalize and resource primary health systems to deliver different levels of service aligned to local realities, ensuring universal coverage, equitable access, efficiency and effectiveness, through an empowered cadre of health personnel. To achieve these outcomes it is essential that health planning be decentralized. Districts vary widely according to the specific needs of their population, and even more so in terms of existing interventions and available resources. Strategies, therefore, have to be district-specific, not only because health needs vary, but also because people's perceptions and capacities to intervene and implement programmes vary. In centrally designed plans there is little scope for such adaptation and contextualization, and hence decentralized planning becomes crucial. To undertake these initiatives, there is a strong need for trained, motivated, empowered and networked health personnel. It is precisely at this level that a lack of technical knowledge and skills and the absence of a supportive network or adequate educational opportunities impede personnel from making improvements. The absence of in-service training and of training curricula that reflect field realities also adds to this, discouraging health workers from pursuing effective strategies. The Public Health Resource Network is thus an attempt to reach out to motivated though often isolated health

  12. to the National Mental Health Action Plan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strategic planning meeting, held from 30 March to 1 April 2012 in. Windhoek .... psychiatrists to be incorporated at all the levels of decision-making: facility .... of a recovery-focused model. .... Suicide risk assessment must be made a core competency of all .... and auditing of mental healthcare programmes to be established in.

  13. 1997 Operating plan for the Office of International Health Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    One year ago, the Office of International Health Programs provided you with our 1996 Operating Plan, which defined our ideas and ideals for conducting business in 1996. We have again this year undertaken an intensive planning effort, first reviewing our accomplishments and shortcomings during 1996, and then developing plans and priorities for the upcoming year, taking into account input from customers and outside review panels, and ensuring that the demands on the office have been balanced with anticipated human, financial, and material resources.

  14. Trying for Association Health Plans Again and Again and Again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkner, Richard Mark

    2017-07-01

    Business groups like the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and the National Federation of Independent Business endorse association health plans (AHPs) as a way to give employers more options beyond the strictures of the Affordable Care Act.

  15. Planning a change project in mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Rebecca

    2015-09-02

    This article outlines a plan for a change project to improve the quality of physical health care on mental health wards. The plan was designed to improve the monitoring and recording of respiratory rates on mental health wards, through the implementation of a training programme for staff. A root cause analysis was used to explore the reasons for the low incidence of respiratory rate measurement on mental health wards, and the results of this establish the basis of the proposed change project and its aims and objectives. The article describes how the project could be implemented using a change management model, as well as how its effects could be measured and evaluated. Potential barriers to the planned change project are discussed, including the human dimensions of change. The article suggests methods to overcome such barriers, discusses the value of leadership as an important factor, and examines the principles of clinical governance in the context of the planned change project.

  16. Public Health Planning for Vulnerable Populations and Pandemic Influenza

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cameron, Wendy K

    2008-01-01

    This thesis addresses planning for vulnerable populations, those segments of each community that are normally independent but that may require special assistance during a health emergency such as an influenza pandemic...

  17. Plan for radiological security at a university health center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huiaman Mendoza, G.M.; Sanchez Riojas, M.M.; Felix JImenez, D.

    1998-01-01

    This work shows a radiological security plan applied to a Basic Radiological Service at a university health center. Factors taken into account were installation designs, equipment operation parameters, work procedures, image system and responsibilities

  18. Liability for Diagnosing Malingering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kenneth J; Van Dell, Landon

    2017-09-01

    Malingering is a medical diagnosis, but not a psychiatric disorder. The label imputes that an evaluee has intentionally engaged in false behavior or statements. By diagnosing malingering, psychiatrists pass judgment on truthfulness. Evaluees taking exception to the label may claim that the professional has committed defamation of character (libel or slander) when the diagnosis is wrong and costs the claimant money or benefits. Clinicians may counter by claiming immunity or that the diagnosis was made in good faith. This problem has come into focus in military and veterans' contexts, where diagnoses become thresholds for benefits. Through historical and literary examples, case law, and military/veterans' claims of disability and entitlement, the authors examine the potency of the malingering label and the potential liability for professionals and institutions of making this diagnosis. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  19. Sanitation health risk and safety planning in urban residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this review paper was to determine the best sanitation health risk and safety planning approach for sustainable management of urban environment. This was achieved by reviewing the concept of sanitation safety planning as a tool. The review adopted exploratory research approach and used secondary data ...

  20. Transport Nuclear Liability Insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folens, M.

    2006-01-01

    Although transport of nuclear substances represents only a very small part of the global transport of dangerous goods, it takes place every day all over the world and it is part of our daily life. Transport of nuclear material takes also place at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle; radioactive materials are carried out all over the world by all major modes of transport: sea, air, road and rail. Despite the large number of nuclear transports, they are not considered as posing a serious risk. A major nuclear incident is almost always associated with the operating of fixed installations such as nuclear power plants; just think about Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This perception is strengthened by the absence so far of serious accidents in the nuclear transport sector and this finding is in fact proof of the very safe conditions of nuclear transport. But accidents can never be excluded entirely and in some cases damages could be as large as those caused by fixed installations. This means that protection of the interests of possible victims should also be covered in a correct way. That is why the special nuclear liability regime has also been developed to cover damage caused by a nuclear transport accident. As stated by Patrick Reyners, the prime motivation for originally adopting a special nuclear regime was the harmonisation of national legislation and that nowhere more than in the field of international transport operations is such harmonisation felt desirable . The international legal regime has been developed along two tracks, one based on the mode of transport and the other based on the notion of dangerous goods. The linkage between those two tracks is of permanent concern and the mode of transport is the key element to determine which international instrument should be applicable. The purpose of this paper is to briefly introduce the financial security provided by the insurance industry to cover the international nuclear liability regime for nuclear

  1. Accredited Health Department Partnerships to Improve Health: An Analysis of Community Health Assessments and Improvement Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronstadt, Jessica; Chime, Chinecherem; Bhattacharya, Bulbul; Pettenati, Nicole

    The Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB) Standards & Measures require the development and updating of collaborative community health assessments (CHAs) and community health improvement plans (CHIPs). The goal of this study was to analyze the CHAs and CHIPs of PHAB-accredited health departments to identify the types of partners engaged, as well as the objectives selected to measure progress toward improving community health. The study team extracted and coded data from documents from 158 CHA/CHIP processes submitted as part of the accreditation process. Extracted data included population size, health department type, data sources, and types of partner organizations. Health outcome objectives were categorized by Healthy People 2020 Leading Health Indicator (LHI), as well as by the 7 broad areas in the PHAB reaccreditation framework for population health outcomes reporting. Participants included health departments accredited between 2013 and 2016 that submitted CHAs and CHIPs to PHAB, including 138 CHAs/CHIPs from local health departments and 20 from state health departments. All the CHAs/CHIPs documented collaboration with a broad array of partners, with hospitals and health care cited most frequently (99.0%). Other common partners included nonprofit service organizations, education, business, and faith-based organizations. Small health departments more frequently listed many partner types, including law enforcement and education, compared with large health departments. The majority of documents (88.6%) explicitly reference Healthy People 2020 goals, with most addressing the LHIs nutrition/obesity/physical activity and access to health services. The most common broad areas from PHAB's reaccreditation framework were preventive health care and individual behavior. This study demonstrates the range of partners accredited health departments engage with to collaborate on improving their communities' health as well as the objectives used to measure community health

  2. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmenal, Safety, and Health Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The 1990 Tiger Team Appraisal of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) revealed that neither Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) nor ORNL had a strategic plan for Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) activities. There were no detailed plans describing ORNL's mission, objectives, and strategies for ES ampersand H activities. A number of plans do exist that cover various aspects of ES ampersand H. Their scope ranges from multiyear program plans to annual audit schedules to compliance plans to action plans from specific audits. However, there is not a single document that identifies the plans and the objectives they are to address. This document describes the strategic plan for ORNL and provides the linkage among existing plans. It gives a brief description of the organization and management of ES ampersand H activities at ORNL. The plan identifies the general strategies to be taken by ORNL, using the overall guidance from Energy Systems in its corporate ES ampersand H Strategic Plan. It also identifies more detailed plans for implementation of these strategies, where appropriate

  3. Behavioral Health Services in the Changing Landscape of Private Health Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Constance M; Stewart, Maureen T; Reif, Sharon; Garnick, Deborah W; Hodgkin, Dominic; Merrick, Elizabeth L; Quinn, Amity E

    2016-06-01

    Health plans play a key role in facilitating improvements in population health and may engage in activities that have an impact on access, cost, and quality of behavioral health care. Although behavioral health care is becoming more integrated with general medical care, its delivery system has unique aspects. The study examined how health plans deliver and manage behavioral health care in the context of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and the 2008 Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA). This is a critical time to examine how health plans manage behavioral health care. A nationally representative survey of private health plans (weighted N=8,431 products; 89% response rate) was conducted in 2010 during the first year of MHPAEA, when plans were subject to the law but before final regulations, and just before the ACA went into effect. The survey addressed behavioral health coverage, cost-sharing, contracting arrangements, medical home innovations, support for technology, and financial incentives to improve behavioral health care. Coverage for inpatient and outpatient behavioral health services was stable between 2003 and 2010. In 2010, health plans were more likely than in 2003 to manage behavioral health care through internal arrangements and to contract for other services. Medical home initiatives were common and almost always included behavioral health, but financial incentives did not. Some plans facilitated providers' use of technology to improve care delivery, but this was not the norm. Health plans are key to mainstreaming and supporting delivery of high-quality behavioral health services. Since 2003, plans have made changes to support delivery of behavioral health services in the context of a rapidly changing environment.

  4. Liability concerns in contraceptive research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, S J

    1999-12-01

    The history of liability claims in the US against contraceptive products is among the issues that discourage manufacturers from investing in discovery and development in this field. Other factors are the high cost of new drug development, elevated insurance rates for contraceptives, and the desire to avoid controversy that can disturb corporate tranquility. General features of the American legal system influence the large number and cost of product liability claims in the US compared to Europe. These differences pertain to issues such as the role of judges, how lawyers receive their compensation, and the use of expert scientific testimony. The history of litigation in the US against pharmaceutical products and devices pertaining to women's health suggests that interventions that involve the reproductive system are held to different standards or elicit different emotional responses than other pharmaceutical products or devices.

  5. Chernobyl: Lessons in nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwaczek, A.S.; Mooney, S.; Kerr, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Chernobyl dumped significant quantities of radioactive fallout as far as 1,300 miles away, causing severe economic loss in nations stretching from Sweden to Greece. It cost innocent sheep growers in Wales, fishermen in Switzerland, reindeer-dependent Laplanders in Norway, dairymen in Sweden and Austria, and cheese makers in Greece. European nations have calculated costs from deposition of nuclear materials in the hundreds of millions report the authors. The accident at chernobyl and the European experience with the consequences can offer several insights relevant to the US commercial nuclear industry, the authors note: (1) the aggregate effect of such an accident is extremely large and unpredictable; (2) adequate disaster planning can significantly reduce costs and ease the disruption; and (3) the experience raises questions about the adequacy of the nation's nuclear insurance and liability programs. given the number of commissioned nuclear reactors today, the present scheme would provide financial compensation of approximately $7 billion per incident. Depending on the circumstances, the authors say this may not be sufficient

  6. 76 FR 37207 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Department of Health and Human Services 45 CFR Part 147 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers... SERVICES [CMS-9993-IFC2] 45 CFR Part 147 RIN 0938-AQ66 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers... for group health plans and health insurance coverage in the group and individual markets under...

  7. 76 FR 37037 - Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and... interim final regulations published July 23, 2010 with respect to group health plans and health insurance..., group health plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health insurance coverage. The text of...

  8. Government-sponsored microfinance program: Joint liability vs. individual liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghya Kusum Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY is a government-sponsored microfinance program. The scheme is based on four features: group lending with joint liability, progressive lending, back-ended subsidy, and social capital. We propose a new model of SGSY having these features: group lending with individual liability, progressive lending, back-ended subsidy, and social capital. “Joint liability” clause of the existing model is replaced with individual liability in the new model. The paper shows that problem of adverse selection is removed in both models, i.e. in “SGSY with group lending and joint liability” and “SGSY with group lending and individual liability.” The problem of “moral hazard” is more severe in the existing model of SGSY compared with the proposed model of SGSY. Borrowers are also benefitted from participation in the proposed scheme of SGSY than that in the existing model of SGSY.

  9. Some considerations on disciplinary liability overlapping criminal liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefania DUMITRACHE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the various forms of legal liability there are many points of contact reflected in their common goal - the encouragement of active members of society. Starting from the statement - the independent nature of the various forms of legal liability does not mean they are excluded - in what follows, given the legal autonomy of spheres of social relations protected by various laws, we will consider disciplinary overlapping with other forms of legal liability - criminal liability. Of course, this is possible only if the act committed by the employee is both disciplinary and criminal. This form of accumulation are possible without violating the principle of non bis in idem that since each of the envisaged legal rules protect different social relations. In addition of this applying the same principle prohibits two or more same kind sanctions for an unlawful action

  10. Nuclear liability legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives some basic data about nuclear installations in Slovenia, reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third-party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in the Slovenian legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It also aims to give some facts about history and present status of nuclear insurance pool and the insurance of nuclear risks in Slovenia. Paper finally indicates also some future legislative steps with respect to nuclear third party liability, at national and international level. (author)

  11. Real estate planning for population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Margie

    2014-11-01

    Factors that health systems should consider when performing strategic assessments of their portfolios of ambulatory facilities include: Inventory. Location Facility condition. Service mix. Space use and capacity. Occupancy metrics. Strategic and economic opportunities.

  12. Advancing Public Health in Cancer - Annual Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer is the leading cause of death from disease among Americans under 85. Learn how NCI advances public health by conducting research to improve the delivery of quality cancer prevention, screening, and treatment to all Americans.

  13. Obesity, stigma and public health planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Lynne; Edwards, Nancy; Garrard, Michael; Sims-Jones, Nicki; Clinton, Kathryn; Ashley, Lisa

    2009-03-01

    Given the rise in obesity rates in North America, concerns about obesity-related costs to the health care system are being stressed in both the popular media and the scientific literature. With such constant calls to action, care must be taken not to increase stigmatization of obese people, particularly of children. While there is much written about stigma and how it is exacerbated, there are few guidelines for public health managers and practitioners who are attempting to design and implement obesity prevention programs that minimize stigma. We examine stigmatization of obese people and the consequences of this social process, and discuss how stigma is manifest in health service provision. We give suggestions for designing non-stigmatizing obesity prevention public health programs. Implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  14. Animal Health and Welfare Planning in Organic Dairy Cattle Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Winckler, Christoph; Roderick, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant...... for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is based on preliminary analyses carried out within a European project (acronym ANIPLAN) with participants from...... as well as animal health and welfare professionals (veterinarians and advisors) is paramount. This paper provides an overview of some current animal health and welfare planning initiatives and explains the principles of animal health and welfare planning which are being implemented in ANIPLAN partner...

  15. Core competency model for the family planning public health nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Caroline M; Roye, Carol; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2014-01-01

    A core competency model for family planning public health nurses has been developed, using a three stage Delphi Method with an expert panel of 40 family planning senior administrators, community/public health nursing faculty and seasoned family planning public health nurses. The initial survey was developed from the 2011 Title X Family Planning program priorities. The 32-item survey was distributed electronically via SurveyMonkey(®). Panelist attrition was low, and participation robust resulting in the final 28-item model, suggesting that the Delphi Method was a successful technique through which to achieve consensus. Competencies with at least 75% consensus were included in the model and those competencies were primarily related to education/counseling and administration of medications and contraceptives. The competencies identified have implications for education/training, certification and workplace performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Responsive consumerism: empowerment in markets for health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Schlesinger, Mark

    2009-09-01

    American health policy is increasingly relying on consumerism to improve its performance. This article examines a neglected aspect of medical consumerism: the extent to which consumers respond to problems with their health plans. Using a telephone survey of five thousand consumers conducted in 2002, this article assesses how frequently consumers voice formal grievances or exit from their health plan in response to problems of differing severity. This article also examines the potential impact of this responsiveness on both individuals and the market. In addition, using cross-group comparisons of means and regressions, it looks at how the responses of "empowered" consumers compared with those who are "less empowered." The vast majority of consumers do not formally voice their complaints or exit health plans, even in response to problems with significant consequences. "Empowered" consumers are only minimally more likely to formally voice and no more likely to leave their plan. Moreover, given the greater prevalence of trivial problems, consumers are much more likely to complain or leave their plans because of problems that are not severe. Greater empowerment does not alleviate this. While much of the attention on consumerism has focused on prospective choice, understanding how consumers respond to problems is equally, if not more, important. Relying on consumers' responses as a means to protect individual consumers or influence the market for health plans is unlikely to be successful in its current form.

  17. Quality improvement initiatives: the missed opportunity for health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Lopez, Sara; Lennert, Barbara

    2009-11-01

    The increase in healthcare cost without direct improvements in health outcomes, coupled with a desire to expand access to the large uninsured population, has underscored the importance of quality initiatives and organizations that provide more affordable healthcare by maximizing value. To determine the knowledge of managed care organizations about quality organizations and initiatives and to identify potential opportunities in which pharmaceutical companies could collaborate with health plans in the development and implementation of quality initiatives. We conducted a survey of 36 pharmacy directors and 15 medical directors of different plans during a Managed Care Network meeting in 2008. The represented plans cover almost 74 million lives in commercial, Medicare, and Medicaid programs, or a combination of them. The responses show limited knowledge among pharmacy and medical directors about current quality organizations and initiatives, except for quality organizations that provide health plan quality accreditation. The results also reveal an opportunity for pharmaceutical companies to collaborate with private health plans in the development of quality initiatives, especially those related to drug utilization, such as patient adherence and education and correct drug utilization. Our survey shows clearly that today's focus for managed care organizations is mostly limited to the organizations that provide health plan quality accreditation, with less focus on other organizations.

  18. Strategic media planning: furthering the impact of health care advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, G

    1985-11-01

    The changing marketplace and the competitive atmosphere makes advertising increasingly necessary for health care providers. Alternative delivery systems are already using the media to promote their products and hospitals will also need to market the services they provide. This article traces the history of health care advertising and outlines how to prepare an effective media plan.

  19. Navy Health Care Strategic Planning Process: A Draft Functional Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    are: 1. Conduct Health Care Planning 2. Manage Human Resoutrce 3. Manage Finances 4. Manag Education and Training 5. Provide Health Care Support to...and general officer medical records. This module is underdevelopment. 3. Manage Finances . This module is designed to be used by comptrollers. It assists

  20. Civil Liability for Environmental Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ciochină

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We debated in this article the civil liability for environmental damages as stipulated in ourlegislation with reference to Community law. The theory of legal liability in environmental law is basedon the duty of all citizens to respect and protect the environment. Considering the importance ofenvironment in which we live, the liability for environmental damages is treated by the Constitution as aprinciple and a fundamental obligation. Many human activities cause environmental damages and, in linewith the principle of sustainable development, they should be avoided. However, when this is notpossible, they must be regulated (by criminal or administrative law in order to limit their adverse effectsand, according to the polluter pays principle, to internalize in advance their externalities (through taxes,insurances or other forms of financial security products. Communication aims to analyze these issues andlegal regulations dealing with the issue of liability for environmental damage.

  1. Case-mix adjustment of consumer reports about managed behavioral health care and health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eselius, Laura L; Cleary, Paul D; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Huskamp, Haiden A; Busch, Susan H

    2008-12-01

    To develop a model for adjusting patients' reports of behavioral health care experiences on the Experience of Care and Health Outcomes (ECHO) survey to allow for fair comparisons across health plans. Survey responses from 4,068 individuals enrolled in 21 managed behavioral health plans who received behavioral health care within the previous year (response rate = 48 percent). Potential case-mix adjustors were evaluated by combining information about their predictive power and the amount of within- and between-plan variability. Changes in plan scores and rankings due to case-mix adjustment were quantified. The final case-mix adjustment model included self-reported mental health status, self-reported general health status, alcohol/drug treatment, age, education, and race/ethnicity. The impact of adjustment on plan report scores was modest, but large enough to change some plan rankings. Adjusting plan report scores on the ECHO survey for differences in patient characteristics had modest effects, but still may be important to maintain the credibility of patient reports as a quality metric. Differences between those with self-reported fair/poor health compared with those in excellent/very good health varied by plan, suggesting quality differences associated with health status and underscoring the importance of collecting quality information.

  2. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrew E; Evans, Alexandra E

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning.

  3. Health Seeking Behavior and Family Planning Services Accessibility in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niniek Lely Pratiwi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The MDG target to increase maternal health will be achieved when 50% of maternal deaths can be prevented through improvment the coverage of K1, K4, to make sure that midwife stay in the village improve the delivery by health workers in health facilities, increase coverage long-term contraceptive methods participant as well as family and community empowerment in health. Methods: This study is a further analysis of Riskesdas in 2010 to assess how big the accessibility of services in family planning in Indonesia. Results: Women of 3–4 children in rural greater and prevalence (27.1% compared to women who live in urban areas (25.0%. The main reason of not using contraception mostly because they want to have children 27.0% in urban, 28.2% rural whereas, the second reason is the fear of side effects 23.1% in urban, 16.5% rural. There is 10% of respondent did not use contraceptives, because they did not need it. Health seeking behavior of pregnant women with family planning work status has a significant relationship (prevalence ratio 1.073. The jobless mothers has better access to family planning services compared to working mother. Conclusions: Accessibility of family planning services is inadequate, because not all rural ‘Poskesdes’ equipped with infrastructure and family planning devices, a lack of knowledge of family planning in rural areas. Health seeking behavior of family planning services is mostly to the midwives, the scond is to community health centers and than polindes, ‘poskesdes’ as the ranks third.

  4. Modeling non-maturing liabilities

    OpenAIRE

    von Feilitzen, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Non‐maturing liabilities, such as savings accounts, lack both predetermined maturity and reset dates due to the fact that the depositor is free to withdraw funds at any time and that the depository institution is free to change the rate. These attributes complicate the risk management of such products and no standardized solution exists. The problem is important however since non‐maturing liabilities typically make up a considerable part of the funding of a bank. In this report different mode...

  5. Current US nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, O.F.

    2000-01-01

    The Price-Anderson Act Adopted by US Congress in 1957 as the world's first national nuclear liability regime. It is a comprehensive, complicated and unique system and stems from special features of US legal regime and federal system of government. It differs from other systems by providing for 'economic', not legal; channeling of liability to facility operator and not recommended as model for other states, but most features adopted by other states and international conventions

  6. Joining up health and planning: how Joint Strategic Needs Assessment (JSNA) can inform health and wellbeing strategies and spatial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Paul; Hewitt, Stephen; Blackshaw, Neil

    2013-09-01

    There has been a welcome joining up of the rhetoric around health, the environment and land use or spatial planning in both the English public health white paper and the National Planning Policy Framework. However, this paper highlights a real concern that this is not being followed through into practical guidance needed by local authorities (LAs), health bodies and developers about how to deliver this at the local level. The role of Joint Strategic Needs Assessments (JSNAs) and Health and Wellbeing Strategies (HWSs) have the potential to provide a strong basis for integrated local policies for health improvement, to address the wider determinants of health and to reduce inequities. However, the draft JSNA guidance from the Department of Health falls short of providing a robust, comprehensive and practical guide to meeting these very significant challenges. The paper identifies some examples of good practice. It recommends that action should be taken to raise the standards of all JSNAs to meet the new challenges and that HWSs should be aligned spatially and temporally with local plans and other LA strategies. HWSs should also identify spatially targeted interventions that can be delivered through spatial planning or transport planning. Steps need to be taken to ensure that district councils are brought into the process.

  7. 75 FR 34537 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... 45 CFR Part 147 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a... for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan... and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Interim final rules with...

  8. 75 FR 34571 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan... of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services... health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan under the Employee Retirement...

  9. 76 FR 44491 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... 37208) entitled, ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims..., ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and... external review processes for group health plans and health insurance issuers offering coverage in the...

  10. 75 FR 70159 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan... contracts of insurance. The temporary regulations provide guidance to employers, group health plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health insurance coverage. The IRS is issuing the temporary...

  11. 75 FR 27121 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Dependent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... 45 CFR Parts 144, 146, and 147 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Dependent... 144, 146, and 147 RIN 0991-AB66 Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance... requirements for group health plans and health insurance issuers in the group and individual markets under...

  12. Housing, health and master planning: rules of engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P; Haigh, F; Thornell, M; Molloy, L; Sainsbury, P

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge about health focussed policy collaboration to date has been either tactical or technical. This article focusses on both technical and tactical issues to describe the experience of cross-sectoral collaboration between health and housing stakeholders across the life of a housing master plan, including but not limited to a health impact assessment (HIA). A single explanatory case study of collaboration on a master plan to regenerate a deprived housing estate in Western Sydney was developed to explain why and how the collaboration worked or did not work. Data collection included stakeholder interviews, document review, and reflections by the health team. Following a realist approach, data was analysed against established public policy theory dimensions. Tactically we did not know what we were doing. Despite our technical knowledge and skills with health focussed processes, particularly HIA, we failed to appreciate complexities inherent in master planning. This limited our ability to provide information at the right points. Eventually however the HIA did provide substantive connections between the master plan and health. We use our analysis to develop technical and tactical rules of engagement for future cross-sectoral collaboration. This case study from the field provides insight for future health focussed policy collaboration. We demonstrate the technical and tactical requirements for future intersectoral policy and planning collaborations, including HIAs, with the housing sector on master planning. The experience also suggested how HIAs can be conducted flexibly alongside policy development rather than at a specific point after a policy is drafted. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of the Prevention Plan on Employee Health Risk Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Loeppke, Ronald; Edington, Dee W.; Bég, Sami

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of The Prevention Plan™ on employee health risks after 1 year of integrated primary prevention (wellness and health promotion) and secondary prevention (biometric and lab screening as well as early detection) interventions. The Prevention Plan is an innovative prevention benefit that provides members with the high-tech/high-touch support and encouragement they need to adopt healthy behaviors. Support services include 24/7 nurse hotlines, one-on-one health coach...

  14. Professional liability. Etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K C

    1988-03-01

    Once again, I find Mr. Cooper quote-worthy for his statement, "It is incumbent upon the trial bar not to support the status quo merely because it is in our economic interest. Change is in the wind, and our tort system will be blown away on the winds of change for change's sake unless we participate in correcting deficiencies in the tort system and civil jury trial process." I suggest that we cannot ask for change for our own economic interest, nor can we lay blame exclusively to the other etiologic elements. We must improve those elements within our purview. The prayer of serenity may serve us well: God, grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, the courage to change the things I can, and the wisdom to know the difference. In the game of professional liability litigation as played by the rules extant there are clearly winners and losers. The winners are the legal profession, both plaintiff and defense, and the insurers, who in the face of adversity simply increase premiums or withdraw from the market. The losers are the medical profession, the patients for whom they care and, in the broadest sense, our society as a whole. So as not to close on a note of gloom, one last quote. Lawrence H. Cooke, former Chief Judge of New York State, in remarks to the April 1986 National Symposium on Civil Justice Issues stated, "Our justice systems are beset with very real problems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Building and measuring infrastructure and capacity for community health assessment and health improvement planning in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, Christine; Grigg, C Meade; Steele, Jo Ann; Osgood, Laurie; Keating, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    COMPASS (Comprehensive Assessment, Strategic Success) is the Florida Department of Health's community health assessment and health improvement planning initiative. Since 2002, COMPASS built state and county health department infrastructure to support a comprehensive, systematic, and integrated approach to community health assessment and planning. To assess the capacity of Florida's 67 county health departments (CHDs) to conduct community health assessment and planning and to identify training and technical assistance needs, COMPASS surveyed the CHDs using a Web-based instrument annually from 2004 through 2008. Response rate to the survey was 100 percent annually. In 2007, 96 percent of CHDs reported conducting assessment and planning within the past 3 years; 74 percent used the MAPP (Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships) framework. Progress was greater for the organizational and assessment phases of the MAPP-based work; only 10 CHDs had identified strategic priorities in 2007, and even fewer had implemented strategies for improving health. In 2007, the most frequently requested types of training were measuring success, developing goals and action plans, and using qualitative data; technical assistance was most frequently requested for program evaluation and writing community health status reports. Florida's CHDs have increased their capacity to conduct community health assessment and planning. Questions remain about sustaining these gains with limited resources.

  16. Adult Health Study: provisional research plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Beebe, G W

    1960-12-14

    The study is planned as an intensive search for the late effects of single, whole-body radiation from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs. Although dosimetry information is by no means definitive at this time, preliminary information suggests that the effects of radiation doses up to 600 rads can be effectively studied in the surviving samples. The lower limit is moot, depending on the magnitude of the effect produced and the sensitivity of the study. The upper limit is also somewhat uncertain, as the most closely exposed individuals were more often heavily shielded. The potential radiation effects may be classified as follows: (1) alterations in the incidence of disease; (2) alterations in the natural history of disease, with or without alteration in incidence; (3) development of physiological or biochemical changes, or markers, short of actual disease; (4) nonspecific changes in vigor, acceleration of aging; and (5) occurrence of new diseases. It is proposed to conduct a search sufficiently intensive to detect effects of all five types. It is also a specific objective of this investigation to illuminate the pathogenesis of diseases of increased incidence, or of new diseases, if such be found. Also of interest is the matter of genetic or biochemical factors associated with survival and with the appearance of acute radiation symptoms. Survivors represent a truncated sample and selective host factors may have played a part in both survival and the liklihood of acute radiation symptoms. 17 reference.

  17. Health impact assessment in planning: Development of the design for health HIA tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, Ann; Slotterback, Carissa Schively; Krizek, Kevin J.

    2010-01-01

    How can planners more systematically incorporate health concerns into practical planning processes? This paper describes a suite of health impact assessment tools (HIAs) developed specifically for planning practice. Taking an evidence-based approach the tools are designed to fit into existing planning activities. The tools include: a short audit tool, the Preliminary Checklist; a structured participatory workshop, the Rapid HIA; an intermediate health impact assessment, the Threshold Analysis; and a set of Plan Review Checklists. This description provides a basis for future work including assessing tool validity, refining specific tools, and creating alternatives.

  18. PLAN Bicol, Philippines: health manpower development program in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, K

    1994-06-01

    PLAN Bicol in the Philippines is a community based Health Manpower Development Program (HMDP) geared toward training and mobilization of indigenous health practitioners, providing infrastructural and logistical support to individual families, and educating the community about health, nutrition, and the environment. The field officer recommends at the initiation of a project that program staff have roles that are well defined. New programs should be introduced to the community first and should involve the community in the planning stages. The HMDP program is directed to 38 villages located around national parks that have suffered from deforestation. Community health issues are malnutrition, low immunization, and lack of access to health services. HMDP established a training program for auxiliary health workers (AHWs), who make a commitment to return to their villages after training. Midwives are being trained at local schools. Village houses are being built and repaired; water systems and sanitary toilet facilities are being installed. Village health stations have been constructed and equipped with basic medicines, supplies, and equipment, and are open 5 days a week. Health education classes inform the community about nutrition and health. The problems at inception were the unwillingness of field staff to participate in the program and a high drop out rate among AHWs. Problems were worked out as the program progressed. Facilitative factors are the close coordination with the provincial health office, community acceptance, and the availability of qualified people.

  19. Health Care Consumerism: Lessons My 401(k) Plan Taught Me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Allen T

    2015-01-01

    Changes to the U.S. health care system are here. As we think about how individuals will pay for health care--while actively employed and while retired--our experiences with 401(k) plans provide some valuable lessons. In order to support employees in this new health care world--a challenge arguably more daunting than the 401(k) challenge we faced 20 years ago--some very different types of support are needed. Employers should consider providing their employees with the resources to manage health care changes.

  20. Unlimited liability will not automatically establish unlimited coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breining, W.

    1980-01-01

    Comments from the point of view of insurance companies. The plans of the Federal Ministry of the Interior to reform nuclear liability law in the Federal Republic of Germany, especially the intention to abolish the maximum liability limit, were commented upon also from the point of view of the insurance companies at the 6th German Atomic Energy Law Symposium. Reference was made, above all, to the problems which could arise from the fact that insurance companies need broad international backing and, accordingly, harmonization with the liability rules and conditions valid in other countries, in order to cover the high nuclear risks. Another problem to which attention was drawn was the need for evidence in catastrophic cases and the capability to settle cases of damage arising under such conditions. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MB [de

  1. Health policies planning: methodological standards, boundaries and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassius Guimarães Chai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Before the health right recognition and expansion brought about by the Federal Constitution of 1988,the impact on public accounts and the need to rationalize the system, now bound to the universalisation matrix, place “planning” as fundamental for the operationalization of actions and services of health accessing. The objective of this article is to carry out an integrative literature review in order to know the factors related to the methodological frameworks, challenges and possibilities for structuring a Municipal Health Plan (Administration. The following databases were searched: Lilacs, Library Digital Thesis and Dissertation (BDTD, in Google Scholar, the Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES Thesis Bank. For the composition of the sample, the following descriptors were associated: Health Policy, Decentralization and Municipalization with Health Planning. In addition, papers were selected among dissertations, theses and scientific articles, as well as institutional handbooks of the Ministry of Health-MS Publics of PlanejaSUS, adopting scientific works published between 2005 and 2015 as a time cut. The results found synthesize the scenario of the intersectoral and tripartite arrangement of health management, contributing to a critical and evaluative exercise of experience, challenges and possibility Of advances in the understanding of the importance of SUS municipal planning.

