WorldWideScience

Sample records for health hazard surveillance

  1. The use of animals as a surveillance tool for monitoring environmental health hazards, human health hazards and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Jacqueline Pei Shan; Tan, Boon Huan

    2017-05-01

    This review discusses the utilization of wild or domestic animals as surveillance tools for monitoring naturally occurring environmental and human health hazards. Besides providing early warning to natural hazards, animals can also provide early warning to societal hazards like bioterrorism. Animals are ideal surveillance tools to humans because they share the same environment as humans and spend more time outdoors than humans, increasing their exposure risk. Furthermore, the biologically compressed lifespans of some animals may allow them to develop clinical signs more rapidly after exposure to specific pathogens. Animals are an excellent channel for monitoring novel and known pathogens with outbreak potential given that more than 60 % of emerging infectious diseases in humans originate as zoonoses. This review attempts to highlight animal illnesses, deaths, biomarkers or sentinel events, to remind human and veterinary public health programs that animal health can be used to discover, monitor or predict environmental health hazards, human health hazards, or bioterrorism. Lastly, we hope that this review will encourage the implementation of animals as a surveillance tool by clinicians, veterinarians, ecosystem health professionals, researchers and governments. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A population health surveillance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Allaki, Farouk; Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Michel, Pascal; Ravel, André

    2012-01-01

    Despite its extensive use, the term "Surveillance" often takes on various meanings in the scientific literature pertinent to public health and animal health. A critical appraisal of this literature also reveals ambiguities relating to the scope and necessary structural components underpinning the surveillance process. The authors hypothesized that these inconsistencies translate to real or perceived deficiencies in the conceptual framework of population health surveillance. This paper presents a population health surveillance theory framed upon an explicit conceptual system relative to health surveillance performed in human and animal populations. The population health surveillance theory reflects the authors' system of thinking and was based on a creative process. POPULATION HEALTH SURVEILLANCE INCLUDES TWO BROAD COMPONENTS: one relating to the human organization (which includes expertise and the administrative program), and one relating to the system per se (which includes elements of design and method) and which can be viewed as a process. The population health surveillance process is made of five sequential interrelated steps: 1) a trigger or need, 2) problem formulation, 3) surveillance planning, 4) surveillance implementation, and 5) information communication and audit. The population health surveillance theory provides a systematic way of understanding, organizing and evaluating the population health surveillance process.

  3. Surveillance of working conditions and the work environment: development of a national hazard surveillance tool in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Rebbecca; Feyer, Anne-Marie; Firth, Hilda; Cunningham, Chris; Paul, Charlotte

    2010-02-01

    Changes to work and the impact of these changes on worker health and safety have been significant. A core surveillance data set is needed to understand the impact of working conditions and work environments. Yet, there is little harmony amongst international surveys and a critical lack of guidance identifying the best directions for surveillance efforts. This paper describes the establishment of an instrument suitable for use as a hazard surveillance tool for New Zealand workers. An iterative process of critical review was undertaken to create a dimensional framework and select specific measures from existing instruments. Pilot testing to ascertain participant acceptability of the questions was undertaken. The final questionnaire includes measures of socio-demographic characteristics, occupational history, work organisation, physicochemical, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards. Outcome measures were also included. A robust New Zealand hazard surveillance questionnaire comprehensively covering the key measures of work organisation and work environments that impact upon worker health and safety outcomes was developed. Recommended measures of work organisation, work environment and health outcomes that should be captured in work environment surveillance are made.

  4. Meeting the International Health Regulations (2005) surveillance core capacity requirements at the subnational level in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Rosenkötter, Nicole; Riesgo, Luis Garcia-Castrillo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The revised World Health Organization's International Health Regulations (2005) request a timely and all-hazard approach towards surveillance, especially at the subnational level. We discuss three questions of syndromic surveillance application in the European context for assessing pu...

  5. Mortality surveillance and occupational hazards: the Solutia mortality experience 1980-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J.; Riordan, S.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Several investigators argue that company wide mortalities for recent workers allow early identification of potential workplace hazards. Mortalities for recent workers were compared with published studies of workers with specific exposures in the same company to find whether mortality surveillance results could be used to identify previously unknown health effects from workplace hazards.
METHODS—Relative risks for causes of death in published substance specific studies at the plants were compared with the relative risks in the mortality surveillance of workers 20 or more years after first being employed.
RESULTS—As reported by other companies, low mortalities were found among workers in the mortality surveillance. The mortality surveillance reports often found no increased risk of disease at plants in which substance specific studies had found no effects. However, disease specific relative risks were not found by the mortality surveillance predictions of relative risks in the substance specific studies with increased risk.
CONCLUSION—Mortality surveillance is of limited use for identifying health effects from past workplace exposures to specific materials. The healthy worker and survivor effects, the failure to identify subsets of workers exposed to potentially toxic substances, the typically long induction period between exposure and disease, and the inability of recent mortality levels to reflect historical conditions all may make it difficult to use mortality surveillance to identify workplace hazards. Combining mortality surveillance with studies of workers with potentially toxic exposures helps identify occupational hazards.


Keywords: mortality surveillance; occupational cancer; bladder cancer; leukaemia PMID:10984345

  6. Informatics enables public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. N McNabb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the world has radically changed. New advances in information and communication technologies (ICT connect the world in ways never imagined. Public health informatics (PHI leveraged for public health surveillance (PHS, can enable, enhance, and empower essential PHS functions (i.e., detection, reporting, confirmation, analyses, feedback, response. However, the tail doesn't wag the dog; as such, ICT cannot (should not drive public health surveillance strengthening. Rather, ICT can serve PHS to more effectively empower core functions. In this review, we explore promising ICT trends for prevention, detection, and response, laboratory reporting, push notification, analytics, predictive surveillance, and using new data sources, while recognizing that it is the people, politics, and policies that most challenge progress for implementation of solutions.

  7. Health Care Wide Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scope | Glossary | References | Site Map | Credits Hospital eTool Administration Central Supply Clinical Services Dietary Emergency Engineering Healthcare Wide Hazards Heliport Housekeeping ICU Laboratory Laundry ...

  8. Health surveillance and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waissmann William

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the extreme relevance of research on the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs in products of interest to health surveillance (HS. Focusing on EDs, the author highlights the urgency of changes already under way in the direction of HS. The shift should be from product and product-registration approaches to the productive process and its realization in consumption, generation of contaminants, and alterations in the health of workers and the overall population. He briefly describes: regulatory gaps for dealing with EDs; difficulty in evaluating risk and suspension of the production and use of products with its characteristics and the need, as exemplified by such products, to enhance the inter-relationship among all stakeholders and to turn HS into a state-of-the-art technological setting, associated with the academic community and accountable to the public. The author reports on measures already taken in relation to EDs, including the establishment of a reference laboratory for analyzing persistent organic pollutants (POPs, interruption of the use of various POPs in Brazil and an initial review of requirements for registering pesticides under the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA.

  9. A conceptual framework for economic optimization of single hazard surveillance in livestock production chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuezhen; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    Economic analysis of hazard surveillance in livestock production chains is essential for surveillance organizations (such as food safety authorities) when making scientifically based decisions on optimization of resource allocation. To enable this, quantitative decision support tools are required at two levels of analysis: (1) single-hazard surveillance system and (2) surveillance portfolio. This paper addresses the first level by presenting a conceptual approach for the economic analysis of single-hazard surveillance systems. The concept includes objective and subjective aspects of single-hazard surveillance system analysis: (1) a simulation part to derive an efficient set of surveillance setups based on the technical surveillance performance parameters (TSPPs) and the corresponding surveillance costs, i.e., objective analysis, and (2) a multi-criteria decision making model to evaluate the impacts of the hazard surveillance, i.e., subjective analysis. The conceptual approach was checked for (1) conceptual validity and (2) data validity. Issues regarding the practical use of the approach, particularly the data requirement, were discussed. We concluded that the conceptual approach is scientifically credible for economic analysis of single-hazard surveillance systems and that the practicability of the approach depends on data availability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Epidemiologic surveillance program for evaluating occupational reproductive hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, O.; Morgan, R.W.; Whorton, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    A noninvasive and inexpensive epidemiologic program for evaluating the possible effects of occupational exposures on fertility is proposed. This surveillance program utilizes reproductive information obtainable from a short questionnaire (1-2 pages in length) or directly from existing medical, employment, or insurance records, and results can be generated readily on a routine basis. The proposed method should be viewed as a mechanism to provide an early signal for any potential hazard and to direct priority for other more in-depth epidemiologic or physiologic studies. The procedure is illustrated with data from individuals exposed to EDB, DBCP, and waste-water treatment plant processes. The method can be modified to compare the reproductive performance of an exposed group to that of an internal control group. With an internal control group, additional confounding factors can be taken into consideration. The relative merits of this approach compared to another method of fertility evaluation, semen analysis, are discussed.

  11. A Five Day Training Course for Migrant Health Project Personnel in the Surveillance of Health Hazards of Sanitation Conditions in the Working and Living Environments of Migrant Farmworkers (Albany, New York, October 5-10, 1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besinaiz, Carlos, Ed.; Aranda, Roberto, Ed.

    The course aims to train migrant health personnel to recognize and identify adverse sanitary conditions related to the migrant farmworkers' living and working environments, and to outline approaches for the presentation and alleviation of health hazards through the referral of recognized sanitary deficiencies and code violations to responsible…

  12. Clinical experiences: development of a medical surveillance protocol for hazardous waste workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favata, E A; Barnhart, S; Bresnitz, E A; Campbell, V; Hoffman, B H; Pepper, L; Sokas, R

    1990-01-01

    Medical surveillance of hazardous waste workers is essential for the health of these workers, who have unique, complex exposures. In order for this preventive tool to be effective, the supervising and/or examining physician must be educated about the specific health risks of hazardous waste workers and also must perform a comprehensive examination. Results of testing should be evaluated both for remarkable abnormalities as well as longitudinal subtle changes in individuals, and also for trends in workers with similar exposures. Fitness for duty determinations should be then made with appropriate communication of abnormalities and follow-up recommendations to both employers and employees. To date, clinical and research findings from clinical centers performing surveillance examinations on hazardous waste workers have not revealed remarkable abnormalities related to their potential exposures. The possible causes for these results include: (1) the workers have been well protected; (2) the current diagnostic methodologies are not sensitive enough to detect pathophysiologic changes; and (3) disease may not yet be manifest due to latency or cumulative effects of long-term low-dose exposure. In addition, one must keep in mind that previous clinical and research data were collected from test results of workers who were mainly involved in feasibility, as opposed to remediation, activities. With the prospective change of more clean-up involvement of hazardous waste workers, their potential for exposure may increase. Therefore, periodic collaborative evaluation of existing surveillance programs' results (e.g., every 5 years) is advised. This would allow determination of the efficacy of the current diagnostic methods in detecting disease, as well as the possible inclusion of more sensitive and/or specific newer technologies for use on a more routine basis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. [Health surveillance: foundations, interfaces and tendencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreaza, Antonio Luis Vicente; de Moraes, José Cássio

    2010-07-01

    The present article rescues initially the forms, content and operational projection of the epidemiological surveillance as indispensable tool for the knowledge field and public health practices. After that, we verify that the health surveillance model establishes an enlargement of this operational concept of surveillance by integrating the collectives and individuals practices in different health necessities dimensions, which includes beyond of the risks and damages control also the eco-socials determinants. In the sequence, we search to dimension the distinct levels of actuation of this sanitary practice articulated to the interventions of promotion, protection and recovery under a located and integrated logic of the unique system of Brazilian health. Finally, we argue that all the conceptual-operational model framework of public health surveillance itself constitutes as a politics and sanitary base for the consolidation of the health promotion paradigm in the collective health field.

  14. Existing public health surveillance systems for mental health in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Wei; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Mental health is a challenging public health issue worldwide and surveillance is crucial for it. However, mental health surveillance has not been developed until recently in certain developed countries; many other countries, especially developing countries, have poor or even no health information systems. This paper presents surveillance related to mental health in China, a developing country with a large population of patients with mental disorders. Detailed information of seven relevant sur...

  15. Protecting pregnant health care workers from occupational hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Cynthia

    2011-10-01

    The safety of pregnant health care workers and their infants is paramount. The scope and variety of hazards within the health care field is profound and diverse. The occupational health nurse can identify early risks and correct them, as well as provide ongoing surveillance, counseling, and prudent policy recommendations for the multitude of hazards to which pregnant health care workers are exposed. Policy must reflect the real risks taken by these workers every day they go to work, and how those risks will affect them, their immediate families, and future generations. 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Public health surveillance and infectious disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Stephen S

    2012-03-01

    Emerging infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, and pandemic influenza, and the anthrax attacks of 2001, have demonstrated that we remain vulnerable to health threats caused by infectious diseases. The importance of strengthening global public health surveillance to provide early warning has been the primary recommendation of expert groups for at least the past 2 decades. However, despite improvements in the past decade, public health surveillance capabilities remain limited and fragmented, with uneven global coverage. Recent initiatives provide hope of addressing this issue, and new technological and conceptual advances could, for the first time, place capability for global surveillance within reach. Such advances include the revised International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) and the use of new data sources and methods to improve global coverage, sensitivity, and timeliness, which show promise for providing capabilities to extend and complement the existing infrastructure. One example is syndromic surveillance, using nontraditional and often automated data sources. Over the past 20 years, other initiatives, including ProMED-mail, GPHIN, and HealthMap, have demonstrated new mechanisms for acquiring surveillance data. In 2009 the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) began the Emerging Pandemic Threats (EPT) program, which includes the PREDICT project, to build global capacity for surveillance of novel infections that have pandemic potential (originating in wildlife and at the animal-human interface) and to develop a framework for risk assessment. Improved understanding of factors driving infectious disease emergence and new technological capabilities in modeling, diagnostics and pathogen identification, and communications, such as using the increasing global coverage of cellphones for public health surveillance, can further enhance global surveillance.

  17. Health and Safety Procedures Manual for hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thate, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Chemical Assessments Team (ORNL/CAT) has developed this Health and Safety Procedures Manual for the guidance, instruction, and protection of ORNL/CAT personnel expected to be involved in hazardous waste site assessments and remedial actions. This manual addresses general and site-specific concerns for protecting personnel, the general public, and the environment from any possible hazardous exposures. The components of this manual include: medical surveillance, guidance for determination and monitoring of hazards, personnel and training requirements, protective clothing and equipment requirements, procedures for controlling work functions, procedures for handling emergency response situations, decontamination procedures for personnel and equipment, associated legal requirements, and safe drilling practices.

  18. Comprehensive effective and efficient global public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNabb Scott JN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At a crossroads, global public health surveillance exists in a fragmented state. Slow to detect, register, confirm, and analyze cases of public health significance, provide feedback, and communicate timely and useful information to stakeholders, global surveillance is neither maximally effective nor optimally efficient. Stakeholders lack a globa surveillance consensus policy and strategy; officials face inadequate training and scarce resources. Three movements now set the stage for transformation of surveillance: 1 adoption by Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]; 2 maturation of information sciences and the penetration of information technologies to distal parts of the globe; and 3 consensus that the security and public health communities have overlapping interests and a mutual benefit in supporting public health functions. For these to enhance surveillance competencies, eight prerequisites should be in place: politics, policies, priorities, perspectives, procedures, practices, preparation, and payers. To achieve comprehensive, global surveillance, disparities in technical, logistic, governance, and financial capacities must be addressed. Challenges to closing these gaps include the lack of trust and transparency; perceived benefit at various levels; global governance to address data power and control; and specified financial support from globa partners. We propose an end-state perspective for comprehensive, effective and efficient global, multiple-hazard public health surveillance and describe a way forward to achieve it. This end-state is universal, global access to interoperable public health information when it’s needed, where it’s needed. This vision mitigates the tension between two fundamental human rights: first, the right to privacy, confidentiality, and security of personal health information combined with the right of sovereign, national entities

  19. Environmental Public Health Surveillance for Exposure to Respiratory Health Hazards: A Joint NASA/CDC Project to Use Remote Sensing Data for Estimating Airborne Particulate Matter Over the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Estes, Maurice; Crosson, William

    2007-01-01

    As part of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN) the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is leading a project called Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELiX-Atlanta). The goal of developing the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is to improve the health of communities. Currently, few systems exist at the state or national level to concurrently track many of the exposures and health effects that might be associated with environmental hazards. An additional challenge is estimating exposure to environmental hazards such as particulate matter whose aerodynamic diameter is less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5). HELIX-Atlanta's goal is to examine the feasibility of building an integrated electronic health and environmental data network in five counties of Metropolitan Atlanta, GA. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) is collaborating with CDC to combine NASA earth science satellite observations related to air quality and environmental monitoring data to model surface estimates of PM2.5 concentrations that can be linked with clinic visits for asthma. While use of the Air Quality System (AQS) PM2.5 data alone could meet HELIX-Atlanta specifications, there are only five AQS sites in the Atlanta area, thus the spatial coverage is not ideal. We are using NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data for estimating daily ground level PM2.5 at 10 km resolution over the metropolitan Atlanta area supplementing the AQS ground observations and filling their spatial and temporal gaps.

  20. Distributed data processing for public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Katherine

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many systems for routine public health surveillance rely on centralized collection of potentially identifiable, individual, identifiable personal health information (PHI records. Although individual, identifiable patient records are essential for conditions for which there is mandated reporting, such as tuberculosis or sexually transmitted diseases, they are not routinely required for effective syndromic surveillance. Public concern about the routine collection of large quantities of PHI to support non-traditional public health functions may make alternative surveillance methods that do not rely on centralized identifiable PHI databases increasingly desirable. Methods The National Bioterrorism Syndromic Surveillance Demonstration Program (NDP is an example of one alternative model. All PHI in this system is initially processed within the secured infrastructure of the health care provider that collects and holds the data, using uniform software distributed and supported by the NDP. Only highly aggregated count data is transferred to the datacenter for statistical processing and display. Results Detailed, patient level information is readily available to the health care provider to elucidate signals observed in the aggregated data, or for ad hoc queries. We briefly describe the benefits and disadvantages associated with this distributed processing model for routine automated syndromic surveillance. Conclusion For well-defined surveillance requirements, the model can be successfully deployed with very low risk of inadvertent disclosure of PHI – a feature that may make participation in surveillance systems more feasible for organizations and more appealing to the individuals whose PHI they hold. It is possible to design and implement distributed systems to support non-routine public health needs if required.

  1. Presenteeism: A Public Health Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna; Chen, Helen L.

    2010-01-01

    "Presenteeism" occurs when an employee goes to work despite a medical illness that will prevent him or her from fully functioning at work. This problem has been well studied in the business and social science literature, and carries increased importance in the health care setting due to the risk of infectious disease transmission in vulnerable patient populations. In this manuscript, we discuss an outbreak of viral gastroenteritis in a long-term care facility and the role presenteeism played in disease transmission and extension of the outbreak. We use existing literature to point out the hazards of presenteeism in the health care sector. We will also discuss factors that may be involved in the decision to work while ill and propose policy changes that may reduce the incidence of presenteeism in health care organizations. PMID:20549378

  2. ETHOS, a Health Surveillance Data Base System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, W. Wayne; Allen, James W.; Bilella, James; O'Neill, Pat

    1982-01-01

    The basic purpose of a health surveillance system is to detect changes in an employee's health status. These changes may uncover health threats from newly introduced or existing industrial/consumer substances. Stewart-Todd Associates has provided employee health monitoring services to a variety of industries for over 10 years. From these experiences the company developed a computerized health surveillance system called ETHOS. Advanced features of ETHOS include its adaptability to a variety of users' requirements, flexible data input structure, and reports that highlight trends for individuals or groups. Several companies in unrelated industries use ETHOS on a time-sharing basis. The storage of their employee data plus the reporting capabilities of ETHOS permit accumulation of a large employee data base. Such a data base will be a valuable resource for detecting adverse health effects to employees or substantiating claims of a substance's harmlessness.

  3. Occupational health hazards in ICU nursing staff

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shimizu, Helena Eri; Couto, Djalma Ticiani; Merchán-Hamann, Edgar; Branco, Anadergh Barbosa

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed occupational health hazards for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) nurses and nursing technicians, comparing differences in the number and types of hazards which occur at the beginning and end of their careers...

  4. Occupational Health Hazards in ICU Nursing Staff

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shimizu, Helena Eri; Couto, Djalma Ticiani; Merchán-Hamann, Edgar; Branco, Anadergh Barbosa

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed occupational health hazards for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) nurses and nursing technicians, comparing differences in the number and types of hazards which occur at the beginning and end of their careers...

  5. World Health Organization and disease surveillance: Jeopardizing global public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin Genest, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Health issues now evolve in a global context. Real-time global surveillance, global disease mapping and global risk management characterize what have been termed 'global public health'. It has generated many programmes and policies, notably through the work of the World Health Organization. This globalized form of public health raises, however, some important issues left unchallenged, including its effectiveness, objectivity and legitimacy. The general objective of this article is to underline the impacts of WHO disease surveillance on the practice and theorization of global public health. By using the surveillance structure established by the World Health Organization and reinforced by the 2005 International Health Regulations as a case study, we argue that the policing of 'circulating risks' emerged as a dramatic paradox for global public health policy. This situation severely affects the rationale of health interventions as well as the lives of millions around the world, while travestying the meaning of health, disease and risks. To do so, we use health surveillance data collected by the WHO Disease Outbreak News System in order to map the impacts of global health surveillance on health policy rationale and theory. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. The development of passive health surveillance by a sentinel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SASPREN), a volunteer network of family practitioners in South Africa, to develop a health surveillance system through the surveillance of important health events. Motivation. The incidence of important preventable diseases and the burden of disease ...

  7. [A framework for health surveillance decentralization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Andréa Helena Argolo; Costa, Ediná Alves; Vieira-da-Silva, Lígia Maria

    2009-10-01

    No consensus has been reached concerning the definition of criteria and standards for evaluating the decentralization of actions by municipal health surveillance systems. With the aim of developing and validating an objective image for municipal health surveillance that would correspond to an appropriate system for the population's health care needs, a logical framework was elaborated, from which a matrix containing dimensions and criteria for management and practices was obtained. The framework was submitted to an expert group for validation at a consensus conference. Of the 54 criteria, there was consensus for 59.3%, while 53 items (98%) were considered important, thus validating the matrix. In view of the provisory nature of the consensuses, the resulting instrument, which can be used either in its entirety or in part, enables modification and adaptation. The authors discuss the potential of the evaluation strategy adopted here, which allows various possibilities for redefining the criteria and renewing the consensus.

  8. Health surveillance of employees on a lead mine, 1979-1989

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-06

    Apr 6, 1991 ... Health surveillance of employees at a lead mine in the .... health. Although these hazards are controlled as best as possible, people, machinery and equipment are exposed to such adverse factors as poor soil conditions, darkness, noise, confmed ... burning of lead particles by smoking or welding, since this.

  9. Health hazards and electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, T

    2003-11-01

    Biological rhythms, physical wellbeing and mental states are dependent on our electrical brainwave system interacting with the extremely weak electromagnetic fields generated by the Earth's telluric and Cosmic radiations. In a single generation, since the evolution of humankind over millions of years, we are exposed to a wide range of powerful, artificially generated electromagnetic radiation which adversely affects the subtle balance in nature's energy fields and has become the source of so-called 'diseases of civilization'. This also includes electromagnetic sensitivity. Generally, there is a lack of awareness and understanding of the impact electromagnetic fields can have upon health and wellbeing.Our ancestors were acutely aware that certain locations, were perceived to have a positive energy field which was beneficial to health and vitality. Over time, these areas are now referred to as sacred sites for spiritual ceremony and as healing centres. In contrast, there are other geographical locations that can have a negative effect upon health and these are known as geopathic stress zones. It is believed that such zones can interfere with the brain's normal function that inhibits the release of melatonin and other endocrine secretions needed to replenish the immune system. Geopathic stress can affect animals and plant life as well as human beings and significantly contributes to sick building syndrome (SBS). Whilst there is an increasing body of opinion amongst eminent researchers and scientists who are addressing these issues, the establishment professions are slow to change. However, very gradually, modern allopathic medicine and attitudes are beginning to recognise the extraordinary wisdom and efficacy of ancient traditions such as acupuncture, light, colour and other therapies based on the understanding and treatment of the interaction of a person's electromagnetic subtle body and the immediate environment. These and many other 'complementary' therapies may

  10. Global health surveillance and travelers' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Cinzia; Freedman, David O

    2009-10-01

    Monitoring disease trends among travelers can inform both pretravel advice and posttravel management. Data from sentinel travelers upon their return to medically sophisticated environments can also benefit local populations in resource-limited countries. Provider-based surveillance of travelers is increasingly sophisticated. Recently, networks such as GeoSentinel have provided cumulative trends in travel-related illness to assess pretravel risk for a mass gathering event--the Beijing Olympic Games. Data provided by the GeoSentinel also helped in determining the seasonality of dengue by region of travel and risk of acquiring schistosomiasis after a single short exposure. For chikungunya fever, detailed study of returned travelers exposed new clinical aspects of a disease previously studied in the tropics only. Clusters of hepatitis A, a vaccine-preventable disease, among European travelers, illustrated continued gaps in the preparation of the traveling public. Plasmodium knowlesi has emerged as the fifth human malaria parasite and is now a consideration in the diagnosis of febrile travelers from Asia. Automated global news scanning software is increasingly being able to detect and prioritize disease events. Every year millions of travelers visit countries where they are exposed to pathogens that are usually rare in their home countries. Global surveillance of travel-related disease represents a powerful tool for the detection of infectious diseases. These data should encourage clinicians to take a detailed travel history during every patient encounter.

  11. Acoustic Surveillance of Hazardous Eruptions (ASHE) in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, M. A.; Taisne, B.; Blanc, E.; Tupper, A. C.; Ngemaes, M.; Mialle, P.; Murayama, T.

    2015-12-01

    The ASHE Ecuador (2004-2012) collaboration between Ecuador, Canada, and the US demonstrated the capability to use real-time infrasound to provide low-latency volcanic eruption notifications to the Volcano Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) in Washington DC. The Atmospheric dynamics Research Infrastructure in Europe (ARISE, 2012-2018) supported by the European Commission fosters integrating innovative methods for remote detection and characterization of distant eruptive sources through collaborations with the VAAC Toulouse and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The ASHE Asia project proposes an international collaboration between the Earth Observatory of Singapore, the VAAC Darwin, the Palau National Weather Service, and US and Asian partners, and will receive the support of ARISE, to provide improved early notification of potentially hazardous eruptions in Asia and the Western Pacific using a combination of established technologies and next-generation mobile sensing systems. The increased availability of open seismo-acoustic data in the ASEAN region as well as recent advances in mobile distributed sensors networks will facilitate unprecedented rapid progress in monitoring remote regions for early detection of hazardous volcanic eruptions and other natural disasters.

  12. Occupational hazards to health of port workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yukun; Zhan, Shuifen; Liu, Yan; Li, Yan

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this article is to reduce the risk of occupational hazards and improve safety conditions by enhancing hazard knowledge and identification as well as improving safety behavior for freight port enterprises. In the article, occupational hazards to health and their prevention measures of freight port enterprises have been summarized through a lot of occupational health evaluation work, experience and understanding. Workers of freight port enterprises confront an equally wide variety of chemical, physical and psychological hazards in production technology, production environment and the course of labor. Such health hazards have been identified, the risks evaluated, the dangers to health notified and effective prevention measures which should be put in place to ensure the health of the port workers summarized. There is still a long way to go for the freight port enterprises to prevent and control the occupational hazards. Except for occupational hazards and their prevention measures, other factors that influence the health of port workers should also be paid attention to, such as age, work history, gender, contraindication and even the occurrence and development rules of occupational hazards in current production conditions.

  13. Occupational Health Hazards in ICU Nursing Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Eri Shimizu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed occupational health hazards for Intensive Care Unit (ICU nurses and nursing technicians, comparing differences in the number and types of hazards which occur at the beginning and end of their careers. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with 26 nurses and 96 nursing technicians from a public hospital in the Federal District, Brazil. A Likert-type work-related symptom scale (WRSS was used to evaluate the presence of physical, psychological, and social risks. Data were analyzed with the use of the SPSS, version 12.0, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for statistical significance and differences in occupational health hazards at the beginning and at the end of the workers' careers. As a workplace, ICUs can cause work health hazards, mostly physical, to nurses and nursing technicians due to the frequent use of physical energy and strength to provide care, while psychological and social hazards occur to a lesser degree.

  14. Occupational health hazards in ICU nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Helena Eri; Couto, Djalma Ticiani; Merchán-Hamann, Edgar; Branco, Anadergh Barbosa

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed occupational health hazards for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) nurses and nursing technicians, comparing differences in the number and types of hazards which occur at the beginning and end of their careers. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with 26 nurses and 96 nursing technicians from a public hospital in the Federal District, Brazil. A Likert-type work-related symptom scale (WRSS) was used to evaluate the presence of physical, psychological, and social risks. Data were analyzed with the use of the SPSS, version 12.0, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for statistical significance and differences in occupational health hazards at the beginning and at the end of the workers' careers. As a workplace, ICUs can cause work health hazards, mostly physical, to nurses and nursing technicians due to the frequent use of physical energy and strength to provide care, while psychological and social hazards occur to a lesser degree.

  15. Conceptual evaluation of population health surveillance programs: method and example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Allaki, Farouk; Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Ravel, André

    2013-03-01

    Veterinary and public health surveillance programs can be evaluated to assess and improve the planning, implementation and effectiveness of these programs. Guidelines, protocols and methods have been developed for such evaluation. In general, they focus on a limited set of attributes (e.g., sensitivity and simplicity), that are assessed quantitatively whenever possible, otherwise qualitatively. Despite efforts at standardization, replication by different evaluators is difficult, making evaluation outcomes open to interpretation. This ultimately limits the usefulness of surveillance evaluations. At the same time, the growing demand to prove freedom from disease or pathogen, and the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement and the International Health Regulations require stronger surveillance programs. We developed a method for evaluating veterinary and public health surveillance programs that is detailed, structured, transparent and based on surveillance concepts that are part of all types of surveillance programs. The proposed conceptual evaluation method comprises four steps: (1) text analysis, (2) extraction of the surveillance conceptual model, (3) comparison of the extracted surveillance conceptual model to a theoretical standard, and (4) validation interview with a surveillance program designer. This conceptual evaluation method was applied in 2005 to C-EnterNet, a new Canadian zoonotic disease surveillance program that encompasses laboratory based surveillance of enteric diseases in humans and active surveillance of the pathogens in food, water, and livestock. The theoretical standard used for evaluating C-EnterNet was a relevant existing structure called the "Population Health Surveillance Theory". Five out of 152 surveillance concepts were absent in the design of C-EnterNet. However, all of the surveillance concept relationships found in C-EnterNet were valid. The proposed method can be used to improve the design and documentation of surveillance programs. It

  16. Guidelines for Whole-Body Vibration Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    POPE, M.; MAGNUSSON, M.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.; HULSHOF, C.; VERBEEK, J.; BOVENZI, M.

    2002-05-01

    There is strong epidemiological evidence that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of low back pain (LBP), sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. A prototype health surveillance scheme for WBV is presented in this paper. Surveillance is the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data for the purpose of prevention. The aims are to assess health status and diagnose vibration-induced disorders at an early stage, to inform the workers on the potential risk associated with vibration exposure, to give preventive advice to employers and employees and to control whether preventive measures which have been taken, were successful. It is suggested that a pre-placement health examination should be offered to each worker who will be exposed to WBV so as to make the worker aware of the hazards, to obtain baseline health data, and to identify medical conditions that may increase the risk due to WBV. The case history should focus on personal history, work history, and leisure activities involving driving of vehicles. The personal medical history should detail back pain complaints, disorders in the spine, any injuries or surgery to the musculoskeletal system. A physical examination on the lower back should be performed on workers who have experienced LBP symptoms over the past 12 months. The preplacement examination should be followed by periodic health reassessment with a regular interval according to the legislation of the country. It is suggested that periodic medical examination should be made available at least every 2 years to all workers who are exposed to WBV. Any change in vibration exposure at the workplace should be reported by the employer. If an increase in vibration exposure or a change in health status have occurred, the medical re-examination should be offered at shorter intervals at the discretion of the attending physician. There should be a periodic medical

  17. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS AMONG QUARRY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Again, disabilities related to machine operations are common. The use, handling of or exposure to ... Theory a psycho-social work environment can be characterized by a combination of demands and control. ... Domino (1986), introduced his multiple causation theory of occupational hazards. This suggests that industrial ...

  18. Evaluation of a standardized morbidity surveillance form for use during disasters caused by natural hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Amy H; Wolkin, Amy F; Noe, Rebecca; Hausman, Leslie B; Wiersma, Petra; Soetebier, Karl; Cookson, Susan T

    2011-04-01

    Surveillance for health outcomes is critical for rapid responses and timely prevention of disaster-related illnesses and injuries after a disaster-causing event. The Disaster Surveillance Workgroup (DSWG) of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed a standardized, single-page, morbidity surveillance form, called the Natural Disaster Morbidity Surveillance Individual Form (Morbidity Surveillance Form), to describe the distribution of injuries and illnesses, detect outbreaks, and guide timely interventions during a disaster. Traditional data sources can be used during a disaster; however, supplemental active surveillance may be required because traditional systems often are disrupted, and many persons will seek care outside of typical acute care settings. Generally, these alternative settings lack health surveillance and reporting protocols. The need for standardized data collection was demonstrated during Hurricane Katrina, as the multiple surveillance instruments that were developed and deployed led to varied and uncoordinated data collection methods, analyses, and morbidity data reporting. Active, post-event surveillance of affected populations is critical for rapid responses to minimize and prevent morbidity and mortality, allocate resources, and target public health messaging. The CDC and the Georgia Department of Public Health (GDPH) conducted a study to evaluate a Morbidity Surveillance Form to determine its ability to capture clinical presentations. The form was completed for each patient evaluated in an emergency department (ED) during triage from 01 August, 2007 through 07 August, 2007. Data from the form were compared with the ED discharge diagnoses from electronic medical records, and kappa statistics were calculated to assess agreement. Nine hundred forty-nine patients were evaluated, 41% were male and 57% were Caucasian. According to the forms, the most common reasons for seeking treatment were acute illness, other (29%); pain (12

  19. Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    Hazards and Climate Change in Ethiopia: Synthesis of. Situational Analysis, Needs Assessment and ... frameworks: air pollution and health, occupational health and safety and climate change and health. Methods: The methods used in this work ..... Risk management at the individual level, through the provision of personal ...

  20. Health protection in Brazil: the National Sanitary Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seta, Marismary Horsth De; Oliveira, Catia Veronica Dos Santos; Pepe, Vera Lúcia Edais

    2017-10-01

    This essay presents the singular arrangement named Health Surveillance in Brazil and the specificities of its components: public Health Surveillance, Worker's Surveillance, Environmental Surveillance, Sanitary Surveillance, as well as the constitutional determination to carry out the actions of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance and Worker's Surveillance. The two national systems of protection and promote health are also presented - National Public Health Surveillance System and National Sanitary Surveillance System, with an emphasis on the regulatory issues in health made by the latter and some constraints to its action by the Legislative Branch. It reaffirms the Brazilian State's constitutional duty to protect health, and to provide the means for adequate functioning of the two systems, bearing in mind that defense of the public interest in health products and services means confronting oligopolies of transnational economic interests. This paper states the opinion that the financial constraints facing the Brazilian State from time to time cannot be allowed to prevail over the rights of citizenship, independently of the public underfunding of health in Brazil.

  1. The Past, Present, and Future of Public Health Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard C. K. Choi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the past, present, and future of public health surveillance—the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health action. Public health surveillance dates back to the first recorded epidemic in 3180 B.C. in Egypt. Hippocrates (460 B.C.–370 B.C. coined the terms endemic and epidemic, John Graunt (1620–1674 introduced systematic data analysis, Samuel Pepys (1633–1703 started epidemic field investigation, William Farr (1807–1883 founded the modern concept of surveillance, John Snow (1813–1858 linked data to intervention, and Alexander Langmuir (1910–1993 gave the first comprehensive definition of surveillance. Current theories, principles, and practice of public health surveillance are summarized. A number of surveillance dichotomies, such as epidemiologic surveillance versus public health surveillance, are described. Some future scenarios are presented, while current activities that can affect the future are summarized: exploring new frontiers; enhancing computer technology; improving epidemic investigations; improving data collection, analysis, dissemination, and use; building on lessons from the past; building capacity; enhancing global surveillance. It is concluded that learning from the past, reflecting on the present, and planning for the future can further enhance public health surveillance.

  2. The Past, Present, and Future of Public Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C. K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the past, present, and future of public health surveillance—the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health action. Public health surveillance dates back to the first recorded epidemic in 3180 B.C. in Egypt. Hippocrates (460 B.C.–370 B.C.) coined the terms endemic and epidemic, John Graunt (1620–1674) introduced systematic data analysis, Samuel Pepys (1633–1703) started epidemic field investigation, William Farr (1807–1883) founded the modern concept of surveillance, John Snow (1813–1858) linked data to intervention, and Alexander Langmuir (1910–1993) gave the first comprehensive definition of surveillance. Current theories, principles, and practice of public health surveillance are summarized. A number of surveillance dichotomies, such as epidemiologic surveillance versus public health surveillance, are described. Some future scenarios are presented, while current activities that can affect the future are summarized: exploring new frontiers; enhancing computer technology; improving epidemic investigations; improving data collection, analysis, dissemination, and use; building on lessons from the past; building capacity; enhancing global surveillance. It is concluded that learning from the past, reflecting on the present, and planning for the future can further enhance public health surveillance. PMID:24278752

  3. Weighing in on Surveillance: Perception of the Impact of Surveillance on Female Ballet Dancers' Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, Anne; Fortin, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate professional ballet dancers' perceptions of the impact of surveillance on their psychological and physical health. The theoretical framework was inspired by Foucault's writing, particularly his concepts of surveillance, power, discipline and docile bodies. Fifteen professional ballet dancers…

  4. Economics of zoonoses surveillance in a 'One Health' context: an assessment of Campylobacter surveillance in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2017-04-01

    Cross-sectorial surveillance and general collaboration between the animal and the public health sectors are increasingly recognized as needed to better manage the impacts of zoonoses. From 2009, the Swiss established a Campylobacter mitigation system that includes human and poultry surveillance data-sharing within a multi-sectorial platform, in a 'One Health' approach. The objective of this study was to explore the economics of this cross-sectorial approach, including surveillance and triggered interventions. Costs and benefits of the One Health and of the uni-sectorial approach to Campylobacter surveillance were identified using an economic assessment framework developed earlier. Cost information of surveillance activities and interventions was gathered and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with the disease estimated for 2008 and 2013. In the first 5 years of this One Health approach to Campylobacter mitigation, surveillance contributed with information mainly used to perform risk assessments, monitor trends and shape research efforts on Campylobacter. There was an increase in costs associated with the mitigation activities following integration, due mainly to the allocation of additional resources to research and implementation of poultry surveillance. The overall burden of campylobacteriosis increased by 3·4-8·8% to 1751-2852 DALYs in 2013. In the timing of the analysis, added value associated with this cross-sectorial approach to surveillance of Campylobacter in the country was likely generated through non-measurable benefits such as intellectual capital and social capital.

  5. Occupational Health Hazards in ICU Nursing Staff

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Eri Shimizu; Djalma Ticiani Couto; Edgar Merchán-Hamann; Anadergh Barbosa Branco

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed occupational health hazards for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) nurses and nursing technicians, comparing differences in the number and types of hazards which occur at the beginning and end of their careers. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with 26 nurses and 96 nursing technicians from a public hospital in the Federal District, Brazil. A Likert-type work-related symptom scale (WRSS) was used to evaluate the presence of physical, psychological, and social risk...

  6. Under observation : The interplay between eHealth and surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purtova, Nadezhda; Adams, Samantha; Leenes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The essays in this book clarify the technical, legal, ethical, and social aspects of the interaction between eHealth technologies and surveillance practices. The book starts out by presenting a theoretical framework on eHealth and surveillance, followed by an introduction to the various ideas on

  7. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Rufiji HDSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrema, Sigilbert; Kante, Almamy M; Levira, Francis; Mono, Amaniel; Irema, Kahema; de Savigny, Don; Masanja, Honorati

    2015-04-01

    The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) was established in October 1998 to evaluate the impact on burden of disease of health system reforms based on locally generated data, prioritization, resource allocation and planning for essential health interventions. The Rufiji HDSS collects detailed information on health and survival and provides a framework for population-based health research of relevance to local and national health priorities.In December 2012 the population under surveillance was about 105,503 people, residing in 19,315 households. Monitoring of households and members within households is undertaken in regular 6-month cycles known as 'rounds'. Self reported information is collected on demographic, household, socioeconomic and geographical characteristics. Verbal autopsy is conducted using standardized questionnaires, to determine probable causes of death. In conjunction with core HDSS activities, the ongoing studies in Rufiji HDSS focus on maternal and new-born health, evaluation of safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) exposure in early pregnancy and the clinical safety of a fixed dose of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQP) in the community. Findings of studies conducted in Rufiji HDSS can be accessed at www.ihi.or.tz/IHI-Digital-Library. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  8. Health Issues: Do Cell Phones Pose a Health Hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Health Issues Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... it Email Print Do cell phones pose a health hazard? Many people are concerned that cell phone ...

  9. Timely reporting and interactive visualization of animal health and slaughterhouse surveillance data in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich J Muellner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The reporting of outputs from health surveillance systems should be done in a near real-time and interactive manner in order to provide decision makers with powerful means to identify, assess and manage health hazards as early and efficiently as possible. While this is currently rarely the case in veterinary public health surveillance, reporting tools do exist for the visual exploration and interactive interrogation of health data. In this work, we used tools freely available from the Google Maps and Charts library to develop a web application reporting health-related data derived from slaughterhouse surveillance and from a newly established web-based equine surveillance system in Switzerland. Both sets of tools allowed entry-level usage without or with minimal programming skills while being flexible enough to cater for more complex scenarios for users with greater programming skills. In particular, interfaces linking statistical softwares and Google tools provide additional analytical functionality (such as algorithms for the detection of unusually high case occurrences for inclusion in the reporting process. We show that such powerful approaches could improve timely dissemination and communication of technical information to decision-makers and other stakeholders and could foster the early-warning capacity of animal health surveillance systems.

  10. Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards and Climate Change in Ethiopia: Synthesis of Situational Analysis, Needs Assessment and the ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  11. Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards and Climate Change in Ethiopia: Synthesis of Situational Analysis, Needs Assessment and the Way ... Methods: The methods used in this work include a systematic review of secondary data from peer-reviewed literature, thesis reports from academia, ...

  12. The issue of mental health in occupational health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique da Costa Leão

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of mental health in the Occupational Health Surveillance (VISAT context. It seeks to present theoretical aspects and institutional policies contributing to the incorporation of mental health dimensions into the VISAT process, in view of the pressing need to attend to this demand that is becoming increasingly important in the occupational health area, especially within the scope of the National Comprehensive Occupational Healthcare Network (RENAST. Some theoretical approaches and practical experiences in mental health and work are systematically presented and discussed in this essay. A survey is also conducted of potential strategies to integrate mental health into VISAT actions. It is our view that the origins of illnesses and ensuing harm are closely linked to the elements involved in work organization and management. Consequently, surveillance practices should include and identify generating components of these negative aspects. The diversity of illnesses caused by work processes and conditions calls for major investment to ascertain and change the situations that give rise to such illnesses.

  13. Assessment of respiratory health surveillance for laboratory animal workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, K M; Murphy, E; Ayres, J G

    2010-09-01

    Occupational asthma is the most common work-related respiratory disease in the UK. Individuals whose work potentially puts them at risk include those exposed to laboratory animals. Workplace health surveillance programmes aim to minimize these health risks but are recognized to be challenging to implement effectively. To evaluate the efficacy of the respiratory health surveillance programme provided by a National Health Service occupational health service (OHS) to individuals potentially exposed to respiratory sensitizers at work with laboratory animals. Case notes from the OHS respiratory health surveillance programme over a 2 year period were examined. Symptom detection by the OHS surveillance questionnaire was compared to a cross-sectional survey using items from the validated International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) questionnaire. The surveillance spirometry records were audited against good standards of practice. The response rate for the anonymized survey using IUATLD questions was 60% and detected similar numbers of potential work-related symptoms to the OHS surveillance questionnaire. Over 80% of spirometry records met accepted standards for technique, effort and recording. In this study of 85 individuals over 2 years, three cases of occupational asthma were identified. The current surveillance appears to be effective in identifying potential cases of occupational asthma. Modification of the questionnaire content and layout might improve response rates. This study suggests that spirometry does not detect new cases other than those already identified by questionnaire.

  14. Ethical issues in public health surveillance: a systematic qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingler, Corinna; Silva, Diego Steven; Schuermann, Christopher; Reis, Andreas Alois; Saxena, Abha; Strech, Daniel

    2017-04-04

    Public health surveillance is not ethically neutral and yet, ethics guidance and training for surveillance programmes is sparse. Development of ethics guidance should be based on comprehensive and transparently derived overviews of ethical issues and arguments. However, existing overviews on surveillance ethics are limited in scope and in how transparently they derived their results. Our objective was accordingly to provide an overview of ethical issues in public health surveillance; in addition, to list the arguments put forward with regards to arguably the most contested issue in surveillance, that is whether to obtain informed consent. Ethical issues were defined based on principlism. We assumed an ethical issue to arise in surveillance when a relevant normative principle is not adequately considered or two principles come into conflict. We searched Pubmed and Google Books for relevant publications. We analysed and synthesized the data using qualitative content analysis. Our search strategy retrieved 525 references of which 83 were included in the analysis. We identified 86 distinct ethical issues arising in the different phases of the surveillance life-cycle. We further identified 20 distinct conditions that make it more or less justifiable to forego informed consent procedures. This is the first systematic qualitative review of ethical issues in public health surveillance resulting in a comprehensive ethics matrix that can inform guidelines, reports, strategy papers, and educational material and raise awareness among practitioners.

  15. World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance White Paper on Surveillance and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Campostrini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This is not a research paper on risk factor surveillance. It is an effort by a key group of researchers and practitioners of risk factor surveillance to define the current state of the art and to identify the key issues involved in the current practice of behavioral risk factor surveillance. Those of us who are the principal authors have worked and carried out research in this area for some three decades. As a result of a series of global meetings beginning in 1999 and continuing every two years since then, a collective working group of the International Union of Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE was formed under the name World Alliance of Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS. Under this banner the organization sought to write a comprehensive statement on the importance of surveillance to health promotion and public health. This paper, which has been revised and reviewed by established peers in the field, is the result. It provides the reader with a clear summary of the major issues that need to be considered by any and all seeking to carry out behavioral risk factor surveillance.

  16. London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: public health surveillance and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Brian; Endericks, Tina; Catchpole, Mike; Zambon, Maria; McLauchlin, Jim; Shetty, Nandini; Manuel, Rohini; Turbitt, Deborah; Smith, Gillian; Crook, Paul; Severi, Ettore; Jones, Jane; Ibbotson, Sue; Marshall, Roberta; Smallwood, Catherine A H; Isla, Nicolas; Memish, Ziad A; Al-Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Barbeschi, Maurizio; Heymann, David L; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2014-06-14

    Mass gatherings are regarded as potential risks for transmission of infectious diseases, and might compromise the health system of countries in which they are hosted. The evidence for increased transmission of infectious diseases at international sporting mass gatherings that attract many visitors from all over the world is not clear, and the evidence base for public health surveillance, epidemiology, and response at events such as the Olympics is small. However, infectious diseases are a recognised risk, and public health planning is, and should remain, a crucial part of the overall planning of sporting events. In this Series paper, we set out the planning and the surveillance systems that were used to monitor public health risks during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games in the summer of 2012, and draw attention to the public health issues-infectious diseases and chemical, radiation, and environmental hazards-that arose. Although the absolute risk of health-protection problems, including infectious diseases, at sporting mass gatherings is small, the need for reassurance of the absence of problems is higher than has previously been considered; this could challenge conventional public health surveillance systems. Recognition of the limitations of health-surveillance systems needs to be part of the planning for future sporting events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Steps to a sustainable public health surveillance enterprise
a commentary from the international society for disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Nabila; Reynolds, Tera; Coletta, Michael; Suda, Katie; Soyiri, Ireneous; Markle, Ariana; Leopold, Henry; Lenert, Leslie; Samoff, Erika; Siniscalchi, Alan; Streichert, Laura

    2013-01-01

    More than a decade into the 21(st) century, the ability to effectively monitor community health status, as well as forecast, detect, and respond to disease outbreaks and other events of public health significance, remains a major challenge. As an issue that affects population health, economic stability, and global security, the public health surveillance enterprise warrants the attention of decision makers at all levels. Public health practitioners responsible for surveillance functions are best positioned to identify the key elements needed for creating and maintaining effective and sustainable surveillance systems. This paper presents the recommendations of the Sustainable Surveillance Workgroup convened by the International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS) to identify strategies for building, strengthening, and maintaining surveillance systems that are equipped to provide data continuity and to handle both established and new data sources and public health surveillance practices.

  18. Towards One Health disease surveillance: The Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esron D. Karimuribo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for ‘fit-for- purpose’ approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa.

  19. Towards one health disease surveillance: the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimuribo, Esron D; Sayalel, Kuya; Beda, Eric; Short, Nick; Wambura, Philemon; Mboera, Leonard G; Kusiluka, Lughano J M; Rweyemamu, Mark M

    2012-06-20

    Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for 'fit-for- purpose' approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH) approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT) servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa.

  20. A public health hazard mitigation planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jennifer M; Kay Carpender, S; Crouch, Jill Artzberger; Quiram, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    The Texas A&M Health Science Center School of Rural Public Health, a member of the Training and Education Collaborative System Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center (TECS-PERLC), has long-standing partnerships with 2 Health Service Regions (Regions) in Texas. TECS-PERLC was contracted by these Regions to address 2 challenges identified in meeting requirements outlined by the Risk-Based Funding Project. First, within Metropolitan Statistical Areas, there is not a formal authoritative structure. Second, preexisting tools and processes did not adequately satisfy requirements to assess public health, medical, and mental health needs and link mitigation strategies to the Public Health Preparedness Capabilities, which provide guidance to prepare for, respond to, and recover from public health incidents. TECS-PERLC, with its partners, developed a framework to interpret and apply results from the Texas Public Health Risk Assessment Tool (TxPHRAT). The 3-phase community engagement-based TxPHRAT Mitigation Planning Process (Mitigation Planning Process) and associated tools facilitated the development of mitigation plans. Tools included (1) profiles interpreting TxPHRAT results and identifying, ranking, and prioritizing hazards and capability gaps; (2) a catalog of intervention strategies and activities linked to hazards and capabilities; and (3) a template to plan, evaluate, and report mitigation planning efforts. The Mitigation Planning Process provided a framework for Regions to successfully address all funding requirements. TECS-PERLC developed more than 60 profiles, cataloged and linked 195 intervention strategies, and developed a template resulting in 20 submitted mitigation plans. A public health-focused, community engagement-based mitigation planning process was developed by TECS-PERLC and successfully implemented by the Regions. The outcomes met all requirements and reinforce the effectiveness of academic practice partnerships and importance of

  1. [Implementing health surveillance at the primary care level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cátia Martins; Casanova, Angela Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibilities of re-orienting work processes at the primary care level in the light of the concepts and pre-suppositions of the health surveillance system. In addition, it presents some key concepts that could help putting into operation a health surveillance system at the local level. One of these concepts is the idea of the territory as a privileged space of primary care, helping to define and identify health needs. The study further emphasizes the heuristic value of integrating knowledge and practices in the various fields of health care so as to ensure a broader vision of problems and comprehensive health care. Finally, it analyzes the contributions from epidemiological, environmental, and health surveillance for consolidating health surveillance into a system not only limited to these three areas of action. Integrated actions of epidemiological, sanitary, and environmental surveillance can favor risk management and allow for innovative and more effective answers to the demands emerging from the health area. In addition, the local teams can acquire practical experience in internal and inter-sectorial actions which, though their importance is recognized in theory, were rarely put into practice.

  2. Epidemiological surveillance, virulence and public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gulab pandove

    Epidemiological surveillance of drinking water from Punjab, India reported occurrence of Listeria spp. in 58.67% of Municipal Corporation (MC), 51.38% ... wage, water, feedstuffs, milk, cheese, meconium, feces and soil (Kirkan et al., 2006). ... sea, vomiting and abdominal pain in healthy adults. (Lunden et al., 2004). Listeria ...

  3. Job-specific workers’ health surveillance for construction workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Workers’ health surveillance (WHS) aims at the assessment of workers’ health and work ability by detecting any clinical or preclinical abnormalities. In that way, it can be verified whether the occupational exposures have any detrimental effect on the health of workers and whether the worker is fit

  4. Radioactivity in mushrooms: a health hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, J; Baeza, A

    2014-07-01

    Mushrooms are a complementary foodstuff and considered to be consumed locally. The demand for mushrooms has increased in recent years, and the mushroom trade is becoming global. Mushroom origin is frequently obscured from the consumer. Mushrooms are considered excellent bioindicators of environmental pollution. The accumulation of radionuclides by mushrooms, which are then consumed by humans or livestock, can pose a radiological hazard. Many studies have addressed the radionuclide content in mushrooms, almost exclusively the radiocaesium content. There is a significant lack of data about their content from some of the main producer countries. An exhaustive review was carried out in order to identify which radionuclide might constitute a health hazard, and the factors conditioning it. Regulatory values for the different radionuclides were used. The worldwide range for radiocaesium, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (210)Po surpasses those values. Appropriate radiological protection requires that the content of those radionuclides in mushrooms should be monitored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Forecasting extreme temperature health hazards in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Pappenberger, Florian; Cloke, Hannah L.

    2017-04-01

    Extreme hot temperatures, such as those experienced during a heat wave, represent a dangerous meteorological hazard to human health. Heat disorders such as sunstroke are harmful to people of all ages and responsible for excess mortality in the affected areas. In 2003 more than 50,000 people died in western and southern Europe because of a severe and sustained episode of summer heat [1]. Furthermore, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change heat waves are expected to get more frequent in the future thus posing an increasing threat to human lives. Developing appropriate tools for extreme hot temperatures prediction is therefore mandatory to increase public preparedness and mitigate heat-induced impacts. A recent study has shown that forecasts of the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) provide a valid overview of extreme temperature health hazards on a global scale [2]. UTCI is a parameter related to the temperature of the human body and its regulatory responses to the surrounding atmospheric environment. UTCI is calculated using an advanced thermo-physiological model that includes the human heat budget, physiology and clothing. To forecast UTCI the model uses meteorological inputs, such as 2m air temperature, 2m water vapour pressure and wind velocity at body height derived from 10m wind speed, from NWP models. Here we examine the potential of UTCI as an extreme hot temperature prediction tool for the European area. UTCI forecasts calculated using above-mentioned parameters from ECMWF models are presented. The skill in predicting UTCI for medium lead times is also analysed and discussed for implementation to international health-hazard warning systems. This research is supported by the ANYWHERE project (EnhANcing emergencY management and response to extreme WeatHER and climate Events) which is funded by the European Commission's HORIZON2020 programme. [1] Koppe C. et al., Heat waves: risks and responses. World Health Organization. Health and

  6. Health surveillance: proposal for a tool to evaluate technological arrangements in local health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gerluce Alves Pontes da; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2008-11-01

    In order to identify the various meanings ascribed to health surveillance, the authors conducted a systematic review of articles published from January 1990 to August 2005 in the following databases: LILACS, SciELO, CAPES, MEDLINE, and Web of Science. A total of 144 abstracts were read and 18 full texts of Brazilian articles were selected for in-depth analysis, leading to the design of a typology for technological arrangements related to the various meanings: (i) traditional epidemiological surveillance, with communicable diseases as the main object; (ii) public health surveillance, as the municipal component of the national health surveillance system; and (iii) health surveillance, a technological mode of organizing health practices in a given territory. The proposed typology can contribute to research on surveillance practices in local health systems. It can also serve as a template for data collection and analysis. The meanings ascribed to the three types are discussed in light of public health's historical development as a field.

  7. The insertion of the environmental health surveillance in the unified health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilo Baltazar Barreira Filho

    2012-03-01

    provided byagencies and both public and private entities that aim to knowledge and detection or prevention of any change in the environmental determinants and conditioning factors that interfere with human health in order to recommend and adopt measures for prevention and control of risk factors related to diseases and other healthproblems(2.Due to the complexity of the situation, some fields have been identified as fields of action of the Environmental Health Surveillance: monitoring of water quality for human consumption; air quality; monitoring of populations exposed to contaminated soils; chemicals; natural disasters and accidents involving hazardous products; physical factors (ionizing and non ionizing radiation; and working environment(3.There are increasing demands and health problems related to the environment that call for resolution by the state and municipal managers of SUS, which is causing more and more the establishment of partnerships between federal government and agencies and institutions in their respective coverage areas and within the limits of their powers, such as Ministries of Education; Cities; Science and Technology; Labour and Employment; Agriculture; Planning and Management;of Foreign Affairs; Development, Industry and Trade; Social Development and Hunger Alleviation; of National Integration; Transport; Defence; Justice; and Culture(1.Environmental Health Surveillance must be perceived and has been increasingly consolidating its field as an “operative arm” of the health public policy, drawn and strengthened since the Health Sector Reform.As we seek, in our constitution, Article 225, whichsays that everyone is entitled to an ecologically balancedenvironment, a good of common use and essential to ahealthy quality of life, we realize the importance givenby our legislature to the relationship between health andenvironment and, therefore, it is possible to realize thathealth becomes more than just the absence of disease,it is possible to see it as

  8. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT PUBLIC HEALTH FROM ONLINE CROWD SURVEILLANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Shawndra; Merchant, Raina; Ungar, Lyle

    2013-09-10

    The Internet has forever changed the way people access information and make decisions about their healthcare needs. Patients now share information about their health at unprecedented rates on social networking sites such as Twitter and Facebook and on medical discussion boards. In addition to explicitly shared information about health conditions through posts, patients reveal data on their inner fears and desires about health when searching for health-related keywords on search engines. Data are also generated by the use of mobile phone applications that track users' health behaviors (e.g., eating and exercise habits) as well as give medical advice. The data generated through these applications are mined and repackaged by surveillance systems developed by academics, companies, and governments alike to provide insight to patients and healthcare providers for medical decisions. Until recently, most Internet research in public health has been surveillance focused or monitoring health behaviors. Only recently have researchers used and interacted with the crowd to ask questions and collect health-related data. In the future, we expect to move from this surveillance focus to the "ideal" of Internet-based patient-level interventions where healthcare providers help patients change their health behaviors. In this article, we highlight the results of our prior research on crowd surveillance and make suggestions for the future.

