Balgooy, van M.M.J.
With the publication of the second volume of the series ‘Malesian Seed Plants’, entitled ‘Portraits of Tree Families’, I would like to refer to the Introduction of the first volume, ‘Spot-characters’ for a historical background and an explanation of the aims of this series. The present book treats
Balgooy, van M.M.J.
This is the third and final volume of the series ‘Malesian Seed Plants’. It contains the ‘portraits’ of 124 non-tree families, i.e. families which are mainly herbaceous, climbing, shrubby, or trees with a stem diameter at breast height of less than 10 cm or a height of less than 10 m. Users of the
The Child and Family Refugee Service at the Tavistock Centre in London has run a series of 'Tree of Life' groups for both parents and children in schools. The groups were developed in response to a concern about the majority of psychological treatments, which focus predominantly on vulnerability factors in refugee populations, and the effect that this can have on those they are attempting to help. In addition, these are modelled on western assumptions, which do not adequately take account of culture. The Tree of Life groups have provided an alternative to traditional mental health services, which many refugee families find hard to access because of perceived stigma and lack of knowledge about what is on offer. The groups employed a strength-based narrative methodology, using the tree as a creative metaphor, which enabled parents and children to develop empowering stories about their lives, which were rooted in their cultural and social histories. From this secure base, participants were able to develop shared, culturally congruent solutions to their problems. The groups have been found to benefit parents and children alike, as well as the school communities in which they have taken place.
Elton S SIQUEIRA
Full Text Available Family tree is an efficient data structure to store the kinship information in a family. There are basically two kinds of trees: Western Family Tree (WFT and Oriental Family Tree such as Chinese Family Tree (CFT. To get an insight of their efficiency in the context of family kinship presentation and information extraction, in this paper we develop WFT and CFT presentation models and search algorithms, comparing their search performance and inherent mechanism. The study reveals that the computational cost is higher in CFT model, but it provides a greater gain in information retrieval and produces more details of the kinship between individuals in the family.
Li, Heng; Coghlan, Avril; Ruan, Jue
TreeFam is a database of phylogenetic trees of gene families found in animals. It aims to develop a curated resource that presents the accurate evolutionary history of all animal gene families, as well as reliable ortholog and paralog assignments. Curated families are being added progressively......, based on seed alignments and trees in a similar fashion to Pfam. Release 1.1 of TreeFam contains curated trees for 690 families and automatically generated trees for another 11 646 families. These represent over 128 000 genes from nine fully sequenced animal genomes and over 45 000 other animal proteins...
Geoffrey Donovan; Marie. Oliver
Humans have intuitively understood the value of trees to their physical and mental health since the beginning of recorded time. A scientist with the Pacific Northwest Research Station wondered if such a link could be scientifically validated. His research team took advantage of an infestation of emerald ash borer, an invasive pest that kills ash trees, to conduct a...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000947.htm Creating a family health history To use the sharing ... Many health problems tend to run in families. Creating a family history can help you and your ...
... are missing. If you're adopted, ask your adoptive parents if they received any medical information about your biological parents at the time of your adoption. Adoption agencies also might have family medical information on file. If you were adopted ...
Nielsen, Peter V.
In this paper all total volume air distribution principles are addressed based on discussions of air flow pattern in a room with heat sources giving a cooling load. The supply and exhaust air openings are considered to have different locations and sizes in the room, and it is possible to show tha...... conditions which are not used for air distribution in general. A number of experiments with different air distribution systems are addressed, and they illustrate the behaviour at the different conditions discussed in the paper....... that all the known types of air distribution systems are interconnected in a “family tree”. The influence of supplied momentum flow versus buoyancy forces is discussed, and geometries for high ventilation effectiveness are indicated as well as geometries for fully mixed flow. The paper will also show......In this paper all total volume air distribution principles are addressed based on discussions of air flow pattern in a room with heat sources giving a cooling load. The supply and exhaust air openings are considered to have different locations and sizes in the room, and it is possible to show...
Donovan Casas Patiño
Full Text Available In Mexico, the arrangement of clinical practice has been influenced by a decision-making process that seeks to improve health indicators, thus transforming the patient into a number. Family medicine has been practiced within the limits of an institutional biomedical model where the health-disease process is approached from a biologist perspective. On the other hand, collective health understands this process as stemming from the collective sphere and includes social and biological perspectives, giving an important standing to society. Likewise, it puts policy as a determinant in bettering social health bringing together public policy with health matters. Family medicine must become the axis around which health needs are catered to, together with social conditioning factors that affect families and individuals. This leads to a trans-disciplinary approach to communities set free from a mere biomedical profile. In this context, collective health provides theoretical support to the upcoming debate on family medicine.
Full Text Available Tree specimens from the ESAL herbarium of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were describedby vegetative characteristics using CARipé, a Microsoft Access database application specially developed for this study. Only onespecimen per species was usually described. Thus, 2 observers described 567 herbarium species as a base to test methods ofidentification as part of a larger study. The present work formed part of that study and provides information on the distribution of22 vegetative characters among 16 families having 10 or more species described. The characters are discussed. The study foundmarked differences, even discontinuities, of distributions of characters between those families. Therefore it should be possible toincorporate phylogenetic relationships into the identification process.
Navarro, Cristobal A.; Canfora, Fabrizio; Hitschfeld, Nancy; Navarro, Gonzalo
The computational cost of transfer matrix methods for the Potts model is related to the question in how many ways can two layers of a lattice be connected? Answering the question leads to the generation of a combinatorial set of lattice configurations. This set defines the configuration space of the problem, and the smaller it is, the faster the transfer matrix can be computed. The configuration space of generic (q , v) transfer matrix methods for strips is in the order of the Catalan numbers, which grows asymptotically as O(4m) where m is the width of the strip. Other transfer matrix methods with a smaller configuration space indeed exist but they make assumptions on the temperature, number of spin states, or restrict the structure of the lattice. In this paper we propose a parallel algorithm that uses a sub-Catalan configuration space of O(3m) to build the generic (q , v) transfer matrix in a compressed form. The improvement is achieved by grouping the original set of Catalan configurations into a forest of family trees, in such a way that the solution to the problem is now computed by solving the root node of each family. As a result, the algorithm becomes exponentially faster than the Catalan approach while still highly parallel. The resulting matrix is stored in a compressed form using O(3m ×4m) of space, making numerical evaluation and decompression to be faster than evaluating the matrix in its O(4m ×4m) uncompressed form. Experimental results for different sizes of strip lattices show that the parallel family trees (PFT) strategy indeed runs exponentially faster than the Catalan Parallel Method (CPM), especially when dealing with dense transfer matrices. In terms of parallel performance, we report strong-scaling speedups of up to 5.7 × when running on an 8-core shared memory machine and 28 × for a 32-core cluster. The best balance of speedup and efficiency for the multi-core machine was achieved when using p = 4 processors, while for the cluster
Damghi, Nada; Khoudri, Ibtissam; Oualili, Latifa; Abidi, Khalid; Madani, Naoufel; Zeggwagh, Amine Ali; Abouqal, Redouane
Meeting the needs of patients' family members becomes an essential part of responsibilities of intensive care unit physicians. The aim of this study was to evaluate the satisfaction of patients' family members using the Arabic version of the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Family Needs Assessment questionnaire and to assess the predictors of family satisfaction using the classification and regression tree method. The authors conducted a prospective study. This study was conducted at a 12-bed medical intensive care unit in Morocco. Family representatives (n = 194) of consecutive patients with a length of stay >48 hrs were included in the study. Intervention was the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Family Needs Assessment questionnaire. Demographic data for relatives included age, gender, relationship with patients, education level, and intensive care unit commuting time. Clinical data for patients included age, gender, diagnoses, intensive care unit length of stay, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, MacCabe index, Therapeutic Interventioning Scoring System, and mechanical ventilation. The Arabic version of the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Family Needs Assessment questionnaire was administered between the third and fifth days after admission. Of family representatives, 81% declared being satisfied with information provided by physicians, 27% would like more information about the diagnosis, 30% about prognosis, and 45% about treatment. In univariate analysis, family satisfaction (small Society of Critical Care Medicine's Family Needs Assessment questionnaire score) increased with a lower family education level (p = .005), when the information was given by a senior physician (p = .014), and when the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Family Needs Assessment questionnaire was administered by an investigator (p = .002). Multivariate analysis (classification and regression tree) showed that the education level was the predominant factor
David J. Nowak
Overall, city trees reduce particulate matter and provide substantial health benefits; but under certain conditions, they can locally increase particulate matter concentrations. Urban foresters need to understand how trees affect particulate matter so they can select proper species and create appropriate designs to improve air quality. This article details trees'...
... Source Code The Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative To help focus attention on the importance of ... health campaign, called the Surgeon General's Family History Initiative, to encourage all American families to learn more ...
Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; DeLisi, Matt; Qian, Zhengmin
Multiple avenues of research (e.g., criminal careers, intergenerational family transmission, and epidemiological studies) have indicated a concentration of antisocial traits and behaviors that cluster among families and within individuals in a population. The current study draws on each of these perspectives in exploring the intergenerational contours of antisocial personality disorder across multiple generations of a large-scale epidemiological sample. The analytic sample of persons meeting criteria for antisocial personality disorder (N = 1,226) was derived from waves I and II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Path analytic, latent class, and multinomial models were executed to describe and elucidate family histories among persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. Three classes of an antisocial family tree were found: minimal family history of problem behaviors (70.3 % of sample) who were characterized by higher socioeconomic functioning, parental and progeny behavior problems (9.4 % of sample) who were characterized by criminal behaviors, psychopathology, and substance use disorders, and multigenerational history of problem behaviors (20.3 % of sample) who were characterized by alcoholism, psychopathology, and versatile criminal offending. These findings add a typology to intergenerational studies of antisocial behavior that can assist in identifying etiological and treatment factors among those for whom crime runs in the family.
Dec 7, 2011 ... Key words: Ancient trees health, soil properties, Beijing. INTRODUCTION ... growth. Soil chemical properties play an invaluable role ..... situation on soil nutrients and fertilization in eucalyptus plantations in. GuangXi. Soil and ...
Full Text Available ... for Families Interpreter Services Pawprints Connect With Us Facebook Twitter Youtube For Health Care Professionals Notes Blog ... for Families Interpreter Services Pawprints Connect With Us Facebook Twitter Youtube For Health Care Professionals Make A ...
Full Text Available ... Families Interpreter Services Pawprints Connect With Us Facebook Twitter Youtube For Health Care Professionals Notes Blog Read ... Families Interpreter Services Pawprints Connect With Us Facebook Twitter Youtube For Health Care Professionals Make A Referral ...
Smith, Sarah L; DeGrace, Beth; Ciro, Carrie; Bax, Ami; Hambrick, Andrea; James, Jennifer; Evans, Alexandra
Child health and developmental outcomes are influenced by the health of the family and the context created. Research suggests symptoms of poor family health (e.g. suboptimal family interactions, parenting stress) yet there is limited understanding of the factors which contribute to robust family health which may unveil opportunities for targeted intervention and family health promotion. The present study examined families' experiences of family health and factors contributing to family health. We performed a qualitative study using constructivist grounded theory methods to guide our understanding of family health for families with typically developing children aged 5-18. Interviews were conducted in family homes and all members were invited to participate. Data from interviews were transcribed, coded, thematically analyzed, and verified with select families. Ten families, including 10 mothers, 8 fathers, and 15 children participated in the study. Participants described family health as a process of balance, living purposefully, and sharing experiences together in alignment with family identity. Mediating family health were processes of awareness and reflection, and adapting, adjusting, and changing in response to family life including external stress factors. Results highlight the possibility for healthcare practitioners to facilitate families' self-reflection and awareness about their health in order to mediate family health development.
Mariana Cristina Lobato dos Santos Ribeiro Silva
Full Text Available The 15-minute family interview is a condensed form of the Calgary Family Assessment and Intervention Models (CFAM and CFIM that aims to contribute to the establishment of a therapeutic relationship between nurses and family and to implement interventions to promote health and suffering relief, even during brief interactions. This study investigated the experience of nurses from the Family Health Strategy (FHS who used the 15-minute interview on postpartum home. The qualitative research was conducted in three stages: participants' training program, utilization of the 15-minute family interview by participants, and interviews with nurses. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews with eight nurses. The thematic analysis revealed two main themes: dealing with the challenge of a new practice and evaluating the assignment. This work shows that this tool can be used to deepen relationships between nurses and families in the Family Health Strategy.
Full Text Available Maintaining forest health is a worldwide challenge due to emerging tree diseases, shifts in climate conditions and other global change stressors. Research on forest health is thus accumulating rapidly, but there has been little use of scientometric approaches in forest pathology and dendrology. Scientometrics is the quantitative study of trends in the scientific literature. As with all tools, scientometrics needs to be used carefully (e.g., by checking findings in multiple databases and its results must be interpreted with caution. In this overview, we provide some examples of studies of patterns in the scientific literature related to forest health and tree pathogens. Whilst research on ash dieback has increased rapidly over the last years, papers mentioning the Waldsterben have become rare in the literature. As with human health and diseases, but in contrast to plant health and diseases, there are consistently more publications mentioning “tree health” than “tree disease,” possibly a consequence of the often holistic nature of forest pathology. Scientometric tools can help balance research attention towards understudied emerging risks to forest trees, as well as identify temporal trends in public interest in forests and their health.
Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; Land, Susan M.; McClain, Lucy R.; Mohney, Michael R.; Choi, Gi Woong; Salman, Fariha H.
This research examines the "Tree Investigators" project to support science learning with mobile devices during family public programmes in an arboretum. Using a case study methodology, researchers analysed video records of 10 families (25 people) using mobile technologies with naturalists at an arboretum to understand how mobile devices…
The next monographic study which will be undertaken for the series Pteridophyta of the Flora Malesiana will be devoted to the tree ferns of the Cyatheaceae. In connection with the large size of these plants and the desirability of having more and complete material at our disposal, the following
Full Text Available ... Questions Family Resources Hale Center for Families Interpreter Services Pawprints Connect With Us Facebook Twitter Youtube For Health Care Professionals Notes Blog Read clinical updates and the latest insights from Boston Children's specialists. Make A ...
USA Today, 1979
Summarizes major findings of a national survey, "The General Mills American Family Report 1978/79: Family Health in an Era of Stress," conducted by Yankelovich, Skelly and White. Topics covered include attitudes toward medical costs, mental illness, and good health practices, as well as expressed interest in health information. (SJL)
Thompson, Tess; Seo, Joann; Griffith, Julia; Baxter, Melanie; James, Aimee; Kaphingst, Kimberly A
Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on family health history discussion and collection, however, has predominantly involved White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women-16 with a history of cancer-analyzed participants' definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of family health history information. Family was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g., biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g., sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g., trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to "own" or "claim" a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal family health history records. Results suggest family health history initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of family health history information.
Wolff, Jennifer L; Darer, Jonathan D; Larsen, Kevin L
Health information technology has been embraced as a strategy to facilitate patients' access to their health information and engagement in care. However, not all patients are able to access, or are capable of using, a computer or mobile device. Although family caregivers assist individuals with some of the most challenging and costly health needs, their role in health information technology is largely undefined and poorly understood. This perspective discusses challenges and opportunities of engaging family caregivers through the use of consumer-oriented health information technology. We compile existing evidence to make the case that involving family caregivers in health information technology as desired by patients is technically feasible and consistent with the principles of patient-centered and family-centered care. We discuss how more explicit and purposeful engagement of family caregivers in health information technology could advance clinical quality and patient safety by increasing the transparency, accuracy, and comprehensiveness of patient health information across settings of care. Finally, we describe how clarifying and executing patients' desires to involve family members or friends through health information technology would provide family caregivers greater legitimacy, convenience, and timeliness in health system interactions, and facilitate stronger partnerships between patients, family caregivers, and health care professionals.
Spencer, Rachael A; Komro, Kelli A
In this review, we examine the effects of family economic security policies (i.e., minimum wage, earned income tax credit, unemployment insurance, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) on child and family health outcomes, summarize policy generosity across states in the USA, and discuss directions and possibilities for future research. This manuscript is an update to a review article that was published in 2014. Millions of Americans are affected by family economic security policies each year, many of whom are the most vulnerable in society. There is increasing evidence that these policies impact health outcomes and behaviors of adults and children. Further, research indicates that, overall, policies which are more restrictive are associated with poorer health behaviors and outcomes; however, the strength of the evidence differs across each of the four policies. There is significant diversity in state-level policies, and it is plausible that these policy variations are contributing to health disparities across and within states. Despite increasing evidence of the relationship between economic policies and health, there continues to be limited attention to this issue. State policy variations offer a valuable opportunity for scientists to conduct natural experiments and contribute to evidence linking social policy effects to family and child well-being. The mounting evidence will help to guide future research and policy making for evolving toward a more nurturing society for family and child health and well-being.
Byrd, Marcia Marie; Garwick, Ann Williams
The purpose of this interpretive descriptive study was to describe how eight Black-White couples with school-aged children constructed their interracial family identity through developmental transitions and interpreted race to their children. Within and across-case data analytic strategies were used to identify commonalities and variations in how Black men and White women in couple relationships formed their family identities over time. Coming together was the core theme described by the Black-White couples as they negotiated the process of forming a family identity. Four major tasks in the construction of interracial family identity emerged: (a) understanding and resolving family of origin chaos and turmoil, (b) transcending Black-White racial history, (c) articulating the interracial family's racial standpoint, and (d) explaining race to biracial children across the developmental stages. The findings guide family nurses in promoting family identity formation as a component of family health within the nurse-family partnership with Black-White mixed-race families.
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How Can Spirituality Affect Your Family's Health? KidsHealth / For Parents / ... found among those who strictly practiced their religion. Can Spiritual Beliefs Enhance Parenting? Attending organized religious services ...
Apolinar Membrillo Luna
Full Text Available Family Health (FH has three main elements: individual health, life material conditions and family functioning. Its main actors are the individual, the family and society. A common framework is the basis of FH, as each one of these elements is extremely important. Currently, in Mexico two aspects are considered: epidemiological studies and those inherent to the family medicine specialty. That latter has a residency and an integrated specialty curriculum, as well as certification from the corresponding board. All of this allows us to apply the HF approach to each and every family and individual that is cared for.
The findings of a 7-year field experiment conducted in the Indian Punjab show that integrating family planning with health services is more effective and efficient than providing family planning separately. The field experiment was conducted between 1968 and 1974 at Narangwal in the Indian State of Punjab. It involved 26 villages, with a total population of 35,000 in 1971-72. The demographic characteristics of the villages were found to be typical of the area. 5 groups of villages were provided with different combinations of services for health, nutrition and family planning. A control group received no project services. A population study was made of the effects of integrating family planning with maternal and child health services. A nutritional study looked at the results of integrating nutritional care and health services. The effectiveness of integration was evaluated by identifying it both with increased use of family planning and improved health. Efficiency was judged by relating effectiveness to input costs. Distribution of the benefits was also examined. The effectiveness of these different combinations of services on the use of family planning was measured: 1) by all changes in the use of modern methods of family planning, 2) by the number of new acceptors, 3) by the changes in the proportion of eligible women using contraceptives, and 4) by how many people started to use the more effective methods. Results showed the use of family planning increased substantially in the experimental groups, whereas the control group remained constant. It was also found that, though the services combining family planning with maternal health care stimulated more use of family planning, they were more costly than the more integrated srevices. The Narangwal experiment provides significant evidence in favor of combining the provision of family planning and health services, but its potential for replication on a large scale needs to be studied.
This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.
Disanto, Filippo; Rosenberg, Noah A
Coalescent histories provide lists of species tree branches on which gene tree coalescences can take place, and their enumerative properties assist in understanding the computational complexity of calculations central in the study of gene trees and species trees. Here, we solve an enumerative problem left open by Rosenberg (IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics 10: 1253-1262, 2013) concerning the number of coalescent histories for gene trees and species trees with a matching labeled topology that belongs to a generic caterpillar-like family. By bringing a generating function approach to the study of coalescent histories, we prove that for any caterpillar-like family with seed tree t , the sequence (h n ) n ≥ 0 describing the number of matching coalescent histories of the n th tree of the family grows asymptotically as a constant multiple of the Catalan numbers. Thus, h n ∼ β t c n , where the asymptotic constant β t > 0 depends on the shape of the seed tree t. The result extends a claim demonstrated only for seed trees with at most eight taxa to arbitrary seed trees, expanding the set of cases for which detailed enumerative properties of coalescent histories can be determined. We introduce a procedure that computes from t the constant β t as well as the algebraic expression for the generating function of the sequence (h n ) n ≥ 0 .
This podcast discusses role of family caregivers and the importance of protecting their health. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals. Created: 12/23/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 12/23/2009.
Jumba-Masagazi, A. H. K., Comp.
This unannotated bibliography is on man, his family, the society he makes and lives in, and his health. It is about man and his East African environment. It attempts to bring together both the applied and social sciences as they affect the family. Among the disciplines drawn from are: anthropology, sociology, medicine, religion, economics, labor…
Full Text Available ... gives you access to information about your patient’s care. Learn more Centers & Services Boston Children's Hospital #1 Ranked Children's Hospital by ... Questions Family Resources Hale Center for Families Interpreter Services Pawprints ... For Health Care Professionals Make A Referral Refer A Patient Transfer ...
These three booklets on family and child health are part of a series of 22 booklets specifically designed to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "The Effects of Stress on Parents and Family Life" (booklet #17), covers issues such as causes and effects of stress, stress and our modern society, and coping with…
Full Text Available ... and your family about a healthful celiac lifestyle. Education is key in making parents feel more at ease ... We are grateful to have been ranked #1 on U.S. News & World Report's list of the best ...
Full Text Available ... Emotional Adjustment Kids Speak Research and Innovation Contact Us Celiac Disease Program | Videos Boston Children's Hospital will teach you and your family about a healthful celiac lifestyle. Education is key in making parents feel more at ...
Full Text Available ... Careers Donate Donate Patient Resources Patient Story Two life-threatening conditions. One remarkable wish. Read more Second ... provides practical information about celiac disease from real-life families, as well as health professionals. I. Introduction : ...
Full Text Available ... Disease Diet Information At Home Shopping Cooking ... Boston Children's Hospital will teach you and your family about a healthful celiac lifestyle. Education is key in making parents feel more at ...
Solano Murcia, Martha Inés; Vasquez Cardozo, Socorro
The following article arises from the study "Representaciones sociales en el campo de la salud mental" (Social Representations in the Mental Health Field), in which the objective was to address the social representations in the family context; concerning caring, as well as the burden it implies using a qualitative method. The corpus was built based on the analysis and interpretation gathered from families with mental illness members. There were 17 individual interviews, 13 group interviews and one family group of three generations, held regarding the clinical care of the family member. These interviews were held at three different hospitals in Bogota. The representation of "a family" constitutes the structuring of the meanings of family relationships that cope with mental illness built upon the social and historical life of its members. The three comprehensive categories were: a) Family in good times and bad times; b) mental illness in family interactions, and c) Care and burden. Socially speaking, mental illness can lead to dehumanization, in that it discriminates and stigmatizes, even within the family unit. Caring for a family member with mental illness comes about by hierarchical order, self assignation, and by institutionalization. This latter occurs due to lack of caregivers or because the family does not consider their home the best place to care for such a patient. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Phillips, Robert L; Pugno, Perry A; Saultz, John W; Tuggy, Michael L; Borkan, Jeffrey M; Hoekzema, Grant S; DeVoe, Jennifer E; Weida, Jane A; Peterson, Lars E; Hughes, Lauren S; Kruse, Jerry E; Puffer, James C
More than a decade ago the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation, American Board of Family Medicine, Association of Departments of Family Medicine, Association of Family Practice Residency Directors, North American Primary Care Research Group, and Society of Teachers of Family Medicine came together in the Future of Family Medicine (FFM) to launch a series of strategic efforts to "renew the specialty to meet the needs of people and society," some of which bore important fruit. Family Medicine for America's Health was launched in 2013 to revisit the role of family medicine in view of these changes and to position family medicine with new strategic and communication plans to create better health, better health care, and lower cost for patients and communities (the Triple Aim). Family Medicine for America's Health was preceded and guided by the development of a family physician role definition. A consulting group facilitated systematic strategic plan development over 9 months that included key informant interviews, formal stakeholder surveys, future scenario testing, a retreat for family medicine organizations and stakeholder representatives to review strategy options, further strategy refinement, and finally a formal strategic plan with draft tactics and design for an implementation plan. A second communications consulting group surveyed diverse stakeholders in coordination with strategic planning to develop a communication plan. The American College of Osteopathic Family Physicians joined the effort, and students, residents, and young physicians were included. The core strategies identified include working to ensure broad access to sustained, primary care relationships; accountability for increasing primary care value in terms of cost and quality; a commitment to helping reduce health care disparities; moving to comprehensive payment and away from fee-for-service; transformation of training; technology to support
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Family-to-Family Health Information Center Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS... Vermont Family-to-Family Health Information Center (F2F HIC) grant (H84MC00002) from the Parent to Parent...
Rodríguez, Vivian M.; Corona, Rosalie; Bodurtha, Joann N.; Quillin, John M.
Family health history about cancer is an important prevention and health promotion tool. Yet, few studies have identified family context factors that promote such discussions. We explored relations among family context (cohesion, flexibility, and openness), self-efficacy, and cancer communication (gathering family history, sharing cancer risk information, and frequency) in a diverse group of women enrolled in a randomized control trial. Baseline survey data for 472 women were analyzed. Average age was 34 years, 59% identified as Black, 31% graduated high school, and 75% reported a family history of any cancer. Results showed that greater family cohesion and flexibility were related to higher communication frequency and sharing cancer information. Women who reported greater self-efficacy were more likely to have gathered family history, shared cancer risk information, and communicated more frequently with relatives. Openness was not associated with communication but was related to greater family cohesion and flexibility. Adjusting for demographic variables, self-efficacy and family cohesion significantly predicted communication frequency. Women with higher self-efficacy were also more likely to have gathered family health history about cancer and shared cancer risk information. Future research may benefit from considering family organization and self-efficacy when developing psychosocial theories that, in turn, inform cancer prevention interventions. PMID:26735646
Rodríguez, Vivian M; Corona, Rosalie; Bodurtha, Joann N; Quillin, John M
Family health history about cancer is an important prevention and health promotion tool. Yet few studies have identified family context factors that promote such discussions. We explored relations among family context (cohesion, flexibility, and openness), self-efficacy, and cancer communication (gathering family history, sharing cancer risk information, and frequency) in a diverse group of women enrolled in a randomized control trial. Baseline survey data for 472 women were analyzed. The women's average age was 34 years, 59% identified as Black, 31% had graduated high school, and 75% reported a family history of any cancer. Results showed that greater family cohesion and flexibility were related to higher communication frequency and sharing cancer information. Women who reported greater self-efficacy were more likely to have gathered family history, shared cancer risk information, and communicated more frequently with relatives. Openness was not associated with communication but was related to greater family cohesion and flexibility. Adjusting for demographic variables, self-efficacy, and family cohesion significantly predicted communication frequency. Women with higher self-efficacy were also more likely to have gathered family health history about cancer and shared cancer risk information. Future research may benefit from considering family organization and self-efficacy when developing psychosocial theories that in turn inform cancer prevention interventions.
Geoffrey H. Donovan; David T. Butry
Few studies have estimated the effect of environmental amenities on the rental price of houses. We address this gap in the literature by quantifying the effect of urban trees on the rental price of single-family homes in Portland, Oregon, USA. We found that an additional tree on a house's lot increased monthly rent by $5.62, and a tree in the public right of way...
... she is at an increased risk for developing diabetes for the rest of her life. Additionally, her child is at an increased risk for becoming obese ... to lower this risk for both mother and child. The U.S. Department of Health and ... National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) is jointly sponsored by the ...
Research shows that living with illness can be a distressing experience for the family and may result in suffering and reduced health. To meet families' needs, family systems intervention models are developed and employed in clinical contexts. For successful refinement and implementation it is important to understand how these models work. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the dialogue process and possible working mechanisms of one systems nursing intervention model, the Family Health Conversation model. A descriptive evaluation design was applied and 15 transcribed conversations with five families were analyzed within a hermeneutic tradition. Two types of interrelated dialogue events were identified: narrating and exploring. There was a flow between these events, a movement that was generated by the interaction between the participants. Our theoretically grounded interpretation showed that narrating, listening, and reconsidering in interaction may be understood as supporting family health by offering the families the opportunity to constitute self-identity and identity within the family, increasing the families' understanding of multiple ways of being and acting, to see new possibilities and to develop meaning and hope. Results from this study may hopefully contribute to the successful implementation of family systems interventions in education and clinical praxis. PMID:24800068
THOMPSON, TESS; SEO, JOANN; GRIFFITH, JULIA; BAXTER, MELANIE; JAMES, AIMEE; KAPHINGST, KIMBERLY A.
Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history (FHH) information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on FHH discussion and collection, however, has involved predominantly White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women, 16 with a history of cancer, analyzed participants’ definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of FHH information. “Family” was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g. biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g. sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g. trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to “own” or “claim” a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal FHH records. Results suggest FHH initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of FHH information. PMID:25730634
Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suyoung [BNF Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Wounkyoung [Korea South-East Power Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Interests on predictive or condition-based maintenance are heightening in power industries. The ultimate goal of the condition-based maintenance is to prioritize and optimize the maintenance resources by taking a reasonable decision-making process depending op plant's conditions. Such decision-making process should be able to not only observe the deviation from a normal state but also determine the severity or impact of the deviation on different levels such as a component, a system, or a plant. In order to achieve this purpose, a Plant Health Index (PHI) monitoring system was developed, which is operational in more than 10 units of large steam turbine cycles in Korea as well as desalination plants in Saudi Arabia as a proto-type demonstration. The PHI monitoring system has capability to detect whether the deviation between a measured and an estimated parameter which is the result of kernel regression using the accumulated operation data and the current plant boundary conditions (referred as an empirical model) is statistically meaningful. This deviation is converted into a certain index considering the margin to set points which are associated with safety. This index is referred as a PHI and the PHIs can be monitored for an individual parameter as well as a component, system, or plant level. In order to organize the PHIs at the component, system, or plant level, a success tree was developed. At the top of the success tree, the PHIs nodes in the middle of the success tree, the PHIs represent the health status of a component or a system. The concept and definition of the PHI, the key methodologies, the architecture of the developed system, and a practical case of using the PHI monitoring system are described in this article.