  2. Third party liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crancher, D.W.

    1976-12-01

    Basic principles of nuclear liability legislation are discussed including absolute and limited liability and the role of the Sovereign State in idemnifying the operator for damage in excess of limited liability. European counrties realised the need for unifying the law of nuclear instability and efforts were made accordingly towards producing workable international conventions. The world's first legislation on nuclear liability - the USA Price-Anderson Act - is described in detail and a digest of nuclear liability claims experience is given. Observations of the present status of nuclear third party liability are outlined. (Author)

  3. Liability of statutory organs in limited liability companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Janků

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Statutory organs of business companies (and similarly of co-operatives have numerous obligations imposed by generally binding provisions; relied with these is the liability for non-fulfilment of the latter. Some of the obligations are imposed directly by the laws, some are assumed on contractual basis. Their infringements may lead to the liability for the situation and consequences occurred. The regulation of the liability of persons engaged in the company’s bodies covers persons that are entrusted by the management of foreign assets. Sometimes these are in fact not entirely foreign assets because, although the assets are legally owned by the business company, persons acting as statutory organs are mostly partners (shareholders in these companies as well. As such they manage the foreign assets but the company properties were created by their contributions or through the business by themselves. The paper analyses the requirements laid down for the function of managing directors (jednatel in the limited company. Consequently it analyses the scope of the liability of managing directors firstly, in relationship to the company’s creditors (persons standing outside the company and, subsequently, in relationship to the shareholders. It also presents and characterises the recent trends in the Commercial Court’s judgement of the conditions required for the liability for damage and claims for damages put forward by action to recover damages by the managing directors. De lege ferenda the paper recommends that the legal regulation will be amended by provisions limiting the scope of persons to be appointed as executive director and/or extending the liability for damages for the partners of the company in cases where the damage in such cases can not be compensated by the executive director and the partners should bear consequences for their culpa in eligendo.

  4. Awakening consumer stewardship of health benefits: prevalence and differentiation of new health plan models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Meredith; Milstein, Arnold

    2004-08-01

    Despite widespread publicity of consumer-directed health plans, little is known about their prevalence and the extent to which their designs adequately reflect and support consumerism. We examined three types of consumer-directed health plans: health reimbursement accounts (HRAs), premium-tiered, and point-of-care tiered benefit plans. We sought to measure the extent to which these plans had diffused, as well as to provide a critical look at the ways in which these plans support consumerism. Consumerism in this context refers to efforts to enable informed consumer choice and consumers' involvement in managing their health. We also wished to determine whether mainstream health plans-health maintenance organization (HMO), point of service (POS), and preferred provider organization (PPO) models-were being influenced by consumerism. Our study uses national survey data collected by Mercer Human Resource Consulting from 680 national and regional commercial health benefit plans on HMO, PPO, POS, and consumer-directed products. We defined consumer-directed products as health benefit plans that provided (1) consumer incentives to select more economical health care options, including self-care and no care, and (2) information and support to inform such selections. We asked health plans that offered consumer-directed products about 2003 enrollment, basic design features, and the availability of decision support. We also asked mainstream health plans about their activities that supported consumerism (e.g., proactive outreach to inform or influence enrollee behavior, such as self-management or preventive care, reminders sent to patients with identified medical conditions.) We analyzed survey responses for all four product lines in order to identify those plans that offer health reimbursement accounts (HRAs), premium-tiered, or point-of-care tiered models as well as efforts of mainstream health plans to engage informed consumer decision making. The majority of enrollees in

  5. Health Manpower Planning and Employment Policies for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Kilic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Health manpower planning in health care should be done strategically while considering the following factors: health care needs and demands for community, health care organizations' objectives, goals and resources, goal of a high quality health workforce of sufficient size which has been appropriately distributed, their full employment realized within the appropriate time frame. A good health manpower planning consists of eight components: quantity (size, quality (skill, distribution, timing, employment, necessity, goals and resources. According to the calculations in this article, it must be 1515 people per general practitioner (GP and 1333 people per midwife. There must be 44.755 GP and 50.866 midwife for primary level in Turkey. However there are 51.530 GP and 41.513 midwife in Turkey in 2002. In this situation there is no more need for GP but there is a big need for 10.000 midwife as totally and actually 30.000 midwife for working at health centres for Turkey. As a result, this article discusses the shortcomings of Health Ministry's employment policies in Turkey. It is suggested that in the short run concepts such as physician unemployment, under-employment and flexible work hours will become frequently discussed in Turkey health care public discourse. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(6.000: 501-514

  6. Health Manpower Planning and Employment Policies for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Kilic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Health manpower planning in health care should be done strategically while considering the following factors: health care needs and demands for community, health care organizations' objectives, goals and resources, goal of a high quality health workforce of sufficient size which has been appropriately distributed, their full employment realized within the appropriate time frame. A good health manpower planning consists of eight components: quantity (size, quality (skill, distribution, timing, employment, necessity, goals and resources. According to the calculations in this article, it must be 1515 people per general practitioner (GP and 1333 people per midwife. There must be 44.755 GP and 50.866 midwife for primary level in Turkey. However there are 51.530 GP and 41.513 midwife in Turkey in 2002. In this situation there is no more need for GP but there is a big need for 10.000 midwife as totally and actually 30.000 midwife for working at health centres for Turkey. As a result, this article discusses the shortcomings of Health Ministry's employment policies in Turkey. It is suggested that in the short run concepts such as physician unemployment, under-employment and flexible work hours will become frequently discussed in Turkey health care public discourse. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(6: 501-514

  7. The Liability of the Employer and the Liability of the Employees between Civil Law and Labour Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru POPA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The working relationships based on the individual labour contract have an unprecedented aspect in civil law, namely, inequity of parts during the performance of the contract. This inequity is transposed in theoretical and applicative plan by the existence of the subordination report between the employer and employee. The lack of balance of the forces between the two parts of the contract constituted the necessary element for the birth of the new law branch which, by its settlements, to compensate this drawback. Though, in matter of liability, this “law of inequity” does not distinguish as a creator of new and independent institutions from “the general law”, apparently confining only at the removing or compensating the premises of the parts inequity. Thus, the Romanian labour law create a specific institution named patrimonial liability which involve applicable rules in the legal relationship arise from the individual labour contract that represent an exception from the common rules of the civil liability but does not completely delimit from it and using it as a decipherer resource of its elements and as supplement resource.The patrimonial liability does not exclude in all the situations the co-existence of other forms of civil, contravention or criminal liability if the necessary elements for their incidence occur.

  8. Robustness in practice--the regional planning of health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, G; Parston, G; Rosenhead, J

    1986-05-01

    Earlier work has criticized the dominant tendencies in operational research contributions to health services planning as characterized by optimization, implausible demands for data, depoliticization, hierarchy and inflexibility. This paper describes an effort which avoids at least some of these pitfalls. The project was to construct a planning system for a regional health council in Ontario, Canada, which would take account of the possible alternative future states of the health-care system's environment and would aim to keep options for future development open. The planning system devised is described in the paper. It is based on robustness analysis, which evaluates alternative initial action sets in terms of the useful flexibility they preserve. Other features include the explicit incorporation of pressures for change generated outside the health-care system, and a satisficing approach to the identification of both initial action sets and alternative future configurations of the health-care system. It was found possible to borrow and radically 're-use' techniques or formulations from the mainstream of O.R. contributions. Thus the 'reference projection' method was used to identify inadequacies in performance which future health-care system configurations must repair. And Delphi analysis, normally a method for generating consensus, was used in conjunction with cluster analysis of responses to generate meaningfully different alternative futures.

  9. A national action plan for workforce development in behavioral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Michael A; Morris, John A; Stuart, Gail W; Huey, Leighton Y; Bergeson, Sue; Flaherty, Michael T; Morgan, Oscar; Peterson, Janice; Daniels, Allen S; Paris, Manuel; Madenwald, Kappy

    2009-07-01

    Across all sectors of the behavioral health field there has been growing concern about a workforce crisis. Difficulties encompass the recruitment and retention of staff and the delivery of accessible and effective training in both initial, preservice training and continuing education settings. Concern about the crisis led to a multiphased, cross-sector collaboration known as the Annapolis Coalition on the Behavioral Health Workforce. With support from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, this public-private partnership crafted An Action Plan for Behavioral Health Workforce Development. Created with input from a dozen expert panels, the action plan outlines seven core strategic goals that are relevant to all sectors of the behavioral health field: expand the role of consumers and their families in the workforce, expand the role of communities in promoting behavioral health and wellness, use systematic recruitment and retention strategies, improve training and education, foster leadership development, enhance infrastructure to support workforce development, and implement a national research and evaluation agenda. Detailed implementation tables identify the action steps for diverse groups and organizations to take in order to achieve these goals. The action plan serves as a call to action and is being used to guide workforce initiatives across the nation.

  10. Civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    An international Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage was adopted in Vienna on 19 May 1963 by a sixty-nation conference convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The Convention, which is subject to ratification by the States signing it, will come into force three months after the deposit of the fifth instrument of ratification. The Convention is designee only to establish minimum rules regarding civil liability for nuclear damage; it may thus well be described as a framework convention, the main provisions of which represent the essential common denomination acceptable to as many States as possible. It leaves wide scope for national legislation and regional arrangements with a view to implementing these provisions The Convention does not purport to create a uniform civil law in this field, but it contains the minimal essential for protection of the public and forms the legal basis for uniform world-wide liability rules

  11. Reassessing the nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havinh Phuong

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear liability regime was thoroughly reviewed by nuclear plant operators, officials of regulatory authorities, and legal and insurance experts at the Symposium on Nuclear Third Party Liability and Insurance, held in September 1984 in Munich, Federal Republic of Germany. The symposium highlighted specific areas where adjustments or improvements would be needed in order to cope with practical problems encountered or emerging issues. By focusing on questions of legitimate concern to the public, it also sought to promote confidence in a compensation system for public protection that is in many ways unique. Topics addressed included the following: greater harmonization of the compensation amounts for nuclear damage established in different countries and in territorial scope; the concept of unlimited liability; the time limitation for compensation claims; the problem of proving causation; the concept of nuclear damage; and insurance coverage

  12. Strategic Medicines Planning in Primary Health Care | Adindu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategic medicines planning requires broad understanding of health and medicines realities within a context. Pharmacists viewing the community from a holistic perspective promote effectiveness in pharmacy, and facilitate synergy among the various groups to solve intractable medicines problems. Strategic medicines ...

  13. The two (quality) faces of HCHP (Harvard Community Health Plan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burda, D

    1991-03-18

    When it comes to total quality management, Harvard Community Health Plan has two personalities. It's using the principles espoused by such TQM gurus as Joseph Juran to reduce costs and improve quality in its clinics and offices. But HCHP also is enhancing its image in the healthcare industry by teaching TQM principles to others for big bucks.

  14. Health workforce planning in Europe: creating learning country clusters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the different dimensions and determinants of health workforce planning (HWF) are investigated to improve context-sensitivity and mutual learning among groups of countries with similar HWF characteristics. A novel approach to scoring countries according to their HFW characteristics

  15. [Local planning: the speech of basic health care center manager].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, Márcia Regina

    2005-01-01

    As planning is understood as a management tool, this article offers an argument through the speech framework of Basic Health Care Center Managers in the city of Curitiba-PR, by means of the Collective Subject Speech Methodology on local planning aspects. Its purpose is to bring local managers to a reflection concerning their styles, practices and experiences, as well as to collaborate with central level leading teams towards building their planning processes in an upward, participatory, communicative and strategic way. Considerations of the speeches built from central ideas are presented: planning methodology; inter-sectoriality; territorial basis; team and community participation; training, autonomy and particular profile of local managers; the manager's agenda; and institutional culture.

  16. Improving reproductive health in rural China through participatory planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joan; Liu, Yunguo; Fang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    China's new health reform initiative aims to provide quality accessible health care to all, including remote rural populations, by 2020. Public health insurance coverage for the rural poor has increased, but rural women have fared worse because of lower status and lack of voice in shaping the services they need. Use of prenatal care, safe delivery and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) services is inadequate and service seeking for health problems remains lower for men. We present findings from a study of gender and health equity in rural China from 2002 to 2008 and offer recommendations from over a decade of applied research on reproductive health in rural China. Three studies, conducted in poor counties between 1994 and 2008, identified problems in access and pilot tested interventions and mechanisms to increase women's participation in health planning. They were done in conjunction with a World Bank programme and the global Gender and Health Equity Network (GHEN). Reproductive health service-seeking improved and the study interventions increased local government commitment to providing such services through new health insurance mechanisms. Findings from the studies were summarised into recommendations on gender and health for inclusion in new health reform efforts.

  17. Health transformation plan: Goals achievement in Nemazee hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ahmadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main purpose of this study was to assess fulfillment of goals about “Health Transformation Plan (HTP of Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education” from the perspective of managers, which is as one of the most important management challenges in the Health System Reform Plan. These goals included six packages determined by the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education, the fulfillment of each of which one was evaluated separately as sub-goals in the current study. Finally, the rank of each package in comparison to other packages was determined and presented, using means rank test (Friedman test. Method: This study was conducted using a questionnaire in which comments of the senior and middle managers of Nemazee hospital were collected as the research data. Due to the fact that about one year has passed since the beginning of implementation of HTP and since there were no documented methods or questionnaires, the researcher designed a self-made questionnaire. The basis of designing the questionnaire was the set of guidelines developed for Health System Reform Plan. These guidelines include goals that a hospital should achieve during implementation of Health System Reform Plan. After sharing these goals with senior and middle managers of Nemazee hospital (as the place of research, they were converted to a questionnaire including 20 questions. The questionnaire included the goals that must be achieved in Nemazee hospital of Shiraz during the implementation of the plan. After designing the questionnaire, a preliminary test was taken to assess the reliability. Results: Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.88 showed a high rate of reliability in the above questionnaire. After the final data collection, the questionnaire was tested in a sample of 100 senior and middle managers; the results showed that about six packages were specified by the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education. The majority of

  18. The Obama health care plan: what it means for mental health care of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2009-01-01

    Health care was an important issue for both the Obama and McCain election campaigns. Now that Barack Obama is poised to serve as the 44th President of the United States, many health care providers are focused on what Obama's administration will mean for new health care initiatives. This article focuses specifically on aspects of the Obama and Biden health care plan that affects mental health care for older adults.

  19. NIF special equipment construction health and safety plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicki, R.H.

    1997-07-28

    The purpose of this plan is to identify how the construction and deployment activities of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Special Equipment (SE) will be safely executed. This plan includes an identification of (1) the safety-related responsibilities of the SE people and their interaction with other organizations involved; (2) safety related requirements, policies, and documentation; (3) a list of the potential hazards unique to SE systems and the mechanisms that will be implemented to control them to acceptable levels; (4) a summary of Environmental Safety and Health (ES&H) training requirements; and (5) requirements of contractor safety plans that will be developed and used by all SE contractors participating in site activities. This plan is a subsidiary document to the NIF Construction Safety Program (CSP) and is intended to compliment the requirements stated therein with additional details specific to the safety needs of the SE construction-related activities. If a conflict arises between these two documents, the CSP will supersede. It is important to note that this plan does not list all of the potential hazards and their controls because the design and safety analysis process is still ongoing. Additional safety issues win be addressed in the Final Safety Analysis Report, Operational Safety Procedures (OSPs), and other plans and procedures as described in Section 3.0 of this plan.

  20. Introducing the World Health Organization Postpartum Family Planning Compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonalkar, Sarita; Gaffield, Mary E

    2017-01-01

    The postpartum period offers multiple opportunities for healthcare providers to assist with family planning decision making. However, there are also many changing factors during the first year after delivery that can affect family planning choices. Given that several different documents have addressed WHO guidance on postpartum family planning, the electronic WHO Postpartum Family Planning Compendium (http://srhr.org/postpartumfp) has been introduced. This resource integrates essential guidance on postpartum family planning for clinicians, program managers, and policy makers. The development of the Compendium included consultations with family planning experts, key international stakeholders, and web developers. Once the website had been created, user testing by family planning experts allowed for improvements to be made before the official launch. Future directions are adaptation of the website into a mobile application that can be more easily integrated to low-resource settings, and translation of the content into French and Spanish. © 2016 World Health Organization. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  1. NIF special equipment construction health and safety plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicki, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to identify how the construction and deployment activities of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Special Equipment (SE) will be safely executed. This plan includes an identification of (1) the safety-related responsibilities of the SE people and their interaction with other organizations involved; (2) safety related requirements, policies, and documentation; (3) a list of the potential hazards unique to SE systems and the mechanisms that will be implemented to control them to acceptable levels; (4) a summary of Environmental Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) training requirements; and (5) requirements of contractor safety plans that will be developed and used by all SE contractors participating in site activities. This plan is a subsidiary document to the NIF Construction Safety Program (CSP) and is intended to compliment the requirements stated therein with additional details specific to the safety needs of the SE construction-related activities. If a conflict arises between these two documents, the CSP will supersede. It is important to note that this plan does not list all of the potential hazards and their controls because the design and safety analysis process is still ongoing. Additional safety issues win be addressed in the Final Safety Analysis Report, Operational Safety Procedures (OSPs), and other plans and procedures as described in Section 3.0 of this plan

  2. Strategic Planning in Population Health and Public Health Practice: A Call to Action for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Charles; Madhavan, Guruprasad; Rappuoli, Rino; Levin, Scott; Shortliffe, Edward; Colwell, Rita

    2016-03-01

    Scarce resources, especially in population health and public health practice, underlie the importance of strategic planning. Public health agencies' current planning and priority setting efforts are often narrow, at times opaque, and focused on single metrics such as cost-effectiveness. As demonstrated by SMART Vaccines, a decision support software system developed by the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Engineering, new approaches to strategic planning allow the formal incorporation of multiple stakeholder views and multicriteria decision making that surpass even those sophisticated cost-effectiveness analyses widely recommended and used for public health planning. Institutions of higher education can and should respond by building on modern strategic planning tools as they teach their students how to improve population health and public health practice. Strategic planning in population health and public health practice often uses single indicators of success or, when using multiple indicators, provides no mechanism for coherently combining the assessments. Cost-effectiveness analysis, the most complex strategic planning tool commonly applied in public health, uses only a single metric to evaluate programmatic choices, even though other factors often influence actual decisions. Our work employed a multicriteria systems analysis approach--specifically, multiattribute utility theory--to assist in strategic planning and priority setting in a particular area of health care (vaccines), thereby moving beyond the traditional cost-effectiveness analysis approach. (1) Multicriteria systems analysis provides more flexibility, transparency, and clarity in decision support for public health issues compared with cost-effectiveness analysis. (2) More sophisticated systems-level analyses will become increasingly important to public health as disease burdens increase and the resources to deal with them become scarcer. The teaching of strategic planning in public

  3. Strategic planning--a plan for excellence for South Haven Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Joanne; Baskel, Maureen; Martelli, Mary

    2011-01-01

    South Haven Health System has developed an innovative approach to strategic planning. The key to success of this process has been the multidisciplinary involvement of all stakeholders from the first planning session through the final formation of a strategic plan with measurable objectives for each goal. The process utilizes a Conversation Café method for identifying opportunities and establishing goals, Strategic Oversight Teams to address each goal and a Champion for implementation of each objective. Progress is measured quarterly by Strategic Oversight Team report cards. Transparency of communication within the organization and the sharing of information move the plan forward. The feedback from participant evaluations has been overwhelmingly positive. They are involved and excited.

  4. Civil liability concerning nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    France and the USA wish to cooperate in order to promote an international regime of civil liability in order to give a fair compensation to victims of nuclear accidents as it is recommended by IAEA. On the other hand the European Commission has launched a consultation to see the necessity or not to harmonize all the civil liability regimes valid throughout Europe. According to the Commission the potential victims of nuclear accidents would not receive equal treatment at the European scale in terms of insurance cover and compensation which might distort competition in the nuclear sector. (A.C.)

  5. Fiscal Liability of State Contractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Fajardo-Peña

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The State contract is one of the most important tools for public management. The formation, execution and liquidation of State contracts are also a potential cause of State patrimonial damages. Perhaps for this reason, many State contractors are prosecuted as if they were public spending managers. The question, however, is not as simple. The fiscal liability process has a qualified recipient: the fiscal manager. In this article, through a conceptual exposition and a case study, we identify the criterion for determining in which cases a State contractor acquires the function of controlling public funds and when he/she can be subjected to a fiscal liability.

  6. The Limited Liability Company: An Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne Wells; Gary Yoshimoto

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, businesses in many states have been given the opportunity to select a new form in which to conduct business called the limited liability company. This form provides the advantage of the personal liability protection of a corporation, while being taxed as a partnership. If most states create the limited liability company and current issues of uncertainty are favorably resolved, the limited liability company should become the most advantageous business form for most small and m...

  7. 75 FR 41726 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Coverage of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Coverage of Preventive Services Under the Patient... and health insurance coverage in the group and individual markets under provisions of the Patient... plans and group health insurance issuers for plan years beginning on or after September 23, 2010. These...

  8. 75 FR 37242 - Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Under the Patient Protection and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Under the Patient Protection and Affordable... Labor and the Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health... guidance to employers, group health plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health insurance...

  9. Health effects of smoke from planned burns: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O’Keeffe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large populations are exposed to smoke from bushfires and planned burns. Studies investigating the association between bushfire smoke and health have typically used hospital or ambulance data and been done retrospectively on large populations. The present study is designed to prospectively assess the association between individual level health outcomes and exposure to smoke from planned burns. Methods/design A prospective cohort study will be conducted during a planned burn season in three locations in Victoria (Australia involving 50 adult participants who undergo three rounds of cardiorespiratory medical tests, including measurements for lung inflammation, endothelial function, heart rate variability and markers of inflammation. In addition daily symptoms and twice daily lung function are recorded. Outdoor particulate air pollution is continuously measured during the study period in these locations. The data will be analysed using mixed effect models adjusting for confounders. Discussion Planned burns depend on weather conditions and dryness of ‘fuels’ (i.e. forest. It is potentially possible that no favourable conditions occur during the study period. To reduce the risk of this occurring, three separate locations have been identified as having a high likelihood of planned burn smoke exposure during the study period, with the full study being rolled out in two of these three locations. A limitation of this study is exposure misclassification as outdoor measurements will be conducted as a measure for personal exposures. However this misclassification will be reduced as participants are only eligible if they live in close proximity to the monitors.

  10. Tank farm health and safety plan. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickle, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    This Tank Farm Health and Safety Plan (HASP) for the conduct of all operations and work activities at the Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms is provided in order to minimize health and safety risks to workers and other onsite personnel. The HASP accomplishes this objective by establishing requirements, providing general guidelines, and conveying farm and facility-specific hazard communication information. The HASP, in conjunction with the job-specific information required by the HASP, is provided also as a reference for use during the planning of work activities at the tank farms. This HASP applies to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), other prime contractors to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and subcontractors to WHC who may be involved in tank farm work activities. This plan is intended to be both a requirements document and a useful reference to aid tank farm workers in understanding the safety and health issues that are encountered in routine and nonroutine work activities. The HASP defines the health and safety responsibilities of personnel working at the tank farms. It has been prepared in recognition of and is consistent with National Institute of Safety and Health (NIOSH), and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)/Unlimited State Coast Guard (USCG)/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste Site Activities (NIOSH 1985); WHC-CM-4-3, Industrial Safety Manual, Volume 4, open-quotes Health and Safety Programs for Hazardous Waste Operations;close quotes 29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response; WHC-CM-1-1, Management Policies; and WHC-CM-1-3, Management Requirements and Procedures. When differences in governing regulations or policies exist, the more stringent requirements shall apply until the discrepancy can be resolved

  11. Tank farm health and safety plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickle, G.D.

    1995-03-29

    This Tank Farm Health and Safety Plan (HASP) for the conduct of all operations and work activities at the Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms is provided in order to minimize health and safety risks to workers and other onsite personnel. The HASP accomplishes this objective by establishing requirements, providing general guidelines, and conveying farm and facility-specific hazard communication information. The HASP, in conjunction with the job-specific information required by the HASP, is provided also as a reference for use during the planning of work activities at the tank farms. This HASP applies to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), other prime contractors to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and subcontractors to WHC who may be involved in tank farm work activities. This plan is intended to be both a requirements document and a useful reference to aid tank farm workers in understanding the safety and health issues that are encountered in routine and nonroutine work activities. The HASP defines the health and safety responsibilities of personnel working at the tank farms. It has been prepared in recognition of and is consistent with National Institute of Safety and Health (NIOSH), and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)/Unlimited State Coast Guard (USCG)/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste Site Activities (NIOSH 1985); WHC-CM-4-3, Industrial Safety Manual, Volume 4, {open_quotes}Health and Safety Programs for Hazardous Waste Operations;{close_quotes} 29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response; WHC-CM-1-1, Management Policies; and WHC-CM-1-3, Management Requirements and Procedures. When differences in governing regulations or policies exist, the more stringent requirements shall apply until the discrepancy can be resolved.

  12. Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Enrollment Options Following the Termination of a Plan or Plan Option. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-28

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing a final rule to amend the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program regulations regarding enrollment options following the termination of a plan or plan option.

  13. 12 CFR 229.21 - Civil liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil liability. 229.21 Section 229.21 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... Availability Policies § 229.21 Civil liability. (a) Civil liability. A bank that fails to comply with any...

  14. 12 CFR 965.2 - Authorized liabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorized liabilities. 965.2 Section 965.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK LIABILITIES SOURCE OF FUNDS § 965.2 Authorized liabilities. As a source of funds for business operations, each Bank is authorized to...

  15. Assessing the Financial Condition of Provider-Sponsored Health Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of health plans sponsored by provider organizations, with respect to plans generating strong positive cash flow relative to plans generating weaker cash flow. A secondary aim was to assess their capital adequacy. The study identified 24 provider-sponsored health plans (PSHPs) with an average positive cash flow margin from 2011 through 2013 at or above the top 75th percentile, defined as "strong cash flow PSHPs:" This group was compared with 72 PSHPs below the 75th percentile, defined as "weak cash flow PSHPs:" Atlantic Information Services Directory of Health Plans was used to identify the PSHPs. Financial ratios were computed from 2013 National Association of Insurance Commissioners Financial Filings. The study conducted a t test mean comparison between strong and weak cash flow PSHPs across an array of financial performance and capital adequacy measures. In 2013, the strong cash flow PSHPs averaged a cash-flow margin ratio of 6.6%. Weak cash flow PSHPs averaged a cash-flow margin of -0.4%. The net worth capital position of both groups was more than 4.5 times authorized capital. The operational analysis shows that strong cash-flow margin PSHPs are managing their medical costs to achieve this position. Although their medical loss ratio increased by almost 300 basis points from 2011 to 2013, it was still statistically significantly lower than the weaker cash flow PSHP group (P<.001). In terms of capital adequacy, both strong and weak cash-flow margin PSHP groups possessed sufficient capital to ensure the viability of these plans.

  16. Mergers and acquisitions: director and consultant liability exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, J M

    1995-02-01

    Corporate directors and their consultants must make decisions in an uncertain and changing health care environment. The losses each may face as a result of an incomplete analysis of the true value of the entities involved in mergers or acquisitions may extend beyond the failure of the transaction to the creation of personal liability as well. Accordingly, objective, careful, detailed, and fair decision-making based upon adequate information is more critical than ever for directors if they are to be able to take advantage of the business judgment rule, and also for consultants to avoid their own liability when transactions fail to deliver the values they have estimated.

  17. 77 FR 42462 - Hawaii State Plan for Occupational Safety and Health; Proposed Modification of 18(e) Plan Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1952 [Docket ID. OSHA 2012-0029] RIN 1218-AC78 Hawaii State Plan for Occupational Safety and Health; Proposed Modification of 18(e) Plan Approval AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of...

  18. 26 CFR 54.9831-1 - Special rules relating to group health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... this section. In addition, benefits provided under a health flexible spending arrangement are excepted... of a group health plan. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(3), benefits are not an integral part of a group health plan (whether the benefits are provided through the same plan or a separate plan) only if...

  19. Through the looking glass: placing India's new civil liability regime for nuclear damage in context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruendel, Robert J.; Kini, Els Reynaers

    2012-01-01

    Until India adopted the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010 (Liability Act) and the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Rules, 2011 (Liability Rules or Rules), no specific legislation was in place to govern nuclear liability or to compensate victims for damages due to a nuclear incident in India. Before delving into a more legal-technical analysis of the Liability Act and Rules (Part B), it is worth first briefly touching upon India's general energy situation, which necessarily influences India's policies, laws and negotiating strategies while also driving the significant business opportunities in the nuclear energy sector (Part A). Taking a look at India's energy sector today also underscores the sheer size of India's plans to build new nuclear power plants, which stands in dramatic contrast to the goals of many other countries. In this article, we will address the relationship of the Liability Act with the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) (Part C), while also touching upon the current status of an Indian nuclear insurance pool (Part D) and discussing some recent domestic developments, including the filing of public interest litigations and amendments to the Liability Rules (Part E), before presenting some concluding thoughts (Part F)

  20. The Principal and Tort Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Ralph D.

    The emphasis of this chapter is on the tort liability of principals, especially their commission of unintentional torts or torts resulting from negligent conduct. A tort is defined as a wrongful act, not including a breach of contract or trust, which results in injury to another's person, property, or reputation and for which the injured party is…

  1. University Liability for Sports Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Robert W.; Woodruff, William B., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes sports injury claims against colleges and universities in recent years to help administrators better understand and minimize liability risks for certain curricular and cocurricular activities. Reviews court cases in areas of duty of care and negligence and proximate cause, and discusses defenses. (Author/NB)

  2. Employee choice of flexible spending account participation and health plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Barton H; Marton, James

    2008-07-01

    Despite the fact that flexible spending accounts (FSAs) are becoming an increasingly popular employer-provided health benefit, there has been very little empirical study of FSA use among employees at the individual level. This study contributes to the literature on FSAs using a unique data set that provides three years of employee-level-matched benefits data. Motivated by the theoretical model of FSA choice presented in Cardon and Showalter (J. Health Econ. 2001; 20(6):935-954), we examine the determinants of FSA participation and contribution levels using cross-sectional and random-effect two-part models. FSA participation and health plan choice are also modeled jointly in each year using conditional logit models. We find that, even after controlling for a number of other demographic characteristics, non-whites are less likely to participate in the FSA program, have lower contributions conditional on participation, and have a lower probability of switching to new lower cost share, higher premium plans when they were introduced. We also find evidence that choosing health plans with more expected out-of-pocket expenses is correlated with participation in the FSA program. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. [The Health Plan for Catalonia: an instrument to transform the health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constante i Beitia, Carles

    2015-11-01

    The Department of Health of the Generalitat in Catalonia periodically draws up the Health Plan, which is the strategic document that brings together the reference framework for initiatives concerning public health in terms of the Catalan health administration. The 2011-2015 version of the Health Plan incorporates key care and system governance-related elements, which, in conjunction with health goals, make up the complete picture of what the health system in Catalonia should look like until 2015. The Plan was drawn up at a time when the environmental conditions were extremely particular, given the major economic crisis that began in 2007. This has meant that the system has been forced to address public health problems using a significant reduction in the economic resources available, while aiming to maintain the level of care provided, both quantitatively and qualitatively, and preserve the sustainability of the system whose defining traits are its universality, equity and the wide range of services on offer. The Health Plan focuses on three areas of action, 9 major courses of action and 32 strategic projects designed to respond to new social needs: addressing the most common health issues, comprehensive care for chronic patients and organizational modernization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. FAMILY HEALTH STRATEGY OF PARTICIPATION IN MUNICIPAL HEALTH PLAN CONSTRUCTION: AN EXPERIENCE REPOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ribeiro dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Municipal Health Plan is an important planning tool in the management at the Unified Health System and at the same time, a mechanism for popular participation. This study aims to report the experience of the Municipal Health Plan’s workshop conducted by a Family Health Program team in a municipality in the south of Bahia Construção do Plano Municipal de Saúde. in the year 2014. This is an experience report that consolidates itself as a descriptive research tool that presents a reflection about an action that addresses a situation experienced in the professional interest of the scientific community. The workshop included the team and community members’ participation. The population's health problems follow a national trend, highlighting problems like diabetes, hypertension, worms, abuse of alcohol and other drugs inaddition to viruses. The health system problems reveal the weaknesses in local management of the Unified Health System by the insufficiency and/or lack of resources such as drugs, tests, equipment maintenance and others. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of the Municipal Health Plan as a management tool of the Unified Health System that allows closeness between users, workers and managers, as well as being a space for policy vocalization, contributing to the real effectiveness of the Unified Health System, based on participatory planning in accordance with the needs of users.