  9. Health & demographic surveillance system profile: the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Northern Nigeria (Nahuche HDSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olatunji; Doctor, Henry V; Jumare, Abdulazeez; Sahabi, Nasiru; Abdulwahab, Ahmad; Findley, Sally E; Abubakar, Sani D

    2014-12-01

    The Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) study site, established in 2009 with 137 823 individuals is located in Zamfara State, north western Nigeria. North-West Nigeria is a region with one of the worst maternal and child health indicators in Nigeria. For example, the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey estimated an under-five mortality rate of 185 deaths per 1000 live births for the north-west geo-political zone compared with a national average of 128 deaths per 1000 live births. The site comprises over 100 villages under the leadership of six district heads. Virtually all the residents of the catchment population are Hausa by ethnicity. After a baseline census in 2010, regular update rounds of data collection are conducted every 6 months. Data collection on births, deaths, migration events, pregnancies, marriages and marriage termination events are routinely conducted. Verbal autopsy (VA) data are collected on all deaths reported during routine data collection. Annual update data on antenatal care and household characteristics are also collected. Opportunities for collaborations are available at Nahuche HDSS. The Director of Nahuche HDSS, M.O. Oche at [ochedr@hotmail.com] is the contact person for all forms of collaboration. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  10. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  11. Motivation of health surveillance assistants in Malawi: A qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Motivation of health workers is a critical component of performance and is shaped by multiple factors. This study explored factors that influence motivation of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) in Malawi, with the aim of identifying interventions that can be applied to enhance motivation and performance of ...

  12. Surveillance and monitoring of oral health in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hideo; Jones, Judith A; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D

    2017-09-01

    Continued ageing of the global population is expected to pose significant challenges to maintaining optimum lifelong health in individuals and populations. Oral health is an essential element of general health and quality of life throughout an individual's life course, yet it is often neglected in integrated approaches to general health promotion. Surveillance and monitoring systems are essential for developing oral health policy and strategy at both national and community levels. As major oral diseases, dental caries and periodontal diseases are core indicators for surveillance at every stage of life. In addition, oral mucosal lesions and masticatory function are essential indicators, especially in an ageing population. The assessment of risk factors such as tobacco use, alcohol consumption or dietary habits (e.g., sugar intake) is also important for oral disease prevention. Although surveillance is conducted through clinical examinations (normative assessments), this method is becoming more difficult to use because of high costs and human resource shortages, even in high-income countries. Alternative and less resource-demanding approaches, such as self-reported protocols, are therefore needed at the global level. The World Health Organization's (WHO) oral health surveillance and monitoring activities have evolved into the Oral Health STEPwise approach, which includes questionnaire surveys (Step 1) and clinical examinations (Step 2). Collaboration between international organisations such as the World Dental Federation (FDI), WHO and the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) is now needed to coordinate global oral health surveillance and monitoring systems. © 2017 The authors. International Dental Journal © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  13. Measuring Sexual and Gender Minority Populations in Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabson, Jennifer M.; Bowen, Deborah J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) are underrepresented and information about SGMs is difficult to locate in national health surveillance data, and this limits identification and resolution of SGM health disparities. It is also not known how measures of sexual orientation and transgender-inclusive gender identity in health surveillance compare with best practice recommendations. This article reviews and summarizes the publicly available, English language, large-scale, rigorously sampled, national, international, and regional data sources that include sexual orientation or transgender-inclusive gender identity and compares measures with best practice guidelines. Methods: A systematic review was undertaken of national, international, state, and regional health surveillance data sources. Data sources that measured sexual orientation or transgender-inclusive gender identity and met seven inclusion criteria were included. Results: Forty-three publicly accessible national, international, and regional data sources included measures of sexual orientation and transgender-inclusive gender identity and health. For each data source, sampling design, sample characteristics, study years, survey questions, contact persons, and data access links are provided. Few data sources met best practice recommendations for SGM measurement: 14% measured all three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, behavior, attraction) as recommended by the Sexual Minority Assessment Research Team. No data sources measured transgender-inclusive gender identity according to the Gender Identity in U.S. Surveillance-recommended two-step method of measuring sex assigned at birth and current gender identity. Conclusions: This article provides a much needed detailed summary of extant health surveillance data sources that can be used to inform research about health risks and disparities among SGM populations. Future recommendations are for more rigorous measurement and oversampling to

  14. Measuring Sexual and Gender Minority Populations in Health Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joanne G; Jabson, Jennifer M; Bowen, Deborah J

    2017-04-01

    Sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) are underrepresented and information about SGMs is difficult to locate in national health surveillance data, and this limits identification and resolution of SGM health disparities. It is also not known how measures of sexual orientation and transgender-inclusive gender identity in health surveillance compare with best practice recommendations. This article reviews and summarizes the publicly available, English language, large-scale, rigorously sampled, national, international, and regional data sources that include sexual orientation or transgender-inclusive gender identity and compares measures with best practice guidelines. A systematic review was undertaken of national, international, state, and regional health surveillance data sources. Data sources that measured sexual orientation or transgender-inclusive gender identity and met seven inclusion criteria were included. Forty-three publicly accessible national, international, and regional data sources included measures of sexual orientation and transgender-inclusive gender identity and health. For each data source, sampling design, sample characteristics, study years, survey questions, contact persons, and data access links are provided. Few data sources met best practice recommendations for SGM measurement: 14% measured all three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, behavior, attraction) as recommended by the Sexual Minority Assessment Research Team. No data sources measured transgender-inclusive gender identity according to the Gender Identity in U.S. Surveillance-recommended two-step method of measuring sex assigned at birth and current gender identity. This article provides a much needed detailed summary of extant health surveillance data sources that can be used to inform research about health risks and disparities among SGM populations. Future recommendations are for more rigorous measurement and oversampling to advance what is known about SGM health disparities

  15. Procedures for the ethical review of public health surveillance protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present commentary is based on the following considerations: 1 for the purposes of authorisation, a distinction is drawn between "research" and "intervention". The procedures for authorising the former are more complex, the relevant controls are stricter and approval has to be granted by a Research Ethics Committee (REC; 2 although the debate is still open, it is barely credible to claim that public health surveillance is not a form of research. It should, therefore, be subject to rigorous ethical assessment; 3 when addressing specifically the issue of surveillance, it would be appropriate to shift the focus of attention from the type of procedure (research/intervention to the risk implied in that procedure; 4 much emphasis has hitherto been placed on the risks that public health surveillance may imply for the protection of personal data; 5 the emphasis on the protection of personal data is frequently excessive and the risks should be examined in a broader context.

  16. Collaboration With Deaf Communities to Conduct Accessible Health Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Steven L; Matthews, Kelly A; Sutter, Erika J; DeWindt, Lori A; Pransky, Jacqueline A; O'Hearn, Amanda M; David, Tamala M; Pollard, Robert Q; Samar, Vincent J; Pearson, Thomas A

    2017-03-01

    Populations of deaf sign language users experience health disparities unmeasured by current public health surveillance. Population-specific health data are necessary to collaboratively identify health priorities and evaluate interventions. Standardized, reproducible, and language-concordant data collection in sign language is impossible via written or telephone surveys. Deaf and hearing researchers, community members, and other stakeholders developed a broad computer-based health survey based on the telephone-administered Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. They translated survey items from English to sign language, evaluated the translations, and filmed the survey items for inclusion in their custom software. They initiated the second Rochester Deaf Health Survey in 2013 (n=211). Analyses (conducted in 2015) compared Rochester Deaf Health Survey 2013 findings with those of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System with the general adult population in the same community (2012, n=1,816). The Rochester Deaf Health Survey 2013 participants' mean age was 44.7 (range, 18-87) years. Most were deaf since birth or early childhood (87.1%) and highly educated (53.6% with ≥4 years of college). The median household income was <$35,000. The prevalence of current smokers was low (8.1%). Nearly all (93.8%) reported having health insurance, yet barriers to appropriate health care were evident, with high emergency department use (16.2% with two or more past-year visits) and 22.7% forgoing needed health care in the past year because of cost. Community-engaged research with deaf populations identifies strengths and priorities, providing essential information otherwise missing from existing public health surveillance, and forming a foundation for collaborative dissemination to facilitate broader inclusion of deaf communities. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Travelers' Health: Animal-Associated Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 2 - Safety & Security Chapter 2 - Environmental Hazards Animal-Associated Hazards Heather Bair-Brake, Ryan M. Wallace, G. Gale Galland, Nina Marano HUMAN INTERACTION WITH ANIMALS: A RISK FACTOR FOR INJURY AND ILLNESS Animals, ...

  18. Acute chemical incidents surveillance—Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance, nine states, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Maureen F; Wu, Jennifer; Sloop, Sue L

    2015-04-10

    Although they are infrequent, acute chemical incidents (i.e., uncontrolled or illegal release or threatened release of hazardous substances lasting inherently safer design, developing geographic mapping of chemically vulnerable areas, and adopting the principles of green chemistry (design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the generation of hazardous substances). Because the more populous states such as New York and Texas had the most incidents, areas with high population density should be carefully assessed for preparedness and prevention measures. NTSIP develops estimated incident numbers for states that do not collect data to help with state and national planning. NTSIP also collects more detailed data on chemical incidents with mass casualties. HSEES and NTSIP data can be used by public and environmental health and safety practitioners, worker representatives, emergency planners, preparedness coordinators, industries, emergency responders, and others to prepare for and prevent chemical incidents and injuries.

  19. Occupational health hazards among quarry employees in Ebonyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study adopted survey design and used cluster sampling technique in the selection of participants in small and medium scale quarries in Abakaliki capital ... Key Words: Occupational health hazards, Industrial pollution, Quarry industry, Sources of hazards, Preventive practices, Awareness of knowledge of hazards ...

  20. Public health surveillance response following the southern Alberta floods, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Vanita; Scott, Allison N; Beliveau, Marie; Varughese, Marie; Dover, Douglas C; Talbot, James

    2016-08-15

    In June of 2013, southern Alberta underwent flooding that affected approximately 100,000 people. We describe the process put in place for public health surveillance and assessment of the impacts on health. Public health surveillance was implemented for the six-week period after the flood to detect anticipated health events, including injuries, mental health problems and infectious diseases. Data sources were emergency departments (EDs) for presenting complaints, public health data on the post-exposure administration of tetanus vaccine/immunoglobulin, administrative data on prescription drugs, and reportable diseases. An increase in injuries was detected through ED visits among Calgary residents (rate ratio [RR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-1.43) and was supported by a 75% increase in the average weekly administration of post-exposure prophylaxis against tetanus. Mental health impacts in High River residents were observed among females through a 1.64-fold (95% CI: 1.11-2.43) and 2.32-fold (95% CI: 1.45-3.70) increase in new prescriptions for anti-anxiety medication and sleep aids respectively. An increase in sexual assaults presenting to EDs (RR 3.18, 95% CI: 1.29-7.84) was observed among Calgary residents. No increases in infectious gastrointestinal disease or respiratory illness were identified. Timely identification and communication of surveillance alerts allowed for messaging around the use of personal protective equipment and precautions for personal safety. Existing data sources were used for surveillance following an emergency situation. The information produced, though limited, was sufficiently timely to inform public health decision-making.

  1. Toward a social structural understanding of occupational hazards in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillen, D L

    1996-01-01

    An exploratory study was completed in 1992 in five autonomous public health unit organizations situated in urban and rural settings in northern, central, and southern regions of the Province of Alberta, Canada, with a sample of 57 staff and managerial public health nurses. Self-administered questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and moderated focus groups were used in a two-stage data collection procedure to describe subjects' perceived work hazards, conceptualize the organizational factors underlying their work hazards, and report their suggestions for change. Frequency distributions and descriptive statistics were obtained for the perceived work hazards. Results of the constant comparative method of analysis indicate that organizational factors are inseparable from the hazards perceived by subjects in both their physical and psychosocial work environments. Moreover, elements of a grounded theory of organizational hazard surveillance emerge from the data. Running throughout the elements (conceptual categories derived from interview data) is the theme of power and dependency. The social structural factors underlying occupational hazards are discussed in terms of the organizational factors associated with the safety, physical, ergonomic, and biological hazards perceived by subjects in their physical work environments.

  2. Animal health surveillance applications: The interaction of science and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeberg, Preben

    2012-08-01

    Animal health surveillance is an ever-evolving activity, since health- and risk-related policy and management decisions need to be backed by the best available scientific evidence and methodology. International organizations, trade partners, politicians, media and the public expect fast, understandable, up-to-date presentation and valid interpretation of animal disease data to support and document proper animal health management - in crises as well as in routine control applications. The delivery and application of surveillance information need to be further developed and optimized, and epidemiologists, risk managers, administrators and policy makers need to work together in order to secure progress. Promising new developments in areas such as risk-based surveillance, spatial presentation and analysis, and genomic epidemiology will be mentioned. Limitations and areas in need of further progress will be underlined, such as the general lack of a wide and open exchange of international animal disease surveillance data. During my more than 30 year career as a professor of Veterinary Epidemiology I had the good fortune of working in challenging environments with different eminent colleagues in different countries on a variety of animal health surveillance issues. My career change from professor to Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) - "from science to application" - was caused by my desire to see for myself if and how well epidemiology would actually work to solve real-life problems as I had been telling my students for years that it would. Fortunately it worked for me! The job of a CVO is not that different from that of a professor of Veterinary Epidemiology; the underlying professional principles are the same. Every day I had to work from science, and base decisions and discussions on documented evidence - although sometimes the evidence was incomplete or data were simply lacking. A basic understanding of surveillance methodology is very useful for a CVO, since it provides

  3. The role of public health surveillance: information for effective action in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterhall, S F; Pappaioanou, M; Thacker, S B; Eaker, E; Churchill, R E

    1992-12-01

    Public health surveillance can provide the quantitative information needed for setting priorities and establishing rational health policy. Although there are many examples of the effective use of such information, the full potential for surveillance has not yet been realized. To a large degree, failure to achieve this potential has resulted from limited perspectives regarding the role and conduct of surveillance. Both practitioners (those who conduct surveillance) and users (those who apply surveillance data in a real-world setting) have fallen victim to such myopia. Public health surveillance must be advocated as an essential part of the global health agenda if we are to achieve international goals for improving health status. As we improve our appreciation of the variety of uses for public health surveillance data, we need to understand more fully the determinants of the decision-making process. Effective dissemination of information and effective communication are as important as data collection and analysis. No longer do we have--or should we have--the luxury of collecting information for its own sake. The information collected must have a demonstrated utility. Developing and training personnel to have expertise in public health surveillance will necessarily incur opportunity costs. Bridging gaps in data methodology and coverage will force us to weigh alternatives and to compromise. We hope that the International Symposium on Public Health Surveillance will accomplish several goals. First, we wish to foster international understanding of the definition, role, and importance of surveillance in reducing morbidity and mortality, in improving quality of life, and in setting effective health priorities. Second, we hope that this symposium will serve as a springboard for identifying issues and topics that can be addressed in greater depth at future international meetings. Finally, we see the symposium as an essential step in developing a firm commitment on the part

  4. A serial surveillance for premarital health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Z

    1990-09-20

    In order to evaluate the effects of premarital health care service (including premarital physical examination, sex education and family planning technical instruction), since April 1987, 530 newlywed couples were followed up on their sex life and birth control during the 1st year of their marriages. The results showed: 1) 529 couples (99.8% of the sample) had established harmonious sex life after their receiving premarital sex education; 2) within the 1 year, among 530 women, 466 conceived (333 were delivered, 76 in pregnancy, 34 had spontaneous and 23 had induced abortions). Among 409 pregnant women, 83.37% had prenatal registration before the 12th gestation week. The perinatal mortality rate for 333 births was 6.00/thousand; 3) 102 couples (19.25%) used contraceptive measures to postpone pregnancy under instruction. 88 (86.28%) of them chose condoms and/or rhythm method. Among them, 17 couples failed, 34 discontinued sooner or later, 51 persisted to use the method and were successful 1 year after their marriages; 4) 23 women had their pregnancy terminated, 20 due to illness or contraceptive failure. The rate of induced abortion was 4.34%. It is concluded that: 1) the premarital education proved to be scientific, systematical, feasible, antipornographic and helpful to new married life. It was widely acceptable; 2) the contraceptive measures selected by the newlyweds should be simple, safe and reversible. Condoms and rhythm method seemed to be the most favorable; however, meticulous, technical instruction is of great value for successful contraception; and 3) planned conception not only ensures women's health, but also promotes better birth.

  5. The Perceived and Real Value of Health Information Exchange in Public Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Brian Edward

    2011-01-01

    Public health agencies protect the health and safety of populations. A key function of public health agencies is surveillance or the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data about health-related events. Recent public health events, such as the H1N1 outbreak, have triggered increased funding for and…

  6. Safety and health hazard observations in Hmong farming operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, R L; Krenz, J; de Castro, A B

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural workers have a high risk of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. However, there are very few standardized tools available to assess safety and health in agricultural operations. Additionally, there are a number of groups of agricultural workers, including Hmong refugees and immigrants, for which virtually no information on safety and health conditions is available. This study developed an observation-based methodology for systematically evaluating occupational health and safety hazards in agriculture, and pilot-tested this on several small-scale Hmong farming operations. Each observation assessed of range of safety and health hazards (e.g., musculoskeletal hazards, dust and pollen, noise, and mechanical hazards), as well as on factors such as type of work area, presence of personal protective equipment, and weather conditions. Thirty-six observations were collected on nine farms. The most common hazards observed were bending at the back and lifting 50 pounds were also common. The farming activities observed involved almost no power equipment, and no pesticide or chemical handling was observed. The use of personal protective equipment was uncommon. The results of this assessment agreed well with a parallel study of perceived safety and health hazards among Hmong agricultural workers. This study suggests that small-scale Hmong farming operations involve a variety of hazards, and that occupational health interventions may be warranted in this community. The study also demonstrates the utility of standardized assessment tools and mixed-method approaches to hazard evaluation.

  7. Health surveillance of workers exposed to laboratory animal allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, P J; Mayho, G V; Roomes, D; Swann, A B; Blackburn, B S

    2010-12-01

    Laboratory animal allergy (LAA) remains prevalent among workers exposed to laboratory animals. Pre-placement and health surveillance procedures vary between different employers. To determine evidence-based strategies for pre-placement and periodic health assessments for workers exposed to laboratory animals. Literature was searched systematically using Medline and EMBASE for articles published in all languages up to the end of May 2010. Evidence-based statements and recommendations were graded according to a modified Royal College of General Practitioner's star system. Hundred and nine studies were identified from the literature search; 59 of these were accessed for critical appraisal and 50 contributed to the evidence statements. We recommend that laboratory animal workers should have a baseline health assessment that includes a health questionnaire, face-to-face assessment and spirometry. Identification of specific immunoglobulin E to common aero-allergens and to domestic and laboratory animal allergens may be used to identify workers who would benefit from further advice about managing their exposure, where risk assessment indicates that this might be prudent. Thereafter health surveillance should be performed by administering an appropriate health questionnaire, covering upper and lower respiratory, eye and skin symptoms on exposure, and wheals with animal scratches. The questionnaire should be administered at increased frequency for the first few years, the frequency being determined by a risk assessment. Where a worker develops new symptoms suggestive of LAA or where an asthmatic employee experiences deterioration either in symptoms or in control, they should be assessed further and a multicause multidisciplinary investigation performed.

  8. NASA's Systems Engineering Approaches for Addressing Public Health Surveillance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Timi

    2003-01-01

    NASA's systems engineering has its heritage in space mission analysis and design, including the end-to-end approach to managing every facet of the extreme engineering required for successful space missions. NASA sensor technology, understanding of remote sensing, and knowledge of Earth system science, can be powerful new tools for improved disease surveillance and environmental public health tracking. NASA's systems engineering framework facilitates the match between facilitates the match between partner needs and decision support requirements in the areas of 1) Science/Data; 2) Technology; 3) Integration. Partnerships between NASA and other Federal agencies are diagrammed in this viewgraph presentation. NASA's role in these partnerships is to provide systemic and sustainable solutions that contribute to the measurable enhancement of a partner agency's disease surveillance efforts.

  9. Health information technologies : From hazardous to the dark side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saunders, C.; Rutkowski, Anne; Pluyter, J.R.; Spanjers, R.

    This article explores the effects of health information technologies (HIT) in operating rooms (ORs). When functioning well, HIT are a boon to mankind. However, HIT in the OR also create hazards for patients for a number of interrelated reasons. We introduce 5 interrelated components of hazard

  10. Possible Health Hazards from Genetically Engineered Crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paradox of Genetic Engineering of crops is evident from the unending revolution in the seeding and growth of new multibillion naira industries while it also poses the greatest hazards to life on the planet Earth. Recombination DNA technology is used to insert, delete, transpose and substitute new genes in plants that ...

  11. Top five industries resulting in injuries from acute chemical incidents—Hazardous Substance Emergency Events Surveillance, nine states, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ayana R; Wu, Jennifer

    2015-04-10

    Because industries using and/or producing chemicals are located in close proximity to populated areas, U.S. residents are at risk for unintentional chemical exposures. 1999-2008. The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system was operated by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry during January 1991-September 2009 to collect data that would enable researchers to describe the public health consequences of chemical releases and to develop activities aimed at reducing the harm from such releases. This report summarizes data for the top five industries resulting in injuries from an acute chemical incident (lasting truck transportation, educational services, chemical manufacturing, utilities, and food manufacturing) accounted for approximately one third of all incidents in which persons were injured as a result of unintentional release of chemicals; the same five industries were responsible for approximately one third of all persons injured as a result of such releases. Acute chemical incidents in these five industries resulted in serious public health implications including the need for evacuations, morbidity, and mortality. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS: Targeting chemical incident prevention and preparedness activities towards these five industries provides an efficient use of resources for reducing chemical exposures. A variety of methods can be used to minimize chemical releases in industries. One example is the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's hierarchy of controls model, which focuses on controlling exposures to occupational hazards. The hierarchy includes elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment.

  12. A novel surveillance approach for disaster mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruebner, Oliver; Lowe, Sarah R; Sykora, Martin; Shankardass, Ketan; Subramanian, S V; Galea, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    Disasters have substantial consequences for population mental health. Social media data present an opportunity for mental health surveillance after disasters to help identify areas of mental health needs. We aimed to 1) identify specific basic emotions from Twitter for the greater New York City area during Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall on October 29, 2012, and to 2) detect and map spatial temporal clusters representing excess risk of these emotions. We applied an advanced sentiment analysis on 344,957 Twitter tweets in the study area over eleven days, from October 22 to November 1, 2012, to extract basic emotions, a space-time scan statistic (SaTScan) and a geographic information system (QGIS) to detect and map excess risk of these emotions. Sadness and disgust were among the most prominent emotions identified. Furthermore, we noted 24 spatial clusters of excess risk of basic emotions over time: Four for anger, one for confusion, three for disgust, five for fear, five for sadness, and six for surprise. Of these, anger, confusion, disgust and fear clusters appeared pre disaster, a cluster of surprise was found peri disaster, and a cluster of sadness emerged post disaster. We proposed a novel syndromic surveillance approach for mental health based on social media data that may support conventional approaches by providing useful additional information in the context of disaster. We showed that excess risk of multiple basic emotions could be mapped in space and time as a step towards anticipating acute stress in the population and identifying community mental health need rapidly and efficiently in the aftermath of disaster. More studies are needed to better control for bias, identify associations with reliable and valid instruments measuring mental health, and to explore computational methods for continued model-fitting, causal relationships, and ongoing evaluation. Our study may be a starting point also for more fully elaborated models that can either

  13. A novel surveillance approach for disaster mental health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Gruebner

    Full Text Available Disasters have substantial consequences for population mental health. Social media data present an opportunity for mental health surveillance after disasters to help identify areas of mental health needs. We aimed to 1 identify specific basic emotions from Twitter for the greater New York City area during Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall on October 29, 2012, and to 2 detect and map spatial temporal clusters representing excess risk of these emotions.We applied an advanced sentiment analysis on 344,957 Twitter tweets in the study area over eleven days, from October 22 to November 1, 2012, to extract basic emotions, a space-time scan statistic (SaTScan and a geographic information system (QGIS to detect and map excess risk of these emotions.Sadness and disgust were among the most prominent emotions identified. Furthermore, we noted 24 spatial clusters of excess risk of basic emotions over time: Four for anger, one for confusion, three for disgust, five for fear, five for sadness, and six for surprise. Of these, anger, confusion, disgust and fear clusters appeared pre disaster, a cluster of surprise was found peri disaster, and a cluster of sadness emerged post disaster.We proposed a novel syndromic surveillance approach for mental health based on social media data that may support conventional approaches by providing useful additional information in the context of disaster. We showed that excess risk of multiple basic emotions could be mapped in space and time as a step towards anticipating acute stress in the population and identifying community mental health need rapidly and efficiently in the aftermath of disaster. More studies are needed to better control for bias, identify associations with reliable and valid instruments measuring mental health, and to explore computational methods for continued model-fitting, causal relationships, and ongoing evaluation. Our study may be a starting point also for more fully elaborated models that can

  14. Syndromic surveillance for health information system failures: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Mei-Sing; Magrabi, Farah; Coiera, Enrico

    2013-05-01

    To explore the applicability of a syndromic surveillance method to the early detection of health information technology (HIT) system failures. A syndromic surveillance system was developed to monitor a laboratory information system at a tertiary hospital. Four indices were monitored: (1) total laboratory records being created; (2) total records with missing results; (3) average serum potassium results; and (4) total duplicated tests on a patient. The goal was to detect HIT system failures causing: data loss at the record level; data loss at the field level; erroneous data; and unintended duplication of data. Time-series models of the indices were constructed, and statistical process control charts were used to detect unexpected behaviors. The ability of the models to detect HIT system failures was evaluated using simulated failures, each lasting for 24 h, with error rates ranging from 1% to 35%. In detecting data loss at the record level, the model achieved a sensitivity of 0.26 when the simulated error rate was 1%, while maintaining a specificity of 0.98. Detection performance improved with increasing error rates, achieving a perfect sensitivity when the error rate was 35%. In the detection of missing results, erroneous serum potassium results and unintended repetition of tests, perfect sensitivity was attained when the error rate was as small as 5%. Decreasing the error rate to 1% resulted in a drop in sensitivity to 0.65-0.85. Syndromic surveillance methods can potentially be applied to monitor HIT systems, to facilitate the early detection of failures.

  15. Evaluation of health surveillance activities of hajj 2013 in the hajj embarkation Palangkaraya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvan Virgo Hoesea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Meningococcal meningitis and MERS-CoV is a disease that can be transmitted to a wary pilgrim considering the high incidence of both diseases in the Middle East region. This study was conducted to evaluate the surveillance activities conducted at embarkation Palangkaraya pilgrimage between 2013 and assess the surveillance activities based on the attributes of surveillance and barriers that occur in the implementation of activities. Experiment was conducted with descriptive design using quantitative approach. Questionnaires were completed at 6 implementing surveillance activities. Interviews were conducted to obtain information about the variables under study includes data collection, processing, analysis and interpretation, dissemination of information and surveillance attributes such as simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, sensitivity, positive predictive value, representatif, timeliness, data quality and data stability. Implementation health surveillance in the hajj embarkation Palangkaraya in 2013 showed all stages of the surveillance activities have been conducted in accordance with the procedures as well as evaluating surveillance activities in accordance attribute shows all the attributes of surveillance can be assessed, unless the sensitivity and positive predictive value because no cases of meningococcal meningitis. Conclusion that the implementation of health surveillance activities Hajj has been running quite well based approach to surveillance and surveillance attributes. The report has been used by the agency activities related to the activities of hajj embarkation. Need to increase the quantity and quality of manpower resources and facilities Keywords: disease transmission, hajj health surveillance, assessment                             attributes

  16. Design and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikhali, Sami Adel; Abdallat, Mohammed; Mabdalla, Sultan; Qaseer, Bashir Al; Khorma, Rania; Malik, Mamunur; Profili, Maria Cristina; R?, Gunnar; Haskew, John

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and improving the health status of communities depend on effective public health surveillance. Adoption of new technologies, standardised case definitions and clinical guidelines for accurate diagnosis, and access to timely and reliable data, remains a challenge for public health surveillance systems however and existing public health surveillance systems are often fragmented, disease specific, inconsistent and of poor quality. We describe the application of an enterprise archit...

  17. Workers' Health Surveillance in the Meat Processing Industry : Work and Health Indicators Associated with Work Ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry J.; Soer, Remko; de Boer, Michiel R.; Reneman, Michiel F.; Brouwer, Sandra

    Background Workers' health surveillance (WHS) programs commonly measure a large number of indicators addressing health habits and health risks. Recently, work ability and functional capacity have been included as important risk measures in WHS. In order to address work ability appropriately,

  18. Workers' Health Surveillance in the Meat Processing Industry: Work and Health Indicators Associated with Work Ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, B.J.; Soer, R.; de Boer, M.R.; Reneman, M.F.; Brouwer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Workers’ health surveillance (WHS) programs commonly measure a large number of indicators addressing health habits and health risks. Recently, work ability and functional capacity have been included as important risk measures in WHS. In order to address work ability appropriately,

  19. Management of environmental health issues for the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: is enhanced integrated environmental health surveillance needed in every day routine operation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chervoni Julia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of environmental health issues is an integral part of public health systems. An active integrated environmental health surveillance and response system was developed for the Athens Olympics to monitor and prevent exposure to environmental hazards. The potential for permanent implementation of the program was examined. Methods The environmental health surveillance and response system included standardization, computerization and electronic transmission of data concerning environmental inspections of 17 site categories (restaurants, swimming pools etc of public health interest, drinking and recreational water examinations and suggested corrective actions. The Olympic Planning Unit integrated and centrally managed data from 13 public health agencies, recommended, supervised and coordinated prompt corrective actions. Methods used to test the effectiveness of the program were the assessment of water quality test and inspection results trends over time using linear regression and epidemiological surveillance findings. Results Between January 2003 and September the 30th, 2004, 196 inspectors conducted 8562 inspections, collected 5024 water samples and recommended 17 027 corrective actions. In 10 cruise ships used as floating hotels inspectors conducted 10 full inspections, 2 re-inspections, and 27 follow-up inspections. Unsatisfactory inspection results (r = 0.44, p Conclusion Lessons learned for future events include timely implementation and installation of communication processes, and rapid and coordinated response to unsatisfactory inspection results. Routine national programs need to adopt enhanced environmental health surveillance aimed at public health decision-making, but with a different perspective.

  20. Chemical hazards in health care: high hazard, high risk, but low protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, Melissa A

    2006-09-01

    It is counter-intuitive that the healthcare industry, whose mission is the care of the sick, is itself a "high-hazard" industry for the workers it employs. Possessing every hazard class, with chemical agents in the form of pharmaceuticals, sterilants, and germicidals in frequent use, this industry sector consistently demonstrates poor injury and illness statistics, among the highest in the United States, and in the European Union (EU), 34% higher than the average work-related accident rate. In both the United States and the EU, about 10% of all workers are employed in the healthcare sector, and in developing countries as well, forecasts for the increasing need of healthcare workers (HCW) suggests a large population at potential risk of health harm. The explosion of technology growth in the healthcare sector, most obvious in pharmaceutical applications, has not been accompanied by a stepped up safety program in hospitals. Where there is hazard recognition, the remedies are often voluntary, and often poorly enforced. The wrong assumption that this industry would police itself, given its presumed knowledge base, has also been found wanting. The healthcare industry is also a significant waste generator threatening the natural environment with chemical and infectious waste and products of incineration. The ILO has recommended that occupational health goals for industrial nations focus on the hazards of new technology of which pharma and biopharma products are the leaders. This unchecked growth cannot continue without a parallel commitment to the health and safety of workers encountering these "high tech" hazards. Simple strategies to improve the present state include: (a) recognizing healthcare as a "high-hazard" employment sector; (b) fortifying voluntary safety guidelines to the level of enforceable regulation; (c) "potent" inspections; (d) treating hazardous pharmaceuticals like the chemical toxicants they are; and (e) protecting HCWs at least as well as workers in

  1. The Health and Occupation Research Network: An Evolving Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Carder

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Vital to the prevention of work-related ill-health (WRIH is the availability of good quality data regarding WRIH burden and risks. Physician-based surveillance systems such as The Health and Occupation Research (THOR network in the UK are often established in response to limitations of statutory, compensation-based systems for addressing certain epidemiological aspects of disease surveillance. However, to fulfil their purpose, THOR and others need to have methodologic rigor in capturing and ascertaining cases. This article describes how data collected by THOR and analogous systems can inform WRIH incidence, trends, and other determinants. An overview of the different strands of THOR research is provided, including methodologic advancements facilitated by increased data quantity/quality over time and the value of the research outputs for informing Government and other policy makers. In doing so, the utility of data collected by systems such as THOR to address a wide range of research questions, both in relation to WRIH and to wider issues of public and social health, is demonstrated.

  2. Infrared remote sensing of hazardous vapours: surveillance of public areas during the FIFA Football World Cup 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harig, Roland; Matz, Gerhard; Rusch, Peter; Gerhard, Hans-Hennig; Gerhard, Jörn-Hinnrich; Schlabs, Volker

    2007-04-01

    The German ministry of the interior, represented by the civil defence agency BBK, established analytical task forces for the analysis of released chemicals in the case of fires, chemical accidents, terrorist attacks, or war. One of the first assignments of the task forces was the provision of analytical services during the football world cup 2006. One part of the equipment of these emergency response forces is a remote sensing system that allows identification and visualisation of hazardous clouds from long distances, the scanning infrared gas imaging system SIGIS 2. The system is based on an interferometer with a single detector element in combination with a telescope and a synchronised scanning mirror. The system allows 360° surveillance. The system is equipped with a video camera and the results of the analyses of the spectra are displayed by an overlay of a false colour image on the video image. This allows a simple evaluation of the position and the size of a cloud. The system was deployed for surveillance of stadiums and public viewing areas, where large crowds watched the games. Although no intentional or accidental releases of hazardous gases occurred in the stadiums and in the public viewing areas, the systems identified and located various foreign gases in the air.

  3. Lessons learned from North Carolina public health regional surveillance teams' regional exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegle, Jennifer; Markiewicz, Milissa; Benson, Philip; Horney, Jennifer; Rosselli, Richard; MacDonald, Pia

    2011-03-01

    All-hazards exercises bring together emergency response partners at the local, regional, state, and federal levels for the primary purposes of testing response plans, defining roles and responsibilities, assessing capabilities, and making necessary improvements prior to an actual incident. To better understand the benefits and challenges of conducting regional (ie, multicounty) exercises, a study was carried out by the North Carolina Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center at the University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health. This article describes 5 all-hazards regional exercises conducted by Public Health Regional Surveillance Teams (PHRSTs) in North Carolina in 2009 and highlights 4 unique benefits that resulted from the exercises beyond meeting explicit objectives to test plans and identify areas for improvement: (1) building relationships among response partners, (2) promoting public health assets, (3) testing multiple communications systems, and (4) training exercise evaluators. Challenges of planning and conducting regional exercises also are addressed, followed by recommendations for maximizing the effectiveness of regional public health exercises.

  4. Locating Errors Through Networked Surveillance: A Multimethod Approach to Peer Assessment, Hazard Identification, and Prioritization of Patient Safety Efforts in Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David A; Marsteller, Jill A; Pronovost, Peter J; Gurses, Ayse; Lubomski, Lisa H; Goeschel, Christine A; Gosbee, John W; Wahr, Joyce; Martinez, Elizabeth A

    2015-09-01

    The objectives were to develop a scientifically sound and feasible peer-to-peer assessment model that allows health-care organizations to evaluate patient safety in cardiovascular operating rooms and to establish safety priorities for improvement. The locating errors through networked surveillance study was conducted to identify hazards in cardiac surgical care. A multidisciplinary team, composed of organizational sociology, organizational psychology, applied social psychology, clinical medicine, human factors engineering, and health services researchers, conducted the study. We used a transdisciplinary approach, which integrated the theories, concepts, and methods from each discipline, to develop comprehensive research methods. Multiple data collection was involved: focused literature review of cardiac surgery-related adverse events, retrospective analysis of cardiovascular events from a national database in the United Kingdom, and prospective peer assessment at 5 sites, involving survey assessments, structured interviews, direct observations, and contextual inquiries. A nominal group methodology, where one single group acts to problem solve and make decisions was used to review the data and develop a list of the top priority hazards. The top 6 priority hazard themes were as follows: safety culture, teamwork and communication, infection prevention, transitions of care, failure to adhere to practices or policies, and operating room layout and equipment. We integrated the theories and methods of a diverse group of researchers to identify a broad range of hazards and good clinical practices within the cardiovascular surgical operating room. Our findings were the basis for a plan to prioritize improvements in cardiac surgical care. These study methods allowed for the comprehensive assessment of a high-risk clinical setting that may translate to other clinical settings.

  5. A health analytics semantic ETL service for obesity surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulymenopoulou, M; Papakonstantinou, D; Malamateniou, F; Vassilacopoulos, G

    2015-01-01

    The increasingly large amount of data produced in healthcare (e.g. collected through health information systems such as electronic medical records - EMRs or collected through novel data sources such as personal health records - PHRs, social media, web resources) enable the creation of detailed records about people's health, sentiments and activities (e.g. physical activity, diet, sleep quality) that can be used in the public health area among others. However, despite the transformative potential of big data in public health surveillance there are several challenges in integrating big data. In this paper, the interoperability challenge is tackled and a semantic Extract Transform Load (ETL) service is proposed that seeks to semantically annotate big data to result into valuable data for analysis. This service is considered as part of a health analytics engine on the cloud that interacts with existing healthcare information exchange networks, like the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE), PHRs, sensors, mobile applications, and other web resources to retrieve patient health, behavioral and daily activity data. The semantic ETL service aims at semantically integrating big data for use by analytic mechanisms. An illustrative implementation of the service on big data which is potentially relevant to human obesity, enables using appropriate analytic techniques (e.g. machine learning, text mining) that are expected to assist in identifying patterns and contributing factors (e.g. genetic background, social, environmental) for this social phenomenon and, hence, drive health policy changes and promote healthy behaviors where residents live, work, learn, shop and play.

  6. Administrative data for public health surveillance and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virnig, B A; McBean, M

    2001-01-01

    Electronically available administrative data are increasingly used by public health researchers and planners. The validity of the data source has been established, and its strengths and weaknesses relative to data abstracted from medical records and obtained via survey are documented. Administrative data are available from a variety of state, federal, and private sources and can, in many cases, be combined. As a tool for planning and surveillance, administrative data show great promise: They contain consistent elements, are available in a timely manner, and provide information about large numbers of individuals. Because they are available in an electronic format, they are relatively inexpensive to obtain and use. In the United States, however, there is no administrative data set covering the entire population. Although Medicare provides health care for an estimated 96% of the elderly, age 65 years and older, there is no comparable source for those under 65.

  7. Regression models for public health surveillance data: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Kriebel, D

    2009-11-01

    Poisson regression is now widely used in epidemiology, but researchers do not always evaluate the potential for bias in this method when the data are overdispersed. This study used simulated data to evaluate sources of overdispersion in public health surveillance data and compare alternative statistical models for analysing such data. If count data are overdispersed, Poisson regression will not correctly estimate the variance. A model called negative binomial 2 (NB2) can correct for overdispersion, and may be preferred for analysis of count data. This paper compared the performance of Poisson and NB2 regression with simulated overdispersed injury surveillance data. Monte Carlo simulation was used to assess the utility of the NB2 regression model as an alternative to Poisson regression for data which had several different sources of overdispersion. Simulated injury surveillance datasets were created in which an important predictor variable was omitted, as well as with an incorrect offset (denominator). The simulations evaluated the ability of Poisson regression and NB2 to correctly estimate the true determinants of injury and their confidence intervals. The NB2 model was effective in reducing overdispersion, but it could not reduce bias in point estimates which resulted from omitting a covariate which was a confounder, nor could it reduce bias from using an incorrect offset. One advantage of NB2 over Poisson for overdispersed data was that the confidence interval for a covariate was considerably wider with the former, providing an indication that the Poisson model did not fit well. When overdispersion is detected in a Poisson regression model, the NB2 model should be fit as an alternative. If there is no longer overdispersion, then the NB2 results may be preferred. However, it is important to remember that NB2 cannot correct for bias from omitted covariates or from using an incorrect offset.

  8. Public Health Surveillance Systems: Recent Advances in Their Use and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseclose, Samuel L; Buckeridge, David L

    2017-03-20

    Surveillance is critical for improving population health. Public health surveillance systems generate information that drives action, and the data must be of sufficient quality and with a resolution and timeliness that matches objectives. In the context of scientific advances in public health surveillance, changing health care and public health environments, and rapidly evolving technologies, the aim of this article is to review public health surveillance systems. We consider their current use to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the public health system, the role of system stakeholders, the analysis and interpretation of surveillance data, approaches to system monitoring and evaluation, and opportunities for future advances in terms of increased scientific rigor, outcomes-focused research, and health informatics.

  9. Profile: Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Mokoena, Obed; Twine, Rhian; Mee, Paul; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Clark, Benjamin D; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Khosa, Audrey; Khoza, Simon; Shabangu, Mildred G; Silaule, Bernard; Tibane, Jeffrey B; Wagner, Ryan G; Garenne, Michel L; Clark, Samuel J; Tollman, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    The Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS), located in rural northeast South Africa close to the Mozambique border, was established in 1992 to support district health systems development led by the post-apartheid ministry of health. The HDSS (90 000 people), based on an annual update of resident status and vital events, now supports multiple investigations into the causes and consequences of complex health, population and social transitions. Observational work includes cohorts focusing on different stages along the life course, evaluation of national policy at population, household and individual levels and examination of household responses to shocks and stresses and the resulting pathways influencing health and well-being. Trials target children and adolescents, including promoting psycho-social well-being, preventing HIV transmission and reducing metabolic disease risk. Efforts to enhance the research platform include using automated measurement techniques to estimate cause of death by verbal autopsy, full ‘reconciliation’ of in- and out-migrations, follow-up of migrants departing the study area, recording of extra-household social connections and linkage of individual HDSS records with those from sub-district clinics. Fostering effective collaborations (including INDEPTH multi-centre work in adult health and ageing and migration and urbanization), ensuring cross-site compatibility of common variables and optimizing public access to HDSS data are priorities. PMID:22933647

  10. The insertion of the environmental health surveillance in the unified health system - 10.5020/18061230.2012.p1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilo Baltazar Barreira Filho

    2012-03-01

    provided byagencies and both public and private entities that aim to knowledge and detection or prevention of any change in the environmental determinants and conditioning factors that interfere with human health in order to recommend and adopt measures for prevention and control of risk factors related to diseases and other healthproblems(2.Due to the complexity of the situation, some fields have been identified as fields of action of the Environmental Health Surveillance: monitoring of water quality for human consumption; air quality; monitoring of populations exposed to contaminated soils; chemicals; natural disasters and accidents involving hazardous products; physical factors (ionizing and non ionizing radiation; and working environment(3.There are increasing demands and health problems related to the environment that call for resolution by the state and municipal managers of SUS, which is causing more and more the establishment of partnerships between federal government and agencies and institutions in their respective coverage areas and within the limits of their powers, such as Ministries of Education; Cities; Science and Technology; Labour and Employment; Agriculture; Planning and Management;of Foreign Affairs; Development, Industry and Trade; Social Development and Hunger Alleviation; of National Integration; Transport; Defence; Justice; and Culture(1.Environmental Health Surveillance must be perceived and has been increasingly consolidating its field as an “operative arm” of the health public policy, drawn and strengthened since the Health Sector Reform.As we seek, in our constitution, Article 225, whichsays that everyone is entitled to an ecologically balancedenvironment, a good of common use and essential to ahealthy quality of life, we realize the importance givenby our legislature to the relationship between health andenvironment and, therefore, it is possible to realize thathealth becomes more than just the absence of disease,it is possible to see it as

  11. The insertion of the environmental health surveillance in the unified health system - 10.5020/18061230.2012.p3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilo Baltazar Barreira Filho

    2012-03-01

    provided byagencies and both public and private entities that aim to knowledge and detection or prevention of any change in the environmental determinants and conditioning factors that interfere with human health in order to recommend and adopt measures for prevention and control of risk factors related to diseases and other healthproblems(2.Due to the complexity of the situation, some fields have been identified as fields of action of the Environmental Health Surveillance: monitoring of water quality for human consumption; air quality; monitoring of populations exposed to contaminated soils; chemicals; natural disasters and accidents involving hazardous products; physical factors (ionizing and non ionizing radiation; and working environment(3.There are increasing demands and health problems related to the environment that call for resolution by the state and municipal managers of SUS, which is causing more and more the establishment of partnerships between federal government and agencies and institutions in their respective coverage areas and within the limits of their powers, such as Ministries of Education; Cities; Science and Technology; Labour and Employment; Agriculture; Planning and Management;of Foreign Affairs; Development, Industry and Trade; Social Development and Hunger Alleviation; of National Integration; Transport; Defence; Justice; and Culture(1.Environmental Health Surveillance must be perceived and has been increasingly consolidating its field as an “operative arm” of the health public policy, drawn and strengthened since the Health Sector Reform.As we seek, in our constitution, Article 225, whichsays that everyone is entitled to an ecologically balancedenvironment, a good of common use and essential to ahealthy quality of life, we realize the importance givenby our legislature to the relationship between health andenvironment and, therefore, it is possible to realize thathealth becomes more than just the absence of disease,it is possible to see it as

  12. Review of hazards to female reproductive health in veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheftel, Joni M; Elchos, Brigid L; Rubin, Carol S; Decker, John A

    2017-04-15

    OBJECTIVE To review publications that address female reproductive health hazards in veterinary practice, summarize best practices to mitigate reproductive risks, and identify current knowledge gaps. DESIGN Systematized review. SAMPLE English-language articles describing chemical, biological, and physical hazards present in the veterinary workplace and associations with adverse reproductive outcomes or recommendations for minimizing risks to female reproductive health. PROCEDURES Searches of the CAB abstracts database were performed in July 2012 and in May 2015 with the following search terms: veterinarians AND occupational hazards and vets.id AND occupational hazards.sh. Searches of the PubMed database were conducted in November 2012 and in May 2015 with the following medical subject heading terms: occupational exposure AND veterinarians; anesthetics, inhalation/adverse effects AND veterinarians; risk factors AND pregnancy AND veterinarians; pregnancy outcome AND veterinarians; and animal technicians AND occupational exposure. Two additional PubMed searches were completed in January 2016 with the terms disinfectants/toxicity AND female AND fertility/drug effects and veterinarians/psychology AND stress, psychological. No date limits were applied to searches. RESULTS 4 sources supporting demographic trends in veterinary medicine and 118 resources reporting potential hazards to female reproductive health were identified. Reported hazards included exposure to anesthetic gases, radiation, antineoplastic drugs, and reproductive hormones; physically demanding work; prolonged standing; and zoonoses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Demographic information suggested that an increasing number of women of reproductive age will be exposed to chemical, biological, and physical hazards in veterinary practice. Information on reproductive health hazards and minimizing risk, with emphasis on developing a safety-focused work culture for all personnel, should be discussed starting

  13. Computer use and health hazard: perceptions from Nigeria's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the perception of University of Ibadan teaching staff and students on prolonged use of the computer and the associated health hazards. It aimed at determining how much information the respondents had on what the effect of prolonged interaction with the computer had on their health. The proliferation ...

  14. Health and Environmental Hazards Posed by Urban Livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock's contribution to climate change is now an established fact and closeness of livestock to human beings in urban areas portends many health and environmental implications. The study ascertained farmer's perception of health and environmental hazards posed by livestock keeping in Enugu Urban, Nigeria and its ...

  15. One Health concept for strengthening public health surveillance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GFELTP has also taken the lead in hosting the first AFENET Center for Training in Public Health Leadership and Management, through which the short course on Management for Improving Public Health Interventions was developed for AFENET member countries. The GFELTP pre-tested the Integrated Avian Influenza ...

  16. Defense Health Care: DOD Needs to Clarify Policies Related to Occupational and Environmental Health Surveillance and Monitor Risk Mitigation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Technical Bulletin: Sanitary Control and Surveillance of Field Water Supplies (2010) X d X Source: GAO analysis of DOD information. │ GAO-15-487...DEFENSE HEALTH CARE DOD Needs to Clarify Policies Related to Occupational and Environmental Health Surveillance and...Related to Occupational and Environmental Health Surveillance and Monitor Risk Mitigation Activities 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  17. Public health surveillance in the dialysis setting: opportunities and challenges for using electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Matthew E; Lovell, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has conducted public health surveillance for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in dialysis facilities since the 1970s, evolving from facility-level surveys to patient-level surveillance systems. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) recently implemented incentives for all end-stage renal disease (ESRD) facilities to monitor and report patient-level quality indicators to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) in accordance with the NHSN Dialysis Event Protocol. These CMS incentives have led to a rapid increase in dialysis facility NHSN enrollment during 2012. Ongoing challenges to HAI surveillance in this setting include variability in the surveillance process, assurance of data quality, and staff time and resource requirements. Use of existing electronic health records (EHR), especially in conjunction with detection algorithms, has increasingly been shown to produce valid and reliable estimates of HAI frequency in acute care hospitals. Given the large number of dialysis facilities that are now beginning to conduct surveillance using NHSN, the typical lack of dedicated infection prevention personnel in those facilities, and the widespread use of EHR in large dialysis provider organizations, the use of EHR will probably become a cornerstone of surveillance in these settings. Implemented properly, the use of EHR to support public health surveillance has enormous potential to focus and strengthen infection prevention activities in dialysis facilities. Systematic, ongoing validation efforts will be vital to ensure that reported data are accurate, permit valid comparisons of facility performance, and effectively support improved outcomes for dialysis patients. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Chemical incidents resulted in hazardous substances releases in the context of human health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pałaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Czerczak, Sławomir; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2017-02-21

    The research purpose was to analyze data concerning chemical incidents in Poland collected in 1999-2009 in terms of health hazards. The data was obtained, using multimodal information technology (IT) system, from chemical incidents reports prepared by rescuers at the scene. The final analysis covered sudden events associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous chemical substances or mixtures, which may potentially lead to human exposure. Releases of unidentified substances where emergency services took action to protect human health or environment were also included. The number of analyzed chemical incidents in 1999-2009 was 2930 with more than 200 different substances released. The substances were classified into 13 groups of substances and mixtures posing analogous risks. Most common releases were connected with non-flammable corrosive liquids, including: hydrochloric acid (199 cases), sulfuric(VI) acid (131 cases), sodium and potassium hydroxides (69 cases), ammonia solution (52 cases) and butyric acid (32 cases). The next group were gases hazardous only due to physico-chemical properties, including: extremely flammable propane-butane (249 cases) and methane (79 cases). There was no statistically significant trend associated with the total number of incidents. Only with the number of incidents with flammable corrosive, toxic and/or harmful liquids, the regression analysis revealed a statistically significant downward trend. The number of victims reported was 1997, including 1092 children and 18 fatalities. The number of people injured, number of incidents and the high 9th place of Poland in terms of the number of Seveso establishments, and 4 times higher number of hazardous industrial establishments not covered by the Seveso Directive justify the need for systematic analysis of hazards and their proper identification. It is advisable enhance health risk assessment, both qualitative and quantitative, by slight modification of the data collection system so as

  19. Chemical incidents resulted in hazardous substances releases in the context of human health hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pałaszewska-Tkacz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The research purpose was to analyze data concerning chemical incidents in Poland collected in 1999–2009 in terms of health hazards. Material and Methods: The data was obtained, using multimodal information technology (IT system, from chemical incidents reports prepared by rescuers at the scene. The final analysis covered sudden events associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous chemical substances or mixtures, which may potentially lead to human exposure. Releases of unidentified substances where emergency services took action to protect human health or environment were also included. Results: The number of analyzed chemical incidents in 1999–2009 was 2930 with more than 200 different substances released. The substances were classified into 13 groups of substances and mixtures posing analogous risks. Most common releases were connected with non-flammable corrosive liquids, including: hydrochloric acid (199 cases, sulfuric(VI acid (131 cases, sodium and potassium hydroxides (69 cases, ammonia solution (52 cases and butyric acid (32 cases. The next group were gases hazardous only due to physico-chemical properties, including: extremely flammable propane-butane (249 cases and methane (79 cases. There was no statistically significant trend associated with the total number of incidents. Only with the number of incidents with flammable corrosive, toxic and/or harmful liquids, the regression analysis revealed a statistically significant downward trend. The number of victims reported was 1997, including 1092 children and 18 fatalities. Conclusions: The number of people injured, number of incidents and the high 9th place of Poland in terms of the number of Seveso establishments, and 4 times higher number of hazardous industrial establishments not covered by the Seveso Directive justify the need for systematic analysis of hazards and their proper identification. It is advisable enhance health risk assessment, both qualitative and

  20. Caution: Air May Be Hazardous to Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A conference convened by the American Medical Association in December 1974 heard the latest research findings on the effect of airborne substances on the body's defense mechanisms, hypersensitive reactions to various air pollutants, heart and respiratory diseases and illnesses in children. Air pollution is still a health problem. (BT)

  1. Smart Health Surveillance with Automated Database Using Android Mobile Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Karthi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Smart Health Surveillance system is to measure and display the Electrocardiogram (ECG and temperature of patient’s body continuously and also to communicate to the doctor. The system measures ECG using infrared sensor and the temperatures at oral and wrist of the patient using temperature sensors. Microcontroller, receives the data from the sensors, displays the same and communicates to the web server automatically. In the existing system, patient’s vital parameters are obtained and the obtained values are entered into database and then uploaded into a web-based server manually. The existing system has no alert signal, during abnormal condition to the surrounding and to the doctor. The proposed system consists of a visualization module of the server program, which graphically displays the recorded biomedical signals on android mobile devices used by doctors at the receiver end. It also gives a buzzer or an alarm in case of abnormal condition of the patient.

  2. Antibiotic Residues - A Global Health Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha A.R.

    consumption. Tolerances are established based on extensive toxicological studies of potential hazards of consumption to human. [Vet. World 2008; 1(12.000: 375-377

  3. Surveillance for Health Protection in England and Wales: An analysis of NHS Direct syndromic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, D. L.

    2008-01-01

    Disease surveillance is the collection and analysis health data to provide information for action and to inform decisions relating to public health policy. Surveillance systems in the UK typically rely on data about diagnoses made by clinicians, or laboratory confirmations of specific disease

  4. A health hazard assessment in school arts and crafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P C

    1992-01-01

    Unlike the cautious attitude being exercised toward generic chemicals, an off-guard behavior is often observed toward the same chemicals once they are recognized as a "common daily item." Students and instructors of arts and crafts classes alike are often unaware of the potential risks from exposure to some of the arts and crafts materials they use due to either the false security of "common daily item" or the lack of specific knowledge of the hazardous ingredients in those products. This unawareness of potential health hazards could lead to improper handling of these materials and result in unnecessary health risk during their use. A three-year study of college arts and crafts class students indicates a high incidence of allergic reactions among attending students for exposure of less than 70 hours within a period of 7 weeks. A self-evaluation method is developed to identify and minimize these health hazards associated with arts and crafts classes. This checklist of 15 pertinent parameters covers identifiable hazardous areas and situations in arts and crafts classrooms. Record keeping and promotion of student awareness are also addressed, so that instructors and students in an arts and crafts class can more readily recognize actual or potential hazards and act to prevent them.

  5. Epidemiological surveillance - air and health. Surveillance of effects on health linked to air pollution; Surveillance epidemiologique air et sante. Surveillance des effets sur la sante lies a la pollution atmospherique en milieu urbain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quenel, Ph.; Cassadou, S.; Eilstein, D.; Filleul, L.; Le Goaster, C.; Le Tertre, A.; Medina, S.; Pascal, L.; Prouvost, H.; Saviuc, Ph.; Zeghnoun, A. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint Maurice (France); Declerq, Ch. [Observatoire Regional de Sante Nord Pas de Calais (France)

    1999-03-01

    In the field of air pollution, the France is the first country to be endowed with a device of epidemiological surveillance allowing to to evaluate and monitor the impact of urban air pollution on the health of population. This new approach is based on the analysis of relationship between pollution indicators and health indicators, it leads to confirm the partnership between actors of environment and health, at the national level as well at the local level. It confirms the development of assessment in the field of environmental health. (N.C.)

  6. Potential health hazards of eating red meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, A

    2017-02-01

    Red meat (beef, veal, pork, lamb and mutton) consumption contributes several important nutrients to the diet, for example essential amino acids, vitamins (including B12) and minerals (including iron and zinc). Processed red meat (ham, sausages, bacon, frankfurters, salami, etc.) undergoes treatment (curing, smoking, salting or the use of chemical preservatives and additives) to improve its shelf life and/or taste. During recent decades, consumption of red meat has been increasing globally, especially in developing countries. At the same time, there has been growing evidence that high consumption of red meat, especially of processed meat, may be associated with an increased risk of several major chronic diseases. Here, a comprehensive summary is provided of the accumulated evidence based on prospective cohort studies regarding the potential adverse health effects of red meat consumption on major chronic diseases, such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke and cancer at several sites, and mortality. Risk estimates from pooled analyses and meta-analyses are presented together with recently published findings. Based on at least six cohorts, summary results for the consumption of unprocessed red meat of 100 g day-1 varied from nonsignificant to statistically significantly increased risk (11% for stroke and for breast cancer, 15% for cardiovascular mortality, 17% for colorectal and 19% for advanced prostate cancer); for the consumption of 50 g day-1 processed meat, the risks were statistically significantly increased for most of the studied diseases (4% for total prostate cancer, 8% for cancer mortality, 9% for breast, 18% for colorectal and 19% for pancreatic cancer, 13% for stroke, 22% for total and 24% for cardiovascular mortality and 32% for diabetes). Potential biological mechanisms underlying the observed risks and the environmental impact of red meat production are also discussed. The evidence-based integrated message is that it is plausible

  7. Conceptual framework of public health surveillance and action and its application in health sector reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemu Wondi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because both public health surveillance and action are crucial, the authors initiated meetings at regional and national levels to assess and reform surveillance and action systems. These meetings emphasized improved epidemic preparedness, epidemic response, and highlighted standardized assessment and reform. Methods To standardize assessments, the authors designed a conceptual framework for surveillance and action that categorized the framework into eight core and four support activities, measured with indicators. Results In application, country-level reformers measure both the presence and performance of the six core activities comprising public health surveillance (detection, registration, reporting, confirmation, analyses, and feedback and acute (epidemic-type and planned (management-type responses composing the two core activities of public health action. Four support activities – communications, supervision, training, and resource provision – enable these eight core processes. National, multiple systems can then be concurrently assessed at each level for effectiveness, technical efficiency, and cost. Conclusions This approach permits a cost analysis, highlights areas amenable to integration, and provides focused intervention. The final public health model becomes a district-focused, action-oriented integration of core and support activities with enhanced effectiveness, technical efficiency, and cost savings. This reform approach leads to sustained capacity development by an empowerment strategy defined as facilitated, process-oriented action steps transforming staff and the system.