Heo, Gyunyoung; Kim, Suyoung; Sung, Wounkyoung
Interests on predictive or condition-based maintenance are heightening in power industries. The ultimate goal of the condition-based maintenance is to prioritize and optimize the maintenance resources by taking a reasonable decision-making process depending op plant's conditions. Such decision-making process should be able to not only observe the deviation from a normal state but also determine the severity or impact of the deviation on different levels such as a component, a system, or a plant. In order to achieve this purpose, a Plant Health Index (PHI) monitoring system was developed, which is operational in more than 10 units of large steam turbine cycles in Korea as well as desalination plants in Saudi Arabia as a proto-type demonstration. The PHI monitoring system has capability to detect whether the deviation between a measured and an estimated parameter which is the result of kernel regression using the accumulated operation data and the current plant boundary conditions (referred as an empirical model) is statistically meaningful. This deviation is converted into a certain index considering the margin to set points which are associated with safety. This index is referred as a PHI and the PHIs can be monitored for an individual parameter as well as a component, system, or plant level. In order to organize the PHIs at the component, system, or plant level, a success tree was developed. At the top of the success tree, the PHIs nodes in the middle of the success tree, the PHIs represent the health status of a component or a system. The concept and definition of the PHI, the key methodologies, the architecture of the developed system, and a practical case of using the PHI monitoring system are described in this article
Yang, Susu; Wang, Yangdong; Yin, Hengfu; Guo, Haobo; Gao, Ming; Zhu, Huiping; Chen, Yicun
The NF-YB transcription factor gene family encodes a subunit of the CCAAT box-binding factor (CBF), a highly conserved trimeric activator that strongly binds to the CCAAT box promoter element. Studies on model plants have shown that NF-YB proteins participate in important developmental and physiological processes, but little is known about NF-YB proteins in trees. Here, we identified seven NF-YB transcription factor-encoding genes in Vernicia fordii, an important oilseed tree in China. A phylogenetic analysis separated the genes into two groups; non-LEC1 type (VfNF-YB1, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13) and LEC1-type (VfNF-YB 14). A gene structure analysis showed that VfNF-YB 5 has three introns and the other genes have no introns. The seven VfNF-YB sequences contain highly conserved domains, a disordered region at the N terminus, and two long helix structures at the C terminus. Phylogenetic analyses showed that VfNF-YB family genes are highly homologous to GmNF-YB genes, and many of them are closely related to functionally characterized NF-YBs. In expression analyses of various tissues (root, stem, leaf, and kernel) and the root during pathogen infection, VfNF-YB1, 5, and 11 were dominantly expressed in kernels, and VfNF-YB7 and 9 were expressed only in the root. Different VfNF-YB family genes showed different responses to pathogen infection, suggesting that they play different roles in the pathogen response. Together, these findings represent the first extensive evaluation of the NF-YB family in tung tree and provide a foundation for dissecting the functions of VfNF-YB genes in seed development, stress adaption, fatty acid synthesis, and pathogen response.
Walter C. Shortle; Kevin T. Smith; Rakesh Minocha; Subhash Minocha; Philip M. Wargo; Kristina A. Vogt
A tree is a large, long-lived, perennial, compartmented, woody, shedding, walling plant. This definition is based on new tree biology concepts (Shigo, 1986a,b, 1991) and explains much about how mature trees function through their unique structure. When the tree begins its life, it is mostly leaf in mass (Fig. 7.la). As a tree grows in stature, it becomes mostly stem in...
David J. Nowak; Satoshi Hirabayashi; Allison Bodine; Eric. Greenfield
Trees remove air pollution by the interception of particulate matter on plant surfaces and the absorption of gaseous pollutants through the leaf stomata. However, the magnitude and value of the effects of trees and forests on air quality and human health across the United States remains unknown. Computer simulations with local environmental data reveal that trees and...
Wang, Caroline C; Pies, Cheri A
(1) To introduce photovoice, a participatory action research methodology, for use by MCH program managers to enhance community health assessments and program planning efforts, (2) to enable community people to use the photovoice methodology as a tool to record, reflect, and communicate their family, maternal, and child health assets and concerns, and (3) to educate community leaders about family, maternal, and child health issues from a grassroots perspective. Photovoice is based upon the theoretical literature on education for critical consciousness, feminist theory, and community-based approaches to documentary photography. Picture This Photovoice project took place in Contra Costa, an economically and ethnically diverse county in the San Francisco Bay area. Sixty county residents of ages 13-50 participated in 3 sessions during which they received training from the local health department in the techniques and process of photovoice. Residents were provided with disposable cameras and were encouraged to take photographs reflecting their views on family, maternal, and child health assets and concerns in their community, and then participated in group discussions about their photographs. Community events were held to enable participants to educate MCH staff and community leaders. The photovoice project provided MCH staff with information to supplement existing quantitative perinatal data and contributed to an understanding of key MCH issues that participating community residents would like to see addressed. Participants' concerns centered on the need for safe places for children's recreation and for improvement in the broader community environment within county neighborhoods. Participants' definitions of family, maternal, and child health assets and concerns differed from those that MCH professionals may typically view as MCH issues (low birth weight, maternal mortality, teen pregnancy prevention), which helped MCH program staff to expand priorities and include
David J. Nowak; Satoshi Hirabayashi; Allison Bodine; Robert. Hoehn
Urban particulate air pollution is a serious health issue. Trees within cities can remove ﬁne particles from the atmosphere and consequently improve air quality and human health. Tree effects on PM2.5 concentrations and human health are modeled for 10 U.S. cities. The total amount of PM2.5 removed annually by...
Full Text Available ... Out Away From Home Emotional Adjustment Kids Speak Research and Innovation Contact Us Celiac Disease Program | Videos Boston Children's Hospital will teach you and your family about a healthful celiac lifestyle. Education is key in making parents feel more at ...
... Free Baking School Eating Out Away From Home Emotional Adjustment Kids Speak Research and Innovation Contact Us Celiac Disease Program | Videos Boston Children's Hospital will teach you and your family about a healthful celiac lifestyle. Education is key in making parents feel more at ...
Full Text Available ... Free Baking School Eating Out Away From Home Emotional Adjustment Kids Speak Research and Innovation Contact Us Celiac Disease Program | Videos Boston Children's Hospital will teach you and your family about a healthful celiac lifestyle. Education is key in making parents feel more at ...
Without a doubt, the economy is taking its toll on families, many of whom face reduced wages, unemployment, foreclosure, and decreased--or nonexistent--health care benefits. With this in mind, the Greendale Schools' director of pupil services and this author wondered whether they could offer the Employee Assistance Program (EAP), which is designed…
Full Text Available ... From Home Emotional Adjustment Kids Speak Research and Innovation Contact Us Celiac Disease Program | Videos Boston Children's Hospital will teach you and your family about a healthful celiac lifestyle. Education is key in making parents feel more at ...
Full Text Available ... Boston Children's Hospital will teach you and your family about a healthful celiac lifestyle. Education is key in making parents feel more at ease and allow children with celiac disease to live happy and productive lives. Each of our video segments ... I. Introduction : Experiencing ...
Jensen, Mai Tødsø; Karmsteen, Kirstine; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
to the veteran or the mental health of the partner while relatively few publications deal with the veteran family as a whole or its members social relations outside the primary family. Furthermore, there are relatively few publications focusing on relatives to veterans deployed other places than Iraq...... the research field of psychosocial functioning and health among relatives living with a veteran, including potential gaps within this research field. We have found 103 publications. Most of them are American, 7 are from Europe and none from Scandinavia. Most publications focus on the partner’s relationship...... and Afghanistan, publications focusing on relatives of veterans with physical injuries and few publications dealing with relatives to female veterans. The overall conclusion is that there is a potential need for addressing psychosocial functioning and health among these groups of relatives in research to provide...
Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie B; Kelly, Erin L; Moen, Phyllis
For decades, leaders and scholars have been advocating change efforts to improve work-life relationships. Yet most initiatives have lacked rigor and not been developed using scientific principles. This has created an evidence gap for employer support of work and personal life as a win-win for productivity and employees' well-being. This paper examines the approach used by the U.S. Work Family Health Network (WFRN) to develop an innovative workplace intervention to improve employee and family health. The change initiative was designed to reduce organizationally based work-family conflict in two contrasting contexts representative of major segments of today's U.S. workforce: health care employees and informational technology professionals. The WFRN Intervention (called STAR) had three theoretically based change elements. They were: 1) increase job control over work time and schedule; 2) increase supervisor social support for family and job effectiveness; and 3) improve organizational culture and job design processes to foster results orientation. Seven practical lessons for developing work-life interventions emerged from this groundbreaking endeavor.
Lower, Tony; Fragar, Lyn; Depcynzksi, Julie; Challinor, Kathy; Mills, Jan; Williams, Warwick
Occupational noise injury and hearing loss are common features of agricultural workforces internationally. Farmsafe Australia has identified hearing health as one of its 4 key priority goals and targets. Currently, approximately 60-70% of Australian farmers have measurable hearing loss, compared with 27% of those in the general Australian community. This article describes the findings of a community based demonstration project to address hearing health issues conducted in the Australian state of New South Wales. This program sought to implement local demonstration projects in 3 communities to identify what works well in hearing health promotion with farmers and what could be applied more broadly throughout Australia. Local advisory groups were established in each community to guide project development and implementation. Project implementation focused on 3 major aspects: (1) increasing awareness of priority noise injury prevention and hearing health practices; (2) improving access to hearing health services; and (3) networking services in local communities. Area-specific training was undertaken for stakeholders to maximize local information links. Service utilization data were monitored and analysed. There was variability among sites; however in general there was an increased awareness of hearing health issues by farming families and expanded opportunities for farmers to access screening services. Utilization rates of hearing services also increased markedly in one community. Local hearing health networks were strengthened by linkages to key stakeholders outside the health sector. Previously unidentified methods of promoting hearing health (eg using agricultural retail outlets that supply hearing protection equipment and are accepted by farmers as an information source) were identified and utilized. Hearing health promotion with farmers in local communities can be enhanced through utilization and strengthening of local networks. Integration of hearing health
Neumann, Anke; Holstein, Josiane; Le Gall, Jean-Roger; Lepage, Eric
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the suitability of boosted decision trees for the case-mix adjustment involved in comparing the performance of various health care entities. First, we present logistic regression, decision trees, and boosted decision trees in a unified framework. Second, we study in detail their application for two common performance indicators, the mortality rate in intensive care and the rate of potentially avoidable hospital readmissions. For both examples the technique of boosting decision trees outperformed standard prognostic models, in particular linear logistic regression models, with regard to predictive power. On the other hand, boosting decision trees was computationally demanding and the resulting models were rather complex and needed additional tools for interpretation. Boosting decision trees represents a powerful tool for case-mix adjustment in health care performance measurement. Depending on the specific priorities set in each context, the gain in predictive power might compensate for the inconvenience in the use of boosted decision trees.
Today, gorillas and chimpanzees live in tropical forests, where acid soils do not favor fossilization. It is thus widely believed that there are no fossils of chimpanzees or gorillas. However, four teeth of a 0.5-million-year (Ma)-old chimpanzee were discovered in the rift valley of Kenya (McBrearty and Jablonski, 2005), and a handful of teeth of a 10-Ma-old gorilla-like creature were found in Ethiopia (Suwa et al., 2007), close to the major sites of Homo discoveries. These discoveries indicate that chimpanzees and gorillas once shared their range with early Homo. However, the thousands of hominin fossils discovered in the past century have all been attributed to the Homo line. Thus far, our family tree looks like a bush with many dead-branches. If one admits the possibility that the australopithecines can also be the ancestors of African great apes, one can place Paranthropus on the side of gorilla ancestors and divide the remaining Australopithecus based on the brain size into the two main lines of humans and chimpanzees, thereby resulting in a coherent family tree. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Geoffrey H. Donovan
Research demonstrating the biophysical benefits of urban trees are often used to justify investments in urban forestry. Far less emphasis, however, is placed on the non-bio-physical benefits such as improvements in public health. Indeed, the public-health benefits of trees may be significantly larger than the biophysical benefits, and, therefore, failure to account for...
Alana Tamar Oliveira de Sousa
Full Text Available The Health Community Agent (HCA has contributed in a meaningful way to enhance the bond professional-user/family, providing, thus, the humanized care for the users who receive attention from the Family Health Strategy (FHS. This research had the aim to investigate the strategies adopted by the health community agents in order to supply the humanized care for the FHS user. It is an exploratory research of qualitative nature which was accomplished in the Basic Health Units – BHU, placed in the Distrito Sanitário III, in João Pessoa – PB. Thirtyhealth community agents, from the Family Health Strategy, took part in the research. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire related to the objective proposed by the investigation and, afterwards, they were analyzed qualitatively through the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD technique. In this way, it was possible to foresee three main ideas: promoting care based on respect for the user’s singularity as well as the valuing of empathic relationship; home visit, guidance, surveillance, pointing out solutions for the user’sneeds; enhancement of the bond between community and the team responsible for action planning. The Collective Subject Discourse of the participants involved in the research, as regards the humanized care practice, had as core the respect for the patient’s dignity, prioritizing his or her real needs and emphasizing the multidisciplinary task. This investigation enables the reflection about the valuable contribution of the health community agents concerning the promotion of the humanized care having as reference the mentioned strategies.
Corona, Rosalie; Rodríguez, Vivian; Quillin, John; Gyure, Maria; Bodurtha, Joann
Although individuals recognize the importance of knowing their family's health history for their own health, relatively few people (e.g., less than a third in one national survey) collect this type of information. This study examines the rates of family communication about family health history of cancer, and predictors of communication in a…
Wang, Fei; Wu, De-jun; Zhai, Guo-feng; Zang, Li-peng
Water and energy metabolism of plants is very important actions in their lives. Although the studies about these actions by using thermography were often reported, seldom were found in detecting the health status of forest trees. In this study, we increase the measurement accuracy and comparability of thermo-images by creating the difference indices. Based on it, we exam the water and energy status in stem of Chinese arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco) by detecting the variance of far infrared spectrum between sap-wood and heart-wood of the cross-section of felling trees and the cores from an increment borer using thermography. The results indicate that the sap rate between sapwood and heartwood is different as the variance of the vigor of forest trees. Meanwhile, the image temperature of scale leaves from Chinese arborvitae trees with different vigor is also dissimilar. The far infrared spectrum more responds the sap status not the wood percentage in comparing to the area rate between sapwood and heartwood. The image temperature rate can be used in early determining the health status of Chinese arborvitae trees. The wood borers such as Phloeosinus aubei Perris and Semanotus bifasciatus Motschulsky are the pests which usually attack the low health trees, dying trees, wilted trees, felled trees and new cultivated trees. This measuring technique may be an important index to diagnose the health and vigor status after a large number of measurements for Chinese arborvitae trees. Therefore, there is potential to be an important index to check the tree vigor and pest damage status by using this technique. It will be a key in the tending and management of ecological and public Chinese arborvitae forest.
Clara C. Pregitzer; Nancy F. Sonti; Richard A. Hallett
Reforesting degraded urban landscapes is important due to the many benefits urban forests provide. Urban soils are highly variable, yet little is known about how this variability in urban soils influences tree seedling performance and survival. We conducted a greenhouse study to assess health, growth, and survival of four native tree species growing in native glacial...
Kanika Kapur; M. Susan Marquis; José J. Escarce
This paper examines the role of price in health insurance coverage decisions within the family to guide policy in promoting whole family coverage. We analyze the factors that affect individual health insurance coverage among families, and explore family decisions about whom to cover and whom to leave uninsured. The analysis uses household data from California combined with abstracted individual health plan benefit and premium data. We find that premium subsidies for individual insurance would...
Consuelo Helena Aires de Freitas
Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the practice of mental health care performed by healthcare professionals from the Family Health Strategy in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Methods: This is a critical and reflective study conducted in six Basic Health Units in Fortaleza-Ce. The study subjects were 12 health workers of the following professions: doctor, nurse, community health agents and technical and/or nursing assistant. Semi-structured interviews, systematic observationand questionnaire were used for data collection. The empirical analysis was based on an understanding of the discourses through critical hermeneutics. Results: It was evident that the mental health services are developed by some health workers in the ESF, such as, matrix support, relational technologies, home visits and community group therapy. However, there is still deficiency in training/coaching by most professionals in primary care, due to anenduring model of pathological or curative health care. Conclusion: Mental health care is still occasionally held by some workers in primary care. However, some progresses are already present as matrix support, relational technologies in health care, home visits andcommunity therapy.
Stories help us frame and understand complex ideas and challenges. Metaphors are particularly powerful linguistic devices that guide and extend our thinking by bridging conceptual domains, for example to consider the brain as a digital computer. Trees are widely used as metaphors for broad concepts like evolution, history, society, and even life itself, i.e. 'the tree of life'. Tree-like diagrams of roots and branches are used to demonstrate historical and cultural relationships, for example, between different species or different languages. In this paper, we describe a theatrical character called a tree doctor which is a living metaphor. A human being, namely the author, lectures, acts or dances as a tree and offers lessons to Homo Sapiens about 'holistic' ideas of health. The character teaches us to not only see the value of our relationships to trees, but the importance of seeing forests as well the individual trees. The metaphorical statement that we should not 'miss the forest for the trees' means we should learn to think of health embedded in systems and communities. In medicine, we too often focus on individual molecules, pharmaceuticals, or even patients and miss the bigger picture of public and environmental health. In a time of great ecological system change, the tree doctor points to broad ethical responsibility for each other and future generations of humans and other living creatures. The character embraces arts and particularly music as a powerful way of infusing purpose and improving the qualities of our lives together, especially as we age. The tree doctor knows the value of intergenerational relationships. But it also points to intergenerative innovations across many cultural domains, disciplines and professions. The tree doctor supports primary care and empowers the value of intergenerational relationships, art and music in the recommendations doctors make to patients to improve their health and well-being.
Carmo, Andrius M.J.; Paiva, Jose Daniel S. de; Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L. de; Franca, Elvis J. de; Hazin, Clovis A.; Bacchi, Marcio A.; Fernandes, Elisabete A.N.
This study aims to evaluate the distribution of K, Rb and Cs in leaves of trees of the Atlantic Forest through studies of correlation between the chemical elements. For this, we used the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis for the quantification of the chemical elements. The concentration ranges found were 6700-24000 mg / kg for K, 16 to 72mg / kg for Rb and 0.08 to 0,92mg / kg for Cs. As Rb has chemical similarity to K, is easily absorbed by plants, leading to a high value (0.9) of the Pearson correlation. For the correlation between K and Cs, no significant values were detected except for some species of the Myrtaceae family. However, average correlations (0.6 < r <0.8) between Rb-Cs were obtained for seven plant species of different families. The absence of a specific pattern using of K, Rb and Cs by plants showed great complexity in the distribution of chemical elements in the ecosystem
Estrada Fernández, M Eugenia; Gil Lacruz, Ana I; Gil Lacruz, Marta; Viñas López, Antonio
The purpose of this work is to analyse the effects on informal caregiver's health and lifestyle when living with a dependent person at home. A comparison will be made between this situation and other situations involving commitment of time and energy, taking into account gender and age differences in each stage of the life cycle. Cross-sectional study analysing secondary data. The method used for collecting information is the computer assisted personal interview carried out in selected homes by the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. The study included 19,351 participants aged over 25 years who completed the 2011-2012 Spanish National Health Survey. This research is based on demographic information obtained from a Spanish National Health Survey (2011/12). Using an empirical framework, the Logit model was select and the data reported as odds ratio. The estimations were repeated independently by sub-groups of age and gender. The study showed that the health of people who share their lives with a dependent person is worse than those who do not have any dependent person at home (they are 5 times at higher risk of developing health problems). The study found that being a woman, advance age, low educational level and does not work, also has an influence. Being a caregiver reduces the likelihood of maintaining a healthy lifestyle through physical exercise, relaxation, or eating a balanced diet. Living with a dependent person reduces the likelihood of maintaining healthy lifestyles and worsens the state of health of family members. Significant differences in gender and age were found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Dabiri, O M
Nigerians did not readily accept family planning when Family Health Services (FHS) began in 1988. FHS has made much headway in training, IEC (information, education, and communication), and constituency building and advocacy. Its staff have identified obstacles to implementation, especially program sustainability and management structure. Key limits to sustainability of IEC efforts were inadequately trained personnel and inability of trained personnel to apply what they learned at work stations. The Federal Ministry and Social Services' role in the FHS project was not clearly defined. Some private sector factors contributing to a confused management structure were inadequate method mix, high contraceptive cost, poor monitoring of quality of care, and no coordination of family planning training with the public factor. FHS has since decided to focus its efforts on increasing the demand for and availability of modern contraceptives and improving the quality of family planning services of both the public and private sectors. FHS hopes that accomplishing these activities will reduce fertility, morbidity, and mortality. Strategic plans include a regional focus, quality of care, a variety of methods offered, intensification, hospital and clinics, a management information system, contraceptive logistics, distribution regulations, and addressing social, cultural, and behavioral factors. To effectively implement the strategy, USAID and the Federal Ministry held a workshop in 1993 to effect full integration of Nigerian experience in the 2nd phase of the project (FHS II). Participants reviewed the strengths and weaknesses of the first phase and agreed on implementation. For example, nongovernmental organizations should implement FHS II. FHS II includes training, IEC, and commodities/logistics.
Martin, Robyn M; Ridley, Sophie C; Gillieatt, Sue J
Contemporary mental health policies require family inclusion in the design, implementation and evaluation of services. This scoping review considers the factors in mental health practice which either mediate or promote family inclusion. A wide range of factors are reported to obstruct family inclusion, while a smaller number of studies report that meaningful family inclusion rests on a partnership approach which values the input of families and services users. When it comes to family inclusion, there is a gap between policy and service delivery practice. Changes in service delivery attitudes, values and culture are necessary to meaningfully and systematically include families and service users.
van de Bovenkamp, H.M.; Trappenburg, M.J.
Objective To study the relationship between family members and mental health care workers to learn more about the support available to family members of mental health patients. Methods Eighteen interviews were conducted with family members, seven with professionals and two with patients.
Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Mak, Philip; Wen, Liping
Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry) were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%), with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%). Western blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China.
Lepistö, Sari; Ellonen, Noora; Helminen, Mika; Paavilainen, Eija
To describe the family health, functioning, social support and child maltreatment risk and associations between them in families expecting a baby. Finland was one of the first countries in banning corporal punishment against children over 30 years ago. Despite of this, studies have shown that parents physically abuse their children. In addition, professionals struggle in intervention of this phenomenon. Abusive parents should be recognised and helped before actual violent behaviour. A follow-up case-control study, with a supportive intervention in the case group (families with a heightened risk) in maternity and child welfare clinics. The baseline results of families are described here. Child maltreatment risk in families expecting a baby was measured by Child Abuse Potential Inventory. The health and functioning was measured by Family Health, Functioning and Social Support Scale. Data included 380 families. A total of 78 families had increased risk for child maltreatment. Heightened risk was associated with partners' age, mothers' education, partners' father's mental health problems, mothers' worry about partners' drinking and mothers' difficulties in talking about the family's problems. Risk was associated with family functioning and health. Families with risk received a less support from maternity clinics. Families with child maltreatment risk and related factors were found. This knowledge can be applied for supporting families both during pregnancy and after the baby is born. Professionals working with families in maternity clinics need tools to recognise families with risk and aid a discussion with them about the family life situation. The Child Abuse Potential, as a part of evaluating the family life situation, seems to prove a useful tool in identifying families at risk. The results offer a valid and useful tool for recognising families with risk and provide knowledge about high-risk family situations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kessler, A; Standley, C C
Maternal age over 35, close spacing of births, parity over 4, and unwanted pregnancy are discussed as factors that are associated with increased maternal and infant mortality. The likelihood of death due to childbearing is twice as high in the 30-40 age group as in the 20-30 age group and increases 4-to five-fold in the 40+ group. Brith Birth of less than 24-30 months are associated with a two-fold increase in neonatal and infant deaths. Health objectives of large scale family planning programs are geared toward avoiding such births. This paper proposes that these objectives would result in a decrease in maternal and child deaths and thereby lead to growth. A simultaneous lowering of birth rates, however, should offset this growth.
Márcio Roney Mota Lima
Full Text Available This is a descriptive and qualitative study that aimed to verify the knowledge of nurses, doctors and dentists of the Family Health Strategy in the municipality of Bela Cruz, Ceará, Brazil, about health regulation. Data collection happened from November to December 2008 by applying a questionnaire. Data were organized according to content analysis of Bardin. The results show that the participants have knowledge about the referral flow of patients referred from the primary care to specialized care, the mechanisms used for this purpose, as well as the reference and counter-reference system; they also reported difficulties in the return of patients with the counter-reference form properly filled, thus jeopardizing the continuity of assistance. For these professionals, the regulation is an important management tool for SUS, guaranteeing the right to health.
Rayess, Fadya El; Filip, Anna; Doubeni, Anna; Wilson, Calvin; Haq, Cynthia; Debay, Marc; Anandarajah, Gowri; Heffron, Warren; Jayasekera, Neil; Larson, Paul; Dahlman, Bruce; Valdman, Olga; Hunt, Vince
Many US medical schools and family medicine departments have responded to a growing interest in global health by developing global health fellowships. However, there are no guidelines or consensus statements outlining competencies for global health fellows. Our objective was to develop a mission and core competencies for Family Medicine Global Health Fellowships. A modified Delphi technique was used to develop consensus on fellowship competencies. A panel, comprised of 13 members with dual expertise in global health and medical education, undertook an iterative consensus process, followed by peer review, from April to December 2014. The panel developed a mission statement and identified six domains for family medicine global health fellowships: patient care, medical knowledge, professionalism, communication and leadership, teaching, and scholarship. Each domain includes a set of core and program-specific competencies. The family medicine global health competencies are intended to serve as an educational framework for the design, implementation, and evaluation of individual family medicine global health fellowship programs.
KB Von Pressentin
impact of family physicians within the South African district health system? ... paper (2015) described six aspirational roles of family physicians (FPs) working within the district health system. ... composition and deployment of the primary care workforce.5 ... mental health.30,31 In addition, FPs appear to have some impact.
David R. Houston; Douglas C. Allen; Denis Lachance
Many pests and other stresses affect maple trees growing in a sugarbush. Some pests can markedly reduce sap quantity; others, although conspicuous, are not important. Stresses can result from activities by people and from natural phenomena. Recognizing problems and understanding the factors that contribute to their occurrence, development, and significance are...
Pawel M. Lech
The measurements of electrical resistance of near-cambium tissues, selected biometric features of needles and shoots, and the annual radial increment as well as visual estimates of crown defoliation were performed on about 100 Norway spruce trees in three 60- to 70-year-old stands located in the Western Sudety Mountains. The defoliation, electrical resistance, and...
Rossiter, Chris; Schmied, Virginia; Kemp, Lynn; Fowler, Cathrine; Kruske, Sue; Homer, Caroline S E
The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which Australian child and family health nurses work with families with complex needs and how their practice responds to the needs of these families. Many families with young children face challenges to their parenting capacity, potentially placing their children at risk of poorer developmental outcomes. Nurses increasingly work with families with mental health problems, trauma histories and/or substance dependence. Universal child health services must respond effectively to these challenges, to address health inequalities and to promote the best outcomes for all children and families. The descriptive study used cross-sectional data from the first national survey of child and family health nurses in Australia, conducted during 2011. Survey data reported how often, where and how child and family health nurses worked with families with complex needs and their confidence in nursing tasks. Many, but not all, of the 679 respondents saw families with complex needs in their regular weekly caseload. Child and family health nurses with diverse and complex caseloads reported using varied approaches to support their clients. They often undertook additional professional development and leadership roles compared with nurses who reported less complex caseloads. Most respondents reported high levels of professional confidence. For health services providing universal support and early intervention for families at risk, the findings underscore the importance of appropriate education, training and support for child and family health professionals. The findings can inform the organization and delivery of services for families in Australia and internationally. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Laird, Robert; Kuhn,Emily
Emily S Kuhn, Robert D Laird Department of Psychology, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: Family support programs aim to improve parent wellbeing and parenting as well as adolescent mental and behavioral health by addressing the needs of parents of adolescents experiencing or at risk for mental health problems. Family support programs can be part of the treatment for adolescents diagnosed with mental or behavioral health problems, or family support programs can be deli...
Full Text Available Emily S Kuhn, Robert D Laird Department of Psychology, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: Family support programs aim to improve parent wellbeing and parenting as well as adolescent mental and behavioral health by addressing the needs of parents of adolescents experiencing or at risk for mental health problems. Family support programs can be part of the treatment for adolescents diagnosed with mental or behavioral health problems, or family support programs can be delivered as prevention programs designed to prevent the onset or escalation of mental or behavioral health problems. This review discusses the rationale for family support programs and describes the range of services provided by family support programs. The primary focus of the review is on evaluating the effectiveness of family support programs as treatments or prevention efforts delivered by clinicians or peers. Two main themes emerged from the review. First, family support programs that included more forms of support evidenced higher levels of effectiveness than family support programs that provided fewer forms of support. Discussion of this theme focuses on individual differences in client needs and program adaptions that may facilitate meeting diverse needs. Second, family support prevention programs appear to be most effective when serving individuals more in need of mental and behavioral health services. Discussion of this theme focuses on the intensity versus breadth of the services provided in prevention programs. More rigorous evaluations of family support programs are needed, especially for peer-delivered family support treatments. Keywords: intervention, parent, mental and behavioral health
Full Text Available ... Second Opinion Visit in person Online Second Opinion Finance & Billing Pay Your Bill Update Your Information Frequently Asked Questions Family Resources Hale Center for Families Interpreter Services Pawprints Connect ...
Full Text Available ... Opinion Visit in person Online Second Opinion Finance & Billing Pay Your Bill Update Your Information Frequently Asked Questions Family Resources Hale Center for Families Interpreter Services Pawprints Connect With Us Facebook Twitter Youtube For ...
Salmond, Jennifer A; Tadaki, Marc; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Arbuthnott, Katherine; Coutts, Andrew; Demuzere, Matthias; Dirks, Kim N; Heaviside, Clare; Lim, Shanon; Macintyre, Helen; McInnes, Rachel N; Wheeler, Benedict W
Urban tree planting initiatives are being actively promoted as a planning tool to enable urban areas to adapt to and mitigate against climate change, enhance urban sustainability and improve human health and well-being. However, opportunities for creating new areas of green space within cities are often limited and tree planting initiatives may be constrained to kerbside locations. At this scale, the net impact of trees on human health and the local environment is less clear, and generalised approaches for evaluating their impact are not well developed.In this review, we use an urban ecosystems services framework to evaluate the direct, and locally-generated, ecosystems services and disservices provided by street trees. We focus our review on the services of major importance to human health and well-being which include 'climate regulation', 'air quality regulation' and 'aesthetics and cultural services'. These are themes that are commonly used to justify new street tree or street tree retention initiatives. We argue that current scientific understanding of the impact of street trees on human health and the urban environment has been limited by predominantly regional-scale reductionist approaches which consider vegetation generally and/or single out individual services or impacts without considering the wider synergistic impacts of street trees on urban ecosystems. This can lead planners and policymakers towards decision making based on single parameter optimisation strategies which may be problematic when a single intervention offers different outcomes and has multiple effects and potential trade-offs in different places.We suggest that a holistic approach is required to evaluate the services and disservices provided by street trees at different scales. We provide information to guide decision makers and planners in their attempts to evaluate the value of vegetation in their local setting. We show that by ensuring that the specific aim of the intervention, the
The physics of randomness and regularities for languages (mother tongues) and their lifetimes and family trees and for the second languages are studied in terms of two opposite processes; random multiplicative noise , and fragmentation , where the original model is given in the matrix format. We start with a random initial world, and come out with the regularities, which mimic various empirical data  for the present languages.
Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Cavaleri, Mary A.; Olin, S. Serene; Burns, Barbara J.; Slaton, Elaine; Gruttadaro, Darcy; Hughes, Ruth
A comprehensive review of structured family support programs in children's mental health was conducted in collaboration with leadership from key national family organizations. The goals were to identify typologies of family support services for which evaluation data existed and identify research gaps. Over 200 programs were examined; 50 met…
Background: Good quality of care in family planning (FP) services help individuals and couples to meet their reproductive health needs safely and effectively. Therefore, assessment and improvement of the quality of family planning services could enhance family planning services utilization. This study was thus conducted ...
Hooper, J I
The winds of change in health care make assessment of the family more important than ever as a tool for health care providers seeking to assist the family move themselves toward high-level wellness. Limited medical care and imposed self-responsibility for health promotion and illness prevention, which are natural consequences of these changes, move the locus of control for health management back to the family. The family's teachings, modeling, and interactions are greater influences than ever on the health of the patient. Gordon's functional health patterns provide a holistic model for assessment of the family because assessment data are classified under 11 headings: health perception and health management, nutritional-metabolic, elimination, activity and exercise, sleep and rest, cognition and perception, self-perception and self-concept, roles and relationships, sexuality and reproduction, coping and stress tolerance, and values and beliefs. Questions posed under each of the health patterns can be varied to reflect the uniqueness of the individual family as well as to inquire about family strengths and weaknesses in all patterns. Data using this model provide a comprehensive base for including the family in designing a plan of care.
Vendramin Giovanni G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tropical trees undergo severe stress through seasonal drought and flooding, and the ability of these species to respond may be a major factor in their survival in tropical ecosystems, particularly in relation to global climate change. Aquaporins are involved in the regulation of water flow and have been shown to be involved in drought response; they may therefore play a major adaptive role in these species. We describe genetic diversity in the PIP sub-family of the widespread gene family of Aquaporins in five Neotropical tree species covering four botanical families. Results PIP Aquaporin subfamily genes were isolated, and their DNA sequence polymorphisms characterised in natural populations. Sequence data were analysed with statistical tests of standard neutral equilibrium and demographic scenarios simulated to compare with the observed results. Chloroplast SSRs were also used to test demographic transitions. Most gene fragments are highly polymorphic and display signatures of balancing selection or bottlenecks; chloroplast SSR markers have significant statistics that do not conform to expectations for population bottlenecks. Although not incompatible with a purely demographic scenario, the combination of all tests tends to favour a selective interpretation of extant gene diversity. Conclusions Tropical tree PIP genes may generally undergo balancing selection, which may maintain high levels of genetic diversity at these loci. Genetic variation at PIP genes may represent a response to variable environmental conditions.
Lee, Tae Kyoung; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon
Research has documented the relationship between family stressors such as family economic hardship and marital conflict and adolescents' mental health symptoms, especially depressive symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby supportive parenting lessens this effect and the progression of mental health and physical health…
Braun, Bonnie; Kim, Jinhee; Anderson, Elaine A.
Families are at-risk of or experiencing a diminished quality of living and life in current economic times and difficult decisions are required. Health and financial literacy are the basis for wise personal and public decision making. Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals can forge connections between health and financial literacy to…
Full Text Available ... Children's Hospital #1 Ranked Children's Hospital by U. S. News & World Report 300 Longwood Avenue, ... Public Relations Newsroom Patient & Family Rights Government Relations Terms of ...
Utz, Rebecca L; Berg, Cynthia A; Butner, Jonathan
One's health and aging cannot be uncoupled from the family system in which it occurs. Not only do families provide genetic material that determines major health risks and outcomes, families also share a culture, environment, and lifestyle that further influence health and aging trajectories. As well, family members are interconnected, so that an illness or a positive lifestyle change in one person can have reverberating effects on the health and well-being of others in the family system. This essay explores how families have the potential to both promote and threaten individual health and well-being, thereby influencing how an individual might age or experience later life. Weaving together personal biographies from three different authors, this essay provides specific examples of how the family affects the health and aging of individuals and how the health and aging of individuals affect the larger family unit. These dynamic processes have the potential to positively or negatively shape individual experiences of health and aging, even among those persons who are not yet in late life. This essay blends a developmental life course perspective with a dynamic family-systems approach to show how families engage in collaborative efforts throughout the life course, in which they both affect and are affected by the diagnosis and management of chronic diseases and the adoption of health promoting behaviors. Applying this perspective to the study of health and aging calls for interdisciplinary thinking, as well as novel methodological and quantitative solutions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available The family, as the basic social unit, has a decisive role in the health and disease of its members. It is the primary unit where health needs are formed and solved. By its own resources the family independently resolves about 75% of the total health requirements. In the paper the authors study family characteristics which influence family health and diseases, indicators of family health and the scale of life values. Also, the study evaluates social factors, communication and the influence of the usage of psychoactive substances on family health and the quality of family life. To form the personality of a child three factors are most significant: love, the feeling of safety and the presence of harmonious relationship between the parents. Life harmony in a family also depends on the quality of structural components of the personality and the interaction of motivation of its members. Early childhood determines the future personality of the adult person. At that period, habits and partially attitudes are formed. In harmonious family relationships the parents are the role model to children. Verbal and non-verbal communication enrich the relationship among people and enable efforts in supporting understanding, compassion and care for others by mutual agreement. On the scale of life values of Serbian citizens health holds the first position. Immediately following the health issue is good relationship in the family. As healthcare is not only the task of healthcare services, but also of each individual, family and the society as a whole, it is on healthcare personnel to educate the citizens how to preserve and improve their own health and the health of their family by a continual healthcare and education. Above all, this concerns avoidance of bad habits, such as smoking, immoderate alcohol consumption, narcotic abuse, physical inactivity, hypercaloric nutrition, etc. Also, it is significant to make an early recognition of disease symptoms and to turn for
H. Al-Janabi (Hareth); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner); J. Coast (Joanna)
textabstractHealth care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these health spillovers? should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health
Kim, Suk-Sun; Kim-Godwin, Yeoun Soo; Koenig, Harold G
Spirituality has been regarded as an individual and private matter; consequently, research on spirituality as a family phenomenon has been largely neglected. In addition, most published research has been focused on Western cultures. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of family spirituality and how it influences health among Korean-American elderly couples who are the first generation to reside in the Southeastern USA. A thematic and interpretive data analysis method was used. Thirteen elderly couples (N = 26) participated in in-depth individual interviews in Korean with the primary author. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, and then translated by two bilingual researchers with a background in Korean and American culture. Three main themes of family spirituality were identified: (1) family togetherness, (2) family interdependence, and (3) family coping. Also, participants reported that family spirituality strengthened family health by fostering family commitment, improving emotional well-being, developing new healthy behaviors, and providing healing experiences. This finding implies that healthcare providers need to assess family spiritual issues of elderly couples to maximize their strengths for coping with health problems. As our society becomes more culturally diverse, healthcare providers should seek to understand family spirituality from different cultural perspectives to develop a more holistic approach to care.
Li, Li; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Farmer, Shu C; Flore, Martin
This article explores the association of people who inject drugs and their family members in terms of mental health and family relations. The objective was to understand the family context and its impact on people who inject drugs in a family-oriented culture in Vietnam. Cross-sectional assessment data were gathered from 83 people who inject drugs and 83 of their family members recruited from four communes in Phú Thọ province, Vietnam. Depressive symptoms and family relations were measured for both people who inject drugs and family members. Internalized shame and drug-using behavior were reported by people who inject drugs, and caregiver burden was reported by family members. We found that higher level of drug using behavior of people who inject drugs was significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower family relations reported by themselves as well as their family members. Family relations reported by people who inject drugs and their family members were positively correlated. The findings highlight the need for interventions that address psychological distress and the related challenges faced by family members of people who inject drugs. The article has policy implication which concludes with an argument for developing strategies that enhance the role of families in supporting behavioral change among people who inject drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Angood, Peter; Dingman, Jennifer; Foley, Mary E; Ford, Dan; Martins, Becky; O'Regan, Patti; Salamendra, Arlene; Sheridan, Sue; Denham, Charles R
The objective of this article was to provide a guide to health care providers on patient and family involvement in health care. This article evaluated the latest published studies for patient and family involvement and reexamined the objectives, the requirements for achieving these objectives, and the evidence of how to involve patients and families. Critical components for patient safety include changing the organizational culture; including patients and families on teams; listening to patients and families; incorporating their input into leadership structures and systems; providing full detail about treatment, procedures, and medication adverse effects; involving them on patient safety and performance improvement committees; and disclosing medical errors. The conclusion of this article is that, for the future, patient and family involvement starts with educating patients and families and ends with listening to them and taking them seriously. If patient and family input is emphatically built into systems of performance improvement, and if patients and families are taken seriously and are respected for their valuable perspectives about how care can be improved, then organizations can improve at improving. Resources in health care are in short supply, yet the resources of patient and family help and time are almost limitless, are ready to be tapped, and can have a huge impact on improving the reliability and overall success for any health care organization.
Luzianne Feijó Alexandre Paiva
Full Text Available In this study, we report the experiences of occupational therapist during the Multidisciplinary Residency Program in Family and Community Health in Fortaleza, Ceará state, Brazil. With the creation of the Support Center for Family Health – NASF, occupational therapists began to participate more effectively in the Family Health Strategy of the Brazilian National Health System. Given this rocess, the category, which historically has trained its professionals following the biomedical model, is faced with the challenge to build a new field of knowledge. Objective: To analyze the inclusion of occupational therapy in the Family Health Strategy within the scope of Multidisciplinary Residency. Methodology: This is a descriptive study of qualitative approach, which was based on the experience of four occupational therapy resident students, performed through the documental analysis of field diaries, scientific papers, and case studies produced between 2009 and 2011. Results: The occupational therapists as well as the other NASF professionals operated the logic of Matrix Support to the Family Health teams, sharing their knowledge and assisting in resolving complex cases of the families, groups, and communities served. In this context, we found people with different relationships with their doings and a reduced repertoire of activities. The occupational therapists invested in the creation or consolidation of groups in the Family Health Centers and in the territory, which also stood as living and socializing spaces, focusing on prevention and health promotion.
Arcury, Thomas A; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia K; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Ip, Edward H; Quandt, Sara A
Work organization is important for the health of vulnerable workers, particularly women. This analysis describes work organization for Latinas in farmworker families and delineates the associations of work organization with health indicators. Up to 220 Latina women in farmworker families completed interviews from October 2012 to July 2013. Interviews addressed job structure, job demand, job control, and job support. Health measures included stress, depressive symptoms, physical activity, family conflict, and family economic security. Three fifths of the women were employed. Several work organization dimensions, including shift, psychological demand, work safety climate, and benefits, were associated with participant health as expected, on the basis of the work organization and job demands-control-support models. Research should address women's health and specific work responsibilities. Occupational safety policy must consider the importance of work organization in the health of vulnerable workers.
Erlingsson, Christen L; Magnusson, Lennart; Hanson, Elizabeth
Our aim was to investigate connections between Swedish family caregivers' health and providing care for an ill relative by conducting a systematic search and synthesis of previous research. We analyzed 31 articles using first qualitative content analysis then hermeneutic analysis. Analysis resulted in three derived themes-sliding sideways into caregiving, caregiving in reciprocity, and caregiving in disintegration-and a main interpretation and conceptual model of Swedish family caregivers' health-caregiving in a sphere of beliefs. Results indicated that Swedish family caregivers' beliefs, experiences of reciprocity, or nonsupport, together with quality of interpersonal relationships and feelings of responsibility and guilt, have a profound impact on their health. These results point to the value and importance of nurses gaining an understanding of family caregivers' beliefs and experiences of reciprocity or nonsupport to effectively promote family caregivers' health.
Claudia Hausman Silveira
Full Text Available The article makes reference to the three models that have inspired the construction of the Program of Family Health in Brazil (Cuban, English and Canadian, observing their differences and similarities and comparing them with the Brazilian case. Therefore, an associative line is also constructed between the Only System of Health (SUS and the necessity of a practice which allows the functioning of its lines of direction and organization principles. Thus, we reach the conclusion that the Program of Family Health in Brazil, for its multi professional work proposal in interdisciplinary teams, in accordance with the SUS, can help keep the law of health in the Country. Key-words: SUS; Program of Family Health; Interdisciplinary; Medical care model; Sanitary practice
Full Text Available ... Opinion Finance & Billing Pay Your Bill Update Your Information Frequently Asked Questions Family Resources Hale Center for ... for referring providers that gives you access to information about your patient’s care. Learn more Centers & Services ...
Full Text Available ... want to: Find A Doctor Get A Second Opinion Learn About Conditions Make A Referral Request An Appointment Volunteer Public Relations Newsroom Patient & Family Rights Government Relations Terms ...
Full Text Available ... School Eating Out Away From Home Emotional Adjustment Kids Speak Research and Innovation Contact Us Celiac Disease ... Support Group : Resources and support for families. XII. Kids Speak : What kids with celiac disease have to ...
Full Text Available ... Videos Experiencing Celiac Disease What is Celiac Disease Diet Information At ... Us Celiac Disease Program | Videos Boston Children's Hospital will teach you and your family about a ...
Ribeiro, Edilza Maria
This study presents the scenario that favored the inclusion of the family as a care focus in public policies. The strategies to interrupt the impoverishment and vulnerability of families in the XXth century occur in a different form, according to different "welfare states" in capitalist societies. However, in view of the welfare state crisis and the increasing costs of public and private services and privates, at least a partial family solution is required in terms of reducing its dependency. The Family Health Program (PSF) put the family on the Brazilian social policy agenda in 1994, reflecting interests from the neoliberal model as well as from solidary social forces. This inclusion generated different approaches, such as: family/individual; family/home; family/individual/home; family/community; family/social risk; family/family. These approaches, due to the lack of a mutual dialogue, end up composing an insufficiently identified picture, thus turning care more difficult. The conditions indicated here should be examined as a way of giving a true chance to the family
Corona, Rosalie; Rodríguez, Vivian; Quillin, John; Gyure, Maria; Bodurtha, Joann
Although individuals recognize the importance of knowing their family's health history for their own health, relatively few people (e.g., less than a third in one national survey) collect this type of information. This study examines the rates of family communication about family health history of cancer, and predictors of communication in a sample of English-speaking Latino young adults. A total of 224 Latino young adults completed a survey that included measures on family communication, cultural factors, religious commitment, and cancer worry. We found that few Latino young adults reported collecting information from their families for the purposes of creating a family health history (18%) or sharing information about hereditary cancer risk with family members (16%). In contrast, slightly more than half of the participants reported generally "talking with their mothers about their family's health history of cancer." Logistic regression results indicated that cancer worry (odds ratio [OR] = 2.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08-4.93), being female (OR = 3.12; 95% CI = 1.02-8.08), and being older (OR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.01-1.76) were associated with increased rates of collecting information from family members. In contrast, orientation to the Latino culture (OR = 2.81; 95% CI = 1.33-5.94) and religious commitment (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.02-2.32) were associated with increased rates of giving cancer information. Results highlight the need for prevention programs to help further general discussions about a family's history of cancer to more specific information related to family health history.
Harvey, Bart J; Moloughney, Brent W; Iglar, Karl T
Public health situations faced by family physicians and other primary care practitioners, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and more recently H1N1, have resulted in an increased interest to identify the public health competencies relevant to family medicine. At present there is no agreed-on set of public health competencies delineating the knowledge and skills that family physicians should possess to effectively face diverse public health challenges. Using a multi-staged, iterative process that included a detailed literature review, the authors developed a set of public health competencies relevant to primary care, identifying competencies relevant across four levels, from "post-MD" to "enhanced." Feedback from family medicine and public health educator-practitioners regarding the set of proposed "essential" competencies indicated the need for a more limited, feasible set of "priority" areas to be highlighted during residency training. This focused set of public health competencies has begun to guide relevant components of the University of Toronto's Family Medicine Residency Program curriculum, including academic half-days; clinical experiences, especially identifying "teachable moments" during patient encounters; resident academic projects; and elective public health agency placements. These competencies will also be used to guide the development of a family medicine-public health primer and faculty development sessions to support family medicine faculty facilitating residents to achieve these competencies. Once more fully implemented, an evaluation will be initiated to determine the degree to which these public health competencies are being achieved by family medicine graduates, especially whether they attained the knowledge, skills, and confidence necessary to effectively face diverse public health situations-from common to emergent. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador; Baena-Ariza, María Teresa; Domínguez-Sánchez, Isabel; Lima-Serrano, Marta
To examine the influence of a child or adolescent with intellectual disabilities on the family unit. A systematic review of the literature, following the recommendations of the PRISMA statement, was carried out on the PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Psicodoc databases. Original articles were found, published in the last 5 years, in Spanish, English, Portuguese, Italian or French, with summary and full text and satisfactory or good methodological quality. Two independent researchers agreed on their decisions. In general, care is provided in the family, mothers assume the greater responsibility, and their wellbeing is lower than that of fathers. Having the support of the husband improves their quality of life. The fraternal subsystem can be affected, with regard to the warmth and the status/power of the relationship, and behavioural problems. Family health may be affected in all its dimensions: family functioning and atmosphere due to increased demands and changes in the organisation and distribution of roles; family resilience and family coping, due to rising costs and dwindling resources; family integrity could be strengthened by strengthened family ties. Quality of family life is enhanced by emotional support. These families may need individualised attention due to the increased demand for care, diminishing resources or other family health problems. Nurses using a family-centred care approach can identify these families and help them to normalise their situation by promoting their family health and the well-being of its members. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Tungpunkom, Patraporn; Maybery, Darryl; Reupert, Andrea; Kowalenko, Nick; Foster, Kim
Many people with a mental illness are parents caring for dependent children. These children are at greater risk of developing their own mental health concerns compared to other children. Mental health services are opportune places for healthcare professionals to identify clients' parenting status and address the needs of their children. There is a knowledge gap regarding Thai mental health professionals' family-focused knowledge and practices when working with parents with mental illness and their children and families. This cross -sectional survey study examined the attitudes, knowledge and practices of a sample (n = 349) of the Thai mental health professional workforce (nurses, social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists) using a translated version of the Family-Focused Mental Health Practice Questionnaire (FFMHPQ). The majority of clinicians reported no training in family (76.8%) or child-focused practice (79.7%). Compared to other professional groups, psychiatric nurses reported lower scores on almost all aspects of family-focused practice except supporting clients in their parenting role within the context of their mental illness. Social workers scored highest overall including having more workplace support for family-focused practice as well as a higher awareness of family-focused policy and procedures than psychiatrists; social workers also scored higher than psychologists on providing support to families and parents. All mental health care professional groups reported a need for training and inter-professional practice when working with families. The findings indicate an important opportunity for the prevention of intergenerational mental illness in whose parents have mental illness by strengthening the professional development of nurses and other health professionals in child and family-focused knowledge and practice.
Ray, G Thomas; Weisner, Constance M; Taillac, Cosette J; Campbell, Cynthia I
To compare the health conditions and health care costs of family members of patients diagnosed with a Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) to family members of patients without an MDD diagnosis. Using electronic health record data, we identified family members (n=201,914) of adult index patients (n=92,399) diagnosed with MDD between 2009 and 2014 and family members (n=187,011) of matched patients without MDD. Diagnoses, health care utilization and costs were extracted for each family member. Logistic regression and multivariate models were used to compare diagnosed health conditions, health services cost, and utilization of MDD and non-MDD family members. Analyses covered the 5years before and after the index patient's MDD diagnosis. MDD family members were more likely than non-MDD family members to be diagnosed with mood disorders, anxiety, substance use disorder, and numerous other conditions. MDD family members had higher health care costs than non-MDD family members in every period analyzed, with the highest difference being in the year before the index patient's MDD diagnosis. Family members of patients with MDD are more likely to have a number of health conditions compared to non-MDD family members, and to have higher health care cost and utilization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Essig, T.H.; Gilchrist, R.L.
In January 1980, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) assumed a major role in helping the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conduct comprehensive health physics appraisals at 47 operating nuclear power plants. These appraisals required the development of an analytical technique that permitted a deductive analysis of a health-physics program on an element-by-element basis. The technique employed was a modification of the Management Oversight and risk Tree (MORT) analytical logic methodology used in probabilistic assessments. This paper includes the method used in establishing the appraisal guidelines and assigning the proper level of importance within the analytical tree structure. The system for ensuring the proper subdivision necessary for an adequate assessment of each area (e.g., exposure controls and radioactive waste management) will also be discussed. In addition to these major subjects, the generation of specific review questions that correspond to the analytical trees is addressed
Immanen, Juha; Nieminen, Kaisa; Duchens Silva, Héctor; Rodríguez Rojas, Fernanda; Meisel, Lee A; Silva, Herman; Albert, Victor A; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Helariutta, Ykä
Through the diversity of cytokinin regulated processes, this phytohormone has a profound impact on plant growth and development. Cytokinin signaling is involved in the control of apical and lateral meristem activity, branching pattern of the shoot, and leaf senescence. These processes influence several traits, including the stem diameter, shoot architecture, and perennial life cycle, which define the development of woody plants. To facilitate research about the role of cytokinin in regulation of woody plant development, we have identified genes associated with cytokinin signaling and homeostasis pathways from two hardwood tree species. Taking advantage of the sequenced black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and peach (Prunus persica) genomes, we have compiled a comprehensive list of genes involved in these pathways. We identified genes belonging to the six families of cytokinin oxidases (CKXs), isopentenyl transferases (IPTs), LONELY GUY genes (LOGs), two-component receptors, histidine containing phosphotransmitters (HPts), and response regulators (RRs). All together 85 Populus and 45 Prunus genes were identified, and compared to their Arabidopsis orthologs through phylogenetic analyses. In general, when compared to Arabidopsis, differences in gene family structure were often seen in only one of the two tree species. However, one class of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, the CKI1-like family of two-component histidine kinases, was larger in both Populus and Prunus than in Arabidopsis.
Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz
More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead they grow up in single parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized both in the short and the long run by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1983, 1984, and 1985...... is used for the analysis. The empirical cross-sectional analysis indicates a negative relation between the number of family structure changes and children.s educational outcomes. Children experiencing many family structure changes also seem to have worse health outcomes....
Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz
More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead, they grow up in single-parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence, it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized both in the short and the long run by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1985 is used...... for the analysis. The empirical cross-sectional analysis indicates a negative relation between the number of family structure changes and children.s health, behavior, and educational outcomes. These results are con.rmed by a differences-in-differences analysis of health outcomes. This suggests...
Full Text Available ... With Us Facebook Twitter Youtube For Health Care Professionals Notes Blog Read clinical updates and the latest ... With Us Facebook Twitter Youtube For Health Care Professionals Make A Referral Refer A Patient Transfer A ...
Full Text Available ... Pawprints Connect With Us Facebook Twitter Youtube For Health Care Professionals Notes Blog Read clinical updates and ... Pawprints Connect With Us Facebook Twitter Youtube For Health Care Professionals Make A Referral Refer A Patient ...
Full Text Available ... Interpreter Services Pawprints Connect With Us Facebook Twitter Youtube For Health Care Professionals Notes Blog Read clinical ... Interpreter Services Pawprints Connect With Us Facebook Twitter Youtube For Health Care Professionals Make A Referral Refer ...
Bellandi, J.; Guzzo, M.M.
From the equation of time evolution of three neutrino families system, in presence of matter, an analytical solution is derived for probability amplitude of transition between flavors. Particular cases, mixing between two families at constant matter density, and oscillations between three families in the vacuum, are obtained from the general solution
Hastrup, J L; Phillips, S M; Vullo, K; Kang, G; Slomka, L
Compared 309 youths ages 11 to 15 years and their parents with respect to their comprehension of terms for seven common medical disorders: heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis, ulcer, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. For two thirds of the adolescent sample, accuracy of reporting of these disorders among the parents and grandparents was assessed. Results indicated considerable variation among disorders with respect to both comprehension of terms and accuracy of family health history. Adolescents' age was a major predictor of knowledge of medical terms (r = .41). Age was not related to accuracy of family health information. Consonant with this finding, adolescents' level of accuracy regarding family health history was generally similar to that of previous adult samples, suggesting that family health information is acquired and retained at an early age. Adolescents were more accurate concerning parents' compared with grandparents' history of hypertension.
The range of the community nurse’s work in family health care is much wider than that portrayed by the stereotype which many people, both lay and professional, have of it — namely, mother and baby clinics.
Weine, Stevan Merrill
In refugee resettlement, positive psychosocial outcomes for youth and adults depend to a great extent on their families. Yet refugee families find few empirically based services geared toward them. Preventive mental health interventions that aim to stop, lessen, or delay possible negative individual mental health and behavioral sequelae through improving family and community protective resources in resettled refugee families are needed. This paper describes 8 characteristics that preventive mental health interventions should address to meet the needs of refugee families, including: Feasibility, Acceptability, Culturally Tailored, Multilevel, Time Focused, Prosaicness, Effectiveness, and Adaptability. To address these 8 characteristics in the complex environment of refugee resettlement requires modifying the process of developmental research through incorporating innovative mental health services research strategies, including: resilience framework, community collaboration, mixed methods with focused ethnography, and the comprehensive dynamic trial. A preventive intervention development cycle for refugee families is proposed based on a program of research on refugees and migrants using these services research strategies. Furthering preventive mental health for refugee families also requires new policy directives, multisystemic partnerships, and research training. 2011 © FPI, Inc.
Wahyuningsih, Dyah; Wiyati, Ruti; Subagyo, Widyo
This study aimed to produce health education media in form of Video Compact Disk (VCD). The first disk consist of method how to take care of patient with social isolation and the second disk consist of method how to take care of patient with violence behaviour. The implementation of audiovisual media is giving for family in Psyciatric Ward Banyumas hospital. The family divided in two groups, the first group was given health education about social isolation and the second group was given healt...
O'Leary, James; Edelson, Vaughn; Gardner, Nicora; Gepp, Alejandra; Kyler, Panelpha; Moore, Penelope; Petruccio, Claudia; Williams, Marc; Terry, Sharon; Bowen, Deborah
There has been little study of whether family health history (FHH) tools used by individuals, families, and communities inspire measurable changes in communication and behavior. The Community-Centered Family Health History (CCFHH) project was a collaborative endeavor among national and community-based organizations with an interest in genetics education and health. Using community- based participatory research principles as a foundation, CCFHH examined whether the Does It Run In the Family? toolkit, a set of two customizable booklets on health and genetics, encourages discussion and collection of FHH information across diverse communities. Five communities across the country measured the utility of customized versions of the Does It Run In the Family? toolkit. Each community partner recruited families, consisting of two or more blood relatives, to use the toolkit for 3 months, discuss it among their family members, and consider the implications of the health information. Pre- and postintervention surveys measured family communication about family history and disease risk and the use of FHH information in health care provider interactions. After aggregate, cross-community analysis of individual responses, from pre- to post-toolkit use family members showed increases in communication about family history of disease risk (p < .05) and in awareness about FHH (p < .05). These findings indicate that diverse communities are receptive to FHH intervention, and tailored health educational materials can lead to increased conversations and awareness about health issues across communities.
Al-Turki, Nouf; Afify, Ayman AM; AlAteeq, Mohammed
Nouf Al-Turki,1 Ayman AM Afify,1 Mohammed AlAteeq2 1Family Medicine Department, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, 2Department of Family Medicine and PHC, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Health care violence is a significant worldwide problem with negative consequences on both the safety and well-being of health care workers as well as workplace activities. Reports examining health care violence in Saudi Arabia are lim...
Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz
More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead they grow up in single parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of 'shocks' in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on both educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1983, 1984, and 1985 is used for the analysis...
Full Text Available ... condition. We are grateful to have been ranked #1 on U.S. News & World Report's list of the best children's hospitals in the nation for the fourth ... families who inspire us to do our very best for them. Thanks to you, Boston Children's is a place where we can write the greatest children's stories ever told. Sandra L. Fenwick, ... Boston Children's Hospital #1 Ranked Children's Hospital by U. S. News & World Report ...
Full Text Available A complex clinical social study of health status, life style and conditions of infants aged 3 months to 1 year in migrant families living in Pushkino district of Moscow region for more than 2 years was carried out. The study has revealed that children in migrant families fall behind in physical development, most of them show a delay of psychomotor development, the level of revealed pathology is significantly higher vs. children of famia lies permanently residing in the area. The data acquired indicate the need of intent attention to the children in migrant families from both medical and social authorities.Key words: children, health status, physical development, children's condition.
Niniek Lely Pratiwi
Full Text Available Background: The MDG target to increase maternal health will be achieved when 50% of maternal deaths can be prevented through improvment the coverage of K1, K4, to make sure that midwife stay in the village improve the delivery by health workers in health facilities, increase coverage long-term contraceptive methods participant as well as family and community empowerment in health. Methods: This study is a further analysis of Riskesdas in 2010 to assess how big the accessibility of services in family planning in Indonesia. Results: Women of 3–4 children in rural greater and prevalence (27.1% compared to women who live in urban areas (25.0%. The main reason of not using contraception mostly because they want to have children 27.0% in urban, 28.2% rural whereas, the second reason is the fear of side effects 23.1% in urban, 16.5% rural. There is 10% of respondent did not use contraceptives, because they did not need it. Health seeking behavior of pregnant women with family planning work status has a significant relationship (prevalence ratio 1.073. The jobless mothers has better access to family planning services compared to working mother. Conclusions: Accessibility of family planning services is inadequate, because not all rural ‘Poskesdes’ equipped with infrastructure and family planning devices, a lack of knowledge of family planning in rural areas. Health seeking behavior of family planning services is mostly to the midwives, the scond is to community health centers and than polindes, ‘poskesdes’ as the ranks third.
Kim, Hyun Hanna K; Viner-Brown, Samara I; Garcia, Jorge
Our objectives were to (a) estimate the prevalence of children's mental health problems, (b) assess family functioning, and (c) investigate the relationship between children's mental health and family functioning in Rhode Island. From the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, Rhode Island data for children 6 to 17 years of age were used for the analyses (N = 1326). Two aspects of family functioning measures, parental stress and parental involvement, were constructed and were examined by children's mental health problems, as well as other child and family characteristics (child's age, gender, race/ethnicity, special needs, parent's education, income, employment, family structure, number of children, and mother's general and mental health). Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression were used to investigate the relationship. Among Rhode Island children, nearly 1 (19.0%) in 5 had mental health problems, 1 (15.6%) in 6 lived with a highly stressed parent, and one third (32.7%) had parents with low involvement. Bivariate analyses showed that high parental stress and low parental involvement were higher among parents of children with mental health problems than parents of children without those problems (33.2% vs 11.0% and 41.0% vs 30.3%, respectively). In multivariate logistic regression, parents of children with mental health problems had nearly 4 times the odds of high stress compared with parents of children without those problems. When children's mental health problems were severe, the odds of high parental stress were elevated. However, children's mental health was not associated with parental involvement. Children's mental health was strongly associated with parental stress, but it was not associated with parental involvement. The findings indicate that when examining the mental health issues of children, parental mental health and stress must be considered.