  5. Mental Health Services Utilization and Expenditures Among Children Enrolled in Employer-Sponsored Health Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Angela Wangari; Yuan, Yiyang; Cabral, Howard J

    2017-05-01

    Mental illness in children increases the risk of developing mental health disorders in adulthood, and reduces physical and emotional well-being across the life course. The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA, 2008) aimed to improve access to mental health treatment by requiring employer-sponsored health plans to include insurance coverage for behavioral health services. Investigators used IBM Watson/Truven Analytics MarketScan claims data (2007-2013) to examine: (1) the distribution of mental illness; (2) trends in utilization and out-of-pocket expenditures; and (3) the overall effect of the MHPAEA on mental health services utilization and out-of-pocket expenditures among privately-insured children aged 3 to 17 with mental health disorders. Multivariate Poisson regression and linear regression modeling techniques were used. Mental health services use for outpatient behavioral health therapy (BHT) was higher in the years after the implementation of the MHPAEA (2010-2013). Specifically, before the MHPAEA implementation, the annual total visits for BHT provided by mental health physicians were 17.1% lower and 2.5% lower for BHT by mental health professionals, compared to years when MHPAEA was in effect. Children covered by consumer-driven and high-deductible plans had significantly higher out-of-pocket expenditures for BHT compared to those enrolled PPOs. Our findings demonstrate increased mental health services use and higher out-of-pocket costs per outpatient visit after implementation of the MHPAEA. As consumer-driven and high-deductible health plans continue to grow, enrollees need to be cognizant of the impact of health insurance benefit designs on health services offered in these plans. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. THE LIABILITY FORMS OF THE MEDICAL PERSONNEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bărcan, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Current legislation, namely Law no. 95/2006 on healthcare reform in the medical malpractice domain stipulates that medical staff can be held accountable in the following forms: disciplinary liability, administrative liability, civil liability and criminal liability. Each form of legal liability presents its features, aspects that are found mainly in the procedural rules. However, the differences between the various legal forms of liability are not met only in the procedural rules but also in their effects and consequences. It is necessary to know what the procedure for disciplinary responsibility, administrative liability, civil liability, or criminal liability is. In addition to the differentiation determined by the consequences that may arise from the different forms of legal liability, it is important to know the competent authorities to investigate a case further and the solutions which various public institutions can take regarding the medical staff. Depending on the type of legal liability, authorities have a specialized authority. If the Disciplinary Committee is encountered at the College of Physicians, it may not intervene in cases before the monitoring and competence for malpractice cases Committee. The latter two committees cannot intervene directly in the legal assessment of civil or criminal cases, as no criminal investigation authorities cannot intervene in strictly civilian cases. Therefore, the importance of knowing the competent institutions is imperative.

  7. Operating plan for the Office of International Health Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In this report unified ideas are presented about what the Office of International Health Programs does, what the individual contributions are, and how the organization connects to the Department of Energy. The planning efforts have focused on the office's three areas of responsibility: Europe, Japan, and the Marshall Islands. Common to each technical program area are issues related to the following: health of populations exposed to radiation incidents and the associated medical aspects of exposure; dose reconstruction; training; and public involvement. Each of the program areas, its customers, and primary customer interests are described

  8. Developing a promotion plan for health care marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallums, A

    1994-07-01

    Promotion of a health care provider's services is essential for communication with its customers and consumers. It is relevant to an organization's marketing strategy and is an element of what is described as the marketing mix. This paper considers the relationship of promotion to the marketing of services and proposes a plan for the promotion of the organization as a whole which can also be applied to an individual service or specialty. Whilst specific reference is made to an National Health Service (NHS) Trust it is also relevant to a Directly Managed Unit.

  9. Work plan, health and safety plan, and site characterization for the Rust Spoil Area (D-106)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohrman, D.E.; Uziel, M.S.; Landguth, D.C.; Hawthorne, S.W.

    1990-06-01

    As part of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) of the Department of Energy's Y-12 Plant located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this work plan has been developed for the Rust Spoil Area (a solid waste disposal area). The work plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group (MAD) of the Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and will be implemented jointly by ORNL/MAD and the Y-12 Environmental Surveillance Section. This plan consists of four major sections: (1) a project description giving the scope and objectives of the investigation at the Rust Spoil Area; (2) field and sampling procedures describing sample documentation, soil sampling techniques, sample packaging and preservation, equipment decontamination, and disposal of investigation generated wastes; (3) sample analysis procedures detailing necessary analytical laboratory procedures to ensure the quality of chemical results from sample receipt through analysis and data reporting; and (4) a health and safety plan which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, assigns responsibilities, establishes personnel protection standards and mandatory safety procedures, and provides emergency information for contingencies that may arise during the course of field operations

  10. [General aspects of planning and care in mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saforcada, E

    1976-09-01

    This paper reviews some general concepts on Planning, especially in public and welfare sectors, stressing those concerning the major flaws in the argentine system of mental health. The author considers the definition of planning levels, and sets forth three: general plan, program and project. The correlative implementation is also considered. The importance of feed-back from adequate evaluation is stressed, emphasizing three aspects: a) evaluation of dynamics, rate and extent of decrease, increase or stagnation; b) assessment of efficacity of factors involved; c) control and stabilization of goals already attained. The necessity to develop a human ecology, encompassing socio-cultural and psycho-social factors is stressed, together with fostering theoretical research and the use of its results by implementation agents. Several differences among prevailing mental health actions are pointed out which allow a distinction between two typical models: clinical and sanitarist. The main differences between them lye on: standard location of working sites, nature of basic actions, field of action, hypothesis for working, including ethiological and ecological assumptions, theoretical and methodological framework. A series of criteria for evaluating sanitary techniques and strategies are set forth, among which: operative procedures, length of treatments, degree of therapeutic concentration, and general pragmatic criteria. The indicators reviewed are: degree of efficacity, covering, degree of perseverance in treatments, cultural barriers between patient and therapist, delegation of functions into special, first-rate sanitary agents, needs for the training of mental health workers. An attempt is made at developping general evaluation criteria for mental health planning, and several indicators are proposed, among which: a) cost/efficacity ratio, including in costs the use of economical, human and physical resources; b) preventive capacities of the community; c) capacities for the

  11. NIF conventional facilities construction health and safety plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, D W

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Plan is to outline the minimum health and safety requirements to which all participating Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and non-LLNL employees (excluding National Ignition Facility [NIF] specific contractors and subcontractors covered under the construction subcontract packages (e.g., CSP-9)-see Construction Safety Program for the National Ignition Facility [CSP] Section I.B. ''NIF Construction Contractors and Subcontractors'' for specifics) shall adhere to for preventing job-related injuries and illnesses during Conventional Facilities construction activities at the NIF Project. For the purpose of this Plan, the term ''LLNL and non-LLNL employees'' includes LLNL employees, LLNL Plant Operations staff and their contractors, supplemental labor, contract labor, labor-only contractors, vendors, DOE representatives, personnel matrixed/assigned from other National Laboratories, participating guests, and others such as visitors, students, consultants etc., performing on-site work or services in support of the NIF Project. Based upon an activity level determination explained in Section 1.2.18, in this document, these organizations or individuals may be required by site management to prepare their own NIF site-specific safety plan. LLNL employees will normally not be expected to prepare a site-specific safety plan. This Plan also outlines job-specific exposures and construction site safety activities with which LLNL and non-LLNL employees shall comply

  12. Healthy, wealthy, and wise: retirement planning predicts employee health improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, Timothy; Pierce, Lamar

    2014-09-01

    Are poor physical and financial health driven by the same underlying psychological factors? We found that the decision to contribute to a 401(k) retirement plan predicted whether an individual acted to correct poor physical-health indicators revealed during an employer-sponsored health examination. Using this examination as a quasi-exogenous shock to employees' personal-health knowledge, we examined which employees were more likely to improve their health, controlling for differences in initial health, demographics, job type, and income. We found that existing retirement-contribution patterns and future health improvements were highly correlated. Employees who saved for the future by contributing to a 401(k) showed improvements in their abnormal blood-test results and health behaviors approximately 27% more often than noncontributors did. These findings are consistent with an underlying individual time-discounting trait that is both difficult to change and domain interdependent, and that predicts long-term individual behaviors in multiple dimensions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. 75 FR 43329 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... 45 CFR Part 147 Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to... Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and... of Labor; Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health and Human...

  14. 75 FR 27141 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing Dependent Coverage of Children to Age...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing Dependent Coverage of Children to Age 26 Under... Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services are issuing substantially similar interim final regulations with respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage...

  15. 75 FR 43109 - Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and... the Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human... health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan under the Employee Retirement...

  16. 76 FR 46621 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Coverage of Preventive Services Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... to the interim final regulations implementing the rules for group health plans and health insurance... dates. These interim final regulations generally apply to group health plans and group health insurance... from HHS on private health insurance for consumers can be found on the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid...

  17. 75 FR 41787 - Requirement for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers To Provide Coverage of Preventive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Requirement for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers To Provide Coverage of Preventive Services... Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services are issuing substantially similar interim final regulations with respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage offered in...

  18. The Malaysian health care system: Ecology, plans, and reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sebastian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is on its way to achieving developed nation status in the next 4 years. Currently, Malaysia is on track for three Millennium Development Goals (MDG1, MDG4, and MDG7. The maternal mortality rate, infant mortality rate, and mortality rate of children younger than 5 years improved from 25.6% (2012 to 6.6% (2013, and 7.7% (2012 per 100,000 live births, respectively whereas immunization coverage for infants increased to an average of 90%. As of 2013 the ratio of physicians to patients improved to 1:633 while the ratio of health facilities to the population was 1:10,272. The current government administration has proposed a reform in the form of the 10th Malaysian Plan coining the term “One Care for One Malaysia” as the newly improved and reorganized health care plan, where efficiency, effectiveness, and equity are the main focus. This review illustrates Malaysia’s transition from pre-independence to the current state, and its health and socioeconomic achievement as a country. It aims to contribute knowledge through identifying the plans and reforms by the Malaysian government while highlighting the challenges faced as a nation.

  19. Choosing a health plan: are Dutch consumers loyal to their health insurer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Delnoij, D.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    In 2006, a number of far-reaching reforms have been implemented in the Dutch health insurance system. Giving Dutch consumers the freedom to change health plans every year increases consumer mobility. The idea is that especially consumers who are dissatisfied with their insurer will decide to switch

  20. Emergency planning and management in health care: priority research topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Alan; Chambers, Naomi; French, Simon; Shaw, Duncan; King, Russell; Whitehead, Alison

    2014-06-01

    Many major incidents have significant impacts on people's health, placing additional demands on health-care organisations. The main aim of this paper is to suggest a prioritised agenda for organisational and management research on emergency planning and management relevant to U.K. health care, based on a scoping study. A secondary aim is to enhance knowledge and understanding of health-care emergency planning among the wider research community, by highlighting key issues and perspectives on the subject and presenting a conceptual model. The study findings have much in common with those of previous U.S.-focused scoping reviews, and with a recent U.K.-based review, confirming the relative paucity of U.K.-based research. No individual research topic scored highly on all of the key measures identified, with communities and organisations appearing to differ about which topics are the most important. Four broad research priorities are suggested: the affected public; inter- and intra-organisational collaboration; preparing responders and their organisations; and prioritisation and decision making.

  1. [Local health promotion plans: intersetoralities created in the territory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysés, Simone Tetu; Franco de Sá, Ronice

    2014-11-01

    The article highlights the importance of considering the specificities of spaces/territories/ locations of individual and collective life in creating health promotion actions. It explores how this approach has conceptually consolidated respect for territoriality and territorial actions as a principle and an operational health promotion strategy. Based on the literature, the article also points to the need to envision the territory occupied as a locus to put intersetorialities into practice, giving a voice to people who live there, seek to and solve their complex problems, to existing and emerging social networks. It also presents a nationally and internationally validated strategy/method (Bamboo Method) for the development of local health promotion plans, which enables the prioritization of actions by listening to the people and to the managers.

  2. Aspects of nuclear penal liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Cruz, A.S.C. da

    1986-01-01

    Topics are treated with reference to articles of the Law 6.453 of october 17, 1977, relating to the nuclear penal liability. At the same time, the Penal Code disposes on illicits which may involve nuclear activity. With regard to the Jurisdiction, mention is made to the Federal Justice competence, due to the constitutional disposal. On the international field, the Convention on Physic Protection on Nuclear Material Transport disposes on illicit fact in which nuclear material may be involved. (Author) [pt

  3. Environmental Liability and Organizational Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent Franckx; F.P. de Vries

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a multitask principal-agent model to examine how environmental liability rules for individual managers within a corporate hierarchy affect, on the one hand, the incentive schemes the organization provides and, on the other hand, the choice between a functional or a product-based organizational structure. If managers are risk neutral, a product-based organization dominates a functional organization and allows to obtain first-best effort level. If, moreover, there are no dis...

  4. 76 FR 13197 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... parties. The goal of this strategic planning process is to define an overarching Vision Statement... this planning process, visit the NIEHS Strategic Planning Web site at Request for Visionary Ideas The... Environmental Health Sciences Strategic Planning AGENCY: National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Institute...

  5. Health Sector Evolution Plan in Iran; Equity and Sustainability Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Vosoogh-Moghaddam, Abbas

    2015-08-31

    In 2014, a series of reforms, called as the Health Sector Evolution Plan (HSEP), was launched in the health system of Iran in a stepwise process. HSEP was mainly based on the fifth 5-year health development national strategies (2011-2016). It included different interventions to: increase population coverage of basic health insurance, increase quality of care in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME) affiliated hospitals, reduce out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for inpatient services, increase quality of primary healthcare, launch updated relative value units (RVUs) of clinical services, and update tariffs to more realistic values. The reforms resulted in extensive social reaction and different professional feedback. The official monitoring program shows general public satisfaction. However, there are some concerns for sustainability of the programs and equity of financing. Securing financial sources and fairness of the financial contribution to the new programs are the main concerns of policy-makers. Healthcare providers' concerns (as powerful and influential stakeholders) potentially threat the sustainability and efficiency of HSEP. Previous experiences on extending health insurance coverage show that they can lead to a regressive healthcare financing and threat financial equity. To secure financial sources and to increase fairness, the contributions of people to new interventions should be progressive by their income and wealth. A specific progressive tax would be the best source, however, since it is not immediately feasible, a stepwise increase in the progressivity of financing must be followed. Technical concerns of healthcare providers (such as nonplausible RVUs for specific procedures or nonefficient insurance-provider processes) should be addressed through proper revision(s) while nontechnical concerns (which are derived from conflicting interests) must be responded through clarification and providing transparent information. The requirements of

  6. Health Sector Evolution Plan in Iran; Equity and Sustainability Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Moradi-Lakeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, a series of reforms, called as the Health Sector Evolution Plan (HSEP, was launched in the health system of Iran in a stepwise process. HSEP was mainly based on the fifth 5-year health development national strategies (2011-2016. It included different interventions to: increase population coverage of basic health insurance, increase quality of care in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME affiliated hospitals, reduce out-of-pocket (OOP payments for inpatient services, increase quality of primary healthcare, launch updated relative value units (RVUs of clinical services, and update tariffs to more realistic values. The reforms resulted in extensive social reaction and different professional feedback. The official monitoring program shows general public satisfaction. However, there are some concerns for sustainability of the programs and equity of financing. Securing financial sources and fairness of the financial contribution to the new programs are the main concerns of policy-makers. Healthcare providers’ concerns (as powerful and influential stakeholders potentially threat the sustainability and efficiency of HSEP. Previous experiences on extending health insurance coverage show that they can lead to a regressive healthcare financing and threat financial equity. To secure financial sources and to increase fairness, the contributions of people to new interventions should be progressive by their income and wealth. A specific progressive tax would be the best source, however, since it is not immediately feasible, a stepwise increase in the progressivity of financing must be followed. Technical concerns of healthcare providers (such as nonplausible RVUs for specific procedures or nonefficient insurance-provider processes should be addressed through proper revision(s while nontechnical concerns (which are derived from conflicting interests must be responded through clarification and providing transparent information. The

  7. Historical Drawbacks of Limited Liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Boyle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited liability is a human invention which has facilitated enormous economic growth around the world, particularly since the time of its general application in advanced countries during the nineteenth century. The individual legal identity of companies, coupled with the limited liability of their owners, has provided protection for investors from the risks associated with their investments. It has thus contributed to increase the sources of capital available to finance projects which might otherwise have been considered unviable. However, the legal protection offered to investors has negative consequences for other participants in economies. Speculation in stock markets often damages society. It is very important to study the drawbacks of limited liability and to suggest modifications to achieve a more stable, less volatile, economic growth in the world. Although this article goes to some lengths to recognise the work of authors who emphasise the positive historical economic contribution of limited lability, its main objective is to provoke a reflection around texts which point out the drawbacks and propose solutions.

  8. The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, David; Schultz, T Paul

    2012-07-14

    We consider the evidence for the effect of access to reproductive health services on the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 1, 2, and 3, which aim to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, and promote gender equality and empower women. At the household level, controlled trials in Matlab, Bangladesh, and Navrongo, Ghana, have shown that increasing access to family planning services reduces fertility and improves birth spacing. In the Matlab study, findings from long-term follow-up showed that women's earnings, assets, and body-mass indexes, and children's schooling and body-mass indexes, substantially improved in areas with improved access to family planning services compared with outcomes in control areas. At the macroeconomic level, reductions in fertility enhance economic growth as a result of reduced youth dependency and an increased number of women participating in paid labour. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Family planning: a major public health programme in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, S

    1968-01-01

    India's increase of 12 million people each year nullifies almost all the considerable progress the country made in agriculture and industrial production during 19 years of her freedom. Today she ranks 2nd in population and 7th in land area of the world. She claims 15% of the world's population, on about 2.4% of the world's land area. The Government of India has taken family planning as a major national health program under her Five-Year Plans, but impact of this program is not felt as yet. Since this is a difficult complex problem with many facets, it has to be attacked forcefully, drastically, and on all fronts. An all-out war has to be waged against the population growth. India should attack it with all the weapons she had: education, propaganda, taxation, legalization of abortion, and even compulsory sterilization. Overnight change in the fertility pattern of the people is impossible.

  10. Developing health and social care planning in collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rämgård, Margareta; Blomqvist, Kerstin; Petersson, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Collaboration between different professions in community care for older people is often both difficult and complex. In this project, a participatory action research (PAR) was conducted in order to support the professions involved in the care for older people to develop individualized health and social care plans. Cases from daily work were discussed in different professional groups over a period of one year. A key finding was that lack of knowledge regarding the other professions' field of expertise and their underlying professional culture and values was a barrier in their collaboration. However, as the continuous reflective dialogue process progressed, the participants began to reflect more about the importance of collaboration as a prerequisite to achieve the best possible care for the recipient. This process of reflection led to the often complex needs of the care recipients being given a more central position and thus care plans being better tailored to each person's needs.

  11. Nonprofit to for-profit conversions by hospitals, health insurers, and health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, J

    1999-01-01

    Conversion of hospitals, health insurers, and health plans from nonprofit to for-profit ownership has become a focus of national debate. The author examines why nonprofit ownership has been dominant in the US health system and assesses the strength of the argument that nonprofits provide community benefits that would be threatened by for-profit conversion. The author concludes that many of the specific community benefits offered by nonprofits, such as care for the poor, could be maintained or replaced by adequate funding of public programs and that quality and fairness in treatment can be better assured through clear standards of care and adequate monitoring systems. As health care becomes increasingly commercialized, the most difficult parts of nonprofits' historic mission to preserve are the community orientation, leadership role, and innovation that nonprofit hospitals and health plans have provided out of their commitment to a community beyond those to whom they sell services.

  12. 77 FR 8725 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Coverage of Preventive Services Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... regulations authorizing the exemption of group health plans and group health insurance coverage sponsored by... plans and group health insurance issuers on April 16, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy Turner... addition, information from HHS on private health insurance for consumers can be found on the CMS Web site...

  13. Integrating authorities and disciplines into the preparedness-planning process: a study of mental health, public health, and emergency management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Madeline; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Codispoti, Catherine R; Montgomery, Juliann M

    2007-01-01

    The process of integrating all necessary authorities and disciplines into an organized preparedness plan is complex, and the inclusion of disaster mental health poses specific challenges. The goals of this project were (1) to identify whether state mental health preparedness was included in state public health and emergency management preparedness plans, (2) to document barriers to entry and strategies reportedly used by state authorities in efforts to incorporate reasonable mental health preparedness into existing public health and emergency management preparedness planning, (3) to employ a theory for organizational change to organize and synthesize this information, and (4) to stimulate further discussion and research supporting coordinated preparedness efforts at the state level, particularly those inclusive of mental health. To accomplish these goals we (1) counted the number of state public health preparedness and emergency management plans that either included, mentioned, or omitted a mental health preparedness plan; (2) interviewed key officials from nine representative states for their reports on strategies used in seeking greater inclusion of mental health preparedness in public health and emergency management preparedness planning; and (3) synthesized these results to contribute to the national dialogue on coordinating disaster preparedness, particularly with respect to mental health preparedness. We found that 15 out of 29 publicly available public health preparedness plans (52 percent) included mental health preparedness, and eight of 43 publicly available emergency management plans (18 percent) incorporated mental health. Interviewees reported numerous barriers and strategies, which we cataloged according to a well-accepted eight-step plan for transforming organizations.

  14. Local health care expenditure plans and their opportunity costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsberg Schaffer, Sarah; Sussex, Jon; Devlin, Nancy; Walker, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    In the UK, approval decisions by Health Technology Assessment bodies are made using a cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) threshold, the value of which is based on little empirical evidence. We test the feasibility of estimating the "true" value of the threshold in NHS Scotland using information on marginal services (those planned to receive significant (dis)investment). We also explore how the NHS makes spending decisions and the role of cost per QALY evidence in this process. We identify marginal services using NHS Board-level responses to the 2012/13 Budget Scrutiny issued by the Scottish Government, supplemented with information on prioritisation processes derived from interviews with Finance Directors. We search the literature for cost-effectiveness evidence relating to marginal services. The cost-effectiveness estimates of marginal services vary hugely and thus it was not possible to obtain a reliable estimate of the threshold. This is unsurprising given the finding that cost-effectiveness evidence is rarely used to justify expenditure plans, which are driven by a range of other factors. Our results highlight the differences in objectives between HTA bodies and local health service decision makers. We also demonstrate that, even if it were desirable, the use of cost-effectiveness evidence at local level would be highly challenging without extensive investment in health economics resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Financing long term liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noviello, Luigi

    2003-01-01

    In the '80 even if there were no precise law disposition in this specific matter, Enel has created a fund for the plants decommissioning and a fund for the irradiated fuel management. A setting aside pluri-annual plan has been defined. Cumulated funds transferred to the Sogin at the date of its constitution amount to about 1500 MLD ITL (750 M Euro). This amount was adequate to complete decommissioning activities within the Safe Store strategy. Following the separation of Sogin from Enel, a funding mechanism has been defined to provide resources for additional costs deriving from the different economic conditions (new discount rate and taxes), from the management costs for the new company, and from the change in strategy (from Safe Store to DECON). A Decree of the Ministry of the Industry, issued on 26 January 2000, states that the above mentioned extra costs for Sogin shall be financed on a levy on the price of the sold kWh. Every year Sogin shall present the program of future activities, with associated costs: on this basis, the national Authority for Electric energy and Gas (the national body which defines tariff policy) shall re-evaluate the global amount to be granted to Sogin and the levy on the price of the kWh due to Sogin for next three years. The re-evaluation will take into account economic efficiency criteria. For the period 2002- 2004 the Authority has defined a global amount of about 362 M euros to be granted to Sogin, corresponding to ∼0,04 cents of Euro per kWh. The same procedure is foreseen by the Decree in order to finance Sogin for additional costs related to the dismantling of nuclear installations now property of ENEA. In this context, a Consortium between ENEA and Sogin has been established. The Authority for the period 2002-2004 has defined a global amount of about 106 M euros to be granted to the Consortium, corresponding to ∼0,015 cents of Euro per kWh. (author)

  16. Groundwater well services site safety and health plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, B.G.

    1996-08-01

    This Site Specific Health and Safety Plan covers well servicing in support of the Environmental Restoration Contractor Groundwater Project. Well servicing is an important part of environmental restoration activities supporting several pump and treat facilities and assisting in evaluation and servicing of various groundwater wells throughout the Hanford Site. Remediation of contaminated groundwater is a major part of the ERC project. Well services tasks help enhance groundwater extraction/injection as well as maintain groundwater wells for sampling and other hydrologic testing and information gathering

  17. Comment: Legal Liability as Climate Change Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary Sigman

    2007-01-01

    Several U.S. states have attempted to use of legal liability imposed on greenhouse gas emitters as a public policy instrument for climate change. This brief comment considers the desirability of this approach, focusing on three possible roles for climate change liability: as a source of compensation, as a direct influence on greenhouse gas concentrations, and as a means to facilitate the adoption of ex ante public policies to control greenhouse gases. The strongest argument for liability may ...

  18. Intangible liabilities: beyond models of intellectual assets

    OpenAIRE

    García Parra, Mercedes; Simó Guzmán, Pep; Sallán Leyes, José María; Mundet Hiern, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – Most models of intellectual capital measurment equal intellectual capital with intellectual assets. Nevertheless, companies sometimes must incur liabilities to make intellectual assets truly actionable. This fact suggests the existence of intangible liabilities. The aim of this paper is to refine the methods of assessment of intellectual capital by refining and extending the concept of intangible liabilities. Design/methodology/approach – The paper consists of a literature revi...

  19. THE BUILDER?S LIABILITY BEYOND THE DEFECTS LIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson I IKPO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the obligations of a builder after the expiration of the contracted defects liability period using relevant decided cases. The common areas identified as forming the bedrock of litigation pertain to structural and dimensional stability, freedom from damp, durability, adequate drainage, good waste disposal works, and effective service installations. Particular reference is made to walls, roofs, and services, which from the pilot study account for about 46%, 23%, and 17% respectively of the total defects attributable to the builder. It is concluded that the builder is responsible for defects arising from his product till the effluxion of reasonable time, except he establishes an element of contributory negligence.

  20. A spatial national health facility database for public health sector planning in Kenya in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gething Peter W

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to tackle the enormous burden of ill-health in low-income countries are hampered by weak health information infrastructures that do not support appropriate planning and resource allocation. For health information systems to function well, a reliable inventory of health service providers is critical. The spatial referencing of service providers to allow their representation in a geographic information system is vital if the full planning potential of such data is to be realized. Methods A disparate series of contemporary lists of health service providers were used to update a public health facility database of Kenya last compiled in 2003. These new lists were derived primarily through the national distribution of antimalarial and antiretroviral commodities since 2006. A combination of methods, including global positioning systems, was used to map service providers. These spatially-referenced data were combined with high-resolution population maps to analyze disparity in geographic access to public health care. Findings The updated 2008 database contained 5,334 public health facilities (67% ministry of health; 28% mission and nongovernmental organizations; 2% local authorities; and 3% employers and other ministries. This represented an overall increase of 1,862 facilities compared to 2003. Most of the additional facilities belonged to the ministry of health (79% and the majority were dispensaries (91%. 93% of the health facilities were spatially referenced, 38% using global positioning systems compared to 21% in 2003. 89% of the population was within 5 km Euclidean distance to a public health facility in 2008 compared to 71% in 2003. Over 80% of the population outside 5 km of public health service providers was in the sparsely settled pastoralist areas of the country. Conclusion We have shown that, with concerted effort, a relatively complete inventory of mapped health services is possible with enormous potential for

  1. A spatial national health facility database for public health sector planning in Kenya in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Abdisalan M; Alegana, Victor A; Gething, Peter W; Snow, Robert W

    2009-03-06

    Efforts to tackle the enormous burden of ill-health in low-income countries are hampered by weak health information infrastructures that do not support appropriate planning and resource allocation. For health information systems to function well, a reliable inventory of health service providers is critical. The spatial referencing of service providers to allow their representation in a geographic information system is vital if the full planning potential of such data is to be realized. A disparate series of contemporary lists of health service providers were used to update a public health facility database of Kenya last compiled in 2003. These new lists were derived primarily through the national distribution of antimalarial and antiretroviral commodities since 2006. A combination of methods, including global positioning systems, was used to map service providers. These spatially-referenced data were combined with high-resolution population maps to analyze disparity in geographic access to public health care. The updated 2008 database contained 5,334 public health facilities (67% ministry of health; 28% mission and nongovernmental organizations; 2% local authorities; and 3% employers and other ministries). This represented an overall increase of 1,862 facilities compared to 2003. Most of the additional facilities belonged to the ministry of health (79%) and the majority were dispensaries (91%). 93% of the health facilities were spatially referenced, 38% using global positioning systems compared to 21% in 2003. 89% of the population was within 5 km Euclidean distance to a public health facility in 2008 compared to 71% in 2003. Over 80% of the population outside 5 km of public health service providers was in the sparsely settled pastoralist areas of the country. We have shown that, with concerted effort, a relatively complete inventory of mapped health services is possible with enormous potential for improving planning. Expansion in public health care in Kenya has

  2. Marketing health care to employees: the structure of employee health care plan satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, O A

    1993-01-01

    Providing cost-contained comprehensive quality health care to maintain healthy and productive employees is a challenging problem for all employers. Using a representative panel of metropolitan employees, the author investigates the internal and external structure of employee satisfaction with company-sponsored health care plans. Employee satisfaction is differentiated into four meaningful groups of health care benefits, whereas its external structure is supported by the traditional satisfaction paradigms of expectation-disconfirmation, attribution, and equity. Despite negative disconfirmation, employees register sufficiently high health care satisfaction levels, which suggests some useful strategies that employers may consider implementing.

  3. Assessing and Planning Health Actions During a Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim SUNER

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Initial stage of a disaster is managed with existing resources. The following stages of disaster response often involve assistance from outside of the disaster zone. This may consist of mutual aid from neighboring communities for small-scale incidents but in major disasters, the response is from federal or international agencies or often both. Rapid needs assessment after an incident is a collaborative effort between responding agencies and local emergency preparedness and health authorities. Ideally, a team from responding agencies with intimate knowledge and experience regarding the capabilities and assets of the responding entity along with local authorities, with decision making capacity, who have knowledge of the community, the limitations of the responding agencies and can obtain near real-time information about the incident and subject matter experts (engineering, medical, law enforcement, etc. comprise the needs assessment team. Keywords: Crisis, health action, disaster planning

  4. Addressing global health, economic, and environmental problems through family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, J Joseph; Grossman, Richard A

    2011-06-01

    Although obstetrician-gynecologists recognize the importance of managing fertility for the reproductive health of individuals, many are not aware of the vital effect they can have on some of the world's most pressing issues. Unintended pregnancy is a key contributor to the rapid population growth that in turn impairs social welfare, hinders economic progress, and exacerbates environmental degradation. An estimated 215 million women in developing countries wish to limit their fertility but do not have access to effective contraception. In the United States, half of all pregnancies are unplanned. Voluntary prevention of unplanned pregnancies is a cost-effective, humane way to limit population growth, slow environmental degradation, and yield other health and welfare benefits. Family planning should be a top priority for our specialty.

  5. Overcoming information asymmetry in consumer-directed health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retchin, Sheldon M

    2007-04-01

    Consumer-centric healthcare has been extolled as the centerpiece of a new model for managing both quality and price. However, information asymmetry in consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) is a challenge that must be addressed. For CDHPs to work as intended and to gain acceptance, consumers need information regarding the quality and price of healthcare purchases. The federal government, particularly the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, could function as an official resource for information on performance and comparisons among facilities and providers. Because of workforce constraints among primary care physicians, a new group of healthcare professionals called "medical decision advisors" could be trained. Academic health centers would have to play a critical role in devising an appropriate curriculum, as well as designing a certification and credentialing process. However, with appropriate curricula and training, medical decision advisors could furnish information for consumers and aid in the complicated decisions they will face under CDHPs.