  8. Motivation of health surveillance assistants in Malawi: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikaphupha, Kingsley R; Kok, Maryse C; Nyirenda, Lot; Namakhoma, Ireen; Theobald, Sally

    2016-06-01

    Motivation of health workers is a critical component of performance and is shaped by multiple factors. This study explored factors that influence motivation of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) in Malawi, with the aim of identifying interventions that can be applied to enhance motivation and performance of HSAs. A qualitative study capturing the perspectives of purposively selected participants was conducted in two districts: Salima and Mchinji. Participants included HSAs, health managers, and various community members. Data were collected through focus group discussions (n = 16) and in-depth interviews (n = 44). The study sample was comprised of 112 women and 65 men. Qualitative data analysis was informed by existing frameworks on factors influencing health worker motivation. Our analysis identified five key themes shaping HSA motivation: salary, accommodation, human resource management, supplies and logistics, and community links. Each of these played out at different levels-individual, family, community, and organisational-with either positive or negative effects. Demotivating factors related primarily to the organisational level, while motivating factors were more often related to individual, family, and community levels. A lack of financial incentives and shortages of basic supplies and materials were key factors demotivating HSAs. Supervision was generally perceived as unsupportive, uncoordinated, and top-down. Most HSAs complained of heavy workload. Many HSAs felt further recognition and support from the Ministry of Health, and the development of a clear career pathway would improve their motivation. Factors shaping motivation of HSAs are complex and multilayered; experiences at one level will impact other levels. Interventions are required to enhance HSA motivation, including strengthening the supervision system, developing career progression pathways, and ensuring clear and transparent incentives. HSAs have unique experiences, and there is need to hear

  9. OSHA medical and workplace surveillance requirements and NIOSH recommendations (for employees exposed to toxic substances and other work hazards)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, L. P.

    1983-01-01

    Both OSHA medical and work place surveillance requirements and NIOSH recommendations were prepared as a desk reference to help occupational health professionals to perform their duties. The medical surveillance information focuses on frequency of physical examinations, specific problems that may arise as a result of exposure (e.g., decreased immunocompetence, weight loss, ets.), conditions that intensify the harmful effects of exposure (e.g., medication an exposed employee may be taking, cigarette smoking, etc.), the areas that should be scrutinized in medical and work histories and during the physical exam, and specific clinical tests that should be conducted. Recordkeeping requirements are also specified. The workplace surveillance information consists of monitoring requirements, personal protective equipment requirements, and recordkeeping requirements. Such details as the sampling devices that should be used, the type of respirators that should be worn, and the frequency of inspections are included. This document does not specify the training, labeling and posting, and safe work practice requirements and recommendations due to space considerations.

  10. [A review on the advancement of internet-based public health surveillance program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y Q; Ma, W J

    2017-02-10

    Internet data is introduced into public health arena under the features of fast updating and tremendous volume. Mining and analyzing internet data, researchers can model the internet-based surveillance system to assess the distribution of health-related events. There are two main types of internet-based surveillance systems, i.e. active and passive, which are distinguished by the sources of information. Through passive surveillance system, information is collected from search engine and social media while the active system gathers information through provision of the volunteers. Except for serving as a real-time and convenient complementary approach to traditional disease, food safety and adverse drug reaction surveillance program, Internet-based surveillance system can also play a role in health-related behavior surveillance and policy evaluation. Although several techniques have been applied to filter information, the accuracy of internet-based surveillance system is still bothered by the false positive information. In this article, we have summarized the development and application of internet-based surveillance system in public health to provide reference for a better surveillance program in China.

  11. Integrating air-related health surveillance into air quality management: perceptions and practicalities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Health surveillance is presently not an integral part of air quality management in South Africa, although ambient air pollution standards are derived from health effects of personal exposure. In a survey to air quality officials and environmental...

  12. Severe scratcher-reaction: an unknown health hazard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Sauer Mikkelsen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tattoos are well known to cause skin problems and the number of reported adverse reactions after tattooing has increased. Illegally imported tattoo ink is unrestrained and can contain unknown ingredients and contamination thereby posing a serious health hazard. We present a case illustrating the risk of pronounced phototoxic allergic reaction and other severe complications after using home kit tattoo ink.

  13. Ergonomic Aspects And Health Hazards On Computer Workstations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Extent of computer usage in public and private sectors had been greatly increased in recent decades carrying the risk of several health hazards. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of self assessment of physical discomforts among computer operators at Zagazig University, and to conduct an interventional ...

  14. Evaluation of occupational health services and hazards in a car ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To assess the extent of occupational hazards and the occupational health services provided by the industry (PAN). Methods: This was a cross sectional descriptive study in which cluster sampling technique was used to sample respondents. Structured, interviewer administered questionnaires with close ended ...

  15. Assessment of health hazards and associated factors among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Migration is a demographic event which serves as a coping mechanism of poverty alleviation in developing countries, including Ethiopia. The living condition ... Results: The overall magnitude of health hazards was 41%: diarrhea 31.6% and malaria 10.5% were the leading acute illnesses. After controlling the ...

  16. Assessment of health hazards and associated factors among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Background: Migration is a demographic event which serves as a coping mechanism of poverty alleviation in developing countries, including Ethiopia. The living ... Results: The overall magnitude of health hazards was 41%: diarrhea 31.6% and malaria 10.5% were the leading acute illnesses. After controlling the possible ...

  17. Basic versus supplementary health insurance : Moral hazard and adverse selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    This paper introduces a tractable model of health insurance with both moral hazard and adverse selection. We show that government sponsored universal basic insurance should cover treatments with the biggest adverse selection problems. Treatments not covered by basic insurance can be covered on the

  18. Basic Versus Supplementary Health Insurance : Moral Hazard and Adverse Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a tractable model of health insurance with both moral hazard and adverse selection. We show that government sponsored universal basic insurance should cover treatments with the biggest adverse selection problems. Treatments not covered by basic insurance can be covered on the

  19. Energy Drinks: A New Health Hazard for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Nicole; Johnson, Molly; Delaney, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    A new hazard for adolescents is the negative health effects of energy drink consumption. Adolescents are consuming these types of drinks at an alarming amount and rate. Specific effects that have been reported by adolescents include jitteriness, nervousness, dizziness, the inability to focus, difficulty concentrating, gastrointestinal upset, and…

  20. A case study of possible health hazards associated with poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study on layer and broiler houses is expected to give basic information on the nature of microbes, their occurrence, health hazard they could constitute and the possibilities for disease control measures. Modern husbandry practices, state or local concentration of the industry, high stocking densities, uniform age ...

  1. Academic mobbing: hidden health hazard at workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Sb

    2010-01-01

    Academic mobbing is a non-violent, sophisticated, 'ganging up' behaviour adopted by academicians to "wear and tear" a colleague down emotionally through unjustified accusation, humiliation, general harassment and emotional abuse. These are directed at the target under a veil of lies and justifications so that they are "hidden" to others and difficult to prove. Bullies use mobbing activities to hide their own weaknesses and incompetence. Targets selected are often intelligent, innovative high achievers, with good integrity and principles. Mobbing activities appear trivial and innocuous on its own but the frequency and pattern of their occurrence over long period of time indicates an aggressive manipulation to "eliminate" the target. Mobbing activities typically progress through five stereotypical phases that begins with an unsolved minor conflict between two workers and ultimately escalates into a senseless mobbing whereby the target is stigmatized and victimized to justify the behaviours of the bullies. The result is always physical, mental, social distress or illness and, most often, expulsion of target from the workplace. Organizations are subjected to great financial loss, loss of key workers and a tarnished public image and reputation. Public awareness, education, effective counselling, establishment of anti-bullying policies and legislations at all levels are necessary to curb academic mobbing. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in supporting patients subjected to mental and physical health injury caused by workplace bullying and mobbing.

  2. ACADEMIC MOBBING: HIDDEN HEALTH HAZARD AT WORKPLACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHOO SB

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic mobbing is a non-violent, sophisticated, ‘ganging up’ behaviour adopted by academicians to “wear and tear” a colleague down emotionally through unjustified accusation, humiliation, general harassment and emotional abuse. These are directed at the target under a veil of lies and justifications so that they are “hidden” to others and difficult to prove. Bullies use mobbing activities to hide their own weaknesses and incompetence. Targets selected are often intelligent, innovative high achievers, with good integrity and principles. Mobbing activities appear trivial and innocuous on its own but the frequency and pattern of their occurrence over long period of time indicates an aggressive manipulation to “eliminate” the target. Mobbing activities typically progress through five stereotypical phases that begins with an unsolved minor conflict between two workers and ultimately escalates into a senseless mobbing whereby the target is stigmatized and victimized to justify the behaviours of the bullies. The result is always physical, mental, social distress or illness and, most often, expulsion of target from the workplace. Organizations are subjected to great financial loss, loss of key workers and a tarnished public image and reputation. Public awareness, education, effective counselling, establishment of anti-bullying policies and legislations at all levels are necessary to curb academic mobbing. General practitioners (GPs play an important role in supporting patients subjected to mental and physical health injury caused by workplace bullying and mobbing.

  3. Trigonometric Regression for Analysis of Public Health Surveillance Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E. Rigdon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical challenges in monitoring modern biosurveillance data are well described in the literature. Even though assumptions of normality, independence, and stationarity are typically violated in the biosurveillance data, statistical process control (SPC charts adopted from industry have been widely used in public health for communicable disease monitoring. But, blind usage of SPC charts in public health that ignores the characteristics of disease surveillance data may result in poor detection of disease outbreaks and/or excessive false-positive alarms. Thus, improved biosurveillance systems are clearly needed, and participation of statisticians knowledgeable in SPC alongside epidemiologists in the design and evaluation of such systems can be more productive. We describe and study a method for monitoring reportable disease counts using a Poisson distribution whose mean is allowed to vary depending on the week of the year. The seasonality is modeled by a trigonometric function whose parameters can be estimated by some baseline set of data. We study the ability of such a model to detect an outbreak. Specifically, we estimate the probability of detection (POD, the average number of weeks to signal given that a signal has occurred (conditional expected delay, or CED, and the false-positive rate (FPR, the average number of false-alarms per year.

  4. Development and implementation of a health surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, W B; Phillips, C F

    1983-09-01

    With the formation of Shell Oil Company's Health, Safety and Environment Organization in 1976, an expanded employee health surveillance program was started. A computerized system was developed to facilitate collecting, storing, retrieving, and analyzing employee medical, exposure and work history records. System requirements included large storage capacity, confidentiality, operability, flexibility, quality assurance, and minimum impact on user locations. A key element of the system is the Job Exposure Profile (JEP). A JEP describes the work tasks and identifies the chemical and physical agents associated with individual jobs at a location. Employee work history data are collected by utilizing existing payroll systems in conjunction with the JEP. Successful implementation of the system within our manufacturing (refineries, chemical plants and complexes) and products distribution locations has been completed. This was done by obtaining top management support and commitment at each location. A team consisting of corporate industrial hygienists, computer experts, and location staff was responsible for developing JEP's and setting up a system to collect data on the work histories. The system can now be used to prepare reports for location or corporate use, conduct statistical analysis of exposure data and maintain an exposure/work history record for epidemiologic studies.

  5. Health hazards related to Soba sewage treatment plant, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Osman Abdelwahab Abdelmoneim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the health hazards acquired by the residents nearby Soba sewage treatment plant. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Soba locality, Khartoum, Sudan. An interviewer-administrated questionnaire was assigned to 462 residents of the area living in four geographically distributed squares around the sewage plant. The data was analyzed in SPSS; Cronbach’s alpha reliability scale of measurement was used to check the internal validity of six variables related to the quality of life. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the health hazards and the quality of life. Among the 462 residents, difficulty in breathing (37.9% and nausea (37.2 were the principal health hazards. Moreover, the residents had a satisfactory level of awareness (88.7% about the health hazards. The utmost impact on the quality of life was psychological (97.2%. It was statistically correlated with the reported factors, which impacted the quality of life in the district as revealed by the Cronbach’s alpha reliability test with absenteeism (P=0.026, disability (P=0.014, socialization (P=0.032 and death (P=0.016. A logistic regression analysis revealed chemical hazards had a statistically significant association (P<0.05 with quality of life of the residents of Soba district. The study strongly entails the fact that sewage treatment plants crave exceptional consideration from the concerned responsible authorities, together with the fact that the evolved health threats should be confronted with immense responsibility as soon as possible.

  6. Cholera public health surveillance in the Republic of Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: in Cameroon, cholera has periodically resurfaced since it was first reported in 1971. In 2003, Cameroon adapted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy to strengthen surveillance in the country. This study was an in-depth description and assessment of the structure, core and ...

  7. Natural and man-made health hazards in rural Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulis, Gabriel; Kollarová, Jana; Dietzová, Zuzana; Labancová, Jana; Behanová, Martina; Ondrusová, Martina

    2009-12-01

    There is little information on health situation of the people of rural Slovak Republic. The rural environment is often a mixture of natural and man-made hazards, which under some conditions, might turn to be a health risk to humans. The aim of this study was to compare two regions of the Slovak Republic, two different hazards (natural and man-made), two different methods of health outcome measurement (routine statistics and individual diary based data). Ecological study design with focus on cancer incidence analysis was employed in case of natural hazard analysis. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated and are presented in paper. Observational study design was employed to study rural gardening practices and their impact on health. Statistically significant differences in SIR were found in rural areas of Spis-Gemer Region (SGR) among males for lip, oral cavity and larynx (1.60, CI 95% 1.12-2.34), respiratory (1.25, CI 95% 1.01-1.55) and digestive organ cancers (1.22, CI 95% 1.01-1.47); hematopoetic cancers are significantly elevated among males in rural areas as well (1.58, CI 95% 1.05-2.39). Pesticide use (83.1% of gardeners use pesticides) without any protective equipment is still widespread among gardeners in rural Slovak Republic (16.9%). The produced fruits and vegetables are substantial part of total fruit and vegetable consumption (51% in summer and 42.7% in winter season) increasing the risk of exposure to pesticides. Our study shows that on ecological level, mortality and morbidity statistics could be used to assess human health status in linkage to broad exposure measures (urban-rural); on dose response level (arsenic in soil) this method lacks sensitivity. Health survey and diary method on the other hand are useful tools in analysis of rural health especially with respect to man-made hazards.

  8. Evaluation of Brazil's public health surveillance system within the context of the International Health Regulations (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Maria Glória; Costa, Maria C N; Souza, Luís P F; Nascimento, Estela M R; Barreto, Maurício L; Barbosa, Neusa; Carmo, Eduardo Hage

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate Brazil's public health surveillance system (HSS), identifying its core capacities, shortcomings, and limitations in dealing with public health emergencies, within the context of the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005). In 2008-2009 an evaluative cross-sectional study was conducted using semistructured questionnaires administered to key informants (municipal, state, and national government officials) to assess Brazilian HSS structure (legal framework and resources) and surveillance and response procedures vis-à-vis compliance with the IHR (2005) requirements for management of public health emergencies of national and international concern. Evaluation criteria included the capacity to detect, assess, notify, investigate, intervene, and communicate. Responses were analyzed separately by level of government (municipal health departments, state health departments, and national Ministry of Health). Overall, at all three levels of government, Brazil's HSS has a well-established legal framework (including the essential technical regulations) and the infrastructure, supplies, materials, and mechanisms required for liaison and coordination. However, there are still some weaknesses at the state level, especially in land border areas and small towns. Professionals in the field need to be more familiar with the IHR 2005 Annex 2 decision tool (designed to increase sensitivity and consistency in the notification process). At the state and municipal level, the capacity to detect, assess, and notify is better than the capacity to investigate, intervene, and communicate. Surveillance activities are conducted 24 hours a day, 7 days a week in 40.7% of states and 35.5% of municipalities. There are shortcomings in organizational activities and methods, and in the process of hiring and training personnel. In general, the core capacities of Brazil's HSS are well established and fulfill most of the requisites listed in the IHR 2005 with respect to both structure and

  9. Occupational hazards to the health of professional gardeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbs, Luke D

    2014-01-01

    Professional gardening is a broad occupation that involves a wide range of tasks. Gardeners confront an equally wide variety of physical, chemical, biological and psychosocial hazards in their workplace. Consequently, occupational injuries and mortality are unfortunately common. The aim of this brief review is to collate and summarise the main hazards of gardening, their health effects and control measures. The diversity and size of gardeners' occupational exposures to the hazards outlined in this paper highlight some of the underlying causes of their increased risk of occupational injury or death. The risk can be reduced in many cases by ensuring appropriate protective strategies are adopted. Other ways through which the burden of occupational injury and mortality can be minimised are introduced and discussed in this paper.

  10. Web-based infectious disease surveillance systems and public health perspectives: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihye; Cho, Youngtae; Shim, Eunyoung; Woo, Hyekyung

    2016-12-08

    Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are a significant public health concern, and early detection and immediate response is crucial for disease control. These challenges have led to the need for new approaches and technologies to reinforce the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for detecting emerging infectious diseases. In the last few years, the availability of novel web-based data sources has contributed substantially to infectious disease surveillance. This study explores the burgeoning field of web-based infectious disease surveillance systems by examining their current status, importance, and potential challenges. A systematic review framework was applied to the search, screening, and analysis of web-based infectious disease surveillance systems. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases to extensively review the English literature published between 2000 and 2015. Eleven surveillance systems were chosen for evaluation according to their high frequency of application. Relevant terms, including newly coined terms, development and classification of the surveillance systems, and various characteristics associated with the systems were studied. Based on a detailed and informative review of the 11 web-based infectious disease surveillance systems, it was evident that these systems exhibited clear strengths, as compared to traditional surveillance systems, but with some limitations yet to be overcome. The major strengths of the newly emerging surveillance systems are that they are intuitive, adaptable, low-cost, and operated in real-time, all of which are necessary features of an effective public health tool. The most apparent potential challenges of the web-based systems are those of inaccurate interpretation and prediction of health status, and privacy issues, based on an individual's internet activity. Despite being in a nascent stage with further modification needed, web-based surveillance systems have evolved to complement

  11. Public Health Surveillance: At the Core of the Global Health Security Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolicki, Sara Beth; Nuzzo, Jennifer B; Blazes, David L; Pitts, Dana L; Iskander, John K; Tappero, Jordan W

    2016-01-01

    Global health security involves developing the infrastructure and capacity to protect the health of people and societies worldwide. The acceleration of global travel and trade poses greater opportunities for infectious diseases to emerge and spread. The International Health Regulations (IHR) were adopted in 2005 with the intent of proactively developing public health systems that could react to the spread of infectious disease and provide better containment. Various challenges delayed adherence to the IHR. The Global Health Security Agenda came about as an international collaborative effort, working multilaterally among governments and across sectors, seeking to implement the IHR and develop the capacities to prevent, detect, and respond to public health emergencies of international concern. When examining the recent West African Ebola epidemic as a case study for global health security, both strengths and weaknesses in the public health response are evident. The central role of public health surveillance is a lesson reiterated by Ebola. Through further implementation of the Global Health Security Agenda, identified gaps in surveillance can be filled and global health security strengthened.

  12. Hazardous Health Behaviour among Medical Students: a Study from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacar, Melis; Cetinkaya, Fevziye; Baykan, Zeynep; Yilmazel, Gulay; Elmali, Ferhan

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous health behaviour in young people is an important factor that affects the individual risk for non-communicable diseases and other disorders later in life. This study aimed to determine the hazardous health behaviour of first and last class medical students of Erciyes University. This descriptive study was carried out with 240 medical students from the first and 130 students from the last (sixth) class. Data were obtained by questionnaire between March-April 2012. In total, 339 students were included with a response rate of 91.6%. Socio-demographic characteristics, school success, self-reported economic difficulties, health perceptions, hazardous health behaviour related to chronic disease, tobacco, alcohol, substance use, body weight, height, traffic, violence and nutrition were assessed in line with the literature. Of the participants; 64.0% were from first and 36.0% were from the last class. Mean ages for the first and last classes were 19.4 ± 1.5 and 24.0 ± 1.5 years, respectively. In the current study, males exhibited more hazardous behaviour than females. Sime 19.8% of the students in the study group used alcohol, 35.4% used a waterpipe, and 24.8% used tobacco at least once. These rates increased in both genders in the last class and the increase in males was significant. Some 3.8% of the students in the current study used pleasure-inducing illegal substances at least once. All the students participating in the current study were single, the number of males reported not using condoms (8.6%) was 4.56 times higher compared to females. Some 64.0% of the students did not perform physical activity lasting at least 30 minutes for five times a week, 13.0% did not sleep for mean 7-8 hours daily, males having a 2.9 times higher risk. More than 1/3 of the students did not consume cooked vegetable dishes and 1/4 did not consume fresh fruits and salads, the rates were higher among males. In the current study, hazardous health behaviour was prevalent among

  13. Mobile health application for remote oral cancer surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birur, Praveen N; Sunny, Sumsum P; Jena, Sidhant; Kandasarma, Uma; Raghavan, Shubhasini; Ramaswamy, Bhanushree; Shanmugam, Sunitha Perumal; Patrick, Sanjana; Kuriakose, Rohan; Mallaiah, Janhavi; Suresh, Amritha; Chigurupati, Radhika; Desai, Rani; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham

    2015-12-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a mobile phone-based remote oral cancer surveillance program (Oncogrid) connecting primary care dental practitioners and frontline health care workers (FHW) with oral cancer specialists. The study population (N = 3,440) included a targeted cohort (n = 2,000) and an opportunistic cohort (n = 1,440) screened by FHW and dental professionals, respectively. The authors compared the screening efficacy in both groups, with specialist diagnosis considered the reference standard. The outcomes measured were lesion detection and capture of interpretable images of the oral cavity. In the targeted cohort, among 51 of 81 (61%) interpretable images, 23 of 51 (45%) of the lesions were confirmed by specialists, while the opportunistic cohort showed 100% concordance with the specialists (106 of 106). Sixty-two of 129 (48%) of the recommended patients underwent biopsy; 1 of 23 (4%) were in the targeted cohort, and 61 of 106 (57%) were in the opportunistic cohort. Ninety percent of the lesions were confirmed to be malignant or potentially malignant. The mobile health-based approach adopted in this study aided remote early detection of oral cancer by primary care dental practitioners in a resource-constrained setting. Further optimization of this program is required to adopt the system for FHW. Evaluation of its efficacy in a larger population is also warranted. The increased efficiency of early detection by dentists, when assisted by a remote mobile health-based approach, is a step toward a more effective oral cancer screening program. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Human health hazards of veterinary medications: information for emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Elaine Blythe; Barthold, Claudia; Malesker, Mark A; Wichman, Tammy O

    2011-02-01

    There are over 5000 approved prescription and over-the-counter medications, as well as vaccines, with labeled indications for veterinary patients. Of these, there are several products that have significant human health hazards upon accidental or intentional exposure or ingestion in humans: carfentanil, clenbuterol (Ventipulmin), ketamine, tilmicosin (Micotil), testosterone/estradiol (Component E-H and Synovex H), dinoprost (Lutalyse/Prostamate), and cloprostenol (Estromate/EstroPlan). The hazards range from mild to life-threatening in terms of severity, and include bronchospasm, central nervous system stimulation, induction of miscarriage, and sudden death. To report medication descriptions, human toxicity information, and medical management for the emergent care of patients who may have had exposure to veterinary medications when they present to an emergency department (ED). The intended use of this article is to inform and support ED personnel, drug information centers, and poison control centers on veterinary medication hazards. There is a need for increased awareness of the potential hazards of veterinary medications within human medicine circles. Timely reporting of veterinary medication hazards and their medical management may help to prepare the human medical community to deal with such exposures or abuses when time is of the essence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Surveillance of health care errors. An overview of the published data in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codermatz, Marcela A; Trillo, Carolina; Berenstein, Graciela; Ortiz, Zulma

    2006-01-01

    In the last decades, public health surveillance extended its scope of study to new fields, such as medical errors, in order to improve patient safety. This study was aimed to review all the evidence produced in Argentina about the surveillance of medical errors. An exhaustive literature search was performed. A total of 4656 abstracts were assessed (150 MEDLINE, 145 LILACS, and 4361 hand searched abstracts). Of them, 52 were analysed and 8 were considered relevant for health care error surveillance. Different approaches were used to study medical errors. Some of them have focused on patient safety and others on medical malpractice. There is still a need to improve the surveillance of this type of event. Mainly, the quality reports of study design and surveillance attributes were unclear. A critical appraisal and synthesis of all relevant studies on health care errors may help to understand not only the state of the art, but also to define research priorities.

  16. Design and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhali, Sami Adel; Abdallat, Mohammed; Mabdalla, Sultan; Al Qaseer, Bashir; Khorma, Rania; Malik, Mamunur; Profili, Maria Cristina; Rø, Gunnar; Haskew, John

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and improving the health status of communities depend on effective public health surveillance. Adoption of new technologies, standardised case definitions and clinical guidelines for accurate diagnosis, and access to timely and reliable data, remains a challenge for public health surveillance systems however and existing public health surveillance systems are often fragmented, disease specific, inconsistent and of poor quality. We describe the application of an enterprise architecture approach to the design, planning and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan. This enabled a well planned and collaboratively supported system to be built and implemented using consistent standards for data collection, management, reporting and use. The system is case-based and integrated and employs mobile information technology to aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making at different levels of the health system. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation Of Malaria Surveillance System In Department Of Health District Sumbawa Besar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuddin Zainuddin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Malaria is a public health problem that can affect infant mortality, under five, pregnant women and can reduce productivity. The annual parasite incidence from 2008 antil 2011showed malaria morbidity in Sumbawa district remain high. The Purpose of this study was to describe the implementation of Malaria Surveillance System at the District Health Office Lombok Sumbawa Besar. This study used a descriptive survey method. Subjects were malaria surveillance officer in district Health office, health centers, and hospitals. Research object is a document epidemiological surveillance report of malaria in 2013. Variables of this study is the implementation of malaria surveillance system (input, process, output and surveillance system attributes. Data obtained from interviews and observations were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that the data type on input stage was not yet complete, the quantity of labor was complete but insufficient quality of human resources, facilities and sufficient funds were available. At stage of the data collection process employed W2 weekly report format and monthly report format, report formats and reporting lines were simple, completeness and monthly reports 100% W2, W2 reporting time liness was > 80% and monthly reports was > 90%, Analysis and interpretation of the data was done However the analysis of relationshif was conducted by 20% of primary health care. The resulting output is a description of endemicity areas, API and SPR are presented in tabular form, graph and maps. Dissemination of information is done in the form of reports, workshops and profiles. Feedback is done each month through coordination meeting, regular meetings and regular supervision. Surveillance evaluation system based on attributed surveillance showed its simplicity and acceptability, however sensitivity can not be assessed yet, low NPP 1.75%, report punctuality was > 80%. It is necessary the existence of expert epidemiologists (S2

  18. Worrying about terrorism and other acute environmental health hazard events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael; Babcock-Dunning, Lauren

    2012-04-01

    To better understand why some people worry more about terrorism compared with others, we measured how much US residents worried about a terrorist event in their area and examined the association of their fears with their concerns about acute and chronic hazards and other correlates. In 2008 (n = 600) and 2010 (n = 651), we performed a random-digit dialing national landline telephone survey. We asked about worries about terrorism and 5 other environmental health hazard issues. We also collected demographic and socioeconomic data. Only 15% worried "a great deal" about a terrorist event in their area and 18% to 33% were greatly concerned about other environmental issues. Fear about acute hazard events was a stronger predictor of a great deal of concern about terrorism than were age, race/ethnicity, gender, educational achievement, and other correlates. Those who worried most about acute environmental health hazard events were most likely to worry about terrorism. Also, those who were older, poorer, Blacks, or Latinos, or who lived in populous urban areas felt they were most vulnerable to terrorist attacks. We recommend methods to involve US citizens as part of disaster planning.

  19. The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menizibeya Osain Welcome

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods : Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results : Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion : The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine

  20. Strengthening public health surveillance and response using the health systems strengthening agenda in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukanga David

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is increased interest in strengthening health systems for developing countries. However, at present, there is common uncertainty about how to accomplish this task. Specifically, several nations are faced with an immense challenge of revamping an entire system. To accomplish this, it is essential to first identify the components of the system that require modification. The World Health Organization (WHO has proposed health system building blocks, which are now widely recognized as essential components of health systems strengthening. With increased travel and urbanization, the threat of emerging diseases of pandemic potential is increasing alongside endemic diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, tuberculosis (TB, malaria, and hepatitis virus infections. At the same time, the epidemiologic patterns are shifting, giving rise to a concurrent increase in disease burden due to non-communicable diseases. These diseases can be addressed by public health surveillance and response systems that are operated by competent public health workers in core public health positions at national and sub-national levels with a focus on disease prevention. We describe two ways that health ministries in developing countries could leverage President Obama’s Global Health Initiative (GHI to build public health surveillance and response systems using proven models for public health systems strengthening and to create the public health workforce to operate those systems. We also offer suggestions for how health ministries could strengthen public health systems within the broad health systems strengthening agenda. Existing programs (e.g., the Global Vaccine Alliance [GAVI] and the Global Fund Against Tuberculosis, AIDS, and Malaria [GFTAM] can also adapt their current health systems strengthening programs to build sustainable public health systems.

  1. Strengthening public health surveillance and response using the health systems strengthening agenda in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsubuga, Peter; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Nkengasong, John N; Mukanga, David; Trostle, Murray

    2010-12-03

    There is increased interest in strengthening health systems for developing countries. However, at present, there is common uncertainty about how to accomplish this task. Specifically, several nations are faced with an immense challenge of revamping an entire system. To accomplish this, it is essential to first identify the components of the system that require modification. The World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed health system building blocks, which are now widely recognized as essential components of health systems strengthening.With increased travel and urbanization, the threat of emerging diseases of pandemic potential is increasing alongside endemic diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB), malaria, and hepatitis virus infections. At the same time, the epidemiologic patterns are shifting, giving rise to a concurrent increase in disease burden due to non-communicable diseases. These diseases can be addressed by public health surveillance and response systems that are operated by competent public health workers in core public health positions at national and sub-national levels with a focus on disease prevention.We describe two ways that health ministries in developing countries could leverage President Obama's Global Health Initiative (GHI) to build public health surveillance and response systems using proven models for public health systems strengthening and to create the public health workforce to operate those systems. We also offer suggestions for how health ministries could strengthen public health systems within the broad health systems strengthening agenda. Existing programs (e.g., the Global Vaccine Alliance [GAVI] and the Global Fund Against Tuberculosis, AIDS, and Malaria [GFTAM]) can also adapt their current health systems strengthening programs to build sustainable public health systems.

  2. Evaluation of Health Surveillance in the Zona da Mata Mineira: from standards to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donateli, Cíntia Pereira; Avelar, Patrícia Silva; Einloft, Ariadne Barbosa do Nascimento; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Costa, Glauce Dias da

    2017-10-01

    Health Surveillance is of paramount importance when confronted with the current Brazilian epidemiological setting. This study aims to evaluate the level of Health Surveillance in the Zona da Mata Mineira region. This is an evaluative study, and data were collected in the first half of 2016. The research universe consisted of seven municipalities in the Zona da Mata Mineira complex. Municipalities were selected with reference to available operational epidemiological, environmental and sanitary surveillance. The subjects under analysis were the Surveillance coordinators (n = 21), Health Surveillance coordinators (n = 7) and Health secretaries (n = 7). We conducted interviews using a semi-structured and elaborated questionnaire based on the Donabedian triad: Structure, Process and Outcome. A score system was established in order to obtain the classification of performance, realm and sub-realms, in which a score was assigned for each criterion. We used incipient, intermediate or advanced cutoff points to classify the level of Health Surveillance of scores were below 5.99 points, between 6.0 and 7.99 points and between 8 and 10 points, respectively. The level of regional Health Surveillance performance level was classified as an intermediate.

  3. The role of public health informatics in enhancing public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savel, Thomas G; Foldy, Seth

    2012-07-27

    Public health surveillance has benefitted from, and has often pioneered, informatics analyses and solutions. However, the field of informatics also serves other facets of public health including emergency response, environmental health, nursing, and administration. Public health informatics has been defined as the systematic application of information and computer science and technology to public health practice, research, and learning. It is an interdisciplinary profession that applies mathematics, engineering, information science, and related social sciences (e.g., decision analysis) to important public health problems and processes. Public health informatics is a subdomain of the larger field known as biomedical or health informatics. Health informatics is not synonymous with the term health information technology (IT). Although the concept of health IT encompasses the use of technology in the field of health care, one can think of health informatics as defining the science, the how and why, behind health IT. For example, health IT professionals should be able to resolve infrastructure problems with a network connection, whereas trained public health informaticians should be able to support public health decisions by facilitating the availability of timely, relevant, and high-quality information. In other words, they should always be able to provide advice on methods for achieving a public health goal faster, better, or at a lower cost by leveraging computer science, information science, or technology.

  4. Window of Opportunity for New Disease Surveillance: Developing Keyword Lists for Monitoring Mental Health and Injury Through Syndromic Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauper, Ursula; Chen, Jian-Hua; Lin, Shao

    2017-04-01

    Studies have documented the impact that hurricanes have on mental health and injury rates before, during, and after the event. Since timely tracking of these disease patterns is crucial to disaster planning, response, and recovery, syndromic surveillance keyword filters were developed by the New York State Department of Health to study the short- and long-term impacts of Hurricane Sandy. Emergency department syndromic surveillance is recognized as a valuable tool for informing public health activities during and immediately following a disaster. Data typically consist of daily visit reports from hospital emergency departments (EDs) of basic patient data and free-text chief complaints. To develop keyword lists, comparisons were made with existing CDC categories and then integrated with lists from the New York City and New Jersey health departments in a collaborative effort. Two comprehensive lists were developed, each containing multiple subcategories and over 100 keywords for both mental health and injury. The data classifiers using these keywords were used to assess impacts of Sandy on mental health and injuries in New York State. The lists will be validated by comparing the ED chief complaint keyword with the final ICD diagnosis code. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:173-178).

  5. Clinical alarm hazards: a "top ten" health technology safety concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, James P

    2012-01-01

    For the past several years ECRI Institute has published a list of Top Ten Health Technology Hazards. This list is based on ECRI's extensive research in health technology safety and on data provided to its problemreporting systems. For every year that the Top Ten list has been published, Alarm Hazards have been at or near the top of the list. Improving alarm safety requires a systematic review of a hospital's alarm-based technologies and analysis of alarm management policies like alarm escalation strategies and staffing patterns. It also requires careful selection of alarm setting criteria for each clinical care area. This article will overview the clinical alarm problems that have been identified through ECRI Institute's research and analysis of various problem reporting databases, including those operated by ECRI Institute. It will also highlight suggestions for improvement, particularly from a technology design and technology management perspective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Detecting, reporting, and analysis of priority diseases for routine public health surveillance in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong, Joseph Asamoah; Park, Meeyoung Mattie; Amo-Addae, Maame Pokuah; Adewuyi, Peter Adebayo; Nagbe, Thomas Knue

    2017-01-01

    An essential component of a public health surveillance system is its ability to detect priority diseases which fall within the mandate of public health officials at all levels. Early detection, reporting and response to public health events help to reduce the burden of mortality and morbidity on communities. Analysis of reliable surveillance data provides relevant information which can enable implementation of timely and appropriate public health interventions. To ensure that a resilient system is in place, the World Health Organization (WHO) has provided guidelines for detection, reporting and response to public health events in the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy. This case study provides training on detection, reporting and analysis of priority diseases for routine public health surveillance in Liberia and highlights potential errors and challenges which can hinder effective surveillance. Table-top exercises and group discussion lead participants through a simulated verification and analyses of summary case reports in the role of the District Surveillance Officer. This case study is intended for public health training in a classroom setting and can be accomplished within 2 hours 30 minutes. The target audience include residents in Frontline Epidemiology Training Programs (FETP-Frontline), Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs), and others who are interested in this topic.

  7. Health surveillance: proposal for a tool to evaluate technological arrangements in local health systems

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Gerluce Alves Pontes da; Silva, Ligia Maria Vieira da

    2008-01-01

    p.2463-2475 In order to identify the various meanings ascribed to health surveillance, the authors conducted a systematic review of articles published from January 1990 to August 2005 in the following databases: LILACS, SciELO, CAPES, MEDLINE, and Web of Science. A total of 144 abstracts were read and 18 full texts of Brazilian articles were selected for in-depth analysis, leading to the design of a typology for technological arrangements related to the various meanings: (i) traditional ep...

  8. [ANALYSIS OF THE ORGANIZATION OF HEALTH SURVEILLANCE AT DIFFERENT HISTORICAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF UKRAINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynzovs'kyĭ, A M

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the emergency and evolution of health surveillance in Ukraine until the early twentieth century, the impact of administrative reforms of the XIX century on the formation and maintenance functions of sanitary inspection.

  9. Six cases of silicosis: implications for health surveillance of stonemasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, L M; McFarlane, P A; Hirani, N; Reid, P T

    2015-04-01

    Silicosis is one of the oldest occupational lung diseases, but it continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. To report cases of silicosis presenting to two specialist respiratory clinics. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of cases of silicosis in workers referred to specialist respiratory clinics. Over the course of 6 years, six cases were identified. The patients were all male with an age range between 24 and 39 years. The duration of silica exposure ranged between 7 and 20 years (mean 13 years). Four cases were entirely asymptomatic at presentation, and two cases described minimal shortness of breath on exertion. Pulmonary function tests were normal in three cases, and a mild restrictive ventilatory defect was documented in the other cases. All had a low apparent predicted probability of pneumoconiosis based on health questionnaires, spirometry and duration of silica exposure. The initial chest X-ray was abnormal in all six cases with radiological evidence of silicosis (International Labour Office profusion category ≥1/1) on imaging, and all had evidence of silicosis on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Three patients had already progressed to progressive massive fibrosis on HRCT scanning at the time of referral to specialist respiratory services. The appearances of these six cases of silicosis in young, asymptomatic construction workers emphasizes the importance of enforcing effective exposure control and comprehensive surveillance programmes. Our observations highlight the importance of having a low threshold for early radiological screening to promote early and effective detection of this disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Annual Surveillance Summary: Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Annual Surveillance Summary: Vancomycin- Resistant Enterococci (VRE) Infections in the Military Health ...VRE) incidence and prevalence among all beneficiaries seeking care within the Military Health System (MHS). This report describes demographics...sources were linked to assess descriptive and clinical factors related to VRE. Health Level 7 (HL7)-formatted Composite Health Care System (CHCS

  11. Animal Health Surveillance in Scotland in 2030: Using Scenario Planning to Develop Strategies in the Context of “Brexit”

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lisa A. Boden; Harriet Auty; Aaron Reeves; Gustaf Rydevik; Paul Bessell; Iain J. McKendrick

    2017-01-01

    ...-users and other beneficiaries. The aims of this study were to engage with Scottish surveillance stakeholders and multidisciplinary experts to inform the future long-term strategy for animal health surveillance in Scotland...

  12. Latex allergy symptoms among health care workers: results from a university health and safety surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epling, Carol; Duncan, Jacqueline; Archibong, Emma; Østbye, Truls; Pompeii, Lisa A; Dement, John

    2011-01-01

    We sought to describe risk factors for latex glove allergy symptoms among health care workers by combining data from an active clinical surveillance program and a comprehensive occupational health surveillance system. A total of 4,584 employers completed a latex allergy questionnaire. Six percent (n = 276) of subjects reported symptoms consistent with latex allergy. Years of latex glove use was a significant risk factor for latex allergy symptoms even after controlling for the effects of atopy, gender, age, race, fruit, and other allergies. Nurses, medical or lab technicians, physician's assistants, other clinical professionals, and housekeepers had the highest prevalence of latex glove allergy symptoms. Forty subjects (0.87%) who were confirmed as having latex sensitization. Sensitizsation may have been underestimated due to use of specific IgE antibody, less sensitive than skin-prick testing, and tiered design leading to laboratory assessment on a subset of the cohort. This surveillance program identified risk factors for latex allergy symptoms. Our findings provide a basis for tailoring future prevention strategies.

  13. Integrating animal health and food safety surveillance data from slaughterhouse control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J A; Silva, P

    2013-08-01

    Surveillance at the slaughterhouse level for animal health and food safety purposes encompasses examination for the presence of pathology, pathogens, drug residues, chemical contaminants and antimicrobial resistance. Government, industry and academia are the primary proponents of such surveillance. A variety of policies and policy instruments from voluntary to legislative may be applied to promote or obligate participation. Efforts to integrate data across such diverse organisations encounter significant legal, logistical and financial challenges. Enhancement of policies to encourage effective integration of animal health and food safety surveillance data from slaughterhouse control should promote: a long-term approach; collaboration among government, industry and academia; application of a risk-based scheme; and transparent public access to data, with generation of consumer-oriented communications derived from the data. A strong case can be made that the complementary pursuit of both sustainable animal health and food safety can continue to be aided by surveillance at the slaughterhouse level.

  14. AEGIS: a robust and scalable real-time public health surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ben Y; Kirby, Chaim; Hadden, Lucy E; Olson, Karen; McMurry, Andrew J; Daniel, James B; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we describe the Automated Epidemiological Geotemporal Integrated Surveillance system (AEGIS), developed for real-time population health monitoring in the state of Massachusetts. AEGIS provides public health personnel with automated near-real-time situational awareness of utilization patterns at participating healthcare institutions, supporting surveillance of bioterrorism and naturally occurring outbreaks. As real-time public health surveillance systems become integrated into regional and national surveillance initiatives, the challenges of scalability, robustness, and data security become increasingly prominent. A modular and fault tolerant design helps AEGIS achieve scalability and robustness, while a distributed storage model with local autonomy helps to minimize risk of unauthorized disclosure. The report includes a description of the evolution of the design over time in response to the challenges of a regional and national integration environment.

  15. Improving work functioning and mental health of health care employees using an e-mental health approach to workers' health surveillance: pretest-posttest study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, Sarah M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Bolier, Linda; Smeets, Odile; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2014-01-01

    Mental health complaints are quite common in health care employees and can have adverse effects on work functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate an e-mental health (EMH) approach to workers' health surveillance (WHS) for nurses and allied health professionals. Using the waiting-list group

  16. Mobile Phone-Based mHealth Approaches for Public Health Surveillance in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkel, Johanna; Krämer, Alexander; Krumkamp, Ralf; May, Jürgen; Fobil, Julius

    2014-01-01

    Whereas mobile phone-based surveillance has the potential to provide real-time validated data for disease clustering and prompt respond and investigation, little evidence is available on current practice in sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this review was to examine mobile phone-based mHealth interventions for Public Health surveillance in the region. We conducted electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, IEE Xplore, African Index Medicus (AIM), BioMed Central, PubMed Central (PMC), the Public Library of Science (PLoS) and IRIS for publications used in the review. In all, a total of nine studies were included which focused on infectious disease surveillance of malaria (n = 3), tuberculosis (n = 1) and influenza-like illnesses (n = 1) as well as on non-infectious disease surveillance of child malnutrition (n = 2), maternal health (n = 1) and routine surveillance of various diseases and symptoms (n = 1). Our review revealed that mobile phone-based surveillance projects in the sub-Saharan African countries are on small scale, fragmented and not well documented. We conclude by advocating for a strong drive for more research in the applied field as well as a better reporting of lessons learned in order to create an epistemic community to help build a more evidence-based field of practice in mHealth surveillance in the region. PMID:25396767

  17. Mobile Phone-Based mHealth Approaches for Public Health Surveillance in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Brinkel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Whereas mobile phone-based surveillance has the potential to provide real-time validated data for disease clustering and prompt respond and investigation, little evidence is available on current practice in sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this review was to examine mobile phone-based mHealth interventions for Public Health surveillance in the region. We conducted electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, IEE Xplore, African Index Medicus (AIM, BioMed Central, PubMed Central (PMC, the Public Library of Science (PLoS and IRIS for publications used in the review. In all, a total of nine studies were included which focused on infectious disease surveillance of malaria (n = 3, tuberculosis (n = 1 and influenza-like illnesses (n = 1 as well as on non-infectious disease surveillance of child malnutrition (n = 2, maternal health (n = 1 and routine surveillance of various diseases and symptoms (n = 1. Our review revealed that mobile phone-based surveillance projects in the sub-Saharan African countries are on small scale, fragmented and not well documented. We conclude by advocating for a strong drive for more research in the applied field as well as a better reporting of lessons learned in order to create an epistemic community to help build a more evidence-based field of practice in mHealth surveillance in the region.

  18. Mobile phone-based mHealth approaches for public health surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkel, Johanna; Krämer, Alexander; Krumkamp, Ralf; May, Jürgen; Fobil, Julius

    2014-11-12

    Whereas mobile phone-based surveillance has the potential to provide real-time validated data for disease clustering and prompt respond and investigation, little evidence is available on current practice in sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this review was to examine mobile phone-based mHealth interventions for Public Health surveillance in the region. We conducted electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, IEE Xplore, African Index Medicus (AIM), BioMed Central, PubMed Central (PMC), the Public Library of Science (PLoS) and IRIS for publications used in the review. In all, a total of nine studies were included which focused on infectious disease surveillance of malaria (n = 3), tuberculosis (n = 1) and influenza-like illnesses (n = 1) as well as on non-infectious disease surveillance of child malnutrition (n = 2), maternal health (n = 1) and routine surveillance of various diseases and symptoms (n = 1). Our review revealed that mobile phone-based surveillance projects in the sub-Saharan African countries are on small scale, fragmented and not well documented. We conclude by advocating for a strong drive for more research in the applied field as well as a better reporting of lessons learned in order to create an epistemic community to help build a more evidence-based field of practice in mHealth surveillance in the region.

  19. Annual Surveillance Summary: Clostridium difficile Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Annual Surveillance Summary: Clostridium difficile Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016...incidence among all beneficiaries seeking care within the Military Health System (MHS). This report is a calendar year (CY) 2016 update to the CY...factors related to CD. Health Level 7 (HL7)-formatted microbiology and chemistry data identified CDI. These infections were matched to HL7-formatted

  20. Annual Surveillance Summary: Acinetobacter Species Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Annual Surveillance Summary: Acinetobacter Species Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016...incidence and prevalence among all beneficiaries seeking care within the Military Health System (MHS). This report describes demographics, clinical...Several data sources were linked to assess a variety of descriptive and clinical factors related to Acinetobacter species infections. Health Level 7

  1. Health hazards of mobile phones: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapdi, Mukta; Hoskote, Sumedh S; Joshi, Shashank R

    2008-11-01

    The mobile phone industry has been one of the fastest growing industries in modern history. Today, India has million mobile phone users, and mobile phones account for 88% of all telecommunication users. The rural sector accounts for more than 25% of all wireless phone users and this proportion is bound to grow as affordability of mobile phones continues to increase. In the years ahead, an ever-increasing number exposed for long periods of time to radiation from mobile phones. In 2008, the Telecom Commission (the policy-making body of the Department of Telecommunicatics, Government of India) adopted the emission guidelines prescribed by the International Commission on Non-Protection (ICNIRP). Studies have demonstrated that usage behaviours, such as duration of usage and predominant, one-sided use of mobile phones are some of the chief risks that increase likelihood of hazards resulting from mobile phone use. This article attempts to present the basic biophysics of these devices and explain the health hazards of electromagnetic radiation exposure in terms of thermal and non-thermal effects. We also present some preventive measures that can reduce the risk of these hazards.

  2. The Necessity of Mobile Phone Technologies for Public Health Surveillance in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaovi M. G. Hounmanou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2016 to assess the need of mobile phone technologies for health surveillance and interventions in Benin. Questionnaires were administered to 130 individuals comprising 25 medical professionals, 33 veterinarians, and 72 respondents from the public. All respondents possess cell phones and 75%, 84%, and 100% of the public, medical professionals, and veterinarians, respectively, generally use them for medical purposes. 75% of respondents including 68% of medics, 84.8% of veterinarians, and 72.2% of the public acknowledged that the current surveillance systems are ineffective and do not capture and share real-time information. More than 92% of the all respondents confirmed that mobile phones have the potential to improve health surveillance in the country. All respondents reported adhering to a nascent project of mobile phone-based health surveillance and confirmed that there is no existing similar approach in the country. The most preferred methods by all respondents for effective implementation of such platform are phone calls (96.92% followed by SMS (49.23% and smart phone digital forms (41.53%. This study revealed urgent needs of mobile phone technologies for health surveillance and interventions in Benin for real-time surveillance and efficient disease prevention.

  3. The evolution of the federal funding policies for the public health surveillance component of Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Laerte Pinto Junior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Health surveillance (HS is one of the key components of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS. This article describes recent changes in health surveillance funding models and the role these changes have had in the reorganization and decentralization of health actions. Federal law no. 8.080 of 1990 defined health surveillance as a fundamental pillar of the SUS, and an exclusive fund with equitable distribution criteria was created in the Basic Operational Norm of 1996 to pay for health surveillance actions. This step facilitated the decentralization of health care at the municipal level, giving local authorities autonomy to plan and provide services. The Health Pact of 2006 and its regulation under federal decree No. 3252 in 2009 bolstered the processes of decentralization, regionalization and integration of health care. Further changes in the basic concepts of health surveillance around the world and in the funding policies negotiated by different spheres of government in Brazil have been catalysts for the process of HS institutionalization in recent years.

  4. Monitoring Count Time Series in R: Aberration Detection in Public Health Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maëlle Salmon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance aims at lessening disease burden by, e.g., timely recognizing emerging outbreaks in case of infectious diseases. Seen from a statistical perspective, this implies the use of appropriate methods for monitoring time series of aggregated case reports. This paper presents the tools for such automatic aberration detection offered by the R package surveillance. We introduce the functionalities for the visualization, modeling and monitoring of surveillance time series. With respect to modeling we focus on univariate time series modeling based on generalized linear models (GLMs, multivariate GLMs, generalized additive models and generalized additive models for location, shape and scale. Applications of such modeling include illustrating implementational improvements and extensions of the well-known Farrington algorithm, e.g., by spline-modeling or by treating it in a Bayesian context. Furthermore, we look at categorical time series and address overdispersion using beta-binomial or Dirichlet-multinomial modeling. With respect to monitoring we consider detectors based on either a Shewhart-like single timepoint comparison between the observed count and the predictive distribution or by likelihoodratio based cumulative sum methods. Finally, we illustrate how surveillance can support aberration detection in practice by integrating it into the monitoring workflow of a public health institution. Altogether, the present article shows how well surveillance can support automatic aberration detection in a public health surveillance context.

  5. Top five chemicals resulting in injuries from acute chemical incidents—Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance, nine states, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ayana R

    2015-04-10

    The Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Substance Inventory lists >84,000 chemicals used in commerce (http://www.epa.gov/oppt/existingchemicals/pubs/tscainventory/basic.html). With chemicals having a multitude of uses, persons are potentially at risk daily for exposure to chemicals as a result of an acute chemical incident (lasting chemical, exposure can result in morbidity and, in some cases, mortality. 1999-2008. The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system was operated by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry during January 1991-September 2009 to collect data that would enable researchers to describe the public health consequences of chemical incidents and to develop activities aimed at reducing the harm from such incidents. This report identifies the top five chemicals that caused injuries in the nine states (Colorado, Iowa, Minnesota, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin) that participated in HSEES during its last 10 full years of data collection (1999-2008). Of the 57,975 incidents that were reported, 54,989 (95%) involved the release of only one chemical. The top five chemicals associated with injury were carbon monoxide (2,364), ammonia (1,153), chlorine (763), hydrochloric acid (326), and sulfuric acid (318). Carbon monoxide and ammonia by far caused the most injuries, deaths, and evacuations. Chlorine, while not in the top 10 chemicals released, was in the top five chemicals associated with injury because of its hazardous properties. Multiple measures can be taken to prevent injuries associated with the top five chemicals. Because many carbon monoxide releases occur in residential settings, use of carbon monoxide detectors can prevent injuries. Substituting chemicals with less lethal alternatives can result in mitigating injuries associated with ammonia. Routine maintenance of equipment and engineering controls can reduce injuries associated with chlorine and sulfuric acid, and proper

  6. Should cities hosting mass gatherings invest in public health surveillance and planning? Reflections from a decade of mass gatherings in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muscatello David

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass gatherings have been defined by the World Health Organisation as "events attended by a sufficient number of people to strain the planning and response resources of a community, state or nation". This paper explores the public health response to mass gatherings in Sydney, the factors that influenced the extent of deployment of resources and the utility of planning for mass gatherings as a preparedness exercise for other health emergencies. Discussion Not all mass gatherings of people require enhanced surveillance and additional response. The main drivers of extensive public health planning for mass gatherings reflect geographical spread, number of international visitors, event duration and political and religious considerations. In these instances, the implementation of a formal risk assessment prior to the event with ongoing daily review is important in identifying public health hazards. Developing and utilising event-specific surveillance to provide early-warning systems that address the specific risks identified through the risk assessment process are essential. The extent to which additional resources are required will vary and depend on the current level of surveillance infrastructure. Planning the public health response is the third step in preparing for mass gatherings. If the existing public health workforce has been regularly trained in emergency response procedures then far less effort and resources will be needed to prepare for each mass gathering event. The use of formal emergency management structures and co-location of surveillance and planning operational teams during events facilitates timely communication and action. Summary One-off mass gathering events can provide a catalyst for innovation and engagement and result in opportunities for ongoing public health planning, training and surveillance enhancements that outlasted each event.

  7. Should cities hosting mass gatherings invest in public health surveillance and planning? Reflections from a decade of mass gatherings in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackway, Sarah; Churches, Timothy; Fizzell, Jan; Muscatello, David; Armstrong, Paul

    2009-09-08

    Mass gatherings have been defined by the World Health Organisation as "events attended by a sufficient number of people to strain the planning and response resources of a community, state or nation". This paper explores the public health response to mass gatherings in Sydney, the factors that influenced the extent of deployment of resources and the utility of planning for mass gatherings as a preparedness exercise for other health emergencies. Not all mass gatherings of people require enhanced surveillance and additional response. The main drivers of extensive public health planning for mass gatherings reflect geographical spread, number of international visitors, event duration and political and religious considerations. In these instances, the implementation of a formal risk assessment prior to the event with ongoing daily review is important in identifying public health hazards.Developing and utilising event-specific surveillance to provide early-warning systems that address the specific risks identified through the risk assessment process are essential. The extent to which additional resources are required will vary and depend on the current level of surveillance infrastructure.Planning the public health response is the third step in preparing for mass gatherings. If the existing public health workforce has been regularly trained in emergency response procedures then far less effort and resources will be needed to prepare for each mass gathering event. The use of formal emergency management structures and co-location of surveillance and planning operational teams during events facilitates timely communication and action. One-off mass gathering events can provide a catalyst for innovation and engagement and result in opportunities for ongoing public health planning, training and surveillance enhancements that outlasted each event.

  8. Discourses of healthcare professionals about health surveillance actions for Tuberculosis control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mitano

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the meanings produced in the Health Surveillance actions for tuberculosis control, carried out by healthcare professionals in Mozambique. METHOD Qualitative study using the theoretical and methodological framework of the French Discourse Analysis. RESULTS A total of 15 healthcare professionals with more than one year of experience in disease control actions participated in the study. Four discursive blocks have emerged from the analysis: tuberculosis diagnosis process; meeting, communication and discussion of treatment; local strategies for tuberculosis control; involvement of family and community leaders in the tuberculosis control. CONCLUSION The statements of the healthcare professionals suggest, as Health Surveillance actions, practices that include collecting sputum in the patient's home and sending it to the laboratory; deployment of the medical team with a microscope for tuberculosis testing; and testing for diseases that may be associated with tuberculosis. In this context, the actions of Health Surveillance for tuberculosis control involve valuing all actors: family, community leaders, patients and health professionals.