Zick, Cathleen D; Mayer, Robert N; Smith, Ken R
Retirement confidence is a key social barometer. In this article, we examine how personal and parental health histories relate to working-age adults' feelings of optimism or pessimism about their overall retirement prospects. This study links survey data on retirement planning with information on respondents' own health histories and those of their parents. The multivariate models control for the respondents' socio-demographic and economic characteristics along with past retirement planning activities when estimating the relationships between family health histories and retirement confidence. Retirement confidence is inversely related to parental history of cancer and cardiovascular disease but not to personal health history. In contrast, retirement confidence is positively associated with both parents being deceased. As members of the public become increasingly aware of how genetics and other family factors affect intergenerational transmission of chronic diseases, it is likely that the link between family health histories and retirement confidence will intensify. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kevin J. Dodds
Full Text Available The invasive woodwasp Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae is established in east-central North America. A replicated case study testing the effectiveness of silvicultural treatments for reducing the number of S. noctilio attacked trees in a stand was conducted in New York, USA. Silvicultural treatments reduced S. noctilio attacked trees by approximately 75% over the course of the study. There was no tree growth response to silvicultural treatments in the four years after thinning, but targeted removal of weakened trees removed potential S. noctilio habitat from treated stands. Two spectral vegetation indices were used to determine tree health in each treatment and potentially provide guidance for detection efforts. Silvicultural treatment significantly influenced the Red Edge Inflection Point, a strong indicator of chlorophyll content, and the Moisture Stress Index, a reflectance measurement sensitive to changes in foliar leaf water content, with the greatest differences occurring between control and treated blocks. Vegetation indices showed promise as a tool for aiding in stand prioritization for S. noctilio surveys or management activities.
Nowak, David J.; Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Bodine, Allison; Hoehn, Robert
Urban particulate air pollution is a serious health issue. Trees within cities can remove fine particles from the atmosphere and consequently improve air quality and human health. Tree effects on PM 2.5 concentrations and human health are modeled for 10 U.S. cities. The total amount of PM 2.5 removed annually by trees varied from 4.7 tonnes in Syracuse to 64.5 tonnes in Atlanta, with annual values varying from $1.1 million in Syracuse to $60.1 million in New York City. Most of these values were from the effects of reducing human mortality. Mortality reductions were typically around 1 person yr −1 per city, but were as high as 7.6 people yr −1 in New York City. Average annual percent air quality improvement ranged between 0.05% in San Francisco and 0.24% in Atlanta. Understanding the impact of urban trees on air quality can lead to improved urban forest management strategies to sustain human health in cities. -- Highlights: •Paper provides the first broad-scale estimates of city-wide tree impacts on PM 2.5 . •Trees improve overall air quality by intercepting particulate matter. •Particle resuspension can lead to short-term increases in pollutant concentrations. •Urban trees produce substantial health improvements and values. -- Air pollution modeling reveals broad-scale impacts of pollution removal by urban trees on PM 2.5 concentrations and human health
Hewitt, Caroline M; Roye, Carol; Gebbie, Kristine M
A core competency model for family planning public health nurses has been developed, using a three stage Delphi Method with an expert panel of 40 family planning senior administrators, community/public health nursing faculty and seasoned family planning public health nurses. The initial survey was developed from the 2011 Title X Family Planning program priorities. The 32-item survey was distributed electronically via SurveyMonkey(®). Panelist attrition was low, and participation robust resulting in the final 28-item model, suggesting that the Delphi Method was a successful technique through which to achieve consensus. Competencies with at least 75% consensus were included in the model and those competencies were primarily related to education/counseling and administration of medications and contraceptives. The competencies identified have implications for education/training, certification and workplace performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available ... Connect With Us Facebook Twitter Youtube For Health Care Professionals Notes Blog Read clinical updates and the ... gives you access to information about your patient’s care. Learn more Centers & Services Boston Children's Hospital #1 ...
Full Text Available ... With Us Facebook Twitter Youtube For Health Care Professionals Make A Referral Refer A Patient Transfer A Patient Find A Doctor Education & Training Continuing Education Graduate Medical Education Simulator Training ...
Mirna Albuquerque Frota
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the impact of hearing loss in the family dynamics of the deaf child; identify the family’s knowledge about deafness, understand how parents experience the diagnosis and treatment of child with hearing impairment. Methods: The study has aqualitative approach developed at the Center for Integrated Medical Care - NAMI, attached to the University of Fortaleza - UNIFOR located in Fortaleza - CE, Brazil. The participants were six mothers of children with hearing impairment. Data collection was carried outthrough participant observation and semi-structured interview. The Thematic Analysis of Bardin was used for processing the data. Results: After coding, some categories emerged from the discourse: Misinformation of Hearing Loss; impact of the discovery of hearingloss, caregivers and facilitators of the development of the deaf children. Conclusion: The birth of a deaf child alters the previous family balance, causing specific problems, such as the communication barrier, whose solution is related to how to handle the situation. Itis necessary to promote changes, emphasizing the involvement of caregivers and loved as facilitators of deaf child’s development. In Phonoaudiology, this attitude represents discovering new ways to identify the need for the subject, which requires strategies thatvalue their opinion, allowing the expression of expectations, perceptions, representations and feelings.
Chokkanathan, Srinivasan; Mohanty, Jayashree
Using stress process theory and structural equation modelling, this study investigated the complex relationship between health status, family strain, dependency, and the life satisfaction of rural older adults with reported functional impairments in India. Data were extracted from a large-scale study of 903 randomly selected adults aged 61 years and older from 30 rural clusters of India. The sample for this study was confined to 653 older adults who reported functional impairments. Structural equation modelling showed that poor health status indirectly lowered the life satisfaction of older adults through family strains. Moreover, poor health status also indirectly influenced life satisfaction through dependency and family strain (poor health→dependency→family strains→life satisfaction). The findings indicate that for professionals who deal with the health of older adults, exploring relationship strains and dependency is vital to the assessment and intervention of subjective wellbeing. Inter-sectoral coordination and communication between healthcare and social service agencies might facilitate effective management of health problems among older adults. Moreover, taking family strains and dependency into account when caring for older adults with health problems is critical to help improve their quality of life and maintain their wellbeing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Marcelle Aparecida de Barros
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies on drugs use point towards this phenomenon as a public health problem. Nowadays, the Family Health Program (FHP is presented by the Health Ministry as a model to restructure primary health care and aims to offer family-centered care, permeated by integrality, problem solving and community bonds. This article aims to discuss action possibilities of Family Health Care professionals involving drugs patients. It is evident that, as opposed to other actions already developed by FHP professionals in other health care areas, which has appeared clearly and objectively. This fact is observed in the daily activities of FHP professionals, which give little attention to drugs-related problems. However, research emphasizes that there exists a broad range of action possibilities for FHP professionals. Although other studies evidence this team’s fragilities in terms of care for drugs users, these can be overcome by investing in the training and valuation of these professionals. KEY WORDS: Family Health Program; Street drugs; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice.
Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).
This book is part of a Mexican series of instructional materials designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. It provides instruction on knowing about, and caring for, the health of one's family. Topics covered include community health, pregnancy,…
Personal health can influence all aspects of customer behavior and this influence is more manifest within the senior market segment. Health issues also greatly impact the restaurant industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate how health status and health attitude influence family restaurant selection criteria. In order to measure selfrated health status and health attitude for seniors, the Health Perceptions Questionnaire(HPQ) and the Perceived Health competence Scale (P...
Verônica Lourdes Lima Batista Maia
Full Text Available Background: Elderly mental health is an important topic of discussion to Brazilian public health because it involves factors related to the training of health professionals focused on these demands in the Family Health Strategy. Objectives: To make a similarity analysis about the training of the Family Health Strategy professionals for psychosocial care for the elderly. Methodology: Qualitative research carried out with 31 professionals from the Family Health Strategy in the city of Picos, Piauí, Brazil. Data were collected through a semi-structured interview script. The interviews were performed in a reserved room and recorded with the aid of an MP4 player. The data were processed by the IRAMUTEQ software and analyzed through similarity analysis that is based on graph theory. Results: The study participants were 13 doctors and 18 nurses, 27 (87.09% were female. The training time of these professionals was comprised between 2 to 32 years of training and the duration of the Health Strategy from 1 year to 16 years. According to the co-occurrence tree, the data indicate that: the word "elderly" is at the heart of the ramifications and expresses how family and professionals can contribute to treatment; another demonstrated representation is that it is difficult for professionals to carry out their activities with the elderly due to lack of training in the specific area of mental health. Conclusion: the family plays a fundamental role in the elderly care with psychosocial needs and the professionals of the Family Health Strategy present difficulties to carry out comprehensive care due to deficiencies in their training. Keywords: Mental health. Family Health. Elderly.
Healey, Gwen K
To explore Inuit family understandings of sexual health and relationships in order to inform responsive public health interventions that are designed to meet the needs of Nunavummiut. A qualitative indigenous knowledge approach was used for this study with a focus on Inuit epistemology and methodology, as described in the Piliriqatigiinniq Community Health Research Partnership Model. Interviews were conducted with 20 parents in three Nunavut communities in 2011. An immersion and crystallization analytical approach was used to analyze the data and to identify groupings or themes in the data. The stories shared by parents are honoured, keeping their words intact as often as possible in the presentation of results. Parents in this study largely discussed sexual health in the context of historical community events related to settlement and/or residential schools. Residential schools and forced settlement into communities were linked to trauma, family separation, hardship and grief. These experiences were prominent in participants' understandings of sexual health and perceptions of sexual health behaviours among youth in the community. This study highlights the complexity of the landscape of sexual health in Nunavut and the need for public health approaches that are inclusive of Inuit family perspectives on sexual health. Greater understanding of historical and community context can contribute to the development of pertinent, evidence-based public health interventions that will meet the needs of the population.
Kannan, Srinivasan; Frenz, Margret
Movement for healthcare, mostly termed 'medical tourism', has been a sector of enormous potential in South Asia over the past years attracting many international clients. Kerala, a state in southern India, advertises 'Kerala Ayurveda' as one of its particular attractions. The objective of this paper is to study and understand the public health view on movements for healthcare and/or wellness across borders with a particular focus on the quality of treatments offered and on issues of ethics that concern patients from across different countries, but also the providers of Ayurveda treatments. To gain insights into local perspectives, interviews were conducted with Ayurveda practitioners at Ayurveda resorts in Kerala, in particular in Kovalam and Varkala, both in Thiruvananthapuram district. The analysis of our interviews shows that - perhaps not surprisingly in a world characterised by global capitalism - marketing plays an important role in attracting clients to resorts. Market considerations led to a transformation of how Ayurveda is presented to potential customers. This in turn has undermined the significance of Ayurveda within the tourism industry of Kerala. Arguably, representatives of the state view this as an opportunity rather than considering the importance of further developing Ayurveda as a medical practice.
Ferrari, Manuela; Suzanne, Archie
Objective Family practitioners face many challenges providing mental healthcare to youth. Digital technology may offer solutions, but the products often need to be adapted for primary care. This study reports on family physicians’ perspectives on the relevance and feasibility of a digital knowledge translation (KT) tool, a set of video games, designed to raise awareness about psychosis, marijuana use, and facilitate access to mental health services among youth. Method As part of an integrated knowledge translation project, five family physicians from a family health team participated in a focus group. The focus group delved into their perspectives on treating youth with mental health concerns while exploring their views on implementing the digital KT tool in their practice. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis to identify patterns, concepts, and themes in the transcripts. Results Three themes were identified: (a) challenges in assessing youth with mental health concerns related to training, time constraints, and navigating the system; (b) feedback on the KT tool; and, (c) ideas on how to integrate it into a primary care practice. Conclusions Family practitioners felt that the proposed video game KT tool could be used to address youth’s mental health and addictions issues in primary care settings. PMID:29056980
Ferrari, Manuela; Suzanne, Archie
Family practitioners face many challenges providing mental healthcare to youth. Digital technology may offer solutions, but the products often need to be adapted for primary care. This study reports on family physicians' perspectives on the relevance and feasibility of a digital knowledge translation (KT) tool, a set of video games, designed to raise awareness about psychosis, marijuana use, and facilitate access to mental health services among youth. As part of an integrated knowledge translation project, five family physicians from a family health team participated in a focus group. The focus group delved into their perspectives on treating youth with mental health concerns while exploring their views on implementing the digital KT tool in their practice. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis to identify patterns, concepts, and themes in the transcripts. Three themes were identified: (a) challenges in assessing youth with mental health concerns related to training, time constraints, and navigating the system; (b) feedback on the KT tool; and, (c) ideas on how to integrate it into a primary care practice. Family practitioners felt that the proposed video game KT tool could be used to address youth's mental health and addictions issues in primary care settings.
Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna
Health care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these "health spillovers" should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the "health care perspective"). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society. © The Author(s) 2015.
Bechtel, G A; Shepherd, M A; Rogers, P W
Migrant farmworkers and their families have restricted access to health and human services because of their frequent relocation between states, language and cultural barriers, and limited economic and political resources. Living and working in substandard environments, these families are at greater risk for developing chronic and communicable disease. In an assessment of health patterns among 225 migrant workers and their families, using personal observations, unstructured interviews, and individual and state health records, children's immunizations were found to be current, but dental caries and head lice were epidemic. Among adults, almost one third tested positive for tuberculosis exposure. Urinary tract infections were the most common health problem among women. Primary and secondary prevention were almost nonexistent because funds for these services were not readily available. The patriarchal system contributes to these problems by limiting access to family-health and social service needs. Although providing comprehensive health care to migrant communities presents unique challenges, nurses can demonstrate their effectiveness in reducing morbidity through strategic interventions and alternative uses of health delivery systems.
Alvarez, Elena Carrillo; Kawachi, Ichiro; Romani, Jordi Riera
The level (or scale) at which social capital can be conceptualised and measured ranges potentially from the macro-level (regional or country level), to the meso-level (neighbourhoods, workplaces, schools), down to the individual level. However, one glaring gap in the conceptualisation of social capital within the empirical literature has been the level of the family. Our aim in this review is to examine the family as the 'missing level' in studies on social capital and health. To do so, we conducted a systematic review on the use and measurement of this notion in the health literature, with the final intention of articulating a direction for future research in the field. Our findings are consistent with the notion that family social capital is multidimensional and that its components have distinct effects on health outcomes. Further investigation is needed to understand the mechanisms through which family social capital is related to health, as well as determining the most valid ways to measure family social capital. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Artazcoz, Lucía; Cortès, Imma; Puig-Barrachina, Vanessa; Benavides, Fernando G; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Borrell, Carme
The objectives of this study were: (i) to analyse the relationship between health status and paid working hours and household composition in the EU-27, and (ii) to examine whether patterns of association differ as a function of family policy typologies and gender. Cross-sectional study based on data from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey of 2010. The sample included married or cohabiting employees aged 25-64 years from the EU-27 (10,482 men and 8,882 women). The dependent variables were self-perceived health status and psychological well-being. Irrespective of differences in family policy typologies between countries, working long hours was more common among men, and part-time work was more common among women. In Continental and Southern European countries, employment and family demands were associated with poor health status in both sexes, but more consistently among women. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the association was mainly limited to men. Finally, in Nordic and Eastern European countries, employment and family demands were largely unassociated with poor health outcomes in both sexes. The combination of employment and family demands is largely unassociated with health status in countries with dual-earner family policy models, but is associated with poorer health outcomes in countries with market-oriented models, mainly among men. This association is more consistent among women in countries with traditional models, where males are the breadwinners and females are responsible for domestic and care work. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Drennan, Vari M; Joseph, Judy
This paper reports on the perceptions of experienced health visitors working with refugee families in Inner London. Women who are refugees and asylum seekers in the United Kingdom are more likely to experience depression than either non-refugee women or male asylum seekers. Health visitors provide a universal public health service to all women on the birth of a child, or with children aged under five, and as such are well placed to identify emotional and mental health problems of women who are refugees. Despite successive waves of refugees to the United Kingdom in the 20th century, there are no empirical studies of health visiting practice with this vulnerable group. There is also no body of evidence to inform the practice of health visitors new to working with asylum seekers and refugees. An exploratory study was undertaken in Inner London in 2001. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 13 health visitors experienced in working with women and families who are refugees. A range of structural challenges was identified that mediated against the development of a health-promoting relationship between health visitors and refugee women. With refugee families, who were living in temporary accommodation, health visitors were prioritizing basic needs that had to be addressed: in addition, they prioritized the needs of children before those of women. Health visitors were aware of the emotional needs of women and had strategies for addressing these with women in more settled circumstances. Health visitors considered themselves ill-prepared to deal with the complexities of working with women in these situations. This study identifies issues for further exploration, not least from the perspective of refugee women receiving health visiting services. Health visitors in countries receiving refugee women are framing their work with these women in ways that reflect Maslow's theory of a hierarchy of needs. This study suggests ways that public health
Moura, Renata Heller de; Boarini, Maria Lucia
The article is meant to stimulate debate about the social and historical determinants that shape the construction of public mental health policy within the context of the Brazilian family. Current policies have emphasized the family as a strategic target of initiatives aimed at social transformation, with the intervention of different actors, including psychologists. An examination of some ideas from the field of mental hygiene suggests that this discourse is nothing new in the history of Brazilian health. While today's times, families, and professionals are different, the search for a solution to the so-called crisis of society still focuses on the individual. The family, as the expression of this individual, has been called upon to assume responsibilities that push society towards 'order' and 'progress' for the Nation.
Tomlinson, Patricia Short; Peden-McAlpine, Cynthia; Sherman, Suzan
This article discusses the development of a family systems nursing intervention for clinical use in health crisis. Although studies in paediatric critical care provide evidence that family stress is an important clinical phenomenon, studies have demonstrated that few nurses have the requisite family intervention skills to provide family members with adequate support during crisis. In addition, few intervention studies that focus on provider-family relationships with the goal of reducing stress have been reported. This article contributes to the literature by redressing this lack. Data sources. The literature search supporting this project spanned from 1980 to 2009 and included searches from classic nursing theory, family theory and relevant nursing research specific to the design of the intervention reported. The goal of the intervention is to provide a theoretical and practical foundation for explicit action that enhances relationships with caregivers thereby supporting the integrity of the family and enhancing their coping abilities. The intervention, based on the Family Systems Model and the family's understandings of the situation, defines specific goals and desired outcomes to guide strategic actions. Discussion of the conceptual foundation, procedural development and an example of the protocol is provided. Implications for nursing. The intervention is designed for nurses with limited knowledge in family theory to aid them to better help families dealing with stress. The proposed intervention can be used to increase nurses' skills in family centred nursing care. Although designed for use in paediatric critical care, it can, with modifications, be used in other nursing specialty areas. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Kelianny Pinheiro Bezerra
Full Text Available This study Aimed to analyze the performance of nurses of the Family Health Strategy by facing family violence against children and identifying actions to prevent the problem. It is a descriptive and exploratory research with qualitative feature, whose data were analyzed according to content analysis. 14 nurses from the Family Health Strategy of Mossoró-RN took part in the Study. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Health promotion actions are educational activities developed after detecting the problem. Fear of reprisals by the offending agent, work overload, lack of managerial support and the difficulty for the accomplishment of interdisciplinarity, intersectorality and comprehensive care were mentioned as barriers to the confrontation of the problem.
Vedanthan, Rajesh; Bansilal, Sameer; Soto, Ana Victoria; Kovacic, Jason C; Latina, Jacqueline; Jaslow, Risa; Santana, Maribel; Gorga, Elio; Kasarskis, Andrew; Hajjar, Roger; Schadt, Eric E; Björkegren, Johan L; Fayad, Zahi A; Fuster, Valentin
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the world, and the increasing burden is largely a consequence of modifiable behavioral risk factors that interact with genomics and the environment. Continuous cardiovascular health promotion and disease prevention throughout the lifespan is critical, and the family is a central entity in this process. In this review, we describe the potential rationale and mechanisms that contribute to the importance of family for cardiovascular health promotion, focusing on: 1) mutual interdependence of the family system; 2) shared environment; 3) parenting style; 4) caregiver perceptions; and 5) genomics. We conclude that family-based approaches that target both caregivers and children, encourage communication among the family unit, and address the structural and environmental conditions in which families live and operate are likely to be the most effective approach to promote cardiovascular health. We describe lessons learned, future implications, and applications to ongoing and planned studies. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Percheski, Christine; Bzostek, Sharon
Objectives To estimate the impacts of public health insurance coverage on health care utilization and unmet health care needs for children in immigrant families. Methods We use survey data from National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (2001-2005) linked to data from Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS) (2003-2007) for children with siblings in families headed by at least one immigrant parent. We use logit models with family fixed effects. Results Compared to their siblings with public insurance, uninsured children in immigrant families have higher odds of having no usual source of care, having no health care visits in a 2 year period, having high Emergency Department reliance, and having unmet health care needs. We find no statistically significant difference in the odds of having annual well-child visits. Conclusions for practice Previous research may have underestimated the impact of public health insurance for children in immigrant families. Children in immigrant families would likely benefit considerably from expansions of public health insurance eligibility to cover all children, including children without citizenship. Immigrant families that include both insured and uninsured children may benefit from additional referral and outreach efforts from health care providers to ensure that uninsured children have the same access to health care as their publicly-insured siblings.
de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires; Machado, Rosani Ramos; Soratto, Jacks; Scherer, Magda dos Anjos; Gonçalves, Ana Sofia Resque; Trindade, Letícia Lima
to identify the workloads of nursing professionals of the Family Health Strategy, considering its implications for the effectiveness of universal access. qualitative study with nursing professionals of the Family Health Strategy of the South, Central West and North regions of Brazil, using methodological triangulation. For the analysis, resources of the Atlas.ti software and Thematic Content Analysis were associated; and the data were interpreted based on the labor process and workloads as theorical approaches. the way of working in the Family Health Strategy has predominantly resulted in an increase in the workloads of the nursing professionals, with emphasis on the work overload, excess of demand, problems in the physical infrastructure of the units and failures in the care network, which hinders its effectiveness as a preferred strategy to achieve universal access to health. On the other hand, teamwork, affinity for the work performed, bond with the user, and effectiveness of the assistance contributed to reduce their workloads. investments on elements that reduce the nursing workloads, such as changes in working conditions and management, can contribute to the effectiveness of the Family Health Strategy and achieving the goal of universal access to health.
da Silva, Simone Albino; Fracolli, Lislaine Aparecida
to evaluate the healthcare provided to children under two years old by the Family Health Strategy. evaluative, quantitative, cross-sectional study that used the Primary Care Assessment Tool - Child Version for measuring the access, longitudinality, coordination, integrality, family orientation and community orientation. a total of 586 adults responsible for children under two years old and linked to 33 health units in eleven municipalities of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were interviewed. The evaluation was positive for the attributes longitudinality and coordination, and negative for access, integrality, Family orientation and community orientation. there are discrepancies between health needs of children and what is offered by the service; organizational barriers to access; absence of counter-reference; predominance of curative and long-standing and individual preventive practices; verticalization in organization of actions; and lack of good communication between professionals and users.
Li, J.T. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Qiu, J.W. [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wang, X.W. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhong, Y. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Lan, C.Y. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Shu, W.S. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This study examines cadmium (Cd) contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees in Guangzhou, China, and assesses its potential health risk. Soils and tissues samples of three species of fruit trees were collected from three orchards. The average soil Cd concentration was 1.27, 1.84 and 0.68 mg/kg in orchards I, II, and III, respectively. The carambola (Averrhoa carambola) accumulated exceptionally high concentrations of Cd (7.57, 10.84, 9.01 and 2.15 mg/kg dw in root, twig, leaf and fruit, respectively), being 6.0-24 times and 4.0-10 times the corresponding tissue Cd in the longan (Dimocarpus longan) and wampee (Clausena lansium), respectively. Furthermore, all Cd concentrations (0.04-0.25 mg Cd/kg fw) of the fruits exceeded the tolerance limit of cadmium in foods of PR China (0.03 mg/kg fw). Our results indicate that the carambola tree has high Cd accumulation capacity and might be a Cd accumulator; and its fruit, among the three species of fruits studied, also poses the highest potential health risk to local residents. - Carambola fruit can accumulate high levels of cadmium and may be a health risk for humans.
Li, J.T.; Qiu, J.W.; Wang, X.W.; Zhong, Y.; Lan, C.Y.; Shu, W.S.
This study examines cadmium (Cd) contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees in Guangzhou, China, and assesses its potential health risk. Soils and tissues samples of three species of fruit trees were collected from three orchards. The average soil Cd concentration was 1.27, 1.84 and 0.68 mg/kg in orchards I, II, and III, respectively. The carambola (Averrhoa carambola) accumulated exceptionally high concentrations of Cd (7.57, 10.84, 9.01 and 2.15 mg/kg dw in root, twig, leaf and fruit, respectively), being 6.0-24 times and 4.0-10 times the corresponding tissue Cd in the longan (Dimocarpus longan) and wampee (Clausena lansium), respectively. Furthermore, all Cd concentrations (0.04-0.25 mg Cd/kg fw) of the fruits exceeded the tolerance limit of cadmium in foods of PR China (0.03 mg/kg fw). Our results indicate that the carambola tree has high Cd accumulation capacity and might be a Cd accumulator; and its fruit, among the three species of fruits studied, also poses the highest potential health risk to local residents. - Carambola fruit can accumulate high levels of cadmium and may be a health risk for humans
A. Sreenivasa Murthy
Full Text Available With the spurt in the amount of data (Image, video, audio, speech, & text available on the net, there is a huge demand for memory & bandwidth savings. One has to achieve this, by maintaining the quality & fidelity of the data acceptable to the end user. Wavelet transform is an important and practical tool for data compression. Set partitioning in hierarchal trees (SPIHT is a widely used compression algorithm for wavelet transformed images. Among all wavelet transform and zero-tree quantization based image compression algorithms SPIHT has become the benchmark state-of-the-art algorithm because it is simple to implement & yields good results. In this paper we present a comparative study of various wavelet families for image compression with SPIHT algorithm. We have conducted experiments with Daubechies, Coiflet, Symlet, Bi-orthogonal, Reverse Bi-orthogonal and Demeyer wavelet types. The resulting image quality is measured objectively, using peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR, and subjectively, using perceived image quality (human visual perception, HVP for short. The resulting reduction in the image size is quantified by compression ratio (CR.
Hoeeg, Didde; Grabowski, Dan; Christensen, Ulla
Purpose: To treat childhood obesity, health education interventions are often aimed at the whole family. However, such interventions seem to have a relatively limited effect on weight loss. The purpose of this paper is to examine how families enrolled in a family-based health education intervention manage the intervention in their daily lives and…
Kajungu Dan K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug prescription practices depend on several factors related to the patient, health worker and health facilities. A better understanding of the factors influencing prescription patterns is essential to develop strategies to mitigate the negative consequences associated with poor practices in both the public and private sectors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in rural Tanzania among patients attending health facilities, and health workers. Patients, health workers and health facilities-related factors with the potential to influence drug prescription patterns were used to build a model of key predictors. Standard data mining methodology of classification tree analysis was used to define the importance of the different factors on prescription patterns. Results This analysis included 1,470 patients and 71 health workers practicing in 30 health facilities. Patients were mostly treated in dispensaries. Twenty two variables were used to construct two classification tree models: one for polypharmacy (prescription of ≥3 drugs on a single clinic visit and one for co-prescription of artemether-lumefantrine (AL with antibiotics. The most important predictor of polypharmacy was the diagnosis of several illnesses. Polypharmacy was also associated with little or no supervision of the health workers, administration of AL and private facilities. Co-prescription of AL with antibiotics was more frequent in children under five years of age and the other important predictors were transmission season, mode of diagnosis and the location of the health facility. Conclusion Standard data mining methodology is an easy-to-implement analytical approach that can be useful for decision-making. Polypharmacy is mainly due to the diagnosis of multiple illnesses.
There are 11.2 million children with special health care needs in the United States or one in five households caring for a special needs child. A small group of children who need continuous medical, nursing, therapeutic services that enable them to survive is growing in numbers. This study examined physical health (physical functioning), mental health (emotional, social, and cognitive functioning; communication; and worry), family functioning (daily activities, family relationships), and care burden (caregiver employment, caregiving time, travel time, health-related out-of-pocket expenditures) of parent caregivers for medically complex, medical technology-dependent children. Data were collected once a month for 5 months on 84 parents recruited in South Florida using the Pediatric Quality of Life Family Impact Module. Physically, parents were tired when they woke up: too tired to do the things they liked to do and with little energy for chores or social activities. Mentally, they were frustrated, anxious, and angry; felt helpless and hopeless; had cognitive problems remembering and focusing on tasks; were worried about the child's medications, treatments, side effects; and were anxious about child's future and effect of the child's condition on other family members. Socially, they felt isolated and that people did not understand their family situation; they found it hard to talk with others including physicians and nurses. Average weekly hours of direct care was 33.0 (SD = 30.4 hours); average monthly out-of-pocket expenditures was $348.78 (SD = $623.34). It is essential to assess parents' physical and mental health and functioning and to provide interventions to improve health and functioning for both the parents and the children for whom they are caring. © The Author(s) 2014.
Djavan Gomes Leite
Full Text Available Objective: Describe and characterize NASF health practices. Method: It is a review of current literature carried out by consulting the database Lilacs and Virtual Library of SciELO in the period from December 2016 to January 2017. Conclusion: It is concluded that, although the NASF is recognized as a support to the Family Health Strategy (FHS, still does not act in an articulated way, being fundamental that changes take place in the organization of the services and in the conduct of the health professionals who contemplate it. Descriptors: Primary Health Care. Family Health; Public Health Policies. Nursing.
Li, J T; Qiu, J W; Wang, X W; Zhong, Y; Lan, C Y; Shu, W S
This study examines cadmium (Cd) contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees in Guangzhou, China, and assesses its potential health risk. Soils and tissues samples of three species of fruit trees were collected from three orchards. The average soil Cd concentration was 1.27, 1.84 and 0.68 mg/kg in orchards I, II, and III, respectively. The carambola (Averrhoa carambola) accumulated exceptionally high concentrations of Cd (7.57, 10.84, 9.01 and 2.15 mg/kg dw in root, twig, leaf and fruit, respectively), being 6.0-24 times and 4.0-10 times the corresponding tissue Cd in the longan (Dimocarpus longan) and wampee (Clausena lansium), respectively. Furthermore, all Cd concentrations (0.04-0.25 mg Cd/kg fw) of the fruits exceeded the tolerance limit of cadmium in foods of PR China (0.03 mg/kg fw). Our results indicate that the carambola tree has high Cd accumulation capacity and might be a Cd accumulator; and its fruit, among the three species of fruits studied, also poses the highest potential health risk to local residents.
Beuchert, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund
We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation,we estimate the effect of the length of maternity leave on a range of health indicators including the number of hospital admissions for both mother and child and the probability of the mother receiving antidepressants. The reform led to an increa...