  6. Reproductive health/family planning and the health of infants, girls and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadik, N

    1997-01-01

    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development developed international consensus amongst health providers, policy makers, and group representing the whole of civil society regarding the concept of reproductive health and its definition. In line with this definition, reproductive health care is defined as the constellation of methods, techniques and services that contribute to reproductive health and well-being by preventing and solving reproductive health problems. Reproductive health care saves lives and prevents significant levels of morbidity through family planning programmes, antenatal, delivery and post-natal services, prevention and management programmes for reproductive tract infections (including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS), prevention of abortion and management of its complications, cancers of the reproductive system, and harmful practices that impact on reproductive function. Reproductive health care needs are evident at all stages of the life cycle and account for a greater proportion of disability adjusted life years (DALYS) in girls and women than in boys and men. Reproductive health protects infant health by enabling birth spacing and birth limitation to be practiced through family planning. The prevention and early detection of reproductive tract infections, including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, through the integration of preventive measures in family planning service delivery not only improves the quality of care provided but is also directly responsible for improvement in survival and health of infants. Addressing harmful practices such as son preference, sex selection, sexual violence and female genital mutilation complements the positive impact of planned and spaced children through family planning services on infant mortality and the reproductive health of young girls and women. They are also in addition to prenatal, delivery and postnatal services, positive determinants of low maternal mortality and

  7. The joint action on health workforce planning and forecasting: results of a European programme to improve health workforce policies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroezen, M.; Hoegaerden, M. van; Batenburg, R.

    2017-01-01

    Health workforce (HWF) planning and forecasting is faced with a number of challenges, most notably a lack of consistent terminology, a lack of data, limited model-, demand-based- and future-based planning, and limited inter-country collaboration. The Joint Action on Health Workforce Planning and

  8. International Liability Issues for Software Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mead, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    This report focuses on international law related to cybercrime, international information security standards, and software liability issues as they relate to information security for critical infrastructure applications...

  9. Report by the Nuclear Liability Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Liability Commission set up by the Ministry of Trade and Industry was to find out whether the basic principles of Finland's current nuclear liability system are appropriate and well functioning and what changes should be made to the present system, taking into account Finland's position in the European convention system (Paris and Brussels Conventions). No proposal in the form of a bill was expected of the Commission. The Finnish nuclear liability system would be further developed as part of the international convention system so that the negotiated amendments to the conventions would be enforced in Finland as soon as possible after the final adoption of the convention texts. The Nuclear Liability Act would be amended so that the principle of unlimited liability of the nuclear installation operator would be adopted instead of the principle of limited liability. The unlimited liability should be covered by an insurance limited in amount so that the installation operator must take out an insurance of at least euro 700 million to cover the injured parties. The liability of the host State would be extended to cover damages exceeding the amount subject to the liability to take out an insurance referred to above by euro 500 million. The international compensation community would cover damages exceeding euro 1.2 billion by no more than euro 300 million. In this case a total of euro 1.5 billion should be compensated from the liability insurance of the installation operator and on the basis of the liability obligation of the host State and compensation community. Later, within the limits of the insurance capacity available, the liability to take out an insurance could be increased to euro 1.2 billion by gradually raising the limit so as to finally also cover fully the share of euro 500 million of the host State referred to above. As for appeal times, the Nuclear Liability Act would be amended so that the appeal time of personal damages would be prolonged. The

  10. Limiting the liability of the nuclear operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1986-01-01

    This article discusses the questioning of a fundamental principle of the special nuclear third party liability regime by certain NEA countries: the limitation of the nuclear operator's liability. This regime, set up since the late fifties at European then at worldwide level, had until now been widely adopted in the national legislation of most of the countries with a nuclear power programme. The author analyses the different arguments in favour of restoring unlimited liability for the nuclear operator and attempts to define its implications for the future of the nuclear third party liability regime in NEA countries. (NEA) [fr

  11. Nuclear third party liability under Polish law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewaszkiewic-Petrykowska, B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the system governing liability for nuclear incidents in Poland. The Atomic Energy Act of 10 April 1986, which entered into force on 1 July 1986, covers all aspects of nuclear activities, including third party liability. Such liability is channelled onto the nuclear operator who must take out insurance to cover his liability up to an amount fixed in the contract. The Act provides that questions not settled by its provisions are governed by the Civil Code; therefore, if personal injuries exceed that amount victims may claim the difference from the State under that Code (NEA) [fr

  12. Publication planning: an effective corporate strategy to influence health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical companies integrate scientific publications into the communication strategies they employ to influence the practices of health professionals. In their"publication plan", pharmaceutical companies, or the communication agencies they hire, develop key messages to promote their drugs and then plan in advance how, when and where to disseminate them in medical journals or at conferences. Although their true intent is promotional, these messages must appear to be purely scientific, and are therefore disseminated as research articles, review articles, editorials, commentaries. Publication planning involves the use of "ghost" authors who work directly for pharmaceutical companies, but whose contribution is rarely acknowledged in the final published article. Key opinion leaders are recruited as the honorary authors of these articles, to which they have made little, if any, contribution. The criteria for authorship set by journals that publish primary research articles do not provide adequate protection against the practice of ghost and honorary authorship. Certain journals publishing primary research derive a large proportion of their revenue from selling reprints used by pharmaceutical companies to promote their drugs, especially by their sales representatives.

  13. Strategic planning for public health practice using macroenvironmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, P M; Duncan, W J; Capper, S A

    1991-01-01

    Macroenvironmental analysis is the initial stage in comprehensive strategic planning. The authors examine the benefits of this type of analysis when applied to public health organizations and present a series of questions that should be answered prior to committing resources to scanning, monitoring, forecasting, and assessing components of the macroenvironment. Using illustrations from the public and private sectors, each question is examined with reference to specific challenges facing public health. Benefits are derived both from the process and the outcome of macroenvironmental analysis. Not only are data acquired that assist public health professionals to make decisions, but the analytical process required assures a better understanding of potential external threats and opportunities as well as an organization's strengths and weaknesses. Although differences exist among private and public as well as profit and not-for-profit organizations, macroenvironmental analysis is seen as more essential to the public and not-for-profit sectors than the private and profit sectors. This conclusion results from the extreme dependency of those areas on external environmental forces that cannot be significantly influenced or controlled by public health decision makers. PMID:1902305

  14. Liability for the nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, M.; Govaerts, P.; Malbrain, C.; Veuchelen, L.; Spriet, B.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a cooperative research project on the juridical aspects of nuclear risk (criminal, civil and administrative aspects), according to the Belgian and Dutch laws, are presented. In this multi-disciplinary project also attention is paid to the economic impacts and positive-scientific aspects of the nuclear risk regarding radioactive waste problems and nuclear accidents. The liability for and the decision-making regarding the site selection of nuclear power plants is dealt with as well. 9 figs., 23 tabs., 198 refs

  15. Low-level waste injury: liability, insurance, and indemnification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    It would be worth developing compatible policies to address the issues involving third-party liabilities which remain unanswered before the different states and interstate compact agreements implementing the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act develop a range of approaches. A plan that draws resources from a number of states would have economic and technological benefits, and could help ensure public confidence in the management of low level radioactive wastes. Interstate cooperation and coordination to produce such a plan would benefit from a Congressional mandate. An appendix arranged alphabetically by state illustrates the range of immunity/waiver, insurance, and limits that already exist

  16. Planning for the Mercy Center for Breast Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, V Ed

    2002-01-01

    During the last months of 2000, administrators at the Mercy San Juan Medical Center in Carmichael, Calif., convened a steering committee to plan the Mercy Center for Breast Health. The Steering Committee was composed of the director of ancillary and support services, the oncology clinical nurse specialist, the RN manager of the oncology nursing unit, the RN surgery center manager, and me, the manager of imaging services. The committee was responsible for creating a new business with five specific objectives: to position the Center as a comprehensive diagnostic and resource center for women; to generate physician referrals to the Breast Center through various vehicles; to create awareness of the Breast Center's capabilities among area radiologists; to create awareness of the Breast Center among employees of six sister facilities; to create "brand awareness" for the Mercy Center for Breast Health among referring physicians and patients who could use competing centers in the area. The Steering Committee's charter was to design a center with a feminine touch and ambience and to provide a "one-stop shopping" experience for patients. A major component of the Breast Center is the Dianne Haselwood Resource Center, which provides patients with educational support and information. The Steering Committee brought its diverse experience and interests to bear on arranging for equipment acquisition, information and clerical systems, staffing, clinic office design, patient care and marketing. Planning the Mercy Center for Breast Health has been a positive challenge that brought together many elements of the organization and people from different departments and specialties to create a new business venture. Our charge now is to grow and to live up to our vision of offering complete breast diagnostic, education and support services in one location.

  17. Hospital and Health Plan Partnerships: The Affordable Care Act's Impact on Promoting Health and Wellness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Michelle; White, Annesha; Kelley, Virginia P.; Hopper, Jennifer Kuca; Liu, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Background The Affordable Care Act (ACA) healthcare reforms, centered on achieving the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Triple Aim goals of improving patient care quality and satisfaction, improving population health, and reducing costs, have led to increasing partnerships between hospitals and insurance companies and the implementation of employee wellness programs. Hospitals and insurance companies have opted to partner to distribute the risk and resources and increase coordination of care. Objective To examine the ACA's impact on the health and wellness programs that have resulted from the joint ventures of hospitals and health plans based on the published literature. Method We conducted a review of the literature to identify successful mergers and best practices of health and wellness programs. Articles published between January 2007 and January 2015 were compiled from various search engines, using the search terms “corporate,” “health and wellness program,” “health plan,” “insurance plan,” “hospital,” “joint venture,” and “vertical merger.” Publications that described consolidations or wellness programs not tied to health insurance plans were excluded. Noteworthy characteristics of these programs were summarized and tabulated. Results A total of 44 eligible articles were included in the analysis. The findings showed that despite rising healthcare costs, joint ventures prevent hospitals from trading-off quality and services for cost reductions. Administrators believed that partnering would allow the companies to meet ACA standards for improving clinical outcomes at reduced costs. Before the implementation of the ACA, some employers had wellness programs, but these were not standardized and did not need to produce measurable results. The ACA encouraged improvement of employee wellness programs by providing funding for expanded health services and by mandating quality care. Successful workplace health and wellness

  18. Animal health and welfare planning improves udder health and cleanliness but not leg health in Austrian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremetsberger, Lukas; Leeb, Christine; Winckler, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Animal health and welfare planning is considered an important tool for herd management; however, its effectiveness is less well known. The aim of this study was to conduct animal health and welfare planning on 34 Austrian dairy farms and to evaluate changes in health and welfare after 1 yr. After an initial assessment using the Welfare Quality protocol (Welfare Quality Consortium, Lelystad, the Netherlands), results were reported back to the farmers. Health and welfare area(s) in which both the farmer and the researcher regarded improvement as important were discussed. Management practices and husbandry measures were chosen according to the respective farm situation. One year after interventions had been initiated, farms were reassessed, and the degree of implementation of improvement measures was recorded. The average implementation rate was 57% and thus relatively high when compared with other studies. High degrees of implementation were achieved related to cleanliness and udder health, at 77 and 63%, respectively. Intervention measures addressing udder health were mostly easy to incorporate in the daily routine and led to a reduced somatic cell score, whereas this score increased in herds without implementation of measures. The decrease in cows with dirty teats was more pronounced when measures were implemented compared with control farms. The implementation rate regarding leg health (46%) was comparably low in the present study, and leg health did not improve even when measures were implemented. Lying comfort, social behavior, and human-animal relationship did not require interventions and were therefore seldom chosen by farmers as part of health and welfare plans. In conclusion, the structured, participatory process of animal health and welfare planning appears to be a promising way to improve at least some animal health and welfare issues. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Organizational liability for adverse reactions to the contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chang Seon

    2007-01-01

    Contrast medium is a very useful tool for X-ray examinations. But contrast medium has some unavoidable adverse reactions. For those patients who have never received contrast medium before, it is impossible to predict whether they will suffer from certain kinds of adverse reactions. Thus, radiologists should use strategies to minimize adverse events and be prepared to promptly recognize and manage any reactions to the contrast media. If a radiologist commits medical malpractice, he will face civil responsibility. Medical malpractice means a tort or breach of contrast that occurs in a medical setting. Medical malpractices happen, despite the efforts of hospital staff. Many courts have applied the traditional doctrine of respondeat superior in actions against organizations for injuries caused by their employees. It is a legal doctrine, which states that an employer is responsible for employee actions performed within the course of the employment. A hospital is an organization for health purposes. An organization may be convicted of an offense committed by an employee of the organization acting in its behalf and within the scope of this office or employment. Organizational liability involves a wide variety of legal issues, including tort liability, wrongful employment practices, personal injury, breach of fiduciary duty, and so on. Many executive directors of organizations are aware of their personal and organizational risks of exposure to legal liabilities. The employer must have the right to control the physical conduct of the employee and must consent to receive the employee's services, while expecting some benefits from the services offered. Therefore, legal liability can be imposed for improper selection, assignment, training, and supervision of employees. In conclusion, the hospital itself has organizational liability for adverse reactions to the contrast medium

  20. Responding to the World Health Organization Gobal Disability Action Plan in Ukraine: Developing a National Disability, Health and Rehabilitation Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Gutenbrunner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to support the development of a National Disability, Health and Rehabilitation Plan (NDHRP for Ukraine, a technical consultation was carried out by a Rehabilitation Advisory Team (RAT of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM in 2015. The consultation was based on assessment of the situation of persons with disabilities and the rehabilitation system in Ukraine. Recommendations for activities and projects to improve rehabilitation services within the healthcare system were developed and proposed. In order to reach consensus on the recommendations, dialogues were held with different stakeholders, including the Ministry of Public Health. The recommendations included: coordination of disability and rehabilitation policies within the Ministry of Public Health and among other involved ministries; translation and adaptation of international definitions of functioning, disability, and assessment tools into Ukrainian; data collection on the epidemiology of disability and the need for rehabilitation; implementation of health-related rehabilitation services; and implementation of international definitions and curricula of rehabilitation professions. The mission was regarded as successful and one year later a few changes had been adopted by the Ukrainian government. Further action based on this research is necessary. It will be important to track the changes and evaluate the results after an appropriate period of time.

  1. The North Carolina State Health Plan for Teachers and State Employees: Strategies in Creating Financial Stability While Improving Member Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dee; Horner, Beth

    2018-01-01

    The North Carolina State Health Plan provides health care coverage to more than 700,000 members, including teachers, state employees, retirees, current and former lawmakers, state university and community college personnel, and their dependents. The State Health Plan is a division of the North Carolina Department of State Treasurer, self-insured, and exempt from the Employee Retirement Income Security Act as a government-sponsored plan. With health care costs rising at rates greater than funding, the Plan must take measures to stem cost growth while ensuring access to quality health care. The Plan anticipates focusing on strategic initiatives that drive results and cost savings while improving member health to protect the Plan's financial future. ©2018 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  2. A tool for enhancing strategic health planning: a modeled use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Lisa Bundara; Fox, Michael H; Betts, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    This article describes use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a tool for strategic planning. The ICF is the international classification system for factors that influence health, including Body Structures, Body Functions, Activities and Participation and Environmental Factors. An overview of strategic planning and the ICF are provided. Selected ICF concepts and nomenclature are used to demonstrate its utility in helping develop a classic planning framework, objectives, measures and actions. Some issues and resolutions for applying the ICF are described. Applying the ICF for strategic health planning is an innovative approach that fosters the inclusion of social ecological health determinants and broad populations. If employed from the onset of planning, the ICF can help public health organizations systematically conceptualize, organize and communicate a strategic health plan. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. The nuclear liability conventions revised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    2004-01-01

    The signature on 12 February 2004 of the Protocols amending respectively the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention was the second step of the process of modernisation of the international nuclear liability regime after the adoption in September 1997 of a Protocol revising the 1963 Vienna Convention and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The common objective of the new instruments is to provide more funds to compensate a larger number of potential victims in respect of a broader range of damage. Another goal of the revision exercise was to maintain the compatibility between the Paris and Vienna based systems, a commitment enshrined in the 1988 Joint Protocol, as well as to ascertain that Paris/Brussels countries could also become a Party to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation. However, while generally consistent vis a vis the Joint Protocol, the provisions of the Paris and Vienna Conventions, as revised, differ on some significant aspects. Another remaining issue is whether the improved international nuclear liability regime will succeed in attracting in the future a larger number of countries, particularly outside Europe, and will so become truly universal. Therefore, the need for international co-operation to address these issues, to facilitate the adoption of new implementing legislation and to ensure that this special regime keeps abreast of economic and technological developments, is in no way diminished after the revision of the Conventions.(author)

  4. Environmental pollution and liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boediker, T.

    1980-01-01

    By the declared will of the legislative bodies to give effect to the polluter pays principle on all levels those have to pay the costs of removing impairments of environmental media that are responsible for its occurence. Thus environmental pollution becomes a considerable financial risk for the polluter. Against this risk they try to protect themselves by the corresponding precautionary measures, e.g. by insurance. The insurance industry is consequently requested to meet this new demand. The legal bases are followed by the description of the insurance relationship under the aspect of the theory of risks, which follows, based on the basic model of decision theory, the objective of a quantitative representation of the situation of the decision. In the last chapter the author deals with the financial security for the risks of a third party liability insurance of environmental pollution as it is offered today in the Federal Republic of Germany. The elaboration of the existing financial security is then compared with the legal conditions of liability. In doing this the author describes cases not covered by financial security and its definition by comparison with findings of risk theory. As a result it becomes obvious that numerous exclusions of risks could quite good be included in the financial security and that the argument of the impossibility to insure often put forward by the insurers to justify the exclusion of risks can neither theoretically nor practically be uphold. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. Radiological risks and civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, attention is first concentrated on the substantive issue of nuclear safety-a matter on which, Friends of the Earth claimed, the Secretary of State had misdirected himself in law. The Court of Appeal's interpretation of a central element of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 implies certain inherent problems associated with the law relating to compensation for radiation-induced injury. These problems-on the nature of causation and strict liability-are such that they cannot be solved by simple reform of current law and, it is further argued, extra-legal means of compensating those affected by radiation (and other environmental agents) are required. Before attempting to justify this assertion, it is necessary to examine the substance of the judgement in more detail. First the nature of acceptable risk is considered from absolutist and probabalistic viewpoints. The permitted discharges are reviewed followed by a discussion of the accidental discharges of radioactivity into the environment. Incidents at BNFL's Sellafield site are listed. Genetic risks are also considered. The notion of strict liability is discussed for radiation-induced injury, and an alternative approach of increased social security payments financed in part by those organisations discharging radioactivity into the environment is considered. (author)

  6. Radiological risks and civil liability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.E. (Salford Univ. (UK). Environmental Health and Housing Div.)

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, attention is first concentrated on the substantive issue of nuclear safety-a matter on which, Friends of the Earth claimed, the Secretary of State had misdirected himself in law. The Court of Appeal's interpretation of a central element of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 implies certain inherent problems associated with the law relating to compensation for radiation-induced injury. These problems-on the nature of causation and strict liability-are such that they cannot be solved by simple reform of current law and, it is further argued, extra-legal means of compensating those affected by radiation (and other environmental agents) are required. Before attempting to justify this assertion, it is necessary to examine the substance of the judgement in more detail. First the nature of acceptable risk is considered from absolutist and probabalistic viewpoints. The permitted discharges are reviewed followed by a discussion of the accidental discharges of radioactivity into the environment. Incidents at BNFL's Sellafield site are listed. Genetic risks are also considered. The notion of strict liability is discussed for radiation-induced injury, and an alternative approach of increased social security payments financed in part by those organisations discharging radioactivity into the environment is considered. (author).

  7. Joint Venture Health Plans May Give ACOs a Run for Their Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Joint venture plans are starting to demonstrate their ability to implement clinical management and financial management reforms. A JV health plan replaces the offloading of financial risk by health plans to ill-equipped providers with an executive-level cost management committee stated jointly by the hospital and payer.

  8. Curricula for Health Planning, Policy, and Marketing: Conference Papers 1981-82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwall, David F., Ed.

    Papers from a 1981 conference on curriculum for health planning, policy, and marketing and from a 1982 conference on curriculum for strategic planning are presented. Responses to the papers and summaries of the proceedings are also presented. Titles and authors are as follows: "A Curriculum in Community Health Planning: An Approach for Today…

  9. 76 FR 80410 - Pendency of Request for Approval of Special Withdrawal Liability Rules; the Cultural Institutions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ...This notice advises interested persons that the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (``PBGC'') has received a request from The Cultural Institutions Pension Plan for approval of a plan amendment providing for special withdrawal liability rules. Under Sec. 4203(f) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and PBGC's regulation on Extension of Special Withdrawal Liability Rules, a multiemployer pension plan may, with PBGC approval, be amended to provide for special withdrawal liability rules similar to those that apply to the construction and entertainment industries. Such approval is granted only if PBGC determines that the rules apply to an industry with characteristics that make use of the special rules appropriate and that the rules will not pose a significant risk to PBGC. Before granting an approval, PBGC's regulations require PBGC to give interested persons an opportunity to comment on the request. The purpose of this notice is to advise interested persons of the request and to solicit their views on it.

  10. Nuclear civil liability international system. Evolution prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper sets out the necessity of a special system of international conventions in the scope of nuclear civil liability. Then the main principles of the conventions in Paris and Vienna are described. Recently, works have been carried out in order to improve and modernize the civil liability system. (TEC). 4 tabs

  11. Liability for nuclear damage and compensation therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazkova, D.

    1996-01-01

    The basic principles are outlined of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention, the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, and the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention. (P.A.)

  12. A legal analysis of the use of ionising radiation in medical hospital practice: an inquiry into the influence of prevention and precaution on health protection and liability. Doctoral thesis prepared at SCK-CEN and defended in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lierman, S.

    2005-01-01

    The article refers to an abstract of a doctoral thesis. From a legal perspective there exists a clear need for a general framework describing conditions and consequences of risk management in the field of high technology. Despite the existence of many kinds of Safety Procedures and Soft Law, specific guidelines are lacking for regulators and courts, especially in case of scientific controversy and uncertainty about the health effects of an activity or a product such as low doses of ionising radiation, electro-magnetic fields, genetically modified organisms, PCB's in salmon etc. The research of the PISA Project on Legal Aspects and Liability has been focussed on the medical applications of ionising radiation. The safety approach depends on the risk characterisation and differs for stochastic and deterministic effects. The most important objective was to find liability or funding systems which can cope with these differences, in particular between dose limits (as for the nuclear industry), reference dose levels foreseen in the EC medical Directive (as for nuclear medicine), and Optimisation referring to the ALARA principle. Risk assessment and risk management that are based on traditional narrow risk-assessment models have to be revised in the light of the Precautionary Principle. This principle urges policy-makers to adopt a broader, more pluralistic approach, considering the societal equilibrium, i.e. the general interest of the activity at stake, the general impact of individual protective measures and the existence of reasonable alternatives from a sociological, economical, scientific and technological point of view. One of the characteristics of the Precautionary Principle relates to our opinion to the collective damage to human health, i.e. a detriment that relates to a group of people. Nevertheless, as a result of the application of the Precautionary Principle, we believe that in case of individual damage the standard of care shall be more and more defined

  13. Indicators for planning of health services: assessing impacts of social and health care factors on population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, T T; Broida, J H

    1983-01-01

    Community health planning requires identification of the level of access to care and factors which affect the differentials in use of health services. In formulating strategies or alternatives for planning, some assessment of the current level or patterns of health services must be made. It is this element of the planning process that is addressed in this paper. In this study sixty-five specifically designated areas (medical market areas) in the Province of Quebec, Canada were selected. The analysis was performed using data obtained from a large scale study of physicians' responses to the introduction of universal medical care insurance in Quebec. Our analysis offered an opportunity to observe the impact of Medicare on access to care for those thought to be underserved.

  14. Endorsement liability: putting your good name at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicher, R H

    2001-07-01

    Endorsements designed to sell products are most effective when the endorser is a celebrity or an expert. If such endorsements contain misrepresentations, the endorser risks personal liability. For products related to health and safety, endorsements are subject to evaluation by reliable independent sources. In a number of high-profile cases, the Federal Trade Commission determined that endorsers must have a reasonable basis for their representations. (Aesthetic Surg J 2001;21:373-374.).

  15. Effectiveness of Existing International Nuclear Liability Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Doais, Salwa; Kessel, Daivd

    2015-01-01

    The first convention was the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) had been adopted on 29 July 1960 under the auspices of the OECD, and entered into force on 1 April 1968. In 1963,the Brussels Convention - supplementary to the Paris Convention- was adopted in to provide additional funds to compensate damage as a result of a nuclear incident where Paris Convention funds proved to be insufficient. The IAEA's first convention was the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (the Vienna Convention) which adopted on 21 May 1963,and entered into force in 1977. Both the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention laid down very similar nuclear liability rules based on the same general principles. The broad principles in these conventions can be summarized as follows: 1- The no-fault liability principle (strict liability) 2- Liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of the nuclear installation (legal channeling) 3- Only courts of the state in which the nuclear accident occurs would have jurisdiction (exclusive jurisdiction) 4- Limitation of the amount of liability and the time frame for claiming damages (limited liability) 5- The operator is required to have adequate insurance or financial guarantees to the extent of its liability amount (liability must be financially secured). 6- Liability is limited in time. Compensation rights are extinguished after specific time. 7- Non-discrimination of victims on the grounds of nationality, domicile or residence. Nuclear liability conventions objective is to provide adequate compensation payments to victims of a nuclear accident. Procedures for receiving these compensation are controlled by some rules such as exclusive jurisdiction, that rule need a further amendment to ensure the effectiveness of the exiting nuclear liability regime . Membership of the Conventions is a critical issue, because the existence of the conventions without being party to

  16. Effectiveness of Existing International Nuclear Liability Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Doais, Salwa; Kessel, Daivd [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The first convention was the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) had been adopted on 29 July 1960 under the auspices of the OECD, and entered into force on 1 April 1968. In 1963,the Brussels Convention - supplementary to the Paris Convention- was adopted in to provide additional funds to compensate damage as a result of a nuclear incident where Paris Convention funds proved to be insufficient. The IAEA's first convention was the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (the Vienna Convention) which adopted on 21 May 1963,and entered into force in 1977. Both the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention laid down very similar nuclear liability rules based on the same general principles. The broad principles in these conventions can be summarized as follows: 1- The no-fault liability principle (strict liability) 2- Liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of the nuclear installation (legal channeling) 3- Only courts of the state in which the nuclear accident occurs would have jurisdiction (exclusive jurisdiction) 4- Limitation of the amount of liability and the time frame for claiming damages (limited liability) 5- The operator is required to have adequate insurance or financial guarantees to the extent of its liability amount (liability must be financially secured). 6- Liability is limited in time. Compensation rights are extinguished after specific time. 7- Non-discrimination of victims on the grounds of nationality, domicile or residence. Nuclear liability conventions objective is to provide adequate compensation payments to victims of a nuclear accident. Procedures for receiving these compensation are controlled by some rules such as exclusive jurisdiction, that rule need a further amendment to ensure the effectiveness of the exiting nuclear liability regime . Membership of the Conventions is a critical issue, because the existence of the conventions without being party to

  17. Liability and Insurance for Suborbital Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Zwaan, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes and compares liability and liability insurance in the fields of aviation and spaceflight in order to propose solutions for a liability regime and insurance options for suborbital flights. Suborbital flights can be said to take place in the grey zone between air and space, between air law and space law, as well as between aviation insurance and space insurance. In terms of liability, the paper discusses air law and space law provisions in the fields of second and third party liability for damage to passengers and 'innocent bystanders' respectively, touching upon international treaties, national law and EU law, and on insurance to cover those risks. Although the insurance market is currently not ready to provide tailor-made products for operators of suborbital flights, it is expected to adapt rapidly once such flights will become reality. A hybrid approach will provide the best solution in the medium term.

  18. Planning the Marketing Activity in the Health Care Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Radulescu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The integration of marketing in the field of health care, starting with the 50’s, was accompanied by a series of controversies generated by the ethical and moral aspects that this type of services imply, as well as by the difficulty in determining exactly the demand, the unequal access to information of participants, the regulated mechanism for the establishment of prices and of rates and the intervention of the third party payer, the significant role of the state in ensuring the fair access of population to basic services, etc.The formulation of the marketing strategies, in the marketing planning process, starts from the generic strategy chosen by the organization according to its mission and objectives. As it has to adapt to the environment where it acts, to cope with the changes that appear, the organization must benefit from a perspective vision, all its actions must be subordinated to this vision in a whole marketing policy.

  19. National ignition facility environment, safety, and health management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The ES ampersand H Management Plan describes all of the environmental, safety, and health evaluations and reviews that must be carried out in support of the implementation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. It describes the policy, organizational responsibilities and interfaces, activities, and ES ampersand H documents that will be prepared by the Laboratory Project Office for the DOE. The only activity not described is the preparation of the NIF Project Specific Assessment (PSA), which is to be incorporated into the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (PEIS). This PSA is being prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) with input from the Laboratory participants. As the independent NEPA document preparers ANL is directly contracted by the DOE, and its deliverables and schedule are agreed to separately with DOE/OAK

  20. Financing long term liabilities (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In Germany the basis for the management of radioactive residues is the polluter-pays principle. All steps of treatment of radioactive waste arising from operation, decommissioning and dismantling including conditioning, interim storage and disposal of radioactive waste have to be financed by the waste producers. The waste producers are responsible for the harmless recycling of the residues or for their orderly management as radioactive waste. The Federal Government is responsible for establishing disposal facilities. Accordingly the waste producers are constructing and operating facilities in which the radioactive residues can be treated and stored until their disposal. As far as the radioactive waste cannot be stored by the producer, waste originating from research, medicine and industry can be stored in surface storage facilities of the federal states. Spent fuel from German NPPs is partly reprocessed in France and UK. The rest has to be disposed off directly in deep geologic formations. Until a repository for spent fuel is available in Germany spent fuel will be stored in interim storage facilities on the sites of the NPPs. The storage will take place in casks in a dry way. In exceptional cases, if the storage at a NPP site is not possible, there are two central storages at Ahaus and Gorleben which are in operation and can be made available as reserve. Radioactive waste returning from the reprocessing of German spent fuel in France and UK is stored in the Gorleben central storage. The Federal Government is aiming to establish a repository in deep geological formations about the year 2030 which shall be available for all types and quantities of radioactive waste. The necessary expenses for the planning and construction of radioactive waste disposal facilities are initially carried by the Federal Government. The Government recovers the costs by contributions or advance payments from the waste producers. The use of storage and disposal facilities is financed by

  1. Family planning in contermporary reproductive health and rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key strategies to promote family planning include domestication of provisions of international conventions on family planning into state laws, and ensuring their implementation; development of community friendly family planning services; establishment of effective family planning commodities logistics management system; ...

  2. Federal, provincial and territorial public health response plan for biological events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, R; Topping, J

    2018-01-04

    The Federal/Provincial/Territorial (FPT) Public Health Response Plan for Biological Events was developed for the Public Health Network Council (PHNC). This plan outlines how the national response to public health events caused by biological agents will be conducted and coordinated, with a focus on implementation of responses led by senior-level FPT public health decision-makers. The plan was developed by an expert task group and was approved by PHNC in October, 2017. The plan describes roles, responsibilities and authorities of FPT governments for public health and emergency management, a concept of operations outlining four scalable response levels and a governance structure that aims to facilitate an efficient, timely, evidence-informed and consistent approach across jurisdictions. Improving effective engagement amongst public health, health care delivery and health emergency management authorities is a key objective of the plan.

  3. 42 CFR 417.801 - Agreements between CMS and health care prepayment plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agreements between CMS and health care prepayment... CMS and health care prepayment plans. (a) General requirement. (1) In order to participate and receive... written agreement with CMS. (2) An existing group practice prepayment plan (GPPP) that continues as an...

  4. School Health Index: A Self-Assessment and Planning Guide. Middle School/High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Lisa C.; Burgeson, Charlene R.; Crossett, Linda; Harrykissoon, Samantha D.; Pritzl, Jane; Wechsler, Howell; Kuester, Sarah A.; Pederson, Linda; Graffunder, Corinne; Rainford, Neil; Sleet, David

    2004-01-01

    The "School Health Index" is a self-assessment and planning guide that will enable schools to: (1) identify the strengths and weaknesses of school policies and programs for promoting health and safety; (2) develop an action plan for improving student health and safety, and (3) involve teachers, parents, students, and the community in improving…

  5. Apportioning liability for transborder damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause-Ablass, W.-D.

    1988-01-01

    The legal situation in the case of cross border damage being caused by reactor accidents or transportation of nuclear material through more than one country is analysed. Two questions have to be asked - which country's courts have jurisdiction over the claims for damage? and which law is applicable? In considering the jurisdiction problem, the Paris and Vienna Conventions are discussed and also other rules of jurisdiction. The way the law is applicable is discussed in the second section. When the action for liability is based on the Paris or Vienna Convention the issue of reciprocity may arise and this is discussed. After a nuclear incident a potential plaintiff may have a choice amongst various jurisdictions and various available laws. Success may depend on the right choice of the forum chosen. This is illustrated by two examples. (U.K.)