  9. Query Health: standards-based, cross-platform population health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, Jeffrey G; Buck, Michael D; Brown, Jeffrey; Hadley, Marc; Elmore, Richard; Weber, Griffin M; Murphy, Shawn N

    2014-01-01

    Understanding population-level health trends is essential to effectively monitor and improve public health. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) Query Health initiative is a collaboration to develop a national architecture for distributed, population-level health queries across diverse clinical systems with disparate data models. Here we review Query Health activities, including a standards-based methodology, an open-source reference implementation, and three pilot projects. Query Health defined a standards-based approach for distributed population health queries, using an ontology based on the Quality Data Model and Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture, Health Quality Measures Format (HQMF) as the query language, the Query Envelope as the secure transport layer, and the Quality Reporting Document Architecture as the result language. We implemented this approach using Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) and hQuery for data analytics and PopMedNet for access control, secure query distribution, and response. We deployed the reference implementation at three pilot sites: two public health departments (New York City and Massachusetts) and one pilot designed to support Food and Drug Administration post-market safety surveillance activities. The pilots were successful, although improved cross-platform data normalization is needed. This initiative resulted in a standards-based methodology for population health queries, a reference implementation, and revision of the HQMF standard. It also informed future directions regarding interoperability and data access for ONC's Data Access Framework initiative. Query Health was a test of the learning health system that supplied a functional methodology and reference implementation for distributed population health queries that has been validated at three sites. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under

  10. Performance of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance compared with World Health Organization standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Shalini; Smith, Tiffany; Thorley, Bruce R; Grenier, Danielle; Dickson, Nigel; Altpeter, Ekkehardt; Sabbe, Martine; Elliott, Elizabeth; Zurynski, Yvonne

    2015-02-01

    To compare acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance systems used by members of the International Network of Paediatric Surveillance Units (INoPSU) across the five AFP surveillance performance indicators recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the maintenance of polio-free certification. A survey was administered to AFP surveillance co-ordinators in five INoPSU member countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, New Zealand and Switzerland). Data collected included information on surveillance system processes, WHO-recommended performance indicators, investigative practices and final diagnoses of cases from 2006 to 2010. All countries contacted completed the survey. Each country used similar case definitions and processes for collecting AFP data. All countries used at least one of the WHO indicators for surveillance. No country consistently met the performance indicator for incidence or stool sampling. In all countries, at least one form of neurological testing was used to diagnose cases of AFP. Guillain-Barré syndrome was the most common final diagnosis in all countries for all years examined. Industrialised countries surveyed do not consistently meet the WHO-recommended AFP surveillance performance indicators. An opportunity exists for INoPSU to suggest a standard way for member countries to collect AFP data in order to examine the potential for strengthening the current systems or introducing additional enterovirus surveillance or alternative/complementary neurological performance measures suitable for countries that have eliminated polio. INoPSU member countries are evaluating these possibilities. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. Web GIS-Based Public Health Surveillance Systems: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Luan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Web Geographic Information System (Web GIS has been extensively and successfully exploited in various arenas. However, to date, the application of this technology in public health surveillance has yet to be systematically explored in the Web 2.0 era. We reviewed existing Web GIS-based Public Health Surveillance Systems (WGPHSSs and assessed them based on 20 indicators adapted from previous studies. The indicators comprehensively cover various aspects of WGPHSS development, including metadata, data, cartography, data analysis, and technical aspects. Our literature search identified 58 relevant journal articles and 27 eligible WGPHSSs. Analyses of results revealed that WGPHSSs were frequently used for infectious-disease surveillance, and that geographical and performance inequalities existed in their development. The latest Web and Web GIS technologies have been used in developing WGPHSSs; however, significant deficiencies in data analysis, system compatibility, maintenance, and accessibility exist. A balance between public health surveillance and privacy concerns has yet to be struck. Use of news and social media as well as Web-user searching records as data sources, participatory public health surveillance, collaborations among health sectors at different spatial levels and among various disciplines, adaption or reuse of existing WGPHSSs, and adoption of geomashup and open-source development models were identified as the directions for advancing WGPHSSs.

  12. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) - National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001 forward. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) has monitored the health of the nation since 1957. NHIS data on a broad range of health topics are...

  13. Health behaviour surveillance of Health Sciences students in Northern Germany: Design and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tobisch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHealth of students have most often been neglected in recent studies, although students face a transition of life during their studies which has strong implications on health.  During that time, universities play a key role as a setting where future professionals develop independence and learn skills possibly affecting their development and health. Nevertheless, less in known about this group in society and consequently, the aim of this research project was to monitor health of Health Sciences students through a long-term health surveillance system.MethodsSince 2014, an almost complete convenience sample of Health Sciences students is surveyed twice a year at Hamburg University of Applied Sciences. A paper-pencil questionnaire, which includes questions about socio-demographics, well-being, health-promoting and health-risk behaviours, is administered during courses.ResultsOur first surveys achieved response rates of more than 97%. Up to 83% of enrolled students were reached. Undergraduate Health Sciences students reported health-risk behaviours, e.g. binge-drinking on 1 to 2 days (33.9%, regular cannabis use (4.2%, regular cognitive-enhancement (4.0%. Moreover, unhealthy diet was prevalent but almost all students were physically active.ConclusionsA short paper-pencil questionnaire administered during courses and conducted according to standardized processes provides complete data on students’ health with little effort. Trends can be determined, which assist in making decision whether to take action in prevention and/or to evaluate campaigns. These first results show the need for a more targeted health promotion action for students.

  14. 21 CFR 2.5 - Imminent hazard to the public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imminent hazard to the public health. 2.5 Section... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS AND DECISIONS General Provisions § 2.5 Imminent hazard to the public health... a significant threat of danger to health, creates a public health situation (1) that should be...

  15. The Surveillance Database Development of Risk Factor for Dengue Fever in Mataram District Health Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinawan Sinawan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available System of DHF epidemiological surveillance that is currently running in Mataram District Health Office has not been able to provide information about the incidence of DHF is based on risk factors. Besides, the process of manufacturing and analysis of data were still done manually, so the level of consistency and accuracy of data was still less. This research aimed to develop database surveillance risk factor of DHF incidence. This type of research is action research. This research was conducted at the Mataram District Health Office NTB province at April 2014 until August 2014, informants in this study consists of three (3 members, namely Head of P2PB Section, DHF P2 Program Manager and Surveillance Staff. The data used are primary and secondary data. Database design includes logical and physical design. Performed on the logic design is the normalization of the data, create relationships between data illustrates the entity relationship diagram (ERD and proceed to the physical design to create a prototype database using Epi Info software application for Windows version 3.5.1. Trial involving two (2 the informants. Evaluation trials database surveillance of risk factors DHF incidence to assess the ease, speed, accuracy and completeness of the resulting data. Results of this study is new database surveillance risk factor of DHF incidence that can be used easily, quickly and can be results more accurate information. Keywords: DHF, surveillance, risk factor, database.

  16. Health hazards and preventive measures of farm women. Emerging issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, Bonnie Juve; Carruth, Ann; Holland, Catherine B

    2002-07-01

    Currently, an increasing number of farms are family owned and women are directly involved in the farming operations as an independent manager or partner. Women play an important role in farm management by marketing farm products, purchasing materials, and financial planning. Because of this involvement, women can be exposed to potential health hazards that can result in chronic illness, debilitation, or death. This study explored and described health hazards affecting farm women in southeast Louisiana, preventive measures used by farm women, and their consistency in using protective equipment with varying levels of time commitment toward farm operations. This cross sectional study included women older than 18 whose family participated in farming operations. A stratified, random sample design with parishes comprising the strata and simple random selection without replacement within each stratum was used to select family addresses. A total of 519 women who met the criteria completed a structured 30 minute telephone interview conducted using The Louisiana Farm Health and Injury Survey instrument. Information elicited included farm work characteristics, prevention practices, and demographics. Results showed that women working 1 to 20 hours per week were less likely to wear personal protective equipment (PPE) than women working more than 20 hours per week. This included wearing seat belts on tractors; using hearing, eye, or breathing protection; and wearing gloves or boots. No differences were found between groups for use of skin protection, hair holders, or helmets on all terrain vehicles (ATVs). The researchers concluded that if nursing interventions such as teaching and counseling related to prevention methods could be provided, the incidence of acute and chronic illnesses and traumatic injury would decline.

  17. The Components of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF Surveillance System in Health Department of Kediri City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binti Mahfudhoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF was the dangerous infectious disease because it could cause fatality. Kediri City was the DHF endemic area. The Incident Rate in 2013 was about 99,28 per 100.000 population and CFR 0,73%. Effort to overcome DHF in Kediri City was implementing the better epidemiology surveillance system that able to monitor the desease regularly and continuously. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the implementation of DHF surveillance in Health Department of Kediri City. This research used the descriptive method with cross sectional design. Respondent was the functionary of DHF surveillance programme in Health Departement. Data resources consist of primer data and secondary data. The result of the research shown that data collection of DHF surveillance were routine and non-routine data, manpower and tools were sufficient, data collection method were active and passive, the frequency of data collection were monthly, quarterly, and incidentally. Punctuality was uncountable, the completeness of data were 47,9%, and the DHF form were sufficient. Data compilation based on people, time, place, and endemic area. Data analysis based on morbidity, mortality, and area stratification. Data interpretation consist of comparative analysis, coverage analysis, and kecenderungan analysis. The epidemiology information were the general information of DHF. Information dissemination were reporting of the DHF data to Health Department of East Java province and feedback to the public health center. Keywords: DHF, evaluation, surveillance, Kediri City

  18. People, pets, and parasites: one health surveillance in southeastern Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Janna M; Ndao, Momar; Quewezance, Helen; Elmore, Stacey A; Jenkins, Emily J

    2014-06-01

    Residents of remote and Indigenous communities might experience higher exposure to some zoonotic parasites than the general North American population. Human sero-surveillance conducted in two Saulteaux communities found 113 volunteers exposed as follows: Trichinella (2.7%), Toxocara canis (4.4%), Echinococcus (4.4%), and Toxoplasma gondii (1.8%). In dogs, 41% of 51 fecal samples were positive for at least one intestinal parasite, 3% of 77 were sero-positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, and 21% of 78 for T. gondii. Echinococcus exposure was more likely to occur in non-dog owners (odds ratio [OR]: 11.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-107, P = 0.03); while T. canis was more likely to occur in children (ages 4-17) (OR: 49, 95% CI: 3.9-624; P = 0.003), and those with a history of dog bites (OR: 13.5, 95% CI: 1.02-179; P = 0.048). Our results emphasize the use of dogs as sentinels for emerging pathogens such as Lyme disease, and the need for targeted surveillance and intervention programs tailored for parasite species, cultural groups, and communities. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Radon, Health and Natural Hazards and IGCP Project 571

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Robin; Gillmore, Gavin

    2010-05-01

    The first - launch - meeting of IGCP Project 571 (Radon, Health and Natural Hazards) was held at the 2009 EGU General Assembly and a total of 24 abstracts was submitted to the three formal sessions. Subsequently, formal communications networks have been established between lead groups in the UK, France, Poland, India and Taiwan and these networks are extending to include Ghana, the Czech Republic, Greece, Trinidad & Tobago, Spain, Japan and Canada. There is also the strong possibility of a UK-India Commonwealth Fellowship to support certain of the Project's activities. The presentation will comprise a review of the first year and set out objectives for the second and subsequent years, and will introduce the Project sessions and presentations at the 2010 EGU General Assembly. See also the session abstract.

  20. The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center: Global Emerging Infections Surveillance & Response System, FY 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    hemorrhagic fever, yellow fever, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Oropouche fever, Mayaro fever, hantaviral syndromes, epidemic typhus...growing issues within the fields of medicine and public health. For instance, Acinetobacter baumanni has been found to cause serious wound infections...Torres, H Razuri, J Perez, Y Valderrama, E Gotuzzo, L Suarez, M Cespedes and TJ Kochel (2010), “Venezuelan equine encephalitis and 2 human deaths

  1. [Surveillance in Spain 3 years since the enactment of the Public Health Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousa, Anxela; Godoy, Pere; Aragonés, Nuria; Cano, Rosa; Sierra, María José; González, Francisco; Mayoral, José María

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Epidemiological Surveillance Working Group of the Sociedad Española de Epidemiología (Spanish Society of Epidemiology), carried out a descriptive study in order to evaluate the level of development of the Spanish Public Health Law since its enactment in 2011. A survey collecting data on the existence of information systems and other aspects pertaining to each surveillance section included in the law was sent to all 19 autonomous communities and cities. All regional authorities reported the presence of an information system for communicable diseases, and six also reported an information system for social factors. 18 reported that at least one chronic disease was subject to surveillance and 14 confirmed surveillance of some of its determinants. They all systematically analysed the data derived from the communicable diseases. There is room for improvement in Public Health surveillance in Spain, and action should be aimed at the main health problems. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Challenging custom: rethinking national population surveillance policy in a global public health age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; Rosenbaum, Sara

    2010-12-01

    This article examines the current state of disease surveillance and reporting in the United States and seeks to answer two central questions: first, whether the increasing emphasis on the global importance of public health policies compels a fundamental reexamination of the long-standing deferential approach to state power where matters of population health surveillance are concerned and, second, how the nation's long-standing deferential legal customs might be modified to address the growing emphasis on global public health policy that is undergirded by technological advances. We examine the International Health Regulations, or IHR (2005), and suggest that these regulations offer a powerful impetus for reevaluating U.S. legal custom concerning the policy and practice of population health surveillance, not only as a matter of U.S. law but also as a core dimension of U.S. legal obligations to other nations, as embodied in international agreements and treaties. We find that if the political will exists to change the domestic disease surveillance and reporting system, the federal government has the power to act. Questions remain, however, about whether the public health and legislative communities are willing to challenge current customs or even if they desire to do so.

  3. Increasing the capacity of health surveillance assistants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mental health services in Malawi are centralized in the three tertiary units which are located one in each of the three regions of Malawi and this means that most people with mental health problems do not get help. With severe shortages of mental health professionals in the country, integration of mental health into existing ...

  4. Challenges of implementing the integrated disease surveillance and response strategy in Zambia: a health worker perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chomba Brian Mandyata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite advances in medical technology and public health practice at the global level over the past millennia, infectious diseases are still the leading causes of death in most resource limited countries. Stronger infectious disease surveillance and response systems in developed countries facilitated the near elimination of infectious disease related deaths in those countries. Today, low-income countries are following this path by strengthening disease surveillance and response strategies that would help reverse the trend in infectious disease associated morbidity and mortality cases. In 2000, Zambia adopted the World Health Organisation Regional Office for Africa’s (WHO-AFRO Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response Strategy (IDSR to monitor, prevent and control priority notifiable infectious diseases in the country. Through this strategy, activities pertaining to disease surveillance are coordinated and streamlined to take advantage of similar surveillance functions, skills, resources and targeted populations. The purpose of the study was to investigate and report on the existing challenges in the implementation of the IDSR strategy in a resource limited country from a health worker perspective. Methods A qualitative study approach was used to achieve the study aim. Data was collected through key informant interviews with selected persons at the Lusaka Province Health Office (LPHO; Lusaka and Chongwe District Health Management Team Offices; and four selected health facilities in the two districts (two from each. Thematic analysis approach was used to analyse the qualitative data. Results The major successes included operationalised response and epidemic preparedness at all levels (National to district; full-time staff and budget dedicated to disease surveillance at all levels and adoption of the 2010 World Health Organisations’ Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response Strategy technical guidelines to the Zambian

  5. Challenges of implementing the integrated disease surveillance and response strategy in Zambia: a health worker perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandyata, Chomba Brian; Olowski, Linda Kampata; Mutale, Wilbroad

    2017-09-26

    Despite advances in medical technology and public health practice at the global level over the past millennia, infectious diseases are still the leading causes of death in most resource limited countries. Stronger infectious disease surveillance and response systems in developed countries facilitated the near elimination of infectious disease related deaths in those countries. Today, low-income countries are following this path by strengthening disease surveillance and response strategies that would help reverse the trend in infectious disease associated morbidity and mortality cases. In 2000, Zambia adopted the World Health Organisation Regional Office for Africa's (WHO-AFRO) Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response Strategy (IDSR) to monitor, prevent and control priority notifiable infectious diseases in the country. Through this strategy, activities pertaining to disease surveillance are coordinated and streamlined to take advantage of similar surveillance functions, skills, resources and targeted populations. The purpose of the study was to investigate and report on the existing challenges in the implementation of the IDSR strategy in a resource limited country from a health worker perspective. A qualitative study approach was used to achieve the study aim. Data was collected through key informant interviews with selected persons at the Lusaka Province Health Office (LPHO); Lusaka and Chongwe District Health Management Team Offices; and four selected health facilities in the two districts (two from each). Thematic analysis approach was used to analyse the qualitative data. The major successes included operationalised response and epidemic preparedness at all levels (National to district); full-time staff and budget dedicated to disease surveillance at all levels and adoption of the 2010 World Health Organisations' Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response Strategy technical guidelines to the Zambian context. Several challenges hampered effective

  6. Animal Health Surveillance in Scotland in 2030: Using Scenario Planning to Develop Strategies in the Context of “Brexit”

    OpenAIRE

    Boden, Lisa A.; Auty, Harriet; Reeves, Aaron; Rydevik, Gustaf; Bessell, Paul; McKendrick, Iain J.

    2017-01-01

    Animal health surveillance is necessary to protect human and animal health, rural economies, and the environment from the consequences of large-scale disease outbreaks. In Scotland, since the Kinnaird review in 2011, efforts have been made to engage with stakeholders to ensure that the strategic goals of surveillance are better aligned with the needs of the end-users and other beneficiaries. The aims of this study were to engage with Scottish surveillance stakeholders and multidisciplinary ex...

  7. A One Health approach to antimicrobial resistance surveillance: is there a business case for it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queenan, Kevin; Häsler, Barbara; Rushton, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global problem of complex epidemiology, suited to a broad, integrated One Health approach. Resistant organisms exist in humans, animals, food and the environment, and the main driver of this resistance is antimicrobial usage. A One Health conceptual framework for surveillance is presented to include all of these aspects. Global and European (regional and national) surveillance systems are described, highlighting shortcomings compared with the framework. Policy decisions rely on economic and scientific evidence, so the business case for a fully integrated system is presented. The costs of integrated surveillance are offset by the costs of unchecked resistance and the benefits arising from interventions and outcomes. Current estimates focus on costs and benefits of human health outcomes. A One Health assessment includes wider societal costs of lost labour, changes in health-seeking behaviour, impacts on animal health and welfare, higher costs of animal-origin food production, and reduced consumer confidence in safety and international trade of such food. Benefits of surveillance may take years to realise and are dependent on effective and accepted interventions. Benefits, including the less tangible, such as improved synergies and efficiencies in service delivery and more timely and accurate risk identification, should also be recognised. By including these less tangible benefits to society, animal welfare, ecosystem health and resilience, together with the savings and efficiencies through shared resources and social capital-building, a stronger business case for a One Health approach to surveillance can be made. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  8. College Health Surveillance Network: Epidemiology and Health Care Utilization of College Students at US 4-Year Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, James C.; Keller, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This description of the College Health Surveillance Network (CHSN) includes methodology, demography, epidemiology, and health care utilization. Participants: Twenty-three universities representing approximately 730,000 enrolled students contributed data from January 1, 2011, through May 31, 2014. Methods: Participating schools uploaded…

  9. Epidemiological study of health hazards among workers handling engineered nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing, E-mail: shliou@nhri.org.tw; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Wang, Shu-Li; Li, Lih-Ann; Chiang, Hung-Che; Li, Wan-Fen; Lin, Pin-Pin [National Health Research Institutes, Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, Taiwan (China); Lai, Ching-Huang [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Public Health, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hui-Ling [Fu Jen Catholic University, Department of Chemistry, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Chen, Chiou-Rong [Council of Labor Affairs, Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Taiwan (China); Shih, Tung-Sheng [College of Public Health, China Medical University and Hospital, Institute of Environmental Health, Taiwan (China); Liao, Hui-Yi; Chung, Yu-Teh [National Health Research Institutes, Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20-100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than in control workers. A significantly decreasing gradient was found for SOD (control > RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose-response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p < 0.05 in test for trend). Depression of antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of

  10. Hazard-ranking of agricultural pesticides for chronic health effects in Yuma County, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugeng, Anastasia J; Beamer, Paloma I; Lutz, Eric A; Rosales, Cecilia B

    2013-10-01

    With thousands of pesticides registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it not feasible to sample for all pesticides applied in agricultural communities. Hazard-ranking pesticides based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize community-specific pesticide hazards. This study applied hazard-ranking schemes for cancer, endocrine disruption, and reproductive/developmental toxicity in Yuma County, Arizona. An existing cancer hazard-ranking scheme was modified, and novel schemes for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity were developed to rank pesticide hazards. The hazard-ranking schemes accounted for pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential based on chemical properties of each pesticide. Pesticides were ranked as hazards with respect to each health effect, as well as overall chronic health effects. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides for overall chronic health effects were maneb, metam-sodium, trifluralin, pronamide, and bifenthrin. The relative pesticide rankings were unique for each health effect. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides differed from those most heavily applied, as well as from those previously detected in Yuma homes over a decade ago. The most hazardous pesticides for cancer in Yuma County, Arizona were also different from a previous hazard-ranking applied in California. Hazard-ranking schemes that take into account pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize pesticides of greatest health risk in agricultural communities. This study is the first to provide pesticide hazard-rankings for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential. These hazard-ranking schemes can be applied to other agricultural communities for prioritizing community-specific pesticide hazards to target decreasing health risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hazard-Ranking of Agricultural Pesticides for Chronic Health Effects in Yuma County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugeng, Anastasia J.; Beamer, Paloma I.; Lutz, Eric A.; Rosales, Cecilia B.

    2013-01-01

    With thousands of pesticides registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it not feasible to sample for all pesticides applied in agricultural communities. Hazard-ranking pesticides based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize community-specific pesticide hazards. This study applied hazard-ranking schemes for cancer, endocrine disruption, and reproductive/developmental toxicity in Yuma County, Arizona. An existing cancer hazard-ranking scheme was modified, and novel schemes for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity were developed to rank pesticide hazards. The hazard-ranking schemes accounted for pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential based on chemical properties of each pesticide. Pesticides were ranked as hazards with respect to each health effect, as well as overall chronic health effects. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides for overall chronic health effects were maneb, metam sodium, trifluralin, pronamide, and bifenthrin. The relative pesticide rankings were unique for each health effect. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides differed from those most heavily applied, as well as from those previously detected in Yuma homes over a decade ago. The most hazardous pesticides for cancer in Yuma County, Arizona were also different from a previous hazard-ranking applied in California. Hazard-ranking schemes that take into account pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize pesticides of greatest health risk in agricultural communities. This study is the first to provide pesticide hazard-rankings for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential. These hazard-ranking schemes can be applied to other agricultural communities for prioritizing community-specific pesticide hazards to target decreasing health risk. PMID:23783270

  12. Vaccine and Immunization Surveillance in Ontario (VISION) - using linked health administrative databases to monitor vaccine safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kumanan; Hawken, Steven; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Deeks, Shelley L; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Manuel, Douglas

    2012-09-21

    Vaccine safety surveillance is a critical component of any population-wide vaccination program. In the province of Ontario, Canada we developed a vaccine safety surveillance system utilizing linked health administration databases. VISION (Vaccine and Immunization Surveillance in Ontario) has conducted population based self-controlled case series analyses to evaluate the safety of recommended pediatric vaccines in the general population and in specific subgroups. We present our experiences with developing this system including preliminary findings and challenges. Key methodological observations include: (1) aggregate health services data as an endpoint appears useful (2) graphical description of events following vaccination are valuable and (3) relative incidence ratios are helpful for overcoming the healthy vaccinee effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Malware and Disease: Lessons from Cyber Intelligence for Public Health Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frank L

    2016-01-01

    Malicious software and infectious diseases are similar is several respects, as are the functional requirements for surveillance and intelligence to defend against these threats. Given these similarities, this article compares and contrasts the actors, relationships, and norms at work in cyber intelligence and disease surveillance. Historical analysis reveals that civilian cyber defense is more decentralized, private, and voluntary than public health in the United States. Most of these differences are due to political choices rather than technical necessities. In particular, political resistance to government institutions has shaped cyber intelligence over the past 30 years, which is a troubling sign for attempts to improve disease surveillance through local, state, and federal health departments. Information sharing about malware is also limited, despite information technology being integral to cyberspace. Such limits suggest that automation through electronic health records will not automatically improve public health surveillance. Still, certain aspects of information sharing and analysis for cyber defense are worth emulating or, at the very least, learning from to help detect and manage health threats.

  14. Wisconsin’s Environmental Public Health Tracking Network: Information Systems Design for Childhood Cancer Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Lawrence P.; Anderson, Henry A.; Busby, Brian; Bekkedal, Marni; Sieger, Thomas; Stephenson, Laura; Knobeloch, Lynda; Werner, Mark; Imm, Pamela; Olson, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    In this article we describe the development of an information system for environmental childhood cancer surveillance. The Wisconsin Cancer Registry annually receives more than 25,000 incident case reports. Approximately 269 cases per year involve children. Over time, there has been considerable community interest in understanding the role the environment plays as a cause of these cancer cases. Wisconsin’s Public Health Information Network (WI-PHIN) is a robust web portal integrating both Health Alert Network and National Electronic Disease Surveillance System components. WI-PHIN is the information technology platform for all public health surveillance programs. Functions include the secure, automated exchange of cancer case data between public health–based and hospital-based cancer registrars; web-based supplemental data entry for environmental exposure confirmation and hypothesis testing; automated data analysis, visualization, and exposure–outcome record linkage; directories of public health and clinical personnel for role-based access control of sensitive surveillance information; public health information dissemination and alerting; and information technology security and critical infrastructure protection. For hypothesis generation, cancer case data are sent electronically to WI-PHIN and populate the integrated data repository. Environmental data are linked and the exposure–disease relationships are explored using statistical tools for ecologic exposure risk assessment. For hypothesis testing, case–control interviews collect exposure histories, including parental employment and residential histories. This information technology approach can thus serve as the basis for building a comprehensive system to assess environmental cancer etiology. PMID:15471739

  15. The Palm Wine Trade: Occupational and Health Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mbuagbaw

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The palm wine trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural areas worldwide. In West Africa, palm wine holds high sociocultural and traditional values. Wine tappers often climb very tall trees with rudimentary equipment to harvest palm sap and risk severe injuries in the event of a fall. Furthermore, the wine quickly ferments beyond the desired taste and alcohol content, reducing the market power of these tappers. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance shelf life, a variety of components are added to the palm tree sap, introducing the possibility of deadly contaminants. This paper highlights the public health implications of uncontrolled palm wine production and the relative neglect of the wine tapper. We draw from the limited published literature and use Cameroon as a case study. The palm wine trade can be more productive and safe if tappers work in cooperatives to improve their market power. Public health authorities need to monitor the quality of this cheap and common source of alcohol and enact regulations to protect wine tappers from the current level of occupational hazards. There are varying levels of progress to control quality and ensure safety in different parts of the world. Legislation and collaboration with traditional structures may offer a framework for change.

  16. Antibiotic, Pesticide, and Microbial Contaminants of Honey: Human Health Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori Al-Waili

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural contamination with pesticides and antibiotics is a challenging problem that needs to be fully addressed. Bee products, such as honey, are widely consumed as food and medicine and their contamination may carry serious health hazards. Honey and other bee products are polluted by pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria and radioactive materials. Pesticide residues cause genetic mutations and cellular degradation and presence of antibiotics might increase resistant human or animal's pathogens. Many cases of infant botulisms have been attributed to contaminated honey. Honey may be very toxic when produced from certain plants. Ingestion of honey without knowing its source and safety might be problematic. Honey should be labeled to explore its origin, composition, and clear statement that it is free from contaminants. Honey that is not subjected for analysis and sterilization should not be used in infants, and should not be applied to wounds or used for medicinal purposes. This article reviews the extent and health impact of honey contamination and stresses on the introduction of a strict monitoring system and validation of acceptable minimal concentrations of pollutants or identifying maximum residue limits for bee products, in particular, honey.

  17. A reallocation of rights in industries with reproductive health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J C; Giacomini, M K

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court ruling in United Automobile Workers versus Johnson Controls prohibits hiring policies that exclude fertile women from industries posing reproductive health risks to workers and fetuses. Many toxic substances that threaten the developing fetus also pose risks to adult male and female workers. Exclusionary employment policies are socially undesirable for the following reasons: they may lead to worse reproductive outcomes if the indirect effects of lower wages and less adequate health insurance in the alternative available jobs are considered. Second, the effect of such policies could damage the individual woman's overall well-being through its economic impact and her potential loss in autonomy. Third, occupational segregation into less hazardous but lower-paying jobs reinforces gender stereotypes that are restrictive to women. The Supreme Court ruling in the Johnson Controls case reaffirms the importance of the Civil Rights Act as both a shield against unfair treatment for individual women and a commitment to eradicate sexist attitudes and economic inequality throughout society.

  18. The palm wine trade: occupational and health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuagbaw, L; Noorduyn, S G

    2012-10-01

    The palm wine trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural areas worldwide. In West Africa, palm wine holds high sociocultural and traditional values. Wine tappers often climb very tall trees with rudimentary equipment to harvest palm sap and risk severe injuries in the event of a fall. Furthermore, the wine quickly ferments beyond the desired taste and alcohol content, reducing the market power of these tappers. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance shelf life, a variety of components are added to the palm tree sap, introducing the possibility of deadly contaminants. This paper highlights the public health implications of uncontrolled palm wine production and the relative neglect of the wine tapper. We draw from the limited published literature and use Cameroon as a case study. The palm wine trade can be more productive and safe if tappers work in cooperatives to improve their market power. Public health authorities need to monitor the quality of this cheap and common source of alcohol and enact regulations to protect wine tappers from the current level of occupational hazards. There are varying levels of progress to control quality and ensure safety in different parts of the world. Legislation and collaboration with traditional structures may offer a framework for change.

  19. Social media and internet-based data in global systems for public health surveillance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Edward; Agheneza, Tumacha; Denecke, Kerstin; Kirchner, Göran; Eckmanns, Tim

    2014-03-01

    The exchange of health information on the Internet has been heralded as an opportunity to improve public health surveillance. In a field that has traditionally relied on an established system of mandatory and voluntary reporting of known infectious diseases by doctors and laboratories to governmental agencies, innovations in social media and so-called user-generated information could lead to faster recognition of cases of infectious disease. More direct access to such data could enable surveillance epidemiologists to detect potential public health threats such as rare, new diseases or early-level warnings for epidemics. But how useful are data from social media and the Internet, and what is the potential to enhance surveillance? The challenges of using these emerging surveillance systems for infectious disease epidemiology, including the specific resources needed, technical requirements, and acceptability to public health practitioners and policymakers, have wide-reaching implications for public health surveillance in the 21st century. This article divides public health surveillance into indicator-based surveillance and event-based surveillance and provides an overview of each. We did an exhaustive review of published articles indexed in the databases PubMed, Scopus, and Scirus between 1990 and 2011 covering contemporary event-based systems for infectious disease surveillance. Our literature review uncovered no event-based surveillance systems currently used in national surveillance programs. While much has been done to develop event-based surveillance, the existing systems have limitations. Accordingly, there is a need for further development of automated technologies that monitor health-related information on the Internet, especially to handle large amounts of data and to prevent information overload. The dissemination to health authorities of new information about health events is not always efficient and could be improved. No comprehensive evaluations show

  20. Process Evaluation of a Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry J; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the implementation process of a workers' health surveillance (WHS) program in a Dutch meat processing company. Methods Workers from five plants were eligible to participate in the WHS program. The program consisted of four evaluative components and an intervention component.

  1. Voice disorders in teachers: critical review on the worker's health surveillance practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Maria da Conceição C Pessoa de; Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia de; Chiari, Brasilia Maria

    2012-01-01

    To analyze scientific bibliographic production on the practice of occupational health surveillance related to voice disorders in teachers. The Cochrane Handbook precepts which involves the formulation of the question to be investigated, the location, the studies selection and articles' critical evaluation were followed. The articles published between 2000 and 2011 were selected in the PubMed, LILACS, MEDLINE database, and the Cochrane Library using the descriptors voice disorders; teachers, occupational health, workers' health surveillance. Texts were analyzed, using a standardized form when the following data were collected: objectives, research design, characteristics of the study group, obtained results and discussion on the practice of surveillance related to voice disorder. Initially, 141 studies were identified. After reviewing the titles and abstracts, considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, verifying consistency with the topic researched and eliminating the ones which were concurrently in more than one database, 32 articles were effectively analyzed for relating in the findings and/or conclusions to the practice of surveillance related to voice disorders in teachers. The practice of monitoring workers' health was evidenced in this research mainly as the identification of risk factors associated with voice disorders in teachers, aimed at the transformation of the working conditions and the assurance of quality of assistance to these workers as professionals.

  2. Modern environmental health hazards: a public health issue of increasing significance in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C; Sanders, William H

    2009-06-01

    Traditional hazards such as poor sanitation currently account for most of Africa's environmentally related disease burden. However, with rapid development absent appropriate safeguards for environment and health, modern environmental health hazards (MEHHs) may emerge as critical contributors to the continent's disease burden. We review recent evidence of human exposure to and health effects from MEHHs, and their occurrence in environmental media and consumer products. Our purpose is to highlight the growing significance of these hazards as African countries experience urbanization, industrial growth, and development. We reviewed published epidemiologic, exposure, and environmental studies of chemical agents such as heavy metals and pesticides. The body of evidence demonstrates ongoing environmental releases of MEHHs and human exposures sometimes at toxicologically relevant levels. Several sources of MEHHs in environmental media have been identified, including natural resource mining and processing and automobile exhaust. Biomonitoring studies provided direct evidence of human exposure to metals such as mercury and lead and pesticides such as p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and organophosphates. Land and water resource pollution and industrial air toxics are areas of significant data gaps, notwithstanding the presence of several emitting sources. Unmitigated MEHH releases and human exposure have implications for Africa's disease burden. For Africans encumbered by conditions such as malnutrition that impair resilience to toxicologic challenges, the burden may be higher. A shift in public health policy toward accommodating the emerging diversity in Africa's environmental health issues is necessary to successfully alleviate the burden of avoidable ill health and premature death for all its communities now and in the future.

  3. Workers' Health Surveillance in the Meat Processing Industry: Work and Health Indicators Associated with Work Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Holland, Berry J; Soer, Remko; de Boer, Michiel R; Reneman, Michiel F; Brouwer, Sandra

    2015-09-01

    Workers' health surveillance (WHS) programs commonly measure a large number of indicators addressing health habits and health risks. Recently, work ability and functional capacity have been included as important risk measures in WHS. In order to address work ability appropriately, knowledge of associations with work and health measures is necessary. The objective of this study was to evaluate which of the factors measured in a WHS are independently associated with work ability in a group of meat processing workers. A cross-sectional study was performed in a large meat processing company in The Netherlands. Data were collected during a WHS between February 2012 and March 2014. Personal characteristics, health habits and health-risk indicators, functional capacity, and work-related factors were measured. Work ability was measured with the Work Ability Index and was used as dependent variable. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted, a receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Data sets from 230 employees were used for analyses. The average age was 53 years and the average work ability index score was 39.3. In the final multivariable model age (OR 0.94), systolic blood pressure (OR 1.03), need for recovery (OR 0.56), and overhead work capacity (OR 3.95) contributed significantly. The AUC for this model was 0.81 (95% CI 0.75-0.86). Findings from the current study indicate that multifactorial outcomes (age, systolic blood pressure, need for recovery, and overhead work capacity) from a WHS were independently associated with work ability. These factors can be used to assess employees at risk for low work ability and might provide directions for interventions.

  4. [Screening on key techniques used for surveillance and disposal of public health emergencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q R; Yang, L; Ma, H Y; Xie, W Q; Cong, L M; Xu, L W

    2017-06-10

    Objective: To explore the key techniques used for surveillance and disposal of infectious diseases, food poisoning and hospital infection to improve the ability of surveillance and disposal on public health emergency. Methods: Framework on surveillance and disposal of infectious diseases, food poisoning and hospital infection was set up, based on literature review and expert group discussion. Delphi method and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution comprehensive evaluation method were used for ordering preference by similarity, to screen key techniques set for surveillance and disposal of the above said events. Results: Framework to be used for selecting key techniques was designed, based on the classification of emergency events, processing cycle of emergency events and level of techniques. Twenty six public health experts were selected for a 2-round consultation, with their authority as 0.796. Ten key techniques with important significance for surveillance and disposal of infectious diseases, food poisoning and hospital infection were selected from each event. Among these key techniques, the early-warning system was recognized as the key technique, important for the surveillance and disposal of all three emergency events. Items as technology used for unknown pathogenic microorganism detection, personal protection, gene sequencing and tracing technology, microorganism molecular typing technology, nucleic acid detection technology etc . were the key techniques and need to develop for the surveillance and disposal of infectious diseases and iatrogenic infection. Data regarding key technologies on security and privacy, early warning and forecasting, field rapid detection were sorted out that all in need to improve the surveillance programs on disposal of infectious diseases and food poisoning. Data exchange appeared another key technique on infectious diseases, with toxin detection and other 5 techniques the key techniques for food poisoning

  5. GotFlu channel: an online syndromic surveillance tool supporting college health practice and public health work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Valerie; Shick-Porter, Melodie; Moore, Deborah; Grant, Darrell; Wolfe, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Develop a tool to ease the burden of H1N1 influenza on a campus clinic by promoting self-care, generating medical notes, and identifying vulnerable students. Students at Brock University, a mid-sized urban campus; Brock's Student Health Services; and Niagara Public Health. Students accessed a controlled portal of Brock's Web site and self-identified onset/offset of influenza-like symptoms. Daily sign-in numbers were monitored and nonidentifiable aggregate data transferred to the local public health unit. There was concordance among the number of college students signing in, local school absenteeism rates, and local rates of laboratory-confirmed influenza. Many visits to the campus health clinic were averted, 1,432 students used the tool. The online, real-time surveillance tool was effective in monitoring influenza activity on campus, providing timely health advice, decreasing unnecessary visits to the campus medical clinic, and assisting local public health in surveillance activities.

  6. Spatial analysis of under-5 mortality and potential risk factors in the Basse Health and Demographic Surveillance System, the Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, John; Jasseh, Momodou; Mackenzie, Grant; Castro, Marcia C

    2015-07-01

    To describe the spatial pattern in under-5 mortality rates in the Basse Health and Demographic Surveillance System (BHDSS) and to test for associations between under-5 deaths and biodemographic and socio-economic risk factors. Using data on child survival from 2007 to 2011 in the BHDSS, we mapped under-5 mortality by km(2) . We tested for spatial clustering of high or low death rates using Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. Associations between child death and a variety of biodemographic and socio-economic factors were assessed with Cox proportional hazards models, and deviance residuals from the best-fitting model were tested for spatial clustering. The overall death rate among children under 5 was 0.0195 deaths per child-year. We found two spatial clusters of high death rates and one spatial cluster of low death rates; children in the two high clusters died at a rate of 0.0264 and 0.0292 deaths per child-year, while in the low cluster, the rate was 0.0144 deaths per child-year. We also found that children born to Fula mothers experienced, on average, a higher hazard of death, whereas children born in the households in the upper two quintiles of asset ownership experienced, on average, a lower hazard of death. After accounting for the spatial distribution of biodemographic and socio-economic characteristics, we found no residual spatial pattern in child mortality risk. This study demonstrates that significant inequality in under-5 death rates can occur within a relatively small area (1100 km(2) ). Risks of under-5 mortality were associated with mother's ethnicity and household wealth. If high mortality clusters persist, then equity concerns may require additional public health efforts in those areas. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Determining Types of Health Effects To Persian Gulf Veterans Due To Exposure To Occupational Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Appiowed bw pub1be MA DVtbufi Unifted DETERMINING TYPES OF HEALTH EFFECTS TO PERSIAN GULF VETERANS DUE TO EXPOSURE TO OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS THESI S F...9_,* TLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS DETERMINING TYPES OF HEALTH EFFECTS TO PERSIAN GULF VETERANS DUE TO EXPOSURE TO OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS PE: 62202F WV...PERSIAN GULF VETERANS DUE TO EXPOSURE TO OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS THESIS Rebecca A. Nelson, Captain, USAF AFIT/GEE/ENV/95D Approved for public release

  8. [Chronic diseases as a priority for the public health surveillance system in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral Cortes, José María; Aragonés Sanz, Nuria; Godoy, Pere; Sierra Moros, María José; Cano Portero, Rosa; González Moran, Francisco; Pousa Ortega, Ánxela

    2016-01-01

    At present, epidemiological surveillance in Spain remains focused on the communicable diseases included in the list of notifiable diseases. However, there has been a change in epidemiological pattern that predominated until the last few decades of the twentieth century. Infectious diseases, which used to be the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, have given way to a predominance of chronic diseases. In this regard, progress has been made in the drafting and adoption of specific legal regulations on public health monitoring. However, Spain has yet to develop this legislation which, among other elements, includes the mandate to organize the surveillance of non-communicable diseases in Spain. This article aims to describe some points that should be considered in the development of a national surveillance system linked to existing strategies for the prevention and control of chronic diseases. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Work-related Mental Health Surveillance in Brazil: characteristics, difficulties, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Tania Maria; Palma, Tarciso de Figueiredo; Araújo, Natália do Carmo

    2017-10-01

    This paper addresses the challenges and difficulties in Work-related Mental Health (WMH) Surveillance in Brazil, based on a review of the bibliographic literature. From the compilation of identified academic research, it seeks to foster reflections about the current landscape of surveillance actions, its main obstacles, and possibilities for improvement. A survey of national publications was carried out using Scielo, Lilacs and PUBMED databases from 2002 until 2017. Systematizing the results allows us to group the following themes: Epidemiology of WMH in Brazil; Policies for WMH and VISAT; Work Environment for Mental Health; and, Actions and Interventions in the VISAT and WMH. The surveillance actions are still in the early stages; however, there is an effort to strengthen the RENAST, materialized in the creation of protocols and the promotion of national meetings which reflect the construction of a new surveillance model for worker health. We noted a search for new conceptual models of mental illness, a redefinition of the focus of care, and of intervention approaches highlighting the active role of workers, who are essential players in facing the challenges in this area.

  10. An agriculture and health inter-sectorial research process to reduce hazardous pesticide health impacts among smallholder farmers in the Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chacon Aura

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of highly hazardous pesticides by smallholder farmers constitutes a classic trans-sectoral ‘wicked problem’. We share our program of research in potato and vegetable farming communities in the Andean highlands, working with partners from multiple sectors to confront this problem over several projects. Methods We engaged in iterative cycles of mixed methods research around particular questions, actions relevant to stakeholders, new proposal formulation and implementation followed by evaluation of impacts. Capacity building occurred among farmers, technical personnel, and students from multiple disciplines. Involvement of research users occurred throughout: women and men farmers, non-governmental development organizations, Ministries of Health and Agriculture, and, in Ecuador, the National Council on Social Participation. Results Pesticide poisonings were more widespread than existing passive surveillance systems would suggest. More diversified, moderately developed agricultural systems had lower pesticide use and better child nutrition. Greater understanding among women of crop management options and more equal household gender relations were associated with reduced farm pesticide use and household pesticide exposure. Involvement in more organic agriculture was associated with greater household food security and food sovereignty. Markets for safer produce supported efforts by smallholder farmers to reduce hazardous pesticide use. Participatory interventions included: promoting greater access to alternative methods and inputs in a store co-sponsored by the municipality; producing less harmful inputs such as compost by women farmers; strengthening farmer organizations around healthier and more sustainable agriculture; marketing safer produce among social sectors; empowering farmers to act as social monitors; and using social monitoring results to inform decision makers. Uptake by policy makers has included: the

  11. Quality of sick child care delivered by Health Surveillance Assistants in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Gilroy, Kate E.; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Cardemil, Cristina V.; Nsona, Humphreys; Amouzou, Agbessi; Mtimuni, Angella; Daelmans, Bernadette; Mgalula, Leslie; Bryce, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the quality of care provided by Health Surveillance Assistants (HSAs)?a cadre of community-based health workers?as part of a national scale-up of community case management of childhood illness (CCM) in Malawi. Methods Trained research teams visited a random sample of HSAs (n = 131) trained in CCM and provided with initial essential drug stocks in six districts, and observed the provision of sick child care. Trained clinicians conducted ?gold-standard? reassessments of the ...

  12. The availability and consistency of dengue surveillance data provided online by the World Health Organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Ruberto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of high quality disease surveillance data has become increasingly important for public health action against new threats. In response, countries have developed a wide range of disease surveillance systems enabled by technological advancements. The heterogeneity and complexity of country data systems have caused a growing need for international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO to coordinate the standardization, integration, and dissemination of country disease data at the global level for research and policy. The availability and consistency of currently available disease surveillance data at the global level are unclear. We investigated this for dengue surveillance data provided online by the WHO.We extracted all dengue surveillance data provided online by WHO Headquarters and Regional Offices (RO's. We assessed the availability and consistency of these data by comparing indicators within and between sources. We also assessed the consistency of dengue data provided online by two example countries (Brazil and Indonesia. Data were available from WHO for 100 countries since 1955 representing a total of 23 million dengue cases and 82 thousand deaths ever reported to WHO. The availability of data on DengueNet and some RO's declined dramatically after 2005. Consistency was lacking between sources (84% across all indicators representing a discrepancy of almost half a million cases. Within sources, data at high spatial resolution were often incomplete.The decline of publicly available, integrated dengue surveillance data at the global level will limit opportunities for research, policy, and advocacy. A new financial and operational framework will be necessary for innovation and for the continued availability of integrated country disease data at the global level.

  13. Evidence and rationale for the World Health Organization recommended standards for Japanese encephalitis surveillance

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    Marfin Anthony

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese encephalitis (JE is the most important form of viral encephalitis in Asia. Surveillance for the disease in many countries has been limited. To improve collection of accurate surveillance data in order to increase understanding of the full impact of JE and monitor control programs, World Health Organization (WHO Recommended Standards for JE Surveillance have been developed. To aid acceptance of the Standards, we describe the process of development, provide the supporting evidence, and explain the rationale for the recommendations made in the document. Methods A JE Core Working Group was formed in 2002 and worked on development of JE surveillance standards. A series of questions on specific topics was initially developed. A literature review was undertaken and the findings were discussed and documented. The group then prepared a draft document, with emphasis placed on the feasibility of implementation in Asian countries. A field test version of the Standards was published by WHO in January 2006. Feedback was then sought from countries that piloted the Standards and from public health professionals in forums and individual meetings to modify the Standards accordingly. Results After revisions, a final version of the JE surveillance standards was published in August 2008. The supporting information is presented here together with explanations of the rationale and levels of evidence for specific recommendations. Conclusion Provision of the supporting evidence and rationale should help to facilitate successful implementation of the JE surveillance standards in JE-endemic countries which will in turn enable better understanding of disease burden and the impact of control programs.

  14. The availability and consistency of dengue surveillance data provided online by the World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberto, Irene; Marques, Ernesto; Burke, Donald S; Van Panhuis, Willem G

    2015-04-01

    The use of high quality disease surveillance data has become increasingly important for public health action against new threats. In response, countries have developed a wide range of disease surveillance systems enabled by technological advancements. The heterogeneity and complexity of country data systems have caused a growing need for international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) to coordinate the standardization, integration, and dissemination of country disease data at the global level for research and policy. The availability and consistency of currently available disease surveillance data at the global level are unclear. We investigated this for dengue surveillance data provided online by the WHO. We extracted all dengue surveillance data provided online by WHO Headquarters and Regional Offices (RO's). We assessed the availability and consistency of these data by comparing indicators within and between sources. We also assessed the consistency of dengue data provided online by two example countries (Brazil and Indonesia). Data were available from WHO for 100 countries since 1955 representing a total of 23 million dengue cases and 82 thousand deaths ever reported to WHO. The availability of data on DengueNet and some RO's declined dramatically after 2005. Consistency was lacking between sources (84% across all indicators representing a discrepancy of almost half a million cases). Within sources, data at high spatial resolution were often incomplete. The decline of publicly available, integrated dengue surveillance data at the global level will limit opportunities for research, policy, and advocacy. A new financial and operational framework will be necessary for innovation and for the continued availability of integrated country disease data at the global level.

  15. Role of information technology (IT) in public health, India (problems & prospects): Role of information communication technology (ICT) in disease surveillance under Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajeev; Luthra, Pallavi; Karad, Amit; Dhariwal, A C; Ichhpujani, R L; Lal, Shiv

    2010-06-01

    Information Communication Technology (ICT) has proven to be a strong public health tool. Keeping the future need of country and building National Disease Surveillance System, Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) was launched by Hon'ble Union Minister of Health & Family Welfare in November 2004. It is a decentralized, State based surveillance program in the country. It is intended to detect early warning signals of impending outbreaks and help initiate an effective response in a timely manner. One of the major components of the project is the - use of Information Technology for collection, collation, compilation, analysis and dissemination of data besides distance education and video conferencing. A network of 800 sites across India has been established through Satellite, Broadband and High end Video conferencing equipments. The network is managed by a team of data managers and data entry operators at all state surveillance units and district surveillance units respectively. The network was proven to be extremely useful to respond to the current influenza A H1N1 pandemic. It is proposed to extend the network to cover private sector and provide convergence with other National Health Programs.

  16. Technological solutions for an effective health surveillance system for road traffic crashes in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Emmanuel; Nikiéma, Aude; Traoré, Zoumana; Sidbega, Salifou; Ridde, Valéry

    2017-01-01

    In the early 2000s, electronic surveillance systems began to be developed to collect and transmit data on infectious diseases in low-income countries (LICs) in real-time using mobile technologies. Such surveillance systems, however, are still very rare in Africa. Among the non-infectious epidemics to be surveilled are road traffic injuries, which constitute major health events and are the fifth leading cause of mortality in Africa. This situation also prevails in Burkina Faso, whose capital city, Ouagadougou, is much afflicted by this burden. There is no surveillance system, but there have been occasional surveys, and media reports of fatal crashes are numerous and increasing in frequency. The objective of this article is to present the methodology and implementation of, and quality of results produced by, a prototype of a road traffic crash and trauma surveillance system in the city of Ouagadougou. A surveillance system was deployed in partnership with the National Police over a six-month period, from February to July 2015, across the entire city of Ouagadougou. Data were collected by all seven units of the city's National Police road crash intervention service. They were equipped with geotracers that geolocalized the crash sites and sent their positions by SMS (short message service) to a surveillance platform developed using the open-source tool Ushahidi. Descriptive statistical analyses and spatial analyses (kernel density) were subsequently performed on the data collected. The process of data collection by police officers functioned well. Researchers were able to validate the data collection on road crashes by comparing the number of entries in the platform against the number of reports completed by the crash intervention teams. In total, 873 crash scenes were recorded over 3 months. The system was accessible on the Internet for open consultation of the map of crash sites. Crash-concentration analyses were produced that identified 'hot spots' in the city

  17. Implementation of health and safety management system to reduce hazardous potential in PT.XYZ Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, L.; Adianto; Sartika, D. I.

    2017-12-01

    PT. XYZ is a large automotive manufacturing company that manufacture, assemble as well as a car exporter. The other products are spare parts, jig and dies. PT. XYZ has long been implementing the Occupational Safety and Health Management System (OSHMS) to reduce the potential hazards that cause work accidents. However, this does not mean that OSHMS that has been implemented does not need to be upgraded and improved. This is due to the potential danger caused by work is quite high. This research was conducted in Sunter 2 Plant where its production activities have a high level of potential hazard. Based on Hazard Identification risk assessment, Risk Assessment, and Risk Control (HIRARC) found 10 potential hazards in Plant Stamping Production, consisting of 4 very high risk potential hazards (E), 5 high risk potential hazards (H), and 1 moderate risk potential hazard (M). While in Plant Casting Production found 22 potential hazards findings consist of 7 very high risk potential hazards (E), 12 high risk potential hazards (H), and 3 medium risk potential hazards (M). Based on the result of Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), the main priority is the high risk potential hazards (H) and very high risk potential hazards (E). The proposed improvement are to make the visual display of the importance of always using the correct Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), establishing good working procedures, conducting OSH training for workers on a regular basis, and continuing to conduct safety campaigns.

  18. Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Sarah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR[2005] offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimize interventions. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Cooperative Biologica Engagement Program (CBEP works with partner countries across clinical, veterinary, epidemiological, and laboratory communities to enhance national disease surveillance, detection, diagnostic, and reporting capabilities. CBEP, like many other capacity building programs, has wrestled with ways to improve partner country buy-in and ownership and to develop sustainable solutions that impact integrated disease surveillance outcomes. Designing successful implementation strategies represents a complex and challenging exercise and requires robust and transparent collaboration at the country level. To address this challenge, the Laboratory Systems Development Branch of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and CBEP have partnered to create a set of tools that brings together key leadership of the surveillance system into a deliberate system design process. This process takes into account strengths and limitations of the existing system, how the components inter-connect and relate to one another, and how they can be systematically refined within the local context. The planning tools encourage cross-disciplinary thinking, critical evaluation and analysis of existing capabilities, and discussions across organizational and departmental lines toward a shared course of action and purpose. The underlying concepts and methodology of these tools are presented here.

  19. Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboy, Celine H; Chapman, Will; Albetkova, Adilya; Kennedy, Sarah; Rayfield, Mark A

    2010-12-03

    The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO) Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimize interventions. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) works with partner countries across clinical, veterinary, epidemiological, and laboratory communities to enhance national disease surveillance, detection, diagnostic, and reporting capabilities. CBEP, like many other capacity building programs, has wrestled with ways to improve partner country buy-in and ownership and to develop sustainable solutions that impact integrated disease surveillance outcomes. Designing successful implementation strategies represents a complex and challenging exercise and requires robust and transparent collaboration at the country level. To address this challenge, the Laboratory Systems Development Branch of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and CBEP have partnered to create a set of tools that brings together key leadership of the surveillance system into a deliberate system design process. This process takes into account strengths and limitations of the existing system, how the components inter-connect and relate to one another, and how they can be systematically refined within the local context. The planning tools encourage cross-disciplinary thinking, critical evaluation and analysis of existing capabilities, and discussions across organizational and departmental lines toward a shared course of action and purpose. The underlying concepts and methodology of these tools are presented here.

  20. Occupational health hazards among health care workers of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ghavidel

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and AimsBiological hazards exist throughout all healthcare settings and include airborne and blood borne pathogens. Health care workers are also subject to exposure to hazardous chemicals such as disinfectants and sterilizing agents. In addition to the traditional aforementioned categories of occupational hazards, health care workers experience the stress of being directly responsible for the care of very sick and dying patients, which, coupled with  increasing workloads, can seriously threaten their health and well-being.MethodsThe study population was all hospital staff (# 207, of whom198 health care workers eventually participated in the study. The questionnaires were administered to doctors, nurses and ward orderlies in Shahid Sadoughi Teaching Hospital Yazd, Iran. Data were analyzed by SPSS11.5 software using Fisher's exact and Chi square tests.ResultsThe common occupational health hazards were work-related stress (60.1%, bloodstains on skin (51%, needle-stick injuries (42.9%, assault from patients (21.2%, skin reaction (19.2%, sleep disturbance (15.2%, stew blood on mucosal (3.1% and use of drugs (4.5%. Nearly 4.5% of the staff used tranquilizers to cope with the work stress. A greater percentage of doctors compared to nurses and ward orderlies used safety precautions such as gloves, facemasks and aprons. 70.2% staff employed regular hand-washing after various procedures 68.2% of staff adopted regularly proper disposal of needles and sharps into separate puncture resistant containers. About 55.6% of the staff recap used needles.ConclusionIn according to frequent types of occupational related dangers, corporation between chiefs and members of health care center to decrease these seems wishful and we recommend preparing and distributing necessary guidelines with related awareness among these groups.

  1. Recent advances in occupational and environmental health hazards of workers exposed to gasoline compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Asuquo, Asuquo E

    2017-02-21

    The impact of health and environmental hazards, associated with the constituents of gasoline, on occupationally exposed workers has been recorded over the past few decades. However, the scientific literature on their pathogenic potential remains incomplete, which could affect the current understanding of the associated health risks. This review provides current information based on recently improved research techniques to evaluate gasoline toxicity profiles for humans. Our current knowledge provides insight into the intricate mechanism of gasoline-induced adverse effects, including the formation of reactive metabolites via bio-activation and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress, which are involved in multiple mechanisms that are central to the aetiology of gasoline-induced toxicity. These mechanisms include covalent binding to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), leading to oxidative damage, tumor-suppression gene activity, and activation of pro-oncogenes. Furthermore, it results in induction of autoimmunity and local inflammatory responses, disruption of multiple neurotransmitters and immune cell function, derangement of various enzyme activities (e.g., sodiumpotassium adenosine triphosphate (Na+/K+/ATPase) activity, cytochrome P450 (CYP450), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), antioxidant enzyme activities, etc.), conjugation of bile, and non-specific cell membrane interaction, leading to damage of the membrane lipid bilayer and proteins. Available data suggests that exposure to gasoline or gasoline constituents have the potential to cause different types of illnesses. The data highlights the need to maintain safety measures via suitable research, medical surveillance, regulatory control, life style modification, early detection, and intervention to minimize exposure and manage suspected cases. They also present novel opportunities to design and develop effective therapeutic strategies against gasoline-induced detrimental effects. Int J

  2. Recent advances in occupational and environmental health hazards of workers exposed to gasoline compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E. Ekpenyong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of health and environmental hazards, associated with the constituents of gasoline, on occupationally exposed workers has been recorded over the past few decades. However, the scientific literature on their pathogenic potential remains incomplete, which could affect the current understanding of the associated health risks. This review provides current information based on recently improved research techniques to evaluate gasoline toxicity profiles for humans. Our current knowledge provides insight into the intricate mechanism of gasoline-induced adverse effects, including the formation of reactive metabolites via bio-activation and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress, which are involved in multiple mechanisms that are central to the aetiology of gasoline-induced toxicity. These mechanisms include covalent binding to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, leading to oxidative damage, tumor-suppression gene activity, and activation of pro-oncogenes. Furthermore, it results in induction of autoimmunity and local inflammatory responses, disruption of multiple neurotransmitters and immune cell function, derangement of various enzyme activities (e.g., sodiumpotassium adenosine triphosphate (Na+/K+/ATPase activity, cytochrome P450 (CYP450, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, antioxidant enzyme activities, etc., conjugation of bile, and non-specific cell membrane interaction, leading to damage of the membrane lipid bilayer and proteins. Available data suggests that exposure to gasoline or gasoline constituents have the potential to cause different types of illnesses. The data highlights the need to maintain safety measures via suitable research, medical surveillance, regulatory control, life style modification, early detection, and intervention to minimize exposure and manage suspected cases. They also present novel opportunities to design and develop effective therapeutic strategies against gasoline-induced detrimental

  3. Impacts of natural hazards on primary health care facilities of iran: a 10-year retrospective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, Ali; Mowafi, Hani; Khoshsabeghe, Homa Yousefi

    2013-06-28

    Public health facilities in Iran are exposed to a wide range of natural hazards. This article presents the first survey of the impacts of such natural hazards on primary health care (PHC) centers in Iran from 2001 to 2011. A retrospective survey was conducted in 25 out of 30 provinces of Iran. Archival reports at provincial public health departments were cross-referenced with key informant interviews. During a 10-year period, 119 natural hazard events were recorded that led to physical damage and/or functional failure in 1,401 health centers, 127 deaths and injury or illness in 644 health staff. Earthquakes accounted for the most physical damage and all health-worker deaths. However, there was an increasing trend of impacts due to hydro-meteorological hazards. Iran's health system needs to establish a registry to track the impact of natural hazards on health facilities, conduct regular hazard and vulnerability assessments and increase mitigation and preparedness measures. Disaster, primary health care, facility, Iran, natural hazard Corresponding author: Ali Ardalan MD, PhD. Iran's National Institute of Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Harvard Humanitarian Initiative. Email: aardalan@tums.ac.ir.