... resources, financing, related services and parent-to-parent support for families with children and youth... make informed health care decisions, be full partners in decision-making and access needed resources/referrals and financing for those services in the state of Florida. It is also imperative that the center...
Sonalkar, Sarita; Gaffield, Mary E
The postpartum period offers multiple opportunities for healthcare providers to assist with family planning decision making. However, there are also many changing factors during the first year after delivery that can affect family planning choices. Given that several different documents have addressed WHO guidance on postpartum family planning, the electronic WHO Postpartum Family Planning Compendium (http://srhr.org/postpartumfp) has been introduced. This resource integrates essential guidance on postpartum family planning for clinicians, program managers, and policy makers. The development of the Compendium included consultations with family planning experts, key international stakeholders, and web developers. Once the website had been created, user testing by family planning experts allowed for improvements to be made before the official launch. Future directions are adaptation of the website into a mobile application that can be more easily integrated to low-resource settings, and translation of the content into French and Spanish. © 2016 World Health Organization. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health and well-being are the result of synergistic interactions among a variety of determinants. Family structure and composition are social determinants that may also affect health behaviours and outcomes. This study was performed to examine the associations between family structure and health and to determine the protective effects of support mechanisms to improve quality of health outcome. Methods Six hundred people, selected by multistage sampling to obtain a representative population of men and women aged 20–60 living in communities in Japan, were included in this study. Data regarding subjective views of one's own health, family structure, lifestyle and social support were collected through structured face-to-face interviews on home visits. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, height and weight were measured by trained examiners. The associations between family structure and health after controlling for demographics, lifestyle and social support were examined using logistic and linear regression analyses. Results Subjects living alone were significantly more likely to be in ill health, as determined using the General Health Questionnaire, in comparison to those in extended families (OR = 3.14. Subjects living alone or as couples were significantly more likely to suffer from severe hypertension in comparison to those living in extended families (OR = 8.25, OR = 4.90. These associations remained after controlling for the influence of lifestyle. Subjects living only with spouse or in nuclear family had higher probabilities of mental ill health in the absence than in the presence of people showing concern for their well-being. Conclusion The results of this study infers that a support mechanism consisting of companionship and the presence of family or other people concerned for one's well being acts as a buffer against deleterious influence of living in small family that will lead to improved quality of health outcome.
Background: Malaria is common among communities of Kabale district, and many young children die of the illness. Despite a good distribution of health facilities, able to handle malaria patients, families and individuals tend to depend on self-treatment, or private clinics where drugs used may be of doubtful quality.
Morris, Rita I.; Strong, Linda
Qualitative research using the symbolic interactionism framework and grounded theory methodology was employed to discover the perceived health problems and dangers that homeless families with children endure. Data were collected using semistructured interviews from 34 homeless volunteer participants with 87 children. An in-depth analysis of the…
research on which this article is reporting, was to explore and describe the health promotion needs of families with adolescents orphaned by human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The research was located within a qualitative paradigm that is both exploratory and descriptive.
Health psychology in family practice: Fulfilling a vital need. A Kagee, P Naidoo. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...
Schulz, Richard; Sherwood, Paula R.
The associations between physical and psychological health and being an informal caregiver are well established. In this article, "caregiving" denotes care that is provided by a family member or friend rather than by a professional who is reimbursed for services. Clinical observation and early empirical research showed that assuming a caregiving…
Full Text Available The range of the community nurse’s work in family health care is much wider than that portrayed by the stereotype which many people, both lay and professional, have of it — namely, mother and baby clinics.
Nascimento, Antonio Carlos; Moysés, Simone Tetu; Bisinelli, Julio Cesar; Moysés, Samuel Jorge
To evaluate public health dentistry practices of two different family health models. Qualitative study conducted with data obtained from focus groups consisting of 58 dentists working in the Family Health Strategy for at least three years between August-October, 2006. The Paideia Family Health Approach was used in the city of Campinas and the Oral Health Initiative as part of the Family Health Strategy was implemented in the city of Curitiba, Southeastern and Southern Brazil, respectively. Data was analyzed using the hermeneutic-dialectic method. Analysis indicators were employed to indicate backwardness, stagnation or progress in oral health practices effective from the implementation of the strategies referred. The indicators used were: work process; interdisciplinary approach; territorialization; capacity building of human resources; health promotion practices; and responsiveness to users' demands. There was progress in user access to services, humanization of health care, patient welcoming and patient-provider relationship. The results related to health promotion practices, territorialization, interdisciplinary approach and resource capacity building indicated a need for technical and operational enhancements in both cities. Both models have brought about important advances in terms of increased access to services and humanization of health care. Universal access to oral health at all levels of complexity was not achieved in both cities studied. Local health managers and oral health program coordinators must bring more weight to bear in the arena that defines public policy priorities.
Robertson, W; Friede, T; Blissett, J; Rudolf, M C J; Wallis, M; Stewart-Brown, S
To develop and evaluate "Families for Health", a new community based family intervention for childhood obesity. Programme development, pilot study and evaluation using intention-to-treat analysis. Coventry, England. 27 overweight or obese children aged 7-13 years (18 girls, 9 boys) and their parents, from 21 families. Families for Health is a 12-week programme with parallel groups for parents and children, addressing parenting, lifestyle change and social and emotional development. Change in baseline BMI z score at the end of the programme (3 months) and 9-month follow-up. Attendance, drop-out, parents' perception of the programme, child's quality of life and self-esteem, parental mental health, parent-child relationships and lifestyle changes were also measured. Attendance rate was 62%, with 18 of the 27 (67%) children completing the programme. For the 22 children with follow-up data (including four who dropped out), BMI z score was reduced by -0.18 (95% CI -0.30 to -0.05) at 3 months and -0.21 (-0.35 to -0.07) at 9 months. Statistically significant improvements were observed in children's quality of life and lifestyle (reduced sedentary behaviour, increased steps and reduced exposure to unhealthy foods), child-parent relationships and parents' mental health. Fruit and vegetable consumption, participation in moderate/vigorous exercise and children's self-esteem did not change significantly. Topics on parenting skills, activity and food were rated as helpful and used with confidence by most parents. Families for Health is a promising new childhood obesity intervention. Definitive evaluation of its clinical effectiveness by randomised controlled trial is now required.
Jaskolski, Mariusz; Dauter, Zbigniew; Wlodawer, Alexander
As a contribution to the celebration of the year 2014, declared by the United Nations to be 'The International Year of Crystallography', the FEBS Journal is dedicating this issue to papers showcasing the intimate union between macromolecular crystallography and structural biology, both in historical perspective and in current research. Instead of a formal editorial piece, by way of introduction, this review discusses the most important, often iconic, achievements of crystallographers that led to major advances in our understanding of the structure and function of biological macromolecules. We identified at least 42 scientists who received Nobel Prizes in Physics, Chemistry or Medicine for their contributions that included the use of X-rays or neutrons and crystallography, including 24 who made seminal discoveries in macromolecular sciences. Our spotlight is mostly, but not only, on the recipients of this most prestigious scientific honor, presented in approximately chronological order. As a summary of the review, we attempt to construct a genealogy tree of the principal lineages of protein crystallography, leading from the founding members to the present generation. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Ferreira, Luale Leão; Brandão, Gustavo Antônio Martins; Garcia, Gustavo; Batista, Marília Jesus; Costa, Ludmila da Silva Tavares; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Possobon, Rosana de Fátima
Overall health surveys have related family cohesion to socio-economic status and behavioral factors. The scope of this study was to investigate the association between family cohesion and socio-economic, behavioral and oral health factors. This was a, cross-sectional study with two-stage cluster sampling. The random sample consisted of 524 adolescents attending public schools in the city of Piracicaba-SP. Variables were evaluated by self-applied questionnaires and caries and periodontal disease were assessed by DMF-T and CPI indices. The adolescent's perception of family cohesion was assessed using the family adaptability and cohesion scale. Univariate and multinomial logistic regression shows that adolescents with low family cohesion were more likely than those with medium family cohesion to have low income (OR 2,28 95% CI 1,14- 4,55), presence of caries (OR 2,23 95% CI 1,21-4,09), less than two daily brushings (OR 1,91 95% CI 1,03-3,54). Adolescents with high family cohesion were more likely than those with medium family cohesion to have high income and protective behavior against the habit of smoking. Thus, the data shows that adolescent perception of family cohesion was associated with behavioral, socio-economic and oral health variables, indicating the importance of an integral approach to patient health.
Gryschek, Guilherme; Pinto, Adriana Avanzi Marques
Mental health is one of the responsibilities of Brazil's Family Health system. This review of literature sought to understand what position Mental Health occupies in the practice of the Family Health Strategy. A search was made of the scientific literature in the database of the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde), for the keywords: 'Mental Health'; 'Family Health'; 'Primary Healthcare'. The criteria for inclusion were: Brazilian studies from 2009 through 2012 that contributed to understanding of the following question: "How to insert Mental health care into the routine of the Family Health Strategy?" A total of 11 articles were found, which identified difficulties and strategies of the professionals in Primary Healthcare in relation to mental health. Referral, and medicalization, were common practices. Matrix Support is the strategy of training and skill acquisition for teams that enables new approaches in mental health in the context of Primary healthcare. It is necessary for Management of the Health System to take an active role in the construction of healthcare networks in mental health.
Beuchert-Pedersen, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund
We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation, we estimate the effect of the lenght...... of maternity leave on a range of health indicators including the number of hospital admissions for both mother and child and the probability of the mother receiving antidepressants. The reform led to an increase in average post-birth maternity leave matters for child or maternal health outcomes and thus we...... complement the existing evidence on maternity leave expansions that tends to find limited effects on children's later deveopmental, educational, and labor market outcomes. Our results suggest that any beneficial effects of increasing the lenght of maternity leave are greater for low-resource families....
Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Stolley, Melinda R; Schiffer, Linda; Kong, Angela; Braunschweig, Carol L; Gomez-Perez, Sandra L; Odoms-Young, Angela; Van Horn, Linda; Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Dyer, Alan R
This pilot study tested the feasibility of Family-Based Hip-Hop to Health, a school-based obesity prevention intervention for 3-5-year-old Latino children and their parents, and estimated its effectiveness in producing smaller average changes in BMI at 1-year follow-up. Four Head Start preschools administered through the Chicago Public Schools were randomly assigned to receive a Family-Based Intervention (FBI) or a General Health Intervention (GHI). Parents signed consent forms for 147 of the 157 children enrolled. Both the school-based and family-based components of the intervention were feasible, but attendance for the parent intervention sessions was low. Contrary to expectations, a downtrend in BMI Z-score was observed in both the intervention and control groups. While the data reflect a downward trend in obesity among these young Hispanic children, obesity rates remained higher at 1-year follow-up (15%) than those reported by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-2010) for 2-5-year-old children (12.1%). Developing evidence-based strategies for obesity prevention among Hispanic families remains a challenge. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.
Loeste de Arruda-Barbosa
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the evaluation of the users regarding the family health services and identify the main reasons that led them to seek such services. Methods: A descriptive study with qualitative approach, carried out in 5 Family Health Units with 25 users of theFamily Health Strategy (FHS of the city of Crato-CE, Brazil. The study took place from March to April 2009. Semi-structured interview was applied and recorded. We used thetechnique of thematic content analysis. Results: We found that the users of the FHS have great dissatisfaction, especially on the organization and access to health services, evaluating the family health as inefficient, although bringing care closer to the population, primarily through home visits. It was clear also that there is a search to the service mainly supported by curative vision and the acquisition of medicines. Conclusions: The subjects evaluate the organization and access to healthcare services as unsatisfactory, but value the actions, when there is a bond with the health team. However, there is still demand for health services, based on the search for medicines and medical consultation. Thus, it is necessary to improve services of the Family Health Strategy in Crato, with a view to ensure quality, accessibilityand greater resolution of health services.
Full Text Available Based on a comprehensive literature analysis, we present a critical review of those optical remote sensing techniques operating with the visible (VIS and near infrared (NIR bands for the assessment of health in forest trees. Physical, biological and physio-pathological issues of VIS-NIR reflectance of leaves are described pointing out that a decrease of NIR reflectance is highly influenced by stress conditions on tree caused by abiotic and biotic factors. In many cases the NIR spectral band is more sensitive than the VIS one, allowing to detect plant stress long before the appearance of visible symptoms. A description of the main remote sensing methods is provided, including radiometric measurements and multispectral imaging approaches. False colour infrared (FCIR images collection and their photointerpretation and processing are shown as they represent the most relevant means to acquire information of canopy from its reflectance properties. The amount and the quality of the obtainable data depend on: (i field conditions; (ii the type of the adopted instrument (camera, radiometer; (iii the recording system position (ground platforms, aircraft, satellite; (iv the format of the data (analogical, digitalised or digital; and (v the photointerpretation technique. Results from literature are discussed stressing the limits of remote sensing methods. Remote sensing in VIS and NIR spectral bands is generally a powerful classification tool to detect and score tree stress. Nevertheless, it is not a diagnostic tool in that it does not provide information on the cause of stress. Moreover, the method should be adequately tested at single tree level for many important pathogens, in particular root rot, butt rot and stem rot fungi. In perspective, new high spatial resolution satellite images and their GIS software elaboration might be suitable to improve remote sensing analysis.
Full Text Available Aim To show the benefits of data mining in health care management.In this example, we are going to show a way to raise awarenessof women in terms of contraceptive methods they use (do notuse.Methods Goal of the data mining analysis was to determine ifthere are common characteristics of the women according to theirchoice of contraception (typical classification problem. Therefore,we decided to use decision trees. We have generated a CHAIDmodel in “Statistica”, based on the database that was formed as aresult of an Indonesian research that was conducted in 1987. Thesample contains married women who were either not pregnant ordid not know if they were pregnant at the time of the interview.The database consists of 1473 cases. Also, an extensive internetsearch was conducted in order to detect a number of articles citedin scientific databases published on the subject of data mining inhealth care management.Results It has shown that the most important variable in case ofwomen’s choice of contraceptive methods is – a husband’s profession.Also we retrieved 221 articles published on the application ofdata mining in health care.Conclusion The goal of the paper is achieved in two ways: first,retrieving 221 articles published on the subject we have proved thebenefits of data mining in the health care management. Second,the decision tree method is successfully applied in explanation ofwomen’s choice of contraceptive methods.
de Brito, Cristiane Miryam Drumond; Silveira, Regiane da; Mendonça, Daniele Busatto; Joaquim, Regina Helena Vitale Torkomian
Working with different forms of artistic and cultural expressions has been considered a form of health intervention to enhance the understanding and thinking about the needs in this field. A group of clown doctors conducted home visits for eight months to ten families located in micro areas of two family health teams. The practice aimed at expanding the solvability of the care given to people and to communities through the intense proximity established by the art of clownery. The idea consisted of making interventions in the homes of socially vulnerable families indicated by the family health teams using joy, humor, and laughter to stimulate reflections on the daily problems. The presence of "clown doctors" in the houses built strong and free bonds with the families and enhanced the humanized and comprehensive care within the context of family health strategy. Clowns and families found a special way to find possible solutions to the difficulties faced on a daily basis. Male and female clowns were able to manage new subjective constructions for each family to deal with everyday situations.
Nascimento, Débora Dupas Gonçalves do; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos
Analyzing the work process in the Family Health Support Center. An exploratory, descriptive case study using a qualitative approach. Focus groups were conducted with 20 workers of a Family Health Support Center, and the empirical material was subjected to content analysis technique and analyzed in light of Work Psychodynamics. The category of suffering is presented herein as arising from the dialectical contradiction between actual work and prescribed work, from resistance to the Family Health Support Center's proposal and a lack of understanding of their role; due to an immediatist and curative culture of the users and the Family Health Strategy; of the profile, overload and identification with work. The dialectical contradiction between expectations from Family Health Strategy teams and the work in the Family Health Support Center compromises its execution and creates suffering for workers. Analisar o processo de trabalho no Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família. Estudo de caso exploratório, descritivo e de abordagem qualitativa. Grupos focais foram realizados com 20 trabalhadores do Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família, o material empírico foi submetido à técnica de análise de conteúdo e analisado à luz da Psicodinâmica do Trabalho. Apresenta-se aqui a categoria sofrimento que neste estudo decorre da contradição dialética entre o trabalho real e o trabalho prescrito, da resistência à proposta do Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família e da falta de compreensão de seu papel; da cultura imediatista e curativa do usuário e da Estratégia Saúde da Família; do perfil, sobrecarga e identificação com o trabalho. A contradição dialética entre expectativas das equipes da Estratégia Saúde da Família e o trabalho no Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família compromete sua efetivação e gera sofrimento aos trabalhadores.
Wang, Catharine; Sen, Ananda; Plegue, Melissa; Ruffin, Mack T; O'Neill, Suzanne M; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Acheson, Louise S
This study examines the impact of Family Healthware™ on communication behaviors; specifically, communication with family members and health care providers about family health history. A total of 3786 participants were enrolled in the Family Healthware™ Impact Trial (FHITr) in the United States from 2005-7. The trial employed a two-arm cluster-randomized design, with primary care practices serving as the unit of randomization. Using generalized estimating equations (GEE), analyses focused on communication behaviors at 6month follow-up, adjusting for age, site and practice clustering. A significant interaction was observed between study arm and baseline communication status for the family communication outcomes (p'scommunicating at baseline and those who were not. Among participants who were not communicating at baseline, intervention participants had higher odds of communicating with family members about family history risk (OR=1.24, p=0.042) and actively collecting family history information at follow-up (OR=2.67, p=0.026). Family Healthware™ did not have a significant effect on family communication among those already communicating at baseline, or on provider communication, regardless of baseline communication status. Greater communication was observed among those at increased familial risk for a greater number of diseases. Family Healthware™ prompted more communication about family history with family members, among those who were not previously communicating. Efforts are needed to identify approaches to encourage greater sharing of family history information, particularly with health care providers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kimla, Katarina; Nathanson, Dania; Woolfenden, Susan; Zwi, Karen
Objective The aims of the present study were to describe the prevalence of vulnerability in a cohort of newborns, identify the factors that increase the risk of vulnerability and examine whether those who are most vulnerable are receiving home visits. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was performed using data collected from questionnaires completed by child and family health nurses and obstetric discharge summaries for each mother-baby dyad. Descriptive frequencies and percentages are used to describe the proportions of children who were vulnerable, offered services and had risk factors for vulnerability. Categorical data were compared using Pearson's Chi-squared analysis. Results In all, 1517 newborns were included in the present study. Of these, 40.5% were identified as vulnerable and 13.9% had two or more risk factors for vulnerability (95% confidence interval (CI) 12-16%). The most common risk factors were biological. Across all newborns, 33.7% were visited at home, and 74.6% of vulnerable newborns were offered a home visit. Children identified as vulnerable were more likely to have a home visit than those who were not (z for 95% CI=1.96; Pvulnerability allowed the offer of home visiting to be directed towards those most likely to benefit. What is known about the topic? Of the Australian child population, 10-20% are vulnerable to adverse health, developmental and wellbeing outcomes. Vulnerable infants are at a greater risk of becoming vulnerable children, adolescents and adults over the life course. Biological and psychosocial risk factors for vulnerability are well described. Families with the greatest need are often the least likely to access or receive support, and have lower utilisation of preventative health services despite evidence that support in the first few years of life can significantly improve long-term outcomes. What does this paper add? This paper provides a detailed description of vulnerabilities in a cohort of newborns and
The extent to which selected aspects of family health potential (strengths, motivation, and resources) predicted health work (health-related problem-solving and goal attainment behaviors) was examined in a Canadian sample of 138 female-headed single-parent families and two-parent families. The mother and one child (age 10-14) each completed mailed self-report instruments to assess the independent variables of family cohesion, family pride, mother's non-traditional sex role orientation, general self-efficacy, internal health locus of control, network support, community support, and family income, as well as the dependent variable, health work. With the effects of mothers' education held constant, the independent variables predicted 22 to 27% of the variance in health work in the total sample and each family type. Family cohesion was the most consistent predictor of health work, accounting for 8 to 13% of the variance. The findings challenge existing problem-oriented views of single-parent families by focusing on their potential to engage in health promotion behavior.
Yeğen, Hale Nur; Çetin, Merve
Me and my family, Families poem, Mother-Father, Brother-Sister, Grandparents, Uncle-Aunt, Cousin, Family, Family handgame, My family tree, Activities (Three In a Family), Digital Games, A family poem, Quiz
Rafael, Ricardo de Mattos Russo; Moura, Anna Tereza Miranda Soares de; Tavares, Jeane Marques Cunha; Ferreira, Renata Evelin Moreno; Camilo, Glauce Gomes da Silva; Neto, Mercedes
To estimate the profile of intimate partner violence involving women in a scenario of Family Health Strategy in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu (Rio de Janeiro). A transversal study was conducted in four units with a sample of 640 women between the ages of 25 to 64. The phenomena of violence was determined using the tool Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, validated for Brazil. Statistical analysis took into consideration an estimation of prevalence in the calculation of the p values. The situations of violence and the sociodemographic profiles demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with the variables of educational level and housing conditions. Age, ethnicity and economic class demonstrated an association with certain types of violence, varying in type and severity. The study investigated the profile of these situations of violence and enabled reflection regarding the approaches adopted by the Family Health Strategy teams.
Ricardo de Mattos Russo Rafael
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the profile of intimate partner violence involving women in a scenario of Family Health Strategy in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu (Rio de Janeiro. Method: A transversal study was conducted in four units with a sample of 640 women between the ages of 25 to 64. The phenomena of violence was determined using the tool Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, validated for Brazil. Statistical analysis took into consideration an estimation of prevalence in the calculation of the p values. Results: The situations of violence and the sociodemographic profiles demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with the variables of educational level and housing conditions. Age, ethnicity and economic class demonstrated an association with certain types of violence, varying in type and severity. Conclusion: The study investigated the profile of these situations of violence and enabled reflection regarding the approaches adopted by the Family Health Strategy teams.
Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento
Full Text Available The study is a descriptive and quantitative approach, which aimed to meet customers the option of surgical contraception by a Family Health Unit in the municipality of Barra do Herons - Mato Grosso. Data were collected on 22 forms of reference that would be forwarded to the sector and family planning counseling. Data were collected and grouped by age, marital status, gender, children and quantitative choice of surgical method of contraception. The period of data collection occurred from March to December 2011. The age group with the highest participation was from 18 to 25 years. Predominantly single, female, with two sons and opting for sterilization. The variety of options to be used as contraceptive methods should be widely publicized and encouraged by health professionals, leaving the surgical methods of reversible or irreversible disruption as a last choice.
Velasco, David; Sánchez de Miguel, Manuel; Egurza, Maitane; Arranz, Enrique; Aranbarri, Aritz; Fano, Eduardo; Ibarluzea, Jesús
To analyze the factorial structure of a new instrument to assess the quality of the family context (Etxadi-Gangoiti Scale) in a sample from the Gipuzkoa cohort of the Environment and Childhood (Infancia y Medio Ambiente [INMA]) study. Families in a sample of 433 two-year-old children were assessed in a home visit with subsequent analysis of the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the data. An exploratory factorial analysis (principal axis factoring and varimax rotation) and a confirmatory factorial analysis were carried out; partial confirmation of the original factorial structure of the instrument was obtained, which revealed the following factorial structures. Subscale (1): promotion of cognitive and linguistic development, social skills, psychomotor skills, and pretend play and imitation; subscale (2): promotion of independence and self-esteem, provision of optimal frustration, social and emotional quality of the relationship, and absence of physical punishment; subscale (3): paternal involvement, low exposure to family conflict, low frequency of family conflict, relationship with the extended family, social support, diversity of experiences, low frequency of stressful events, and low parental perception of stress. The structure of the original instrument structure was partially confirmed, which was attributed to the characteristics of the sample. We stress the importance of the variability obtained in the evaluation of the families, as well as of adequate indicators of reliability in such evaluation. The new instrument could be used in public health to identify deficient family contexts and to design preventive interventions focused on parenting skills. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Peterson, Lars E; Blackburn, Brenna; Ivins, Douglas; Mitchell, Jason; Matson, Christine; Phillips, Robert L
Spurred by government incentives, the use of electronic health records (EHRs) in the United States has increased; however, whether these EHRs have the functionality necessary to meet meaningful use (MU) criteria remains unknown. Our objective was to characterize family physician access to MU functionality when using a MU-certified EHR. Data were obtained from a convenience survey of family physicians accessing their American Board of Family Medicine online portfolio in 2011. A brief survey queried MU functionality. We used descriptive statistics to characterize the responses and bivariate statistics to test associations between MU and patient communication functions by presence of a MU-certified EHR. Out of 3855 respondents, 60% reported having an EHR that supports MU. Physicians with MU-certified EHRs were more likely than physicians without MU-certified EHRs to report patient registry activities (49.7% vs. 32.3%, p-valuevs. 56.4%, p-valuecommunication abilities were low regardless of EHR capabilities. Family physicians with MU-certified EHRs are more likely to report MU functionality; however, a sizeable minority does not report MU functions. Many family physicians with MU-certified EHRs may not successfully meet the successively stringent MU criteria and may face significant upgrade costs to do so. Cross sectional survey. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cărăuşu, Elena Mihaela; Mihăilă, C B; Indrei, L L
Education for oral-dental health in children is that component of general health education aimed at creating cultural health models, cultivating in the young generation a healthy hygienic behaviour and outlying the opinions about the ways dental disorders can be prevented and treated. The most important goal of health education is to contribute to the preservation/improvement of children's oral health status. This study has two main goals: to assess the exact health education knowledge of the questioned parents and to evaluate their involvement in the oral health education and promotion. This study included 95 parents, aged between 25 and 49 years, with children in primary schools. For data collection a questionnaire was used. The questions were grouped on common features: food habits and healthy diet, causes of oral disease, prevention of oral disease, dental visit habits, oral hygiene habits. The study revealed that parents have a moderate knowledge about dental health education and dental caries prevention, no significant sex differences being found, and poor knowledge about periodontal diseases prevention. As to food hygiene, parents proved a sound knowledge about healthy and unhealthy diet. Our conclusions at the end of this study is that the family with children in primary schools do not get involved in oral/dental health education.
Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Ehrensaft, Diane; Vetters, Ralph; Forcier, Michelle; Austin, S Bryn
Transgender and gender-nonconforming (TGN) youth are at increased risk for adverse mental health outcomes, but better family functioning may be protective. This study describes TGN youth's mental health and associations with family functioning in a community-based sample. Participants were from 33 families (96 family members) and included 33 TGN youth, ages 13 to 17 years; 48 cisgender (non-transgender) caregivers; and 15 cisgender siblings. Participants completed a survey with measures of family functioning (family communication, family satisfaction) and mental health of TGN youth (suicidality, self-harm, depression, anxiety, self-esteem, resilience). TGN youth reported a high risk of mental health concerns: suicidality (15% to 30%), self-harm (49%), clinically significant depressive symptoms (61%); and moderate self-esteem (M = 27.55, SD = 7.15) and resiliency (M = 3.67, SD = 0.53). In adjusted models, better family functioning from the TGN youth's perspective was associated with better mental health outcomes among TGN youth (β ranged from -0.40 to -0.65 for self-harm, depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms, and 0.58 to 0.70 for self-esteem and resiliency). Findings from this study highlight the importance of considering TGN youth's perspectives on the family to inform interventions to improve family functioning in families with TGN youth.
Full Text Available Nouf Al-Turki,1 Ayman AM Afify,1 Mohammed AlAteeq2 1Family Medicine Department, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, 2Department of Family Medicine and PHC, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Health care violence is a significant worldwide problem with negative consequences on both the safety and well-being of health care workers as well as workplace activities. Reports examining health care violence in Saudi Arabia are limited and the results are conflicting.Objective: To estimate the prevalence and determine the demographic and occupational characteristics associated with workplace violence in primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional study included 270 health care workers in 12 family medicine centers in Riyadh during November and December 2014. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency, timing, causes, reactions, and consequences of workplace violence plus participants’ demographic and occupational data.Results: A total 123 health care workers (45.6% experienced some kind of violence over 12 months prior to the study. These included physical (6.5% and nonphysical violence (99.2%, including verbal violence (94.3% and intimidation (22.0%. Offenders were patients (71.5% in the majority of cases, companions (20.3%, or both (3.3%. Almost half (48.0% of health care workers who experienced violence did nothing, 38.2% actively reported the event, and 13.8% consulted a colleague. A significant association of workplace violence was found with working multiple shifts, evening or night shift, and lack of an encouraging environment to report violence.Conclusion: Workplace violence is still a significant problem in primary care centers. The high frequency of violence together with underreporting may indicate the inefficiency of the current safety program. More safety programs and training activities for health care
In this article, Colin Macduff analyses the construction and testing of a typology of family health nursing practice. Following a summary of relevant methods and findings from two linked empirical research studies, more detailed analysis of the conceptual foundations, nature and purpose of the typology is presented. This process serves to exemplify and address some of the issues highlighted in the associated article that reviews the use of typologies within nursing.
Wang, Catharine; Sen, Ananda; Plegue, Melissa; Ruffin, Mack T.; O'Neill, Suzanne M.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Acheson, Louise S.
Objective This study examines the impact of Family Healthware™ on communication behaviors; specifically, communication with family members and health care providers about family health history. Methods A total of 3786 participants were enrolled in the Family Healthware™ Impact Trial (FHITr) in the United States from 2005-7. The trial employed a two-arm cluster-randomized design, with primary care practices serving as the unit of randomization. Using generalized estimating equations (GEE), analyses focused on communication behaviors at 6 month follow-up, adjusting for age, site and practice clustering. Results A significant interaction was observed between study arm and baseline communication status for the family communication outcomes (psfamily members about family history risk (OR=1.24, p=0.042) and actively collecting family history information at follow-up (OR=2.67, p=0.026). Family Healthware™ did not have a significant effect on family communication among those already communicating at baseline, or on provider communication, regardless of baseline communication status. Greater communication was observed among those at increased familial risk for a greater number of diseases. Conclusion Family Healthware™ prompted more communication about family history with family members, among those who were not previously communicating. Efforts are needed to identify approaches to encourage greater sharing of family history information, particularly with health care providers. PMID:25901453
Marcelo Costa Fernandes
Full Text Available Objective: to identify, from nurses’ speeches, the actions that enable care management in the Family Health Strategy.Methods: descriptive study with a qualitative approach conducted with 32 nurses of primary care. It was used a semistructuredinterview as the data collection technique. The methodological process of the collective subject discourse wasused to organize the data Results: from the nurses’ speeches one identified the categories: complementary relationshipbetween care and management; meeting with community health agents, a care management strategy in nurses’ work;health education activities such as a care management action and a health information system as an essential tool forcare Conclusion: it was possible to observe that nurses understood the importance of coordination and complementaritybetween the activities of the working process of care and management.
de Baca, Tomás Cabeza; Wahl, Richard A; Barnett, Melissa A; Figueredo, Aurelio José; Ellis, Bruce J
Epidemiologists and medical researchers often employ an allostatic load model that focuses on environmental and lifestyle factors, together with biological vulnerabilities, to explain the deterioration of human physiological systems and chronic degenerative disease. Although this perspective has informed medicine and public health, it is agnostic toward the functional significance of pathophysiology and health deterioration. Drawing on Life History (LH) theory, the current paper reviews the literature on disadvantaged families to serve as a conceptual model of stress-health relationships in which the allocation of reproductive effort is instantiated in the LH strategies of individuals and reflects the bioenergetic and material resource tradeoffs . We propose that researchers interested in health disparities reframe chronic degenerative diseases as outcomes resulting from strategic calibration of physiological systems to best adapt, survive, and reproduce in response to demands of specific developmental contexts. These effects of adversity on later-age degenerative disease are mediated, in part, by socioemotional and cognitive mechanisms expressed in different life history strategies.