  6. Financial security for nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    In almost every country where nuclear insurance pools operate, except for the United States, national nuclear legislation is either based on the principles of the Paris and Vienna nuclear third party liability conventions or is strongly influenced by them. The most important feature of this legislation is the absolute liabilityy of the operator, which simplifies the insurance process by avoiding duplication of cover and minimising the possibility of complex legal questions arising in case of an incident. The paper describes the arrangements for provision of financial security, the prescription period, insurance requirements, legal costs etc. Also, problems connected with the insurance of two or more installations on the same site are analysed. (NEA) [fr

  7. Using expanded individualized health care plans to assist teachers of students with complex health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Kathryn Wolff; Tumlin, Jennifer

    2004-06-01

    As special education teachers have increasing numbers of students requiring health care procedures in their classrooms, school nurses need to help these teachers maintain a safe, healthy environment for their students. Part of this consists of having teachers know the steps to take should certain problems arise. This article examines the receptivity of using an expanded version of an individualized health care plan (IHP) to provide critical information to address health care problems, as well as having individualized education program (IEP) objectives for instructional targets identified in the IHP. The findings of this study indicate that a high percentage of school nurses and special education teachers were in favor of an expanded version of the IHP. There was also support for teaching students to independently or partially participate in performing their own health care procedures and having this instruction formalized as IEP objectives.

  8. Ten years of health workforce planning in the Netherlands: a tentative evaluation of GP planning as an example.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuningen, M. van; Batenburg, R.S.; Velden, L.F.J. van der

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In many countries, health-care labour markets are constantly being challenged by an alternation of shortage and oversupply. Avoiding these cyclic variations is a major challenge. In the Netherlands, a workforce planning model has been used in health care for ten years. Case description

  9. Fusion energy and nuclear liability considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fork, William E.; Peterson, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    For over 60 years, fusion energy has been recognised as a promising technology for safe, secure and environmentally-sustainable commercial electrical power generation. Over the past decade, research and development programmes across the globe have shown progress in developing critical underlying technologies. Approaches ranging from high-temperature plasma magnetic confinement fusion to inertial confinement fusion are increasingly better understood. As scientific research progresses in its aim to achieve fusion 'ignition', where nuclear fusion becomes self-sustaining, the international legal community should consider how fusion power technologies fit within the current nuclear liability legal framework. An understanding of the history of the civil nuclear liability regimes, along with the different risks associated with fusion power, will enable nations to consider the proper legal conditions needed to deploy and commercialise fusion technologies for civil power generation. This note is divided into three substantive parts. It first provides background regarding fusion power and describes the relatively limited risks of fusion technologies when compared with traditional nuclear fission technologies. It then describes the international nuclear liability regime and analyses how fusion power fits within the text of the three leading conventions. Finally, it examines how fusion power may fall within the international nuclear liability framework in the future, a discussion that includes possible amendments to the relevant international liability conventions. It concludes that the unique nature of the current civil nuclear liability regime points towards the development of a more tailored liability solution because of the reduced risks associated with fusion power. (authors)

  10. Improvement of nuclear third party liability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. W.; Oh, B. J.; Yoo, S. O.; Kang, S. C.; Lee, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    A special regime for nuclear third party liability is necessary since the ordinary common law is not well suited to deal with the particular problems in the field of nuclear industry. The basic principles of this regime is i) strict liability (other than traditional fault liability), ii) channelling and the exclusive liability of operator, iii) compulsory financial security, iv) limits on liability in amount and in time v) intervention by the state, etc. In Korea, a revision was made to the Nuclear Damage Compensation Act on 16th January, 2001. The revision aimed at the reflection of the spirit of the new Vienna Convention on Nuclear Liability (1997) such as i) limit of liability to an amount of 300mil SDR, ii) increase of the level of financial protection (in the presidential decree, the 'Phasing-In' system would be introduced), iii) Extension of the definition 'nuclear damage', iv) extension of the scope of application to EEZ, v) deletion of 'natural calamity' from the causes of immunity, vi) extension of prescription period for personal injury to a length of 30 year

  11. The consideration of health in land use planning: Barriers and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Jennifer; Bond, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This research investigates the consideration of human health effects within the plan-making process in the East of England. It is based primarily upon questionnaires and interviews with those involved in plan-making. The results indicate that, prior to the implementation of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Directive, which established a statutory requirement for the consideration of significant effects on human health in European Union member states, very limited consideration has been given to human health in land use plans. The capacity of the planning system to affect human health is clearly understood by those responsible for their production, but they lack the expertise to consider the health implications of their plans. The SEA Directive, along with reforms to the planning system, does provide a framework for improving the consideration of health, but the capacity of the planning system to consider health must be improved as should dialogue with health practitioners, and the evidence base for health outcomes. Also, analytical and methodological complexity may hinder the ability of planners to consider health, indicating that greater application of the precautionary principle is required to deal with the present uncertainty over human health impacts resulting from the implementation of land use plans

  12. How can health ministries present persuasive investment plans for women's, children's and adolescents' health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ian; Maliqi, Blerta; Axelson, Henrik; Ostergren, Mikael

    2016-06-01

    Most low- and middle-income countries face financing pressures if they are to adequately address the recommendations of the Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescent's Health. Negotiations between government ministries of health and finance are a key determinant of the level and effectiveness of public expenditure in the health sector. Yet ministries of health in low- and middle-income countries do not always have a good record in obtaining additional resources from key decision-making institutions. This is despite the strong evidence about the affordability and cost-effectiveness of many public health interventions and of the economic returns of investing in health. This article sets out 10 attributes of effective budget requests that can address the analytical needs and perspectives of ministries of finance and other financial decision-makers. We developed the list based on accepted economic principles, a literature review and a workshop in June 2015 involving government officials and other key stakeholders from low- and middle-income countries. The aim is to support ministries of health to present a more strategic and compelling plan for investments in the health of women, children and adolescents.

  13. The role of procurement in liabilities management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    The new United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has as its primary purpose the management of the liabilities left from the nuclear R and D programme. When it was set up in its present form in 1994 (as UKAEA Government Division) it had as its core functions programme management and procurement. It aimed to be involved in project implementation and operations only in so far as it needed to be for purposes of control as nuclear site licensee, or where otherwise this represented best value for money for the taxpayer. This paper describes how the clear definition and split of client and contractor roles has enabled UKAEA to promote the development of a competitive market in decommissioning, to the benefit of the taxpayer and industry. The importance of procurement at the various stages of planning and implementation are explained, along with some of the initiatives UKAEA has taken to improve client-contractor relationships. It is argued that UKAEA's approach has helped to define the boundaries of what is permissible in contractorization within the terms of a nuclear site licence. (author)

  14. Regional health workforce planning through action research: lessons for commissioning health services from a case study in Far North Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzera, Annette June; Murray, Richard; Stewart, Ruth; Mills, Jane; Beaton, Neil; Larkins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Creating a stable and sustainable health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia has long been a challenge to health workforce planners, policy makers and researchers alike. Traditional health workforce planning is often reactive and assumes continuation of current patterns of healthcare utilisation. This demonstration project in Far North Queensland exemplifies how participatory regional health workforce planning processes can accurately model current and projected local workforce requirements. The recent establishment of Primary Health Networks (PHNs) with the intent to commission health services tailored to individual healthcare needs underlines the relevance of such an approach. This study used action research methodology informed by World Health Organization (WHO) systems thinking. Four cyclical stages of health workforce planning were followed: needs assessment; health service model redesign; skills-set assessment and workforce redesign; and development of a workforce and training plan. This study demonstrated that needs-based loco-regional health workforce planning can be achieved successfully through participatory processes with stakeholders. Stronger health systems and workforce training solutions were delivered by facilitating linkages and planning processes based on community need involving healthcare professionals across all disciplines and sectors. By focusing upon extending competencies and skills sets, local health professionals form a stable and sustainable local workforce. Concrete examples of initiatives generated from this process include developing a chronic disease inter-professional teaching clinic in a rural town and renal dialysis being delivered locally to an Aboriginal community. The growing trend of policy makers decentralising health funding, planning and accountability and rising health system costs increase the future utility of this approach. This type of planning can also assist the new PHNs to commission health services

  15. Review and action plan for oral health improvement in Sheffield special schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, D J; Jones, K; Harris, J C; Charlesworth, J; Marshman, Z

    2018-03-01

    A description of the process of a review of oral health improvement in special schools in Sheffield and the implementation of an action plan for these activities. Public health competencies encompassed: assessing the evidence on oral health and dental interventions, programmes and services; strategic leadership and collaborative working for health; oral health improvement. Copyright© 2018 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  16. Patterns of service use in two types of managed behavioral health care plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Elizabeth L; Hodgkin, Dominic; Hiatt, Deirdre; Horgan, Constance M; Azzone, Vanessa; McCann, Bernard; Ritter, Grant; Zolotusky, Galima; McGuire, Thomas G; Reif, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The study examined service use patterns by level of care in two managed care plans offered by a national managed behavioral health care organization (MBHO): an employee assistance program (EAP) combined with a standard behavioral health plan (integrated plan) and a standard behavioral health plan. The cross-sectional analysis used 2004 administrative data from the MBHO. Utilization of 11 specific service categories was compared. The weighted sample reflected exact matching on sociodemographic characteristics (unweighted N=710,014; weighted N=286,750). A larger proportion of enrollees in the integrated plan than in the standard plan used outpatient mental health and substance abuse office visits (including EAP visits) (p<.01) and substance abuse intensive outpatient or day treatment (p<.05), and the proportion using residential substance abuse rehabilitation was lower (p<.05). The integrated and standard products had distinct utilization patterns in this large MBHO. In particular, greater use of certain outpatient services was observed in the integrated plan.

  17. How institutional forces, ideas and actors shaped population health planning in Australian regional primary health care organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanparast, Sara; Freeman, Toby; Baum, Fran; Labonté, Ronald; Ziersch, Anna; Mackean, Tamara; Reed, Richard; Sanders, David

    2018-03-20

    Worldwide, there are competing norms driving health system changes and reorganisation. One such norm is that of health systems' responsibilities for population health as distinct from a focus on clinical services. In this paper we report on a case study of population health planning in Australian primary health care (PHC) organisations (Medicare Locals, 2011-2015). Drawing on institutional theory, we describe how institutional forces, ideas and actors shaped such planning. We reviewed the planning documents of the 61 Medicare Locals and rated population health activities in each Medicare Local. We also conducted an online survey and 50 interviews with Medicare Local senior staff, and an interview and focus group with Federal Department of Health staff. Despite policy emphasis on population health, Medicare Locals reported higher levels of effort and capacity in providing clinical services. Health promotion and social determinants of health activities were undertaken on an ad hoc basis. Regulatory conditions imposed by the federal government including funding priorities and time schedules, were the predominant forces constraining population health planning. In some Medicare Locals, this was in conflict with the normative values and what Medicare Locals felt ought to be done. The alignment between the governmental and the cultural-cognitive forces of a narrow biomedical approach privileged clinical practice and ascribed less legitimacy to action on social determinants of health. Our study also shed light on the range of PHC actors and how their agency influenced Medicare Locals' performance in population health. The presence of senior staff or community boards with a strong commitment to population health were important in directing action towards population health and equity. There are numerous institutional, normative and cultural factors influencing population health planning. The experience of Australian Medicare Locals highlights the difficulties of planning in

  18. 75 FR 70114 - Amendment to the Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight 45 CFR Part 147 RIN 0950-AA17 [OCIIO-9991-IFC2] Amendment to the Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance... Administration, Department of Labor; Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health...

  19. Joint liability lending and the peer selection effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangopadhyay, S; Ghatak, M; Lensink, R

    2005-01-01

    We show that the joint liability lending contracts derived in Ghatak (2000) violate an ex post incentive-compatibility constraint which says that the amount of joint liability cannot exceed the amount of individual liability. We derive and characterise optimal separating joint liability contracts

  20. Can health feasibly be considered as part of the planning process in Scotland?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Martin; Douglas, Margaret; Muirie, Jill

    2005-01-01

    The planning system is significant because of its capacity to determine the quality of the built environment as well as the health, well-being and quality of life of the individuals and communities therein. Development planning is especially important because of the long-term impact of the decisions. This paper was developed in response to increasing recognition amongst HIA practitioners in Scotland of the importance of planning for health. It focuses on the relationship between the planning system in Scotland, specifically the Development Planning element of it, and population health and considers how the health impact assessment (HIA) approach can facilitate and support joint working with planners. In particular, consideration is given to the potential impact of the introduction of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) on the linkages between health, HIA and planning

  1. Final Report: Evaluation of Tools and Metrics to Support Employer Selection of Health Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattke, Soeren; Van Busum, Kristin R; Martsolf, Grant R

    2014-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) places strong emphasis on quality of care as a means to improve outcomes for Americans and promote the financial sustainability of our health care system. Included in the ACA are new disclosure requirements that require health plans to provide a summary of benefits and coverage that accurately describes the benefits under the plan or coverage. These requirements are intended to support employers' procurement of high-value health coverage for their employees. This study attempts to help employers understand the structural differences between health plans and the performance dimensions along which plans can differ, as well as to educate employers about available tools that can be used to evaluate plan options. The study also discusses the extent to which these and other tools or resources are used by employers to inform choices between health plans.

  2. Strategic planning for health care management information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, H R; Kaiser, K M

    1985-01-01

    Using a planning methodology and a structured design technique for analyzing data and data flow, information requirements can be derived to produce a strategic plan for a management information system. Such a long-range plan classifies information groups and assigns them priorities according to the goals of the organization. The approach emphasizes user involvement.

  3. CIVIL LIABILITY OF DOCTORS AND THEIR INSURANCE (MALPRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gârbo Viorica Irina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Malpractice insurance of medical staff is probably the oldest professional liability insurance underwritten in the insurance market in Romania. The aim of our research is to theoretically examine in a qualitative inquiry the usefulness of insurance completion by the practitioners from the Romanian health system at both state and private, in order to improve a best practice medical insurance. The medical profession is practiced in Romania under the Code of Medical Ethics 30 March 2012 prepared in code that complies with international standards contained in the Geneva Declaration of 1948, as amended by the World Medical Association and the International Code of Medical Ethics. The forms of medical liability are: disciplinary, administrative, civil and criminal and only the civil liability can be taken into insurance because only it meets the conditions of insurability. Once we explain in general and the insurance liability in particular we show articles of the Romanian Civil Code which establishes the obligation the one that caused an injury to a third person for the repair or indemnify and conditions provided by the Civil Code as an act to be considered liability. Then we refer to situations where the patient may be damaged through the fault of the doctor or the doctor unit operates. The object of malpractice insurance is loss of money that the insured would have to pay a patient whom he caused injury as a result of acts or deeds of negligence committed to, during and in relation to professional activity. Risks taken in the insurance are personal injury, illness or death of the patient and / or moral damages. Regarding the excluded risks we have presented an overview of the more common contracts underwritten by Romanian insurance companies. We show the way of underwriting, the insured sums of the standard insurance and the additional one which subscribes moral damages, to companies in Romania agreed by bodies which organize and supervise the

  4. Including district heating pipelines in absolute liability laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronau, W

    1977-10-01

    On January 1, 1978 the provisions of the Act Amending the Rules of Liability Damages have entered into force. Formally this means that the provisions of the Reich Liability Act (Reichshaftpflichtgesetz, RHG) and those of the Act on Liability with Respect to Property Damage of Railways and Tramways (SHG) are now combined under the new term of Liability Act (Haftpflichtgesetz). In material terms it means that the district heat industry with its supply pipelines is subject to absolute liability. This creates a liability situation for this industry which has been existing for the electricity and gas industries since 1943 as a result of an amendment of the Reich Liability Act.

  5. World Health Organization Global Disability Action Plan: The Mongolian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fary Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide an update on disability and rehabilitation in Mongolia, and to identify potential barriers and facilitators for implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO Global Disability Action Plan (GDAP. Methods: A 4-member rehabilitation team from the Royal Melbourne Hospital conducted an intensive 6-day workshop at the Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences, for local healthcare professionals (n = 77 from medical rehabilitation facilities (urban/rural, public/private and non-governmental organizations. A modified Delphi method (interactive sessions, consensus agreement identified challenges for rehabilitation service provision and disability education and attitudes, using GDAP objectives. Results: The GDAP summary actions were considered useful for clinicians, policy-makers, government and persons with disabilities. The main challenges identified were: limited knowledge of disability services and rehabilitation within healthcare sectors; lack of coordination between sectors; geo-topographical issues; limited skilled workforces; lack of disability data, guidelines and accreditation standards; poor legislation and political commitment. The facilitators were: strong leadership; advocacy of disability-inclusive development; investment in local infrastructure/human resources; opportunities for coordination and partnerships between the healthcare sector and other stakeholders; research opportunities; and dissemination of information. Conclusion: Disability and rehabilitation is an emerging priority in Mongolia to address the rights and needs of persons with disabilities. The GDAP provides guidance to facilitate access and strengthen rehabilitation services.

  6. Jefferson Proving Ground, South of the Firing Line Health and Safety Plan, Volume 4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    .... The purpose of this Site Health and Safety Plan (SHSP) is to assign SECD personnel health and safety responsibilities, to prescribe mandatory operating procedures, and to establish personal-protective-equipment (PPE...

  7. 77 FR 22691 - Fees on Health Insurance Policies and Self-Insured Plans for the Patient-Centered Outcomes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... 1545-BK59 Fees on Health Insurance Policies and Self-Insured Plans for the Patient-Centered Outcomes... certain health insurance policies and plan sponsors of certain self-insured health plans to fund the... health insurance policies) or R. Lisa Mojiri-Azad at (202) 622-6080 (regarding self- insured health...

  8. Progress towards a global nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    During its April 2014 meeting, the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy held a policy debate on 'Progress towards a Global Nuclear Liability Regime'. The Steering Committee heard presentations from several experts on nuclear liability issues. To prepare the delegates to the Steering Committee for the policy debate, the NEA Secretariat prepared a background note on the status of the nuclear liability regimes, as well as on current issues and challenges in implementing the regimes. This article is based on the background note and is intended to provide basic information on the relevant international conventions and an overview of recent developments to enhance the understanding of the legal framework in which policy-makers and practitioners are engaging to respond to the call for broader adherence to the international liability instruments. (authors)

  9. Liability exposure for surgical robotics instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu L; Kilic, Gokhan; Phelps, John Y

    2012-01-01

    Surgical robotics instructors provide an essential service in improving the competency of novice gynecologic surgeons learning robotic surgery and advancing surgical skills on behalf of patients. However, despite best intentions, robotics instructors and the gynecologists who use their services expose themselves to liability. The fear of litigation in the event of a surgical complication may reduce the availability and utility of robotics instructors. A better understanding of the principles of duty of care and the physician-patient relationship, and their potential applicability in a court of law likely will help to dismantle some concerns and uncertainties about liability. This commentary is not meant to discourage current and future surgical instructors but to raise awareness of liability issues among robotics instructors and their students and to recommend certain preventive measures to curb potential liability risks. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). CERCLA, commonly known as...

  11. Alcohol on Campus and Possible Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, E. T.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews laws and court cases relating to alcohol and possible civil and criminal liability. Suggests a number of risk management principles, including knowledge of the law, policies forbidding hazing, fostering alcohol awareness, and discipline. (JAC)

  12. Should nuclear liability limits be removed. Yes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, L.

    1985-01-01

    Arguing in favor of unlimited liability in the event of a nuclear accident, the author cites a mathematical probability of a core meltdown in the US as 45% during the next 20 years. The liability insurance carried by the nuclear industry is less than for large hotels and industrial parks, and is only a small fraction of the potential costs of damage and compensation. If nuclear technology is safe, limits are not needed. If liability is limited, it removes the incentive to improve safety and sends inaccurate price signals to utilities choosing among competing technologies. There is also the ethical aspect of shifting liability costs from ratepayers and stockholders to accident victims and general taxpayers. There are other ways to finance nuclear risks, such as a sinking fund, the removal of the nuclear exclusion in property insurance policies, and annual retrospective assessments per reactors

  13. Roadway related tort liability and risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This workbook provide government employees background information related to tort liability and risk management. Past experience with lawsuits against government entities are summarized. The reasons for the lawsuits and results are analyzed. The obje...

  14. Direct liability of corporations and their personnel under CERCLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landreth, L.W.

    1991-01-01

    The prevailing liability theory applied to those persons who have caused, through their action or inaction, the release of a hazardous substance is that CERCLA provides a statutory basis for direct personal liability This direct avenue to liability is in conflict with well-settled principles of corporate limited liability. This paper discusses the impact CERCLA has had on the common law concepts of liability for corporations and their members

  15. Results from a national survey on chronic care management by health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattke, Soeren; Higgins, Aparna; Brook, Robert

    2015-05-01

    The growing burden of chronic disease necessitates innovative approaches to help patients and to ensure the sustainability of our healthcare system. Health plans have introduced chronic care management models, but systematic data on the type and prevalence of different approaches are lacking. Our goal was to conduct a systematic examination of chronic care management programs offered by health plans in the commercial market (ie, in products sold to employers and individuals. We undertook a national survey of a representative sample of health plans (70 plans, 36% response rate) and 6 case studies on health plans' programs to improve chronic care in the commercial market. The data underwent descriptive and bivariate analyses. All plans, regardless of size, location, and ownership, offer chronic care management programs, which identify eligible members from claims data and match them to interventions based on overall risk and specific care gaps. Plans then report information on care gaps to providers and offer self-management support to their members. While internal evaluations suggest that the interventions improve care and reduce cost, plans report difficulties in engaging members and providers. To overcome those obstacles, plans are integrating their programs into provider work flow, collaborating with providers on care redesign and leveraging patient support technologies. Our study shows that chronic care management programs have become a standard component of the overall approach used by health plans to manage the health of their members.

  16. A model linking clinical workforce skill mix planning to health and health care dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonnell Geoff

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to devise a simpler computable tool to assist workforce planners in determining what might be an appropriate mix of health service skills, our discussion led us to consider the implications of skill mixing and workforce composition beyond the 'stock and flow' approach of much workforce planning activity. Methods Taking a dynamic systems approach, we were able to address the interactions, delays and feedbacks that influence the balance between the major components of health and health care. Results We linked clinical workforce requirements to clinical workforce workload, taking into account the requisite facilities, technologies, other material resources and their funding to support clinical care microsystems; gave recognition to productivity and quality issues; took cognisance of policies, governance and power concerns in the establishment and operation of the health care system; and, going back to the individual, gave due attention to personal behaviour and biology within the socio-political family environment. Conclusion We have produced the broad endogenous systems model of health and health care which will enable human resource planners to operate within real world variables. We are now considering the development of simple, computable national versions of this model.

  17. A model linking clinical workforce skill mix planning to health and health care dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnick, Keith; McDonnell, Geoff

    2010-04-30

    In an attempt to devise a simpler computable tool to assist workforce planners in determining what might be an appropriate mix of health service skills, our discussion led us to consider the implications of skill mixing and workforce composition beyond the 'stock and flow' approach of much workforce planning activity. Taking a dynamic systems approach, we were able to address the interactions, delays and feedbacks that influence the balance between the major components of health and health care. We linked clinical workforce requirements to clinical workforce workload, taking into account the requisite facilities, technologies, other material resources and their funding to support clinical care microsystems; gave recognition to productivity and quality issues; took cognisance of policies, governance and power concerns in the establishment and operation of the health care system; and, going back to the individual, gave due attention to personal behaviour and biology within the socio-political family environment. We have produced the broad endogenous systems model of health and health care which will enable human resource planners to operate within real world variables. We are now considering the development of simple, computable national versions of this model.

  18. Optimization of the company tax liability

    OpenAIRE

    Jelínková, Blanka

    2010-01-01

    This thesis introduces the tax system of the Czech Republic. The corporate income tax in particular is specified in bigger detail. Its basic structural elements are described with the focus on the transformation of the accountable profit to the tax base. The practical part is divided into chapters, each of which deals with the optimization of the amount of the real tax liability. The content, instruments mentioned and methods for decreasing company tax liability applied suggest this work more...

  19. Nuclear liability, nuclear safety, and economic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation applies the methods of economic analysis to nuclear liability and Price-Anderson. First the legislative history is reviewed; in that history the economic role of liability in affecting safety and allocating risk was virtually ignored. Succeeding chapters reformulate issues from the policy debate and subject them to economic analysis. A persistent issue is whether nuclear utilities respond to their limited liability by allowing a higher probability of serious accident. Comparative-static analysis shows that limited liability does lead to a higher chance of accidents, though the effect may be small. The analysis also shows that safety is achieved in a more capital-intensive manner than is cost-minimizing and that limited liability causes reactor owners to favor more heavily populated sites for plants. Therefore, the siting decision makes potential loss greater even if there is no change in the probability of an accident. Citizens' preferences on nuclear liability are examined next, starting with the nature of coverage that would be just in the sense of contraction theories such as John Rawls' Theory of Justice. Citizens behind Rawls' veil of ignorance, forced to be fair because of their ignorance of whether they will be harmed, unanimously choose a high level of coverage. The just level of coverage is greater than the existing $560 million. Second, the nature of economically efficient liability coverage is determined and contrasted with coverage that would emerge from a democratic system of public choice. Population and expected damage profiles indicate that majorities could easily be formed among groups of citizens expecting to suffer little of the damage of a nuclear accident. Thus, majority voting on liability arrangements is likely to produce an inefficiently low level of coverage

  20. Liability for nuclear damage. An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopuski, J.

    1993-01-01

    The book deals with some of the complex issues of liability and compensation for nuclear damage which have been considered in the course of the work of the IAEA concerning the revision of the Vienna Convention on nuclear liability. It presents, in an orderly way, personal reflections of its author based on this experience gathered in years 1989-1992 when participating in this work. Necessarily it contains in some of its parts references to documents of the IAEA Standing Committee on Nuclear Liability; these documents because of their length could not be reproduced. Consequently these parts may be fully intelligible for those who have not participated in or closely followed in Committee's work. The IAEA work on liability for nuclear damage was initiated in the wake of the impact made on the world's public opinion by the Chernobyl incident and its transboundary effects; issues of international state liability and full compensation have been raised. But humanitarian ideas have quickly been confronted with cold calculations of the cost of financial protection for victims and an open unwillingness of some nuclear states the engage their liability; conflict of interests between nuclear and non-nuclear states has been manifested. After three years of discussion no wide consensus could be reached on some basic issues, such as: relationship between international state and civil liability regimes, structures of international legislation, concept of nuclear damage, limits of compensation, role of public funds or jurisdiction. The author presents his approach to these controversial issues, trying to provide at the same time a theoretical outline for the future international legislation on nuclear liability. (author)

  1. Health insurance: how does your plan compare? Plus, a look to new reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    A good insurance plan can steer you to the care that helps and away from wasting your time and money on unnecessary tests and treatments. For the third year running, we are presenting health plan rankings from the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA), a nonprofit health care accreditation and quality measurement group, of a record 984 plans on their quality of care, customer satisfaction, and commitment to improvement and disclosure of information. This year, the NCQA ranked 474 private plans (which consumers obtain through a job or purchase on their own), 395 Medicare Advantage plans, and 115 Medicaid HMOs.

  2. Action planning as predictor of health protective and health risk behavior: an investigation of fruit and snack consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candel Math

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large discrepancies between people's intention to eat a healthy diet and actual dietary behavior indicate that motivation is not a sufficient instigator for healthy behavior. Research efforts to decrease this 'intention - behavior gap' have centered on aspects of self-regulation, most importantly self-regulatory planning. Most studies on the impact of self-regulatory planning in health and dietary behavior focus on the promotion of health protective behaviors. This study investigates and compares the predictive value of action planning in health protective behavior and the restriction of health risk behavior. Methods Two longitudinal observational studies were performed simultaneously, one focusing on fruit consumption (N = 572 and one on high-caloric snack consumption (N = 585 in Dutch adults. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate and compare the predictive value of action planning in both behaviors, correcting for demographics and the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The nature of the influence of action planning was investigated by testing mediating and moderating effects. Results Action planning was a significant predictor of fruit consumption and restricted snack consumption beyond the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The strength of the predictive value of action planning did not differ between the two behaviors. Evidence for mediation of the intention - behavior relationship was found for both behaviors. Positive moderating effects of action planning were demonstrated for fruit consumption, indicating that individuals who report high levels of action planning are significantly more likely to translate their intentions into actual behavior. Conclusion The results indicate that the planning of specific preparatory actions predicts the performance of healthy dietary behavior and support the application of self-regulatory planning in both health protective and health

  3. Action planning as predictor of health protective and health risk behavior: an investigation of fruit and snack consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Osch, Liesbeth; Beenackers, Mariëlle; Reubsaet, Astrid; Lechner, Lilian; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2009-10-13

    Large discrepancies between people's intention to eat a healthy diet and actual dietary behavior indicate that motivation is not a sufficient instigator for healthy behavior. Research efforts to decrease this 'intention - behavior gap' have centered on aspects of self-regulation, most importantly self-regulatory planning. Most studies on the impact of self-regulatory planning in health and dietary behavior focus on the promotion of health protective behaviors. This study investigates and compares the predictive value of action planning in health protective behavior and the restriction of health risk behavior. Two longitudinal observational studies were performed simultaneously, one focusing on fruit consumption (N = 572) and one on high-caloric snack consumption (N = 585) in Dutch adults. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate and compare the predictive value of action planning in both behaviors, correcting for demographics and the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The nature of the influence of action planning was investigated by testing mediating and moderating effects. Action planning was a significant predictor of fruit consumption and restricted snack consumption beyond the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The strength of the predictive value of action planning did not differ between the two behaviors. Evidence for mediation of the intention - behavior relationship was found for both behaviors. Positive moderating effects of action planning were demonstrated for fruit consumption, indicating that individuals who report high levels of action planning are significantly more likely to translate their intentions into actual behavior. The results indicate that the planning of specific preparatory actions predicts the performance of healthy dietary behavior and support the application of self-regulatory planning in both health protective and health risk behaviors. Future interventions in dietary modification may

  4. Is health workforce planning recognising the dynamic interplay between health literacy at an individual, organisation and system level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccarella, Lucio; Wraight, Brenda; Gorman, Des

    2016-02-01

    The growing demands on the health system to adapt to constant change has led to investment in health workforce planning agencies and approaches. Health workforce planning approaches focusing on identifying, predicting and modelling workforce supply and demand are criticised as being simplistic and not contributing to system-level resiliency. Alternative evidence- and needs-based health workforce planning approaches are being suggested. However, to contribute to system-level resiliency, workforce planning approaches need to also adopt system-based approaches. The increased complexity and fragmentation of the healthcare system, especially for patients with complex and chronic conditions, has also led to a focus on health literacy not simply as an individual trait, but also as a dynamic product of the interaction between individual (patients, workforce)-, organisational- and system-level health literacy. Although it is absolutely essential that patients have a level of health literacy that enables them to navigate and make decisions, so too the health workforce, organisations and indeed the system also needs to be health literate. Herein we explore whether health workforce planning is recognising the dynamic interplay between health literacy at an individual, organisation and system level, and the potential for strengthening resiliency across all those levels.

  5. Do employers know the quality of health care benefits they provide? Use of HEDIS depression scores for health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robst, John; Rost, Kathryn; Marshall, Donna

    2013-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Dissemination of health quality measures is a necessary ingredient of efforts to harness market-based forces, such as value-based purchasing by employers, to improve health care quality. This study examined reporting of Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measures for depression to firms interested in improving depression care. METHODS During surveys conducted between 2009 and 2011, a sample of 325 employers that were interested in improving depression treatment were asked whether their primary health plan reports HEDIS scores for depression to the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) and if so, whether they knew the scores. Data about HEDIS reporting by the health plans were collected from the NCQA. RESULTS HEDIS depression scores were reported by the primary health plans of 154 (47%) employers, but only 7% of employers knew their plan's HEDIS scores. Because larger employers were more likely to report knowing the scores, 53% of all employees worked for employers who reported knowing the scores. A number of structural, health benefit, and need characteristics predicted knowledge of HEDIS depression scores by employers. CONCLUSIONS The study demonstrated that motivated employers did not know their depression HEDIS scores even when their plan publicly reported them. Measures of health care quality are not reaching the buyers of insurance products; however, larger employers were more likely to know the HEDIS scores for their health plan, suggesting that value-based purchasing may have some ability to affect health care quality.