  4. [Reflections on and contributions to the Ministry of Health's Integrated Plan on Health Surveillance Actions for People Exposed to Pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisés, Marcia; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet; Peres, Frederico; Hennington, Elida; Beltrami, Aramis Cardoso; Beltrami Neto, Adelcki Camilo

    2011-08-01

    This paper highlights the issue of human and environmental contamination caused by abusive and undue use of pesticides and of its consequences for human health and the environment. It seeks to present reflections on and contributions to the Ministry of Health's Integrated Plan on Health Surveillance Actions for People Exposed to Pesticides arising from the Federal District Assessment and Control Project for Human and Environmental Exposure. The methodology used in this study consisted of reading and analysis of reports from the aforementioned projects, as well as participating in preliminary meetings for drafting the General Coordination Plan for Environmental Health Surveillance and the workshop entitled "The integration of Occupational Health Surveillance and Sanitary Vigilance: the information issue." This was coordinated by the Occupational Health Working Group of the Brazilian Public Health Association and in meetings and workshops of the Federal District Project. The outcome of the discussions suggests that the investigation strategy used is a positive contribution and that the Federal District Project may serve as a pilot project for the Ministry of Health's Integrated Plan.

  5. Impacts of culture-independent diagnostic practices on public health surveillance for bacterial enteric pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronquist, Alicia B; Mody, Rajal K; Atkinson, Robyn; Besser, John; Tobin D'Angelo, Melissa; Hurd, Sharon; Robinson, Trisha; Nicholson, Cynthia; Mahon, Barbara E

    2012-06-01

    For decades, culture has been the mainstay of diagnostic testing for bacterial enteric pathogens. This paradigm is changing as clinical laboratories adopt culture-independent methods, such as antigen-based tests and nucleic acid-based assays. Public health surveillance for enteric infections addresses 4 interrelated but distinct objectives: case investigation for localized disease control; assessment of disease burden and trends to prioritize and assess impact of population-based control measures; outbreak detection; and microbiologic characterization to improve understanding of pathogens, their virulence mechanisms, and epidemiology. We summarize the challenges and opportunities that culture-independent tests present and suggest strategies, such as validation studies and development of culture-independent tests compatible with subtyping, that could be adopted to ensure that surveillance remains robust. Many of these approaches will require time and resources to implement, but they will be necessary to maintain a strong surveillance system. Public health practitioners must clearly explain the value of surveillance, especially how outbreak detection benefits the public, and collaborate with all stakeholders to develop solutions.

  6. A new source of data for public health surveillance: Facebook likes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelman, Steven; Lange, Victor; Gotway Crawford, Carol A; Okoro, Catherine A; Lieb, Eugene; Dhingra, Satvinder S; Trimarchi, Elaine

    2015-04-20

    Investigation into personal health has become focused on conditions at an increasingly local level, while response rates have declined and complicated the process of collecting data at an individual level. Simultaneously, social media data have exploded in availability and have been shown to correlate with the prevalence of certain health conditions. Facebook likes may be a source of digital data that can complement traditional public health surveillance systems and provide data at a local level. We explored the use of Facebook likes as potential predictors of health outcomes and their behavioral determinants. We performed principal components and regression analyses to examine the predictive qualities of Facebook likes with regard to mortality, diseases, and lifestyle behaviors in 214 counties across the United States and 61 of 67 counties in Florida. These results were compared with those obtainable from a demographic model. Health data were obtained from both the 2010 and 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and mortality data were obtained from the National Vital Statistics System. Facebook likes added significant value in predicting most examined health outcomes and behaviors even when controlling for age, race, and socioeconomic status, with model fit improvements (adjusted R(2)) of an average of 58% across models for 13 different health-related metrics over basic sociodemographic models. Small area data were not available in sufficient abundance to test the accuracy of the model in estimating health conditions in less populated markets, but initial analysis using data from Florida showed a strong model fit for obesity data (adjusted R(2)=.77). Facebook likes provide estimates for examined health outcomes and health behaviors that are comparable to those obtained from the BRFSS. Online sources may provide more reliable, timely, and cost-effective county-level data than that obtainable from traditional public health surveillance systems as

  7. Comparative risk judgements for oral health hazards among Norwegian adults: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åstrøm Anne

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study identified optimistic biases in health and oral health hazards, and explored whether comparative risk judgements for oral health hazards vary systematically with socio-economic characteristics and self-reported risk experience. Methods A simple random sample of 1,190 residents born in 1972 was drawn from the population resident in three counties of Norway. A total of 735 adults (51% women completed postal questionnaires at home. Results Mean ratings of comparative risk judgements differed significantly (p Conclusion Optimism in comparative judgements for health and oral health hazards was evident in young Norwegian adults. When judging their comparative susceptibility for oral health hazards, they consider personal health situation and risk behaviour experience.

  8. ORBiT: Oak Ridge Bio-surveillance Toolkit for Public Health Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, Arvind [ORNL; Pullum, Laura L [ORNL; Hobson, Tanner C [ORNL; Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Chennubhotla, Chakra [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine; Quinn, Shannon [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

    2015-01-01

    With novel emerging infectious diseases being reported across different parts of the world, there is a need to build effective bio-surveillance systems that can track, monitor and report such events in a timely manner. Apart from monitoring for emerging disease outbreaks, it is also important to identify susceptible geographic regions and populations where these diseases may have a significant impact. The digitization of health related information through electronic health records (EHR) and electronic healthcare claim reimbursements (eHCR) and the continued growth of self-reported health information through social media provides both tremendous opportunities and challenges in developing novel public health surveillance tools. In this paper, we present an overview of Oak Ridge Bio-surveillance Toolkit (ORBiT), which we have developed specifically to address data analytic challenges in the realm of public health surveillance. In particular, ORBiT provides an extensible environment to pull together diverse, large-scale datasets and analyze them to identify spatial and temporal patterns for various bio-surveillance related tasks. We demonstrate the utility of ORBiT in automatically extracting a small number of spatial and temporal patterns during the 2009-2010 pandemic H1N1 flu season using eHCR data. These patterns provide quantitative insights into the dynamics of how the pandemic flu spread across different parts of the country. We discovered that the eHCR data exhibits multi-scale patterns from which we could identify a small number of states in the United States (US) that act as bridge regions contributing to one or more specific influenza spread patterns. Similar to previous studies, the patterns show that the south-eastern regions of the US were widely affected by the H1N1 flu pandemic. Several of these south-eastern states act as bridge regions, which connect the north-east and central US in terms of flu occurrences. These quantitative insights show how the e

  9. Health system and law enforcement synergies for injury surveillance, control and prevention: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Sara F; Kollar, Laura M Mercer; Ridgeway, Greg; Sumner, Steven A

    2017-09-29

    Healthcare providers and law enforcement (LE) officers are among the most common first responders to injuring events. Despite frequent interface between the health system (HS) and LE sectors, the published evidence that supports their collaboration in injury surveillance, control and prevention has not been comprehensively reviewed. We conducted a scoping review of literature published from 1990 to 2016 that focused on local and regional HS and LE collaborations in injury surveillance, control and prevention. Our aim was to describe what is known and what remains unexplored about these cross-sector efforts. 128 articles were included in the final review. These were categorised by their focus on either surveillance activities or partnerships in injury control and prevention programmes. The majority of surveillance articles focused on road traffic injuries. Conversely, articles describing partnerships and programme evaluations primarily targeted the prevention of interpersonal violence. This review yielded two major findings: overall, the combination of HS and LE injury data added value to surveillance systems, especially as HS data augmented LE data; and HS and LE partnerships have been developed to improve injury control and prevention. However, there are few studies that have evaluated the impact and sustainability of these partnerships. The current evidence to support HS and LE collaboration in injury surveillance and control and prevention programmes is heterogeneous. Notable gaps suggest ample opportunity for further research and programme evaluation across all types of injury. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Parasitic zoonoses: one health surveillance in northern Saskatchewan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna M Schurer

    Full Text Available We report the results of a joint human-animal health investigation in a Dene community in northern Saskatchewan, where residents harvest wildlife (including moose, bear, elk, and fish, live in close contact with free roaming dogs, and lack access to permanent veterinary services. Fecal analysis of owned and free-roaming dogs over two consecutive years (N = 92, 103 identified several parasites of public health concern, including Toxocara canis, Diphyllobothrium spp., Echinococcus/Taenia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. Administration of pyrantel pamoate to a subset of dogs (N = 122 in the community in the first year was followed by reduced shedding of T. canis and other roundworms in the second year, demonstrating the potential utility of canine de-worming as a public health intervention. Using direct agglutination tests with confirmatory indirect fluorescent antibody test, 21% of 47 dogs were sero-positive for exposure to Toxoplasma gondii. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA sero-prevalence rates in 201 human volunteers were as follows: Toxoplasma gondii (14%, Echinococcus granulosus (48%, Toxocara canis (13% and Trichinella spp. (16%. Overall 65% of participants were sero-positive for at least one parasite. A survey administered to volunteers indicated few associations between widely accepted risk factors for parasite exposure and serological status, emphasizing the importance of environmental transmission of these parasites through soil, food, and waterborne routes.

  11. The London Underground: Dust and Hazards to Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. Seaton; J. Cherrie; M. Dennekamp; K. Donaldson; J. F. Hurley; C. L. Tran

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To assess hazards associated with exposure to dust in the London Underground railway and to provide an informed opinion on the risks to workers and the travelling public of exposure to tunnel dust. Methods...

  12. Assessment of the Acute and Chronic Health Hazards of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattenberg, Elizabeth V; Bielicki, Jeffrey M; Suchomel, Ashley E; Sweet, Jessica T; Vold, Elizabeth M; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about how hydraulic fracturing affects public health because this activity involves handling large volumes of fluids that contain toxic and carcinogenic constituents, which are injected under high pressure through wells into the subsurface to release oil and gas from tight shale formations. The constituents of hydraulic fracturing fluids (HFFs) present occupational health risks because workers may be directly exposed to them, and general public health risks because of potential air and water contamination. Hazard identification, which focuses on the types of toxicity that substances may cause, is an important step in the complex health risk assessment of hydraulic fracturing. This article presents a practical and adaptable tool for the hazard identification of HFF constituents, and its use in the analysis of HFF constituents reported to be used in 2,850 wells in North Dakota between December 2009 and November 2013. Of the 569 reported constituents, 347 could be identified by a Chemical Abstract Service Registration Number (CASRN) and matching constituent name. The remainder could not be identified either because of trade secret labeling (210) or because of an invalid CASRN (12). Eleven public databases were searched for health hazard information on thirteen health hazard endpoints for 168 identifiable constituents that had at least 25 reports of use. Health hazard counts were generated for chronic and acute endpoints, including those associated with oral, inhalation, ocular, and dermal exposure. Eleven of the constituents listed in the top 30 by total health hazard count were also listed in the top 30 by reports of use. This includes naphthalene, which along with benzyl chloride, has the highest health hazard count. The top 25 constituents reportedly used in North Dakota largely overlap with those reported for Texas and Pennsylvania, despite different geologic formations, target resources (oil vs. gas), and disclosure requirements

  13. Strengthening health security at the Hajj mass gatherings: characteristics of the infectious diseases surveillance systems operational during the 2015 Hajj.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Badriah M; Yezli, Saber; Bin Saeed, Abdul-Aziz A; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Alawam, Amnah H; Bieh, Kingsley L

    2017-05-01

    Hajj is one of the largest and the most ethnically and culturally diverse mass gatherings worldwide. The use of appropriate surveillance systems ensures timely information management for effective planning and response to infectious diseases threats during the pilgrimage. The literature describes infectious diseases prevention and control strategies for Hajj but with limited information on the operations and characteristics of the existing Hajj infectious diseases surveillance systems. We reviewed documents, including guidelines and reports from the Saudi Ministry of Health's database, to describe the characteristics of the infectious diseases surveillance systems that were operational during the 2015 Hajj, highlighting best practices and gaps and proposing strategies for strengthening and improvement. Using Pubmed and Embase online search engines and a combination of search terms including, 'mass gatherings' 'Olympics' 'surveillance' 'Hajj' 'health security', we explored the existing literature and highlighted some lessons learnt from other international mass gatherings. A regular indicator-based infectious disease surveillance system generates routine reports from health facilities within the Kingdom to the regional and central public health directorates all year round. During Hajj, enhanced indicator-based notifiable diseases surveillance systems complement the existing surveillance tool to ensure timely reporting of event information for appropriate action by public health officials. There is need to integrate the existing Hajj surveillance data management systems and to implement syndromic surveillance as an early warning system for infectious disease control during Hajj. International engagement is important to strengthen Hajj infectious diseases surveillance and to prevent disease transmission and globalization of infectious agents which could undermine global health security.

  14. [Thirty Years of Health Surveillance of Foods in Barcelona: The "ICSA" Food Quality Research Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontcuberta-Famadas, Mireia; Rodellar-Torras, Santiago; Portaña-Tudela, Samuel; Durán-Neira, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The Food Health Quality Research Program (Investigación de la Calidad Sanitaria de los Alimentos [ICSA]) of the Public Health Agency of Barcelona (Agencia de Salud Pública de Barcelona [ASPB]) was initiated in 1984 to carry out surveillance of certain chemical and microbiological parameters related to the sanitary and safety of foods sold in the city. The present article analyzes the importance of health surveillance and provides details of the uses of the ICSA program. The main aim of this program is to evaluate whether marketed foods comply with the absence and/or established tolerance levels of specific parameters. Nevertheless, the program is able to incorporate or suppress parameters or foods that pose emerging dangers or interests not represented in current legislation. Besides, the program not only obtains a view of the parameters studied at a specific time period in each report, but also accumulates data over time, allowing risk assessment, calculation of dietary intake of contaminants, analysis of tendencies, and evaluation of the effectiveness of regulations to reduce contaminants. The program can also help in the planning of food control programs. The information obtained is disseminated nationally and internationally and is included in dossiers of contaminants issued by national and European health agencies. This demonstrates that a locally-developed surveillance system can have a wider scope and broader objectives and can provide useful information for managers, administrations, economic operators and consumers.

  15. Public health surveillance of dental pain via Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaivilin, N; Gerbert, B; Page, J E; Gibbs, J L

    2011-09-01

    On Twitter, people answer the question, "What are you doing right now?" in no more than 140 characters. We investigated the content of Twitter posts meeting search criteria relating to dental pain. A set of 1000 tweets was randomly selected from 4859 tweets over 7 non-consecutive days. The content was coded using pre-established, non-mutually-exclusive categories, including the experience of dental pain, actions taken or contemplated in response to a toothache, impact on daily life, and advice sought from the Twitter community. After excluding ambiguous tweets, spam, and repeat users, we analyzed 772 tweets and calculated frequencies. Of the sample of 772 tweets, 83% (n = 640) were primarily categorized as a general statement of dental pain, 22% (n = 170) as an action taken or contemplated, and 15% (n = 112) as describing an impact on daily activities. Among the actions taken or contemplated, 44% (n = 74) reported seeing a dentist, 43% (n = 73) took an analgesic or antibiotic medication, and 14% (n = 24) actively sought advice from the Twitter community. Twitter users extensively share health information relating to dental pain, including actions taken to relieve pain and the impact of pain. This new medium may provide an opportunity for dental professionals to disseminate health information.

  16. A survey of occupational health hazards among 7,610 female workers in China's electronics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenlan; Lao, Xiang Qian; Pang, Shulan; Zhou, Jianjiao; Zhou, Anshou; Zou, Jianfang; Mei, Liangying; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the occupational hazards among Chinese female workers in the electronics industry, the authors systematically sampled a total of 8,300 female workers at random across 4 provinces in a variety of electronics factories. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect information on occupational hazards and the occurrence of occupation-related diseases. The results show that 4,283 female workers (51.9%) were exposed to 1 or more occupational hazards. The most common chemical hazard was organic solvent, and the second most common was heavy metals. The ergonomic hazards included repetitive movements, poor standing posture, and the lifting of heavy goods. More than 60% of the female workers self-reported occupation-related diseases. These results showed that occupational health hazards were common in the electronics industry in China and that they caused serious occupation-related health problems for the female workers therein.

  17. Utility of MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth for Estimating PM2.5 Exposure in Environmental Public Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Limaye, Ashutosh; Rickman, Doug; Quattrochi, Dale; Estes, Maury; Adeniyi, Kafayat; Qualters, Judith; Niskar, Amanda Sue

    2006-01-01

    As part of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN) the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is leading a project called Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELIX-Atlanta). The goal of developing the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is to improve the health of communities. Currently, few systems exist at the state or national level to concurrently track many of the exposures and health effects that might be associated with environmental hazards. An additional challenge is estimating exposure to environmental hazards such as particulate matter whose aerodynamic diameter is less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (PM(2.5)) HELIX-Atlanta's goal is to examine the feasibility of building an integrated electronic health and environmental data network in five counties of Metropolitan Atlanta, GA (Clayton, Cobb, DeKalb, Fulton, and Gwinnett counties). Under HELIX-Atlanta, pilot projects are being conducted to develop methods to characterize exposure; link health and environmental data; analyze the relationship between health and environmental factors; and communicate findings. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) is collaborating with CDC to combine NASA earth science satellite observations related to air quality and environmental monitoring data to model surface estimates of PM(2.5) concentrations that can be linked with clinic visits for asthma. From 1999-2000 there were over 9,400 hospitalizations per year in Georgia with asthma as the primary diagnosis. The majority of these hospitalizations occurred in medical facilities in the five most populous Metro-Atlanta counties. Hospital charges resulting from asthma in Georgia are approximately $59 million dollars annually. There is evidence in the research literature that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to environmental factors

  18. Hazard surveillance for workplace magnetic fields. 1: Walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient field magnitude; 2: Field characteristics from waveform measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Methner, M.M.; Bowman, J.D.

    1998-03-01

    Recent epidemiologic research has suggested that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) may be associated with leukemia, brain cancer, spontaneous abortions, and Alzheimer`s disease. A walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient ELF-MF levels was developed for use in conducting occupational hazard surveillance. This survey was designed to determine the range of MF levels at different industrial facilities so they could be categorized by MF levels and identified for possible subsequent personal exposure assessments. Industries were selected based on their annual electric power consumption in accordance with the hypothesis that large power consumers would have higher ambient MFs when compared with lower power consumers. Sixty-two facilities within thirteen 2-digit Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) were selected based on their willingness to participate. A traditional industrial hygiene walkaround survey was conducted to identify MF sources, with a special emphasis on work stations.

  19. Workplace health hazards: analysis of hotline calls over a six-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quint, J; Handley, M; Cummings, K

    1990-01-01

    Between 1981-1986 a state-based occupational health telephone hotline received more than 8,000 inquiries on over 3,000 hazardous agents. Major caller groups were employees (37%), employers (20%), health care providers, primarily physicians (19%), government agencies (12%), and labor unions (6%). Employees were the fastest growing caller group. Callers inquired about general health hazards of chemicals (65%), the relation of symptoms to work (22%), and risks to pregnancy (13%). PMID:2297067

  20. Defining Arthritis for Public Health Surveillance: Methods and Estimates in Four US Population Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Louise B; Cisternas, Miriam G; Greenlund, Kurt J; Giles, Wayne; Hannan, Casey; Helmick, Charles G

    2017-03-01

    To determine the variability of arthritis prevalence in 4 US population health surveys. We estimated annualized arthritis prevalence in 2011-2012, among adults age ≥20 years, using 2 definition methods, both based on self-report: 1) doctor-/health care provider-diagnosed arthritis in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS); and 2) three arthritis definitions based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) criteria in MEPS (National Arthritis Data Workgroup on Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Conditions [NADW-AORC], Clinical Classifications Software [CCS], and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]). Diagnosed arthritis prevalence percentages using the surveys were within 3 points of one another (BRFSS 26.2% [99% confidence interval (99% CI) 26.0-26.4], MEPS 26.1% [99% CI 25.0-27.2], NHIS 23.5% [99% CI 22.9-24.1], NHANES 23.0% [99% CI 19.2-26.8]), and those using ICD-9-CM were within 5 percentage points of one another (CCS 25.8% [99% CI 24.6-27.1]; CDC 28.3% [99% CI 27.0-29.6]; and NADW-AORC 30.7% [99% CI 29.4-32.1]). The variation in the estimated number (in millions) affected with diagnosed arthritis was 7.8 (BRFSS 58.5 [99% CI 58.1-59.1], MEPS 59.3 [99% CI 55.6-63.1], NHANES 51.5 [99% CI 37.2-65.5], and NHIS 52.6 [99% CI 50.9-54.4]), and using ICD-9-CM definitions it was 11.1 (CCS 58.7 [99% CI 54.5-62.9], CDC 64.3 [99% CI 59.9-68.6], and NADW 69.9 [99% CI 65.2-74.5]). Most (57-70%) reporting diagnosed arthritis also reported ICD-9-CM arthritis; respondents reporting diagnosed arthritis were older than those meeting ICD-9-CM definitions. Proxy response status affected arthritis prevalence differently across surveys. Public health practitioners and decision makers are frequently charged with choosing a single number to represent arthritis

  1. [Work in health: sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador (state of Bahia, Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Augusto Amorim; Costa, Ediná Alves; de Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo

    2011-05-01

    A drugstore is an establishment of interest in health, from which medication is dispensed, namely the therapeutic technology most broadly used in the practice of medicine. The scope of this study is to describe and analyze the sanitary surveillance of drugstores. Based on the theory of working processes in healthcare, a case study was conducted on the sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil), examining 2 analytical categories: agents and activities. Data were collected through observation, analysis of documents and interviews, and QSR N Vivo software was used for data processing. Personnel of the surveillance service were found to have varied professional and educational backgrounds, with limited experience in the sanitary surveillance of drugstores, and insufficient technical training for the performance of the tasks assigned. Deficiencies of a managerial nature were detected in the service. Its operation is primarily focused on granting drugstore licenses, prioritizing attendance to spontaneous demand, thereby configuring a technological model of intervention based on sanitary inspection. The findings revealed a need for updating the service and the adoption of technologies to enhance control of risk, given that technological evolution provides drugs that are increasingly more potent, with a concomitant rise in levels risk.

  2. The Impact of the February 2012 Cold Spell on Health in Italy Using Surveillance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    de'Donato, Francesca K.; Leone, Michela; Noce, Damia; Davoli, Marina; Michelozzi, Paola

    2013-01-01

    In February 2012 Italy was hit by an exceptional cold spell with extremely low temperatures and heavy snowfall. The aim of this work is to estimate the impact of the cold spell on health in the Italian cities using data from the rapid surveillance systems. In Italy, a national mortality surveillance system has been operational since 2004 in 34 cities for the rapid monitoring of daily mortality. Data from this system were used to evaluate the impact of the February 2012 cold spell on mortality shortly after the occurrence of the event. Furthermore, a cause-specific analysis was conducted in Roma using the Regional Mortality Registry and the emergency visits (ER) surveillance system. Cold spell episodes were defined as days when mean temperatures were below the 10th percentile of February distribution for more than three days. To estimate the impact of the cold spell, excess mortality was calculated as the difference between observed and daily expected values. An overall 1578 (+25%) excess deaths among the 75+ age group was recorded in the 14 cities that registered a cold spell in February 2012. A statistically significant excess in mortality was observed in several cities ranging from +22% in Bologna to +58% in Torino. Cause-specific analysis conducted in Roma showed a statistically significant excess in mortality among the 75+ age group for respiratory disease (+64%), COPD (+57%), cardiovascular disease +20% ischemic heart disease (14%) and other heart disease (+33%). Similar results were observed for ER visits. Surveillance systems need to become are a key component of prevention plans as they can help improve public health response and are a valid data source to rapidly quantify the impact on health. Cold-related mortality is still an important issue and should not be underestimated by public health Authorities. PMID:23637892

  3. The impact of the February 2012 cold spell on health in Italy using surveillance data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca K de'Donato

    Full Text Available In February 2012 Italy was hit by an exceptional cold spell with extremely low temperatures and heavy snowfall. The aim of this work is to estimate the impact of the cold spell on health in the Italian cities using data from the rapid surveillance systems. In Italy, a national mortality surveillance system has been operational since 2004 in 34 cities for the rapid monitoring of daily mortality. Data from this system were used to evaluate the impact of the February 2012 cold spell on mortality shortly after the occurrence of the event. Furthermore, a cause-specific analysis was conducted in Roma using the Regional Mortality Registry and the emergency visits (ER surveillance system. Cold spell episodes were defined as days when mean temperatures were below the 10(th percentile of February distribution for more than three days. To estimate the impact of the cold spell, excess mortality was calculated as the difference between observed and daily expected values. An overall 1578 (+25% excess deaths among the 75+ age group was recorded in the 14 cities that registered a cold spell in February 2012. A statistically significant excess in mortality was observed in several cities ranging from +22% in Bologna to +58% in Torino. Cause-specific analysis conducted in Roma showed a statistically significant excess in mortality among the 75+ age group for respiratory disease (+64%, COPD (+57%, cardiovascular disease +20% ischemic heart disease (14% and other heart disease (+33%. Similar results were observed for ER visits. Surveillance systems need to become are a key component of prevention plans as they can help improve public health response and are a valid data source to rapidly quantify the impact on health. Cold-related mortality is still an important issue and should not be underestimated by public health Authorities.

  4. Three decades of hospital epidemiology and the challenge of integrating Health Surveillance: reflections from a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escosteguy, Claudia Caminha; Pereira, Alessandra Gonçalves Lisbôa; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade

    2017-10-01

    This study proposes a reflection on the uses and future prospects of hospital-based health surveillance based on the account of a pioneering experience in hospital epidemiology, the epidemiology service at the Hospital Federal dos Servidores do Estado - HFSE, which served as the basis for the creation of epidemiologic surveillance units in municipal and state hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The epidemiology service has combined epidemiological surveillance, continuing education, in-service training, research, and health service evaluation since 1986. The service is part of the national epidemiological surveillance network and was responsible for the notification of 55,747 cases between 1986 and 2016, most of which were the result of active search. The integration of various levels of health surveillance and health care makes classical control activities more agile and provides instruments for measuring. The important role played by the service in human resources training is evident in the training of 1,835 medical interns and 78 residents up to 2016. In addition, this experience has served as the basis for the implantation of several other hospital epidemiological surveillance units. Current challenges include the promotion of effective communication and coordination among the other health surveillance committees.

  5. [The senses of sanitary safety in the discourse of the National Health Surveillance Agency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ana de Oliveira; Costa, Ediná Alves

    2010-11-01

    The term sanitary safety (SS) appeared in the international debate mainly due to the emerging sanitary crisis, although its meaning has remained obscure. This paper aims to analyze the concept of SS brought into the Brazilian sanitary surveillance upon the creation of the National Health Surveillance Agency. An exploratory case study was undertaken with technical data analysis and semi-structured interviews with informants who had taken part in the process of formulating the body's institutional design. The following categories were analyzed: incorporation of the SS term into the institutional mission, the SS concept and SS mechanisms. The SS concept was analyzed in both institutional and technical discursive dimensions. The former elicits the sense of strategy, a reliable relationship and legitimacy whereas the latter shows the sense of an acceptable risk-benefit relationship from the perspective of individual and collective health protection and promotion. The SS concept was found to encompass health-related products, technologies and services, especially those designed for medical diagnosis and treatment, but environmental issues received little mention. The scope of the SS concept was shown to be widening to include the surveillance of hospital infection, drugs and blood.

  6. The Caribbean animal health network: new tools for harmonization and reinforcement of animal disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Victor; Trotman, Mark; Thomas, Reginald; Max, Millien; Zamora, Pastor Alfonso; Lepoureau, Maria Teresa Frias; Phanord, Siméon; Quirico, Jocelyn; Douglas, Kirk; Pegram, Rupert; Martinez, Dominique; Petitclerc, Martial; Chouin, Emilie; Marchal, Céline; Chavernac, David; Doyen, David; Vachiéry, Nathalie; Molia, Sophie; Hendrikx, Pascal; Lefrançois, Thierry

    2008-12-01

    The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) is a collaboration of veterinary services, diagnostic laboratories, research institutes, universities, and regional/international organizations to improve animal health in the Caribbean. New tools were used by the network to develop regional animal health activities: (1) A steering committee, a coordination unit, and working groups on specific diseases or activities were established. The working group on avian influenza used a collaborative Web site to develop a regionally harmonized avian influenza surveillance protocol and performance indicators. (2) A specific network was implemented on West Nile virus (WNV) to describe the WNV status of the Caribbean countries, to perform a technology transfer of WNV diagnostics, and to establish a surveillance system. (3) The CaribVET Web site (http://www.caribvet.net) encompasses information on surveillance systems, diagnostic laboratories, conferences, bibliography, and diseases of major concern in the region. It is a participatory Web site allowing registered users to add or edit information, pages, or data. An online notification system of sanitary information was set up for Guadeloupe to improve knowledge on animal diseases and facilitate early alert.

  7. The Southern African Centre for infectious disease surveillance: a one health consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rweyemamu, Mark M; Mmbuji, Peter; Karimuribo, Esron; Paweska, Janusz; Kambarage, Dominic; Neves, Luis; Kayembe, Jean-Marie; Mweene, Aaron; Matee, Mecky

    2013-01-01

    Formed in 2008, the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) is a One Health consortium of academic and research institutions involved with infectious diseases of humans and animals. Operating in partnership with world-renowned centres of research in industrialised countries, its mission is to harness innovations in science and technology for improving southern Africa's capacity to detect, identify, monitor (DIM) and manage the risk posed by infectious diseases of humans, animals, and ecosystems. The consortium's major capacity development activities include a series of One Health-based Master of Science (MSc) courses and a five-year DIM-driven research program. Additionally, SACIDS organized Africa's first One Health conference, in July 2011. This paper describes these and other major activities that SACIDS has undertaken to improve infectious disease surveillance across southern Africa. The paper also describes the role and collaboration of SACIDS with other national, regional and international consortia/networks that share a vision and interest in promoting novel approaches to infectious disease surveillance and outbreak response.

  8. Radiation hazard surveillance in spanish uranium mines; Control de los peligros de la radiactividad en las minas de uranio espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranzo, E.; Liarte, J.

    1963-07-01

    The regulations applied in the uranium mines which belong to the Junta de Energia Nuclear to control the radioactive hazards, and to get the personal protection avoiding overexposures in the external radiation and inhalation of radioactive dust and gases are given. The Radon daughters concentration in the atmosphere of Avery one of the mines and the external radiation exposure and uranium excretion in urine of the miners during 1962 are specified. (Author) 9 refs.

  9. Reassurance or judgement? Parents' views on the delivery of child health surveillance programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Brenda; Cowley, Sarah; Salt, Niki; Scammell, Amy; Malone, Mary; Savile, Philippa; Aikens, Daphine; Fitzpatrick, Susan

    2005-10-01

    The first year of a child's life is a crucial time for child development. Current guidance about child health surveillance and health promotion programmes emphasises a partnership approach between health professionals and parents when it comes to child health care. Parents' voices have been largely absent from discussions about local child health programmes. For partnership working to be effective and for local services to be able to evolve effectively parents' views are vital. This study aimed to explore parents' views on the child health surveillance and health promotion programmes offered during the first year of their child's life. The study aimed to be consumer-led through the involvement of lead parents in all stages of the research process. This study employed a qualitative methodology of focus groups and individual interviews. 35 participants were drawn from three general practices using a snowball sampling technique. Eligibility was determined as parents with a child under the age of one year or expecting a baby within the study timescale and registered at one of the 3 general practices. Focus groups were led by three 'parent-researchers' and individual interviews were conducted by a researcher. All focus groups and interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed using Atlas.Ti. Several main themes were identified in this study. Firstly, when discussing scheduled health checks for children under one year of age parents expressed more positive feelings for the eight-week check which was seen to be comprehensive and informative rather than the eight-month check which was viewed as bureaucratic and less reassuring. Secondly, parents clearly articulated a need for reassurance and support from health professionals involved in child health surveillance and health promotion programmes. Thirdly, a crucial professional in the delivery of these programmes was the health visitor. Whilst parents expressed support for the concept of health visitors some health

  10. Health Care Providers’ Knowledge and Practice Gap towards Joint Zoonotic Disease Surveillance System: Challenges and Opportunities, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desta Hiko Gemeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Health care providers play a crucial role for realization of joint zoonotic diseases surveillance by human and animal health sectors, yet there is limited evidence. Hence, this study aimed to determine knowledge and practice gap of health care providers towards the approach for Rabies and Anthrax in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 16, 2014, to January 14, 2015. Eligible health care providers were considered for the study. Data were entered in to Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 323 (92.02% health care providers participated in the study. Three hundred sixteen (97.8% of participants reported that both human and animal health sectors can work together for zoonotic diseases while 96.9% of them replied that both sectors can jointly conduct surveillance. One hundred seventeen (36.2% of them reported that their respective sectors had conducted joint surveillance for zoonotic diseases. Their involvement was, however, limited to joint outbreak response. Conclusion. There is good opportunity in health care providers’ knowledge even though the practice was unacceptably low and did not address all surveillance components. Therefore, formal joint surveillance structure should be in place for optimal implementation of surveillance.

  11. College Health Surveillance Network: Epidemiology and Health Care Utilization of College Students at US 4-Year Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, James C; Keller, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    This description of the College Health Surveillance Network (CHSN) includes methodology, demography, epidemiology, and health care utilization. Twenty-three universities representing approximately 730,000 enrolled students contributed data from January 1, 2011, through May 31, 2014. Participating schools uploaded de-identified electronic health records from student health services monthly. During this study, just over 800,000 individuals used the health centers, comprising 4.17 million patient encounters. Sixty percent of visits included primary care, 13% mental health, 9% vaccination, and 31% other miscellaneous services. The 5 most common specific diagnostic categories (with annual rates per 100 enrolled students) were preventive (16); respiratory (12); skin, hair, and nails; infectious non-sexually transmitted infection (5 each); and mental health (4). Utilization and epidemiologic trends are identified among subpopulations of students. CHSN data establish trends in utilization and epidemiologic patterns by college students and the importance of primary and behavioral health care services on campuses.

  12. Easier surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities through a Web-based spatial OLAP application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselin Pierre

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change has a significant impact on population health. Population vulnerabilities depend on several determinants of different types, including biological, psychological, environmental, social and economic ones. Surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities must take into account these different factors, their interdependence, as well as their inherent spatial and temporal aspects on several scales, for informed analyses. Currently used technology includes commercial off-the-shelf Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Database Management Systems with spatial extensions. It has been widely recognized that such OLTP (On-Line Transaction Processing systems were not designed to support complex, multi-temporal and multi-scale analysis as required above. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP is central to the field known as BI (Business Intelligence, a key field for such decision-support systems. In the last few years, we have seen a few projects that combine OLAP and GIS to improve spatio-temporal analysis and geographic knowledge discovery. This has given rise to SOLAP (Spatial OLAP and a new research area. This paper presents how SOLAP and climate-related health vulnerability data were investigated and combined to facilitate surveillance. Results Based on recent spatial decision-support technologies, this paper presents a spatio-temporal web-based application that goes beyond GIS applications with regard to speed, ease of use, and interactive analysis capabilities. It supports the multi-scale exploration and analysis of integrated socio-economic, health and environmental geospatial data over several periods. This project was meant to validate the potential of recent technologies to contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between public health and climate change, and to facilitate future decision-making by public health agencies and municipalities in Canada and elsewhere. The project also aimed at

  13. Easier surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities through a Web-based spatial OLAP application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Eveline; Gosselin, Pierre; Badard, Thierry; Bédard, Yvan

    2009-04-03

    Climate change has a significant impact on population health. Population vulnerabilities depend on several determinants of different types, including biological, psychological, environmental, social and economic ones. Surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities must take into account these different factors, their interdependence, as well as their inherent spatial and temporal aspects on several scales, for informed analyses. Currently used technology includes commercial off-the-shelf Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Database Management Systems with spatial extensions. It has been widely recognized that such OLTP (On-Line Transaction Processing) systems were not designed to support complex, multi-temporal and multi-scale analysis as required above. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) is central to the field known as BI (Business Intelligence), a key field for such decision-support systems. In the last few years, we have seen a few projects that combine OLAP and GIS to improve spatio-temporal analysis and geographic knowledge discovery. This has given rise to SOLAP (Spatial OLAP) and a new research area. This paper presents how SOLAP and climate-related health vulnerability data were investigated and combined to facilitate surveillance. Based on recent spatial decision-support technologies, this paper presents a spatio-temporal web-based application that goes beyond GIS applications with regard to speed, ease of use, and interactive analysis capabilities. It supports the multi-scale exploration and analysis of integrated socio-economic, health and environmental geospatial data over several periods. This project was meant to validate the potential of recent technologies to contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between public health and climate change, and to facilitate future decision-making by public health agencies and municipalities in Canada and elsewhere. The project also aimed at integrating an initial collection of geo

  14. Health surveillance under adverse ergonomics conditions – validity of a screening method adapted for the occupational health service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Dirk; Gustafsson, Ewa; Rolander, Bo; Arvidsson, Inger; Nordander, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    A new health surveillance protocol for work-related upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders has been validated by comparing the results with a reference protocol. The studied protocol, Health Surveillance in Adverse Ergonomics Conditions (HECO), is a new version of the reference protocol modified for application in the Occupational Health Service (OHS). The HECO protocol contains both a screening part and a diagnosing part. Sixty-three employees were examined. The screening in HECO did not miss any diagnosis found when using the reference protocol, but in comparison to the reference protocol considerable time savings could be achieved. Fair to good agreement between the protocols was obtained for one or more diagnoses in neck/shoulders (86%, k = 0.62) and elbow/hands (84%, k = 0.49). Therefore, the results obtained using the HECO protocol can be compared with a reference material collected with the reference protocol, and thus provide information of the magnitude of disorders in an examined work group. Practitioner Summary: The HECO protocol is a relatively simple physical examination protocol for identification of musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and upper extremities. The protocol is a reliable and cost-effective tool for the OHS to use for occupational health surveillance in order to detect workplaces at high risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:25761380

  15. Health surveillance under adverse ergonomics conditions--validity of a screening method adapted for the occupational health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Dirk; Gustafsson, Ewa; Rolander, Bo; Arvidsson, Inger; Nordander, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    A new health surveillance protocol for work-related upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders has been validated by comparing the results with a reference protocol. The studied protocol, Health Surveillance in Adverse Ergonomics Conditions (HECO), is a new version of the reference protocol modified for application in the Occupational Health Service (OHS). The HECO protocol contains both a screening part and a diagnosing part. Sixty-three employees were examined. The screening in HECO did not miss any diagnosis found when using the reference protocol, but in comparison to the reference protocol considerable time savings could be achieved. Fair to good agreement between the protocols was obtained for one or more diagnoses in neck/shoulders (86%, k = 0.62) and elbow/hands (84%, k = 0.49). Therefore, the results obtained using the HECO protocol can be compared with a reference material collected with the reference protocol, and thus provide information of the magnitude of disorders in an examined work group. Practitioner Summary: The HECO protocol is a relatively simple physical examination protocol for identification of musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and upper extremities. The protocol is a reliable and cost-effective tool for the OHS to use for occupational health surveillance in order to detect workplaces at high risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders.

  16. Child development surveillance: intervention study with nurses of the Family Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamira Pereira da Silva Reichert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care.Methods: interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated.Results: after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development.Conclusions: the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care.

  17. Child development surveillance: intervention study with nurses of the Family Health Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Altamira Pereira da Silva; Collet, Neusa; Eickmann, Sophie Helena; Lima, Marília de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care. interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated. after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development. the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care.

  18. Abortion surveillance at CDC: creating public health light out of political heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, W; Grimes, D A; Schulz, K F

    2000-07-01

    In the late 1960s, states began to liberalize their abortion laws, and a new era in women's health began. Under the leadership of Jack Smith, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established a voluntary abortion surveillance system that provided the first nationwide information on the numbers and characteristics of women having abortions. Studies of abortion morbidity done by the CDC revealed that suction curettage was safer than sharp curettage, local anesthesia was safer than general anesthesia, free-standing clinics were safer than hospitals, and dilation and evacuation (D&E) was safer than the alternative of labor induction for early second-trimester abortions. This evidence, which contradicted traditional medical tenets, rapidly changed the practice of abortion in the United States. CDC also established a surveillance system for abortion deaths. This demonstrated a rapid improvement in the safety of abortion in the early 1970s. Lessons learned from mortality investigations helped to change practice as well.Today, more is known about the epidemiology of abortion than any other operation in the history of medicine. In the midst of strident debate over the abortion issue, CDC abortion surveillance data have helped to guide judicial rulings, legislative actions, and Surgeon General's reports, which have supported safer choices for women of reproductive age. When medical historians of the future look back on this century, the increasing availability of safe, legal abortion will stand out as a public health triumph.

  19. 21 CFR 7.41 - Health hazard evaluation and recall classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and Industry Responsibilities § 7.41 Health hazard evaluation and recall classification. (a) An... of the population, e.g., children, surgical patients, pets, livestock, etc., who are expected to be...

  20. Rapid health response, assessment, and surveillance after a tsunami--Thailand, 2004-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-28

    On December 26, 2004, an earthquake triggered a devastating tsunami that caused an estimated 225,000 deaths in eight countries (India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, Seychelles, Somalia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand) on two continents. In Thailand, six provinces (Krabi, Phang-Nga, Phuket, Ranong, Satun, and Trang) were impacted, including prominent international tourist destinations. The Thai Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) responded with rapid mobilization of local and nonlocal clinicians, public health practitioners, and medical supplies; assessment of health-care needs; identification of the dead, injured, and missing; and active surveillance of syndromic illness. The MOPH response was augmented by technical assistance from the Thai MOPH-U.S. CDC Collaboration (TUC) and the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS), with support from the office of the World Health Organization (WHO) representative to Thailand. This report summarizes these activities. The experiences in Thailand underscore the value of written and rehearsed disaster plans, capacity for rapid mobilization, local coordination of relief activities, and active public health surveillance.

  1. The pesticide hazard: A global health and environmental audit

    OpenAIRE

    Dinham, B.

    1993-01-01

    Metadata only record In this book the author discusses the hazards associated with pesticide use, and what progress has been made concerning human safety and the effect on the environment since the introduction of regulatory laws placed on pesticides since the 1980s. If more stringent disclosure requirements and controls were placed on the trade of severely restricted or banned pesticides, it is unclear if it would be effective in reducing the threat posed by powerful argo-chemicals to the...

  2. Cholera public health surveillance in the Republic of Cameroon-opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Moise Chi; Liang, Song; Mbam, Leonard Mbam; Mouhaman, Arabi; Teboh, Andrew; Brekmo, Kaousseri; Mevoula, Onana; Morris, John Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Cameroon, cholera has periodically resurfaced since it was first reported in 1971. In 2003, Cameroon adapted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy to strengthen surveillance in the country. This study was an in-depth description and assessment of the structure, core and support functions, and attributes of the current cholera surveillance system in Cameroon. It also discussed its strengths and challenges with hope that lessons learned could improve the system in Cameroon and in other countries in Africa implementing the IDSR strategy. Methods Semi-structured key informant interviews, peer reviewed articles, and government record review were conducted in the Far North and Centre Regions of Cameroon. We used the matrix and conceptual framework from the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, WHO Regional Office for Africa Technical Guidelines to frame the study. Site visits included the WHO country office, the ministry of public health (MoPH), two Regional Public Health Delegations (RPHDs), eight health districts (HDs) and health facilities (HFs) including two labs. Results Cholera surveillance is passive but turns active during outbreaks and follows a hierarchical structure. Cholera data are collected at HFs and sent to HDs where data are compiled and sent to the RPHD in paper format. RPHDs de-identify, digitalize, and send the data to the MoPH via internet and from there to the WHO. The case definition was officially changed in 2010 but the outdated definition was still in use in 2013. Nationally, there are 3 laboratories that have the ability to confirm cholera cases; the lack of laboratory capacity at HFs hampers case and outbreak confirmation. The absence of structured data analysis at the RPHD, HD, and HF further compounds the situation, making the goal of IDSR of data analysis and rapid response at the HD very challenging. Feedback is strongest at the central level (MoPH) and

  3. Cholera public health surveillance in the Republic of Cameroon-opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Moise Chi; Liang, Song; Mbam, Leonard Mbam; Mouhaman, Arabi; Teboh, Andrew; Brekmo, Kaousseri; Mevoula, Onana; Morris, John Glenn

    2016-01-01

    In Cameroon, cholera has periodically resurfaced since it was first reported in 1971. In 2003, Cameroon adapted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy to strengthen surveillance in the country. This study was an in-depth description and assessment of the structure, core and support functions, and attributes of the current cholera surveillance system in Cameroon. It also discussed its strengths and challenges with hope that lessons learned could improve the system in Cameroon and in other countries in Africa implementing the IDSR strategy. Semi-structured key informant interviews, peer reviewed articles, and government record review were conducted in the Far North and Centre Regions of Cameroon. We used the matrix and conceptual framework from the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, WHO Regional Office for Africa Technical Guidelines to frame the study. Site visits included the WHO country office, the ministry of public health (MoPH), two Regional Public Health Delegations (RPHDs), eight health districts (HDs) and health facilities (HFs) including two labs. Cholera surveillance is passive but turns active during outbreaks and follows a hierarchical structure. Cholera data are collected at HFs and sent to HDs where data are compiled and sent to the RPHD in paper format. RPHDs de-identify, digitalize, and send the data to the MoPH via internet and from there to the WHO. The case definition was officially changed in 2010 but the outdated definition was still in use in 2013. Nationally, there are 3 laboratories that have the ability to confirm cholera cases; the lack of laboratory capacity at HFs hampers case and outbreak confirmation. The absence of structured data analysis at the RPHD, HD, and HF further compounds the situation, making the goal of IDSR of data analysis and rapid response at the HD very challenging. Feedback is strongest at the central level (MoPH) and non-existent at the levels

  4. Evaluation of the national health surveillance program of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain (2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Montserrat García; Castañeda, Rosario; López, Vega García; Vidal, Manuel Martínez; Villanueva, Vicent; Espinosa, Mercedes Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Although asbestos was banned in Spain in 2001, monitoring the health of previously-exposed workers is required. In 2002 the Ministry of Health and the autonomous regions of Spain planned a health surveillance program for workers exposed to asbestos (Programa de Vigilancia de la Salud de los Trabajadores Expuestos al Amianto [PIVISTEA]) with employers' organizations, trade unions and scientific societies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PIVISTEA to improve its effectiveness. A questionnaire with indicators for the year 2008 was sent to Spain's 17 autonomous regions, as well as to the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla. The results were analyzed by evaluating the compliance of each program with the activities established by the PIVISTEA. In December 2008, a total of 22,158 workers from 14 autonomous regions and 306 companies were included in the program. The program had been started in 88% of the regions but surveillance activities remained scarce in 24%. Fifty-seven percent of the autonomous regions (69% of the total number of workers) provided the information requested. Seven autonomous regions provided data on the relationship between the diseases found and asbestos exposure. Only 5% of these diseases entitled affected individuals to receive compensation for occupational diseases. The health surveillance of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain, as well as medical-legal recognition of diseases caused by exposure at work, remain in adequate. Although the trend is positive, the effectiveness of many regional programs is limited, and inter-regional inequalities among affected workers have been detected. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Can a general health surveillance between birth and 10 months identify children with mental disorder at 1(1/2) year? A case-control study nested in cohort CCC 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Houmann, Tine; Christiansen, Eva Storgaard

    2008-01-01

    Mental health surveillance in infancy was studied in an existing child health surveillance programme with child psychiatric disorder at 1(1/2) year as the outcome.......Mental health surveillance in infancy was studied in an existing child health surveillance programme with child psychiatric disorder at 1(1/2) year as the outcome....

  6. The Influence of Environmental Hazard Maps on Risk Beliefs, Emotion, and Health-related Behavioral Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severtson, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    To test a theoretical explanation of how attributes of mapped environmental health hazards influence health-related behavioral intentions and how beliefs and emotion mediate the influences of attributes, 24 maps were developed that varied by four attributes of a residential drinking water hazard: level, proximity, prevalence, and density. In a factorial design, student participants (N=446) answered questions for a subset of maps. Hazard level and proximity had the largest influences on intentions to test water and mitigate exposure. Belief in the problem’s seriousness mediated attributes’ influence on intention to test drinking water, and perceived susceptibility mediated the influence of attributes on intention to mitigate risk. Maps with carefully illustrated attributes of hazards may promote appropriate health-related risk beliefs, intentions, and behavior. PMID:23533022

  7. The gap between what has been defined and what is still pending in occupational health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcellos, Luiz Carlos Fadel; Gomez, Carlos Minayo; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet

    2014-12-01

    The scope of this paper is to address some questions about Occupational Health Surveillance (VISAT) in Brazil based on various elements of analysis, in order to contribute to the debate on this theme at the Fourth National Conference on Occupational Health. The topics discussed in the article are: the role of Reference Centers for Occupational Health (CEREST) as a place for discussing VISAT; training and qualification of the VISAT agents; commitment of workers as subjects of VISAT action; strategies for intersectorial liaison with other areas of the State; and the dialogue between peers working in the field of research and action of VISAT. It should be emphasized that in Brazil there is specific legislation on VISAT that is a priority of the National Labor Policy. The conclusion drawn is that heavy investment in the training of agents and the development of specific guidelines is needed to implement systematic and intersectorial actions in this respect. At the time of the Conference, the greatest expression of the exercise of social control, it is recommended that the participation in surveillance procedures of health workers be evaluated as a precondition to ensure the effectiveness of these actions.

  8. The public health usefulness of the exercise recreation and sport survey (ERASS) surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merom, D; Bauman, A; Ford, I

    2004-03-01

    There is a public health need to monitor habitual participation in physical activity (PA). This report evaluates the usefulness of routine sport and recreation sector collected 'Exercise Recreation and Sport Survey (ERASS)' data from a public health perspective. The ERASS telephone surveys collected information about participation in any PA undertaken for exercise, recreation or sport and the frequency of participation during the previous 12 months from a random sample of 3,400 Australians (aged > or = 15) each quarter. Activities were categorised as Health Enhancing Physical Activities (HEPA) if the activity was of sufficient intensity (METs > or = 3.5). 'Sufficiently active' people reported HEPA > or = 5 days/week and the sedentary group reported HEPA or = 5 days/week). ERASS could supplement informational gaps in current PA surveillance. It provides estimates of long-term PA behavioural habits and informs policy makers about the types of activities that contribute to population health.

  9. Ethics issues experienced in HBM within Portuguese health surveillance and research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In keeping with the fundamental practice of transparency in the discussion and resolution of ethics conflicts raised by research, a summary of ethics issues raised during Portuguese biomonitoring in health surveillance and research is presented and, where applicable, their resolution is described. Methods Projects underway aim to promote the surveillance of public health related to the presence of solid waste incinerators or to study associations between human exposure to environmental factors and adverse health effects. The methodological approach involves biomonitoring of heavy metals, dioxins and/or other persistent organic pollutants in tissues including blood, human milk and both scalp and pubic hair in groups such as the general population, children, pregnant women or women attempting pregnancy. As such, the projects entail the recruitment of individuals representing different demographic and health conditions, the collection of body tissues and personal data, and the processing of the data and results. Results The issue of autonomy is raised during the recruitment of participants and during the collection of samples and data. This right is protected by the requirement for prior written, informed consent from the participant or, in the case of children, from their guardian. Recruitment has been successful, among eligible participants, in spite of incentives rarely being offered. The exception has been in obtaining guardians' consent for children's participation, particularly for blood sampling. In an attempt to mitigate the harm-benefit ratio, current research efforts include alternative less invasive biomarkers. Surveys are currently being conducted under contract as independent biomonitoring actions and as such, must be explicitly disclosed as a potential conflict of interests. Communication of results to participants is in general only practised when a health issue is present and corrective action possible

  10. Ethics issues experienced in HBM within Portuguese health surveillance and research projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, M Fátima; Segurado, Susana; Brantes, Ana; Simões, Helena Teresinha; Melim, J Maurício; Geraldes, V; Miguel, J Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Background In keeping with the fundamental practice of transparency in the discussion and resolution of ethics conflicts raised by research, a summary of ethics issues raised during Portuguese biomonitoring in health surveillance and research is presented and, where applicable, their resolution is described. Methods Projects underway aim to promote the surveillance of public health related to the presence of solid waste incinerators or to study associations between human exposure to environmental factors and adverse health effects. The methodological approach involves biomonitoring of heavy metals, dioxins and/or other persistent organic pollutants in tissues including blood, human milk and both scalp and pubic hair in groups such as the general population, children, pregnant women or women attempting pregnancy. As such, the projects entail the recruitment of individuals representing different demographic and health conditions, the collection of body tissues and personal data, and the processing of the data and results. Results The issue of autonomy is raised during the recruitment of participants and during the collection of samples and data. This right is protected by the requirement for prior written, informed consent from the participant or, in the case of children, from their guardian. Recruitment has been successful, among eligible participants, in spite of incentives rarely being offered. The exception has been in obtaining guardians' consent for children's participation, particularly for blood sampling. In an attempt to mitigate the harm-benefit ratio, current research efforts include alternative less invasive biomarkers. Surveys are currently being conducted under contract as independent biomonitoring actions and as such, must be explicitly disclosed as a potential conflict of interests. Communication of results to participants is in general only practised when a health issue is present and corrective action possible. Concerning human milk a careful

  11. Health impact assessment of cyclone Bejisa in Reunion Island (France) using syndromic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, Pascal; Pagès, Frédéric; Combes, Xavier; Marianne Dit Cassou, Pierre-Jean; Mougin-Damour, Katia; Jacques-Antoine, Yves; Filleul, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    On January 2, 2014, Cyclone Bejisa struck Reunion Island (France). This storm led to major material damages, such as power outages, disturbance of drinking water systems, road closures, and the evacuation of residents. In this context, the Regional Office of French Institute for Public Health Surveillance in Indian Ocean (Cire OI) set up an epidemiological surveillance in order to describe short-term health effects of the cyclone. The assessment of the health impact was based mainly on a syndromic surveillance system, including the activity of all emergency departments (EDs) and the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) of the island. From these data, several health indicators were collected and analyzed daily and weekly. To complete this assessment, all medical charts recorded in the EDs of Reunion Island from January 2, 2014 through January 5, 2014 were reviewed in order to identify visits directly and indirectly related to the cyclone, and to determine mechanisms of injuries. The number of calls to the EMS peaked the day of the cyclone, and the number of ED visits increased markedly over the next two days. At the same time, a significant increase in visits for trauma, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning was detected in all EDs. Among 1,748 medical records reviewed, eight visits were directly related to the cyclone and 208 were indirectly related. For trauma, the main mechanisms of injury were falls and injuries by machinery or tools during the clean-up and repair works. Due to prolonged power outages, several patients were hospitalized: some to assure continuity of care, others to take care of an exacerbation of a chronic disease. An increase in leptospirosis cases linked to post-cyclone clean-up was observed two weeks after the cyclone. Information based on the syndromic surveillance system allowed the authors to assess rapidly the health impact of Cyclone Bejisa in Reunion Island; however, an underestimation of this impact was still possible. In the near future

  12. Establishing a health demographic surveillance site in Bhaktapur district, Nepal: initial experiences and findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background A health demographic surveillance system (HDSS) provides longitudinal data regarding health and demography in countries with coverage error and poor quality data on vital registration systems due to lack of public awareness, inadequate legal basis and limited use of data in health planning. The health system in Nepal, a low-income country, does not focus primarily on health registration, and does not conduct regular health data collection. This study aimed to initiate and establish the first HDSS in Nepal. Results We conducted a baseline survey in Jhaukhel and Duwakot, two villages in Bhaktapur district. The study surveyed 2,712 households comprising a total population of 13,669. The sex ratio in the study area was 101 males per 100 females and the average household size was 5. The crude birth and death rates were 9.7 and 3.9/1,000 population/year, respectively. About 11% of births occurred at home, and we found no mortality in infants and children less than 5 years of age. Various health problems were found commonly and some of them include respiratory problems (41.9%); headache, vertigo and dizziness (16.7%); bone and joint pain (14.4%); gastrointestinal problems (13.9%); heart disease, including hypertension (8.8%); accidents and injuries (2.9%); and diabetes mellitus (2.6%). The prevalence of non-communicable disease (NCD) was 4.3% (95% CI: 3.83; 4.86) among individuals older than 30 years. Age-adjusted odds ratios showed that risk factors, such as sex, ethnic group, occupation and education, associated with NCD. Conclusion Our baseline survey demonstrated that it is possible to collect accurate and reliable data in a village setting in Nepal, and this study successfully established an HDSS site. We determined that both maternal and child health are better in the surveillance site compared to the entire country. Risk factors associated with NCDs dominated morbidity and mortality patterns. PMID:22950751

  13. Vigilância da qualidade da água para consumo humano: abordagem qualitativa da identificação de perigos Drinking water quality surveillance: qualitative approach of hazard identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Ferraz Carmo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de que os serviços de vigilância da qualidade da água para consumo realizem sistemática/permanente avaliação de risco dos sistemas de abastecimento é um importante desafio. Como a metodologia de Avaliação de Risco ainda não se encontra estruturada para rotineira utilização, apresenta-se uma sugestão de identificação de perigos e categorização de riscos associados ao abastecimento de água, através da utilização da metodologia proposta no Manual de Procedimentos de Vigilância em Saúde Ambiental Relacionada à Qualidade da Água para Consumo Humano, com modificações. Foram identificadas situações de perigo na saída do tratamento e na rede de distribuição do sistema estudado. A aplicação da metodologia permitiu uma visão abrangente do sistema de abastecimento e informações para planejamento/priorização de medidas de forma a reduzir os perigos identificados e possíveis riscos à saúde da população.Nowadays, an important challenge to the health service is the need of a systematic and permanent drinking water systems risk assessment. The risk analysis methodology is not an easy understanding or applicable tool for the health service routine, so the purpose of this work is a suggestion for the hazard identification and risk categorization associated to the drinking water systems. The methodology proposed in the " Health Environmental Surveillance associated to Drinking Water Quality Manual" was used as reference. Hazard situations were identified also at the treatment exit as at distribution systems studied. The tools for hazard identification and risk categorization proposed are applicable and allowed a general vision of the system. They also are helpful for the planning and the definition of intervention priorities as a way to reduce health risks associated to the drinking water systems.