Donovan, Geoffrey H; Butry, David T; Michael, Yvonne L; Prestemon, Jeffrey P; Liebhold, Andrew M; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Mao, Megan Y
Several recent studies have identified a relationship between the natural environment and improved health outcomes. However, for practical reasons, most have been observational, cross-sectional studies. A natural experiment, which provides stronger evidence of causality, was used to test whether a major change to the natural environment-the loss of 100 million trees to the emerald ash borer, an invasive forest pest-has influenced mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory diseases. Two fixed-effects regression models were used to estimate the relationship between emerald ash borer presence and county-level mortality from 1990 to 2007 in 15 U.S. states, while controlling for a wide range of demographic covariates. Data were collected from 1990 to 2007, and the analyses were conducted in 2011 and 2012. There was an increase in mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory-tract illness in counties infested with the emerald ash borer. The magnitude of this effect was greater as infestation progressed and in counties with above-average median household income. Across the 15 states in the study area, the borer was associated with an additional 6113 deaths related to illness of the lower respiratory system, and 15,080 cardiovascular-related deaths. Results suggest that loss of trees to the emerald ash borer increased mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory-tract illness. This finding adds to the growing evidence that the natural environment provides major public health benefits. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Köhler, M; Emmelin, M; Hjern, A; Rosvall, M
This study investigated the impact of being in family foster care on selected health determinants and participation in Child Health Services (CHS). Two groups of 100 children, born between 1992 and 2008, were studied using data from Swedish Child Health Services for the preschool period up to the age of six. The first group had been in family foster care, and the controls, matched for age, sex and geographic location, had not. Descriptive statistics were used to describe differences in health determinants and participation in Child Health Services between the two groups. The foster care group had higher health risks, with lower rates of breastfeeding and higher levels of parental smoking. They were less likely to have received immunisations and attended key nurse or physician visits and speech and vision screening. Missing data for the phenylketonuria test were more common in children in family foster care. Children in family foster care were exposed to more health risks than the control children and had lower participation in the universal child health programme during the preschool period. These results call for secure access to high-quality preventive health care for this particularly vulnerable group of children. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
R N Costa
Full Text Available The Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. and Cassia grandis L.f. species belong to the Fabaceae family, are characterized by their seeds present a dormant state, which limits the germination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of pre-germination treatments to overcome dormancy these species. Seeds were collected from matrix trees, located in Agreste of Alagoas and the research developed at the Federal University of Alagoas – Campus de Arapiraca. Overcoming of dormancy was studied in laboratory and greenhouse, where they were employed eight treatments with four replications of 25 seeds, in a completely randomized design: immersion in sulfuric acid (in three periods of immersion, depending on species, scarification with sandpaper, immersion in hot water at 80 °C (2.5 and 5 minutes, imbibition for 24 hours in distilled water and control (seeds without the application of any treatment. The evaluation of the results was made through of germination and emergence percentage; germination and emergence speed index and germination and emergence average time. The pre-germination treatments, mechanical scarification with sandpaper and chemical scarification with sulfuric acid in different immersion times were the most efficient to overcome the seeds dormancy of Sesbania virgata, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia and Cassia grandis Independent of the studied environments.
Tsen, Edward W J; Sitzia, Tommaso; Webber, Bruce L
Trees are natural repositories of valuable environmental information that is preserved in the growth and structure of their stems, branches and roots. Dendrochronological analyses, based on the counting, crossdating and characterisation of incrementally formed wood rings, offer powerful insights for diverse fields including ecology, climatology and archaeology. The application of this toolset is likely to increase in popularity over coming decades due to advances in the field and a reduction in the cost of analyses. In research settings where the continued value of living trees subject to dendrochronological investigation is important, the use of an increment bore corer to extract trunk tissue is considered the best option to minimise negative impacts on tree health (e.g. stress and fitness). A small and fragmented body of literature, however, reports significant after-effects, and in some cases fatal outcomes, from this sampling technique. As it stands, the literature documenting increment bore coring (IBC) impacts lacks experimental consistency and is poorly replicated, making it difficult for prospective users of the method to assess likely tree responses to coring. This paucity of information has the potential to lead to destructive misuse of the method and also limits its safe implementation in circumstances where the risk of impacts may be appropriate. If IBC is to fulfil its potential as a method of choice across research fields, then we must first address our limited understanding of IBC impacts and provide a framework for its appropriate future use. Firstly, we review the historical context of studies examining the impacts of IBC on trees to identify known patterns, focal issues and biases in existing knowledge. IBC wound responses, particularly those that impact on lumber quality, have been the primary focus of prior studies. No universal treatment was identified that conclusively improved wound healing and few studies have linked wound responses to tree
Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A; Saltzman, William; Woodward, Kirsten; MacDermid, Shelley W; Milburn, Norweeta; Mogil, Catherine; Beardslee, William
Family-centered preventive interventions have been proposed as relevant to mitigating psychological health risk and promoting resilience in military families facing wartime deployment and reintegration. This study evaluates the impact of a family-centered prevention program, Families OverComing Under Stress Family Resilience Training (FOCUS), on the psychological adjustment of military children. Two primary goals include (1) understanding the relationships of distress among family members using a longitudinal path model to assess relations at the child and family level and (2) determining pathways of program impact on child adjustment. Multilevel data analysis using structural equation modeling was conducted with deidentified service delivery data from 280 families (505 children aged 3-17) in two follow-up assessments. Standardized measures included service member and civilian parental distress (Brief Symptom Inventory, PTSD Checklist-Military), child adjustment (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and family functioning (McMaster Family Assessment Device). Distress was significantly related among the service member parent, civilian parent, and children. FOCUS improved family functioning, which in turn significantly reduced child distress at follow-up. Salient components of improved family functioning in reducing child distress mirrored resilience processes targeted by FOCUS. These findings underscore the public health potential of family-centered prevention for military families and suggest areas for future research. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Full Text Available This essay explores a relatively unexamined dimension of the discourse on nation and family in late nineteenth century India—the key emphasis laid on health in the configuration of a new, “modern” family as the basis of a healthy nation—and the importance of the accomplished mistress as the guardian of the family’s health and hygiene. This innovative focus enables a distinct reading of the nationalist discourse and provides elements which can be used to interrogate the concept of gender as necessarily framing relations between the binary of men and women. The importance ascribed to food, in particular healthy food, resulted in the evolution of a “modern” cuisine as men and women participated enthusiastically in the project of producing nutritive and delectable food for a healthy family. At the same time, the distinct ways men and women gave expression to their efforts underscored the discreet notions of authority, education, family, food, health and domestic economy, as well as women’s role that underlay such articulations. By means of a close reading of early cookbooks in Bengali written by women and men, columns on food in journals run by women, and domestic manuals authored by men, the essay contends that health and nutrition enabled men and women to develop a novel discourse on the family, where husband and wife often collaborated to establish their authority vis-à-vis male and female elders in an extended family. This included a move to over-write the extended family with that of a nuclear one. Educated women, in turn, creatively applied notions of love, beauty, nurture and care to legitimize their claims as the true mistress of this new, model family. At the same time, claims over healthy and savory food brought women—in columns of journals—in competition with one another over authenticity and food value, as well as thrift in the execution of their tried and tested recipes. In a similar manner, women authors of
Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody; Pandya, Chintan; Garg, Priyanka; Stafford, Jewel; Lachance, Christina
Family history contributes to risk for many common chronic diseases. Little research has investigated patient factors affecting communication of this information. 1061 adult community health center patients were surveyed. We examined factors related to frequency of discussions about family health history (FHH) with family members and doctors. Patients who talked frequently with family members about FHH were more likely to report a family history of cancer (p =.012) and heart disease (p history of heart disease (p = .011), meet physical activity recommendations (p = .022), seek health information frequently in newspapers (p history of some diseases, those not meeting physical activity recommendations, and those who do not frequently seek health information may not have ongoing FHH discussions. Interventions are needed to encourage providers to update patients' family histories systematically and assist patients in initiating FHH conversations in order to use this information for disease prevention and control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andira inermis (wright) DC. , Dog Almond of Fabaceae is a handsome lofty evergreen tree. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 4–7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are fragrant and are borne on compact branched inflorescences. Fruit is ellipsoidal one-seeded drupe that is peculiar to members of this family.
Rooks, Ronica N.; Ford, Cassandra
This personal reflection describes our experiences with incorporating the scholarship of teaching and learning and problem-based techniques to facilitate undergraduate student learning and their professional development in the health sciences. We created a family health history assignment to discuss key concepts in our courses, such as health…
Poutiainen, Hannele; Hakulinen, Tuovi; Mäki, Päivi; Laatikainen, Tiina
The study aimed to establish whether family characteristics and the health behaviour and illnesses of parents and children are associated with public health nurses' (PHNs') concerns about children's physical health and psychosocial development in the context of health examinations. Factors affecting children's health and well-being should be identified as early as possible to provide children and families appropriate support. In 2007-2009, a cross-sectional study in Finland collected information about PHNs' concerns, children's health and well-being as well as the background factors affecting them during health examinations of preschool-age children and school-aged children (n = 4795). Associations between family characteristics, parents' and children's behaviour and diseases, and PHNs' concerns were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Overweight in children, the long-term illnesses of both children and parents, and parental smoking were the factors most strongly associated with PHNs' concerns about a child's physical health whereas non-nuclear family types, the father's low educational level and unemployment, the child's lack of sleep, and bullying were associated with concerns about the child's psychosocial development. The connections found demonstrate that health examinations should address factors that affect the whole family's well-being so as to comprehensively promote children's health, growth and development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Mehrotra, Kanika; Nautiyal, Snigdha; Raguram, Ahalya
The present study was undertaken to examine the current level of mental health literacy in family caregivers and to compare the changes over a 23-year period between 1993 and 2016. The current sample consisted of 60 family caregivers of patients with major mental illness from the in-patient and out-patient departments of NIMHANS, assessed on the Orientation towards Mental Illness Scale (OMI). This was compared with data of 80 family caregivers from previous study done in 1993. Family caregivers in the current study showed a significant positive trend on comparison with the previous study. However, area of abnormal behaviour shows a worsening of negative attitudes. Hopelessness and hypo-functioning, relating to the factor of after-effects of mental illness show no significant difference. While knowledge about mental illnesses can be improved by providing information, this does not automatically translate to integration of the mentally ill in society. Current initiatives need to be matched with specific and sustained efforts to reduce stigma associated with mental illness which have persisted unchanged. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Psaila, Kim; Schmied, Virginia; Fowler, Cathrine; Kruske, Sue
To examine collaboration in the provision of universal health services for children and families in Australia from the perspective of midwives and child health and family health nurses. Collaboration is identified as a key concept contributing to families' smooth transition between maternity and child health services. However, evidence suggests that collaboration between services is often lacking. Few studies have explored how maternity and child health and family health services or professionals collaborate to facilitate a smooth transition. This study reports on data collected in phases 1 and 2 of a three-phase mixed-methods study investigating the feasibility of implementing a national approach to child health and family health services in Australia (Child Health: Researching Universal Services study). In phase 1, consultations (via discussion groups, focus groups and teleconferences) were held with 45 midwives and 60 child health and family health nurses. Themes identified were used to develop phase 2 surveys. In phase 2, 1098 child health and family health nurses and 655 midwives returned surveys. Midwives and child health and family health nurses reported 'some collaboration'. Midwives and child health and family health nurses indicated that collaboration was supported by having agreement on common goals and recognising and valuing the contributions of others. Organisational barriers such as poor communication and information transfer processes obstructed relationships. Good collaboration was reported more frequently when working with other professionals (such as allied health professionals) to support families with complex needs. This study provides information on the nature and extent of collaboration from the perspective of midwives and child health and family health nurses providing universal health services for children and families. Both professional groups emphasised the impact of service disconnection on families. However, their ability to negotiate
Scholars traditionally argued that industrialization, urbanization, and educational expansion lead to a decline in extended families and complementary rise in nuclear families. Some have suggested that such transitions are good for young married women because living in nuclear families benefits their health. However, extended families may also present advantages for young women's health that outweigh any disadvantages. Using the Indian National Family Health Survey, this article examines whether young married women living in nuclear families have better health than those in patrilocal extended families. It also examines whether young married women's living arrangements are changing over time and, if so, how such changes will affect their health. Results show that young married women living in nuclear families do not have better health than those in patrilocal extended families. Of eight health outcomes examined, only five differ significantly by family structure. Further, of the five outcomes that differ, four are patrilocal extended-family advantages and only one is a nuclear-family advantage. From 1992 to 2006, the percentage of young married women residing in nuclear families increased, although the majority remained in patrilocal extended families. This trend toward nuclear families will not benefit young women's health.
Canning, David; Schultz, T Paul
We consider the evidence for the effect of access to reproductive health services on the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 1, 2, and 3, which aim to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, and promote gender equality and empower women. At the household level, controlled trials in Matlab, Bangladesh, and Navrongo, Ghana, have shown that increasing access to family planning services reduces fertility and improves birth spacing. In the Matlab study, findings from long-term follow-up showed that women's earnings, assets, and body-mass indexes, and children's schooling and body-mass indexes, substantially improved in areas with improved access to family planning services compared with outcomes in control areas. At the macroeconomic level, reductions in fertility enhance economic growth as a result of reduced youth dependency and an increased number of women participating in paid labour. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ierodiakonou, C S
Preventive mental health measures can be properly planned only if the various factors leading to the adolescent's personality structure are extensively investigated. Starting with the specific attitudes of a couple towards genetic counselling, the disadvantages of urbanization and of the dissolution of the traditional extended family are discussed with regard to their effect on the younger members. Data are produced concerning the child-rearing practices of Greek in comparison to American parents and their effect on the adolescent's emotional life. Extreme dependence on the family, pressure for school achievements, lack of sexual education, etc. are characteristic of the stresses a Greek adolescent undergoes. Socio-cultural conditions, like immigration, adoption, etc. are shown to have a different psychological effect on an adolescent in Greece than in America. Specific stresses regarding the adolescent's future, like preparing for university entrance examinations, are discussed and preventive measures are proposed.
Silva, Iramildes Souza; Arantes, Cássia Irene Spinelli
to analyze the power relations that permeate the work of the family health team, and to discuss perspectives of emancipation of these subjects, focusing on nursing and community health agents. a qualitative study with a family health team from a municipality in the countryside of the state of São Paulo. Data were collected through systematic observation and interview with workers. A thematic content analysis was performed. three categories were identified: the work of the family health team and power relations; power relations between the nurse and the healthcare team; and the relations among the nursing team and between community agents and the nurse. The team produces relations of power moved by hierarchical knowledge that move in the search for the reordering of powers. it is necessary to review the contradictions present in the performance scenario of the family health teams, with a view toward making power relations more flexible. analisar as relações de poder que permeiam o trabalho da equipe de saúde da família e discutir perspectivas de emancipação desses sujeitos, com enfoque na enfermagem e agentes comunitários de saúde. estudo qualitativo com equipe de saúde da família de município do interior paulista. Os dados foram coletados por meio de observação sistemática e entrevista com os trabalhadores. Foi realizada análise de conteúdo temática. foram identificadas três categorias: o trabalho da equipe de saúde da família e as relações de poder; a relação de poder entre enfermeira e equipe de saúde; as relações da enfermagem e agentes comunitários com a enfermeira. A equipe produz relações de poder movidas por saberes hierarquizados que se movimentam na busca pelo reordenamento dos poderes. é necessário rever as contradições presentes no cenário de atuação das equipes de saúde da família, com vistas à flexibilidade nas relações de poder.
Souza, Jacqueline de; Almeida, Letícia Yamawaka de; Luis, Margarita Antonia Villar; Nievas, Andreia Fernanda; Veloso, Tatiana Maria Coelho; Barbosa, Sara Pinto; Giacon, Bianca Cristina Ciccone; Assad, Francine Baltazar
to analyze the management of mental health needs in primary care as perceived by Family Health Strategy professionals. this was a qualitative descriptive exploratory study developed within the coverage area of five family health teams. The data were collected using observation, group interviews, individual semi-structured interviews, and focus groups. Content analysis was conducted using text analysis software and interpretation was based on the corresponding analytical structures. numerous and challenging mental health demands occur in this setting, for which the teams identified care resources; however, they also indicated difficulties, especially related to the operationalization and integration of such resources. there is a need for a care network sensitive to mental health demands that are better coordinated and more effectively managed. analisar o manejo das necessidades de saúde mental na atenção primária à saúde de acordo com a percepção dos profissionais da Estratégia Saúde da Família. estudo qualitativo, descritivo exploratório, desenvolvido no território de abrangência de cinco equipes de saúde da família. Os participantes foram cinco enfermeiras, cinco coordenadores e 17 agentes comunitários de saúde. Os dados foram coletados utilizando observação, entrevistas grupais, entrevistas individuais semiestruturadas e grupos focais. Fez-se a análise de conteúdo com o auxílio de um Software de análise textual, e a interpretação baseou-se nas estruturas analíticas correspondentes. inúmeras e desafiadoras demandas de saúde mental têm sido acolhidas nesse setting, para as quais as equipes identificaram recursos de atendimento; no entanto, apontaram dificuldades, sobretudo relacionadas à operacionalização e integração destes recursos. destaca-se a necessidade de uma rede de cuidados sensível a tais demandas, mais articulada e gerida de modo eficaz.
Li, Li; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Farmer, Shu C.; Flore, Martin
Background This article explores the association of people who inject drugs and their family members in terms of mental health and family relations. The objective was to understand the family context and its impact on people who inject drugs in a family-oriented culture in Vietnam. Methods Cross-sectional assessment data were gathered from 83 people who inject drugs and 83 of their family members recruited from four communes in Phú Thọ province, Vietnam. Depressive symptoms and family relations were measured for both people who inject drugs and family members. Internalized shame and drug-using behavior were reported by people who inject drugs, and caregiver burden was reported by family members. Results We found that higher level of drug using behavior of people who inject drugs was significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower family relations reported by themselves as well as their family members. Family relations reported by people who inject drugs and their family members were positively correlated. Conclusion The findings highlight the need for interventions that address psychological distress and the related challenges faced by family members of people who inject drugs. The article has policy implication which concludes with an argument for developing strategies that enhance the role of families in supporting behavioral change of people who inject drugs. PMID:23910167
Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.
cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....
Vieira Netto, Moysés Francisco; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira
The Family Health Strategy (FHS) has an acknowledged potential for the promotion of health and the prevention of violence. This is an integrative bibliographic review with the aim of evaluating the performance of FHS professionals in tackling and preventing violence involving adolescents. It is an integrative review of dissertations and theses on healthcare published from 1994 to 2014. The collection of 17 dissertations and 2 doctoral theses reveals that these studies are recent. The FHS professionals acknowledge the vulnerability of adolescents to inflicting and being subject to violence, however the FHS proves ineffective in tackling and preventing such violence. The predominance of the medical technical care model, the deficiencies in Public Health education in professional training and the lack of institutional support are seen as the main obstacles. Many of these professionals are unaware of the files for notification of violence. The existence of family violence and criminal groups were the aspects most mentioned in the territories. The social representation of adolescents as being "problematic" and the lack of ESF actions that promote an increase youth leadership and empowerment were clearly detected.
Full Text Available Objective: This study is aimed at comparing results of the draw-a-family test and the house-tree-person test in the children with addicted and non-addicted parents. Method: This is a scientific-comparative study in which 50 children with addicted parents attending Tehran rehab centers and 50 children with non-addicted parents who were selected using the random cluster sampling method were measured by means of the draw-a-family test and the house-tree-person test. Findings: Results suggest that drawing indices in the are more in the house-tree-Person paintings and family drawings of the children with addicted parents in comparison to the non-addicted group, scoring higher in terms of the number of drawing indices such as depression and anxiety symptoms, weak self-esteem, and valuelessness. Conclusion: It can be said that the parents' drug abuse intensifies and expedites children's physical, affective and behavioral problems.
Parish, Susan L; Rose, Roderick A; Dababnah, Sarah; Yoo, Joan; Cassiman, Shawn A
Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that income inequality within a nation influences health outcomes net of the effect of any given household's absolute income. We tested the hypothesis that state-level income inequality in the United States is associated with increased family burden for care and health-related expenditures for low-income families of children with special health care needs. We analyzed the 2005-06 wave of the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, a probability sample of approximately 750 children with special health care needs in each state and the District of Columbia in the US Our measure of state-level income inequality was the Gini coefficient. Dependent measures of family caregiving burden included whether the parent received help arranging or coordinating the child's care and whether the parent stopped working due to the child's health. Dependent measures of family financial burden included absolute burden (spending in past 12 months for child's health care needs) and relative burden (spending as a proportion of total family income). After controlling for a host of child, family, and state factors, including family income and measures of the severity of a child's impairments, state-level income inequality has a significant and independent association with family burden related to the health care of their children with special health care needs. Families of children with special health care needs living in states with greater levels of income inequality report higher rates of absolute and relative financial burden. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Many studies focusing on beliefs about health and health promotion have paid little attention to the life experiences of Black and other visible minority ethnic families in western societies. This paper is a report of a study exploring Black families' beliefs about health and the implications of such beliefs for health promotion. Ten Black…
Beacham, Barbara L.; Deatrick, Janet A.
Synopsis Health care autonomy typically occurs during late adolescence but health care providers and families often expect children with chronic health conditions to master self-care earlier. Few studies have examined the development of health care autonomy as it pertains to self-care and family management. This review will link the three concepts and discuss implications for families and health care providers. Case studies are provided as exemplars to highlight areas where intervention and research is needed. PMID:23659815
Al-Turki, Nouf; Afify, Ayman AM; AlAteeq, Mohammed
Background Health care violence is a significant worldwide problem with negative consequences on both the safety and well-being of health care workers as well as workplace activities. Reports examining health care violence in Saudi Arabia are limited and the results are conflicting. Objective To estimate the prevalence and determine the demographic and occupational characteristics associated with workplace violence in primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional study included 270 health care workers in 12 family medicine centers in Riyadh during November and December 2014. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency, timing, causes, reactions, and consequences of workplace violence plus participants’ demographic and occupational data. Results A total 123 health care workers (45.6%) experienced some kind of violence over 12 months prior to the study. These included physical (6.5%) and nonphysical violence (99.2%), including verbal violence (94.3%) and intimidation (22.0%). Offenders were patients (71.5%) in the majority of cases, companions (20.3%), or both (3.3%). Almost half (48.0%) of health care workers who experienced violence did nothing, 38.2% actively reported the event, and 13.8% consulted a colleague. A significant association of workplace violence was found with working multiple shifts, evening or night shift, and lack of an encouraging environment to report violence. Conclusion Workplace violence is still a significant problem in primary care centers. The high frequency of violence together with underreporting may indicate the inefficiency of the current safety program. More safety programs and training activities for health care workers, efficient reporting system, and zero tolerance policies need to be implemented to minimize workplace violence against health workers. PMID:27330300
Al-Turki, Nouf; Afify, Ayman Am; AlAteeq, Mohammed
Health care violence is a significant worldwide problem with negative consequences on both the safety and well-being of health care workers as well as workplace activities. Reports examining health care violence in Saudi Arabia are limited and the results are conflicting. To estimate the prevalence and determine the demographic and occupational characteristics associated with workplace violence in primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study included 270 health care workers in 12 family medicine centers in Riyadh during November and December 2014. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency, timing, causes, reactions, and consequences of workplace violence plus participants' demographic and occupational data. A total 123 health care workers (45.6%) experienced some kind of violence over 12 months prior to the study. These included physical (6.5%) and nonphysical violence (99.2%), including verbal violence (94.3%) and intimidation (22.0%). Offenders were patients (71.5%) in the majority of cases, companions (20.3%), or both (3.3%). Almost half (48.0%) of health care workers who experienced violence did nothing, 38.2% actively reported the event, and 13.8% consulted a colleague. A significant association of workplace violence was found with working multiple shifts, evening or night shift, and lack of an encouraging environment to report violence. Workplace violence is still a significant problem in primary care centers. The high frequency of violence together with underreporting may indicate the inefficiency of the current safety program. More safety programs and training activities for health care workers, efficient reporting system, and zero tolerance policies need to be implemented to minimize workplace violence against health workers.
Álissan Karine Lima Martins
Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the perceptions of nurses on health education in the Family Health Strategy. Descriptive and exploratory research with qualitative approach, developed with eight nurses from basic health units in the city of Cajazeiras, Paraíba, Brazil. Data collection occurred through interview guided by semistructured script. Content analysis was the method used for processing then lines of discussion with the pertinent literature. The ethical aspects were respected for research with human beings, with submission and approval of the project by the Ethics Committee of the University Hospital Research Alcides Carneiro, favorable opinion No. 159,730. The conception of health education by nurses backs to a look with an emphasis on health promotion and disease prevention, in conjunction with the principles of the Family Health Strategy. For this, partnerships are triggered as the Center for Support to Family Health and educational institutions for the development of collective activities, directed mainly to groups for which they are already following actions in the ESF (hypertension, diabetes, pregnant women. Thus, it realized the need for leave by the actions of the professional health team, providing solutions to the demands of each group as well as the scope of completeness.
Apouey, Bénédicte; Geoffard, Pierre-Yves
Recent studies examining the relationship between family income and child health in the UK have produced mixed findings. We re-examine the income gradient in child general health and its evolution with child age in this country, using a very large sample of British children. We find that there is no correlation between income and child general health at ages 0-1, that the gradient emerges around age 2 and is constant from age 2 to age 17. In addition, we show that the gradient remains large and significant when we reduce the endogeneity of income. Furthermore, our results indicate that the gradient in general health reflects a greater prevalence of chronic conditions among low-income children and a greater severity of these conditions. Taken together, these findings suggest that income does matter for child health in the UK and may play a role in the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Speidel, J Joseph; Grossman, Richard A
Although obstetrician-gynecologists recognize the importance of managing fertility for the reproductive health of individuals, many are not aware of the vital effect they can have on some of the world's most pressing issues. Unintended pregnancy is a key contributor to the rapid population growth that in turn impairs social welfare, hinders economic progress, and exacerbates environmental degradation. An estimated 215 million women in developing countries wish to limit their fertility but do not have access to effective contraception. In the United States, half of all pregnancies are unplanned. Voluntary prevention of unplanned pregnancies is a cost-effective, humane way to limit population growth, slow environmental degradation, and yield other health and welfare benefits. Family planning should be a top priority for our specialty.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) Study (NCI) Summary: In.... Proposed Collection: Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) Study 0925--NEW, National...
Geoffrey H. Donovan; Yvonne L. Michael; Demetrios Gatziolis; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Eric A. Whitsel
Data from the Women's Health Initiative were used to quantify the relationship between the loss of trees to an invasive forest pestâthe emerald ash borerâand cardiovascular disease. We estimated semi- parametric Cox proportional hazards model of time to cardiovascular disease, adjusting for confounders. We defined the incidence of cardiovascular disease as acute...
de Baca, Tomás Cabeza; Wahl, Richard A.; Barnett, Melissa A.; Figueredo, Aurelio José; Ellis, Bruce J.
Epidemiologists and medical researchers often employ an allostatic load model that focuses on environmental and lifestyle factors, together with biological vulnerabilities, to explain the deterioration of human physiological systems and chronic degenerative disease. Although this perspective has informed medicine and public health, it is agnostic toward the functional significance of pathophysiology and health deterioration. Drawing on Life History (LH) theory, the current paper reviews the literature on disadvantaged families to serve as a conceptual model of stress-health relationships in which the allocation of reproductive effort is instantiated in the LH strategies of individuals and reflects the bioenergetic and material resource tradeoffs. We propose that researchers interested in health disparities reframe chronic degenerative diseases as outcomes resulting from strategic calibration of physiological systems to best adapt, survive, and reproduce in response to demands of specific developmental contexts. These effects of adversity on later-age degenerative disease are mediated, in part, by socioemotional and cognitive mechanisms expressed in different life history strategies. PMID:27175327
Phylogenetic trees are binary nonplanar trees with labelled leaves, and plane oriented recursive trees are planar trees with an increasing labelling. Both families are enumerated by double factorials. A bijection is constructed, using the respective representations a 2-partitions and trapezoidal words.
Lee, Bethany R.; Lindsey, Michael A.
Objective: The purpose of this study is to assess the reliability and validity of the North Carolina Family Assessment Scale (NCFAS) among families involved with youth mental health services. Methods: Using NCFAS data collected by child mental health intake workers with 158 families, factor analysis was conducted to assess factor structure, and…
Montgomery-Andersen, Ruth A; Borup, Ina
In the context of the UN's 1990 'Convention on the Right's of the Child' 1990, and the associated definition of health promotion as a community's ability to recognise, define and make decisions on how to create a healthy society, this article describes and analyses how family support networks are conceived and present themselves in perinatal Inuit families. This literature review conducted an initial and secondary search using the keywords and combinations of the keywords: healthy families, health promoting families, resiliency, Arctic, Inuit, Family support, was executed in PubMed, Popline, CSA and CINAHL. The tertiary literature search was then combined with literature gleaned from literature lists, and other relevant articles were selected. Individual members of the family contribute to the health of the family, but the child is often the catalyst for health promotion within the family, not only the siblings to the unborn child, but also the unborn child. Perinatal entities create their own networks that support and develop concepts of family and support systems. Resiliency, kinship and ecocultural process within the family are concomitant to the health of perinatal family and of the children. More research is needed that moves children from being viewed as the receivers of health towards being seen as the promoters of health and an important actor as health promoting agent within the family.