  6. 20 CFR 1002.163 - What types of health plans are covered by USERRA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of health plans are covered by USERRA? 1002.163 Section 1002.163 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS... by USERRA? (a) USERRA defines a health plan to include an insurance policy or contract, medical or...

  7. On the importance of planned health education: Prevention of ski injury as an example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, G.; Bouter, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    The planning of health education aimed at preventing sports injuries is often incomplete and not stated explicitly. In most instances, the evaluation is incomplete or nonexistent. We present a theoretical framework for planning and evaluating health education, illustrating the main points by using

  8. Safety and health five-year plan, Fiscal years 1995--1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This report describes efforts by the Department of Energy (DOE) to size and allocate funding to safety and health activities that protect workers and the public from harm. Although it is well recognized that virtually every aspect of an operation has health and safety implications, this effort is directed at identifying planned efforts specifically directed at health and safety. The initial effort, to compile information for the period covering FY 1994--1998, served two primary needs: (1) to document what was actually taking place in the DOE Complex, from a budget and resource utilization standpoint (how the complex was reacting to the calls for greater protection for workers and the public); and (2) to embark on an effort to utilize forward-looking management plans to allocate resources to meet safety and health needs (to begin to be proactive). It was recognized that it would take several years to achieve full acceptance and implementation of a single, DOE-wide approach toward planning for safety and health, and to develop plans that emphasized the benefits from both risk management and accident prevention strategies. This report, describing safety and health plans and budgets for FY 1995, reflects the increasing acceptance of risk-based strategies in the development of safety and health plans. More operations are using the prioritization methodology recommended for the safety and health planning process, and more operations have begun to review planned expenditures of resources to better assure that resources are allocated to the highest risk reduction activities

  9. Health Plans Can't Ignore The Customer Experience Any Longer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Erik

    2017-10-01

    With regulations limiting differentiation between products, health plans must rethink consumer experience to meet expectations of today's consumers, who seek convenience, quality, and speed from their health care organizations. Many plans understand they need to connect more effectively with their end customers, but technological, cultural, and other obstacles are in the way.

  10. [Philanthropic hospitals and the operation of provider-owned health plans in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Sheyla Maria Lemos; Portela, Margareth C; Ugá, Maria Alicia Dominguez; Barbosa, Pedro Ribeiro; Gerschman, Silvia; Vasconcellos, Miguel Murat

    2007-02-01

    To describe the management performance of philanthropic hospitals that operate their own health plans, in comparison with philanthropic hospitals as a whole in Brazil. The managerial structures of philanthropic hospitals that operated their own health plans were compared with those seen in a representative group from the philanthropic hospital sector, in six dimensions: management and planning, economics and finance, human resources, technical services, logistics services and information technology. Data from a random sample of 69 hospitals within the philanthropic hospital sector and 94 philanthropic hospitals that operate their own health plans were evaluated. In both cases, only the hospitals with less than 599 beds were included. The results identified for the hospitals that operate their own health plans were more positive in all the managerial dimensions compared. In particular, the economics and finance and information technology dimensions were highlighted, for which more than 50% of the hospitals that operated their own health plans presented almost all the conditions considered. The philanthropic hospital sector is important in providing services to the Brazilian Health System (SUS). The challenges in maintaining and developing these hospitals impose the need to find alternatives. Stimulation of a public-private partnership in this segment, by means of operating provider-owned health plans or providing services to other health plans that work together with SUS, is a field that deserves more in-depth analysis.

  11. Using a 401(h) account to fund retiree health benefits from your pension plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; Singerman, Eduardo

    2003-06-01

    If a health and welfare plan covering retirees faces financial shortfalls, administrators and trustees can fund retiree health benefit payments from a related pension plan that may be in better condition. This method is legal and ethical, but it requires sophisticated accounting techniques for creating an account that provides retiree members with promised benefits while meeting statutory and regulatory requirements.

  12. Salubridad Chicana: Su Preservacion Y Mantenimiento -- The Chicano Plan for Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ruben, Ed.; And Others

    In devising the mental health plan for Chicanos, the social, economic, and political forces that adversely affect their emotional well-being must be considered. While defining mental health needs and proposing ways to meet those needs, the cultural background of the Chicano people must seriously be considered. The plan should stress the importance…

  13. Health workforce governance and integration: the fit between planning and system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The EU Joint Action on Health Workforce Planning and Forecasting has taken up the challenge to let countries share and exchange practices in health workforce planning. It appears however, that not many countries actually apply (needs-based forecasting) models to support this. But does

  14. 41 CFR 60-741.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. 60-741.25 Section 60-741.25 Public Contracts and Property Management... Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service...

  15. 75 FR 43528 - Seeking Public Comment on Draft National Health Security Strategy Biennial Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... National Health Security Strategy Biennial Implementation Plan AGENCY: Department of Health and Human... National Health Security Strategy (NHSS) of the United States of America (2009) and build upon the NHSS Interim Implementation Guide for the National Health Security Strategy of the United States of America...

  16. 42 CFR 495.338 - Health information technology implementation advance planning document requirements (HIT IAPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health information technology implementation... CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.338 Health information technology implementation advance planning document...

  17. Pension regulation and the market value of pension liabilities - A contingent claims analysis using Parisian options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, D.; Chen, A.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the market-consistent valuation of pension liabilities in a contingent claim framework whereby a knock-out barrier feature is applied to capture early regulatory closure of a pension plan. We investigate two cases which we call "immediate closure procedure" and "delayed closure

  18. Health Care Waste Segregation Behavior among Health Workers in Uganda: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Akulume

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology. One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention and external variables (sociodemographic factors, personal characteristics, organizational characteristics, professional characteristics, and moral obligation. Results. For their most recent client 21.5% of the health workers reported that they most definitely segregated health care waste while 5.5% did not segregate. All the theory of planned behavior constructs were significant predictors of health workers’ segregation behavior, but intention emerged as the strongest and most significant (r=0.524, P<0.001. The theory of planned behavior model explained 52.5% of the variance in health workers’ segregation behavior. When external variables were added, the new model explained 66.7% of the variance in behavior. Conclusion. Generally, health workers’ health care waste segregation behavior was high. The theory of planned behavior significantly predicted health workers’ health care waste segregation behaviors.

  19. Health Care Waste Segregation Behavior among Health Workers in Uganda: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulume, Martha; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N

    2016-01-01

    Objective . The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology . One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention) and external variables (sociodemographic factors, personal characteristics, organizational characteristics, professional characteristics, and moral obligation). Results . For their most recent client 21.5% of the health workers reported that they most definitely segregated health care waste while 5.5% did not segregate. All the theory of planned behavior constructs were significant predictors of health workers' segregation behavior, but intention emerged as the strongest and most significant ( r = 0.524, P theory of planned behavior model explained 52.5% of the variance in health workers' segregation behavior. When external variables were added, the new model explained 66.7% of the variance in behavior. Conclusion . Generally, health workers' health care waste segregation behavior was high. The theory of planned behavior significantly predicted health workers' health care waste segregation behaviors.

  20. The Joint Action on Health Workforce Planning and Forecasting: Results of a European programme to improve health workforce policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroezen, Marieke; Van Hoegaerden, Michel; Batenburg, Ronald

    2018-02-01

    Health workforce (HWF) planning and forecasting is faced with a number of challenges, most notably a lack of consistent terminology, a lack of data, limited model-, demand-based- and future-based planning, and limited inter-country collaboration. The Joint Action on Health Workforce Planning and Forecasting (JAHWF, 2013-2016) aimed to move forward on the HWF planning process and support countries in tackling the key challenges facing the HWF and HWF planning. This paper synthesizes and discusses the results of the JAHWF. It is shown that the JAHWF has provided important steps towards improved HWF planning and forecasting across Europe, among others through the creation of a minimum data set for HWF planning and the 'Handbook on Health Workforce Planning Methodologies across EU countries'. At the same time, the context-sensitivity of HWF planning was repeatedly noticeable in the application of the tools through pilot- and feasibility studies. Further investments should be made by all actors involved to support and stimulate countries in their HWF efforts, among others by implementing the tools developed by the JAHWF in diverse national and regional contexts. Simultaneously, investments should be made in evaluation to build a more robust evidence base for HWF planning methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Successful business process design. Business plan development for the occupational health services unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalina, C M; Fitko, J

    1997-02-01

    1. The occupational health nurse is often mandated by management to validate health services offered and programs developed for employees as valuable to the business and company mission. 2. The business plan of the occupational health service is a working document, changing as needs of the client/customer and internal and external business and socio-economic environment evolve. 3. Alignment with and support of the company mission, goals, and objectives is another method of proving good occupational health is good business. 4. Business planning is a basic business tool the wise and prudent occupational health nurse can use in proving good occupational health is vital to the success of a company.

  2. State and supplementary civil liability insurance: the example of swiss nuclear liability law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehlmann, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes State guarantee and nuclear liability insurance which has been established, in Switzerland, after the vote of the law of 18 march 1983: Civil liability of nuclear operator has no limitations for nuclear damages compensations. The coverage is given by private insurance and State guarantee. 1 tab

  3. Common Purpose Liability versus Joint Enterprise: A Practical View on the ICC's Hierarchy of Liability Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cupido, M.

    2016-01-01

    On 7 March 2014, Trial Chamber II of the International Criminal Court (ICC) convicted Germain Katanga for war crimes and crimes against humanity. Katanga's conviction is based on the concept of common purpose liability as regulated in Article 25(3)(d) of the Rome Statute. This liability theory

  4. Implementing Community-based Health Planning and Services in impoverished urban communities: health workers' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwameme, Adanna Uloaku; Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Adongo, Philip Baba

    2018-03-20

    Three-quarters of sub-Saharan Africa's urban population currently live under slum conditions making them susceptible to ill health and diseases. Ghana characterizes the situation in many developing countries where the urban poor have become a group much afflicted by complex health problems associated with their living conditions, and the intra-city inequity between them and the more privileged urban dwellers with respect to health care accessibility. Adopting Ghana's rural Community-Based Health Planning and Service (CHPS) programme in urban areas is challenging due to the differences in social networks and health challenges thus making modifications necessary. The Community Health Officers (CHOs) and their supervisors are the frontline providers of health in the community and there is a need to analyze and document the health sector response to urban CHPS. The study was solely qualitative and 19 in-depth interviews were conducted with all the CHOs and key health sector individuals in supervisory/coordinating positions working in urban CHPS zones to elicit relevant issues concerning urban CHPS implementation. Thematic content data analysis was done using the NVivo 7 software. Findings from this appraisal suggest that the implementation of this urban concept of the CHPS programme has been well undertaken by the health personnel involved in the process despite the challenges that they face in executing their duties. Several issues came to light including the lack of first aid drugs, as well as the need for the Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses (IMNCI) programme and more indepth training for CHOs. In addition, the need to provide incentives for the volunteers and Community Health Committee members to sustain their motivation and the CHOs' apprehensions with regards to furthering their education and progression in their careers were key concerns raised. The establishment of the CHPS concept in the urban environment albeit challenging has been

  5. In place of fear: aligning health care planning with system objectives to achieve financial sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Stephen; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; MacKenzie, Adrian; Cumming, Jackie

    2015-04-01

    The financial sustainability of publicly funded health care systems is a challenge to policymakers in many countries as health care absorbs an ever increasing share of both national wealth and government spending. New technology, aging populations and increasing public expectations of the health care system are often cited as reasons why health care systems need ever increasing funding as well as reasons why universal and comprehensive public systems are unsustainable. However, increases in health care spending are not usually linked to corresponding increases in need for care within populations. Attempts to promote financial sustainability of systems such as limiting the range of services is covered or the groups of population covered may compromise their political sustainability as some groups are left to seek private cover for some or all services. In this paper, an alternative view of financial sustainability is presented which identifies the failure of planning and management of health care to reflect needs for care in populations and to integrate planning and management functions for health care expenditure, health care services and the health care workforce. We present a Health Care Sustainability Framework based on disaggregating the health care expenditure into separate planning components. Unlike other approaches to planning health care expenditure, this framework explicitly incorporates population health needs as a determinant of health care requirements, and provides a diagnostic tool for understanding the sources of expenditure increase. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Are Integrated Plan Providers Associated With Lower Premiums on the Health Insurance Marketplaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Forgia, Ambar; Maeda, Jared Lane K; Banthin, Jessica S

    2018-04-01

    As the health insurance industry becomes more consolidated, hospitals and health systems have started to enter the insurance business. Insurers are also rapidly acquiring providers. Although these "vertically" integrated plan providers are small players in the insurance market, they are becoming more numerous. The health insurance marketplaces (HIMs) offer a unique setting to study integrated plan providers relative to other insurer types because the HIMs were designed to promote competition. In this descriptive study, the authors compared the premiums of the lowest priced silver plans of integrated plan providers with other insurer types on the 2015 and 2016 HIMs. Integrated plan providers were associated with modestly lower premiums relative to most other insurer types. This study provides early insights into premium competition on the HIMs. Examining integrated plan providers as a separate insurer type has important policy implications because they are a growing segment of the marketplaces and their pricing behavior may influence future premium trends.

  7. Planning for a radiological emergency in health care institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerez Vegueria, S.F.; Jerez Vegueria, P.F.

    1998-01-01

    The possible occurrence of accidents involving sources of ionizing radiation calls for response plans to mitigate the consequences of radiological accidents. An emergency planning framework is suggested for institutions which use medical applications of ionizing radiation. Bearing in mind that the prevention of accidents is of prime importance in dealing with radioactive materials and other sources of ionizing radiation, it is recommended that emergency instructions and procedures address certain aspects of the causes of these radiological events. Issues such as identification of radiological events in medical practices and their consequences, protective measures, planning for an emergency response and maintenance of emergency capacity are considered. (author)

  8. Framing health for land-use planning legislation: A qualitative descriptive content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patrick; Kent, Jennifer; Sainsbury, Peter; Thow, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Framing health as a relevant policy issue for other sectors is not well understood. A recent review of the New South Wales (Australia) land-use planning system resulted in the drafting of legislation with an internationally unprecedented focus on human health. We apply a political science approach to investigate the question 'how and to what extent were health and wider issues framed in submissions to the review?' We investigated a range of stakeholder submissions including health focussed agencies (n = 31), purposively identified key stakeholders with influence on the review (n = 24), and a random sample of other agencies and individuals (n = 47). Using qualitative descriptive analysis we inductively coded for the term 'health' and sub-categories. We deductively coded for 'wider concerns' using a locally endorsed 'Healthy Urban Development Checklist'. Additional inductive analysis uncovered further 'wider concerns'. Health was explicitly identified as a relevant issue for planning policy only in submissions by health-focussed agencies. This framing concerned the new planning system promoting and protecting health as well as connecting health to wider planning concerns including economic issues, transport, public open space and, to a slightly lesser extent, environmental sustainability. Key stakeholder and other agency submissions focussed on these and other wider planning concerns but did not mention health in detail. Health agency submissions did not emphasise infrastructure, density or housing as explicitly as others. Framing health as a relevant policy issue has the potential to influence legislative change governing the business of other sectors. Without submissions from health agencies arguing the importance of having health as an objective in the proposed legislation it is unlikely health considerations would have gained prominence in the draft bill. The findings have implications for health agency engagement with legislative change processes and beyond in

  9. Insurance Cover for Revised Nuclear Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2008-01-01

    The financial security to be provided to victims of an incident at a nuclear installation is the main objective of international nuclear liability conventions. As from the introduction of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy in 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Liability for Nuclear Damage in 1963 insurers have been prepared to provide the financial capacity needed to cover the liability under both conventions. They did so in close co-operation with the competent national and international authorities, which has resulted in the insurability of as much of the nuclear liability under the conventions as possible. This tradition of co-operation between authorities and insurers was extended to include the revision negotiations regarding the above conventions, which were concluded in 1997 and 2004 respectively. This has resulted in the insurability of by far the largest part of the convention based liability. However, some heads of damage have been introduced about which insurers had expressed concerns as to their likelihood to attract insurance support. In view of the explicit choice by Convention States to include the uninsurable heads of damage into the revised conventions one would expect that liability for them would fall upon national Governments. This would reflect practice in a number of States, which already assume liability for uninsurable mandatory liabilities for a long time. Nonetheless some other States now seem reluctant to do so, the resulting deadlock having a tendency to manifest itself in a negative perception of the insurance industry. Insurers are therefore appreciative of the forum provided by the CNS to once again explain the areas where problems as regards insurability have arisen and why this is the case. This presentation will show that those areas are few in number and notably relate to a limited number of environmental damages as well as the extension of prescription periods. Furthermore, thoughts will

  10. Closing the gap: the potential of Christian Health Associations in expanding access to family planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren VanEnk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the health impact of timing and spacing pregnancies, the Sustainable Development Goals call for increased access to family planning globally. While faith-based organizations in Africa provide a significant proportion of health services, family planning service delivery has been limited. This evaluation seeks to assess the effectiveness of implementing a systems approach in strengthening the capacity of Christian Health Associations to provide family planning and increase uptake in their communities.From January 2014 to September 2015, the capacity of three Christian Health Associations in East Africa—Caritas Rwanda, Uganda Catholic Medical Bureau, and Uganda Protestant Medical Bureau—was strengthened with the aims of improving access to women with unmet need and harmonizing faith-based service delivery contributions with their national family planning programs. The key components of this systems approach to family planning included training, supervision, commodity availability, family planning promotion, data collection, and creating a supportive environment. Community-based provision of family planning, including fertility awareness methods, was introduced across intervention sites for the first time. Five hundred forty-seven facility- and community-based providers were trained in family planning, and 393,964 people were reached with family planning information. Uptake of family planning grew substantially in Year 1 (12,691 and Year 2 (19,485 across all Christian Health Associations as compared to the baseline year (3,551. Cumulatively, 32,176 clients took up a method during the intervention, and 43 percent of clients received this service at the community level. According to a provider competency checklist, facility- and community-based providers were able to adequately counsel clients on new fertility awareness methods. Integration of Christian Health Associations into the national family planning strategy improved through

  11. Health Care Waste Segregation Behavior among Health Workers in Uganda: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Akulume, Martha; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology. One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention) and externa...

  12. Transfrontier nuclear civil liability without international conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogauchi, M.

    1992-01-01

    Japan is not a contracting party of any international convention in the field of nuclear civil liability, and neither are other east Asian countries who have or will soon have nuclear plants. Therefore, the ordinary rules on private international law will play an important role in dealing with transfrontier nuclear civil liability. Above all, the problems on judicial jurisdiction and governing law are crucial points. With regard to the relations between the above countries and the countries whose legal systems are within the framework of Paris or Vienna Conventions, geographical scopes of these conventions are to be considered. There are two different parts in the international civil liability conventions: uniform civil liability law and mutual funds. As to the first, it is important that, even without the conventions, the basic structure of the nuclear civil liability laws in non-member countries are almost the same with those of members. In any event, considering that the establishment of a single international regime to cover all countries will be hardly possible, legal consequences under the private international law will be explored. (author)

  13. Liability for damage to the global commons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, K.

    1993-01-01

    The 'global commons' discussed in this paper are the areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. Responsibility to prevent environmental damage to these areas is clearly recognized in customary international law. On the other hand, although liability for such damage undoubtedly has a useful role to play in protecting these areas, the precise nature of liability for such damage is unclear. Some issues, such as whether liability for such damage is strict or tied to breaching a standard of care and the definition of environmental damage, equally arise in relation to damage to the environment of States. Others, such as who could take action to enforce the liability and the nature of the remedy, raise special problems in the case of damage to the global commons. The work under way in the IAEA Standing Committee on Liability for Nuclear Damage provides an opportunity for clarifying these issues in relation to nuclear damage to the global commons. Treaties dealing with particular types of damage which have recently been adopted or are currently being developed in other fields provide a starting point in dealing with this matter. More work, however, needs to be done

  14. Future financial liabilities of nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with future financial liabilities arising from nuclear activities, in particular electricity generation. Future financial liabilities are defined as costs which an organisation or company is expected to meet beyond some five years as a consequence of its current and past activities. The study provides a comprehensive picture on policies for recognizing and funding future financial liabilities arising from nuclear activities and their implementation schemes in Nea Member countries. Mechanisms for reporting and funding future financial liabilities are described, analysed and compared. The report offers some findings, conclusions and recommendations for consideration by Member countries. The nuclear activities considered in the report include nuclear research and development, nuclear industry sectors such as uranium mining and milling, conversion and enrichment, nuclear fuel fabrication, nuclear power plant operation and maintenance, and radioisotopes production. Future financial liabilities arising from these activities cover management and disposal of radioactive wastes, reprocessing of spent fuels when applicable and decommissioning of facilities at the end of their life time. 12 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs

  15. Medicare Drug, Health Plan, Medigap, and Compare Databases

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This functionality is primarily used by health policy researchers and the media. The data provided in the tables come from the data that is displayed in the Tool and...

  16. [Sustainability focus in the health plans of the autonomous communities: sustainable development as an opportunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano-Santiago, Miguel A; Rivera-Lirio, Juana M

    2016-01-01

    To determine the degree to which the health plans of the autonomous communities focus on the usual three dimensions of sustainability: economic, social and environmental, both in the general level of discourse and in the different areas of intervention. A qualitative study was conducted through content analysis of a large sample of documents. The specific methodology was analysis of symbolic and operational sensitivity in a sample of eleven health plans of the Spanish state. Social aspects, such as social determinants or vulnerable groups, are receiving increasing attention from the health planner, although there is room to strengthen attention to environmental issues and to provide specific interventions in economic terms. The analysis demonstrates the incipient state of health plans as strategic planning documents that integrate economic, social and environmental aspects and contribute to the sustainability of the different health systems of the country. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Quadrant I RCRA Facility investigation work plan: Health and safety plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes occupational health and safety issues at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Health effects from exposure to chemicals, vapors, drilling and sampling activities, as well as from ionizing radiations and protective measures are discussed

  18. Reflections of Civil and Criminal Liability in Obstetrical Violence Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carvalho Veloso

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obstetric violence is characterized by the imposition of interventions harmful to the physical and psychological integrity of pregnant women, perpetrated by health professionals and institutions (public and private in which such women are assisted. This paper aims to discuss the civil and criminal liability in cases of obstetric violence, from the judgments of the Supreme Court (STF, Superior Court of Justice (STJ and the Courts of Justice (TJs of the Rio Grande do Sul State and Minas Gerais, in order to identify the nature of the punishment and characterization of obstetric violence.

  19. Account planning: applying an advertising discipline to health communication and social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael

    2012-01-01

    As health marketers seek new models to design campaigns, the advertising discipline of account planning offers an approach that can improve campaign development. The underlying principle of account planning is to bring the consumer perspective to all phases of campaign development, primarily through qualitative formative research. Account planners design the overall communication strategy and contribute to creative development of individual executions. The creative brief, a primary tool of account planning, is especially useful in conceptualizing campaigns. This report discusses the history and approach of account planning, followed by an example of account planning in the design of a social marketing campaign.

  20. State landscape in public health planning and quality improvement: results of the ASTHO survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madamala, Kusuma; Sellers, Katie; Pearsol, Jim; Dickey, Michael; Jarris, Paul E

    2010-01-01

    Limited data exist on state public health agencies and their use of planning and quality improvement (QI) initiatives. Using the 2007 Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) State Public Health Survey, this article describes how state public health agencies perform tasks related to planning, performance management (PM), and QI. While 82 percent of respondents report having a QI process in place, only 9.8 percent have it fully implemented departmentwide. Seventy-six percent reported having a PM process in place, with 16 percent (n = 8) having it fully implemented departmentwide. A state health improvement plan was used by 80.4 percent of respondents, with 56.9 percent of respondents completing the plan more than 3 years ago. More than two-thirds (68.2%) of the respondents developed the plan by using results of their state health assessment. Analysis of state health department level planning, PM, and QI initiatives can inform states' efforts to ready themselves to meet the proposed national voluntary accreditation standards of the Public Health Accreditation Board.

  1. The effectiveness of health appraisal processes currently in addressing health and wellbeing during spatial plan appraisal: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Selena; Carmichael, Laurence; Barton, Hugh; Mytton, Julie; Lease, Helen; Joynt, Jennifer

    2011-11-24

    Spatial planning affects the built environment, which in turn has the potential to have a significant impact on health, for good or ill. One way of ensuring that spatial plans take due account of health is through the inclusion of health considerations in the statutory and non statutory appraisal processes linked to plan-making processes. A systematic review to identify evaluation studies of appraisals or assessments of plans where health issues were considered from 1987 to 2010. A total of 6161 citations were identified: 6069 from electronic databases, 57 fromwebsite searches, with a further 35 citations from grey literature, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. These 20 citations reported on a total of 135 different case studies: 11 UK HIA; 11 non UK high income countries HIA, 5 UK SEA or other integrated appraisal; 108 non UK high income SEA or other integrated appraisal. All studies were in English. No relevant studies were identified reporting on low or middle income countries.The studies were limited by potential bias (no independent evaluation, with those undertaking the appraisal also responsible for reporting outcomes), lack of detail and a lack of triangulation of results. Health impact assessments generally covered the four specified health domains (physical activity, mental health and wellbeing, environmental health issues such as pollution and noise, injury) more comprehensively than SEA or other integrated appraisals, although mental health and wellbeing was an underdeveloped area. There was no evidence available on the incorporation of health in Sustainability Appraisal, limited evidence that the recommendations from any type of appraisal were implemented, and almost no evidence that the recommendations had led to the anticipated outcomes or improvements in health postulated. Research is needed to assess (i) the degree to which statutory plan appraisal processes (SA in the UK) incorporate health; (ii) whether recommendations arising from health

  2. The effectiveness of health appraisal processes currently in addressing health and wellbeing during spatial plan appraisal: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Selena

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial planning affects the built environment, which in turn has the potential to have a significant impact on health, for good or ill. One way of ensuring that spatial plans take due account of health is through the inclusion of health considerations in the statutory and non statutory appraisal processes linked to plan-making processes. Methods A systematic review to identify evaluation studies of appraisals or assessments of plans where health issues were considered from 1987 to 2010. Results A total of 6161 citations were identified: 6069 from electronic databases, 57 fromwebsite searches, with a further 35 citations from grey literature, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. These 20 citations reported on a total of 135 different case studies: 11 UK HIA; 11 non UK high income countries HIA, 5 UK SEA or other integrated appraisal; 108 non UK high income SEA or other integrated appraisal. All studies were in English. No relevant studies were identified reporting on low or middle income countries. The studies were limited by potential bias (no independent evaluation, with those undertaking the appraisal also responsible for reporting outcomes, lack of detail and a lack of triangulation of results. Health impact assessments generally covered the four specified health domains (physical activity, mental health and wellbeing, environmental health issues such as pollution and noise, injury more comprehensively than SEA or other integrated appraisals, although mental health and wellbeing was an underdeveloped area. There was no evidence available on the incorporation of health in Sustainability Appraisal, limited evidence that the recommendations from any type of appraisal were implemented, and almost no evidence that the recommendations had led to the anticipated outcomes or improvements in health postulated. Conclusion Research is needed to assess (i the degree to which statutory plan appraisal processes (SA in the UK

  3. Ten years of health workforce planning in the Netherlands: a tentative evaluation of GP planning as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Greuningen Malou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In many countries, health-care labour markets are constantly being challenged by an alternation of shortage and oversupply. Avoiding these cyclic variations is a major challenge. In the Netherlands, a workforce planning model has been used in health care for ten years. Case description Since 1970, the Dutch government has explored different approaches to determine the inflow in medical schools. In 2000, a simulation model for health workforce planning was developed to estimate the required and available capacity of health professionals in the Netherlands. In this paper, this model is explained, using the Dutch general practitioners as an example. After the different steps in the model are clarified, it is shown how elements can be added to arrive at different versions of the model, or ‘scenarios’. A comparison is made of the results of different scenarios for different years. In addition, the subsequent stakeholder decision-making process is considered. Discussion and evaluation Discussion of this paper shows that workforce planning in the Netherlands is a complex modelling task, which is sensitive to different developments influencing the balance between supply and demand. It seems plausible that workforce planning has resulted in a balance between supply and demand of general practitioners. Still, it remains important that the modelling process is accepted by the different stakeholders. Besides calculating the balance between supply and demand, there needs to be an agreement between the stakeholders to implement the advised training inflow. The Dutch simulation model was evaluated using six criteria to be met by models suitable for policy objectives. This model meets these criteria, as it is a comprehensive and parsimonious model that can include all relevant factors. Conclusion Over the last decade, health workforce planning in the Netherlands has become an accepted instrument for calculating the required supply of

  4. Is enough attention given to climate change in health service planning? An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Burton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within an Australian context, the medium to long-term health impacts of climate change are likely to be wide, varied and amplify many existing disorders and health inequities. How the health system responds to these challenges will be best considered in the context of existing health facilities and services. This paper provides a snapshot of the understanding that Australian health planners have of the potential health impacts of climate change. Methods: The first author interviewed (n=16 health service planners from five Australian states and territories using an interpretivist paradigm. All interviews were digitally recorded, key components transcribed and thematically analysed. Results: Results indicate that the majority of participants were aware of climate change but not of its potential health impacts. Despite this, most planners were of the opinion that they would need to plan for the health impacts of climate change on the community. Conclusion: With the best available evidence pointing towards there being significant health impacts as a result of climate change, now is the time to undertake proactive service planning that address market failures within the health system. If considered planning is not undertaken then Australian health system can only deal with climate change in an expensive ad hoc, crisis management manner. Without meeting the challenges of climate change to the health system head on, Australia will remain unprepared for the health impacts of climate change with negative consequences for the health of the Australian population.

  5. 29 CFR 825.212 - Employee failure to pay health plan premium payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.212 Employee failure to pay health plan premium payments. (a)(1) In... obligations to maintain health insurance coverage cease under FMLA if an employee's premium payment is more... an employee's insurance in accordance with this section and fails to restore the employee's health...

  6. 77 FR 58488 - Hawaii State Plan for Occupational Safety and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1952 [Docket ID. OSHA 2012-0029] RIN 1218-AC78 Hawaii State Plan for Occupational Safety and Health AGENCY: Occupational... announces the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) decision to modify the Hawaii State...

  7. 41 CFR 60-300.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life... VETERANS, AND ARMED FORCES SERVICE MEDAL VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.25 Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company, health...

  8. 41 CFR 60-250.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life... SEPARATED VETERANS, AND OTHER PROTECTED VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.25 Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company, health...

  9. Business planning for university health science programs: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Michael; Milos, Nadine; Raborn, G Wayne

    2002-02-01

    Many publicly funded education programs and organizations have developed business plans to enhance accountability. In the case of the Department of Dentistry at the University of Alberta, the main impetus for business planning was a persistent deficit in the annual operating fund since a merger of a stand-alone dental faculty with the Faculty of Medicine. The main challenges were to balance revenues with expenditures, to reduce expenditures without compromising quality of teaching, service delivery and research, to maintain adequate funding to ensure future competitiveness, and to repay the accumulated debt owed to the university. The business plan comprises key strategies in the areas of education, clinical practice and service, and research. One of the strategies for education was to start a BSc program in dental hygiene, which was accomplished in September 2000. In clinical practice, a key strategy was implementation of a clinic operations fee, which also occurred in September 2000. This student fee helps to offset the cost of clinical practice. In research, a key strategy has been to strengthen our emphasis on prevention technologies. In completing the business plan, we learned the importance of identifying clear goals and ensuring that the goals are reasonable and achievable; gaining access to high-quality data to support planning; and nurturing existing positive relationships with external stakeholders such as the provincial government and professional associations.

  10. Chernobyl and the international liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, G.; Schmidt, C.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigate whether Federal German citizens would have any success in claiming compensation for damage as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident in a Soviet court, and the answer is positive in terms of substantive law. Actions would have to be filed against the AES at Chernobyl to the Chernobyl county court, which would examine the claims according to Soviet (Ukrainian) civil law, and taking into account two aspects of liability, namely strict liability, and liability in tort. However, it would indeed be more realistic to expect that any such action would be dismissed by the court upon the directive of political authorities, as the Soviet Government certainly would have no interest at all to give any foreign citizen the chance to win a case in such a politically significant matter. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. The Pulse of Liability of Foreignness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Sofka, Wolfgang

    companies. Such liabilities of foreignness are persistent in nature. We investigate the causes behind these detrimental effects. We identify two major factors conceptually: a lack of legitimacy in the host country on the demand side and a lack of responsiveness on the side of the multinational corporation......Globalization has provided many companies with new opportunities for growth and efficiency. This requires them to operate successfully across cultural and social borders. These can be stumbling blocks to internationalization and have been found to cause frequent errors and delays for multinational...... that legitimacy is the dominant factor behind the effects of liability of foreignness. As customer experience increases, liability of foreignness caused by a lack of responsiveness becomes more of an issue....