  14. Assessment of the French National Health Insurance Information System as a tool for epidemiological surveillance of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delon, François; Mayet, Aurélie; Thellier, Marc; Kendjo, Eric; Michel, Rémy; Ollivier, Lénaïck; Chatellier, Gilles; Desjeux, Guillaume

    2017-05-01

    Epidemiological surveillance of malaria in France is based on a hospital laboratory sentinel surveillance network. There is no comprehensive population surveillance. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of the French National Health Insurance Information System to support nationwide malaria surveillance in continental France. A case identification algorithm was built in a 2-step process. First, inclusion rules giving priority to sensitivity were defined. Then, based on data description, exclusion rules to increase specificity were applied. To validate our results, we compared them to data from the French National Reference Center for Malaria on case counts, distribution within subgroups, and disease onset date trends. We built a reusable automatized tool. From July 1, 2013, to June 30, 2014, we identified 4077 incident malaria cases that occurred in continental France. Our algorithm provided data for hospitalized patients, patients treated by private physicians, and outpatients for the entire population. Our results were similar to those of the National Reference Center for Malaria for each of the outcome criteria. We provided a reliable algorithm for implementing epidemiological surveillance of malaria based on the French National Health Insurance Information System. Our method allowed us to work on the entire population living in continental France, including subpopulations poorly covered by existing surveillance methods. Traditional epidemiological surveillance and the approach presented in this paper are complementary, but a formal validation framework for case identification algorithms is necessary.

  15. Identification of hazards in non-nuclear power plants. [Public health hazards of fossil-fuel, combined cycle, combustion turbine, and geothermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, W.S.; Israel, W.J.; Sacramo, R.F.

    1978-07-01

    Public health and safety hazards have been identified for five types of power plants: coal-fired, oil-fired steam turbine, combined cycle, combustion (gas) turbine, and geothermal. The results of the analysis show that air pollutants are the major hazard that affects the health and safety of the general public. A total of ninety plant hazards were identified for the five plant types. Each of these hazards were rated in six categories as to their affect on the general public. The criteria used in the analysis were: area/population exposed; duration; mitigation; quantity to toxicity ratio; nature of health effects; and public attitude. Even though ninety hazards were identified for the five plants analyzed, the large majority of hazards were similar for each plant. Highest ratings were given to the products of the combustion cycle or to hydrogen sulfide emissions from geothermal plants. Water pollution, cooling tower effects and noise received relatively low ratings. The highest rated of the infrequent or hypothetical hazards were those associated with potential fires, explosions, and chlorine releases at the plant. Hazards associated with major cooling water releases, water pollution and missiles received the lowest ratings. Since the results of the study clearly show that air pollutants are currently considered the most severe hazard, additional effort must be made to further understand the complex interactions of pollutants with man and his environment. Of particular importance is the determination of dose-response relationships for long term, low level exposure to air pollutants. (EDB)

  16. Work profile and associated health hazards among nursing students at Mansoura University, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elwafa, Hala S; Khashaba, Eman O; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Abd El-Raouf, Samar

    2017-03-30

    Nursing students are increasingly undertaking paid term-time employment to finance their living expenses and studies. The objectives of this study are to estimate its prevalence, factors associated, and possible health hazards. A cross-sectional study was conducted of nursing students using a questionnaire that included sociodemographic and employment data, reasons for working, possible health hazards in the workplace, and perceived effects on academic performance. The prevalence of student paid employment was found to be 23.3%. Being male and belonging to a low social class were independently associated with the likelihood of working while studying. Financial support was the main reason for student employment. Workplace hazards included noise, temperature extremes and psychosocial stressors. Sleep disorders were the most frequent health effects followed by musculoskeletal complaints. Nursing students are at risk from many deleterious health effects which are not covered by occupational health and safety programmes.

  17. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System State-Added Questions: Leveraging an Existing Surveillance System to Improve Knowledge of Women's Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Sheree L; Warner, Lee; Adamski, Alys; Smith, Ruben A; Burley, Kim; Grigorescu, Violanda

    2016-06-01

    As the prevalence of chronic conditions among women of reproductive age continues to rise, studies assessing the intersection of chronic disease and women's reproductive health status are increasingly needed. However, many data systems collect only limited information on women's reproductive health, thereby hampering the appraisal of risk and protective factors across the life span. One way to expand the study of women's health with minimal investment in time and resources is to integrate questions on reproductive health into existing surveillance systems. In 2013, previously validated questions on women's self-reported reproductive history, use of contraception, and infertility were added to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) by seven states (Connecticut, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Ohio, Texas, and Utah); all female respondents aged 18-50 years were included in the pool of respondents for these state-added questions. Of 8691 women who completed the questions, 13.2% reported ever experiencing infertility and 59.8% of those at risk for unintended pregnancy reported using contraception at last intercourse. The information garnered from the state-added reproductive health questions can be augmented with the BRFSS core questions on health-related risk behaviors, chronic conditions, and use of preventive services. Expanding existing data collection systems with supplemental questions on women's reproductive health can provide important information on risk factors and outcomes that may not be available from other sources.

  18. Reliability of case definitions for public health surveillance assessed by Round-Robin test methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Hermann

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Case definitions have been recognized to be important elements of public health surveillance systems. They are to assure comparability and consistency of surveillance data and have crucial impact on the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of a surveillance system. The reliability of case definitions has rarely been investigated systematically. Methods We conducted a Round-Robin test by asking all 425 local health departments (LHD and the 16 state health departments (SHD in Germany to classify a selection of 68 case examples using case definitions. By multivariate analysis we investigated factors linked to classification agreement with a gold standard, which was defined by an expert panel. Results A total of 7870 classifications were done by 396 LHD (93% and all SHD. Reporting sensitivity was 90.0%, positive predictive value 76.6%. Polio case examples had the lowest reporting precision, salmonellosis case examples the highest (OR = 0.008; CI: 0.005–0.013. Case definitions with a check-list format of clinical criteria resulted in higher reporting precision than case definitions with a narrative description (OR = 3.08; CI: 2.47–3.83. Reporting precision was higher among SHD compared to LHD (OR = 1.52; CI: 1.14–2.02. Conclusion Our findings led to a systematic revision of the German case definitions and build the basis for general recommendations for the creation of case definitions. These include, among others, that testable yes/no criteria in a check-list format is likely to improve reliability, and that software used for data transmission should be designed in strict accordance with the case definitions. The findings of this study are largely applicable to case definitions in many other countries or international networks as they share the same structural and editorial characteristics of the case definitions evaluated in this study before their revision.

  19. Phylogeography of Swine Influenza H3N2 in the United States: Translational Public Health for Zoonotic Disease Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotch, Matthew; Mei, Changjiang

    2012-01-01

    The field of phylogeography has received a lot of attention for its application to molecular evolution and geographic migration of species. More recent work has included infectious diseases especially zoonotic RNA viruses like influenza and rabies. Phylogeography of viruses has the potential to advance surveillance at agencies such as public health departments, agriculture departments, and wildlife agencies. However, little is known about how these agencies could use phylogeography for applied surveillance and the integration of animal and human sequence data. Here, we highlight its potential to support ‘translational public health’ that could bring sequence data to the forefront of surveillance. We focus on swine influenza H3N2 because of the recent link to a variant form in humans. We discuss the implications to applied surveillance and the need for an integrated biomedical informatics approach for adoption at agencies of animal and public health. PMID:23137647

  20. Animal Health Surveillance in Scotland in 2030: Using Scenario Planning to Develop Strategies in the Context of “Brexit”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Lisa A.; Auty, Harriet; Reeves, Aaron; Rydevik, Gustaf; Bessell, Paul; McKendrick, Iain J.

    2017-01-01

    Animal health surveillance is necessary to protect human and animal health, rural economies, and the environment from the consequences of large-scale disease outbreaks. In Scotland, since the Kinnaird review in 2011, efforts have been made to engage with stakeholders to ensure that the strategic goals of surveillance are better aligned with the needs of the end-users and other beneficiaries. The aims of this study were to engage with Scottish surveillance stakeholders and multidisciplinary experts to inform the future long-term strategy for animal health surveillance in Scotland. In this paper, we describe the use of scenario planning as an effective tool for the creation and exploration of five plausible long-term futures; we describe prioritization of critical drivers of change (i.e., international trade policy, data-sharing philosophies, and public versus private resourcing of surveillance capacity) that will unpredictably influence the future implementation of animal health surveillance activities. We present 10 participant-developed strategies to support 3 long-term visions to improve future resilience of animal health surveillance and contingency planning for animal and zoonotic disease outbreaks in Scotland. In the absence of any certainty about the nature of post-Brexit trade agreements for agriculture, participants considered the best investments for long-term resilience to include data collection strategies to improve animal health benchmarking, user-benefit strategies to improve digital literacy in farming communities, and investment strategies to increase veterinary and scientific research capacity in rural areas. This is the first scenario planning study to explore stakeholder beliefs and perceptions about important environmental, technological, societal, political, and legal drivers (in addition to epidemiological “risk factors”) and effective strategies to manage future uncertainties for both the Scottish livestock industry and animal health

  1. Animal Health Surveillance in Scotland in 2030: Using Scenario Planning to Develop Strategies in the Context of "Brexit".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Lisa A; Auty, Harriet; Reeves, Aaron; Rydevik, Gustaf; Bessell, Paul; McKendrick, Iain J

    2017-01-01

    Animal health surveillance is necessary to protect human and animal health, rural economies, and the environment from the consequences of large-scale disease outbreaks. In Scotland, since the Kinnaird review in 2011, efforts have been made to engage with stakeholders to ensure that the strategic goals of surveillance are better aligned with the needs of the end-users and other beneficiaries. The aims of this study were to engage with Scottish surveillance stakeholders and multidisciplinary experts to inform the future long-term strategy for animal health surveillance in Scotland. In this paper, we describe the use of scenario planning as an effective tool for the creation and exploration of five plausible long-term futures; we describe prioritization of critical drivers of change (i.e., international trade policy, data-sharing philosophies, and public versus private resourcing of surveillance capacity) that will unpredictably influence the future implementation of animal health surveillance activities. We present 10 participant-developed strategies to support 3 long-term visions to improve future resilience of animal health surveillance and contingency planning for animal and zoonotic disease outbreaks in Scotland. In the absence of any certainty about the nature of post-Brexit trade agreements for agriculture, participants considered the best investments for long-term resilience to include data collection strategies to improve animal health benchmarking, user-benefit strategies to improve digital literacy in farming communities, and investment strategies to increase veterinary and scientific research capacity in rural areas. This is the first scenario planning study to explore stakeholder beliefs and perceptions about important environmental, technological, societal, political, and legal drivers (in addition to epidemiological "risk factors") and effective strategies to manage future uncertainties for both the Scottish livestock industry and animal health

  2. Animal Health Surveillance in Scotland in 2030: Using Scenario Planning to Develop Strategies in the Context of “Brexit”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Boden

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Animal health surveillance is necessary to protect human and animal health, rural economies, and the environment from the consequences of large-scale disease outbreaks. In Scotland, since the Kinnaird review in 2011, efforts have been made to engage with stakeholders to ensure that the strategic goals of surveillance are better aligned with the needs of the end-users and other beneficiaries. The aims of this study were to engage with Scottish surveillance stakeholders and multidisciplinary experts to inform the future long-term strategy for animal health surveillance in Scotland. In this paper, we describe the use of scenario planning as an effective tool for the creation and exploration of five plausible long-term futures; we describe prioritization of critical drivers of change (i.e., international trade policy, data-sharing philosophies, and public versus private resourcing of surveillance capacity that will unpredictably influence the future implementation of animal health surveillance activities. We present 10 participant-developed strategies to support 3 long-term visions to improve future resilience of animal health surveillance and contingency planning for animal and zoonotic disease outbreaks in Scotland. In the absence of any certainty about the nature of post-Brexit trade agreements for agriculture, participants considered the best investments for long-term resilience to include data collection strategies to improve animal health benchmarking, user-benefit strategies to improve digital literacy in farming communities, and investment strategies to increase veterinary and scientific research capacity in rural areas. This is the first scenario planning study to explore stakeholder beliefs and perceptions about important environmental, technological, societal, political, and legal drivers (in addition to epidemiological “risk factors” and effective strategies to manage future uncertainties for both the Scottish livestock industry and

  3. Can Health Surveillance be emancipatory? An alternative way of thinking about alternatives in times of crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo de Souza

    2017-10-01

    This article in essay form is an invitation to reflect upon the emancipatory character of health surveillance, a debate that was interrupted in the 1990s. In these times of grave political and institutional crisis in Brazil and in the year of the first National Conference on Health Surveillance (1ª CNVS, acronym in Portuguese), it is particularly appropriate to revive the critical theoretical and epistemological discussions that have grounded the trajectory of Latin American social medicine and public health over the last 40 years. To this end, I draw on aspects of critical thinking on modernity devised by the Portuguese sociologist Boaventura de Sousa Santos, who postulates three pillars of domination: capitalism, colonialism (or coloniality), and patriarchy. In the current context of a crisis of civilization, rethinking emancipation requires us to refresh our understanding of the meaning of social struggles in terms of their relationship with the knowledges and epistemologies undermined by modern civilization and still present in the Global South, whether in spaces occupied by indigenous peoples and poor farmers or in urban peripheries.

  4. Online surveillance of media health event reporting in Nepal: digital disease detection from a One Health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwind, Jessica S; Norman, Stephanie A; Karmacharya, Dibesh; Wolking, David J; Dixit, Sameer M; Rajbhandari, Rajesh M; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Brownstein, John S

    2017-09-21

    Traditional media and the internet are crucial sources of health information. Media can significantly shape public opinion, knowledge and understanding of emerging and endemic health threats. As digital communication rapidly progresses, local access and dissemination of health information contribute significantly to global disease detection and reporting. Health event reports in Nepal (October 2013-December 2014) were used to characterize Nepal's media environment from a One Health perspective using HealthMap - a global online disease surveillance and mapping tool. Event variables (location, media source type, disease or risk factor of interest, and affected species) were extracted from HealthMap. A total of 179 health reports were captured from various sources including newspapers, inter-government agency bulletins, individual reports, and trade websites, yielding 108 (60%) unique articles. Human health events were reported most often (n = 85; 79%), followed by animal health events (n = 23; 21%), with no reports focused solely on environmental health. By expanding event coverage across all of the health sectors, media in developing countries could play a crucial role in national risk communication efforts and could enhance early warning systems for disasters and disease outbreaks.

  5. Enablers of innovation in digital public health surveillance: lessons from Flutracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Craig B

    2017-05-01

    Opportunities for digital innovation in public health surveillance have never been greater. Social media data streams, Open Data initiatives, mHealth geotagged data, and the 'internet of things' are ripe for development. To embrace these opportunities we need to provide public health professionals with environments that support experimentation with new technology. Innovative practitioners will lead discovery, adaption, trialling and deployment of new technological solutions mostly developed outside their organisation. To enhance innovation agencies will need to learn from 'startup culture' and the practices of large organisations that ring fence innovative teams to protect them and allow them to 'break rules', 'fail fast', and innovate. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Environmental and health hazard ranking and assessment of plastic polymers based on chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lithner, Delilah, E-mail: delilah.lithner@gmail.com; Larsson, Ake; Dave, Goeran

    2011-08-15

    Plastics constitute a large material group with a global annual production that has doubled in 15 years (245 million tonnes in 2008). Plastics are present everywhere in society and the environment, especially the marine environment, where large amounts of plastic waste accumulate. The knowledge of human and environmental hazards and risks from chemicals associated with the diversity of plastic products is very limited. Most chemicals used for producing plastic polymers are derived from non-renewable crude oil, and several are hazardous. These may be released during the production, use and disposal of the plastic product. In this study the environmental and health hazards of chemicals used in 55 thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers were identified and compiled. A hazard ranking model was developed for the hazard classes and categories in the EU classification and labelling (CLP) regulation which is based on the UN Globally Harmonized System. The polymers were ranked based on monomer hazard classifications, and initial assessments were made. The polymers that ranked as most hazardous are made of monomers classified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic (category 1A or 1B). These belong to the polymer families of polyurethanes, polyacrylonitriles, polyvinyl chloride, epoxy resins, and styrenic copolymers. All have a large global annual production (1-37 million tonnes). A considerable number of polymers (31 out of 55) are made of monomers that belong to the two worst of the ranking model's five hazard levels, i.e. levels IV-V. The polymers that are made of level IV monomers and have a large global annual production (1-5 million tonnes) are phenol formaldehyde resins, unsaturated polyesters, polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, and urea-formaldehyde resins. This study has identified hazardous substances used in polymer production for which the risks should be evaluated for decisions on the need for risk reduction measures, substitution, or even phase out

  7. Occupational health hazards of hospital staff nurses. Part II: Physical, chemical, and biological stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triolo, P K

    1989-07-01

    Physical and environmental hazards commonly found in hospitals include slippery floors, electrical hazards, noise, poor lighting, and inadequate ventilation. Describing the extent of musculoskeletal injury in nurses, one survey showed that nurses lost 750,000 working days a year as a result of back pain, which is twice the national average. Most workplace exposures do not result in disease, because either the biohazard is not transmitted by the airborne route or because the agent is present in too low of a dose. The more nurses know about potential occupational health and safety hazards, the more successful they will be in reducing risks, avoiding accidents, and minimizing occupational stressor outcomes.

  8. Evaluation of the ability of standardized supports to improve public health response to syndromic surveillance for respiratory diseases in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Rivera

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite widespread implementation of syndromic surveillance systems within public health agencies, previous studies of the implementation and use of these systems have indicated that the functions and responses taken in response to syndromic surveillance data vary widely according to local context and preferences. The objective of the Syndromic Surveillance Evaluation Study was to develop and implement standardized supports in local public health agencies in Ontario, Canada, and evaluate the ability of these supports to affect actions taken as part of public health communicable disease control programs. Methods Local public health agencies (LPHA in Ontario, which used syndromic surveillance based on emergency department visits for respiratory disease, were recruited and randomly allocated to the study intervention or control group. The intervention group health agencies received standardized supports in terms of a standardized aberrant event detection algorithm and a response protocol dictating steps to investigate and assess the public health significance of syndromic surveillance alerts. The control group continued with their pre-existing syndromic surveillance infrastructure and processes. Outcomes were assessed using logbooks, which collected quantitative and qualitative information about alerts received, investigation steps taken, and public health responses. The study was conducted prospectively for 15 months (October 2013 to February 2015. Results Fifteen LPHAs participated in the study (n = 9 intervention group, n = 6 control group. A total of 1,969 syndromic surveillance alerts were received by all LPHAs. Variations in the types and amount of responses varied by LPHA, in particularly differences were noted by the size of the health unit. Smaller health units had more challenges to both detect and mount a response to any alerts. LPHAs in the control group were more likely to declare alerts to have public

  9. The role of the pharmaceutical animal health industry in post-marketing surveillance of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, S

    1993-06-01

    The pharmaceutical animal health industry must be committed to the total life cycle of products, i.e. during both the pre- and post-marketing period. Support of antibacterial agents during the postmarketing period is not restricted to maintaining a well-established distribution and promotion system. Care has to be taken continuously to maintain and/or improve the quality, safety (for user, target animal and environment) and clinical efficacy. The pharmaceutical industry contributes to this by: 1. Introducing antibacterials in different animal species for the most effective disease condition only and by ensuring the veterinary profession is informed about relevant findings on: a. the mechanism of action; b. pharmacodynamic properties; c. pharmacokinetic properties (plasma, target tissue); d. clinical efficacy data and in vitro sensitivity data; e. valid species-specific MIC breakpoints; f. precise dose and treatment regime. 2. Updating on a regular basis on: a. new findings on the mechanism of action (in vitro and in vivo); b. the optimal use program in the light of changes in animal husbandry, farm management and epidemiology on national and international level; c. adjustment of species-specific MIC breakpoints when necessary. 3. Providing continuous information in collaboration with animal health laboratories about: a. clinical field surveillance for efficacy (national, international); b. in vitro sensitivity/resistance surveillance (national, international); c. use of in vitro data to support prediction of in vivo efficacy. Surveillance of resistance, in vitro, is therefore part of a package of information needed on a routine basis by the pharmaceutical industry to allow the best possible use of antibacterials and to minimize induction of resistance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Potential public health hazards, exposures and health effects from unconventional natural gas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adgate, John L; Goldstein, Bernard D; McKenzie, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in unconventional natural gas (UNG) development in the United States during the past decade has brought wells and related infrastructure closer to population centers. This review evaluates risks to public health from chemical and nonchemical stressors associated with UNG, describes likely exposure pathways and potential health effects, and identifies major uncertainties to address with future research. The most important occupational stressors include mortality, exposure to hazardous materials and increased risk of industrial accidents. For communities near development and production sites the major stressors are air pollutants, ground and surface water contamination, truck traffic and noise pollution, accidents and malfunctions, and psychosocial stress associated with community change. Despite broad public concern, no comprehensive population-based studies of the public health effects of UNG operations exist. Major uncertainties are the unknown frequency and duration of human exposure, future extent of development, potential emission control and mitigation strategies, and a paucity of baseline data to enable substantive before and after comparisons for affected populations and environmental media. Overall, the current literature suggests that research needs to address these uncertainties before we can reasonably quantify the likelihood of occurrence or magnitude of adverse health effects associated with UNG production in workers and communities.

  11. Emergency Planning Guidelines for Campus Health Services: An All-Hazards Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This document, written collaboratively by members of ACHA's Emerging Public Health Threats and Emergency Response Coalition and Campus Safety and Violence Coalition, is designed to assist members of the college health community in planning for emergencies using an all-hazards approach. Its perspective is both macro and micro, beginning with a…

  12. Concept Attainment Teaching Methodology (CATM)--An Effective Approach for Training Workers on Chemicals Health Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Abdulqadir Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Workers handling chemicals need to understand the risk to health involved in their work, and this requires training. In this study effectivity of concept attainment teaching methodology (CATM) as training strategy for cleaning workers was assessed. CATM was used to train workers on chemicals information and health hazards. Pictures, illustrations,…

  13. Health and Environmental Hazards of Electronic Waste in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthakur, Anwesha

    2016-04-01

    Technological waste in the form of electronic waste (e-waste) is a threat to all countries. E-waste impacts health and the environment by entering the food chain in the form of chemical toxicants and exposing the population to deleterious chemicals, mainly in the form of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. This special report tries to trace the environmental and health implications of e-waste in India. The author concludes that detrimental health and environmental consequences are associated with e-waste and the challenge lies in producing affordable electronics with minimum chemical toxicants.

  14. Enhanced communication and coordination in the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Drinking Water Contamination Warning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangel, Chrissy; Allgeier, Steven C; Gibbons, Darcy; Haas, Adam; Simon, Katie

    2012-03-01

    Effective communication and coordination are critical when investigating a possible drinking water contamination incident. A contamination warning system is designed to detect water contamination by initiating a coordinated, effective response to mitigate significant public health and economic consequences. This article describes historical communication barriers during water contamination incidents and discusses how these barriers were overcome through the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Drinking Water Contamination Warning System, referred to as the "Cincinnati Pilot." By enhancing partnerships in the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Pilot, information silos that existed in each organization were replaced with interagency information depots that facilitated effective decision making.

  15. A Smartphone App (AfyaData) for Innovative One Health Disease Surveillance from Community to National Levels in Africa: Intervention in Disease Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimuribo, Esron Daniel; Mutagahywa, Eric; Sindato, Calvin; Mboera, Leonard; Mwabukusi, Mpoki; Kariuki Njenga, M; Teesdale, Scott; Olsen, Jennifer; Rweyemamu, Mark

    2017-12-18

    We describe the development and initial achievements of a participatory disease surveillance system that relies on mobile technology to promote Community Level One Health Security (CLOHS) in Africa. The objective of this system, Enhancing Community-Based Disease Outbreak Detection and Response in East and Southern Africa (DODRES), is to empower community-based human and animal health reporters with training and information and communication technology (ICT)-based solutions to contribute to disease detection and response, thereby complementing strategies to improve the efficiency of infectious disease surveillance at national, regional, and global levels. In this study, we refer to techno-health as the application of ICT-based solutions to enhance early detection, timely reporting, and prompt response to health events in human and animal populations. An EpiHack, involving human and animal health experts as well as ICT programmers, was held in Tanzania in 2014 to identify major challenges facing early detection, timely reporting, and prompt response to disease events. This was followed by a project inception workshop in 2015, which brought together key stakeholders, including policy makers and community representatives, to refine the objectives and implementation plan of the DODRES project. The digital ICT tools were developed and packaged together as the AfyaData app to support One Health disease surveillance. Community health reporters (CHRs) and officials from animal and human health sectors in Morogoro and Ngorongoro districts in Tanzania were trained to use the AfyaData app. The AfyaData supports near- to real-time data collection and submission at both community and health facility levels as well as the provision of feedback to reporters. The functionality of the One Health Knowledge Repository (OHKR) app has been integrated into the AfyaData app to provide health information on case definitions of diseases of humans and animals and to synthesize advice that

  16. Public health efforts to build a surveillance system for child maltreatment mortality: lessons learned for stakeholder engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucia Rojas; Gibbs, Deborah; Wetterhall, Scott; Schnitzer, Patricia G; Farris, Tonya; Crosby, Alex E; Leeb, Rebecca T

    2011-01-01

    Reducing the number of largely preventable and tragic deaths due to child maltreatment (CM) requires an understanding of the magnitude of and risk factors for fatal CM and targeted research, policy, and prevention efforts. Public health surveillance offers an opportunity to improve our understanding of the problem of CM. In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded state public health agencies in California, Michigan, and Oregon to implement a model approach for routine and sustainable CM surveillance and evaluated the experience of those efforts. We describe the experiences of 3 state health agencies in building collaborations and partnerships with multiple stakeholders for CM surveillance. Qualitative, structured key informant interviews were carried out during site visits as part of an evaluation of a CDC-funded project to implement a model approach to CM surveillance. Key informants included system stakeholders from state health agencies, law enforcement, child protective services, the medical community, and child welfare advocacy groups in the 3 funded states. Factors that facilitated stakeholder engagement for CM surveillance included the following: streamlining and coordinating the work of Child Death Review Teams (CDRTs); demonstrating the value of surveillance to non-public health partners; codifying relationships with participating agencies; and securing the commitment of decision-makers. Legislative mandates were helpful in bringing key stakeholders together, but it was not sufficient to ensure sustained engagement. The engagement process yielded multiple benefits for the stakeholders including a deeper appreciation of the complexity of defining CM; a greater understanding of risk factors for CM; and enhanced guidance for prevention and control efforts. States considering or currently undertaking CM surveillance can glean useful insights from the experiences of these 3 states and apply them to their own efforts to engage

  17. Health and socio-economic hazards associated with khat consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein M. A. Ageely

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe briefly the adverse consequences of habitual chewing of Khat on health, and help educate the general public. The study is based on literature review that includes internet search and journals.

  18. SIVIGILA , an infrastructure mobilizing diseases, policies and practices in public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddier Alexander Martínez Álvarez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Technologies are critical in large organizations, but they have a paradoxical nature that in turn facilitate and hinder organizational change. Rather than occupying a space and place in a specific time frame, an infrastructure appears when a set of local practices are produced by a larger scale technology and can then be used as a naturalized form by its users (Star and Ruhleder, 1996. This article describes how the Colombian Public Health Surveillance System (sivigila constitutes the infrastructure to develop Public Health Surveillance (phs. For this, I conducted a case study with a multi-sited ethnographic perspective (Cresswell, Worth and Sheikh, 2011; Marcus, 2001. From Susan Leigh Star’s model, I identified in sivigila the eight dimensions of infrastructure proposed by Star (Bowker and Star, 2000; Star, 1999; Star and Ruhleder, 1996. It can be concluded that infrastructures can only become visible when they are in operation and with the participation of all its actors, thus solving the tension between the local and the global (Star and Ruhleder, 1996.

  19. [Integral care, a SUS (Brazilian Unified Health System) guideline for the sanitary surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Gisele; Reis, Daniela Carla de Souza; da Silva, Luciana Leite Gonçalves

    2010-11-01

    The sanitary surveillance (Visa) performs several practices, on different objects and its actions are guided by principles and guidelines of the SUS. It was done a critical reflection on the interaction conditions of practice in Visa, with a constitutional proposition of the SUS: integral care. The analysis was based on the theory of structuration (Giddens) that considers mobilization of structural resources as dimensions of social interaction, which would justify the legitimacy exercised since the standards. Have been analyzed the following categories: Visa and its insertion within the SUS; the integral care and the Visa; and political impediments. The Visa has been organized by National Health Surveillance Agency. Nowadays it has as sanitary responsibilities, communication with society and health promotion. The proposal of the literature concerning integral care is based on the assistance issue. The organization of the services in the different federative entities is the sense of integral care most adopted by Visa. Political impediments focus on the institutional renewal, on the conflicts of interest arena, on the distance between formulated policies and established practices and gaps concerning work management and the insufficiency of financial support.

  20. Health physics radiation-generating devices, characteristics, and hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2016-01-01

    The book bridges the gap between existing health physics textbooks and reference material needed by a practicing health physicist as the 21st century progresses. This material necessarily encompasses emerging radiation-generating technologies, advances in existing technology, and applications of existing technology to new areas. The book is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate science and engineering courses. It is also be a useful reference for scientists and engineers.

  1. Surveillance for Health Care Access and Health Services Use, Adults Aged 18-64 Years - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Catherine A; Zhao, Guixiang; Fox, Jared B; Eke, Paul I; Greenlund, Kurt J; Town, Machell

    2017-02-24

    As a result of the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, millions of U.S. adults attained health insurance coverage. However, millions of adults remain uninsured or underinsured. Compared with adults without barriers to health care, adults who lack health insurance coverage, have coverage gaps, or skip or delay care because of limited personal finances might face increased risk for poor physical and mental health and premature mortality. 2014. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing, state-based, landline- and cellular-telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years residing in the United States. Data are collected from states, the District of Columbia, and participating U.S. territories on health risk behaviors, chronic health conditions, health care access, and use of clinical preventive services (CPS). An optional Health Care Access module was included in the 2014 BRFSS. This report summarizes 2014 BRFSS data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia on health care access and use of selected CPS recommended by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force or the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices among working-aged adults (aged 18-64 years), by state, state Medicaid expansion status, expanded geographic region, and federal poverty level (FPL). This report also provides analysis of primary type of health insurance coverage at the time of interview, continuity of health insurance coverage during the preceding 12 months, and other health care access measures (i.e., unmet health care need because of cost, unmet prescription need because of cost, medical debt [medical bills being paid off over time], number of health care visits during the preceding year, and satisfaction with received health care) from 43 states that included questions from the optional BRFSS Health Care Access module. In 2014, health insurance coverage and other health care access measures varied substantially by state, state

  2. Quality of newborn care: a health facility assessment in rural Ghana using survey, vignette and surveillance data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vesel, Linda; Manu, Alexander; Lohela, Terhi J.; Gabrysch, Sabine; Okyere, Eunice; ten Asbroek, Augustinus H. A.; Hill, Zelee; Agyemang, Charlotte Tawiah; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Kirkwood, Betty R.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the structural capacity for, and quality of, immediate and essential newborn care (ENC) in health facilities in rural Ghana, and to link this with demand for facility deliveries and admissions. Health facility assessment survey and population-based surveillance data. Seven districts in

  3. The development and evaluation of a PDA-based method for public health surveillance data collection in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ping; de Courten, Maximilian; Pan, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    EpiData and Epi Info are often used together by public health agencies around the world, particularly in developing countries, to meet their needs of low-cost public health data management; however, the current open source data management technology lacks a mobile component to meet the needs of m...... transcription errors for public surveillance data collection in developing countries represented by Fiji....

  4. Occupational Health Hazards in the Interventional Laboratory: Progress Report of the Multispecialty Occupational Health Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    fluoroscopy laboratories. The MSOHG was formed in 2005 to address the occupational hazards of interventionalists, with particular emphasis on the...mutual benefit. SUMMARY The interventional laboratory presents occupational hazards to operators and staff that must be acknowledged, understood and

  5. Surveillance of HIV assisted partner services using routine health information systems in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherutich, Peter; Golden, Matthew; Betz, Bourke; Wamuti, Beatrice; Ng'ang'a, Anne; Maingi, Peter; Macharia, Paul; Sambai, Betsy; Abuna, Felix; Bukusi, David; Dunbar, Mathew; Farquhar, Carey

    2016-07-20

    The utilization of routine health information systems (HIS) for surveillance of assisted partner services (aPS) for HIV in sub-Saharan is sub-optimal, in part due to poor data quality and limited use of information technology. Consequently, little is known about coverage, scope and quality of HIV aPS. Yet, affordable electronic data tools, software and data transmission infrastructure are now widely accessible in sub-Saharan Africa. We designed and implemented a cased-based surveillance system using the HIV testing platform in 18 health facilities in Kenya. The components of this system included an electronic HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC) intake form, data transmission on the Global Systems for Mobile Communication (GSM), and data collection using the Open Data Kit (ODK) platform. We defined rates of new HIV diagnoses, and characterized HIV-infected cases. We also determined the proportion of clients who reported testing for HIV because a) they were notified by a sexual partner b) they were notified by a health provider, or c) they were informed of exposure by another other source. Data collection times were evaluated. Among 4351 clients, HIV prevalence was 14.2 %, ranging from 4.4-25.4 % across facilities. Regardless of other reasons for testing, only 107 (2.5 %) of all participants reported testing after being notified by a health provider or sexual partner. A similar proportion, 1.8 % (79 of 4351), reported partner notification as the only reason for seeking an HIV test. Among 79 clients who reported HIV partner services as the reason for testing, the majority (78.5 %), were notified by their sexual partners. The majority (52.8 %) of HIV-infected patients initiated their HIV testing, and 57.2 % tested in a Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) site co-located in a health facility. Median time for data capture was 4 min (IQR: 3-15), with a longer duration for HIV-infected participants, and there was no reported data loss. aPS surveillance using new

  6. Public health surveillance after the 2010 haiti earthquake: the experience of médecins sans frontières.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, Jonathan; Luquero, Francisco; Francois, Gwenola; Rousseau, Caroline; Caleo, Grazia; Ciglenecki, Iza; Delacre, Clara; Siddiqui, M Ruby; Terzian, Mego; Verhenne, Leen; Porten, Klaudia; Checchi, Francesco

    2013-01-07

    Background In January 2010, Haiti was struck by a powerful earthquake, killing and wounding hundreds of thousands and leaving millions homeless. In order to better understand the severity of the crisis, and to provide early warning of epidemics or deteriorations in the health status of the population, Médecins Sans Frontières established surveillance for infections of epidemic potential and for death rates and malnutrition prevalence. Methods Trends in infections of epidemic potential were detected through passive surveillance at health facilities serving as sentinel sites. Active community surveillance of death rates and malnutrition prevalence was established through weekly home visits. Results There were 102,054 consultations at the 15 reporting sites during the 26 week period of operation. Acute respiratory infections, acute watery diarrhoea and malaria/fever of unknown origin accounted for the majority of proportional morbidity among the diseases under surveillance. Several alerts were triggered through the detection of immediately notifiable diseases and increasing trends in some conditions. Crude and under-5 death rates, and acute malnutrition prevalence, were below emergency thresholds. Conclusion Disease surveillance after disasters should include an alert and response component, requiring investment of resources in informal networks that improve sensitivity to alerts as well as on the more common systems of data collection, compilation and analysis. Information sharing between partners is necessary to strengthen early warning systems. Community-based surveillance of mortality and malnutrition is feasible but requires careful implementation and validation.

  7. A new approach to spatial identification of potential health hazards associated with childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svechkina, Alina; Portnov, Boris A

    2017-10-01

    Childhood asthma is a chronic disease, known to be linked to prolonged exposure to air pollution. However, the identification of specific health hazards, associated with childhood asthma is not always straightforward, due to the presence of multiple sources of air pollution in urban areas. In this study, we test a novel approach to the spatial identification of environmental hazards that have the highest probability of association with the observed asthma morbidity patterns. The effect of a particular health hazard on population morbidity is expected to weaken with distance. To account for this effect, we rank potential health hazards based on the strength of association between the observed morbidity patterns and wind-direction weighted proximities to these locations. We validate this approach by applying it to a study of spatial patterns of childhood asthma in the Greater Haifa Metropolitan Area (GHMA) in Israel, characterised by multiple health hazards. We identified a spot in the local industrial zone as the primary risk source for the observed asthma morbidity patterns. Multivariate regressions, controlling for socio-economic and geographic variables, revealed that the observed incidence rates of asthma tend to decline as a function of distance from the identified industrial location. The proposed identification approach uses disease patterns as its main input, and can be used by researches as a preliminary risk assessment tool, in cases in which specific sources of locally elevated morbidity are unclear or cannot be identified by traditional methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A hazard to health? Fine particles arouse worldwide interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karas, J.; Oesch, P.

    1998-07-01

    The most recent studies show that particles contained in the air that we breathe may have harmful effects on the health of asthmatics, children and old people in particular. Particle material found in ambient air is formed by emissions resulting from traffic, industry and other use of fuels. Nature`s own sources also have a significant effect on particle concentrations. The mechanisms by which fine particles may produce negative health effects are so far unknown. At present it is therefore impossible to assess the effects of emissions of fine particles resulting, for instance, from the use of fossil fuels

  9. Bat ecology and public health surveillance for rabies in an urbanizing region of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, T.J.; Neubaum, D.J.; Neubaum, M.A.; Cryan, P.M.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.; Rupprecht, C.E.; Pape, W.J.; Bowen, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe use of Fort Collins, Colorado, and nearby areas by bats in 2001-2005, and link patterns in bat ecology with concurrent public health surveillance for rabies. Our analyses are based on evaluation of summary statistics, and information-theoretic support for results of simple logistic regression. Based on captures in mist nets, the city bat fauna differed from that of the adjacent mountains, and was dominated by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Species, age, and sex composition of bats submitted for rabies testing locally and along the urbanizing Front Range Corridor were similar to those of the mist-net captures and reflected the annual cycle of reproduction and activity of big brown bats. Few submissions occurred November- March, when these bats hibernated elsewhere. In summer females roosted in buildings in colonies and dominated health samples; fledging of young corresponded to a summer peak in health submissions with no increase in rabies prevalence. Roosting ecology of big brown bats in buildings was similar to that reported for natural sites, including colony size, roost-switching behavior, fidelity to roosts in a small area, and attributes important for roost selection. Attrition in roosts occurred from structural modifications of buildings to exclude colonies by citizens, but without major effects on long-term bat reproduction or survival. Bats foraged in areas set aside for nature conservation. A pattern of lower diversity in urban bat communities with dominance by big brown bats may occur widely in the USA, and is consistent with national public health records for rabies surveillance. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  10. Establishing a nationwide emergency department-based syndromic surveillance system for better public health responses in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Chan-Hsien

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With international concern over emerging infectious diseases (EID and bioterrorist attacks, public health is being required to have early outbreak detection systems. A disease surveillance team was organized to establish a hospital emergency department-based syndromic surveillance system (ED-SSS capable of automatically transmitting patient data electronically from the hospitals responsible for emergency care throughout the country to the Centers for Disease Control in Taiwan (Taiwan-CDC starting March, 2004. This report describes the challenges and steps involved in developing ED-SSS and the timely information it provides to improve in public health decision-making. Methods Between June 2003 and March 2004, after comparing various surveillance systems used around the world and consulting with ED physicians, pediatricians and internal medicine physicians involved in infectious disease control, the Syndromic Surveillance Research Team in Taiwan worked with the Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS Laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh to create Taiwan's ED-SSS. The system was evaluated by analyzing daily electronic ED data received in real-time from the 189 hospitals participating in this system between April 1, 2004 and March 31, 2005. Results Taiwan's ED-SSS identified winter and summer spikes in two syndrome groups: influenza-like illnesses and respiratory syndrome illnesses, while total numbers of ED visits were significantly higher on weekends, national holidays and the days of Chinese lunar new year than weekdays (p Conclusion Taiwan's ED-SSS represents the first nationwide real-time syndromic surveillance system ever established in Asia. The experiences reported herein can encourage other countries to develop their own surveillance systems. The system can be adapted to other cultural and language environments for better global surveillance of infectious diseases and international collaboration.

  11. Ocular hazards in Aluminum industry | Ahuama | Journal of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. Journal of Health and Visual Sciences Vol. 8 (2) 2006: pp. 87-89. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors. OTHER RESOURCES... Journal Quality · for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · FAQ's · News · AJOL ...

  12. Evaluation of the Occupational Health Hazards among Workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum transaminases are highly diagnostic of hepatobiliary, cardiac, muscular, and other organ damages, while bicarbonates are useful index in assessment of pulmonary and respiratory problems. Reviews on the usefulness of these tools in evaluation of occupational health risks in quarry workers are hitherto limited.

  13. Innovations in health and demographic surveillance systems to establish the causal impacts of HIV policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Kobus; Law, Matthew; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Tanser, Frank; Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-11-01

    Health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSS), in conjunction with HIV treatment cohorts, have made important contributions to our understanding of the impact of HIV treatment and treatment-related interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this review is to describe and discuss innovations in data collection and data linkage that will create new opportunities to establish the impacts of HIV treatment, as well as policies affecting the treatment cascade, on population health and economic and social outcomes. Novel approaches to routine collection of biomarkers, behavioural data, spatial data, social network information, migration events and mobile phone records can significantly strengthen the potential of HDSS to generate exposure and outcome data for causal analysis of HIV treatment impact and policies affecting the HIV treatment cascade. Additionally, by linking HDSS data to health service administration, education and welfare service records, researchers can substantially broaden opportunities to establish how HIV treatment affects health and economic outcomes when delivered through public sector health systems and at scale. As the HIV treatment scaleup in sub-Saharan Africa enters its second decade, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the long-term causal impacts of large-scale HIV treatment and related policies on broader population health outcomes, such as noncommunicable diseases, as well as on economic and social outcomes, such as family welfare and children's educational attainment. By collecting novel data and linking existing data to public sector records, HDSS can create near-unique opportunities to contribute to this research agenda.

  14. Optimal distribution of medical backpacks and health surveillance assistants in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Itallie, Elizabeth S.; Wu, Duo

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent progress, Malawi continues to perform poorly on key health indicators such as child mortality and life expectancy. These problems are exacerbated by a severe lack of access to health care. Health Surveillance Assistants (HSAs) help bridge this gap by providing community-level access to basic health care services. However, the success of these HSAs is limited by a lack of supplies and long distances between HSAs and patients. To address this issue, we used large-scale weighted p-median and capacitated facility location problems to create a scalable, three-tiered plan for optimal allocation of HSAs, HSA designated medical backpacks, and backpack resupply centers. Our analysis uses real data on the location and characteristics of hospitals, health centers, and the general population. In addition to offering specific recommendations for HSA, backpack, and resupply center locations, it provides general insights into the scope of the proposed HSA backpack program scale-up. In particular, it demonstrates the importance of local health centers to the resupply network. The proposed assignments are robust to changes in the underlying population structure, and could significantly improve access to medical supplies for both HSAs and patients. PMID:24293077

  15. Public health hazards from electricity-producing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyman, J

    1977-02-25

    When a new electricity-producing plant is to be built in a given locality it is natural to take into account the public health consequences of the normal operation of each type of plant contemplated. Here, the fossil-burning plants and nuclear facilities come under consideration. I have attempted to show that, in spite of the many important studies performed, there is currently no reliable methodology to estimate how many more cancer cases, and how many more heart attacks and other diseases have to be anticipated as a consequence of the normal operation of this or that type of electric generator. In part, this is because the currently available estimates of radiation effects on humans are based on extrapolations from studies of two kinds. Those of one kind may be exemplified by studies of atomic bomb casualties in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The other kind are laboratory experiments with lower animals, frequently mice. The unreliability of both kinds of extrapolations is connected with the following circumstances: (i) The omnipresent troublesome phenomenon of competing risks. (ii) The dependence of health effects of a given noxious agent on the preexisting local pollution. (iii) The dependence of health effects not only on the "dose" of an agent, but also on the rate at which the agent is administered. (iv) The noted difficulties of making extrapolations from one mammal to another. Our obtaining reliable estimates of the public health effects of extra pollution from new industrial plants would seem to depend on a large multipollutant and multilocality epidemiological study being conducted--one requiring the cooperative effort of several governmental agencies. However, a much easier study of certain developments in the vicinity of Rocky Flats, Colorado, might provide important direct information on health phenomena as they occur in real life.

  16. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extraintestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat.

  17. Processo de vigilância em saúde do trabalhador Worker's Health Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mesquita Huet Machado

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto insere-se na discussão da necessidade de aprofundamento das práticas de vigilância, muitas vezes, principalmente em países como o nosso, realizadas de forma empírica, carecendo de reflexão sobre suas bases técnicas e teóricas. É apresentado o conceito de vigilância em saúde do trabalhador como articulador das ações de intervenção na relação entre o processo de trabalho e a saúde. A partir do olhar da epidemiologia, são situados riscos e efeitos em um contexto espacial e tecnológico. São descritos cenários recentes, relacionando suas influências e as características formadoras de um modelo de vigilância em saúde do trabalhador, destacando dos aspectos estruturais do modelo um tripé interdisciplinar formado por abordagens sociais, tecnológicas e epidemiológicas. É enfatizada a matriz de priorização e planejamento de ações de vigilância em saúde do trabalhador segundo as conexões entre agravos, riscos, território e atividade.This paper is part of a broader discussion on the need for more in-depth study of workers' health surveillance practices, which are most often developed empirically, without well-defined theoretical or technical foundations. The paper presents a concept of surveillance in workers' health as a fulcrum for actions in the relationship between the work process and health. It emphasizes the exposure-based perspective involved in the epidemiological approach. Risk situations and effects are placed in spatial and technological context. The model provides an interdisciplinary approach with a technological, social, and epidemiological basis in a three-dimensional structure. A matrix for planning actions in workers' health surveillance is also presented, focusing on the connections between effects, risks, territory, and activities.

  18. Discourses of healthcare professionals about health surveillance actions for Tuberculosis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitano, Fernando; Sicsú, Amélia Nunes; Sousa, Luciana de Oliveira; Silva, Laís Mara Caetano da; Palha, Pedro Fredemir

    2017-04-06

    To analyze the meanings produced in the Health Surveillance actions for tuberculosis control, carried out by healthcare professionals in Mozambique. Qualitative study using the theoretical and methodological framework of the French Discourse Analysis. A total of 15 healthcare professionals with more than one year of experience in disease control actions participated in the study. Four discursive blocks have emerged from the analysis: tuberculosis diagnosis process; meeting, communication and discussion of treatment; local strategies for tuberculosis control; involvement of family and community leaders in the tuberculosis control. The statements of the healthcare professionals suggest, as Health Surveillance actions, practices that include collecting sputum in the patient's home and sending it to the laboratory; deployment of the medical team with a microscope for tuberculosis testing; and testing for diseases that may be associated with tuberculosis. In this context, the actions of Health Surveillance for tuberculosis control involve valuing all actors: family, community leaders, patients and health professionals. Analisar os sentidos produzidos sobre as ações de Vigilância em Saúde no controle da tuberculose desenvolvidas por profissionais de saúde em Moçambique. Estudo qualitativo que tem como referencial teórico-metodológico a Análise de Discurso de matriz francesa. Participaram do estudo 15 profissionais de saúde, com mais de 1 ano de experiência em ações de controle da doença. Da análise, emergiram quatro blocos discursivos: processo do diagnóstico da tuberculose; reunião, comunicação e discussão do tratamento; estratégias locais para o controle da tuberculose; envolvimento da família e dos líderes comunitários no controle da tuberculose. Os dizeres dos profissionais de saúde sugerem, como ações de Vigilância em Saúde, práticas que incluem a coleta de escarro na residência do paciente e seu encaminhamento ao laboratório; o

  19. Integrating public health policy, practice, evaluation, surveillance, and research: the school health action planning and evaluation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Roy; Manske, Stephen; Brown, K Stephen; Jolin, Mari Alice; Murnaghan, Donna; Lovato, Chris

    2007-04-01

    The Canadian Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute of Canada have charged their Centre for Behavioral Research and Program Evaluation with contributing to the development of the country's systemic capacity to link research, policy, and practice related to population-level interventions. Local data collection and feedback systems are integral to this capacity. Canada's School Health Action Planning and Evaluation System (SHAPES) allows data to be collected from all of a school's students, and these data are used to produce computer-generated school "health profiles." SHAPES is being used for intervention planning, evaluation, surveillance, and research across Canada. Strong demand and multipartner investment suggest that SHAPES is adding value in all of these domains. Such systems can contribute substantially to evidence-informed public health practice, public engagement, participatory action research, and relevant, timely population intervention research.

  20. Mapping and Mitigating the International Rip Current Health Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, S. M.; Houser, C.

    2016-12-01

    Rip currents are concentrated seaward flows of water originating in the surf zones of beaches. Rips cause hundreds of international drownings each year. Calculating exact numbers is barred by logistical difficulties in obtaining accurate incident reports, but annual rip current fatalities are estimated at 100, 53 and 21 in the United States (US), Costa Rica, and Australia respectively. Notably, Australia's lifeguards rescue 17,600 swimmers from rips each year. This project addresses the geophysical, social, and systematic causes of fatalities in hopes of decreasing the global number of rip-related deaths. We demonstrate a novel method for mapping bathymetry in the surf zone (20m deep or less), specifically within rip channels (topographic low spots in the nearshore that result from feedback amongst waves, substrate, and antecedent bathymetry). We calculate bathymetry using 8-band multispectral imagery from the Digital Globe WorldView2 (WV2) satellite and field measurements of depth, generating maps of the changing nearshore at two embayed, rip-prone beaches: Playa Cocles, Costa Rica, and Bondi Beach, Australia. WV2 has a 1.1 day pass-over rate with 1.84m ground pixel resolution of 8 bands, including `yellow' (585-625 nm) and `coastal blue' (400-450 nm). Methods are tested for consistency amongst dates and locations. Previous research shows drownings result from a combination of the physical environment with personal and group behaviors; for this reason we build on rip-detection by evaluating tourists' and locals' knowledge and understanding of their beach's rip behavior. By combining the geomorphologic maps developed from WV2 with interview data, we evaluate how the physical environment dictates the exposure of certain swimmers. Controls include rip channel location, beach access points, and environmental factors favored by swimmers. The project serves as an evaluation of the landscape's creation of a physical feature that becomes a hazard when vulnerable humans

  1. NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation for d-Limonene

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    calculate the air per pump- stroke WK" factor. The pump stroke count was recorded before and after sampling and the difference used to calculate the total...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADORESS(ES) B. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health REPORT NUMBER Center for Disease ...and after working (bending, cutting, and shaping). Parts are soaked in an open and unvented 100 gallon tank for 10-30 minutes and then rinsed in an

  2. The mental vitality @ work study: effectiveness of a mental module for workers' health surveillance for nurses and allied health care professionals on their help-seeking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gärtner, Fania R.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Ketelaar, Sarah M.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2013-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of a mental module for workers' health surveillance for health care workers. Nurses and allied health care professionals from one organization were cluster-randomized at ward level to an intervention or control group. The intervention included screening for work

  3. Brominated Dioxins: Little-Known New Health Hazards - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskorska-Pliszczyńska Jadwiga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the present state of the science concerning the polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs and dibenzofurans (PBDFs. Everywhere in the world people are exposed to anthropogenic origin chemicals. Some of them are long-lived organic compounds, which persist over the years in the environment. Persistent organic pollutants, such as organohalogen compounds, accumulate in environmental and biological compartments and have adverse effects on the health of humans and animals. Little is known about the brominated and mixed chloro/bromo dioxin and furans. Existing literature suggests that brominated dioxins and furans have similar toxicity profiles to their chlorinated analogues. The exposure data are extremely limited, showing a major data gap in estimating the potential environmental and health risk of these chemicals. The rapid increase in the use of brominated flame retardants (the main source of these pollutants has raised the level of concern over environmental and health damage from brominated dioxins and furans. It is likely that human as well as wildlife exposure to these contaminants will increase with their greater use. The findings reported here present strong evidence of the PBDDs and PBDFs as an emerging new class of contaminants.

  4. De-mystifying the Inconvenient Truth : Does Ex Post Moral Hazard Indeed Exist in Korean Private Health Insurance Market?

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Jae-Young

    2010-01-01

    There have been heated debates on whether private health insurance creates moral hazard effects. Despite its importance, however, the moral hazard problem of private health insurance is still controversial and understudied. To empirically examine whether or not moral hazard exists in the Korean private health insurance market, we employed two-stage regression for endogeneity control and the Heckman two-step procedure for sample selection bias control, which are expected to produce consistent ...

  5. Establishing a health demographic surveillance site in Bhaktapur district, Nepal: initial experiences and findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryal Umesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A health demographic surveillance system (HDSS provides longitudinal data regarding health and demography in countries with coverage error and poor quality data on vital registration systems due to lack of public awareness, inadequate legal basis and limited use of data in health planning. The health system in Nepal, a low-income country, does not focus primarily on health registration, and does not conduct regular health data collection. This study aimed to initiate and establish the first HDSS in Nepal. Results We conducted a baseline survey in Jhaukhel and Duwakot, two villages in Bhaktapur district. The study surveyed 2,712 households comprising a total population of 13,669. The sex ratio in the study area was 101 males per 100 females and the average household size was 5. The crude birth and death rates were 9.7 and 3.9/1,000 population/year, respectively. About 11% of births occurred at home, and we found no mortality in infants and children less than 5 years of age. Various health problems were found commonly and some of them include respiratory problems (41.9%; headache, vertigo and dizziness (16.7%; bone and joint pain (14.4%; gastrointestinal problems (13.9%; heart disease, including hypertension (8.8%; accidents and injuries (2.9%; and diabetes mellitus (2.6%. The prevalence of non-communicable disease (NCD was 4.3% (95% CI: 3.83; 4.86 among individuals older than 30 years. Age-adjusted odds ratios showed that risk factors, such as sex, ethnic group, occupation and education, associated with NCD. Conclusion Our baseline survey demonstrated that it is possible to collect accurate and reliable data in a village setting in Nepal, and this study successfully established an HDSS site. We determined that both maternal and child health are better in the surveillance site compared to the entire country. Risk factors associated with NCDs dominated morbidity and mortality patterns.

  6. Environmental and health hazard ranking and assessment of plastic polymers based on chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithner, Delilah; Larsson, Ake; Dave, Göran

    2011-08-15

    Plastics constitute a large material group with a global annual production that has doubled in 15 years (245 million tonnes in 2008). Plastics are present everywhere in society and the environment, especially the marine environment, where large amounts of plastic waste accumulate. The knowledge of human and environmental hazards and risks from chemicals associated with the diversity of plastic products is very limited. Most chemicals used for producing plastic polymers are derived from non-renewable crude oil, and several are hazardous. These may be released during the production, use and disposal of the plastic product. In this study the environmental and health hazards of chemicals used in 55 thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers were identified and compiled. A hazard ranking model was developed for the hazard classes and categories in the EU classification and labelling (CLP) regulation which is based on the UN Globally Harmonized System. The polymers were ranked based on monomer hazard classifications, and initial assessments were made. The polymers that ranked as most hazardous are made of monomers classified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic (category 1A or 1B). These belong to the polymer families of polyurethanes, polyacrylonitriles, polyvinyl chloride, epoxy resins, and styrenic copolymers. All have a large global annual production (1-37 million tonnes). A considerable number of polymers (31 out of 55) are made of monomers that belong to the two worst of the ranking model's five hazard levels, i.e. levels IV-V. The polymers that are made of level IV monomers and have a large global annual production (1-5 million tonnes) are phenol formaldehyde resins, unsaturated polyesters, polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, and urea-formaldehyde resins. This study has identified hazardous substances used in polymer production for which the risks should be evaluated for decisions on the need for risk reduction measures, substitution, or even phase out. Copyright

  7. Improving epidemiologic surveillance and health promoter training in rural Latin America through information and communication technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Andrés; López, Diego M; Sáez, Alberto; Seoane, Joaquín; Rendón, Alvaro; Shoemaker, Richard; Fernández, Ignacio

    2005-08-01

    This paper presents two technological developments oriented to increase the efficiency of the epidemiologic surveillance system and to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities of the rural establishments with only e-mail connectivity through wireless systems. The Telematics Department of the University of Cauca has developed a computerized epidemiologic surveillance system for the collecting, sending, processing, visualization, and feedback of epidemiologic information at national level. The use of the system in a pilot area has solved the problems of subregister, increasing the volume of data collection in 15%. The complete epidemiologic system is currently being implemented in 22 health care establishments in the Department of Cauca in Colombia. Likewise, the Technical University and Carlos III University of Madrid have developed a distance training system with a high-usability interface both for students and teachers. The system includes authoring, distribution, tracking, and visualization of courses synchronized through electronic mail messages in a clear way for the user. Both systems use a creative combination of e-mail and XML (eXtensible Markup Language)-based technologies, ready to be used through slow, intermittent, and asynchronous communication systems.

  8. How to Define the Content of a Job-Specific Worker's Health Surveillance for Hospital Physicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenburg, Martijn M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H.W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2015-01-01

    Background A job-specific Worker's Health Surveillance (WHS) for hospital physicians is a preventive occupational health strategy aiming at early detection of their diminished work-related health in order to improve or maintain physician's health and quality of care. This study addresses what steps should be taken to determine the content of a job-specific WHS for hospital physicians and outlines that content. Methods Based on four questions, decision trees were developed for physical and psychological job demands and for biological, chemical, and physical exposures to decide whether or not to include work-related health effects related to occupational exposures or aspects of health reflecting insufficient job requirements. Information was gathered locally through self-reporting and systematic observations at the workplace and from evidence in international publications. Results Information from the decision trees on the prevalence and impact of the health- or work-functioning effect led to inclusion of occupational exposures (e.g., biological agents, emotionally demanding situations), job requirements (e.g., sufficient vision, judging ability), or health effects (e.g., depressive symptoms, neck complaints). Additionally, following the Dutch guideline for occupational physicians and based on specific job demands, screening for cardiovascular diseases, work ability, drug use, and alcohol consumption was included. Targeted interventions were selected when a health or work functioning problem existed and were chosen based on evidence for effectiveness. Conclusion The process of developing a job-specific WHS for hospital physicians was described and the content presented, which might serve as an example for other jobs. Before implementation, it must first be tested for feasibility and acceptability. PMID:27014487

  9. Health hazard of the Tokaimura nuclear accident. Unnecessary fear and improper health checks should be eliminated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takebe, Hiraku [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst

    2000-01-01

    Three workers were heavily exposed to radiations in the Tokaimura nuclear accident, and one of them died due to the acute effects of radiations. Doses for the heavily exposed persons were estimated to be 2.5, 10 and 18 Sv, according to the Science and Technology Agency. Workers who tried to stop the chain reaction by breaking the water pipe were estimated to have been exposed up to 120 mSv. Possible doses for other workers and residents in the neighborhoods were estimated to be less than 10 mSv, with a few workers with slightly higher film badge records. After the accident, many reports in mass-media warned that the exposed persons may develop cancers and leukemias in future and follow-up healthcare should be needed. Judging from our knowledge of the extensive epidemiological survery of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, these reports are very misleading. There would be absolutely no or extremely small possibility of developing any health hazard among the workers and the residents except for the three unfortunate heavily exposed workers. If so-called follow-up health checks would involve x-ray diagnosis for cancers, the radiation doses by the diagnosis would exceed the exposure by the accident. Also, the test for the DNA damage applied to some workers and residents is not reliable at all, and could cause unnecessary fear among the persons who were mistakenly said to be of high-risk. (author)

  10. An analytical assessment of population reaction to environmental health hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stasiukaitis, B.