Barr, Ashley Brooke
In response to recent calls to integrate understandings of socioeconomic disparities in health with understandings of socioeconomic disparities in academic achievement, this study tested a mediational model whereby family socioeconomic status predicted gains in academic achievement across high school through its impact on both student and parent health. Data on over 8000 high school students in the U.S. were obtained from wave 1 (2009-2010) and wave 2 (2012) of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and structural equation modeling with latent difference scores was used to determine the role of family health problems in mediating the well-established link between family SES and gains in academic achievement. Using both static and dynamic indicators of family SES, support was found for this mediational model. Higher family SES in 9th grade reduced the probability of students and their parents experiencing a serious health problem in high school, thereby promoting growth in academic achievement. In addition, parent and student health problems mediated the effect of changes in family SES across high school on math achievement gains. Results emphasize the importance of considering the dynamic nature of SES and that both student and parent health should be considered in understanding SES-related disparities in academic achievement. This relational process provides new mechanisms for understanding the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status and the status attainment process more broadly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development developed international consensus amongst health providers, policy makers, and group representing the whole of civil society regarding the concept of reproductive health and its definition. In line with this definition, reproductive health care is defined as the constellation of methods, techniques and services that contribute to reproductive health and well-being by preventing and solving reproductive health problems. Reproductive health care saves lives and prevents significant levels of morbidity through family planning programmes, antenatal, delivery and post-natal services, prevention and management programmes for reproductive tract infections (including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS), prevention of abortion and management of its complications, cancers of the reproductive system, and harmful practices that impact on reproductive function. Reproductive health care needs are evident at all stages of the life cycle and account for a greater proportion of disability adjusted life years (DALYS) in girls and women than in boys and men. Reproductive health protects infant health by enabling birth spacing and birth limitation to be practiced through family planning. The prevention and early detection of reproductive tract infections, including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, through the integration of preventive measures in family planning service delivery not only improves the quality of care provided but is also directly responsible for improvement in survival and health of infants. Addressing harmful practices such as son preference, sex selection, sexual violence and female genital mutilation complements the positive impact of planned and spaced children through family planning services on infant mortality and the reproductive health of young girls and women. They are also in addition to prenatal, delivery and postnatal services, positive determinants of low maternal mortality and
Saulo Lacerda Borges de Sá
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge and satisfaction of users of a Basic Health Unit about the strategy of embracement. Methods: Descriptive study with qualitative approach, carried out in a Basic Health Unit, Fortaleza, Brazil, where practical activities of the Education Program of Work for Health of the University of Fortaleza were performed. Fifty eight service users were involved, following inclusion criteria: being present during the data collection, age over 18, regardless of sex, and voluntary participation. Data collection occurred in December 2009, through semi-structured interview. The data associated with the identification of users were processed in Microsoft Office Excel 2007, being organizedstatistically in table. Data related to qualitative aspects were analyzed according to the technique of content analysis. Results: 56 (97% were women, with ages ranging between 21 and 40 years, 34 (59% were married and 53 (91% are literate. On family income, 55 (95%received less than two minimum salaries per month. In order to facilitate understanding the speech of users, these were evaluated from the perspective of two categories: knowledge about embracement and satisfaction with embracement. Conclusion: Users have a limited view of the significance and magnitude of the embracement to provide the care. Although satisfied with the service, respondents report as negative aspects: the shortage of professionals, the professional relationship with user impaired due to constant delays of the professional, and the dehumanization of care.
Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Trejo, Grisel; Schiemann, Elizabeth; Quandt, Sara A; Daniel, Stephanie S; Sandberg, Joanne C; Arcury, Thomas A
This analysis describes the work organization and domestic work experienced by migrant Latinas, and explores the linkage between work and health. Twenty Latina workers in North Carolina with at least one child under age 12 completed in-depth interviews focused on their work organization, domestic responsibilities, work-family conflict, health, and family health. Using a systematic qualitative analysis, these women described a demanding work organization that is contingent and exploitative, with little control or support. They also described demanding domestic roles, with gendered and unequal division of household work. The resulting work-family conflict affects their mental and physical health, and has negative effects on the care and health of their families. The findings from this study highlight that work stressors from an unfavorable work organization create work-family conflict, and that work-family conflict in this population has a negative influence on workers' health and health behaviors.
Buden, Jennifer C; Dugan, Alicia G; Faghri, Pouran D; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Namazi, Sara; Cherniack, Martin G
Correctional employees exhibit elevated obesity rates. This study examines interrelations among health behaviors, health climate, body mass index (BMI), and work schedule. Using survey results from correctional supervisors (n = 157), mediation and moderated-mediation analyses were performed to examine how health behaviors explain relationships between obesity, work health climate (WHC) and family health climate (FHC), and work schedule. Over 85% of the sample was overweight/obese (mean BMI = 30.20). Higher WHC and FHC were associated with lower BMI, mediated by nutrition, and physical activity. The interaction effect between health behavior and work schedule revealed a protective effect on BMI. Overtime shift work may share a relationship with BMI. Findings may have implications for reexamining organizational policies on maximum weekly overtime in corrections. They provide direction for targeted obesity interventions that encourage a supportive FHC and promote healthy behaviors among supervisors working overtime.
Buden, Jennifer C.; Dugan, Alicia G.; Faghri, Pouran D.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Namazi, Sara; Cherniack, Martin G.
Objectives Correctional employees exhibit elevated obesity rates. This study examines interrelations among health behaviors, health climate, BMI, and work schedule. Methods Using survey results from correctional supervisors (n=157), mediation and moderated-mediation analyses were performed to examine how health behaviors explain relationships between obesity, work health climate (WHC) and family health climate (FHC), and work schedule. Results Over 85% of the sample was overweight/obese (mean BMI=30.20). Higher WHC and FHC were associated with lower BMI, mediated by nutrition and physical activity. The interaction effect between health behavior and work schedule revealed a protective effect on BMI. Overtime shiftwork may share a relationship with BMI. Conclusions Findings may have implications for reexamining organizational policies on maximum weekly overtime in corrections. They provide direction for targeted obesity interventions that encourage a supportive FHC and promote healthy behaviors among supervisors working overtime. PMID:28471768
India's increase of 12 million people each year nullifies almost all the considerable progress the country made in agriculture and industrial production during 19 years of her freedom. Today she ranks 2nd in population and 7th in land area of the world. She claims 15% of the world's population, on about 2.4% of the world's land area. The Government of India has taken family planning as a major national health program under her Five-Year Plans, but impact of this program is not felt as yet. Since this is a difficult complex problem with many facets, it has to be attacked forcefully, drastically, and on all fronts. An all-out war has to be waged against the population growth. India should attack it with all the weapons she had: education, propaganda, taxation, legalization of abortion, and even compulsory sterilization. Overnight change in the fertility pattern of the people is impossible.
Full Text Available Background: This study intends to determine the educational needs of family health staff employed in health care centers in Tabriz, the provincial capital of east Azerbaijan, Iran in 2015. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 282 staff were enrolled, together with 22 managers, through census. The data collection tool was a researcher-designed questionnaire whose content validity were confirmed by 5 experts of health care and medical education centers. They self--evaluated their knowledge, skills and attitudes in 6 task processes including "integrated care for pregnant women", "women’s general and reproductive health", "child health care and breastfeeding", "vaccination skills", "teenagers’ and young adults’ health", and "common diseases prevention and control". Cronbach alpha coefficients were over 0.85. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 16 and descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation and one-sample t tests were calculated to compare the mean of scores with midpoint criteria (=3. Results: Generally family health staff self-evaluated their knowledge, skills and attitudes in all task processes in higher than midpoint criteria level, which was consistent with the opinions of the managers, however, educational needs required by personnel in some processes or sub- process including "common diseases prevention and control" ( knowledge on referring thalassemia couples for genetic testing, mental health counseling, "vaccination skills" ( intradermal vaccination skills, "teenagers’ and young adults’ health" (Self-care training and parents education, "women’s general and reproductive health" (principles of family planning counseling and less needs stated in "integrated care for pregnant mothers" (except for diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy, placenta previa and abruption and "child health care" as compared to criteria (All P value <0.05. In contrast to self-assessment results, in interorganization evaluations
Key strategies to promote family planning include domestication of provisions of international conventions on family planning into state laws, and ensuring their implementation; development of community friendly family planning services; establishment of effective family planning commodities logistics management system; ...
Rr Dian Tristiana
Conclusion: Families whose members suffered from mental illness still experienced barriers in relation to mental health services even with universal health coverage. Improved mental health services are related to the health insurance coverage, affordability, availability of mental health services and stigma reduction in the health professionals and wide community.
Santos, Débora de Souza; Tenório, Elainey de Albuquerque; Brêda, Mércia Zeviane; Mishima, Silvana Martins
to analyze the meanings Primary Health Care users attribute to their health-disease process and the services used. this qualitative research uses the focus group technique to interview two groups of users the service monitors. The first is a group of elderly people and the second of pregnant women. To analyze the meanings, the discourse analysis technique and the reference framework of health promotion are used. the group of elderly, being mostly female arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus patients, visualizes the health-disease process as the evolution of human existence controlled by divine power, signifying the health service as a blessing in the control of the disease. The Group of young pregnant women signified health as the ability for self-care and disease as the disability for that purposes, considering the Primary Health Care service as responsible for the recovery of individual and family health. the users demonstrated dissatisfaction with bureaucratic and vertical relations present at the health services. In each group, it was observed that the meanings for health and disease and meanings of the health service the users elaborated can be related.
Soh, Han Jie; Grigg, Jasmin; Gurvich, Caroline; Gavrilidis, Emmy; Kulkarni, Jayashri
Family violence is threatening behavior carried out by a person to coerce or control another member of the family or causes the family member to be fearful. Health practitioners are well placed to play a pivotal role in identifying and responding to family violence; however, their perceived capacity to respond to patients experiencing family violence is not well understood. We aim to explore Australian health practitioners' current perspectives, practices, and perceived barriers in working with family violence, including perceived confidence in responding effectively to cases of family violence encountered during their work with patients. A total of 1,707 health practitioners primarily practicing in the wider Melbourne region were identified, and 114 health practitioners participated in the study between March 2016 and August 2016 by completing an investigator-developed questionnaire. Descriptive, qualitative, and thematic analyses were performed. The majority of participants recognized family violence to be a health issue and that family violence would impact the mental health of afflicted persons. Despite this, only a fifth of participants felt they were very confident in screening, supporting, and referring patients with family violence experiences. Perceived barriers to inquire about family violence included time constraints and greater importance placed on screening for other health issues. Health practitioners reported that additional training on screening, supporting, and referring patients would be beneficial. Australian health practitioners need to be upskilled. Recently, in Australia, state-relevant toolkits have been developed to provide succinct information about responding to initial patient presentations of family violence, how to inquire about family violence, and how to handle disclosures (and nondisclosures) by patients. Further resources could be developed to aid health practitioners in providing assistance to their patients as indicated. These
Reid, Colleen E; Clougherty, Jane E; Shmool, Jessie L C; Kubzansky, Laura D
Living near vegetation, often called "green space" or "greenness", has been associated with numerous health benefits. We hypothesized that the two key components of urban vegetation, trees and grass, may differentially affect health. We estimated the association between near-residence trees, grass, and total vegetation (from the 2010 High Resolution Land Cover dataset for New York City (NYC)) with self-reported health from a survey of NYC adults (n = 1281). We found higher reporting of "very good" or "excellent" health for respondents with the highest, compared to the lowest, quartiles of tree (RR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.06-1.44) but not grass density (relative risk (RR) = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.86-1.17) within 1000 m buffers, adjusting for pertinent confounders. Significant positive associations between trees and self-reported health remained after adjustment for grass, whereas associations with grass remained non-significant. Adjustment for air pollutants increased beneficial associations between trees and self-reported health; adjustment for parks only partially attenuated these effects. Results were null or negative using a 300 m buffer. Findings imply that higher exposure to vegetation, particularly trees outside of parks, may be associated with better health. If replicated, this may suggest that urban street tree planting may improve population health.
Beutell, Nicholas J
This research examined health, supervisory support, and workplace culture as predictors of work interfering with family, family interfering with work, and work-family synergy. The analysis of data from 2,796 respondents from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce yielded significant relations among measures of mental health, self-rated health, supervisory support, and work-family culture with a focus on career concerns. Support was found for a measure of work-family synergy. Implications and directions for research are discussed.
Satoshi Hirabayashi; David J. Nowak
Trees remove air pollutants through dry deposition processes depending upon forest structure, meteorology, and air quality that vary across space and time. Employing nationally available forest, weather, air pollution and human population data for 2010, computer simulations were performed for deciduous and evergreen trees with varying leaf area index for rural and...
Zhang, Yuan; Punnett, Laura; Nannini, Angela
Work-family conflict is challenging for workers and may lead to depression, anxiety, and overall poor health. Sleep plays an important role in the maintenance of mental health; however, the role of sleep in the association between work-family conflict and mental health is not well-studied. Questionnaires were collected from 650 nursing assistants in 15 nursing homes. Multivariate linear regression modeling demonstrated that increased work-family conflict was associated with lower mental health scores (β = -2.56, p work-family conflict was correlated with more job demands, less job control, less social support, and longer work hours. Poor sleep quality, but not short sleep duration, mediated the association between work-family conflict and mental health. Workplace interventions to improve nursing assistants' mental health should increase their control over work schedules and responsibilities, provide support to meet their work and family needs, and address healthy sleep practices.
Yamasaki, Jill; Hovick, Shelly R
Given the importance of family health history and the pivotal role of older adults in communicating it, this study examines how African American older adults (a) characterize their understandings of health-related conditions in their family histories and (b) rationalize their motivations and constraints for sharing this information with current family members. Using narrative theory as a framework, we illustrate how the participants reflect on prior health-related experiences within the family to respond to moral and practical calls for communicating family health information to current relatives. Specifically, our analysis highlights how storied family secrets--as constructed by 28 participants in group and individual interviews--reveal and inform shifting cultural and generational practices that shape the lived health behaviors and communication of older adults at greater risk for health disparities.
Hulse, Nathan C; Wood, Grant M; Haug, Peter J; Williams, Marc S
The family health history has long been recognized as an effective way of understanding individuals' susceptibility to familial disease; yet electronic tools to support the capture and use of these data have been characterized as inadequate. As part of an ongoing effort to build patient-facing tools for entering detailed family health histories, we have compiled a set of concepts specific to familial disease using multi-source sampling. These concepts were abstracted by analyzing family health history data patterns in our enterprise data warehouse, collection patterns of consumer personal health records, analyses from the local state health department, a healthcare data dictionary, and concepts derived from genetic-oriented consumer education materials. Collectively, these sources yielded a set of more than 500 unique disease concepts, represented by more than 2500 synonyms for supporting patients in entering coded family health histories. We expect that these concepts will be useful in providing meaningful data and education resources for patients and providers alike.
Hovick, Shelly R; Yamasaki, Jill S; Burton-Chase, Allison M; Peterson, Susan K
This qualitative study examined patterns of communication regarding family health history among older African American adults. The authors conducted 5 focus groups and 6 semi-structured interviews with African Americans aged 60 years and older (N = 28). The authors identified 4 distinct patterns of family health history communication: noncommunication, open communication, selective communication (communication restricted to certain people or topics), and one-way communication (communication not reciprocated by younger family members). In general, participants favored open family health history communication, often resulting from desires to change patterns of noncommunication in previous generations regarding personal and family health history. Some participants indicated that they were selective about what and with whom they shared health information in order to protect their privacy and not worry others. Others described family health history communication as one-way or unreciprocated by younger family members who appeared uninterested or unwilling to share personal and family health information. The communication patterns that the authors identified are consistent with communication privacy management theory and with findings from studies focused on genetic testing results for hereditary conditions, suggesting that individuals are consistent in their communication of health and genetic risk information. Findings may guide the development of health message strategies for African Americans to increase family health history communication.
Yaroslawitz, S L; DeGrace, B W; Sloop, J; Arnold, S; Hamilton, T B
Intergenerational transmission of survivor syndrome places the health of family occupation of Chareidi second and third generation survivors of the Holocaust at risk. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the lived experience and capture the essence of family health from the perspective of this cultural group. Guided by phenomenological research design, 5 participants were interviewed. They described their perception of the health of their families and how experiences in Nazi death camps impacted their families' health. Family health is an experience of being together and doing together. Generational transmission of family health was disrupted by the Holocaust. Dysfunction exists in generations that were produced by the survivors. Daily effort is required to reverse the effects of the Holocaust and establish connections with subsequent generations. The essence of occupational therapy is described as "being before doing", which is the cornerstone of individual health and well-being; and in this case family health. This study investigates a cultural group who is experiencing intergenerational transmission of trauma that disrupts family health. Opportunities to examine family health in all settings and consider implications for interventions should be explored.
Mark J. Ambrose
Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. However, extremely high mortality also can be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....
Jacob, Jeena; Gray, Barbara; Johnson, Ann
The Asian American community has grown significantly in the United States during recent decades. The culture of their countries of origin as well as the society in which they currently live plays a pivotal role in their reaction to mental health and illness. Mental health issues are increasingly evident in Asian American communities. The need for the delivery of culturally competent health care and mental health services is paramount. A culturally competent framework that includes the use of a cultural competence model for practice can guide the health care provider in the recognition of problems, particularly in the children of Asian American families. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Malhotra, Chetna; Malhotra, Rahul; Østbye, Truls; Subramanian, S V
The objective of this study was to examine the association of maternal autonomy with preventive and curative child health care utilization in India. Data from the National Family Health Survey 2005-2006 were used to ascertain association of maternal autonomy (in 3 dimensions: decision making, access to financial resources, freedom of movement) with child's primary immunization status (indicative of preventive health care use) and treatment seeking for child's acute respiratory infection (indicative of curative health care use). Low maternal freedom of movement was associated with higher odds of incomplete primary immunization of the child and for not seeking treatment for the child's acute respiratory infection. Low maternal financial access was associated with increased odds for incomplete primary immunization of the child. The findings show that improvement in autonomy of Indian mothers, especially their freedom of movement, may help improve utilization of health care for their children. © 2012 APJPH.
Nduwimana, Estella; Mukunzi, Sylvere; Ng, Lauren C; Kirk, Catherine M; Bizimana, Justin I; Betancourt, Theresa S
Fostering children is common in sub-Saharan Africa, but few studies examine these children's mental health needs. This study investigated the impact of living in a foster family on the mental health of HIV-positive, HIV-affected and HIV-unaffected children (n = 681 aged 10-17) in rural Rwanda. Regression analyses assessed the impact of living in a foster family on mental health, parenting, and daily hardships; multiple mediation analyses assessed whether family factors mediated the association between foster status and mental health. HIV-positive children were eight times more likely to live in foster families than HIV-unaffected children. Being HIV-affected was predictive of depression and irritability symptoms after controlling for family factors. Controlling for HIV-status, foster children had more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and irritability than non-fostered children. Positive parenting fully mediated the association between foster status and mental health. Mental health and parenting interventions for foster children and HIV-affected children may improve child outcomes.
Franks, P; Campbell, T L; Shields, C G
The associations between social relationships and health have been examined using two major research traditions. Using a social epidemiological approach, much research has shown the beneficial effect of social supports on health and health behaviors. Family interaction research, which has grown out of a more clinical tradition, has shown the complex effects of family functioning on health, particularly mental health. No studies have examined the relative power of these two approaches in explicating the connections between social relationships and health. We hypothesized that social relationships (social support and family functioning) would exert direct and indirect (through depressive symptoms) effects on health behaviors. We also hypothesized that the effects of social relationships on health would be more powerfully explicated by family functioning than by social support. We mailed a pilot survey to a random sample of patients attending a family practice center, including questions on depressive symptoms, cardiovascular health behaviors, demographics, social support using the ISEL scale, and family functioning using the FEICS scale. FEICS is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess family emotional involvement and criticism, the media elements of family expressed emotion. Eighty-three useable responses were obtained. Regression analyses and structural modelling showed both direct and indirect statistically significant paths from social relationships to health behaviors. Family criticism was directly associated (standardized coefficient = 0.29) with depressive symptoms, and family emotional involvement was directly associated with both depressive symptoms (coefficient = 0.35) and healthy cardiovascular behaviors (coefficient = 0.32). The results support the primacy of family functioning factors in understanding the associations among social relationships, mental health, and health behaviors. The contrasting relationships between emotional involvement and
Adamu, K.M.; Ahmed, I.M.
Plantations of the tree Moringa oleifera often lead to increase levels of leaf dust in nearby freshwater environments, and there is concern that, this could have a negative impact on catfish, which are important for aquaculture. Therefore, this study, determined the biochemical alterations in serum, liver and kidney of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus ( ) Heterobranchus bidorsalis ( ) exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of M. oleifera leaf dust in a static renewable bioassay system during a medium term exposure period. The fish (mean length, 16.33 cm, mean weight, 9.90 g) were exposed to 0.16, 0.12, 0.08, 0.04 and 0.00 mg/L concentrations of the plant leaf dust in triplicate exposure. After 21-days of exposure period, the fish were sacrificed for the biochemical parameters: glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, g-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase. Fish exposed to leaf dust showed significant differences (P 0.05), in the liver and kidney, respectively, in the test fish. Other parameters were not significantly different (P>0.05) in their respective tissue-organs. Ipso-facto, the alteration in biochemical parameters of hybrid catfish exposed to M. oleifera leaf dust was concentration dependent with 0.16 mg/L showing the highest negative alterations thus fish exposed to concentrations above 0.16 mg/L for longer durations may suffer impaired health effect. (author)
Xie, Yang; Schreier, Günter; Chang, David C W; Neubauer, Sandra; Redmond, Stephen J; Lovell, Nigel H
Healthcare administrators worldwide are striving to both lower the cost of care whilst improving the quality of care given. Therefore, better clinical and administrative decision making is needed to improve these issues. Anticipating outcomes such as number of hospitalization days could contribute to addressing this problem. In this paper, a method was developed, using large-scale health insurance claims data, to predict the number of hospitalization days in a population. We utilized a regression decision tree algorithm, along with insurance claim data from 300,000 individuals over three years, to provide predictions of number of days in hospital in the third year, based on medical admissions and claims data from the first two years. Our method performs well in the general population. For the population aged 65 years and over, the predictive model significantly improves predictions over a baseline method (predicting a constant number of days for each patient), and achieved a specificity of 70.20% and sensitivity of 75.69% in classifying these subjects into two categories of 'no hospitalization' and 'at least one day in hospital'.
Adilson Ribeiro dos Santos
Full Text Available The Municipal Health Plan is an important planning tool in the management at the Unified Health System and at the same time, a mechanism for popular participation. This study aims to report the experience of the Municipal Health Plan’s workshop conducted by a Family Health Program team in a municipality in the south of Bahia Construção do Plano Municipal de Saúde. in the year 2014. This is an experience report that consolidates itself as a descriptive research tool that presents a reflection about an action that addresses a situation experienced in the professional interest of the scientific community. The workshop included the team and community members’ participation. The population's health problems follow a national trend, highlighting problems like diabetes, hypertension, worms, abuse of alcohol and other drugs inaddition to viruses. The health system problems reveal the weaknesses in local management of the Unified Health System by the insufficiency and/or lack of resources such as drugs, tests, equipment maintenance and others. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of the Municipal Health Plan as a management tool of the Unified Health System that allows closeness between users, workers and managers, as well as being a space for policy vocalization, contributing to the real effectiveness of the Unified Health System, based on participatory planning in accordance with the needs of users.
Suwal, Juhee Varacharya
Full Text Available AbstractThis study revisited the “double jeopardy” hypothesis in terms of the health ofimmigrant family caregivers. It also investigated the effect of “reciprocity”(feeling of giving back something on the health of family caregivers. TheGeneral Social Survey 2002 Cycle 16 data were analyzed using χ2-test andLogistic regressions. About 16% of immigrants and 13.6% of non-immigrantssaid that their health was negatively affected as a result of caregiving.Immigrant family caregivers were three times more likely than non-immigrantsto report a health consequence. Reciprocity played a big role in this outcome.Given the fact that an increasing number of culturally diverse immigrants enterCanada every year and that the immigrant population is aging, more caregiverswill be in demand. Policy makers need to find ways to keep immigrantcaregivers healthy so that quality care can be given to immigrant older adultsand also for maintaining an overall healthy Canada.RésuméCette étude réexamine l'hypothèse de «non bis in idem» dans le contexte de lasanté des aidantes et aidants membres de familles immigrantes. Elle étudie aussil'effet de «réciprocité» (le sentiment de rendre quelque chose sur la santé desaidantes et aidants membres de la famille. Les données de l'Enquête socialegénérale 2002, cycle 16 ont été analysées à l'aide du test du χ² et de régressionslogistiques. À peu près 16% des immigrants et 13.6% des non-immigrantes ontreporté que leur santé avait été négativement affectée par leur dispensation desoins. Les aidantes et aidants membres de familles immigrantes avaient troisfois plus de chance de reporter une conséquence sur leur santé que ceux desfamilles non-immigrantes. La réciprocité jouait un rôle important dans cerésultat. Quand on considère qu'un nombre croissant d'immigrants issus decultures diverses entre au Canada chaque année et que la populationimmigrante vieillit, il est clair que plus en plus
This article outlines the delivery of the Family Health Nurse Education Programme of the World Health Organization (WHO) at the University of Stirling, Scotland, from 2001 to 2005. The program was part of the WHO European Family Health Nurse pilot project. The curriculum outlined by the WHO Curriculum Planning Group detailed the broad thrust of the Family Health Nurse Education Programme and was modified to be responsive to the context in which it was delivered, while staying faithful to general principles and precepts. The Family Health Nurse Education Programme is described in its evolving format over the two phases of the project; the remote and rural context occurred from 2001 to 2003, and the modification of the program for the urban phase of the project occurred during 2004 and 2005. The conceptual framework that was foundational to the development of the curriculum to prepare family health nurses will be described.
Érika Chediak Mori
Full Text Available Considering the worker’s health one of the Unified Health System (SUS tasks, the Primary Health Care (PHC and the Family Health Strategy (FHS play an important role in the development of health actions in the field health-work. In Brazil, where the number of informal and domiciled jobs is high, the FHS becomes a reference in the workers’ health actions. Therefore, if the FHS is not attentive to the relation between professional occupation and disease, several diseases that affect workers can overload the system without obtaining a cure. The aim of this study is to evaluate doctors and nurses recognition of the Family Health Strategy on occupational diseases in Aparecida de Goiânia. This is a qualitative descriptive study and the data analysis was done by content analysis. The setting for this study contemplates FHS units in the municipality of Aparecida de Goiânia, Goiás. There were 8 Basic Health Units and 16 health professionals were interviewed. The data was collected in the participants of the interview workplaces, from February through April, 2013, after being approved by the Ethics and Research Committee. The discourses were analyzed according to Minayo (2007, using thematic analysis. The interviews were recorded and later transcribed for analysis. Among the 16 professionals interviewed we observed that only 3 (18.75% received professional training on occupational health in their Institution, however the aim of the courses were towards situations of biological hazards and not about workers care. Practitioners reported lack of knowledge in the occupational health area, and also observed that the area is still undervalued and underexplored in the academic and professional fields, and even by the Municipality health management. Evaluating the academic education it is possible to observe the inadequacy of the subject workload, where professionals reported the lack of knowledge in the area and the low workload of the subject in the
Hovick, Shelly R
Although a family health history can be used to assess disease risk and increase health prevention behaviors, research suggests that few people have collected family health information. Guided by the Theory of Motivated Information Management, this study seeks to understand the barriers to and facilitators of interpersonal information seeking about family health history. Individuals who were engaged to be married (N = 306) were surveyed online and in person to understand how factors such as uncertainty, expectations for an information search, efficacy, and anxiety influence decisions and strategies for obtaining family health histories. The results supported the Theory of Motivated Information Management by demonstrating that individuals who experienced uncertainty discrepancies regarding family heath history had greater intention to seek information from family members when anxiety was low, outcome expectancy was high, and communication efficacy was positive. Although raising uncertainty about family health history may be an effective tool for health communicators to increase communication among family members, low-anxiety situations may be optimal for information seeking. Health communication messages must also build confidence in people's ability to communicate with family to obtain the needed health information.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare components of cardiometabolic risk and health behaviors of 20 family caregivers of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients to those of age, gender, and race/ethnicity-matched controls. A prospective, repeated measures design was used to compare cardiometabolic risk and health behaviors in caregivers and controls at three time-points: pre-transplantation, discharge, and six weeks post-discharge. Measures included components of metabolic syndrome, Reynolds Risk Score, NMR serum lipoprotein particle analyses, and the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II. Mixed-model repeated measure analyses were used. There were no between or within group differences in LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. There was a significant interaction effect between time and role in large VLDL concentration (VLDL-P (F (2, 76 = 4.36, p = .016, with the trajectory of large VLDL-P increasing over time in caregivers while remaining stable in controls. Within caregivers, VLDL particle size (VLDL-Z was significantly larger at time-point three compared to time-points one (p = .015 and two (p = .048, and VLDL-Z was significantly larger in caregivers than in controls at time point three (p = .012. HPLP-II scores were lower in caregivers than controls at all time-points (p < .01. These findings suggest that caregiving may have a bigger impact on triglycerides than on other lipids, and it is through this pathway that caregivers may be at increased cardiometabolic risk. More sensitive measurement methods, such as NMR lipoprotein particle analyses, may be able to detect early changes in cardiometabolic risk.
Davis, Kelly D; Gere, Judith; Sliwinski, Martin J
Research is needed to investigate mechanisms linking work-family conflict to poor health in working adults. We took a novel approach to build on extant studies by testing a potential mechanism in these associations - repetitive thought. Data came from a sample of 203 partnered working adults. There were significant direct effects of work-family conflict with lower life satisfaction, positive affect, and perceived health as well as greater fatigue. As for total effects, work-family conflict was significantly associated with all health outcomes - life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, fatigue, perceived health, and chronic health conditions - in the expected directions through repetitive thought. This study provides support that repetitive thought is one potential mechanism of how work-family conflict can take a toll on psychological and physical health. Findings are discussed in relation to improving workplace policies to improve the health of working adults managing work-family conflict. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Moen, Phyllis; Kaduk, Anne; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie; Buxton, Orfeu M; O'Donnell, Emily; Almeida, David; Fox, Kimberly; Tranby, Eric; Oakes, J Michael; Casper, Lynne
Most research on the work conditions and family responsibilities associated with work-family conflict and other measures of mental health uses the individual employee as the unit of analysis. We argue that work conditions are both individual psychosocial assessments and objective characteristics of the proximal work environment, necessitating multilevel analyses of both individual- and team-level work conditions on mental health. This study uses multilevel data on 748 high-tech professionals in 120 teams to investigate relationships between team- and individual-level job conditions, work-family conflict, and four mental health outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, perceived stress, and psychological distress). We find that work-to-family conflict is socially patterned across teams, as are job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Team-level job conditions predict team-level outcomes, while individuals' perceptions of their job conditions are better predictors of individuals' work-to-family conflict and mental health. Work-to-family conflict operates as a partial mediator between job demands and mental health outcomes. Our findings suggest that organizational leaders concerned about presenteeism, sickness absences, and productivity would do well to focus on changing job conditions in ways that reduce job demands and work-to-family conflict in order to promote employees' mental health. We show that both work-to-family conflict and job conditions can be fruitfully framed as team characteristics, shared appraisals held in common by team members. This challenges the framing of work-to-family conflict as a "private trouble" and provides support for work-to-family conflict as a structural mismatch grounded in the social and temporal organization of work.