  12. Liability in maritime transport of dangerous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldhaus, H.

    1985-01-01

    The first part contains a description of national liability standards for maritime transport in the French, English, US-American and West German legislation. This is followed up by a detailed review of the existing international agreements. The book is rounded off by a critical evaluation of the presently held discussion and suggested solutions on the problems of liability in the maritime transport of dangerous goods other than mineral oil. The author takes a close look at the 'Entwurf eines Internationalen Uebereinkommens ueber die Haftung und den Schadenersatz bei der Befoerderung schaedlicher und gefaehrlicher Stoffe auf See' ('draft of an international agreement on liability and compensation for damage in maritime transport of noxious and dangerous goods') in the version of May 23, 1983, which was discussed on an international diplomat's conference in London without however, yielding any concrete results. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Proposed Amendments to the Nuclear Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Memorandum issued by the Swedish Ministry of Justice contains proposed amendments to the 1968 Nuclear Liability Act which can be divided into two categories. Those in the first category are required to enable Sweden to ratify the draft Protocols to amend the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention. The second category of amendments propose that the nuclear operator's liability be raised from the present sum of 50 million Kroner to 500 million Kroner, to be covered by insurance; it is also proposed that a State liability be introduced over and above the compensation available, the aggregate amount being limited to 300 million Kroner. State indemnification would apply to the Nordic countries. The Annexes to the Memorandum contain the English and French texts of the draft Protocols to amend both above-mentioned Conventions (NEA) [fr

  14. The safety-incentive theory of liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.M.

    1977-11-01

    The use of liability law to improve incentives for safety is supported by certain recent theoretical results. The main ideas and the key argumants are summarized. Basic weaknesses of the theory are discussed, namely: (1) the simple model of Calabresi does not generalize; (2) the more complex systems of J.P. Brown, P. Diamond, and J. Green require that courts possess a great deal of information and use it to set appropriate standards of due care; (3) in practice safety incentives also depend upon fear of criminal penalties and the sense of social responsibility. The questions whether and when liability rules can significantly affect incentives are addressed. It is concluded that the theory in its present state can hardly serve as a basis for altering liability rules

  15. Shopping on the Public and Private Health Insurance Marketplaces: Consumer Decision Aids and Plan Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Charlene A; Kulhari, Sajal; McGeoch, Ellen J; Jones, Arthur T; Weiner, Janet; Polsky, Daniel; Baker, Tom

    2018-05-29

    The design of the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) health insurance marketplaces influences complex health plan choices. To compare the choice environments of the public health insurance exchanges in the fourth (OEP4) versus third (OEP3) open enrollment period and to examine online marketplace run by private companies, including a total cost estimate comparison. In November-December 2016, we examined the public and private online health insurance exchanges. We navigated each site for "real-shopping" (personal information required) and "window-shopping" (no required personal information). Public (n = 13; 12 state-based marketplaces and HealthCare.gov ) and private (n = 23) online health insurance exchanges. Features included consumer decision aids (e.g., total cost estimators, provider lookups) and plan display (e.g., order of plans). We examined private health insurance exchanges for notable features (i.e., those not found on public exchanges) and compared the total cost estimates on public versus private exchanges for a standardized consumer. Nearly all studied consumer decision aids saw increased deployment in the public marketplaces in OEP4 compared to OEP3. Over half of the public exchanges (n = 7 of 13) had total cost estimators (versus 5 of 14 in OEP3) in window-shopping and integrated provider lookups (window-shopping: 7; real-shopping: 8). The most common default plan orders were by premium or total cost estimate. Notable features on private health insurance exchanges were unique data presentation (e.g., infographics) and further personalized shopping (e.g., recommended plan flags). Health plan total cost estimates varied substantially between the public and private exchanges (average difference $1526). The ACA's public health insurance exchanges offered more tools in OEP4 to help consumers select a plan. While private health insurance exchanges presented notable features, the total cost estimates for a standardized consumer varied widely on public

  16. Analysis of your professional liability insurance policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SADUSK, J F; HASSARD, H; WATERSON, R

    1958-01-01

    The most important lessons for the physician to learn in regard to his professional liability insurance coverage are the following:1. The physician should carefully read his professional liability policy and should secure the educated aid of his attorney and his insurance broker, if they are conversant with this field.2. He should particularly read the definition of coverage and carefully survey the exclusion clauses which may deny him coverage under certain circumstances.3. If the physician is in partnership or in a group, he should be certain that he has contingent partnership coverage.4. The physician should accept coverage only from an insurance carrier of sufficient size and stability that he can be sure his coverage will be guaranteed for "latent liability" claims as the years go along-certainly for his lifetime.5. The insurance carrier offering the professional liability policy should be prepared to offer coverages up to at least $100,000/$300,000.6. The physician should be assured that the insurance carrier has claims-handling personnel and legal counsel who are experienced and expert in the professional liability field and who are locally available for service.7. The physician is best protected by a local or state group program, next best by a national group program, and last, by individual coverage.8. The physician should look with suspicion on a cancellation clause in which his policy may be summarily cancelled on brief notice.9. The physician should not buy professional liability insurance on the basis of price alone; adequacy of coverage and service and a good insurance company for his protection should be the deciding factors.

  17. The Principles Of Liability On Telemedicine Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Anwar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at analyzing and finding the principle of liability in telemedicine medical practice proportionally.This research is a legal research with the approach of statute approach, conceptual approach and comparative approach, as well as the approach to the case approach. According to Article 24 paragraph (1 of the 1945 Constitution and Article 5 (1 of Act No. 48 of 2009 on Judicial Authority, determine that the judge shall explore, and understand the legal values and sense of justice in society. Thus Article 1367 paragraph (3 BW and Article 46 of Act No. 44 of 2009 on Hospitals in the application must be in the context of the intended. The principle of liability risk in medical practice telemedicine in proportion refers to professional liability among medical practitioners telemedicine. The theoretical legitimacy is based on professional relationships in the delegation of medical action based on the code of ethics, professional standards, and service standards, and standard operating procedures. Consequences on liability does not necessarily have to be based on errors primary physician (primary care physician / PCP or primary nurse as subordinate as mean vicarious liability doctrine. Nomenclature "proportional" in a significant liability risk as the distribution of rights and obligations of professionals in proportion to each party's fault based on the values of equality (equitability, feasibility and appropriateness (fair and reasionableness. Accountability based on the viewpoint of interactive justice according to the values of professional skill, prudence or accuracy, responsibility, and colleague and the desire to do good for the sake of healing patients (doing good.

  18. Health plans and selection: formal risk adjustment vs. market design and contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, R G; Rosenthal, M B

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the demand for risk adjustment by health plans that contract with private employers by considering the conditions under which plans might value risk adjustment. Three factors reduce the value of risk adjustment from the plans' point of view. First, only a relatively small segment of privately insured Americans face a choice of competing health plans. Second, health plans share much of their insurance risk with payers, providers, and reinsurers. Third, de facto experience rating that occurs during the premium negotiation process and management of coverage appear to substitute for risk adjustment. While the current environment has not generated much demand for risk adjustment, we reflect on its future potential.

  19. Applying social science and public health methods to community-based pandemic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, Elizabeth J; Doying, Annette; Merceron, Georges; Kennedy, Laura

    2010-11-01

    Pandemic influenza is a unique threat to communities, affecting schools, businesses, health facilities and individuals in ways not seen in other emergency events. This paper aims to outline a local government project which utilised public health and social science research methods to facilitate the creation of an emergency response plan for pandemic influenza coincidental to the early stages of the 2009 H1N1 ('swine flu') outbreak. A multi-disciplinary team coordinated the creation of a pandemic influenza emergency response plan which utilised emergency planning structure and concepts and encompassed a diverse array of county entities including schools, businesses, community organisations, government agencies and healthcare facilities. Lessons learned from this project focus on the need for (1) maintaining relationships forged during the planning process, (2) targeted public health messaging, (3) continual evolution of emergency plans, (4) mutual understanding of emergency management concepts by business and community leaders, and (5) regional coordination with entities outside county boundaries.

  20. Strategic Planning for Health Care Cost Controls in a Constantly Changing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembree, William E

    2015-01-01

    Health care cost increases are showing a resurgence. Despite recent years' comparatively modest increases, the projections for 2015 cost increases range from 6.6% to 7%--three to four times larger than 2015's expected underlying inflation. This resurgence is just one of many rapidly changing external and internal challenges health plan sponsors must overcome (and this resurgence advances the date when the majority of employers will trigger the "Cadillac tax"). What's needed is a planning approach that is effective in overcoming all known and yet-to-be-discovered challenges, not just affordability. This article provides detailed guidance in adopting six proven strategic planning steps. Following these steps will proactively and effectively create a flexible strategic plan for the present and future of employers' health plans that will withstand all internal and external challenges.

  1. Liability for medical malpractice--recent New Zealand developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladden, Nicola; Graydon, Sarah

    2009-03-01

    Over the last 30 years in New Zealand, civil liability for personal injury including "medical malpractice" has been most notable for its absence. The system of accident compensation and the corresponding bar on personal injury claims has been an interesting contrast to the development of tort law claims for personal injury in other jurisdictions. The Health and Disability Commissioner was appointed in 1994 to protect and promote the rights of health and disability consumers as set out in the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers' Rights. An important right in the Code, in terms of an equivalent to the common law duty to take reasonable care, is that patients have the right to services of an appropriate standard. Several case studies from the Commissioner's Office are used to illustrate New Zealand's unique medico-legal system and demonstrate how the traditional common law obligation of reasonable care and skill is applied. From an international perspective, the most interesting aspect of liability for medical malpractice in New Zealand is its relative absence - in a tortious sense anyway. This paper will give some general background on the New Zealand legal landscape and discuss recent case studies of interest.

  2. Clinical safety and professional liability claims in Ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz-Güerri, F; Gómez-Durán, E L; Martínez-Palmer, A; Castilla Céspedes, M; Arimany-Manso, J

    2017-11-01

    Patient safety is an international public health priority. Ophthalmology scientific societies and organisations have intensified their efforts in this field. As a tool to learn from errors, these efforts have been linked to the management of medical professional liability insurance through the analysis of claims. A review is performed on the improvements in patient safety, as well as professional liability issues in Ophthalmology. There is a high frequency of claims and risk of economic reparation of damage in the event of a claim in Ophthalmology. Special complaints, such as wrong surgery or lack of information, have a high risk of financial compensation and need strong efforts to prevent these potentially avoidable events. Studies focused on pathologies or specific procedures provide information of special interest to sub-specialists. The specialist in Ophthalmology, like any other doctor, is subject to the current legal provisions and appropriate mandatory training in the medical-legal aspects of health care is essential. Professionals must be aware of the fundamental aspects of medical professional liability, as well as specific aspects, such as defensive medicine and clinical safety. The understanding of these medical-legal aspects in the routine clinical practice can help to pave the way towards a satisfactory and safe professional career, and help in increasing patient safety. The aim of this review is to contribute to this training, for the benefit of professionals and patients. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Global Cities and Liability of Foreignness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernicke, Georg; Mehlsen, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the concepts of location, liability of foreignness (LoF), and their relation to factors that drive multinational enterprises (MNEs) towards, or away from, global cities. We argue that three interrelated characteristics of global cities - cosmopolitanism, availability...... indicate that MNEs have a stronger propensity to locate in global cities than in metropolitan or peripheral areas, and that these locational choices are affected by institutional distance and industrial characteristics. The results provide empirical support for our argument that locating in a global city...... can reduce the liability of foreignness suffered by MNEs, and that global cities play a central role in the process of globalisation....

  4. Search Engine Liability for Copyright Infringement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, B.; O'Brien, D.; Fitzgerald, A.

    The chapter provides a broad overview to the topic of search engine liability for copyright infringement. In doing so, the chapter examines some of the key copyright law principles and their application to search engines. The chapter also provides a discussion of some of the most important cases to be decided within the courts of the United States, Australia, China and Europe regarding the liability of search engines for copyright infringement. Finally, the chapter will conclude with some thoughts for reform, including how copyright law can be amended in order to accommodate and realise the great informative power which search engines have to offer society.

  5. DISCIPLINAIRIE LIABILITIES OF THE EUROPEAN PUBLIC SERVANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Tofan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Work discipline is essential for the proper conduct of business within an organization with implications for productivity and efficiency. Disciplinary liability arises as a direct result of breach of service obligations and rules of behaviour. At EU level, disciplinary responsibility of community public servant is governed by the provisions of the Statute of the European Community published in the Official Journal of the European Community no. L 56 March 4, 1968 and amended on numerous occasions. This paper proposes an analysis of concrete conditions which require disciplinary liability of the European public servant, disciplinary sanctions and procedures for implementing them.

  6. Revisiting public health preparedness: Incorporating social justice principles into pandemic preparedness planning for influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayman, Harvey; Ablorh-Odjidja, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Public health professionals are responsible for ensuring the health of the nation, which requires that planners for public health emergencies recognize that not including protection for underserved or marginalized communities poses a risk to the entire population. To assure the protection of these populations in the event of a pandemic outbreak, preparedness planning will benefit from the application of several principles of social justice in assuring the protection of all individuals. This article will review the history between public health and social justice, provide a brief review of pandemic preparedness planning efforts, discuss the importance of and make recommendations for the incorporation of principles of social justice in the development of pandemic preparedness plans, and highlight some of the challenges faced by public health in effectively and equitably meeting its charge to protect the nation's health.

  7. 77 FR 28883 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion... Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, 4770 Buford Highway NE., Mailstop K-34, Atlanta, Georgia 30341... health importance, existing challenges, and opportunities for action to decrease the impact of...

  8. Responding to the World Health Organization Global Disability Action Plan in Egypt: A Technical Consultancy to develop a National Disability, Health and Rehabilitation Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Gutenbrunner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A technical consultation to develop a National Disability, Health and Rehabilitation Plan (NDHRP for Egypt was carried out in 2015. Its overall goal was to improve health, functioning, well-being, quality of life, and participation of persons with disability in Egypt by supporting the Ministry of Health and Population and other stakeholders to improve access to health services and strengthen health-related rehabilitation services for all persons in need. Methods: The methodological steps of the technical consultation were as follows: collecting and reviewing accessible documents and data; site visits to state institutions, health and rehabilitation services; discussions with relevant stakeholders in rehabilitation, including persons with disability; drafting recommendations based on the principles of the World Report on Disability and the World Health Organization Global Disability Action Plan and the information collected; discussion with stakeholders in a workshop; and preparation of a final report. Results and discussion: The development of a NDHRP was successful and led to recommendations with a good level of consensus among stakeholders in Egypt. The authors hope that the NDHRP will lead to improved rehabilitation service provision, and health and quality of life of persons with disability and chronic health conditions living in Egypt.

  9. Responding to the World Health Organization Global Disability Action Plan in Egypt: A Technical Consultancy to develop a National Disability, Health and Rehabilitation Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Nugraha, Boya

    2018-04-18

    A technical consultation to develop a National Disability, Health and Rehabilitation Plan (NDHRP) for Egypt was carried out in 2015. Its overall goal was to improve health, functioning, well-being, quality of life, and participation of persons with disability in Egypt by supporting the Ministry of Health and Population and other stakeholders to improve access to health services and strengthen health-related rehabilitation services for all persons in need. The methodological steps of the technical consultation were as follows: collecting and reviewing accessible documents and data; site visits to state institutions, health and rehabilitation services; discussions with relevant stakeholders in rehabilitation, including persons with disability; drafting recommendations based on the principles of the World Report on Disability and the World Health Organization Global Disability Action Plan and the information collected; discussion with stakeholders in a workshop; and preparation of a final report. The development of a NDHRP was successful and led to recommendations with a good level of consensus among stakeholders in Egypt. The authors hope that the NDHRP will lead to improved rehabilitation service provision, and health and quality of life of persons with disability and chronic health conditions living in Egypt.

  10. 18 CFR 367.2440 - Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Derivative instrument liabilities. This account must include the change in the fair value of all derivative instrument liabilities not designated as cash flow or fair value hedges. Account 426.5, Other deductions... the fair value of the derivative instrument. ...

  11. motor vehicle lessors' liability for damages to third parties: acomment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    of defining the scope of application of the Ethiopian law on liability for damages ... Federal Supreme Court in a recent case has rendered a decision that allows. ♧ .... 3.1 Whether Third Party Practice Exonerates Joint and Several. Liability.

  12. On the optimal environmental liability limit for marine oil transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Jin; Kite-Powell, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    Recent changes in the US liability regime for oil pollution damage have intensified a policy debate about environmental liability limits. Economic theory suggests that some type of limit may be needed under certain conditions, and that such a limit should be set so that the marginal social benefit and cost are equal. However, it is unclear how a liability limit may be determined specifically for tanker shipping in US waters. We first examine conditions under which corner solutions (no liability or unlimited liability) are desirable. We then formulate a model to determine a socially optimal liability limit for oil pollution damage in US waters when a non-zero, finite liability limit is desirable. The model captures the tradeoff between less expensive energy supply and more stringent protection of the marine environment. Numerical simulations illustrate the properties of the model and major factors affecting the public policy decision regarding a liability limit. (author)

  13. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., safety, and health into work planning and execution. 970.5223-1 Section 970.5223-1 Federal Acquisition... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning and...

  14. 78 FR 69418 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans, Quality Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ...) to ensure reliable data, reduce QHP burden and facilitate consumer use and comprehension. \\3\\ In... stakeholders and in a field test using available health plan data. Listening sessions were also conducted for...

  15. Perspectives of planning from the point of view of professional Family Health Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana da Costa RIBEIRO

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at similarities and differences of the community diagnosis within the local planning of family health teams in Teresina. Was based on case study and focus group with teams belonging to the same territorial basis, involving hospital, health center of urban and rural area. Discusses three analytical dimensions: planning process, diagnosis in the planning of health teams and facilities/limits. It was evidenced that the planning is in its incipient, short-term, individualized and unsatisfactory demand needs. The interventions of the social actors have not involved sustainable actions, reflecting the verticality of the programmes and of distortions in the deployment process of the teams. Urge vigilance to managers with the organizational foundation of primary care, which is the diagnosis, in addition to implementing strategies for men’s health, adolescent, bedridden and caregivers and collective education, neglected.

  16. [Quality planning of Family Health Units using Quality Function Deployment (QFD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Luciana Fernandes; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi

    2010-08-01

    Quality is an indispensible requirement in the health field, and its pursuit is necessary in order to meet demands by a population that is aware of its rights, as part of the essence of good work relations, and to decrease technological costs. Quality thus involves all parties to the process (users and professionals), and is no longer merely an attribute of the health service. This study aimed to verify the possibility of quality planning in the Family Health Units, using Quality Function Deployment (QFD). QFD plans quality according to user satisfaction, involving staff professionals and identifying new approaches to improve work processes. Development of the array, called the House of Quality, is this method's most important characteristics. The results show a similarity between the quality demanded by users and the quality planned by professionals. The current study showed that QFD is an efficient tool for quality planning in public health services.

  17. [Primary and secondary data on dementia care as an example of regional health planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Lisa-R; Schatz, Tanja R; Lappe, Veronika; Ihle, Peter; Barthen, Linda; Gerlach, Ferdinand M; Erler, Antje

    2017-12-01

    Health service planning that takes into account as far as possible the regional needs and regional discrepancies is a controversial health issue in Germany. In a pilot scheme, we tested a planning process for regional healthcare services, based on the example of dementia care. The aim of this article is to present the strengths and limitations of this planning process. We developed an indicator set for dementia care based on routine regional data obtained from two German statutory health insurance companies. Additionally, primary data based on a questionnaire sent to all GPs in the area were evaluated. These data were expanded through the addition of official socio-demographic population data. Procedures and evaluation strategies, discussion of the results and the derivation of planning measures followed, in close agreement with a group of local experts. Few epidemiological data on regional variations in health care planning are publicly available. Secondary data from statutory health insurance companies can be assessed to support the estimation of regional health care needs, but interpretation is difficult. The use of surveys to collect primary data, and the assessment of results by the local health board may facilitate interpretation and may contribute towards more valid statements regarding regional health planning. Despite the limited availability of data and the considerable efforts involved in data analysis, the project demonstrates how needs-based health service planning can be carried out in a small region, taking into account the increasing demands of the local health care providers and the special local features.

  18. The modernization of the international nuclear third party liability regime - does exclusive liability still make sense?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolehmainen, H.

    2000-01-01

    In order to create a perspective for the presentation, it might be useful to recall the general aims and purposes of the existing system for exclusive liability in the international nuclear liability regime. As is well-known, the compensation system is based on two conventions (The Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963). The norms in these Conventions define the level at which the compensation system for nuclear accidents is based. The international co-operation which resulted in the conventions was inspired by the aim to construct a system which awards a fair and sufficient compensation for the victims of a nuclear accident. Secondly, the aim was to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The purpose was also to harmonize regulations concerning nuclear energy. The preparatory works for these conventions demand a general goal to balance the interests of the potential victims of a nuclear accident and the interest of society to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy. National legislation on nuclear third party liability is based on these conventions. There are four basic principles which guide the normative framework of these conventions. The liability of the operator of a nuclear installation is not based on fault but is strictly based on its nature. Secondly, the liability is restricted to a certain sum per accident. Thirdly, the liability of the operator ought to be covered by insurance or state guarantee. Fourthly, the liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of a nuclear plant, meaning that there are no other persons to be held liable for a possible nuclear accident. Any new orientation on third party liability for nuclear damages should be within the context of existing regulations in the field. Exceptions from established international principles in the area of nuclear liability should be openly discussed and their consequences

  19. Planning and Implementing a Public Health Professional Distance Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffery, Cam; Leppke, Allison M.; Robinson, Kara B.; Mettler, Erik P.; Miner, Kathleen R.; Smith, Iris

    2005-01-01

    Training of public health professionals through web-based technology is rapidly increasing. This article describes one school of public health's effort to establish an online Master's program that serves students nationally and internationally. It examines the critical components in the design and implementation of distance education, including…

  20. Medical Technology Modernization and Strategic Planning: Shaping Army Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Hospital Publishing, Inc. 5 May 1992. Caro , J. J. and Trindade E., Cardiac Transplantation in Quebec: Survival, Costs and Cost-Effectiveness. Council...Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs). February 1988. Mendez , Enrique, Jr., Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs. Prepared Statement for

  1. Looking at nuclear liability and insurance in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.

    1997-01-01

    A recent seminar in Moscow has addressed the issue of nuclear liability and insurance in the Russian nuclear industry since the breakup of the Soviet Union. The potential benefits of joining the international liability regime and adopting comprehensive nuclear liability legislation were discussed. The need to establish appropriate nuclear insurance structures and provide indemnity to cover the liability were also debated. Whether these changes can be put into action or not is less certain than the need for them. (UK)

  2. Liability-driven investment in longevity risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Aro; Teemu Pennanen

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies optimal investment from the point of view of an investor with longevity-linked liabilities. The relevant optimization problems rarely are analytically tractable, but we are able to show numerically that liability driven investment can significantly outperform common strategies that do not take the liabilities into account. In problems without liabilities the advantage disappears, which suggests that the superiority of the proposed strategies is indeed based on connections b...

  3. eHealth and IMIA's Strategic Planning Process - IMIA conference introductory address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Peter; Haux, Reinhold; Lorenzi, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    The International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) is the only organization in health and biomedical informatics which is fully international in scope, bridging the academic, health practice, education, and health industry worlds through conferences, working groups, special interest groups and publications. Authored by the IMIA Interim Vice President for Strategic Planning Implementation and co-authored by the current IMIA President and the IMIA Past-President, the intention of this paper is to introduce IMIA's current strategic planning process and to set this process in relation to 'eHealth: Combining Health Telematics, Telemedicine, Biomedical Engineering and Bioinformatics to the Edge', the theme of this conference. From the viewpoint of an international organization such as IMIA, an eHealth strategy needs to be considered in a comprehensive way, including broadly stimulating high-quality health and biomedical informatics research and education, as well as providing support to bridging outcomes towards a new practice of health care in a changing world.

  4. Ebola Preparedness Planning and Collaboration by Two Health Systems in Wisconsin, September to December 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Kathryn Kraft; Keuler, Megan; Safdar, Nasia; Hunter, Paul

    2016-08-01

    We describe the collaborative approach used by 2 health systems in Wisconsin to plan and prepare for the threat of Ebola virus disease. This was a descriptive study of the preparedness planning, infection prevention, and collaboration with public health agencies undertaken by 2 health systems in Wisconsin between September and December 2014. The preparedness approach used by the 2 health systems relied successfully on their robust infrastructure for planning and infection prevention. In the setting of rapidly evolving guidance and unprecedented fear regarding Ebola, the 2 health systems enhanced their response through collaboration and coordination with each other and government public health agencies. Key lessons learned included the importance of a rigorous planning process, robust infection prevention practices, and coalitions between public and private health sectors. The potential threat of Ebola virus disease stimulated emergency preparedness in which acute care facilities played a leading role in the public health response. Leveraging the existing expertise of health systems is essential when faced with emerging infectious diseases. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:691-697).

  5. SALUD: A spatial microsimulation application to support regional health planning in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Tomintz, Melanie N.; Kosar, B.; Garcia-Barrios, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    The Austrian Federal Ministry of Health aims to improve the health of all people living in Austria and to decrease health and social inequalities. This leads to a careful planning and distribution of the available health care resources to meet government aims. The research project SALUD, funded by the Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology and the Austrian Science Fund, focuses on building a Spatial Microsimulation Model for Austria by combining survey and census data to mo...

  6. Scenario planning: a tool for academic health sciences libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Logan; Giesecke, Joan; Walton, Linda

    2010-03-01

    Review the International Campaign to Revitalise Academic Medicine (ICRAM) Future Scenarios as a potential starting point for developing scenarios to envisage plausible futures for health sciences libraries. At an educational workshop, 15 groups, each composed of four to seven Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) directors and AAHSL/NLM Fellows, created plausible stories using the five ICRAM scenarios. Participants created 15 plausible stories regarding roles played by health sciences librarians, how libraries are used and their physical properties in response to technology, scholarly communication, learning environments and health care economic changes. Libraries are affected by many forces, including economic pressures, curriculum and changes in technology, health care delivery and scholarly communications business models. The future is likely to contain ICRAM scenario elements, although not all, and each, if they come to pass, will impact health sciences libraries. The AAHSL groups identified common features in their scenarios to learn lessons for now. The hope is that other groups find the scenarios useful in thinking about academic health science library futures.

  7. Focus on the future of nuclear liability law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    2000-01-01

    The main nuclear liability principles are examined. Then, aspects newly introduced by the 1997 Convention on Supplementary Compensation and by the new austrian nuclear liability law are studied. Then general deliberations on the extent and the limits of a civil nuclear liability regime are tackled. (N.C.)

  8. 26 CFR 50.5 - Liability for the tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability for the tax. 50.5 Section 50.5... TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.5 Liability for the tax. Liability for tax attaches to any person engaged at any time during the...

  9. 43 CFR 29.7 - Imposition of strict liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LIABILITY FUND § 29.7 Imposition of strict liability. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any other law... prove that the damages were caused by an act of war or by the negligence of the United States or other... negligence of such damaged party. (c)(1) Strict liability for all claims arising out of any one incident...

  10. 46 CFR 5.69 - Evidence of criminal liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INVESTIGATION REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Statement of Policy and Interpretation § 5.69 Evidence of criminal liability. Evidence of criminal liability discovered during an investigation or hearing conducted pursuant... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence of criminal liability. 5.69 Section 5.69...

  11. Spectral decomposition of optimal asset-liability management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decamps, M.; de Schepper, A.; Goovaerts, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns optimal asset-liability management when the assets and the liabilities are modeled by means of correlated geometric Brownian motions as suggested in Gerber and Shiu [2003. Geometric Brownian motion models for assets and liabilities: from pension funding to optimal dividends.

  12. 37 CFR 10.78 - Limiting liability to client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limiting liability to client... Office Code of Professional Responsibility § 10.78 Limiting liability to client. A practitioner shall not attempt to exonerate himself or herself from, or limit his or her liability to, a client for his or her...

  13. New Swiss legislation on nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.

    1981-10-01

    Following a description of the Paris Convention and Brussels Supplementary Convention system for nuclear third party liability and that prevailing until now in Switzerland, the paper reviews the new Swiss nuclear third party liability Bill prepared after a popular consultation. The new provisions are analysed and in particular, that providing for unlimited liability. (NEA) [fr

  14. White plan and crisis management. Help guide for the elaboration of extended white plans and of white plans for health establishments. Issue 2006, appendix to circular nr DHOS/CGR/2006/401 of 2006 September 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    White plans are specific emergency plans to be implemented in public and private health establishments. While introducing necessary modifications and taking public health policy effects into account, this document first defines crises and their management (levels of intervention from the local to the national level, typology of emergency plans, emergency medical chain, extended white plans). The second part proposes a set of sheets which aim to be a support in the elaboration of the extended white plan and of the white plan. The third part, based on professional contributions and lessons learned, addresses two important issues: firstly, the crisis management exercise, and secondly the hospital under tension and white plan triggering thresholds

  15. Liability for contaminated property : the interaction between regulation and the common law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacWilliam, A.G. [Milner Fenerty, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The criteria used for guidelines by environmental regulators to set acceptable levels of contamination for the purposes of site remediation were discussed. For the purposes of liability under environmental legislation, the guidelines allow `persons responsible` for property contamination to have an idea of the extent to which they must remediate. The guidelines provide a standard of cleanliness which takes into account the protection of environmental quality and human health. This paper describes common law causes of action, including claims in tort and claims in contract. Issues of negligence, nuisance, and liability under Rylands v. Fletcher are also addressed.

  16. The Bambuí Health and Aging Study (BHAS: private health plan and medical care utilization by older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima-Costa Maria Fernanda F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross sectional study was to investigate whether holding a private health plan affects the consumption of medical services (hospitalization and visits to a doctor and use of medications by older adults. All residents in Bambuí town (Minas Gerais, Brazil aged > or = 60 years (n = 1,742 were selected. From these, 92.2% were interviewed and 85.9% were examined (blood tests and physical measurements. After adjustments for counfounders, those under exclusive public coverage (n = 1,296, compared with those holding a private health plan (n = 310, presented some evidence of having worse health status, reported less visits to a doctor, and used a small number of prescribed medications. The main explanation for the aged holding a private health plan was economic, not health. Even though those who had only public health coverage complained more in relation to medical care (70.9%, an important proportion of the aged with a private health care plan presented some kind of complaint (45.2%. Another worrying factor was the difficulty to acquire medication because of financial problems (47.2 and 25.2% reported, respectively. Further investigations are needed to verify whether our results can be generalized to other communities of the country.

  17. The TEHIP 'Spark': Planning and Managing Health Resources At the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    James Neilson

    2004-04-01

    Apr 1, 2004 ... the Health Sector Reform Secretariat, the Director of Preventive Services, and the .... In October of 1993, IDRC convened an international conference to ...... Non Communicable Disease Control (e.g., cardiovascular disease).

  18. Strategic information systems planning for health service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, D D

    1992-01-01

    There is significant opportunity for health service providers to gain competitive advantage through the innovative use of strategic information systems. This analysis presents some key strategic information systems issues that will enable managers to identify opportunities within their organizations.

  19. Rhetoric and Reality of Community Participation in Health Planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    community oriented health programmes. The fourth principle of ... vary between projects, programmes, countries and even within and ... evidence on mechanisms for inclusion of community ..... [7, 50] Celedon [75] report from Chile, however,.

  20. Homicide committed by psychiatric patients: Psychiatrists' liability in Italian law cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Claudio; Rocca, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Interest in psychiatrists' professional liability in Italy has increased in recent years because of the number of medical malpractice claims. Professional liability for failure to prevent violent behaviour by psychiatric patients is particularly debated. This study describes three Italian cases in which health professionals - physicians and nurses - were found guilty of manslaughter for murders committed by psychiatric patients. Examination of the cases focuses on claims of malpractice, patients' characteristics, the circumstances of the homicide and the reasons for the court's judgment. In particular, the predictability of violent behaviour and the concept of causal links are examined in detail. The cases provide an opportunity for a study of comparative jurisprudence. The topics discussed are relevant not only to practicing psychiatrists but also to experts assessing medical liability in cases of criminal acts committed by psychiatric patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Nuclear liability act and nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Roy G.; Goyette, R.; Mathers, C.W.; Germani, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    The Nuclear Liability Act, enacted in June 1970 and proclaimed effective October 11, 1976, is a federal law governing civil liability for nuclear damage in Canada incorporating many of the basic principles of the international conventions. Exceptions to operator liability for breach of duty imposed by the Act and duty of the operator as well as right of recourse, time limit on bringing actions, special measures for compensation and extent of territory over which the operator is liable are of particular interest. An operator must maintain $75,000,000. of insurance for each nuclear installation for which he is the operator. The Nuclear Insurance Association of Canada (NIAC) administers two ΣPoolsΣ or groups of insurance companies where each member participates for the percentage of the total limit on a net basis, one pool being for Physical Damage Insurance and the other for Liability Insurance. The Atomic Energy Control Board recommends to the Treasury Board the amount of insurance (basic) for each installation. Basic insurance required depends on the exposure and can range from $4 million for a fuel fabricator to $75 million for a power reactor. Coverage under the Operator's Policy provides for bodily injury, property damage and various other claims such as damage from certain transportation incidents as well as nuclear excursions. Workmen's Compensation will continue to be handled by the usual channels. (L.L.)