    1994-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), being a nuclear production facility, has created concern for the communities in the surrounding areas. After completing a Perceived Risk Survey (PRS) in 1993, it was found that some people express their concerns by contacting a public official. Thus, the Legislative Environmental Health Survey (LEHS) was created. This survey asked legislators of Georgia and South Carolina to respond to questions concerning various environmental concerns. The questions reflected how the legislators viewed their constituencies` concerns. These two surveys were compared to find differences in legislators` and public views.

  11. A CONCEPTUAL DISASTER RISK REDUCTION FRAMEWORK FOR HEALTH AND SAFETY HAZARDS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir S. GOHARDANI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The health and safety hazard status of construction workers is constantly challenged by the projects in the built environment. In this article, various aspects of health and safety hazards for construction workers have been reviewed and investigated through a disaster risk reduction prism. This approach has further led to the perception of glancing at the construction sector as an ongoing disaster zone and equally provides a new management perspective. From this perspective, the occurrence of a disaster within the construction sector corresponds to the temporary or permanent ill-health or death of a construction worker. Geographical location is one of the factors that play an important role in addressing the health and safety hazards for construction workers. In addition to the location, geographical considerations equally encapsulate regional, cultural, governmental and work ethical effects. These effects may potentially contribute to disparities in the construction sector. With an increasing level of understanding for health and safety hazards in the construction domain, more efficient prevention measures can be taken in order to enable a disaster management cycle, capable of responding to the rigorous demands of the construction sector.

  12. Occupational health hazards in street sweepers of Chandrapur city, central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Patil Priyanka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Street sweepers play an important role in maintaining health and hygiene in cities. They are exposed to road dust and other contaminants while cleaning streets. Exposure of this dust and contaminants irritates respiratory symptoms and airway obstruction. Twenty workers were selected as sample size (10 male and 10 female and 10 individual as control (5 male and 5 female for analysis of occupational health hazards in street sweepers of Chandrapur city. The study was carried out from November 2015 to January 2016. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate analysis which was carried out through Breath-o meter and other occupational health hazards through interview schedule specially designed and developed for this study. The results of the study showed that, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate values were lower in exposed workers (sample population as compared with control group. These workers were exposed to number of environmental and occupational hazards leading to musculoskeletal disorders (100%, respiratory problems (95%, dermatological problems (90%, headache (75% and gastrointestinal problems (15% during work. It was further observed that theses workers were suffering from allergies (100%, cough and cold (75%, asthma and bronchitis lungs (65%, hearing disorder (50%, malaria and typhoid (25%, fever (15% and vomiting (10% after completion of work. To reduce occupational health hazards in sweepers, they must be made alert and aware of potential health risk arising from their work. Reduction in exposure and use of personal protective equipments should be encouraged.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTVolume-6, Issue-2, Mar-May 2017, Page: 9-18

  13. Which moral hazard? Health care reform under the Affordable Care Act of 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - Moral hazard is a concept that is central to risk and insurance management. It refers to change in economic behavior when individuals are protected or insured against certain risks and losses whose costs are borne by another party. It asserts that the presence of an insurance contract increases the probability of a claim and the size of a claim. Through the US Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010, this study seeks to examine the validity and relevance of moral hazard in health care reform and determine how welfare losses or inefficiencies could be mitigated. Design/methodology/approach - This study is divided into three sections. The first contrasts conventional moral hazard from an emerging or alternative theory. The second analyzes moral hazard in terms of the evolution, organization, management, and marketing of health insurance in the USA. The third explains why and how salient reform measures under the ACA might induce health care consumption and production in ways that could either promote or restrict personal health and safety as well as social welfare maximization. Findings - Insurance generally induces health care (over) consumption. However, not every additional consumption, with or without adverse selection, can be considered wasteful or risky, even if it might cost insurers more in the short run. Moral hazard can generate welfare and equity gains. These gains might vary depending on which ACA provisions, insured population, covered illnesses, treatments, and services, as well as health outcomes are taken into account, and because of the relative ambiguities surrounding definitions of "health." Actuarial risk models can nonetheless benefit from incorporating welfare and equity gains into their basic assumptions and estimations. Originality/value - This is the first study which examines the ACA in the context of the new or alternative theory of moral hazard. It suggests that containing inefficient moral hazard, and encouraging its desirable

  14. [Nutritional care in public hospitals of four Brazilian states: contributions of health evaluation to health surveillance services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Seta, Marismary Horsth; O'Dwyer, Gisele; Henriques, Patrícia; de Sales, Gizene Luciana Pereira

    2010-11-01

    Considering the importance of nutritional care for the quality of care provided to hospitalized patients, the study aims to assess health care in eight public hospitals that have received support from QualiSUS in four Brazilian states. There were semi-structured interviews with nutritionists, direct observation and review of 219 records of patients admitted to the medical clinics. The findings suggest weaknesses in the hospital nutritional care, poor integration between the production of food and nutritional care in the surveyed hospitals, in addition to structural deficiencies. We highlight problems related to the nutritional care process, including its documentation. In 93% of the records there were no records on the nutritional status on admission, or nutritional assessment of patients in nutritional therapy. It was observed that the assessment made by the health surveillance in routine inspections, focusing on the verification of compliance and structural aspects, does not include the detection of a possible nutritional risk for the patient. We suggest the inclusion of other criteria and strategies for surveillance, among them a review of open medical records.

  15. Reducing the health effect of natural hazards in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Richard A; Halder, Shantana R; Husain, Mushtuq; Islam, Md Sirajul; Mallick, Fuad H; May, Maria A; Rahman, Mahmudur; Rahman, M Aminur

    2013-12-21

    Bangladesh, with a population of 151 million people, is a country that is particularly prone to natural disasters: 26% of the population are affected by cyclones and 70% live in flood-prone regions. Mortality and morbidity from these events have fallen substantially in the past 50 years, partly because of improvements in disaster management. Thousands of cyclone shelters have been built and government and civil society have mobilised strategies to provide early warning and respond quickly. Increasingly, flood and cyclone interventions have leveraged community resilience, and general activities for poverty reduction have integrated disaster management. Furthermore, overall population health has improved greatly on the basis of successful public health activities, which has helped to mitigate the effect of natural disasters. Challenges to the maintenance and reduction of the effect of cyclones and floods include rapid urbanisation and the growing effect of global warming. Although the effects of earthquakes are unknown, some efforts to prepare for this type of event are underway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determinants of Health Service Responsiveness in Community-Based Vector Surveillance for Chagas Disease in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ken; Zúniga, Concepción; Romero, Eduardo; Morales, Zoraida; Maguire, James H

    2015-01-01

    Central American countries face a major challenge in the control of Triatoma dimidiata, a widespread vector of Chagas disease that cannot be eliminated. The key to maintaining the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi at lowest levels is to sustain surveillance throughout endemic areas. Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras integrated community-based vector surveillance into local health systems. Community participation was effective in detection of the vector, but some health services had difficulty sustaining their response to reports of vectors from the population. To date, no research has investigated how best to maintain and reinforce health service responsiveness, especially in resource-limited settings. We reviewed surveillance and response records of 12 health centers in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras from 2008 to 2012 and analyzed the data in relation to the volume of reports of vector infestation, local geography, demography, human resources, managerial approach, and results of interviews with health workers. Health service responsiveness was defined as the percentage of households that reported vector infestation for which the local health service provided indoor residual spraying of insecticide or educational advice. Eight potential determinants of responsiveness were evaluated by linear and mixed-effects multi-linear regression. Health service responsiveness (overall 77.4%) was significantly associated with quarterly monitoring by departmental health offices. Other potential determinants of responsiveness were not found to be significant, partly because of short- and long-term strategies, such as temporary adjustments in manpower and redistribution of tasks among local participants in the effort. Consistent monitoring within the local health system contributes to sustainability of health service responsiveness in community-based vector surveillance of Chagas disease. Even with limited resources, countries can improve health service

  17. Determinants of Health Service Responsiveness in Community-Based Vector Surveillance for Chagas Disease in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ken; Zúniga, Concepción; Romero, Eduardo; Morales, Zoraida; Maguire, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Central American countries face a major challenge in the control of Triatoma dimidiata, a widespread vector of Chagas disease that cannot be eliminated. The key to maintaining the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi at lowest levels is to sustain surveillance throughout endemic areas. Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras integrated community-based vector surveillance into local health systems. Community participation was effective in detection of the vector, but some health services had difficulty sustaining their response to reports of vectors from the population. To date, no research has investigated how best to maintain and reinforce health service responsiveness, especially in resource-limited settings. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed surveillance and response records of 12 health centers in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras from 2008 to 2012 and analyzed the data in relation to the volume of reports of vector infestation, local geography, demography, human resources, managerial approach, and results of interviews with health workers. Health service responsiveness was defined as the percentage of households that reported vector infestation for which the local health service provided indoor residual spraying of insecticide or educational advice. Eight potential determinants of responsiveness were evaluated by linear and mixed-effects multi-linear regression. Health service responsiveness (overall 77.4%) was significantly associated with quarterly monitoring by departmental health offices. Other potential determinants of responsiveness were not found to be significant, partly because of short- and long-term strategies, such as temporary adjustments in manpower and redistribution of tasks among local participants in the effort. Conclusions/Significance Consistent monitoring within the local health system contributes to sustainability of health service responsiveness in community-based vector surveillance of Chagas disease. Even with

  18. States' use of local population health data: comparing the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and independent state health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E Richard; Kincheloe, Jennifer; Breen, Nancy; Olson, Jean L; Portnoy, Barry; Lee, Simon J Craddock

    2013-01-01

    To identify and compare key features of independent comprehensive state health surveys (SHS) with those of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for addressing the need for statewide and local population health data. We developed inclusion criteria, systematically collected information about federal and SHS that met these criteria, and obtained supplemental information from SHS leaders. We identified comprehensive independent SHS in 11 states and BRFSS surveys in all 50 states. The independent SHS meet important statewide and local data needs, filling 3 key health data gaps in the BRFSS: lack of adequate data on special populations such as children, lack of data on specific localities, and limited depth and scope of health topics surveyed on key issues such as health insurance coverage. Unlike BRFSS, independent SHS have limited comparability with each other. The BRFSS and independent SHS each meet some key state and local data needs but result in data gaps and inefficient use of resources. Surveys could more effectively and efficiently meet future needs for comparable data to monitor health care reform and address health disparities if they were coordinated across states and at the national, state, and local levels.

  19. Biologically Hazardous Agents at Work and Efforts to Protect Workers' Health: A Review of Recent Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Taek Rim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because information on biological agents in the workplace is lacking, biological hazard analyses at the workplace to securely recognize the harmful factors with biological basis are desperately needed. This review concentrates on literatures published after 2010 that attempted to detect biological hazards to humans, especially workers, and the efforts to protect them against these factors. It is important to improve the current understanding of the health hazards caused by biological factors at the workplace. In addition, this review briefly describes these factors and provides some examples of their adverse health effects. It also reviews risk assessments, protection with personal protective equipment, prevention with training of workers, regulations, as well as vaccinations.

  20. Predictors of guideline concordance for surveillance colonoscopy recommendations in patients at a safety-net health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ben; Freeland, Zachary; Gopal, Purva; Agrawal, Deepak; Mayorga, Christian A; Mithani, Rozina; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Halm, Ethan A; Singal, Amit G

    2015-11-01

    Appropriate surveillance intervals for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is one of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services 2014 physician quality reporting system measures. Appropriateness of surveillance intervals will continue to be monitored closely, particularly as reimbursements become tied to quality measures. Quantify and identify predictors for guideline-concordant surveillance recommendations after adenoma polypectomy. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who had colonoscopy with polypectomy at a safety-net health system between June 2011 and December 2013. Surveillance recommendations shorter and longer than guideline recommendations were defined as potential overuse and underuse. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify correlates of guideline-concordant surveillance recommendations, overuse, and underuse. Among 1,822 patients with polypectomy, 1,329 had ≥1 adenoma. Surveillance interval recommendations were guideline-concordant in 1,410 (77.4%) patients, potential overuse in 263 (14.4%), potential underuse in 85 (4.7%), and missing in 64 (3.5%) patients. Predictors of guideline-concordant recommendations in multivariate analyses included age >65 years (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02-1.80), incomplete resection (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.41-9.09), and good/excellent prep quality (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.72-2.86). Underuse recommendations were more likely in patients with ≥3 adenomas; overuse recommendations were more likely in patients with high-grade dysplasia or fair prep quality and less likely in those with piecemeal resection, ≥3 adenomas, age >65, or Hispanic ethnicity. Surveillance recommendations are not concordant with guidelines in one of four cases. Interventions to improve prep quality and guideline concordance of surveillance recommendations can improve cost-effectiveness of CRC screening.

  1. [Health surveillance in a city in the south of Brazil: implantation of the descentralization and effectiveness of the actions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jorcen Simon; Stein, Airton Tetelbom

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the health surveillance actions in Canoas/RS during the implantation of the local health management system and characterized the profile of the health agents by means of a cross-sectional descriptive study. The target population consisted of all the 12 health agents of the team. The data were collected using a self-applicable questionnaire (Essential Public Health Function no 6) with performance classifications ranging from 0 to 1; interview with the direction of the department; and survey of the service reports. The main results obtained through statistical analysis and interpretation showed that the management model together with the technical commitment of the health agents allowed for an effective implantation of the decentralized, local management; most agents were females; 66.7% had a mean age of 46 years (+/-7.5); and 58.31% of them had higher education and an income of more than five minimum wages; the Essential Public Health Function no 6 measured 0.7 as final average. It is concluded that the health surveillance actions during the decentralization process were effective, showing a performance above the average in relation to the used instrument. The structure of the service and the profile of the health agents are similar to those found in other health surveillance departments.

  2. Feasibility and acceptability of a workers’ health surveillance program for hospital physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn M. Ruitenburg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A Workers’ Health Surveillance (WHS program is an occupational health strategy used to detect and address the health of individual workers to improve their ability to work. This study aims to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of a new job-specific WHS for hospital physicians. Material and Methods: All hospital physicians of the general surgery, radiotherapy and obstetrics and gynecology departments from 1 academic hospital were invited to participate in the WHS by the in-company occupational health service. An occupational physician and a medical assistant were trained to use the protocol. Feasibility was operationalized as the received and delivered dose, observed success factors and potential obstacles. Acceptability was assessed by asking whether the WHS was desirable and feasible for future use and by estimating the effects on health and work ability. Written questions and semi-structured interviews were conducted with the participating physicians, 5 department managers and the 2 occupational health professionals involved in the study. Results: One-third of the hospital physicians (34% participated in every part of the WHS. The delivered dose was 77/84 (92%. Almost all hospital physicians who received recommendations expected to adhere to this advice. The study participants appreciated the organization of the WHS. This WHS was positively graded (8 out of 10 max in terms of acceptability. Positive effects of the WHS on health, work functioning and long-term work ability were perceived by 2/3 of the physicians. Conclusions: The new job-specific WHS for hospital physicians showed good feasibility and acceptability among participating hospital physicians, occupational health professionals and medical managers.

  3. Health hazards due to the inhalation of amorphous silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merget, R; Bauer, T; Küpper, H U; Philippou, S; Bauer, H D; Breitstadt, R; Bruening, T

    2002-01-01

    Occupational exposure to crystalline silica dust is associated with an increased risk for pulmonary diseases such as silicosis, tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the health effects of amorphous (non-crystalline) forms of silica. The major problem in the assessment of health effects of amorphous silica is its contamination with crystalline silica. This applies particularly to well-documented pneumoconiosis among diatomaceous earth workers. Intentionally manufactured synthetic amorphous silicas are without contamination of crystalline silica. These synthetic forms may be classified as (1) wet process silica, (2) pyrogenic ("thermal" or "fumed") silica, and (3) chemically or physically modified silica. According to the different physicochemical properties, the major classes of synthetic amorphous silica are used in a variety of products, e.g. as fillers in the rubber industry, in tyre compounds, as free-flow and anti-caking agents in powder materials, and as liquid carriers, particularly in the manufacture of animal feed and agrochemicals; other uses are found in toothpaste additives, paints, silicon rubber, insulation material, liquid systems in coatings, adhesives, printing inks, plastisol car undercoats, and cosmetics. Animal inhalation studies with intentionally manufactured synthetic amorphous silica showed at least partially reversible inflammation, granuloma formation and emphysema, but no progressive fibrosis of the lungs. Epidemiological studies do not support the hypothesis that amorphous silicas have any relevant potential to induce fibrosis in workers with high occupational exposure to these substances, although one study disclosed four cases with silicosis among subjects exposed to apparently non-contaminated amorphous silica. Since the data have been limited, a risk of chronic bronchitis, COPD or emphysema cannot be excluded. There is no study

  4. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on bluetongue monitoring and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegeman, Arjan; Bøtner, Anette; Savini, Giovanni

    been infected for several years were slightly lower than the design prevalence of 2 % currently used for monthly testing of sentinel animals, but much lower than the design prevalences of 20 % and 10 % for annual surveys in populations of unvaccinated and vaccinated ruminants, respectively. Currently......Following a request from the Commission, the Panel on Animal Health and Welfare was asked to deliver a Scientific Opinion on: 1) the expected prevalence (design prevalence) under different circumstances, and, 2) an updated scientific assessment of the size of the relevant geographical area...... unit but, when based on active surveillance, it is best targeted at regions considered at risk for introduction, using small geographical units, a high sampling frequency and sample size. For estimating the impact of interventions on the prevalence of infected animals, smaller areas result in more...

  5. One Health concept for strengthening public health surveillance and response through Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurapa, Frederick; Afari, Ebenezer; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Sackey, Samuel; Clerk, Christine; Kwadje, Simon; Yebuah, Nathaniel; Amankwa, Joseph; Amofah, George; Appiah-Denkyira, Ebenezer

    2011-01-01

    The lack of highly trained field epidemiologists in the public health system in Ghana has been known since the 1970s when the Planning Unit was established in the Ghana Ministry of Health. When the Public Health School was started in 1994, the decision was taken to develop a 1 academic-year general MPH course. The persisting need for well-trained epidemiologists to support the public health surveillance, outbreak investigation and response system made the development of the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (FELTP) a national priority. The School of Public health and the Ministry of Health therefore requested the technical and financial assistance of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in organizing the Programme. The collaboration started by organizing short courses in disease outbreak investigations and response for serving Ghana Health Service staff. The success of the short courses led to development of the FELTP. By October 2007, the new FELTP curriculum for the award of a Masters of Philosophy in Applied Epidemiology and Disease Control was approved by the Academic Board of the University of Ghana and the programme started that academic year. Since then five cohorts of 37 residents have been enrolled in the two tracks of the programme. They consist of 12 physicians, 12 veterinarians and 13 laboratory scientists. The first two cohorts of 13 residents have graduated. The third cohort of seven has submitted dissertations and is awaiting the results. The fourth cohort has started the second year of field placement while the fifth cohort has just started the first semester. The field activities of the graduates have included disease outbreak investigations and response, evaluation of disease surveillance systems at the national level and analysis of datasets on diseases at the regional level. The residents have made a total of 25 oral presentations and 39 poster presentations at various regional and global

  6. Health hazards due to the inhalation of amorphous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merget, R.; Bruening, T. [Research Institute for Occupational Medicine (BGFA), Bochum (Germany); Bauer, T. [Bergmannsheil, University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pneumonology, Allergology and Sleep Medicine, Bochum (Germany); Kuepper, H.U.; Breitstadt, R. [Degussa-Huels Corp., Wesseling (Germany); Philippou, S. [Department of Pathology, Augusta Krankenanstalten, Bochum (Germany); Bauer, H.D. [Research Institute for Hazardous Substances (IGF), Bochum (Germany)

    2002-01-01

    Occupational exposure to crystalline silica dust is associated with an increased risk for pulmonary diseases such as silicosis, tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the health effects of amorphous (non-crystalline) forms of silica. The major problem in the assessment of health effects of amorphous silica is its contamination with crystalline silica. This applies particularly to well-documented pneumoconiosis among diatomaceous earth workers. Intentionally manufactured synthetic amorphous silicas are without contamination of crystalline silica. These synthetic forms may be classified as (1) wet process silica, (2) pyrogenic (''thermal'' or ''fumed'') silica, and (3) chemically or physically modified silica. According to the different physico-chemical properties, the major classes of synthetic amorphous silica are used in a variety of products, e.g. as fillers in the rubber industry, in tyre compounds, as free-flow and anti-caking agents in powder materials, and as liquid carriers, particularly in the manufacture of animal feed and agrochemicals; other uses are found in toothpaste additives, paints, silicon rubber, insulation material, liquid systems in coatings, adhesives, printing inks, plastisol car undercoats, and cosmetics. Animal inhalation studies with intentionally manufactured synthetic amorphous silica showed at least partially reversible inflammation, granuloma formation and emphysema, but no progressive fibrosis of the lungs. Epidemiological studies do not support the hypothesis that amorphous silicas have any relevant potential to induce fibrosis in workers with high occupational exposure to these substances, although one study disclosed four cases with silicosis among subjects exposed to apparently non-contaminated amorphous silica. Since the data have been limited, a risk of chronic bronchitis, COPD or

  7. Offshore industry: management of health hazards in the upstream petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Karen; McLeod, Ron

    2009-08-01

    Upstream oil and gas operations involve a range of activities, including exploration and drilling, conventional oil and gas production, extraction and processing of 'tar sands', heavy oil processing and pipeline operations. Firstly, to outline the nature of health risks in the offshore oil and gas industry to date. Secondly, to outline the commercial, technical and social challenges that could influence the future context of health management in the industry. Thirdly, to speculate how the health function within the industry needs to respond to these challenges. A review of the published literature was supplemented with industry subject matter and expert opinion. There was a relatively light peer-reviewed published literature base in an industry which is perceived as having changed little over three decades, so far as offshore health hazards for physical, chemical, biological hazards are concerned. Recent focus has been on musculoskeletal disorders and stress. The relative stability of the knowledge base regarding health hazards offshore may change as more innovative methods are employed to develop hydrocarbon resources in more 'difficult' environments. Society's willingness to accept risk is changing. Addressing potential health risks should be done much earlier in the planning process of major projects. This may reveal a skills gap in health professionals as a consequence of needing to employ more anticipatory tools, such as modelling exposure estimations and the skills and willingness to engage effectively with engineers and other HSSE professionals.

  8. History and Medicine: ex voto as a tool for health and epidemiological surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nante, N; Azzolini, E; Troiano, G; Serafini, A; Gentile, A; Messina, G

    2016-01-01

    Ex voto is a donation for a divinity, a Saint or to Virgin Mary for a received mercy. From the analysis of an ex voto it's possible to obtain lots of information and therefore it can be used as a tool for health and epidemiological surveillance, to study morbidity in the past. The aim of this study was the creation of a database to rebuild epidemiological events and diseases, using ex voto as a source of health surveillance. We chose to study votive pictures using three types of sources: photographed alive, on-line archives, books and photographic collections. Ex voto have been saved in an Hard Disk, numbered and inserted in a database, then analyzed using Stata®. total of 6231 ex voto were collected and catalogued in our database. Ex voto referring to diseases are the most represented (41%), but they have decreased with the time. Road accidents (21.4%) have a constant increase, especially with the appearance of cars and motorcycles. Aggressions (5.45%) decrease constantly; warlike accidents (4.44%) had a peak in the period including both world wars; non professional accidents (10.60%) and accidents at work (3.79%) increase without peaks; maritime accidents (8.88%) have not uniform ups and downs during the time. The database let us rebuild epidemiological events of the past, which are not deductible from other sources. Our purpose is to expand in the space-time our source data in order to perform an interesting comparison between past and present.

  9. Hazard identification checklist: Occupational safety and health issues associated with green building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.; Ustailieva, E.

    2013-01-01

    This checklist accompanies the e-fact on the same topic and aims to help identify the potential hazards to workers’ safety and health associated with the planning and construction of green buildings, their maintenance, renovation (retrofitting), demolition, and on-site waste collection. It also

  10. Application of Bayesian networks for hazard ranking of nanomaterials to support human health risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marvin, Hans J.P.; Bouzembrak, Yamine; Janssen, Esmée M.; Zande, van der Meike; Murphy, Finbarr; Sheehan, Barry; Mullins, Martin; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a Bayesian Network (BN) was developed for the prediction of the hazard potential and biological effects with the focus on metal- and metal-oxide nanomaterials to support human health risk assessment. The developed BN captures the (inter) relationships between the exposure route, the

  11. 75 FR 38100 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Hazardous Substance Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... areas: Human health effects, assessment of risks, detection technologies, and remediation approaches... strategies and technologies to provide solutions to the magnitude and complexity of Superfund assessment and... negative impacts of hazardous waste sites. In order to fulfill its mandates, the SRP has developed a...

  12. Assessment of human health hazard due to metal uptake via fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The estimated daily intake (EDI) of heavy metals with the respective type of fish can be arranged as Fe > Cu > As > Cd > Pb in which values are higher than Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) for metals. Therefore the consumption of fish samples is questionable. Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) was used in the health ...

  13. The Nontoxic Home. Protecting Yourself and Your Family from Everyday Toxics and Health Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadd, Debra Lynn

    The document maintains that the world is filled with health hazards and the best a person can do is to assess the danger of individual products, learn the risks, weigh the risks against the benefits, and decide whether or not to personally take these risks or to subject family members to them. This perspective begins in the home. This book…

  14. Aspergillus species in indoor environments and their possible occupational and public health hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, B; Hedayati, MT; Hedayati, N; Ilkit, M; Syedmousavi, S

    2016-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus, which consists of a few hundred opportunistic mold species found in various climatic conditions, causes diseases including localized infections, fatal diseases, allergic responses, and inhaled conidia in humans. Herein, we present an overview of the most common diseases and allergic infections caused by Aspergillus species and their associated health hazards in various indoor environments worldwide. PMID:28681011

  15. Comparing the health and environmental hazards of different energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Energy and environment can pose difficult challenges for policy makers and scientists. Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from many different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with quite different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Risk-assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Coal and nuclear fuel cycles are compared in respect to morbidity and mortality. Other cycles (oil, gas and renewables) are also examined. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing devices as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input-output methods. Input-output analysis allows comparisons of direct and system-wide impacts. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be explicitly recognized in the results, including uncertainty in validity of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. By use of several methods progress has been made in understanding the relative impact of energy technologies.

  16. [Hazardous health effects of microwaves and radio waves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, A I; Skotte, J

    1994-03-14

    About 4000 Danish employees may be significantly exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF) or microwaves (MW) during work in the health sector or industrially. Exposure measurements and classifications are difficult, therefore, epidemiological as well as experimental research in the field is complicated. High exposure induces elevation of body temperature or local heating ("hot spots"). Some biological effects from RF/MW exposure seem to be mediated by heating, others are considered to be athermic. Epidemiological studies do not indicate that RF/MW should be carcinogenic, and experimental studies have not shown the radiation to be mutagenic or carcinogenic. Epidemiological studies among physiotherapists have indicated that RF may have reproductive effects. In one study, an association between ischaemic heart disease and exposure to RF is observed. The cataractogenic property of MW is supposed to be mediated by elevation in lens temperature following relatively high exposure. However, in the light of the problems in exposure classification, the epidemiological research may not be conclusive, and attempts should be made to improve the methods. In addition, Danish experience points out a number of methods of exposure reduction in the working environment.

  17. Use of a child health surveillance instrument focusing on growth. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Morganna Neves de Araujo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Proper use of a child health handbook is an important indicator of the quality of care provided to children at healthcare services. This study aimed to evaluate the use of child health surveillance tool (by health professionals?, especially focusing on growth. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study carried out in the context of the Family Health Strategy in two municipalities in Paraíba, Brazil. METHODS: Three hundred and twenty-one children under five years of age from areas covered by health workers were included in the study. Mothers answered a questionnaire asking for information on sociodemographic characteristics. Growth charts, records of iron and vitamin A supplementation and notes on immunization schedules registered in the instrument were analyzed. In the case of children for whom the third version of the child health handbook was used, the association between completion of this handbook and sociodemographic characteristics was analyzed. RESULTS: All the parameters studied showed high frequencies of inadequate data entry, ranging from 41.1% for the weight-versus- age chart to 95.3% for the body mass index-versus-age chart. Higher frequency of inadequate data entry was found among children aged 25 months and over and among those living in areas of these municipalities with minimal numbers of professionals in the healthcare teams. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a child health handbook to monitor children’s growth in the municipalities studied appeared to be faulty. Data entry to this instrument was better at locations with larger healthcare teams.

  18. Anxiety, depression, and oral health among US pregnant women: 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marushka L; Whitcomb, Brian W; Pekow, Penelope; Carbone, Elena T; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Maternal periodontal disease is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. Anxiety and depression adversely impact oral health in nonpregnant women; however, this association has not been evaluated during pregnancy, a time characterized by higher rates of anxiety and depression. Therefore, we examined the association between these factors and oral disease and oral healthcare utilization among 402 pregnant respondents to the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Self-reported lifetime diagnoses of anxiety, depression, and current depression were assessed. Oral health outcomes included self-reported tooth loss and dental visits in the past year. One-fifth (21.2 percent) of respondents reported a tooth loss and 32.5 percent reported nonuse of oral health services. The prevalence of lifetime diagnosed anxiety and depression was 13.6 percent and 11.3 percent, respectively, whereas 10.6 percent reported current depression. After adjusting for risk factors, pregnant women with diagnosed anxiety had increased odds of one or more tooth loss [odds ratio (OR) = 3.30; 95 percent confidence interval (CI): 1.01-10.77] compared with those without the disorder. Similarly, after adjusting for socioeconomic factors, women with anxiety had increased odds of nonuse of oral health services (OR = 2.67; 95 percent CI: 1.03-6.90); however, this was no longer significant after adjusting for health behaviors and body mass index. We observed no significant association with depression. In this population-based sample, we found a two- to threefold increased odds of tooth loss and nonuse of oral health services among pregnant women with a lifetime diagnosis of anxiety. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine these associations among pregnant women. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  19. Acceptability and perceptions of end-users towards an online sports-health surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Saulo Delfino; Bolling, Caroline Silveira; Nauta, Joske; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert

    2017-01-01

    Aim To describe the acceptability and the perceptions of athletes and staff members (ie, end-users) towards an online sports-health surveillance system. Methods A pilot study with a mixed-methods approach was pursued. Descriptive analysis was conducted to present the adherence of judo (n=34), swimming (n=21) and volleyball (n=14) athletes to an online registration of their sport exposure and any health complaints between April 2014 and January 2015. End-users’ perceptions towards the system were investigated qualitatively with semistructured interviews (n=21). Qualitative analysis was based on the constant comparative method using principles of the grounded theory. Results The response rates of judo, swimming and volleyball athletes were 50% (SD 23), 61% (SD 27) and 56% (SD 25), respectively. Most athletes found it simple to register their sport exposure and health complaints online; however, personal communication was still preferred for this purpose. The system facilitated the communication between medical and trainer staff, who were able to identify in the system reports health complaints from athletes that were not necessarily communicated face-to-face. Therefore, staff members reported that they were able to intervene earlier to prevent minor health complaints from becoming severe health problems. However, staff members expected higher adherence of athletes to the online follow-ups, and athletes expected to receive feedback on their inputs to the system. Conclusion An online system can be used in sporting settings complementary to regular strategies for monitoring athletes’ health. However, providing feedback on athletes’ inputs is important to maintain their adherence to such an online system. PMID:29071115

  20. Non-infectious events under the International Health Regulations (2005) in Europe--a case for syndromic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkötter, Nicole; Ziemann, Alexandra; Krafft, Thomas; Riesgo, Luis Garcia-Castrillo; Vergeiner, Gernot; Brand, Helmut

    2014-08-01

    The scope of the International Health Regulations of 2005 (IHR (2005)) has been expanded. The IHR (2005) are no longer limited to a specific set of infectious diseases, instead they prescribe detection and assessment of any event of potential public health concern regardless of its source or origin. We examine events of non-infectious origin that might fulfill the criteria of a potential public health emergency of international concern under the IHR (2005). These comprise predominately events related to food safety, but also events related to drug safety or of chemical or industrial origin. We argue that to identify these events and assess health effects related to them, existing disease surveillance systems should be augmented with less specific indicator-based syndromic surveillance strategies that use available routine health-related service data for monitoring purposes.

  1. Health behaviour surveillance of Health Sciences students in Northern Germany: Design and first results

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Tobisch; Annika von Borczyskowski; Ralf Reintjes

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundHealth of students have most often been neglected in recent studies, although students face a transition of life during their studies which has strong implications on health.  During that time, universities play a key role as a setting where future professionals develop independence and learn skills possibly affecting their development and health. Nevertheless, less in known about this group in society and consequently, the aim of this research project was to monitor health of Healt...

  2. Occupational hazards and health cost of women cotton pickers in Pakistani Punjab

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhsh, Khuda; Ahmad, Naeem; Kamran, M. Asif; Hassan, Sarfraz; Abbas, Qasir; Saeed, Rashed; Hashmi, M. Sadiq

    2016-01-01

    Background Farm workers and female cotton pickers are exposed to residual impacts of pesticide use in cotton production, in addition to dust, ultraviolet radiation, etc. Cotton picking causes various health hazards among cotton pickers with varied health cost. A soil bacterium known as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is incorporated in cotton seed through genetic modification and it has resistance against certain bollworms of cotton. So it is considered that Bt cotton fields have less pesticide e...

  3. Occupational hazards and health cost of women cotton pickers in Pakistani Punjab

    OpenAIRE

    Khuda Bakhsh; Naeem Ahmad; M. Asif Kamran; Sarfraz Hassan; Qasir Abbas; Rashed Saeed; M. Sadiq Hashmi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Farm workers and female cotton pickers are exposed to residual impacts of pesticide use in cotton production, in addition to dust, ultraviolet radiation, etc. Cotton picking causes various health hazards among cotton pickers with varied health cost. A soil bacterium known as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is incorporated in cotton seed through genetic modification and it has resistance against certain bollworms of cotton. So it is considered that Bt cotton fields have less pe...

  4. Making "social" safer: are Facebook and other online networks becoming less hazardous for health professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel R

    2012-01-01

    Major concerns about privacy have limited health professionals' usage of popular social networking sites such as Facebook. However, the landscape of social media is changing in favor of more sophisticated privacy controls that enable users to more carefully manage public and private information. This evolution in technology makes it potentially less hazardous for health professionals to consider accepting colleagues and patients into their online networks, and invites medicine to think constructively about how social media may add value to contemporary healthcare.

  5. Technology evaluation of a USA-Mexico health information system for epidemiological surveillance of Mexican migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Mondragón, H E; Martin, J; Chacón-Sosa, F

    2000-03-01

    From 1994 through 1996, federal, state, and nongovernmental organizations in Mexico and in the United States of America developed and piloted a Binational Health Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance of Mexican migrant workers. The system allowed data exchange for epidemiological surveillance between the state of Guanajuato in Mexico and the Commonwealth (state) of Pennsylvania in the United States, for case detection, prevention, and treatment, through shared contact investigation and case management of communicable diseases. The target population consisted of migrant workers traveling between Guanajuato and Pennsylvania to work mainly in the mushroom industry, and their sexual partners in their Mexican communities of origin. Computerized migrant health information modules were set up in Guanajuato and in Pennsylvania. Patient information and epidemiological surveillance data were encrypted and communicated electronically between the modules, using the WONDER communications system of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Evaluation of the Guanajuato-Pennsylvania Binational Health Information System showed that major barriers to binational epidemiological surveillance and control are: a) lack of communication binationally; b) interrupted medical care due to migration; c) inconsistent diagnosis and treatment criteria between the two countries; d) lack of referral clinical records from one country to the other; and e) deficient legal regulations concerning binational clinical data transfer. To our knowledge, this is the first project that has successfully demonstrated the technological feasibility of a binational disease control system linking a state in the interior of one country with a state in the interior of another country, rather than just states in the border region. The project also advanced the understanding of health service organizational issues that facilitate or hinder communication, outreach, disease prevention, and

  6. Economics of One Health: Costs and benefits of integrated West Nile virus surveillance in Emilia-Romagna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Paternoster

    Full Text Available Since 2013 in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, surveillance information generated in the public health and in the animal health sectors has been shared and used to guide public health interventions to mitigate the risk of West Nile virus (WNV transmission via blood transfusion. The objective of the current study was to identify and estimate the costs and benefits associated with this One Health surveillance approach, and to compare it to an approach that does not integrate animal health information in blood donations safety policy (uni-sectoral scenario. Costs of human, animal, and entomological surveillance, sharing of information, and triggered interventions were estimated. Benefits were quantified as the averted costs of potential human cases of WNV neuroinvasive disease associated to infected blood transfusion. In the 2009-2015 period, the One Health approach was estimated to represent a cost saving of €160,921 compared to the uni-sectoral scenario. Blood donation screening was the main cost for both scenarios. The One Health approach further allowed savings of €1.21 million in terms of avoided tests on blood units. Benefits of the One Health approach due to short-term costs of hospitalization and compensation for transfusion-associated disease potentially avoided, were estimated to range from €0 to €2.98 million according to the probability of developing WNV neuroinvasive disease after receiving an infected blood transfusion.

  7. Epidemiological surveillance - air and health. Surveillance of effects on health linked to air pollution in urban area; Surveillance epidemiologique - air et sante. Surveillance des effets sur la sante lies a la pollution atmospherique en milieu urbain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to quantify the short term relationship between the air pollution and its effects on health and to monitor its evolution, the Institute of Sanitary Watch, with the help of the Department of development and environment and the Department in charge of health, has realised a study in eight towns: Bordeaux, Le Havre, Lille, Lyon, Marseille, Rouen, Strasbourg and Toulouse. These towns have been chosen for the contrasted character of their sources, of their pollution levels and their geo climatic conditions. Paris contributes to the study with the E.R.P.U.R.S results. (N.C.)

  8. Assessing human risk of illness with West Nile virus mosquito surveillance data to improve public health preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other mosquito-borne pathogens involves costly and time-consuming collection and testing of mosquito samples. One difficulty faced by public health personnel is how to interpret mosquito data relative to human risk, thus leading to a failure to fully exploi...

  9. Effectiveness and Cost-benefit Evaluation of a Comprehensive Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Sustainable Employability of Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry J; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive workers' health surveillance (WHS) program on aspects of sustainable employability and cost-benefit. Methods A cluster randomized stepped wedge trial was performed in a Dutch meat processing company from february 2012 until march 2015. In

  10. The Relationship between Rural Status, Individual Characteristics, and Self-Rated Health in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, Traci N.; Lopez, Russell P.; Cozier, Yvette C.; White, Laura F.; McClean, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine rural status and social factors as predictors of self-rated health in community-dwelling adults in the United States. Methods: This study uses multinomial logistic and cumulative logistic models to evaluate the associations of interest in the 2006 US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a cross-sectional survey of…

  11. Assessing the population coverage of a health demographic surveillance system using satellite imagery and crowd-sourcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasquale, Di Aurelio; Mc Cann, Robert; Maire, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Remotely sensed data can serve as an independent source of information about the location of residential structures in areas under demographic and health surveillance. We report on results obtained combining satellite imagery, imported from Bing, with location data routinely collected using the

  12. Community based research network: opportunities for coordination of care, public health surveillance, and farmworker research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sharon P; Heyer, Nicholas; Shipp, Eva M; Ryder, E Roberta; Hendrikson, Edward; Socias, Christina M; Del Junco, Deborah J; Valerio, Melissa; Partida, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    The lack of aggregated longitudinal health data on farmworkers has severely limited opportunities to conduct research to improve their health status. To correct this problem, we have created the infrastructure necessary to develop and maintain a national Research Data Repository of migrant and seasonal farmworker patients and other community members receiving medical care from Community and Migrant Health Centers (C/MHCs). Project specific research databases can be easily extracted from this repository. The Community Based Research Network (CBRN) has securely imported and merged electronic health records (EHRs) data from five geographically dispersed C/MHCs. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our data aggregation methodologies, we also conducted a small pilot study using clinical, laboratory and demographic data from the CBRN Data Repository from two initial C/MHCs to evaluate HbA1c management. Overall, there were 67,878 total patients (2,858 farmworkers) that were seen by two C/MHCs from January to August 2013. A total of 94,189 encounters were captured and all could be linked to a unique patient. HbA1c values decreased as the number of tests or intensity of testing increased. This project will inform the foundation for an expanding collection of C/MHC data for use by clinicians for medical care coordination, by clinics to assess quality of care, by public health agencies for surveillance, and by researchers under Institutional Review Board (IRB) oversight to advance understanding of the needs and capacity of the migrant and seasonal farmworker population and the health centers that serve them. Approved researchers can request data that constitute a Limited Data Set from the CBRN Data Repository to establish a specific research database for their project.

  13. A mobile field-work data collection system for the wireless era of health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Marianne; Sjögren, Petteri; Renard, Matthew; Johansson, Olle

    2011-03-01

    In many countries or regions the capacity of health care resources is below the needs of the population and new approaches for health surveillance are needed. Innovative projects, utilizing wireless communication technology, contribute to reliable methods for field-work data collection and reporting to databases. The objective was to describe a new version of a wireless IT-support system for field-work data collection and administration. The system requirements were drawn from the design objective and translated to system functions. The system architecture was based on fieldwork experiences and administrative requirements. The Smartphone devices were HTC Touch Diamond2s, while the system was based on a platform with Microsoft .NET components, and a SQL Server 2005 with Microsoft Windows Server 2003 operating system. The user interfaces were based on .NET programming, and Microsoft Windows Mobile operating system. A synchronization module enabled download of field data to the database, via a General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) to a Local Area Network (LAN) interface. The field-workers considered the here-described applications user-friendly and almost self-instructing. The office administrators considered that the back-office interface facilitated retrieval of health reports and invoice distribution. The current IT-support system facilitates short lead times from fieldwork data registration to analysis, and is suitable for various applications. The advantages of wireless technology, and paper-free data administration need to be increasingly emphasized in development programs, in order to facilitate reliable and transparent use of limited resources.

  14. A private sector view of health, surveillance, and communities of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, S A

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. population is fast evolving into a patchwork of health behaviors, incomes, and ethnic backgrounds. Simple cultural labeling will not do. A growing number of Americans, now numbering about 10 million, cannot or will not describe their race in any one of the Census Bureau's standard categories--white, black, American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut, Asian Pacific, or Hispanic. They group themselves as a multicultural population rather than a single racial or ethnic category. To guide health interventions, the private sector now relies more on statistical clusters based on geography, lifestyle, behavior, financial status, and attitudes instead of on race. In marketing, the challenge is to reach diverse markets without stereotyping the product as one designed for only a certain ethnic group. The emphasis on athletics instead of on race is one example of how some marketers solve this problem of reaching minorities without giving the impression that specific products are only for blacks, or Hispanics, or Asians. Surveillance professionals can expand the way data are collected and publicized. Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans should not be categorized simply by race; other variables of health, such as income and age, should be given careful attention.

  15. WWOSC 2014: research needs for better health resilience to weather hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancloes, Michel; Anderson, Vidya; Gosselin, Pierre; Mee, Carol; Chong, Nicholas J

    2015-03-05

    The first World Weather Open Science Conference (WWOSC, held from 17-21 August 2014 in Montreal, Québec), provided an open forum where the experience and perspective of a variety of weather information providers and users was combined with the latest application advances in social sciences. A special session devoted to health focused on how best the most recent weather information and communication technologies (ICT) could improve the health emergency responses to disasters resulting from natural hazards. Speakers from a plenary presentation and its corresponding panel shared lessons learnt from different international multidisciplinary initiatives against weather-related epidemics, such as malaria, leptospirosis and meningitis and from public health responses to floods and heat waves such as in Ontario and Quebec, Canada. Participants could bear witness to recent progress made in the use of forecasting tools and in the application of increased spatiotemporal resolutions in the management of weather related health risks through anticipative interventions, early alert and warning and early responses especially by vulnerable groups. There was an agreement that resilience to weather hazards is best developed based on evidence of their health impact and when, at local level, there is a close interaction between health care providers, epidemiologists, climate services, public health authorities and communities. Using near real time health data (such as hospital admission, disease incidence monitoring…) combined with weather information has been recommended to appraise the relevance of decisions and the effectiveness of interventions and to make adjustments when needed. It also helps appraising how people may be more or less vulnerable to a particular hazard depending on the resilience infrastructures and services. This session was mainly attended by climate, environment and social scientists from North American and European countries. Producing a commentary appears

  16. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health Mental Health Surveillance Study: calibration study design and field procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpe, Lisa J; Barker, Peggy R; Karg, Rhonda S; Batts, Kathy R; Morton, Katherine B; Gfroerer, Joseph C; Stolzenberg, Stephanie J; Cunningham, David B; First, Michael B; Aldworth, Jeremy

    2010-06-01

    The Mental Health Surveillance Study (MHSS) is an ongoing initiative by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to monitor the prevalence of serious mental illness (SMI) among adults in the USA. In 2008, the MHSS used data from clinical interviews to calibrate mental health data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) for estimating the prevalence of SMI based on the full NSDUH sample. The clinical interview used was the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-IV; SCID). NSDUH interviews were administered via audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) to a nationally representative sample of the population aged 12 years or older. A total of 46,180 NSDUH interviews were completed with adults aged 18 years or older in 2008. The SCID was administered by mental health clinicians to a sub-sample of 1506 adults via telephone. This paper describes the MHSS calibration study procedures, including information on sample selection, instrumentation, follow-up, data quality protocols, and management of distressed respondents.

  17. Support and services provided by public health regional surveillance teams to Local Health Departments in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Jennifer A; Markiewicz, Milissa; Meyer, Anne Marie; Macdonald, Pia D M

    2011-01-01

    Since 2001, many states have created regional structures in an effort to better coordinate/public health preparedness and response efforts, consolidate services, and supplement local government capacity. While several studies have identified specific benefits to regionalization, including enhanced networking, coordination, and communication, little research has examined the effect of regionalization on specific preparedness and response activities. To better understand the impact of regionalizing public health workforce assets in North Carolina, a survey aimed at documenting specific support and services that Public Health Regional Surveillance Teams(PHRSTs) provide to local health departments (LHDs) was developed and administered by the North Carolina Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center, located at the North Carolina Institute for Public Health. Of80 potential types of assistance, 26 (33%) were received by 75% or more LHDs, including 9 related to communication and 7 related to exercises. There was significant variation by PHRST region in both the quantity and quality of support and services reported by LHDs. This variation could not be explained by county- or LHD-level variables. PHRST assistance to LHDs is largely focused on communication and liaison activities, regional exercises, and planning. On the basis of these findings, regionalization may provide North Carolina with benefits consistent with those found in other studies such as improved networking and coordination. However, further research is needed to identify whether regional variation is the result of varying capacity or priorities of the PHRSTs or LHDs and to determine how much variation is acceptable.

  18. A surveillance sector review applied to infectious diseases at a country level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Easther Sally

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new International Health Regulations (IHR require World Health Organization (WHO member states to assess their core capacity for surveillance. Such reviews also have the potential to identify important surveillance gaps, improve the organisation of disparate surveillance systems and to focus attention on upstream hazards, determinants and interventions. Methods We developed a surveillance sector review method for evaluating all of the surveillance systems and related activities across a sector, in this case those concerned with infectious diseases in New Zealand. The first stage was a systematic description of these surveillance systems using a newly developed framework and classification system. Key informant interviews were conducted to validate the available information on the systems identified. Results We identified 91 surveillance systems and related activities in the 12 coherent categories of infectious diseases examined. The majority (n = 40 or 44% of these were disease surveillance systems. They covered all categories, particularly for more severe outcomes including those resulting in death or hospitalisations. Except for some notifiable diseases and influenza, surveillance of less severe, but important infectious diseases occurring in the community was largely absent. There were 31 systems (34% for surveillance of upstream infectious disease hazards, including risk and protective factors. This area tended to have many potential gaps and lack integration, partly because such systems were operated by a range of different agencies, often outside the health sector. There were fewer surveillance systems for determinants, including population size and characteristics (n = 9, and interventions (n = 11. Conclusions It was possible to create and populate a workable framework for describing all the infectious diseases surveillance systems and related activities in a single developed country and to identify potential

  19. Successful Repatriation of Breast Cancer Surveillance for High-Risk Women to the UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Terri P; Wiggins, Jennifer; Ward, Simon; Kemp, Zoe; George, Angela J

    2017-10-28

    Since April 2013, the UK's National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) centers have been obliged to provide services for women at the highest risk of breast cancer, including those carrying highly penetrant single gene mutations (BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53). Since then, such individuals previously undergoing surveillance in the Royal Marsden Hospital were referred to their local NHSBSP centers. We aimed to assess patient experience of surveillance provided by local NHSBSP services at 1 and 3 years after repatriation. High-risk gene mutation carriers referred to the NHSBSP for breast cancer surveillance were identified from a departmental database in the Cancer Genetics Unit and invited to complete questionnaires about their experience of surveillance under this new pathway, first in 2014 and again in 2016. Three hundred forty-six individuals were invited to participate in 2014, of whom 182 responded (53%). A total of 464 patients were invited in 2016, of whom 246 (53%) completed the second questionnaire. Ninety-four percent of patients with residual breast tissue received some screening at the first (n = 161) and second (n = 185) time points. Ninety-one percent of patients (n = 146) received at least recommended surveillance in the year preceding the initial survey, a proportion decreasing slightly by the second time point (n = 164, 87%). Seventeen percent of individuals required additional diagnostic investigations, with cancers detected in 2%. These proportions remained stable between surveys. Repatriation of high-risk individuals from Royal Marsden Hospital to NHSBSP centers has been successfully accomplished. Most individuals received appropriate recommended annual surveillance. Further improvements are required to ensure equal and timely provision of recommended surveillance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Malaria mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kim Streatfield

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria continues to be a major cause of infectious disease mortality in tropical regions. However, deaths from malaria are most often not individually documented, and as a result overall understanding of malaria epidemiology is inadequate. INDEPTH Network members maintain population surveillance in Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites across Africa and Asia, in which individual deaths are followed up with verbal autopsies. Objective: To present patterns of malaria mortality determined by verbal autopsy from INDEPTH sites across Africa and Asia, comparing these findings with other relevant information on malaria in the same regions. Design: From a database covering 111,910 deaths over 12,204,043 person-years in 22 sites, in which verbal autopsy data were handled according to the WHO 2012 standard and processed using the InterVA-4 model, over 6,000 deaths were attributed to malaria. The overall period covered was 1992–2012, but two-thirds of the observations related to 2006–2012. These deaths were analysed by site, time period, age group and sex to investigate epidemiological differences in malaria mortality. Results: Rates of malaria mortality varied by 1:10,000 across the sites, with generally low rates in Asia (one site recording no malaria deaths over 0.5 million person-years and some of the highest rates in West Africa (Nouna, Burkina Faso: 2.47 per 1,000 person-years. Childhood malaria mortality rates were strongly correlated with Malaria Atlas Project estimates of Plasmodium falciparum parasite rates for the same locations. Adult malaria mortality rates, while lower than corresponding childhood rates, were strongly correlated with childhood rates at the site level. Conclusions: The wide variations observed in malaria mortality, which were nevertheless consistent with various other estimates, suggest that population-based registration of deaths using verbal autopsy is a useful approach to understanding the

  1. Assessment of occupational health and safety hazard exposures among working college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanay, Jo Anne G; Adesina, Adepeju; Kearney, Gregory D; Richards, Stephanie L

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults have higher injury rates than their adult counterparts in similar jobs. This study used the working college student population to assess health and safety hazards in the workplace, characterize related occupational diseases and injuries, and describe worker health/safety activities provided by employers. College students (≥17 years old) were assessed via online surveys about work history, workplace exposure to hazards, occupational diseases/injuries, and workplace health/safety activities. Approximately half (51%) of participants (n = 1,147) were currently employed at the time of the survey or had been employed while enrolled in college. Restaurants (other than fast food) were the most frequently reported work setting. The most reported workplace hazards included noise exposure and contact with hot liquids/surfaces. Twenty percent of working students experienced injury at work; some injuries were severe enough to limit students' normal activities for >3 days (30%) or require medical attention (44%). Men had significantly higher prevalence of injuries (P = 0.05) and near-misses (P college students may be achieved by implementing occupational health and safety (OHS) strategies including incorporation of OHS in the college curriculum, promotion of OHS by university/college student health services, and improving awareness of OHS online resources among college students, employers, and educators. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. How disease surveillance systems can serve as practical building blocks for a health information infrastructure: the Indiana experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannis, Shaun J; Biondich, Paul G; Mamlin, Burke W; Wilson, Greg; Jones, Linda; Overhage, J Marc

    2005-01-01

    Although many organizations are beginning to develop strategies to implement and study regional and national health information exchanges, there are few operational examples to date. The Indiana Network for Patient Care (INPC) is an example of a currently operational Regional Health Information Organization (RHIO) built upon a foundation of open, robust healthcare information standards. Having demonstrated the scalability of this design, the Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) contracted with the Regenstrief Institute to implement a statewide disease surveillance system incorporating encounter data from all 114 Indiana hospitals with emergency departments. We describe the 4-year implementation plan, including our design rationale and how we plan to address the specific implementation challenges of data collection, connectivity in diverse environments and current hospital buy-in. To date, 36 hospitals are in various stages of engagement, with 19 hospitals actively providing real-time surveillance data. We will discuss how this project creates the foundation for a potential statewide health information exchange.

  3. Measurement, geospatial, and mechanistic models of public health hazard vulnerability and jurisdictional risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Marcia A; Pettigrew, Mary L; Savoia, Elena

    2014-01-01

    County and state health departments are increasingly conducting hazard vulnerability and jurisdictional risk (HVJR) assessments for public health emergency preparedness and mitigation planning and evaluation to improve the public health disaster response; however, integration and adoption of these assessments into practice are still relatively rare. While the quantitative methods associated with complex analytic and measurement methods, causal inference, and decision theory are common in public health research, they have not been widely used in public health preparedness and mitigation planning. To address this gap, the Harvard School of Public Health PERLC's goal was to develop measurement, geospatial, and mechanistic models to aid public health practitioners in understanding the complexity of HVJR assessment and to determine the feasibility of using these methods for dynamic and predictive HVJR analyses. We used systematic reviews, causal inference theory, structural equation modeling (SEM), and multivariate statistical methods to develop the conceptual and mechanistic HVJR models. Geospatial mapping was used to inform the hypothetical mechanistic model by visually examining the variability and patterns associated with county-level demographic, social, economic, hazards, and resource data. A simulation algorithm was developed for testing the feasibility of using SEM estimation. The conceptual model identified the predictive latent variables used in public health HVJR tools (hazard, vulnerability, and resilience), the outcomes (human, physical, and economic losses), and the corresponding measurement subcomponents. This model was translated into a hypothetical mechanistic model to explore and evaluate causal and measurement pathways. To test the feasibility of SEM estimation, the mechanistic model path diagram was translated into linear equations and solved simultaneously using simulated data representing 192 counties. Measurement, geospatial, and mechanistic

  4. Comparative genomic fingerprinting of Campylobacter: application in routine public health surveillance and epidemiological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleihauf, E; Mutschall, S; Billard, B; Taboada, E N; Haldane, D

    2017-01-01

    A subtyping methodology for Campylobacter, Comparative Genomic Fingerprinting (CGF40), has been described recently. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of CGF40 as a tool to enhance routine public health surveillance of campylobacteriosis. Isolates of Campylobacter from across the province were requested and sent for CGF40 subtyping. Epidemiological data from cases reported to public health officials in Nova Scotia, Canada, from January 2012 to March 2015 were linked with blinded CGF40 subtyping results. CGF40 was epidemiologically valid; subtyping discerned known epidemiologically related isolates and augmented case-finding. Predominant sources and locations of subtype detection from the national reference database showed some study subtypes were rare and even novel to the database, while others were more commonly identified over multiple years and with exposures locally and internationally. A case-case study design was applied to examine risk factors for the most common CGF40 subtypes detected. Differences in the epidemiology of different CGF40 subtypes were observed. Statistically significant associations were noted for specific subtypes with rural residence, local exposure, contact with a pet dog or cat, contact with chickens, and drinking unpasteurized milk. With prospective use, CGF40 could potentially identify unrecognized outbreaks and contribute to epidemiological investigations of case clusters.

  5. FluMob: Enabling Surveillance of Acute Respiratory Infections in Health-care Workers via Mobile Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, May Oo; Yung, Chee Fu; Yap, Peiling; Jayasundar, Karthikayen; Sheldenkar, Anita; Subasinghe, Kosala; Foo, Schubert; Jayasinghe, Udeepa Gayantha; Xu, Huarong; Chai, Siaw Ching; Kurlye, Ashwin; Chen, Jie; Ang, Brenda Sze Peng

    2017-01-01

    Singapore is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases and faces a constant risk of pandemic outbreaks as a major travel and health hub for Southeast Asia. With an increasing penetration of smart phone usage in this region, Singapore's pandemic preparedness framework can be strengthened by applying a mobile-based approach to health surveillance and control, and improving upon existing ideas by addressing gaps, such as a lack of health communication. FluMob is a digitally integrated syndromic surveillance system designed to assist health authorities in obtaining real-time epidemiological and surveillance data from health-care workers (HCWs) within Singapore, by allowing them to report influenza incidence using smartphones. The system, integrating a fully responsive web-based interface and a mobile interface, is made available to HCW using various types of mobile devices and web browsers. Real-time data generated from FluMob will be complementary to current health-care- and laboratory-based systems. This paper describes the development of FluMob, as well as challenges faced in the creation of the system.

  6. Improving work functioning and mental health of health care employees using an e-mental health approach to workers' health surveillance: pretest-posttest study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaar, Sarah M; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Bolier, Linda; Smeets, Odile; Sluiter, Judith K

    2014-12-01

    Mental health complaints are quite common in health care employees and can have adverse effects on work functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate an e-mental health (EMH) approach to workers' health surveillance (WHS) for nurses and allied health professionals. Using the waiting-list group of a previous randomized controlled trial with high dropout and low compliance to the intervention, we studied the pre- and posteffects of the EMH approach in a larger group of participants. We applied a pretest-posttest study design. The WHS consisted of online screening on impaired work functioning and mental health followed by online automatically generated personalized feedback, online tailored advice, and access to self-help EMH interventions. The effects on work functioning, stress, and work-related fatigue after 3 months were analyzed using paired t tests and effect sizes. One hundred and twenty-eight nurses and allied health professionals participated at pretest as well as posttest. Significant improvements were found on work functioning (p = 0.01) and work-related fatigue (p Work functioning had relevantly improved in 30% of participants. A small meaningful effect on stress was found (Cohen d = .23) in the participants who had logged onto an EMH intervention (20%, n = 26). The EMH approach to WHS improves the work functioning and mental health of nurses and allied health professionals. However, because we found small effects and participation in the offered EMH interventions was low, there is ample room for improvement.

  7. Hazard Ranking Methodology for Assessing Health Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development and Production: The Maryland Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Meleah D; Payne-Sturges, Devon C; Sangaramoorthy, Thurka; Wilson, Sacoby; Nachman, Keeve E; Babik, Kelsey; Jenkins, Christian C; Trowell, Joshua; Milton, Donald K; Sapkota, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The recent growth of unconventional natural gas development and production (UNGDP) has outpaced research on the potential health impacts associated with the process. The Maryland Marcellus Shale Public Health Study was conducted to inform the Maryland Marcellus Shale Safe Drilling Initiative Advisory Commission, State legislators and the Governor about potential public health impacts associated with UNGDP so they could make an informed decision that considers the health and well-being of Marylanders. In this paper, we describe an impact assessment and hazard ranking methodology we used to assess the potential public health impacts for eight hazards associated with the UNGDP process. The hazard ranking included seven metrics: 1) presence of vulnerable populations (e.g. children under the age of 5, individuals over the age of 65, surface owners), 2) duration of exposure, 3) frequency of exposure, 4) likelihood of health effects, 5) magnitude/severity of health effects, 6) geographic extent, and 7) effectiveness of setbacks. Overall public health concern was determined by a color-coded ranking system (low, moderately high, and high) that was generated based on the overall sum of the scores for each hazard. We provide three illustrative examples of applying our methodology for air quality and health care infrastructure which were ranked as high concern and for water quality which was ranked moderately high concern. The hazard ranking was a valuable tool that allowed us to systematically evaluate each of the hazards and provide recommendations to minimize the hazards.

  8. Quality of sick child care delivered by Health Surveillance Assistants in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Kate E; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Cardemil, Cristina V; Nsona, Humphreys; Amouzou, Agbessi; Mtimuni, Angella; Daelmans, Bernadette; Mgalula, Leslie; Bryce, Jennifer

    2013-09-01

    To assess the quality of care provided by Health Surveillance Assistants (HSAs)-a cadre of community-based health workers-as part of a national scale-up of community case management of childhood illness (CCM) in Malawi. Trained research teams visited a random sample of HSAs (n = 131) trained in CCM and provided with initial essential drug stocks in six districts, and observed the provision of sick child care. Trained clinicians conducted 'gold-standard' reassessments of the child. Members of the survey team also interviewed caregivers and HSAs and inspected drug stocks and patient registers. HSAs provided correct treatment with antimalarials to 79% of the 241 children presenting with uncomplicated fever, with oral rehydration salts to 69% of the 93 children presenting with uncomplicated diarrhoea and with antibiotics to 52% of 58 children presenting with suspected pneumonia (cough with fast breathing). About one in five children (18%) presented with danger signs. HSAs correctly assessed 37% of children for four danger signs by conducting a physical exam, and correctly referred 55% of children with danger signs. Malawi's CCM programme is a promising strategy for increasing coverage of sick child treatment, although there is much room for improvement, especially in the correct assessment and treatment of suspected pneumonia and the identification and referral of sick children with danger signs. However, HSAs provided sick child care at levels of quality similar to those provided in first-level health facilities in Malawi, and quality should improve if the Ministry of Health and partners act on the results of this assessment.

  9. First experiences in the implementation of biometric technology to link data from Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems with health facility data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwoa Serwaa-Bonsu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developing countries, Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs provide a framework for tracking demographic and health dynamics over time in a defined geographical area. Many HDSSs co-exist with facility-based data sources in the form of Health Management Information Systems (HMIS. Integrating both data sources through reliable record linkage could provide both numerator and denominator populations to estimate disease prevalence and incidence rates in the population and enable determination of accurate health service coverage. Objective: To measure the acceptability and performance of fingerprint biometrics to identify individuals in demographic surveillance populations and those attending health care facilities serving the surveillance populations. Methodology: Two HDSS sites used fingerprint biometrics for patient and/or surveillance population participant identification. The proportion of individuals for whom a fingerprint could be successfully enrolled were characterised in terms of age and sex. Results: Adult (18–65 years fingerprint enrolment rates varied between 94.1% (95% CI 93.6–94.5 for facility-based fingerprint data collection at the Africa Centre site to 96.7% (95% CI 95.9–97.6 for population-based fingerprint data collection at the Agincourt site. Fingerprint enrolment rates in children under 1 year old (Africa Centre site were only 55.1% (95% CI 52.7–57.4. By age 5, child fingerprint enrolment rates were comparable to those of adults. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the feasibility of fingerprint-based individual identification for population-based research in developing countries. Record linkage between demographic surveillance population databases and health care facility data based on biometric identification systems would allow for a more comprehensive evaluation of population health, including the ability to study health service utilisation from a population perspective, rather than the

  10. Health hazards in areas of military operations conducted in different climatic and sanitary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the most common health hazards occurring among personnel of peacekeeping and stabilization missions functioning within armed conflicts in the contemporary world. Military operations have been executed in diverse climatic and sanitary conditions, which are frequently unfamiliar for their participants. Some of them, e.g. the UN peacekeeping missions in the Middle East (Lebanon, the Golan Heights), have been carried out in a relatively stable geopolitical environment; whereas, stabilization missions in Iraq and Afghanistan, which are actually combat activities, undoubtedly fall into the group of the most perilous military operations in the world. Hot or cold climate, poor sanitary and hygienic conditions along with warfare facilitate the occurrence of numerous diseases and body injuries not only among the local people but also among peacekeepers, who represent the population of immigrants. Health hazards which pose major epidemiological threats in combat zones are arthropod-borne, food and water-borne, respiratory tract diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, enzootic diseases, battle injuries, and non- -battle injuries, e.g. traffic accidents. Another considerable health problem are psychiatric disorders, which can either appear directly after the occurrence of a traumatic event in a combat zone or indirectly, after some time had elapsed. In addition to the health hazards listed above, environmental factors such as changeable weather conditions and local fauna may also be life threatening.

  11. Asymmetric Information in Iranian's Health Insurance Market: Testing of Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Farhad; Abolghasem Gorji, Hassan; Mahdavi, Ghadir; Hadian, Mohammad

    2015-04-19

    Asymmetric information is one of the most important issues in insurance market which occurred due to inherent characteristics of one of the agents involved in insurance contracts; hence its management requires designing appropriate policies. This phenomenon can lead to the failure of insurance market via its two consequences, namely, adverse selection and moral hazard. This study was aimed to evaluate the status of asymmetric information in Iran's health insurance market with respect to the demand for outpatient services. This research is a cross sectional study conducted on households living in Iran. The data of the research was extracted from the information on household's budget survey collected by the Statistical Center of Iran in 2012. In this study, the Generalized Method of Moment model was used and the status of adverse selection and moral hazard was evaluated through calculating the latent health status of individuals in each insurance category. To analyze the data, Excel, Eviews and stata11 software were used. The estimation of parameters of the utility function of the demand for outpatient services (visit, medicine, and Para-clinical services) showed that households were more risk averse in the use of outpatient care than other goods and services. After estimating the health status of households based on their health insurance categories, the results showed that rural-insured people had the best health status and people with supplementary insurance had the worst health status. In addition, the comparison of the conditional distribution of latent health status approved the phenomenon of adverse selection in all insurance groups, with the exception of rural insurance. Moreover, calculation of the elasticity of medical expenses to reimbursement rate confirmed the existence of moral hazard phenomenon. Due to the existence of the phenomena of adverse selection and moral hazard in most of health insurances categories, policymakers need to adjust contracts so

  12. Asymmetric Information in Iranian’s Health Insurance Market: Testing of Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Farhad; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Mahdavi, Ghadir; Hadian, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Asymmetric information is one of the most important issues in insurance market which occurred due to inherent characteristics of one of the agents involved in insurance contracts; hence its management requires designing appropriate policies. This phenomenon can lead to the failure of insurance market via its two consequences, namely, adverse selection and moral hazard. Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate the status of asymmetric information in Iran’s health insurance market with respect to the demand for outpatient services. Materials/sPatients and Methods: This research is a cross sectional study conducted on households living in Iran. The data of the research was extracted from the information on household’s budget survey collected by the Statistical Center of Iran in 2012. In this study, the Generalized Method of Moment model was used and the status of adverse selection and moral hazard was evaluated through calculating the latent health status of individuals in each insurance category. To analyze the data, Excel, Eviews and stata11 software were used. Results: The estimation of parameters of the utility function of the demand for outpatient services (visit, medicine, and Para-clinical services) showed that households were more risk averse in the use of outpatient care than other goods and services. After estimating the health status of households based on their health insurance categories, the results showed that rural-insured people had the best health status and people with supplementary insurance had the worst health status. In addition, the comparison of the conditional distribution of latent health status approved the phenomenon of adverse selection in all insurance groups, with the exception of rural insurance. Moreover, calculation of the elasticity of medical expenses to reimbursement rate confirmed the existence of moral hazard phenomenon. Conclusions: Due to the existence of the phenomena of adverse selection and moral hazard

  13. Linkage of traffic crash and hospitalization records with limited identifiers for enhanced public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderino, Sarah; Fung, Lawrence; Sedlar, Slavenka; Norton, Jennifer M

    2017-04-01

    Motor vehicle traffic (MVT) crashes kill or seriously injure approximately 4250 people in New York City (NYC) each year. Traditionally, NYC surveillance practices use hospitalization and crash data separately to monitor trends in MVT-related injuries, but key information linking crash circumstances to health outcomes is lost when analyzing these data sources in isolation. Our objective was to match crash reports to hospitalization records to create a traffic injury surveillance dataset that can be used to describe crash circumstances and related injury outcomes. The linkage of the two systems presents a unique challenge since the system tracking crashes and the system tracking hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits lack key identifying data such as names and dates of birth. NYC Department of Transportation provided electronic records based on reports of motor vehicle crashes submitted to the New York State Department of Motor Vehicles for all crashes occurring in NYC from 2009 to 2013. New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) ED and hospitalization administrative data from NYC hospitals were used to identify unintentional MVT-related injuries using external cause of injury codes. Since the two systems do not share unique individual identifiers, probabilistic record linkage was conducted using LinkSolv9.0. Sensitivity/specificity calculations and chi-square analyses of linkage rates were conducted to assess linkage results. From 2009-2013, there were 1,054,344 individuals involved in MVT crashes in NYC and 280,340 ED visits and hospitalizations from MVT-related injuries. There were 145,003 linked pairs, giving a linkage rate of 52% of the total MVT-related hospital records. This linkage had a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 93%. Linkage rates were comparable by age, sex, crash role, collision type, hospital county, injury location, hospital type, and hospital status, indicating no apparent biases in the match by

  14. Accelerating preparedness: leveraging the UNC PERLC to improve other projects related to public health surveillance, assessment, and regionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Jennifer A; Wilfert, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    The co-location of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center (PERLC) and the UNC Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center (PERRC) and other smaller projects within the North Carolina Institute for Public Health, a public health practice-oriented unit of the UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health, facilitated many successful collaborations. By sharing personnel, space, and other resources, the UNC PERLC and PERRC and other projects were able to meet the needs of the public health workforce by developing evidence-based training programs and tools around topics including epidemiology, surveillance, and vulnerable populations.

  15. Post-disaster health impact of natural hazards in the Philippines in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Miguel Antonio; Pesigan, Arturo; Law, Ronald; Winkler, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, the Health Emergency Management Bureau (HEMB) created the Surveillance for Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED), a real-time syndromic surveillance system that allows the early detection and monitoring of post-disaster disease trends. SPEED can assist health leaders in making informed decisions on health systems affected by disasters. There is a need for further validation of current concepts in post-disaster disease patterns in respect to actual field data. This study aims to evaluate the temporal post-disaster patterns of selected diseases after a flood, an earthquake, and a typhoon in the Philippines in 2013. We analyzed the 21 syndromes provided by SPEED both separately and grouped into injuries, communicable diseases, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by calculating daily post-disaster consultation rates for up to 150 days post-disaster. These were compared over time and juxtaposed according to the type of disaster. Communicable diseases were found to be the predominant syndrome group in all three disaster types. The top six syndromes found were: acute respiratory infections, open wounds, bruises and burns, high blood pressure, skin disease, fever, and acute watery diarrhea. Overall, the results aligned with the country's morbidity profile. Within 2 months, the clear gradation of increasing syndrome rates reflected the severity (floodhealth system caused by the disasters. After 2 months, rates dropped, suggesting the beginning of the recovery phase. The most common syndromes can be addressed by measures such as providing for shelter, water, sanitation, hygiene, nutrition, and common health services. Most post-disaster syndromes may be addressed by prevention, early diagnosis, and early treatment. Health needs differ in response and recovery phases.

  16. Post-disaster health impact of natural hazards in the Philippines in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Antonio Salazar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2011, the Health Emergency Management Bureau (HEMB created the Surveillance for Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED, a real-time syndromic surveillance system that allows the early detection and monitoring of post-disaster disease trends. SPEED can assist health leaders in making informed decisions on health systems affected by disasters. There is a need for further validation of current concepts in post-disaster disease patterns in respect to actual field data. This study aims to evaluate the temporal post-disaster patterns of selected diseases after a flood, an earthquake, and a typhoon in the Philippines in 2013. Methodology: We analyzed the 21 syndromes provided by SPEED both separately and grouped into injuries, communicable diseases, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs by calculating daily post-disaster consultation rates for up to 150 days post-disaster. These were compared over time and juxtaposed according to the type of disaster. Results: Communicable diseases were found to be the predominant syndrome group in all three disaster types. The top six syndromes found were: acute respiratory infections, open wounds, bruises and burns, high blood pressure, skin disease, fever, and acute watery diarrhea. Discussion: Overall, the results aligned with the country's morbidity profile. Within 2 months, the clear gradation of increasing syndrome rates reflected the severity (floodhealth system caused by the disasters. After 2 months, rates dropped, suggesting the beginning of the recovery phase. The most common syndromes can be addressed by measures such as providing for shelter, water, sanitation, hygiene, nutrition, and common health services. Conclusions: Most post-disaster syndromes may be addressed by prevention, early diagnosis, and early treatment. Health needs differ in response and recovery phases.

  17. [Theoretical and conceptual considerations about the work in sanitary surveillance, as a specific field of the work in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Gisélia Santana; Costa, Ediná Alves

    2010-11-01

    This paper discusses some of the theoretical-conceptual presupposes to the analysis of the work in sanitary surveillance in a social and historical perspective. As a work in health, the sanitary surveillance presents particularities that are inherent to the elements that are part of its process of work. These elements are inserted in the space of the production-consumption relationships, under the regulatory action of the State. The problematic of the work in sanitary surveillance occurs due to the specificities of its objects. It is identified in these objects a double dimension, at the same time as a "way of life" and "commodity". This confers to its working process a provisory and historical character, permeated by contradictions. The technical and social division of the work determines the organization of the working process in its "technical-scientific" and "political-administrative" organization, taking in account the necessity to guarantee the integrality in the actions of the health protection. It is expected that the sanitary surveillance should be organized and acting in several phases of the productive chain. It is identified and discussed the concepts of inter-dependence and inter-complementary as the principles to build the practices of sanitary control.

  18. The Degree of One Health Implementation in the West Nile Virus Integrated Surveillance in Northern Italy, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternoster, Giulia; Tomassone, Laura; Tamba, Marco; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Piazzi, Mauro; Favretto, Anna R; Balduzzi, Giacomo; Pautasso, Alessandra; Vogler, Barbara R

    2017-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is endemic in the Po valley area, Northern Italy, and within the legal framework of the national plan for the surveillance of human vector-borne diseases, WNV surveillance has over time been implemented. The surveillance plans are based on the transdisciplinary and trans-sectorial collaboration between regional institutions involved in public, animal, and environmental health. This integrated surveillance targets mosquitoes, wild birds, humans, and horses and aims at early detecting the viral circulation and reducing the risk of infection in the human populations. The objective of our study was to assess the degree of One Health (OH) implementation (OH-ness) of the WNV surveillance system in three North Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Lombardy, Piedmont) in 2016, following the evaluation protocol developed by the Network for Evaluation of One Health (NEOH). In detail, we (i) described the OH initiative (drivers, outcomes) and its system (boundaries, aim, dimensions, actors, stakeholders) and (ii) scored different aspects of this initiative (i.e., OH-thinking, -planning, -sharing, -learning, transdisciplinarity and leadership), with values from 0 (=no OH approach) to 1 (=perfect OH approach). We obtained a mean score for each aspect evaluated. We reached high scores for OH thinking (0.90) and OH planning (0.89). Lower scores were attributed to OH sharing (0.83), transdisciplinarity and leadership (0.77), and OH learning (0.67), highlighting some critical issues related to communication and learning gaps. The strengths and weaknesses detected by the described quantitative evaluation will be investigated in detail by a qualitative evaluation (process evaluation), aiming to provide a basis for the development of shared recommendations to refine the initiative and conduct it in a more OH-oriented perspective.

  19. Potential Hazard to Human Health from Exposure to Fragments of Lead Bullets and Shot in the Tissues of Game Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Deborah J.; Cromie, Ruth L.; Newth, Julia; Brown, Martin J.; Crutcher, Eric; Hardman, Pippa; Hurst, Louise; Mateo, Rafael; Meharg, Andrew A.; Moran, Annette C.; Raab, Andrea; Taggart, Mark A.; Green, Rhys E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. Methodology/Principal Findings Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species) obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing ≥5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg−1 w.w.) for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat), some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. Conclusions/Significance The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game. PMID:20436670

  20. Surveillance of Canine Rabies in the Central African Republic: Impact on Human Health and Molecular Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricou, Vianney; Bouscaillou, Julie; Kamba Mebourou, Emmanuel; Koyanongo, Fidèle Dieudonné; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2016-02-01

    Although rabies represents an important public health threat, it is still a neglected disease in Asia and Africa where it causes tens of thousands of deaths annually despite available human and animal vaccines. In the Central African Republic (CAR), an endemic country for rabies, this disease remains poorly investigated. To evaluate the extent of the threat that rabies poses in the CAR, we analyzed data for 2012 from the National Reference Laboratory for Rabies, where laboratory confirmation was performed by immunofluorescence and PCR for both animal and human suspected cases, and data from the only anti-rabies dispensary of the country and only place where post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is available. Both are located in Bangui, the capital of the CAR. For positive samples, a portion of the N gene was amplified and sequenced to determine the molecular epidemiology of circulating strains. In 2012, 966 exposed persons visited the anti-rabies dispensary and 632 received a post-exposure rabies vaccination. More than 90% of the exposed persons were from Bangui and its suburbs and almost 60% of them were under 15-years of age. No rabies-related human death was confirmed. Of the 82 samples from suspected rabid dogs tested, 69 were confirmed positive. Most of the rabid dogs were owned although unvaccinated. There was a strong spatiotemporal correlation within Bangui and within the country between reported human exposures and detection of rabid dogs (Prabies was endemic in the CAR in 2012 and had a detrimental impact on human health as shown by the hundreds of exposed persons who received PEP. Implementation of effective public health interventions including mass dog vaccination and improvement of the surveillance and the access to PEP are urgently needed in this country.

  1. Using Geospatial Analysis and Emergency Claims Data to Improve Minority Health Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David C; Yi, Stella S; Athens, Jessica K; Vinson, Andrew J; Wall, Stephen P; Ravenell, Joseph E

    2017-08-08

    Traditional methods of health surveillance often under-represent racial and ethnic minorities. Our objective was to use geospatial analysis and emergency claims data to estimate local chronic disease prevalence separately for specific racial and ethnic groups. We also performed a regression analysis to identify associations between median household income and local disease prevalence among Black, Hispanic, Asian, and White adults in New York City. The study population included individuals who visited an emergency department at least once from 2009 to 2013. Our main outcomes were geospatial estimates of diabetes, hypertension, and asthma prevalence by Census tract as stratified by race and ethnicity. Using emergency claims data, we identified 4.9 million unique New York City adults with 28.5% of identifying as Black, 25.2% Hispanic, and 6.1% Asian. Age-adjusted disease prevalence was highest among Black and Hispanic adults for diabetes (13.4 and 13.1%), hypertension (28.7 and 24.1%), and asthma (9.9 and 10.1%). Correlation between disease prevalence maps demonstrated moderate overlap between Black and Hispanic adults for diabetes (0.49), hypertension (0.57), and asthma (0.58). In our regression analysis, we found that the association between low income and high disease prevalence was strongest for Hispanic adults, whereas increases in income had more modest reductions in disease prevalence for Black adults, especially for diabetes. Our geographically detailed maps of disease prevalence generate actionable evidence that can help direct health interventions to those communities with the highest health disparities. Using these novel geographic approaches, we reveal the underlying epidemiology of chronic disease for a racially and culturally diverse population.

  2. Surveillance of Canine Rabies in the Central African Republic: Impact on Human Health and Molecular Epidemiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney Tricou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although rabies represents an important public health threat, it is still a neglected disease in Asia and Africa where it causes tens of thousands of deaths annually despite available human and animal vaccines. In the Central African Republic (CAR, an endemic country for rabies, this disease remains poorly investigated.To evaluate the extent of the threat that rabies poses in the CAR, we analyzed data for 2012 from the National Reference Laboratory for Rabies, where laboratory confirmation was performed by immunofluorescence and PCR for both animal and human suspected cases, and data from the only anti-rabies dispensary of the country and only place where post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP is available. Both are located in Bangui, the capital of the CAR. For positive samples, a portion of the N gene was amplified and sequenced to determine the molecular epidemiology of circulating strains.In 2012, 966 exposed persons visited the anti-rabies dispensary and 632 received a post-exposure rabies vaccination. More than 90% of the exposed persons were from Bangui and its suburbs and almost 60% of them were under 15-years of age. No rabies-related human death was confirmed. Of the 82 samples from suspected rabid dogs tested, 69 were confirmed positive. Most of the rabid dogs were owned although unvaccinated. There was a strong spatiotemporal correlation within Bangui and within the country between reported human exposures and detection of rabid dogs (P<0.001. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that three variants belonging to Africa I and II lineages actively circulated in 2012.These data indicate that canine rabies was endemic in the CAR in 2012 and had a detrimental impact on human health as shown by the hundreds of exposed persons who received PEP. Implementation of effective public health interventions including mass dog vaccination and improvement of the surveillance and the access to PEP are urgently needed in this country.

  3. A mobile field-work data collection system for the wireless era of health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Forsell

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In many countries or regions the capacity of health care resources is below the needs of the population and new approaches for health surveillance are needed. Innovative projects, utilizing wireless communication technology, contribute to reliable methods for field-work data collection and reporting to databases. The objective was to describe a new version of a wireless IT-support system for field-work data collection and administration. The system requirements were drawn from the design objective and translated to system functions. The system architecture was based on field-work experiences and administrative requirements. The Smartphone devices were HTC Touch Diamond2s, while the system was based on a platform with Microsoft .NET components, and a SQL Server 2005 with Microsoft Windows Server 2003 operating system. The user interfaces were based on .NET programming, and Microsoft Windows Mobile operating system. A synchronization module enabled download of field data to the database, via a General Packet Radio Services (GPRS to a Local Area Network (LAN interface. The field-workers considered the here-described applications user-friendly and almost self-instructing. The office administrators considered that the back-office interface facilitated retrieval of health reports and invoice distribution. The current IT-support system facilitates short lead times from field-work data registration to analysis, and is suitable for various applications. The advantages of wireless technology, and paper-free data administration need to be increasingly emphasized in development programs, in order to facilitate reliable and transparent use of limited resources.

  4. Determination of a Quantitative Job Severity Score Value for Health Hazards in Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nayebzadeh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   There are numerous types of health hazards in every workplace which threaten the health and well-being of employees. Therefore, various types of engineering and  administrative control approaches have been developed in industry. Control of hazardous agents can be difficult in most conditions due to economical and technical limitations. However, certain types of administrative control methods can be implemented in these cases instead of engineering or process controls. Since creating a safe environment with zero chance of occupational exposures to hazardous agents is practically impossible, it can be expected that every employee may have a certain level of exposure to one or more of hazardous agents. The probability and extent of these  exposures will depend on job's demands or work environment's conditions. Under this condition,  a "job severity score" as a quantitative value can be determined in order to choose and employ the  best possible control methodology and also to create a long-term occupational health plan.   Methods   In this study, the main goal is to develop a questionnaire as a model for assessment of job severity and tasks harmfulness. This questionnaire has five sections in which there are numbers  of questions each with a specified quantitative score.  These scores have been identified according to the brainstorming among the some experienced  experts in the fields safety, occupational health, and industrial psychology. When the final  questionnaire was completed, two well-known industrial sectors were selected as pilot plants for final verification of questionnaire in order to obtain valid questions.    Results & Conclusion   The result of this study was providing a questionnaire which might be used in similar studies for determination of job severity level at any industrial plants.

  5. Occupational health hazards of hospital staff nurses. Part I: Overview and psychosocial stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triolo, P K

    1989-06-01

    1. In the health care environment, occupational stressors may be physical, chemical, biological, or psychosocial. 2. Psychosocial stressors include physical and mental overload, job insecurity, role ambiguity, a client population with anxiety or fear, and poorly designed work schedules. 3. Stress can be an occupational hazard because it arises from the environment, and may lead to accidents or injuries. 4. Psychosocial stressors will become increasingly important as the hospital environment demands more of nurses.

  6. Effectuality of Cleaning Workers' Training and Cleaning Enterprises' Chemical Health Hazard Risk Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulqadir M. Suleiman

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Training of cleaning workers lacks the prerequisite for suitability and effectiveness to counter risks of chemical health hazards. There is dereliction of duty by management in the sector resulting in a lack of competence among the cleaning workers. Instituting acceptable easily attainable safety competence level for cleaners will conduce to risk reduction, and enforcement of attainment of the competence level would be a positive step.

  7. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

  8. Initiating a participatory action research process in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wariri, Oghenebrume; D'Ambruoso, Lucia; Twine, Rhian; Ngobeni, Sizzy; van der Merwe, Maria; Spies, Barry; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Wagner, Ryan G; Byass, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Despite progressive health policy, disease burdens in South Africa remain patterned by deeply entrenched social inequalities. Accounting for the relationships between context, health and risk can provide important information for equitable service delivery. The aims of the research were to initiate a participatory research process with communities in a low income setting and produce evidence of practical relevance. We initiated a participatory action research (PAR) process in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site (HDSS) in rural north-east South Africa. Three village-based discussion groups were convened and consulted about conditions to examine, one of which was under-5 mortality. A series of discussions followed in which routine HDSS data were presented and participants' subjective perspectives were elicited and systematized into collective forms of knowledge using ranking, diagramming and participatory photography. The process concluded with a priority setting exercise. Visual and narrative data were thematically analyzed to complement the participants' analysis. A range of social and structural root causes of under-5 mortality were identified: poverty, unemployment, inadequate housing, unsafe environments and shortages of clean water. Despite these constraints, single mothers were often viewed as negligent. A series of mid-level contributory factors in clinics were also identified: overcrowding, poor staffing, delays in treatment and shortages of medications. In a similar sense, pronounced blame and negativity were directed toward clinic nurses in spite of the systems constraints identified. Actions to address these issues were prioritized as: expanding clinics, improving accountability and responsiveness of health workers, improving employment, providing clean water, and expanding community engagement for health promotion. We initiated a PAR process to gain local knowledge and prioritize actions. The process was acceptable to those

  9. Occupational Health Hazards in Sanitary Workers of Chandrapur City, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka V. Patil

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available About 198 sanitary workers work in Chandrapur Municipal Corporation, out of which 20 workers (10% of the population was selected as a sample size (all male workers. The study was carried out from November 2015 to January 2016. Occupational health hazards of these workers were analyzed through questionnaire survey and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR analysis. The results of the study showed that, these workers were exposed to a number of environmental and occupational hazards leading to musculoskeletal disorders (85%, exposure to harmful gases (65%, respiratory problems (45%, headache (40%, dermatological problem (35%, gastrointestinal (10% and leptospirosis (10% during work. It was further observed that the workers were suffering from cough and cold (90%, skin problems (50%, allergies (15%, malaria and typhoid (15%, bronchitis lung and asthmatic problems (10% and hearing disorder (5% etc. after completion of work. The PEFR values were lower in exposed workers. Reduction in PEFR values was directly proportional with exposure duration. To reduce occupational health hazards, workers must be made alert and aware of potential health risk arising from their work. Reduction in exposure and use of personal protective equipments such as face mask, gloves, gum boots, caps, apron etc. should be encouraged.International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-6, Issue-3, Jun-Aug 2017, page: 15-24

  10. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation on occupational health hazards of electric field in substation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Jing; Gao, Yang; Chen, Tao

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, multilevel fuzzy analysis method is used to making a comprehensive evaluation on the health hazards of workers exposed to electric field in 500kV substation. The five different regions of 500kV substation is identified as the first level index, according to the specific measurement substation of each area to set up the second level index. The first level weight is established according to the proportion of the retention time of the workers in the different areas, and the weight of the second level is determined according to the proportion of the measuring points. Establishing five comment sets, and carrying out the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation according to the maximum membership principle, eventually come to the conclusion: although the measured data show that a small number of electric field intensity exposure value of 500kV substation beyond the requirements of the International Commission on non-ionizing radiation protection (ICNIRP) and the requirements of the People's Republic of China(PRC), but workers have very little contact time, therefore, it cannot be explained that there is a large occupational health hazard in 500kV substation. The multilevel fuzzy analysis method can be used to evaluate the health hazards of the electric field in the substation working environment well, it avoids the subjective and limitations of the traditional methods, and can be able to make a more accurate and objective judgment of the substation

  11. Homeless women and hazardous drinking: screening results in a primary health care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshur, Carole C; Weinreb, Linda; Bharel, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Screening for alcohol use in primary care is underutilized, especially for women. The current study implemented systematic women's alcohol use screening in a health care for the homeless primary care program. All women (n=541) seeking care over 12 months were screened. Of the 541 screening forms returned, 80 women refused to answer the alcohol use questions. Of 461 completed screens, over 40% reported no alcohol use, while 43.8% reported hazardous drinking. Hazardous drinking was significantly associated with younger age, African American race, and living on the street or in a shelter. High rates of drinking were identified among women in different housing situations and use of systematic screening was beneficial to providers. Health care settings are important sites to identify hazardous drinking as well as alcohol disorders among women with unstable housing histories. The growing integration of behavioral health care into primary care, and the medical home concept, both provide opportunities for brief interventions for at-risk drinkers, as well as treatment options for those with alcohol use disorders that may be particularly appealing to women. Findings support further investigation of the relationship of housing stability to drinking, and suggest African American women may need special attention. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  12. Programme of air surveillance and health 9 towns. Synthesis review. Surveillance of effects on the health in relation with air pollution in urban area. Phase 2; Programme de surveillance Air et Sante 9 villes. Revue de synthese. Surveillance des effets sur la sante lies a la pollution atmospherique en milieu urbain. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-15

    The InVS published its first results on the Nine-City Air and Health Surveillance Programme (PSAS-9) in March 1999. This phase I pointed out that it was possible for various specialists in the field of air pollution and health to gather around a common set of problems. They also found a link between the daily variations of all the urban air pollution indicators and the total, cardio-vascular and respiratory mortality which, based on French data, contributed to strengthen scientific knowledge in this field. Today's report presents the results of phase Il of the PSAS-9 programme which essentially aimed at assessing the short-term exposure-risk relationships between pollution indicators and hospital admission indicators. This second phase also allowed to confirm the results of phase I on the short-term effect of air pollution on mortality thanks to longer periods of study. Exploratory analysis using new indicators and sensitivity analysis on the pertinence of results were also conducted. Finally, methodological tools were developed in order to optimise data collection and statistical modelization. All these results enabled the quantification of the short-term health impact of air pollution on the PSAS-9 cities. PSAS-9 is now an ongoing epidemiological surveillance programme on the effects of urban air pollution on health, providing information tools to decision-makers and the general population. (author)

  13. Programme of air surveillance Air and Health 9 towns. Surveillance of effects on health in relation with air pollution in urban area. Phase 2; Programme de surveillance Air et Sante 9 villes. Surveillance des effets sur la sante lies a la pollution atmospherique en milieu urbain. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-15

    The InVS published its first results on the Nine-City Air and Health Surveillance Programme (PSAS-9) in March 1999. This phase I pointed out that it was possible for various specialists in the field of air pollution and health to gather around a common set of problems. They also found a link between the daily variations of all the urban air pollution indicators and the total, cardio-vascular and respiratory mortality which, based on French data, contributed to strengthen scientific knowledge in this field. Today's report presents the results of phase Il of the PSAS-9 programme which essentially aimed at assessing the short-term exposure-risk relationships between pollution indicators and hospital admission indicators. This second phase also allowed to confirm the results of phase I on the short-term effect of air pollution on mortality thanks to longer periods of study. Exploratory analysis using new indicators and sensitivity analysis on the pertinence of results were also conducted. Finally, methodological tools were developed in order to optimise data collection and statistical modelization. All these results enabled the quantification of the short-term health impact of air pollution on the PSAS-9 cities. PSAS-9 is now an ongoing epidemiological surveillance programme on the effects of urban air pollution on health, providing information tools to decision-makers and the general population. (author)

  14. Promoting health-enhancing physical activity in Europe: Current state of surveillance, policy development and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, João; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Rathmes, Giulia; Mendes, Romeu; Fontaine, Olivier; Hollmann, Susanne; Rütten, Alfred; Gelius, Peter; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Galea, Gauden

    2018-02-03

    This study aims to present information on the surveillance, policy developments, and implementation of physical activity policies in the 28 European Union (EU) countries. Data was collected on the implementation of the EU Recommendation on health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) across sectors. In line with the monitoring framework proposed in the Recommendation, a questionnaire was designed to capture information on 23 physical activity indicators. Of the 27 EU countries that responded to the survey, 22 have implemented actions on more than 10 indicators, four countries have implemented more than 20 indicators, and one country has fully addressed and implemented all of the 23 indicators of the monitoring framework. The data collected under this HEPA monitoring framework provided, for the first time, an overview of the implementation of HEPA-related policies and actions at the national level throughout the EU. Areas that need more investment are the "Senior Citizens" sector followed by the "Work Environment", and the "Environment, Urban Planning, and Public Safety" sectors. This information also enabled comparison of the state of play of HEPA policy implementation between EU Member States and facilitated the exchange of good practices. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE FOR PAPILLARY THYROID MICROCARCINOMA: NEW CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haser, Grace C.; Tuttle, R. Michael; Su, Henry K.; Alon, Eran E.; Bergman, Donald; Bernet, Victor; Brett, Elise; Cobin, Rhoda; Dewey, Eliza H.; Doherty, Gerard; Dos Reis, Laura L.; Harris, Jeffrey; Klopper, Joshua; Lee, Stephanie L.; Levine, Robert A.; Lepore, Stephen J.; Likhterov, Ilya; Lupo, Mark A.; Machac, Josef; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.; Mehra, Saral; Milas, Mira; Orloff, Lisa A.; Randolph, Gregory; Revenson, Tracey A.; Roberts, Katherine J.; Ross, Douglas S.; Rowe, Meghan E.; Smallridge, Robert C.; Terris, David; Tufano, Ralph P.; Urken, Mark L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The dramatic increase in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is primarily a result of early diagnosis of small cancers. Active surveillance is a promising management strategy for papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs). However, as this management strategy gains traction in the U.S., it is imperative that patients and clinicians be properly educated, patients be followed for life, and appropriate tools be identified to implement the strategy. Methods We review previous active surveillance studies and the parameters used to identify patients who are good candidates for active surveillance. We also review some of the challenges to implementing active surveillance protocols in the U.S. and discuss how these might be addressed. Results Trials of active surveillance support nonsurgical management as a viable and safe management strategy. However, numerous challenges exist, including the need for adherence to protocols, education of patients and physicians, and awareness of the impact of this strategy on patient psychology and quality of life. The Thyroid Cancer Care Collaborative (TCCC) is a portable record keeping system that can manage a mobile patient population undergoing active surveillance. Conclusion With proper patient selection, organization, and patient support, active surveillance has the potential to be a long-term management strategy for select patients with PTMC. In order to address the challenges and opportunities for this approach to be successfully implemented in the U.S., it will be necessary to consider psychological and quality of life, cultural differences, and the patient’s clinical status. PMID:26799628

  16. Assessing the population coverage of a health demographic surveillance system using satellite imagery and crowd-sourcing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Di Pasquale

    Full Text Available Remotely sensed data can serve as an independent source of information about the location of residential structures in areas under demographic and health surveillance. We report on results obtained combining satellite imagery, imported from Bing, with location data routinely collected using the built-in GPS sensors of tablet computers, to assess completeness of population coverage in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Malawi. The Majete Malaria Project Health and Demographic Surveillance System, in Malawi, started in 2014 to support a project with the aim of studying the reduction of malaria using an integrated control approach by rolling out insecticide treated nets and improved case management supplemented with house improvement and larval source management. In order to support the monitoring of the trial a Health and Demographic Surveillance System was established in the area that surrounds the Majete Wildlife Reserve (1600 km2, using the OpenHDS data system. We compared house locations obtained using GPS recordings on mobile devices during the demographic surveillance census round with those acquired from satellite imagery. Volunteers were recruited through the crowdcrafting.org platform to identify building structures on the images, which enabled the compilation of a database with coordinates of potential residences. For every building identified on these satellite images by the volunteers (11,046 buildings identified of which 3424 (ca. 30% were part of the censused area, we calculated the distance to the nearest house enumerated on the ground by fieldworkers during the census round of the HDSS. A random sample of buildings (85 structures identified on satellite images without a nearby location enrolled in the census were visited by a fieldworker to determine how many were missed during the baseline census survey, if any were missed. The findings from this ground-truthing effort suggest that a high population coverage was

  17. Assessing the population coverage of a health demographic surveillance system using satellite imagery and crowd-sourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Aurelio; McCann, Robert S; Maire, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Remotely sensed data can serve as an independent source of information about the location of residential structures in areas under demographic and health surveillance. We report on results obtained combining satellite imagery, imported from Bing, with location data routinely collected using the built-in GPS sensors of tablet computers, to assess completeness of population coverage in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Malawi. The Majete Malaria Project Health and Demographic Surveillance System, in Malawi, started in 2014 to support a project with the aim of studying the reduction of malaria using an integrated control approach by rolling out insecticide treated nets and improved case management supplemented with house improvement and larval source management. In order to support the monitoring of the trial a Health and Demographic Surveillance System was established in the area that surrounds the Majete Wildlife Reserve (1600 km2), using the OpenHDS data system. We compared house locations obtained using GPS recordings on mobile devices during the demographic surveillance census round with those acquired from satellite imagery. Volunteers were recruited through the crowdcrafting.org platform to identify building structures on the images, which enabled the compilation of a database with coordinates of potential residences. For every building identified on these satellite images by the volunteers (11,046 buildings identified of which 3424 (ca. 30%) were part of the censused area), we calculated the distance to the nearest house enumerated on the ground by fieldworkers during the census round of the HDSS. A random sample of buildings (85 structures) identified on satellite images without a nearby location enrolled in the census were visited by a fieldworker to determine how many were missed during the baseline census survey, if any were missed. The findings from this ground-truthing effort suggest that a high population coverage was achieved in the

  18. Device and method for reducing spread of microorganisms and airborne health hazardous matter and/or for protection from microorganisms and airborne health hazardous matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    /patient by aspirating the person's/patient's exhalation air into the filtration/ventilation unit. To construct an at least partly isolated area around the patient, filtered air can be directed e.g. vertically out of the filtration/ventilation unit to perform an air curtain. Use of the filtration/ventilation unit......Source: US2012199003A Disclosed is an air distribution control unit or a filtration/ventilation unit which is portable and/or can be mounted on or integrated in furniture e.g. as a cabinet of at the head region of a bed. The filtration/ventilation unit cleanses air from a person...... reduces the risk of dissipation of air-borne diseases and health hazardous matter, and reduces the amount of air to ventilate a room with patients....

  19. Clustering of under-five mortality in Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Shabani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Less than 5 years remain before the 2015 mark when countries will be evaluated on their achievements for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. The MDG 4 and 6 call for a reduction of child mortality by two-thirds and combating malaria, HIV/AIDS, TB, and other diseases, respectively. To accelerate the achievement of these goals, focused allocation of resources and high deployment of cost-effective interventions is paramount. The knowledge of spatial and temporal distribution of diseases is important for health authorities to prioritize and allocate resources. Methods: To identify possible significant clusters, we used SatTScan software, and analyzed 2,745 cases of under-five with 134,099 person-years for the period between 1999and 2008. Mortality rates for every year were calculated, likewise a spatial scan statistic was used to test for clusters of total under-five mortalities in both space and time. Results: A number of significant clusters from space, time, and space–time analysis were identified in several locations for a period of 10 years in the Rufiji Demographic Surveillance Site (RDSS. These locations show that villages within the clusters have an elevated risk of under-five deaths. The spatial analysis identified three significant clusters. The first cluster had only one village, Kibiti A (p<0.05, the second cluster involved five villages (Mtawanya, Pagae, Kibiti A, Machepe, and Kibiti B; p<0.05, the third cluster involved one village, Jaribu Mpakani (p<0.05. A space–time cluster of 10 villages for the period between 1999 and 2002 with a radius of 14.73 km was discovered with the highest risk (RR 1.6, p<0.001. The mortality rates were very high for the years 1999–2002 according to the analysis. The death rates were 33.5, 26.4, 24.1, and 24.9, respectively. Total childhood mortality rates calculated for the period of 10 years were 21.0 per 1,000 person-years. Conclusion: During the 10 years of analysis, mortality

  20. Occupational hazards and health cost of women cotton pickers in Pakistani Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhsh, Khuda; Ahmad, Naeem; Kamran, M Asif; Hassan, Sarfraz; Abbas, Qasir; Saeed, Rashed; Hashmi, M Sadiq

    2016-09-13

    Farm workers and female cotton pickers are exposed to residual impacts of pesticide use in cotton production, in addition to dust, ultraviolet radiation, etc. Cotton picking causes various health hazards among cotton pickers with varied health cost. A soil bacterium known as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is incorporated in cotton seed through genetic modification and it has resistance against certain bollworms of cotton. So it is considered that Bt cotton fields have less pesticide exposure compared to non-Bt cotton fields. This study was designed to examine and compare the impacts and health cost of cotton picking among female cotton pickers working in Bt and non-Bt cotton fields. The study used the data collected from Vehari district of Pakistani Punjab. Health hazards and associated health cost of the respondents involved in Bt cotton picking were compared with those who harvested non-Bt cotton. Comparative use of the personal protective measures among those respondents was also examined. Health cost function and its determinants were analyzed using ordinary least square method. Findings of the study showed that 61 % cotton pickers from Bt cotton households reported one or more health effects of pesticide during picking season whereas this percentage for non-Bt cotton households was 66 %. Health impacts included skin problems, headache, cough, flu/fever, eye irritation and sleeplessness, however, percentage of these health impacts was comparatively higher among non-Bt cotton households. Health cost from exposure to pesticide use in cotton was US$ 5.74 and 2.91 per season for non-Bt cotton and Bt cotton households, respectively. Education, picking in Bt cotton fields and preventive measures were significantly related with health cost. Cotton pickers working in Bt cotton fields are found to have less occupational health hazards compared to those working in non-Bt cotton fields. Thus generating awareness among cotton pickers for adopting precautionary measures

  1. Harnessing Syndromic Surveillance Emergency Department Data to Monitor Health Impacts During the 2015 Special Olympics World Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajita, Emily; Luarca, Monica Z; Wu, Han; Hwang, Bessie; Mascola, Laurene

    Mass gatherings that attract a large international presence may cause or amplify point-source outbreaks of emerging infectious disease. The Los Angeles County Department of Public Health customized its syndromic surveillance system to detect increased syndrome-specific utilization of emergency departments (EDs) and other medical encounters coincident to the 2015 Special Olympics World Games. We queried live databases containing data on ED visits, California Poison Control System calls, and Los Angeles County coroner-investigated deaths for increases in daily counts from July 19 to August 6, 2015. We chose syndrome categories based on the potential for disease outbreaks common to international travel and dormitory settings, morbidity amplified by high temperatures, and bioterrorism threats inherent to mass gatherings. We performed line-list reviews and trend analyses of total, syndrome-specific, and region-specific daily counts, using cumulative sum-based signals. We also piloted a novel strategy of requesting that ED registrars proactively tag Special Olympics attendees in chief complaint data fields. The syndromic surveillance system showed that the 2015 Special Olympics did not generate large-scale acute morbidities leading to detectable stress on local EDs. We recruited 10 hospitals for proactive patient tagging, from which 16 Special Olympics attendees were detected; these patients reported various symptoms, such as injury, vomiting, and syncope. As an enhancement to traditional syndromic surveillance, proactive patient tagging can illuminate potential epidemiologic links among patients in challenging syndromic surveillance applications, such as mass gatherings. Syndromic surveillance has the potential to enhance ED patient polling and reporting of exposure, symptom, and other epidemiologic case definition criteria to public health agencies in near-real time.

  2. Prevalence of disability and associated factors in Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chala, Mulugeta Bayisa; Mekonnen, Solomon; Andargie, Gashaw; Kebede, Yigzaw; Yitayal, Mezgebu; Alemu, Kassahun; Awoke, Tadesse; Wubeshet, Mamo; Azmeraw, Temesgen; Birku, Melkamu; Tariku, Amare; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Shimeka, Alemayehu; Gizaw, Zemichael

    2017-10-02

    Despite the high burden of disability in Ethiopia, little is known about it, particularly in the study area. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with disability at Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, northwest Ethiopia. A population-based study was conducted from October to December 2014 at Dabat HDSS site. A total of 67,395 people were included in the study. The multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with disability. The Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was estimated to show the strength of association. A p-value of disability giving a prevalence rate of 1.82%, of which, about 39% was related to a vision disability. The high odds of disability were observed among the elderly (≥50 years) [AOR: 4.49; 95% CI: 1.95, 10.33], severely food in-secured [AOR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.59, 2.80], and separated marital status [AOR: 7.52; 95% CI: 1.18, 47.84]. While having a paid job [AOR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.77], being in the richest quintile [AOR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.75], and high engagement in work-related physical activities [AOR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.49] were inversely associated with the disability. Disability is a major public health problem, and the burden is noticeable in the study area. Vision disability is the highest of all disabilities. Thus, efforts must be made on educating the public about disability and injury prevention. Measures that reduce disability should target the elderly, the poorer and the unemployed segment of the population.

  3. Migration, settlement change and health in post-apartheid South Africa: triangulating health and demographic surveillance with national census data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Mark A; Tollman, Stephen M; Kahn, Kathleen

    2007-08-01

    World population growth will be increasingly concentrated in the urban areas of the developing world; however, some scholars caution against the oversimplification of African urbanization noting that there may be "counter-urbanization" and a prevailing pattern of circular rural-urban migration. The aim of the paper is to examine the ongoing urban transition in South Africa in the post-apartheid period, and to consider the health and social policy implications of prevailing migration patterns. Two data sets were analysed, namely the South African national census of 2001 and the Agincourt health and demographic surveillance system. A settlement-type transition matrix was constructed on the national data to show how patterns of settlement have changed in a five-year period. Using the sub-district data, permanent and temporary migration was characterized, providing migration rates by age and sex, and showing the distribution of origins and destinations. The comparison of national and sub-district data highlight the following features: urban population growth, particularly in metropolitan areas, resulting from permanent and temporary migration; prevailing patterns of temporary, circular migration, and a changing gender balance in this form of migration; stepwise urbanization; and return migration from urban to rural areas. Policy concerns include: rural poverty exacerbated by labour migration; explosive conditions for the transmission of HIV; labour migrants returning to die in rural areas; and the challenges for health information created by chronically ill migrants returning to rural areas to convalesce. Lastly, suggestions are made on how to address the dearth of relevant population information for policy-making in the fields of migration, settlement change and health.

  4. Participatory Research Revealing the Work and Occupational Health Hazards of Cooperative Recyclers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M. N. Felipone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.

  5. Participatory Research Revealing the Work and Occupational Health Hazards of Cooperative Recyclers in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutberlet, Jutta; Baeder, Angela M.; Pontuschka, Nídia N.; Felipone, Sonia M. N.; dos Santos, Tereza L. F.

    2013-01-01

    Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives. PMID:24084672

  6. Participatory research revealing the work and occupational health hazards of cooperative recyclers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutberlet, Jutta; Baeder, Angela M; Pontuschka, Nídia N; Felipone, Sonia M N; Dos Santos, Tereza L F

    2013-09-27

    Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.

  7. [Risk factors in police activities: operational criticism in surveillance programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprani, Fabrizio; Moroni, Maria; Conte, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The planning of specific health surveillance programs for police officers is extremely complex due to difficulty in predictability and variety of occupational hazards. Even in the case of conventional occupational risk factors clearly identified by current regulations, particular working conditions may require specific assessment to effectively identify and quantify the risk of occupational exposure. An extensive program of health surveillance, aimed at promoting overall health and effectiveness of the operators, would be really desirable, in order to help better address a number of risks that cannot be easily predicted. The progressive increase in the average age of the working population and the increasing prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases, may also suggest the need for health surveillance procedures designed to verify continued unqualified suitability to police service, providing for the identification of diversified suitability profiles in relation to age and state of health: accordingly, in regard to our field of interest, there is a close link between medico-legal eligibility and occupational medicine.

  8. WWOSC 2014: Research Needs for Better Health Resilience to Weather Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Jancloes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The first World Weather Open Science Conference (WWOSC, held from 17–21 August 2014 in Montreal, Québec, provided an open forum where the experience and perspective of a variety of weather information providers and users was combined with the latest application advances in social sciences. A special session devoted to health focused on how best the most recent weather information and communication technologies (ICT could improve the health emergency responses to disasters resulting from natural hazards. Speakers from a plenary presentation and its corresponding panel shared lessons learnt from different international multidisciplinary initiatives against weather-related epidemics, such as malaria, leptospirosis and meningitis and from public health responses to floods and heat waves such as in Ontario and Quebec, Canada. Participants could bear witness to recent progress made in the use of forecasting tools and in the application of increased spatiotemporal resolutions in the management of weather related health risks through anticipative interventions, early alert and warning and early responses especially by vulnerable groups. There was an agreement that resilience to weather hazards is best developed based on evidence of their health impact and when, at local level, there is a close interaction between health care providers, epidemiologists, climate services, public health authorities and communities. Using near real time health data (such as hospital admission, disease incidence monitoring… combined with weather information has been recommended to appraise the relevance of decisions and the effectiveness of interventions and to make adjustments when needed. It also helps appraising how people may be more or less vulnerable to a particular hazard depending on the resilience infrastructures and services. This session was mainly attended by climate, environment and social scientists from North American and European countries. Producing a

  9. Assessing the impact of hazardous waste on children's health: The exposome paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, D A

    2017-10-01

    Assessment of the health impacts related to hazardous waste is a major scientific challenge with multiple societal implications. Most studies related to associations between hazardous waste and public health do not provide established of mechanistic links between environmental exposure and disease burden, resulting in ineffective waste management options. The exposome concept comes to overhaul the nature vs. nurture paradigm and embraces a world of dynamic interactions between environmental exposures, endogenous exposures and genetic expression in humans. In this context, the exposome paradigm provides a novel tool for holistic hazardous waste management. Waste streams and the related contamination of environmental media are not viewed in isolation, but rather as components of the expotype, the vector of exposures an individual is exposed to over time. Thus, a multi-route and multi-pathway exposure estimation can be performed setting a realistic basis for integrated health risk assessment. Waste management practices are thus assessed not only regarding their technological edge and efficacy but also their effects on human health at the individual and community level, considering intra-subject variability in the affected population. The effectiveness of the exposome approach is demonstrated in the case of Athens, the capital of Greece, where the health effects associated to long term and short term exposure to two major waste management facilities (landfill and plastic recycling) are presented. Using the exposome analysis tools, we confirmed that proximity to a landfill is critical for children neurodevelopment. However, this effect is significantly modified by parameters such as parental education level, socioeconomic status and nutrition. Proximity to a plastics recycling plant does not pose significant threats under normal operating conditions; yet, in the case of an accidental fire, release of persistent carcinogenic compounds (dioxins and furans) even for a

  10. Surveillance for injuries and illnesses and rapid health-needs assessment following Hurricanes Marilyn and Opal, September-October 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-02

    Hurricanes rated a category three or greater (on a scale of one to five) strike the United States or its territories approximately once every 1.5 years (1). In 1995, both a category two and category three hurricane struck the United States within 18 days, causing approximately 40 deaths (2). This report summarizes the surveillance for injuries and illnesses and a rapid health-needs assessment conducted after the storms.

  11. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA-87-281-1854, Litteken Dental Clinic, Ardmore, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter, B.J.

    1987-12-01

    An investigation was made of possible hazardous exposures to mercury and nitrous oxide at a dental clinic. Air samples were taken while the dentist and assistants used mercury amalgams. Nitrous-oxide was in use for over three hours. The air-sampling results revealed a range of nitrous-oxide concentrations in the room air from 30 to 220 parts per million (ppm). Mercury concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 0.009ppm, well below the evaluation criteria of 0.05ppm. The author concludes that a health hazard from excessive exposures to nitrous oxide exists, but mercury levels pose no health hazard in the clinic. The author recommends that the ventilation system should be adjusted each time nitrous oxide is going to be used. Routine maintenance checks should be performed on all anesthetic and suction equipment. The installation of a large fan on the roof of the building is suggested. Patients, particularly children, should be watched so that they do not play with the face mask during the administration of nitrous oxide.

  12. Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    seemingly inflated IRs early in the calendar year. Seasonal rates and variability cannot be corroborated by the literature, which has yet to determine a...outpatient urinary E. coli isolates from The Surveillance Network (TSN) Database USA during 2010 found 17% met the MDR definition, demonstrating...Inpatient Data Record TSN The Surveillance Network (TSN) Database USA US United States UTI urinary tract infection XDR extensively drug-resistant

  13. [Surveillance on pesticides: quantification of use and prediction of impact on health, work and the environment for Brazilian municipalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignati, Wanderlei; Oliveira, Noemi Pereira; da Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido

    2014-12-01

    This paper analyzes the quantity, type and toxicity of pesticides used per hectare in the State of Mato Grosso as a surveillance strategy for the health of workers, the population in general and the environment, and to serve as a surveillance indicator for Brazilian cities. Brazil cultivated 95 million hectares in 2012, and Mato Grosso was the major consumer of pesticides. In this research, the database of the Agriculture and Livestock Defense Institute was consulted, as it records the prescribed agronomic data and place of use in sales invoices. The results reveal the average consumption of pesticides per hectare per crop: 12 liters for soy; 6 liters for corn; 4.8 liters for sugarcane; and 24 liters for cotton. The toxicological types and classes of pesticides used per hectare per crop were also monitored. Using a matrix of agricultural production and pesticide consumption, it was also found that certain health problems are correlated with the major producing regions. Based on pesticide consumption, agricultural production and pesticide toxicity it is possible to ascertain health problems in Brazilian cities and establish prevention and surveillance strategies for the workers, the environment and the populations exposed to pesticides.

  14. [Health hazards of energy drinks--the situation in Israel and the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Bennidor; Zaidani, Haitam; Israelit, Shlomo Hanan

    2014-01-01

    Since 1987, with the introduction of the first commercial energy drink in Europe, the level of sale of these drinks increased rapidly throughout the western world. These drinks are based on caffeine that is found in them ndependently, and in other ingredients. Other ingredients in these drinks potentiate the effects of caffeine. Caffeine acts in the organism through inhibition and activation of various receptors, and thus affects almost all the body systems. There is an increasing body of evidence about the medical hazards of uncontrolled use of these drinks, with neurologic, psychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic complications. There is a direct link between use of energy drinks and abuse of alcohol and drugs. Due to the above, health authorities in Israel and around the world have started addressing the regulatory, medical and informative aspects of the issue. In spite all of the above, there is lack of awareness of the public and medical teams about the hazards of cousuming these drinks.

  15. Development of a web-based epidemiological surveillance system with health system response for improving maternal and newborn health: Field-testing in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Prappre, Tagoon; Pairot, Pakamas; Oumudee, Nurlisa; Islam, Monir

    2017-06-01

    Surveillance systems are yet to be integrated with health information systems for improving the health of pregnant mothers and their newborns, particularly in developing countries. This study aimed to develop a web-based epidemiological surveillance system for maternal and newborn health with integration of action-oriented responses and automatic data analysis with results presentations and to assess the system acceptance by nurses and doctors involved in various hospitals in southern Thailand. Freeware software and scripting languages were used. The system can be run on different platforms, and it is accessible via various electronic devices. Automatic data analysis with results presentations in the forms of graphs, tables and maps was part of the system. A multi-level security system was incorporated into the program. Most doctors and nurses involved in the study felt the system was easy to use and useful. This system can be integrated into country routine reporting system for monitoring maternal and newborn health and survival.

  16. CalEnviroScreen 1.0 (CES) Group, California, 2013, California EPA and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Developed jointly by the Agency and the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), the tool uses data about 11 types of pollution and environmental...

  17. State synergies and disease surveillance: creating an electronic health data communication model for cancer reporting and comparative effectiveness research in kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, Christopher; Powell, Mallory; Edwards, Rob

    2014-01-01

    This case study describes the collaboration between a state public health