  2. 77 FR 74121 - Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... protected against personal liability for corporate obligations. Both forms of business entity may opt for treatment as an association, and consequently for corporate tax treatment, without regard to State law...''). LLPs are created under State law and share certain characteristics with both partnerships and...

  3. Liability and damages in Japanese nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, E.

    1981-01-01

    The Japanese legislation relating to nuclear liability is based on two laws which date back to 1961, i.e. the law concerning compensation for nuclear damage and the law concerning financial damage compensation indemnification. In Japan, the legal channelling of liability is in force, a contractual recourse is not possible unless there is intent. The financial security act in Japan consists of a (third-party) liability insurance contract concluded with a private insurer and the cover contract concluded with the state. According to the agreement on financial security concluded between government and operator, the operator has to pay the state a certain sum per year. Basically, the amount covered is DM 50 million per site. This sum will be increased to DM 90 million. The operator is fully liable. The state is not bound by law to fully cover damages but will be - de facto - prepared to do so anyway. For potential damage to personnel, the social insurance law is applicable as it is in the Federal Republic of Germany. However, this damage is intended to be subject to nuclear liability, to be effected by an amendmend. (orig./HP) [de

  4. 12 CFR 229.38 - Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... affect a paying bank's liability to its customer under the U.C.C. or other law. (b) Paying bank's failure... provision, but not both. (c) Comparative negligence. If a person, including a bank, fails to exercise... person under § 229.38(a) shall be diminished in proportion to the amount of negligence or bad faith...

  5. Nuclear liabilities - nuclear insurance. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, H.

    1981-01-01

    Too much emotion is involved in the topic of nuclear energy. This is often due to the fact that the persons involved lack of essential basic knowledge. This article and the following ones represent an attempt to offer a technically oriented introduction into the physical preconditions of the problems and the questions concerning matters of liability and insurance. (orig.) [de

  6. Institutional Liability for Student Activities and Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Douglas R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines higher education institutional liability in the following areas: (1) in tort, based on negligence, for physical harm to students; (2) in tort, for defamation flowing from student media; and (3) in contract, arising out of student organizations' business relationships with third parties. (222 references) (MLF)

  7. 7 CFR 1209.74 - Personal liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 1209.74 Section 1209.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order...

  8. Directors’ and Officers’ Liability: Economic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. C. Leyens (Patrick); M.G. Faure (Michael)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper will be published as a chapter of the forthcoming volume ‘Directors & Officers Liability’ edited by Simon F. Deakin, Helmut Koziol, and Olaf Riss. It explores D&O liability from a law and economics perspective with a view to identify trade-offs of different legal settings.

  9. Market-Consistent Valuation of Pension Liabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, Antoon; Salahnejhad, Ahmad; van den Akker, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Pension funds and life insurance companies have liabilities on their books with extremely long-dated maturities that are exposed to non-hedgeable actuarial risks and also to market risks. In this paper, we show that it is computationally feasible to price pensions contracts in an incomplete market

  10. Sexual Harassment at Camp: Reducing Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakleaf, Linda; Grube, Angela Johnson

    2003-01-01

    Employers are responsible for sexual harassment perpetrated by a supervisor. Camps may be responsible for sexual harassment between campers. Steps to reduce liability include providing multiple channels for reporting sexual harassment; having written policies prohibiting sexual harassment and procedures for reporting it; posting these policies and…

  11. Trends in nuclear third party liability law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avossa, G.

    1992-01-01

    For some ten years now, nuclear third-party liability has been changing at an ever-faster pace, further accelerated by the Chernobyl catastrophe. Some of these changes are discussed in this article. A joint protocol drawn up by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) mutually extends the benefit of the special third-party liability system regarding nuclear damage instituted by virtue of previous Conventions and settles the conflicts of law likely to result from the simultaneous application of the two international instruments. Within the framework of the IAEA, a review procedure of the Convention of Vienna has been underway since 1989, in which the NEA has taken an integral part. At the outcome of the process underway, not only will the Convention of Vienna be revised, but so, indirectly but very rapidly, will the Conventions of Paris and Brussels. Ultimately, the entire field of nuclear third-party liability will be recast for decades to come. The texts under discussion are as yet nowhere near their final stage but two areas of consideration have already emerged, which will be discussed. Substantial modifications are made in nuclear third-party liability law. Secondly, the indemnification process for nuclear damage will be vastly modified, due to the subsidiary nature of government intervention and new obligations on operators to become members of a Nuclear Operator Pool. (author)

  12. 40 CFR 267.147 - Liability requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consideration of the guarantee. If the guarantor is a firm with a “substantial business relationship” with the... PERMIT Financial Requirements § 267.147 Liability requirements. (a) Coverage for sudden accidental... facilities, must demonstrate financial responsibility for bodily injury and property damage to third parties...

  13. 31 CFR 210.10 - RDFI liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false RDFI liability. 210.10 Section 210.10 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT PARTICIPATION IN THE AUTOMATED...

  14. 31 CFR 210.11 - Limited liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited liability. 210.11 Section 210.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT PARTICIPATION IN THE AUTOMATED...

  15. 20 CFR 726.202 - Who may underwrite an operator's liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who may underwrite an operator's liability. 726.202 Section 726.202 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL...

  16. Developing a composite weighted quality metric to reflect the total benefit conferred by a health plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskler, Glen B; Braithwaite, R Scott

    2015-03-01

    To improve individual health quality measures, which are associated with varying degrees of health benefit, and composite quality metrics, which weight individual measures identically. We developed a health-weighted composite quality measure reflecting the total health benefit conferred by a health plan annually, using preventive care as a test case. Using national disease prevalence, we simulated a hypothetical insurance panel of individuals aged 25 to 84 years. For each individual, we estimated the gain in life expectancy associated with 1 year of health system exposure to encourage adherence to major preventive care guidelines, controlling for patient characteristics (age, race, gender, comorbidity) and variation in individual adherence rates. This personalized gain in life expectancy was used to proxy for the amount of health benefit conferred by a health plan annually to its members, and formed weights in our health-weighted composite quality measure. We aggregated health benefits across the health insurance membership panel to analyze total health system performance. Our composite quality metric gave the highest weights to health plans that succeeded in implementing tobacco cessation and weight loss. One year of compliance with these goals was associated with 2 to 10 times as much health benefit as compliance with easier-to-follow preventive care services, such as mammography, aspirin, and antihypertensives. For example, for women aged 55 to 64 years, successful interventions to encourage weight loss were associated with 2.1 times the health benefit of blood pressure reduction and 3.9 times the health benefit of increasing adherence with screening mammography. A single health-weighted quality metric may inform measurement of total health system performance.

  17. Introducing risk adjustment and free health plan choice in employer-based health insurance: Evidence from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilny, Adam; Wübker, Ansgar; Ziebarth, Nicolas R

    2017-12-01

    To equalize differences in health plan premiums due to differences in risk pools, the German legislature introduced a simple Risk Adjustment Scheme (RAS) based on age, gender and disability status in 1994. In addition, effective 1996, consumers gained the freedom to choose among hundreds of existing health plans, across employers and state-borders. This paper (a) estimates RAS pass-through rates on premiums, financial reserves, and expenditures and assesses the overall RAS impact on market price dispersion. Moreover, it (b) characterizes health plan switchers and investigates their annual and cumulative switching rates over time. Our main findings are based on representative enrollee panel data linked to administrative RAS and health plan data. We show that sickness funds with bad risk pools and high pre-RAS premiums lowered their total premiums by 42 cents per additional euro allocated by the RAS. Consequently, post-RAS, health plan prices converged but not fully. Because switchers are more likely to be white collar, young and healthy, the new consumer choice resulted in more risk segregation and the amount of money redistributed by the RAS increased over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuclear third party liability in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The German system of nuclear third party liability has always been, and arguably still is, the object of considerable interest in the international nuclear law community. This may seem surprising since Germany adheres to the Paris Convention and is therefore a party to a community of 15 states all following the same principles enshrined in this Convention. In fact, when implementing the PC, Germany chose the approach ensuring the most literal adherence to the PC's principles: it adopted the PC in its entirety, thus directly transposing the PC text into binding German law, instead of enacting a national law derived from, but not literally translating, the PC. At the same time, perhaps no other nation has made use of the options, choices and margins offered or abandoned by the PC to the national legislators, or kept in store by way of a reservation at signature of the Convention, in such an extended manner, testing - and as has even been contended in the past: stressing - the boundaries of the PC system. Unlimited liability introduced in 1985, the highest financial security of any PC state (EUR 2.5 billion), unlimited territorial scope combined with the principle of reciprocity and liability of German operators even in the force majeure cases of Article 9 of the PC are probably the most interesting decisions made by Germany in this context, established in the Atomic Energy Act (Atomgesetz). These choices betray a certain tendency of the German government to give the greatest possible benefit to victims, and in parallel to achieve a 'normalisation' of the nuclear liability regime, without stifling the industry. Within the compromise underlying the international nuclear liability regime - enabling the nuclear industry to create and sustain an energy sector highly relevant for national electricity production on the one hand and protecting potential victims on the other - Germany has more and more shifted the balance, as far as practically possible, to the

  19. Family Planning in the Context of Latin America's Universal Health Coverage Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Thomas; Dutta, Arin; Rosen, James; Olivetti, Agathe; Klein, Kate

    2017-09-27

    Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have substantially improved access to family planning over the past 50 years. Many have also recently adopted explicit declarations of universal rights to health and universal health coverage (UHC) and have begun implementing UHC-oriented health financing schemes. These schemes will have important implications for the sustainability and further growth of family planning programs throughout the region. We examined the status of contraceptive methods in major health delivery and financing schemes in 9 LAC countries. Using a set of 37 indicators on family planning coverage, family planning financing, health financing, and family planning inclusion in UHC-oriented schemes, we conducted a desk review of secondary sources, including population surveys, health financing assessments, insurance enrollment reports, and unit cost estimates, and interviewed in-country experts. Findings: Although the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) has continued to increase in the majority of LAC countries, substantial disparities in access for marginalized groups remain. On average, mCPR is 20% lower among indigenous women than the general population, 5% lower among uninsured women than insured, and 7% lower among the poorest women than the wealthiest. Among the poorest quintile of women, insured women had an mCPR 16.5 percentage points higher than that of uninsured women, suggesting that expansion of insurance coverage is associated with increased family planning access and use. In the high- and upper-middle-income countries we reviewed, all modern contraceptive methods are typically available through the social health insurance schemes that cover a majority of the population. However, in low- and lower-middle-income countries, despite free provision of most family planning services in public health facilities, stock-outs and implicit rationing present substantial barriers that prevent clients from accessing their preferred method

  20. Mental health care in Nepal: current situation and challenges for development of a district mental health care plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitel, Nagendra P; Jordans, Mark Jd; Adhikari, Anup; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Hanlon, Charlotte; Lund, Crick; Komproe, Ivan H

    2015-01-01

    Globally mental health problems are a serious public health concern. Currently four out of five people with severe mental illness in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC) receive no effective treatment. There is an urgent need to address this enormous treatment gap. Changing the focus of specialist mental health workers (psychiatrists and psychologists) from only service delivery to also designing and managing mental health services; building clinical capacity of the primary health care (PHC) workers, and providing supervision and quality assurance of mental health services may help in scaling up mental health services in LMICs. Little is known however, about the mental health policy and services context for these strategies in fragile-state settings, such as Nepal. A standard situation analysis tool was developed by the PRogramme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME) consortium to systematically analyze and describe the current gaps in mental health care in Nepal, in order to inform the development of a district level mental health care plan (MHCP). It comprised six sections; general information (e.g. population, socio-economic conditions); mental health policies and plans; mental health treatment coverage; district health services; and community services. Data was obtained from secondary sources, including scientific publications, reports, project documents and hospital records. Mental health policy exists in Nepal, having been adopted in 1997, but implementation of the policy framework has yet to begin. In common with other LMICs, the budget allocated for mental health is minimal. Mental health services are concentrated in the big cities, with 0.22 psychiatrists and 0.06 psychologists per 100,000 population. The key challenges experienced in developing a district level MHCP included, overburdened health workers, lack of psychotropic medicines in the PHC, lack of mental health supervision in the existing system, and lack of a coordinating body in the Ministry

  1. Electronic cigarettes: abuse liability, topography and subjective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sarah E; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-05-01

    To review the available evidence evaluating the abuse liability, topography, subjective effects, craving and withdrawal suppression associated with e-cigarette use in order to identify information gaps and provide recommendations for future research. Literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and January 2014 using five electronic databases. Studies were included in this review if they were peer-reviewed scientific journal articles evaluating clinical laboratory studies, national surveys or content analyses. A total of 15 peer-reviewed articles regarding behavioural use and effects of e-cigarettes published between 2010 and 2014 were included in this review. Abuse liability studies are limited in their generalisability. Topography (consumption behaviour) studies found that, compared with traditional cigarettes, e-cigarette average puff duration was significantly longer, and e-cigarette use required stronger suction. Data on e-cigarette subjective effects (such as anxiety, restlessness, concentration, alertness and satisfaction) and withdrawal suppression are limited and inconsistent. In general, study data should be interpreted with caution, given limitations associated with comparisons of novel and usual products, as well as the possible effects associated with subjects' previous experience/inexperience with e-cigarettes. Currently, very limited information is available on abuse liability, topography and subjective effects of e-cigarettes. Opportunities to examine extended e-cigarette use in a variety of settings with experienced e-cigarette users would help to more fully assess topography as well as behavioural and subjective outcomes. In addition, assessment of 'real-world' use, including amount and timing of use and responses to use, would clarify behavioural profiles and potential adverse health effects.

  2. What health plans do people prefer? The trade-off between premium and provider choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determann, Domino; Lambooij, Mattijs S; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; Hayen, Arthur P; Varkevisser, Marco; Schut, Frederik T; Wit, G Ardine de

    2016-09-01

    Within a healthcare system with managed competition, health insurers are expected to act as prudent buyers of care on behalf of their customers. To fulfil this role adequately, understanding consumer preferences for health plan characteristics is of vital importance. Little is known, however, about these preferences and how they vary across consumers. Using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) we quantified trade-offs between basic health plan characteristics and analysed whether there are differences in preferences according to age, health status and income. We selected four health plan characteristics to be included in the DCE: (i) the level of provider choice and associated level of reimbursement, (ii) the primary focus of provider contracting (price, quality, social responsibility), (iii) the level of service benefits, and (iv) the monthly premium. This selection was based on a literature study, expert interviews and focus group discussions. The DCE consisted of 17 choice sets, each comprising two hypothetical health plan alternatives. A representative sample (n = 533) of the Dutch adult population, based on age, gender and educational level, completed the online questionnaire during the annual open enrolment period for 2015. The final model with four latent classes showed that being able to choose a care provider freely was by far the most decisive characteristic for respondents aged over 45, those with chronic conditions, and those with a gross income over €3000/month. Monthly premium was the most important choice determinant for young, healthy, and lower income respondents. We conclude that it would be very unlikely for half of the sample to opt for health plans with restricted provider choice. However, a premium discount up to €15/month by restricted health plans might motivate especially younger, healthier, and less wealthy consumers to choose these plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Gunnels, Trint A; Schriefer, JohnHenry M

    2015-07-14

    We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF). This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan) or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption), with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18-67 years) completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1) and post-intervention testing (day 22) in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects' self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05). However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg) reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20% reduction was noted in total and LDL cholesterol

  4. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Bloomer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF. This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption, with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. Methods: 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18–67 years completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1 and post-intervention testing (day 22 in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects’ self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. Results: No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05. However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20

  5. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J.; Gunnels, Trint A.; Schriefer, JohnHenry M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF). This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan) or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption), with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. Methods: 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18–67 years) completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1) and post-intervention testing (day 22) in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects’ self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. Results: No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05). However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg) reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20% reduction was

  6. Preparing South Carolina Emergency Departments for Mass Casualties with an Emphasis on the Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    needs. Volunteers are provided tort liability coverage through the state health department. However, the state health department is unable to...list of state and federal laws prescribing different liability protections, most of which are immunity from liability for negligence protections

  7. Becoming a health promoting school: key components of planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Elizabeth

    2012-03-01

    This article looks at the practicalities of implementing the health promoting school (HPS) framework, including conducting a whole school audit, to enable a primary school to successfully adopt the HPS principles. A partnership agreement was signed, between EACH Social and Community Health which is a local Community Health Centre and a primary school in the Eastern suburbs of Melbourne, in Australia. An audit was conducted of the school community with four follow up focus groups of students from grades 3 to 6. Qualitative data was gathered from 20 teachers at the school at a professional development day facilitated by the health promotion staff of the Community Health Centre. The results of the school audit identified that students in grades 3 to 6 and parents valued the outside environment of the school most highly. The staff valued staff attributes most highly. Suggestions from students to improve the school included improving the canteen and outside environment. Staff were most concerned about fitness of both the staff and the students. Parents also identified lack of healthy eating as a concern. The school community sees the value of adopting the HPS framework, however on-going structured support is required if the school is to successfully adopt the HPS approach. The school community needs to understand that the move toward cultural and environmental change is slow. Successful adoption of the HPS model requires time and collaboration. The emphasis needs to be on supporting teachers to change their school from within. Relationships are important.

  8. Strategic plan for geriatrics and extended care in the veterans health administration: background, plan, and progress to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Kenneth; Hyduke, Barbara; Burris, James F

    2013-04-01

    The leaders of Geriatrics and Extended Care (GEC) in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) undertook a strategic planning process that led to approval in 2009 of a multidisciplinary, evidence-guided strategic plan. This article reviews the four goals contained in that plan and describes VHA's progress in addressing them. The goals included transforming the healthcare system to a veteran-centric approach, achieving universal access to a panel of services, ensuring that the Veterans Affair's (VA) healthcare workforce was adequately prepared to manage the needs of the growing elderly veteran population, and integrating continuous improvement into all care enhancements. There has been substantial progress in addressing all four goals. All VHA health care has undergone an extensive transformation to patient-centered care, has enriched the services it can offer caregivers of dependent veterans, and has instituted models to better integrate VA and non-VA cares and services. A range of successful models of geriatric care described in the professional literature has been adapted to VA environments to gauge suitability for broader implementation. An executive-level task force developed a three-pronged approach for enhancing the VA's geriatric workforce. The VHA's performance measurement approaches increasingly include incentives to enhance the quality of management of vulnerable elderly adults in primary care. The GEC strategic plan was intended to serve as a road map for keeping VHA aligned with an ambitious but important long-term vision for GEC services. Although no discrete set of resources was appropriated for fulfillment of the plan's recommendations, this initial report reflects substantial progress in addressing most of its goals. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Enhancing the Career Planning Self-Determination of Young Adults with Mental Health Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Jo-Ann; Swank, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The impact of an intervention on the self-determination and career planning engagement of young adults with mental health challenges was studied. Sixty-seven young adults, 20 to 30 years of age, with mental health diagnoses (e.g., depression, bipolar disorder) were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Statistically significant greater increases were made by the intervention group versus the control group for self-determination and career planning engagement, and self-determination at least partially mediated increases in career planning engagement. With career planning self-determination interventions, young adults with mental health challenges might be able to achieve better career and life outcomes than is typical for this population.

  10. How well does a single question about health predict the financial health of Medicare managed care plans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, A S; Bubolz, T A; Fisher, E S; Wasson, J H

    1999-01-01

    Responses to simple questions that predict subsequent health care utilization are of interest to both capitated health plans and the payer. To determine how responses to a single question about general health status predict subsequent health care expenditures. Participants in the 1992 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey were asked the following question: "In general, compared to other people your age, would you say your health is: excellent, very good, good, fair or poor?" To obtain each participant's total Medicare expenditures and number of hospitalizations in the ensuing year, we linked the responses to this question with data from the 1993 Medicare Continuous History Survey. Nationally representative sample of 8775 noninstitutionalized Medicare beneficiaries 65 years of age and older. Annual age- and sex-adjusted Medicare expenditures and hospitalization rates. Eighteen percent of the beneficiaries rated their health as excellent, 56% rated it as very good or good, 17% rated it as fair, and 7% rated it as poor. Medicare expenditures had a marked inverse relation to self-assessed health ratings. In the year after assessment, age- and sex-adjusted annual expenditures varied fivefold, from $8743 for beneficiaries rating their health as poor to $1656 for beneficiaries rating their health as excellent. Hospitalization rates followed the same pattern: Respondents who rated their health as poor had 675 hospitalizations per 1000 beneficiaries per year compared with 136 per 1000 for those rating their health as excellent. The response to a single question about general health status strongly predicts subsequent health care utilization. Self-reports of fair or poor health identify a group of high-risk patients who may benefit from targeted interventions. Because the current Medicare capitation formula does not account for health status, health plans can maximize profits by disproportionately enrolling beneficiaries who judge their health to be good. However, they are at

  11. Third Party Liability governing Dangerous and Nuclear Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Martino, Vittorio.

    1979-01-01

    The introductory chapters of this book analyse the concept of fault as a basis for third party liability and the evolution of jurisprudence and doctrine towards the concept of absolute liability. The following part covers the Italian system of liability for hazardous activities. The nuclear third party liability system is then analysed according to existing international conventions and nuclear legislation in several countries. The Appendix contains various legislative and regulatory texts on nuclear third party liability in Italy and in other countries which provide for special legislation in this field. (NEA) [fr

  12. Health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C. Jr.; Burman, S.N.; Cipriano, D.J. Jr.; Uziel, M.S.; Kleinhans, K.R.; Tiner, P.F.

    1994-08-01

    This Programmatic Health and Safety plan (PHASP) is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This plan follows the format recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for remedial investigations and feasibility studies and that recommended by the EM40 Health and Safety Plan (HASP) Guidelines (DOE February 1994). This plan complies with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements found in 29 CFR 1910.120 and EM-40 guidelines for any activities dealing with hazardous waste operations and emergency response efforts and with OSHA requirements found in 29 CFR 1926.65. The policies and procedures in this plan apply to all Environmental Restoration sites and activities including employees of Energy Systems, subcontractors, and prime contractors performing work for the DOE ORNL ER Program. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities are initiated that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and best management practices to minimize hazards to human health and safety and to the environment from event such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to air, soil, or surface water

  13. Health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. Jr.; Burman, S.N.; Cipriano, D.J. Jr.; Uziel, M.S.; Kleinhans, K.R.; Tiner, P.F.

    1994-08-01

    This Programmatic Health and Safety plan (PHASP) is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This plan follows the format recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for remedial investigations and feasibility studies and that recommended by the EM40 Health and Safety Plan (HASP) Guidelines (DOE February 1994). This plan complies with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements found in 29 CFR 1910.120 and EM-40 guidelines for any activities dealing with hazardous waste operations and emergency response efforts and with OSHA requirements found in 29 CFR 1926.65. The policies and procedures in this plan apply to all Environmental Restoration sites and activities including employees of Energy Systems, subcontractors, and prime contractors performing work for the DOE ORNL ER Program. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities are initiated that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and best management practices to minimize hazards to human health and safety and to the environment from event such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to air, soil, or surface water.

  14. Early Experience with Employee Choice of Consumer-Directed Health Plans and Satisfaction with Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Kind, Elizabeth A; Braun, Barbara L; Bertko, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective To assess the initial impact of offering consumer-defined health plan (CDHP) options on employees. Data Sources/Study Setting A mail survey of 4,680 employees in the corporate offices of Humana Inc. in June 2001. Study Design The study was a cross-sectional mail survey of employees aged 18 and older who were eligible for health care benefits. The survey was conducted following open enrollment. The primary outcome is the choice of consumer-directed health plan or not; the secondary outcome is satisfaction with the enrollment process. Important covariates include sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, race, educational level, exempt or nonexempt status, type of coverage), health status, health care utilization, and plan design preferences. Data Collection Methods A six-page questionnaire was mailed to the home of each employee, followed by a reminder postcard and two subsequent mailings to nonrespondents. Principal Findings The response rate was 66.2 percent. Seven percent selected one of the two new plan options. Because there were no meaningful differences between employees choosing either of the two new options, these groups were combined in multivariate analysis. A logistic regression modeled the likelihood of choosing the novel plan options. Those selecting the new plans were less likely to be black (odds ratio [OR] 0.46), less likely to have only Humana coverage (OR 0.30), and more likely to have single coverage (OR 1.77). They were less likely to have a chronic health problem (OR 0.56) and more likely to have had no recent medical visits (OR 3.21). They were more likely to believe that lowest premiums were the most important plan attribute (OR 2.89) and to think there were big differences in the premiums of available plans (OR 5.19). Employees in fair or poor health were more likely to have a difficult time during the online enrollment process. They were more likely to find the communications very helpful (OR 0.42) and the benefits

  15. Health workforce development planning in the Sultanate of Oman: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Basu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oman's recent experience in health workforce development may be viewed against the backdrop of the situation just three or four decades ago, when it had just a few physicians and nurses (mostly expatriate. All workforce categories in Oman have grown substantially over the last two decades. Increased self-reliance was achieved despite substantial growth in workforce stocks. Stocks of physicians and nurses grew significantly during 1985–2007. This development was the outcome of well-considered national policies and plans. This case outlines how Oman is continuing to turn around its excessive dependence on expatriate workforce through strategic workforce development planning. Case description The Sultanate's early development initiatives focused on building a strong health care infrastructure by importing workforce. However, the policy-makers stressed national workforce development for a sustainable future. Beginning with the formulation of a strategic health workforce development plan in 1991, the stage was set for adopting workforce planning as an essential strategy for sustainable health development and workforce self-reliance. Oman continued to develop its educational infrastructure, and began to produce as much workforce as possible, in order to meet health care demands and achieve workforce self-reliance. Other policy initiatives with a beneficial impact on Oman's workforce development scenario were: regionalization of nursing institutes, active collaboration with universities and overseas specialty boards, qualitative improvement of the education system, development of a strong continuing professional development system, efforts to improve workforce management, planned change management and needs-based micro/macro-level studies. Strong political will and bold policy initiatives, dedicated workforce planning and educational endeavours have all contributed to help Oman to develop its health workforce stocks and gain

  16. Health workforce development planning in the Sultanate of Oman: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Basu

    2009-06-11

    Oman's recent experience in health workforce development may be viewed against the backdrop of the situation just three or four decades ago, when it had just a few physicians and nurses (mostly expatriate). All workforce categories in Oman have grown substantially over the last two decades. Increased self-reliance was achieved despite substantial growth in workforce stocks. Stocks of physicians and nurses grew significantly during 1985-2007. This development was the outcome of well-considered national policies and plans. This case outlines how Oman is continuing to turn around its excessive dependence on expatriate workforce through strategic workforce development planning. The Sultanate's early development initiatives focused on building a strong health care infrastructure by importing workforce. However, the policy-makers stressed national workforce development for a sustainable future. Beginning with the formulation of a strategic health workforce development plan in 1991, the stage was set for adopting workforce planning as an essential strategy for sustainable health development and workforce self-reliance. Oman continued to develop its educational infrastructure, and began to produce as much workforce as possible, in order to meet health care demands and achieve workforce self-reliance. Other policy initiatives with a beneficial impact on Oman's workforce development scenario were: regionalization of nursing institutes, active collaboration with universities and overseas specialty boards, qualitative improvement of the education system, development of a strong continuing professional development system, efforts to improve workforce management, planned change management and needs-based micro/macro-level studies. Strong political will and bold policy initiatives, dedicated workforce planning and educational endeavours have all contributed to help Oman to develop its health workforce stocks and gain self-reliance. Oman has successfully innovated workforce

  17. Health service planning contributes to policy dialogue around strengthening district health systems: an example from DR Congo 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Dheepa; Kalambay, Hyppolite; Mossoko, Mathias; Kwete, Dieudonné; Bulakali, Joseph; Lokonga, Jean-Pierre; Porignon, Denis; Schmets, Gerard

    2014-10-31

    This case study from DR Congo demonstrates how rational operational planning based on a health systems strengthening strategy (HSSS) can contribute to policy dialogue over several years. It explores the operationalization of a national strategy at district level by elucidating a normative model district resource plan which details the resources and costs of providing an essential health services package at district level. This paper then points to concrete examples of how the results of this exercise were used for Ministry of Health (MoH) decision-making over a time period of 5 years. DR Congo's HSSS and its accompanying essential health services package were taken as a base to construct a normative model health district comprising of 10 Health Centres (HC) and 1 District Hospital (DH). The normative model health district represents a standard set by the Ministry of Health for providing essential primary health care services. The minimum operating budget necessary to run a normative model health district is $17.91 per inhabitant per year, of which $11.86 is for the district hospital and $6.05 for the health centre. The Ministry of Health has employed the results of this exercise in 4 principal ways: 1.Advocacy and negotiation instrument; 2. Instrument to align donors; 3. Field planning; 4. Costing database to extract data from when necessary. The above results have been key in the policy dialogue on affordability of the essential health services package in DR Congo. It has allowed the MoH to provide transparent information on financing needs around the HSSS; it continues to help the MoH negotiate with the Ministry of Finance and bring partner support behind the HSSS.

  18. How Home Health Nurses Plan Their Work Schedules: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Elliane; Hirschman, Karen B; Cacchione, Pamela Z; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2018-06-12

    To describe how home health nurses plan their daily work schedules and what challenges they face during the planning process. Home health nurses are viewed as independent providers and value the nature of their work because of the flexibility and autonomy they hold in developing their work schedules. However, there is limited empirical evidence about how home health nurses plan their work schedules, including the factors they consider during the process and the challenges they face within the dynamic home health setting. Qualitative descriptive design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 registered nurses who had greater than 2 years of experience in home health and were employed by one of the three participating home health agencies in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Four themes emerged about planning work schedules and daily itineraries: identifying patient needs to prioritize visits accordingly, partnering with patients to accommodate their preferences, coordinating visit timing with other providers to avoid overwhelming patients, and working within agency standards to meet productivity requirements. Scheduling challenges included readjusting the schedule based on patient needs and staffing availability, anticipating longer visits, and maintaining continuity of care with patients. Home health nurses make autonomous decisions regarding their work schedules while considering specific patient and agency factors, and overcome challenges related to the unpredictable nature of providing care in a home health setting. Future research is needed to further explore nurse productivity in home health and improve home health work environments. Home health nurses plan their work schedules to provide high quality care that is patient-centered and timely. The findings also highlight organizational priorities to facilitate continuity of care and support nurses while alleviating the burnout

  19. The Search Conference as a Method in Planning Community Health Promotion Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Eva; Knudtsen, Margunn Skjei; Wist, Guri; Weiss, Daniel; Lillefjell, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this article is to describe and discuss how the search conference can be used as a method for planning health promotion actions in local communities. Design and methods: The article draws on experiences with using the method for an innovative project in health promotion in three Norwegian municipalities. The method is described both in general and how it was specifically adopted for the project. Results and conclusions: The search conference as a method was used to develop evidence-based health promotion action plans. With its use of both bottom-up and top-down approaches, this method is a relevant strategy for involving a community in the planning stages of health promotion actions in line with political expectations of participation, ownership, and evidence-based initiatives. Significance for public health This article describe and discuss how the Search conference can be used as a method when working with knowledge based health promotion actions in local communities. The article describe the sequences of the conference and shows how this have been adapted when planning and prioritizing health promotion actions in three Norwegian municipalities. The significance of the article is that it shows how central elements in the planning of health promotion actions, as participation and involvements as well as evidence was a fundamental thinking in how the conference were accomplished. The article continue discussing how the method function as both a top-down and a bottom-up strategy, and in what way working evidence based can be in conflict with a bottom-up strategy. The experiences described can be used as guidance planning knowledge based health promotion actions in communities. PMID:27747199

  20. Navy-NGO Coordination for Health-Related HCA Missions: A Suggested Planning Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    COCOMs have plans for several more de- ployments in the coming years. In 2006, USNS Mercy, a hospital ship with a white-painted hull bear - ing a large...facilities and health care equipment, medicines and vaccines, such health aides as eyeglasses and walking sticks, large-scale water purifi- cation systems