Moen, Phyllis; Kaduk, Anne; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie; Buxton, Orfeu M.; O’Donnell, Emily; Almeida, David; Fox, Kimberly; Tranby, Eric; Oakes, J. Michael; Casper, Lynne
Purpose Most research on the work conditions and family responsibilities associated with work-family conflict and other measures of mental health uses the individual employee as the unit of analysis. We argue that work conditions are both individual psychosocial assessments and objective characteristics of the proximal work environment, necessitating multilevel analyses of both individual- and team-level work conditions on mental health. Methodology/approach This study uses multilevel data on 748 high-tech professionals in 120 teams to investigate relationships between team- and individual-level job conditions, work-family conflict, and four mental health outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, perceived stress, and psychological distress). Findings We find that work-to-family conflict is socially patterned across teams, as are job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Team-level job conditions predict team-level outcomes, while individuals’ perceptions of their job conditions are better predictors of individuals’ work-to-family conflict and mental health. Work-to-family conflict operates as a partial mediator between job demands and mental health outcomes. Practical implications Our findings suggest that organizational leaders concerned about presenteeism, sickness absences, and productivity would do well to focus on changing job conditions in ways that reduce job demands and work-to-family conflict in order to promote employees’ mental health. Originality/value of the chapter We show that both work-to-family conflict and job conditions can be fruitfully framed as team characteristics, shared appraisals held in common by team members. This challenges the framing of work-to-family conflict as a “private trouble” and provides support for work-to-family conflict as a structural mismatch grounded in the social and temporal organization of work. PMID:25866431
Isobel, Sophie; Foster, Kim; Edwards, Clair
Family-friendly spaces for children and families to visit inpatient mental health units are recommended in international mental health guidelines as one way to provide service delivery that is responsive to the needs of parent-consumers and families. There is a lack of evidence on the implementation of family-friendly spaces or Family Rooms. This study aimed to explore the development, role, and function of Family Rooms in four mental health inpatient units in a local health district in NSW Australia. An exploratory descriptive inductive-deductive design using multiple data sources was employed. Methods included Family Room usage and parental status data over a 12 week period, an open-ended questionnaire, and semi-structured interviews with 20 nurses. Available parental status data indicated that between 8-14 % of inpatients were parents of dependent children under 18. Family Room usage was multipurpose and used specifically for children & families 29 % of the time. As spaces in the units, Family Rooms were perceived as acknowledging of the importance of family, and providing comfortable, secure spaces for parent-consumers and their children and family to maintain connections. Units did not have local policies or guidelines on the development, maintenance, and/or use of the rooms. Despite long-standing recognition of the need to identify consumers' parental status, there remains a lack of systematic processes for identifying parents in mental health inpatient services nationally. Family Rooms as spaces within inpatient units acknowledge the importance of families and are a step towards provision of family-focused mental health care. Recommendations for establishing and maintaining Family Rooms are outlined.
Long, Xiangyu; He, Bin; Wang, Chuang; Fang, Yongjun; Qi, Jiyan; Tang, Chaorong
In plants, ethanolic fermentation occurs not only under anaerobic conditions but also under aerobic conditions, and involves carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) is the first and the key enzyme of ethanolic fermentation, which branches off the main glycolytic pathway at pyruvate. Here, four PDC genes were isolated and identified in a rubber tree, and the protein sequences they encode are very similar. The expression patterns of HbPDC4 correlated well with tapping-simulated rubber productivity in virgin rubber trees, indicating it plays an important role in regulating glycometabolism during latex regeneration. HbPDC1, HbPDC2 and HbPDC3 had striking expressional responses in leaves and bark to drought, low temperature and high temperature stresses, indicating that the HbPDC genes are involve in self-protection and defense in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses during rubber tree growth and development. To understand ethanolic fermentation in rubber trees, it will be necessary to perform an in-depth study of the regulatory pathways controlling the HbPDCs in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
The major objective of this paper is to throw some light on how proper use of family resources could help resolve the problem. All families have certain resources such as money, time, energy, skills of members, and some community resources like schools and traditional society's puberty rites. However, most families do not ...
Child Family Health International (CFHI) is a U.S.-based nonprofit, nongovernmental organization (NGO) that has more than 25 global health education programs in seven countries annually serving more than 600 interprofessional undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate participants in programs geared toward individual students and university partners. Recognized by Special Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), CFHI utilizes an asset-based community engagement model to ensure that CFHI's programs challenge, rather than reinforce, historical power imbalances between the "Global North" and "Global South." CFHI's programs are predicated on ethical principles including reciprocity, sustainability, humility, transparency, nonmaleficence, respect for persons, and social justice.
Aline Rogéria Freire de Castilho
Conclusion: Parents’ dental health habits influence their children's oral health. Oral health education programs aimed at preventive actions are needed to provide children not only with adequate oral health, but better quality of life. Special attention should be given to the entire family, concerning their lifestyle and oral health habits.
José Ferreira Lima Júnior
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the interaction between mental health and primary care, as well as analyze if these services enable the embracement process and reintegration of users in family and community. Methods: An exploratory study with qualitative approach developed in 13 basic health units (UBS and type II Center of Psychosocial Attention (CAPS II in Cajazeiras-PB, Brazil. The instruments used in data collection were simple observation,field diaries and semi-structured interview. Study subjects were nurses of UBS and graduate professionals of CAPS II. Results: We perceive the lack of coordination between the Family Health Strategy team and Mental Health team, resulting in the care provided to the user with mental distress centered in CAPS II with no coordination with primary care network. Conclusion: The lack of integration between ESF and CAPS II regarding the care provided to the user with psychological distress indicate the need for deployment of municipal public policies that promote the interrelationship between mental health and primary care network.
Silva, Vanessa Costa E; Barbosa, Pedro Ribeiro; Hortale, Virgínia Alonso
This is a case study in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro about management in the Family Health Strategy based on the Social Organizations model. The aims were to characterize and analyze aspects of the governance system adopted by the Rio de Janeiro Municipal Health Department and identify limits and possibilities of this model as a management option in Brazil's Unified Health System. A qualitative study was performed based on a literature review, document analysisand interviews with key informants. This management model facilitated the expansion of access to primary healthcare through the Family Health Strategy in Rio - where the population covered increased from 7.2% of the population in 2008 to 45.5% in 2015. The results showthat some practices in the contractual logic need to be improved, including negotiation and accountability with autonomywith the service suppliers. Evaluation and control has focus on processes, not results, and there has not been an increase in transparency and social control. The system of performance incentives has been reported as inducing improvements in the work process of the health teams. It is concluded that the regulatory capacity of the municipal management would need to be improved. On the other hand, there is an important and significant process of learning in progress.
Hong, Soo Jung
This study investigates the effects of cultural norms on family health history (FHH) communication in the American, Chinese, and Korean cultures. More particularly, this study focuses on perceived family boundaries, subjective norms, stigma beliefs, and privacy boundaries, including age and gender, that affect people's FHH communication. For data analyses, hierarchical multiple regression and logistic regression methods were employed. The results indicate that participants' subjective norms, stigma beliefs, and perceived family/privacy boundaries were positively associated with current FHH communication. Age- and gender-related privacy boundaries were negatively related to perceived privacy boundaries, however. Finally, the results show that gendered cultural identities have three-way interaction effects on two associations: (1) between perceived family boundaries and perceived privacy boundaries and (2) between perceived privacy boundaries and current FHH communication. The findings have meaningful implications for future cross-cultural studies on the roles of family systems, subjective norms, and stigma beliefs in FHH communication.
Poutiainen, Hannele; Levälahti, Esko; Hakulinen-Viitanen, Tuovi; Laatikainen, Tiina
Family socio-economic factors and parents' health behaviours have been shown to have an impact on the health and well-being of children and adolescents. Family characteristics have also been associated with school nurses' concerns, which arose during health examinations, about children's and adolescents' physical health and psychosocial development. Parental smoking has also been associated with smoking in adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent school nurses' concerns about adolescents' physical health and psychosocial development related to family characteristics are mediated through parents' and adolescents' own health behaviours (smoking). A path model approach using cross-sectional data was used. In 2008-2009, information about health and well-being of adolescents was gathered at health examinations of the Children's Health Monitoring Study. Altogether 1006 eighth and ninth grade pupils in Finland participated in the study. The associations between family characteristics, smoking among parents and adolescents and school nurses' concerns about adolescents' physical health and psychosocial development were examined using a structural equation model. Paternal education had a direct, and, through fathers' and boys' smoking, an indirect association with school nurses' concerns about the physical health of boys. Paternal labour market status and family income were only indirectly associated with concerns about the physical health of boys by having an effect on boys' smoking through paternal smoking, and a further indirect effect on concerns about boys' health. In girls, only having a single mother was strongly associated with school nurses' concerns about psychosocial development through maternal and adolescent girl smoking. Socio-economic family characteristics and parental smoking influence adolescent smoking and are associated with school nurses' concerns about adolescents' physical health and psychosocial development. The findings
Verma, Ruchi; Razdan, Mayuri; Quraishi, A.M.; Munshi, Prabhat
CT scanners produce nondestructively images of a given cross-section with the help of radiation source-detector system and a suitable tomographic reconstruction algorithm. These CT images have inherent error associated with them and for unknown objects it is not possible to calculate it directly. Careful application of the first Kanpur theorem, however, gives an indirect estimate of the inaccuracy of these images. An interesting outcome of this theorem is monitoring of health of trees. (author)
Frahm, Kathryn; Gammonley, Denise; Zhang, Ning Jackie; Paek, Seung Chun
Using 2003 nursing home data from the Minimum Data Set (MDS) database, this study investigated the role of family support among nursing homes serving residents with a mental health history. Exploratory factor analysis was used to create and test a conceptual model of family support using indicators located within the MDS database. Families were…
Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J.
Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication ("have shared" and "intend to share…
Grace Haeson Park
Full Text Available Background: A major effort is underway to integrate primary and community care in Canada's western province of British Columbia and in Fraser Health, its largest health authority. Integrated care is a critical component of Fraser Health's planning, to meet the challenges of caring for a growing, elderly population that is presenting more complex and chronic medical conditions. Description of integrated practice: An integrated care model partners family physicians with community-based home health case managers to support frail elderly patients who live at home. It is resulting in faster response times to patient needs, more informed assessments of a patient's state of health and pro-active identification of emerging patient issues. Early results: The model is intended to improve the quality of patient care and maintain the patients’ health status, to help them live at home confidently and safely, as long as possible. Preliminary pilot data measuring changes in home care services is showing positive trends when it comes to extending the length of a person's survival/tenure in the community (living in their home vs. admitted to residential care or deceased. Conclusion: Fraser Health's case manager–general practitioner partnership model is showing promising results including higher quality, appropriate, coordinated and efficient care; improved patient, caregiver and physician interactions with the system; improved health and prevention of acute care visits by senior adult patients.
Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lee, Chun-Te; Lu, Huei-Lan; Tsai, Yun-Fang
To examine influencing factors of health-related quality of life in primary family caregivers of people with schizophrenia receiving inpatient psychiatric rehabilitation services. Families, particularly primary family caregivers, have become more important than ever in mental health care. Yet, research on health-related quality of life among primarily family caregivers is limited. A correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 122 primary family caregivers participated in the study. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation, t test, one-way analysis of variance and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Primary family caregivers who were parents, older, less educated, and had a lower monthly household income, increased affiliate stigma and decreased quality of family-centred care experienced poor health-related quality of life. Particularly, monthly household income, affiliate stigma and quality of family-centred care appeared to be the most critical determinants of health-related quality of life. Efforts to enhance satisfaction of life should focus on reducing affiliate stigma as well as increasing monthly household income and strengthening the quality of family-centred care. Findings may assist in the development of culturally integrated rehabilitation programmes to decrease affiliate stigma and increase family engagement as a means of promoting quality of life for primary family caregivers living with people who have schizophrenia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz
decreased to 73% in 2005. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution on children. International studies mainly suggest a negative relationship between non-nuclear family structure and child outcomes. There are two...... relation between family structure changes and children's outcomes. Children who have experienced family structure changes during childhood seem to have worse educational outcomes and a higher propensity to being hospitalized and convicted of a crime. The children in the dataset experience up to 13 family...... structure changes during childhood. More family structure changes implies worse outcomes and might actually be more important than the number of years a child has spent in a single parent household. The age at which the family structure change occurs also seems to be important at least for some outcomes....
Gettys, J O; Atkins, E H; Mary, C C
The report, "Recent Trends in Louisiana Fertility," released in January 1973 is reviewed. This report was distinguished from other Louisiana Family Planning Program evaluations of demographic impact by several features: 1) Louisiana crude birth rates are compared with those of the United States and Mississippi; 2) differences in age-specific nonwhite fertility rates in Louisiana between 1965 and 1971 are compared with corresponding differences in Mississippi; and 3) the concepts of "parity components of age-specific rates" and "excess births" are introduced into the discussion of Louisiana fertility trends. According to the reviewers, no scientific or even psudoscientific analysis of the Louisiana Family Planning Program has ever been published or made available by the Family Health Foundation to any state agency. They contend that the so-called evaluations of the demographic impact of the Louisiana Family Planning Program are textbook examples of customized statistics. It is suggested that the family planning program services may contribute to increased natality and that the family planning program workers are more highly motivated to retain their jobs than to bring down the brith rate. The reviewers are not convinced that the statisticians on the Family Health Foundation are responsible for all of the narrative that accompanies their charts and tables.
Amendola, Fernanda; Alvarenga, Márcia Regina Martins; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos
The Family Vulnerability Index to Disability and Dependence (FVI-DD) aims to summarize the dimensions of vulnerability to disability and dependence using family data monitored by Family Health Strategy (ESF) teams. This study aims to analyze the FVI-DD according to the social and health vulnerability, to validate and extract a cutoff point for each dimension. The FVI-DD was built with a sample of 248 families living in a region of São Paulo. The dimension related to health conditions was validated with good internal consistency, with respect to the Katz Index and the Lawton Scale, whereas the dimension related to social conditions was only validated in relation to Lawton Scale. Thus, a vulnerable family was defined as one with 15 or more points in the Total FVI-DD, and a vulnerable family in health conditions that with a score of 6 or more points in that dimension. Therefore, it is possible to classify families as not vulnerable, vulnerable in the social aspects, vulnerable in the health aspects and the more vulnerable family (social and health) using social indicators of empowerment and wear and health indicators related not only to the biological sphere, but also in the access to health services, health self-assessment and existing vulnerable groups.
Beacham, Barbara L; Deatrick, Janet A
Health care autonomy typically occurs during late adolescence but health care providers and families often expect children with chronic health conditions to master self-care earlier. Few studies have examined the development of health care autonomy as it pertains to self-care and family management. This review links the 3 concepts and discusses the implications for families and health care providers. Case studies are provided as exemplars to highlight areas where intervention and research is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Psychiatric nurses\\' practice with parents who have mental illness, their children and families is an important issue internationally. This study provides a comparison of Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses\\' family-focused practices in adult mental health services. Three hundred and forty three nurses across Ireland and 155 from Australia completed the Family Focused Mental Health Practice Questionnaire. Cross-country comparisons revealed significant differences, in terms of family-focused skill, knowledge, confidence and practice. Australian psychiatric nurses engaged in higher family-focused practice compared to Irish nurses. The comparative differences between countries may be attributable to differences in training, workplace support and policy.
Full Text Available The family and its function as a social institution has an important role in children’s psychological development. The Aim of this study is to investigate the relations of family functioning and the level of psychological basic needs of adolescents with their mental health. Research design is descriptive -correlational and the sample has been recruited from four military areas in Tehran city via simple random sampling method. A total number of 200 families with their youth (14 to 22 year old completed three questionnaires: Family Assessment Device (FAD, Psychological Needs Questionnaire (PNQ, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. The resultsindicate that there are significant correlations between family functionig subscales and mental health of their adolescences. Other finding show that low family functioning has negative correlation with psychological basic needs (including three subscales: competence, autonomy, and relatednessof adolescents. We discuss the results in the light of previous findings and provide suggestions to improve family function.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Family social support, as a form of social capital, contributes to social health disparities at different age of life. In a life-course epidemiological perspective, the aims of our study were to examine the association between self-reported family social environment during childhood and self-reported health in young adulthood and to assess the role of family functioning during childhood as a potential mediating factor in explaining the association between family breakup in childhood and self-reported health in young adulthood. Methods We analyzed data from the first wave of the Health, Inequalities and Social Ruptures Survey (SIRS, a longitudinal health and socio-epidemiological survey of a random sample of 3000 households initiated in the Paris metropolitan area in 2005. Sample-weighted logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the quality of family social environment in childhood and self-rated health (overall health, physical health and psychological well-being in young adults (n = 1006. We used structural equation model to explore the mediating role of the quality of family functioning in childhood in the association between family breakup in childhood and self-rated health in young adulthood. Results The multivariate results support an association between a negative family social environment in childhood and poor self-perceived health in adulthood. The association found between parental separation or divorce in childhood and poor self-perceived health in adulthood was mediated by parent-child relationships and by having witnessed interparental violence during childhood. Conclusion These results argue for interventions that enhance family cohesion, particularly after family disruptions during childhood, to promote health in young adulthood.
Didericksen, Katharine Wickel; Berge, Jerica M
Understanding parental health is an important part of understanding family health. Previous research suggests that family meals, familial relationship satisfaction, and family physical activity may separately be related to physical health. The current study aims to combine these variables into a structural equation model to determine the collective relationship they have with adult health within a sample of parents (n = 1,435). Most parents were married, White, and highly educated. The relationship between family meals and parental health was significant (β = -.07, t = -2.29, p Familial relationship satisfaction and family physical activity were not found to be associated with parental health. Exploratory findings of the sample stratified by biological sex are described. Findings from the current study were consistent with a systemic perspective in that parents may have health benefits when they participate in family-level behavior (e.g., family meals). Additional areas for research and limitations to the current study are also discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Benzein, Eva Gunilla; Hagberg, Margaretha; Saveman, Britt-Inger
This study describes the theoretical assumptions and the application for health-promoting conversations, as a communication tool for nurses when talking to patients and their families. The conversations can be used on a promotional, preventive and healing level when working with family-focused nursing. They are based on a multiverse, salutogenetic, relational and reflecting approach, and acknowledge each person's experience as equally valid, and focus on families' resources, and the relationship between the family and its environment. By posing reflective questions, reflection is made possible for both the family and the nurses. Family members are invited to tell their story, and they can listen to and learn from each other. Nurses are challenged to build a co-creating partnership with families in order to acknowledge them as experts on how to lead their lives and to use their own expert knowledge in order to facilitate new meanings to surface. In this way, family health can be enhanced.
Carolina Maria do Carmo Alonso
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To systematize and analyze the evidence from qualitative studies that address the perception of Brazilian Community Health Agents about their work. METHODS This is a systematic review of the meta-synthesis type on the work of community health agents, carried out from the Virtual Health Library using the descriptors “Agente Comunitário de Saúde” and “Trabalho”, in Portuguese. The strategy was constructed by crossing descriptors, using the Boolean operator “AND”, and filtering Brazilian articles, published from 2004 to 2014, which resulted in 129 identified articles. We removed quantitative or quanti-qualitative research articles, essays, debates, literature reviews, reports of experiences, and research that did not include Brazilian Community Health Agents as subjects. Using these criteria, we selected and analyzed 33 studies that allowed us to identify common subjects and differences between them, to group the main conclusions, to classify subjects, and to interpret the content. RESULTS The analysis resulted in three thematic units: characteristics of the work of community health agents, problems related to the work of community health agents, and positive aspects of the work of community health agents. On the characteristics, we could see that the work of the community health agents is permeated by the political and social dimensions of the health work with predominant use of light technologies. The main input is the knowledge that this professional obtains with the contact with families, which is developed with home visits. On the problems in the work of community health agents, we could identify the lack of limits in their attributions, poor conditions, obstacles in the relationship with the community and teams, weak professional training, and bureaucracy. The positive aspects we identified were the recognition of the work by families, resolution, bonding, work with peers, and work close to home. CONCLUSIONS
Sok, Sohyune R; Yun, Eun K
This study examined and compared the physical health status, self-esteem, family support and health-promoting behaviours between aged living alone and the aged living with family. As the Korean population ages, the number of older people living alone is steadily rising. Previous studies have been conducted to define the factors affecting the health of older people. However, research studies focused on the impact of family support, which potentially affects the overall health of older people, have been rarely conducted. This was a comparative descriptive design. The survey included a set of four questionnaires. All measures were self-administered. In the data analysis, descriptive statistics were used to analyse the demographic characteristics. The Chi-square test and independent t-test were used to examine the differences between the aged living alone and the aged living with family. The physical health status (t=-40·85, pself-esteem (t=-26·75, pexercise (t=-15·86, pself-esteem and health-promoting behaviours than the aged living alone. Clinical practice should be focused on emotional support with family or society for Korean aged, especially the aged living alone. Also, the practice should be adjusted to encourage the health-promoting behaviour for them as well. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Melo, Lucas Pereira de
This article analyzes the significance that health professionals attribute to health education groups for people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). This ethnographic study was developed with five professionals from an Expanded Family Health team that operated in five diabetes health education groups. Information was gathered using participant observations and semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed by means of a thematic coding technique. Three different categories emerged: (1) It is a way of educating them: groups as an educational and clinical monitoring forum; (2) they know I will be there for them: the groups as a resource to access the health system; and (3) this serves as a self-help group: after all, what purpose does this group serve? The conclusion reached is that the groups studied were a therapy and support hybrid that, by means of their structure, made it possible for the informants (perhaps, also for the patients) to construct other significance for the standardization of health policies and the dilemma of chronicity. Such hybridization made it possible to create outcomes for the specificities of health work in a "total life" context.
McGuire-Schwartz, Mandy; Small, Latoya A.; Parker, Gary; Kim, Patricia; McKay, Mary
Homelessness affects a large and increasing number of families in the United States, and exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events is common among homeless families. It is important to understand more about this population and, more specifically, about the relationship between youth mental health and caregiver mental health and…
Roubinov, Danielle S; Hagan, Melissa J; Boyce, W Thomas; Adler, Nancy E; Bush, Nicole R
Children from families with lower socioeconomic status (SES) evidence greater physiological dysregulation and poorer health. Despite recognition of environmental contributors, little is known about the influence of neighborhood characteristics. The present study examined the moderating role of community-level risks and resources on the relation of family SES to children's daily cortisol output and physical health during the kindergarten year. In fall and spring of kindergarten, children's (N = 338) daily total cortisol was measured and parents and teachers rated children's global physical health. Parents reported family SES. Neighborhood characteristics were assessed using the Child Opportunity Index, a population-level tool that evaluates the quality of multiple domains of neighborhood attributes. In fall, children reared in lower SES family environments had higher cortisol when residing in lower quality (lower opportunity) neighborhoods (b = -.097, p family SES and children's cortisol in more advantaged (higher opportunity) neighborhoods (b = -.023, p = .36). Lower family SES was prospectively associated with poorer physical health in spring (controlling for fall health) only among children living in lower opportunity neighborhoods (b = -.250, p = .018) and was unrelated to physical health among children residing in higher opportunity neighborhoods (b = .042, p = .70). Higher opportunity neighborhoods may protect against the negative consequences of low family SES on children's stress physiology and physical health. Public health interventions that bolster neighborhood opportunities may benefit young children reared in socioeconomically disadvantaged family environments.
Grossman, Jennifer M.; Tracy, Allison; Richer, Amanda; Erkut, Sumru
Despite increasing extended family involvement in childrearing, particularly in minority families, few studies investigate their role in talking with teens about sex or how this relates to teens’ sexual behavior. This mixed methods study assesses extended family sexuality communication through a survey of 1492 diverse middle school students and interviews with 32 students. Logistic regression shows that participants who report having had sex are more likely to report talking with extended fam...
Recent studies examining the effect of family income on child health have been unable to account for the endogeneity of income. Using data from a British cohort study, we address this gap by exploiting exogenous variation in local labour market characteristics to instrument for family income. We estimate the causal effect of family income on different measures of child health and explore the role of potential transmission mechanisms. We find that income has a very small but significant causal effect on subjective child health and no significant effect on chronic health conditions, apart from respiratory illnesses. Using the panel structure, we show that the timing of income does not matter for young children. Moreover, our results provide further evidence that parental health does not drive a spurious relationship between family income and child health. Our study implies that financial transfers are unlikely to deliver substantial improvements in child health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Letice Ericeira Valente
Full Text Available Caring for a demented family member has been associated with burden. Studies concerning health self-perception of family caregivers are still scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate caregivers perceived health and to look into relationships with patients and caregivers' sociodemographic and clinical data. METHOD: Dyads of dementia outpatients and family caregivers (n=137 were assessed with Mini Mental State Examination, Functional Activities Questionnaire, Neuropsychiatric Inventory and Clinical Dementia Rating. Caregivers answered Sociodemographic Questionnaire, Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, Zarit Burden Interview and Maslach Burnout Inventory. RESULTS: Caregivers poor perceived health was associated with emotional exhaustion, burden, depression and anxiety. Logistic regression analyses revealed caregivers' age, anxiety and physical problem as the main predictors of health self-perception. CONCLUSION: Aged family caregivers with anxiety who also report physical problem characterize a group at risk for poor self-perceived health. Evaluation of health self-perception may be useful for designing interventions to improve anxiety and physical health.
Since 2001 the World Health Organization Europe's family health nurse (FHN) role has been developing in remote and rural areas of Scotland. In 2003, an independent evaluation identified a need for facilitation of the FHN role and family-health orientated approaches with local primary health care teams. The Scottish Executive Health Department appointed three part-time, regionally-based family health practice development facilitators (FHPDFs) in December 2003 to work over an 18-month period. This article presents findings from a small study which sought these FHPDFs' judgements on individual FHN autonomy and supportive colleague action at 24 sites where FHNs were practising. These judgements reveal a picture of mixed progress that is consistent with findings from other related research. This collective overview is presented in the form of a new typology and the resultant implications for future development of family health nursing are discussed.
Agbaje Astrid B
Full Text Available Abstract Background The CDC's Family History Public Health Initiative encourages adoption and increase awareness of family health history. To meet these goals and develop a personalized medicine implementation science research agenda, the Genomedical Connection is using an implementation research (T3 research framework to develop and integrate a self-administered computerized family history system with built-in decision support into 2 primary care clinics in North Carolina. Methods/Design The family health history system collects a three generation family history on 48 conditions and provides decision support (pedigree and tabular family history, provider recommendation report and patient summary report for 4 pilot conditions: breast cancer, ovarian cancer, colon cancer, and thrombosis. All adult English-speaking, non-adopted, patients scheduled for well-visits are invited to complete the family health system prior to their appointment. Decision support documents are entered into the medical record and available to provider's prior to the appointment. In order to optimize integration, components were piloted by stakeholders prior to and during implementation. Primary outcomes are change in appropriate testing for hereditary thrombophilia and screening for breast cancer, colon cancer, and ovarian cancer one year after study enrollment. Secondary outcomes include implementation measures related to the benefits and burdens of the family health system and its impact on clinic workflow, patients' risk perception, and intention to change health related behaviors. Outcomes are assessed through chart review, patient surveys at baseline and follow-up, and provider surveys. Clinical validity of the decision support is calculated by comparing its recommendations to those made by a genetic counselor reviewing the same pedigree; and clinical utility is demonstrated through reclassification rates and changes in appropriate screening (the primary outcome
Ozturk, Havva; Babacan, Elif
Healthcare professionals encounter many medical risks while providing healthcare services to individuals and the community. Thus, occupational safety studies are very important in health care organizations. They involve studies performed to establish legal, technical, and medical measures that must be taken to prevent employees from sustaining physical or mental damage because of work hazards. This study was conducted to determine if the occupational safety of health personnel at community and family health centers (CHC and FHC) has been achieved. The population of this cross-sectional study comprised 507 nurses, 199 physicians, and 237 other medical personnel working at a total of 18 family health centers (FHC) and community health centers (CHC) in Trabzon, Turkey. The sample consisted of a total of 418 nurses, 156 physicians, and 123 other medical personnel. Sampling method was not used, and the researchers tried to reach the whole population. Data were gathered with the Occupational Safety Scale (OSS) and a questionnaire regarding demographic characteristics and occupational safety. According to the evaluations of all the medical personnel, the mean ± SD of total score of the OSS was 3.57 ± 0.98; of the OSS's subscales, the mean ± SD of the health screening and registry systems was 2.76 ± 1.44, of occupational diseases and problems was 3.04 ± 1.3 and critical fields control was 3.12 ± 1.62. In addition, occupational safety was found more insufficient by nurses (F = 14.18; P occupational safety to be insufficient as related to protective and supportive activities.
Singh, Kiran A; Spencer, A John; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F; Brennan, David S
The characteristics of the work environment and relationships with family roles may impact on health and be of public health significance. The aims were to investigate the cross-sectional association of work-family conflict with oral- and general health-related quality of life, and well-being. A random sample of 45-54-year olds from Adelaide, South Australia, was surveyed by self-complete questionnaire in 2004-2005 (n = 879, response rate = 43.8%). Health-related quality of life was measured with the OHIP-14 and EQ-VAS instruments, and well-being by the Satisfaction With Life Scale. In adjusted analyses controlling for sex, income, education, tooth brushing frequency and social support, the higher Family Interferes with Work (FIW) tertile and the middle tertile of Work Interferes with Family (WIF) were associated with more oral health-related impacts as measured by OHIP-14 in relation to problems with teeth, mouth or dentures (Beta = 1.64, P Work-family conflict was associated with more oral health impacts and lower general health and well-being among employed middle-aged adults. This supports the view of work-family conflict as a psychosocial risk factor for health outcomes spanning function, health perceptions and well-being, and encompassing both oral health and general health.
Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José
Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Walder, Deborah J; Faraone, Stephen V; Glatt, Stephen J; Tsuang, Ming T; Seidman, Larry J
The familial ("genetic") high-risk (FHR) paradigm enables assessment of individuals at risk for schizophrenia based on a positive family history of schizophrenia in first-degree, biological relatives. This strategy presumes genetic transmission of abnormal traits given high heritability of the illness. It is plausible, however, that adverse environmental factors are also transmitted in these families. Few studies have evaluated both biological and environmental factors within a FHR study of adolescents. We conceptualize four precursors to psychosis pathogenesis: two biological (genetic predisposition, prenatal health issues (PHIs)) and two environmental (family environment, stressful life events (SLEs)). Participants assessed between 1998 and 2007 (ages 13-25) included 40 (20F/20M) adolescents at FHR for schizophrenia (FHRs) and 55 (31F/24M) community controls. 'Genetic load' indexed number of affected family members relative to pedigree size. PHI was significantly greater among FHRs, and family cohesion and expressiveness were less (and family conflict was higher) among FHRs; however, groups did not significantly differ in SLE indices. Among FHRs, genetic liability was significantly associated with PHI and family expressiveness. Prenatal and family environmental disruptions are elevated in families with a first-degree relative with schizophrenia. Findings support our proposed 'polygenic neurodevelopmental diathesis-stress model' whereby psychosis susceptibility (and resilience) involves the independent and synergistic confluence of (temporally-sensitive) biological and environmental factors across development. Recognition of biological and social environmental influences across critical developmental periods points to key issues relevant for enhanced identification of psychosis susceptibility, facilitation of more precise models of illness risk, and development of novel prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between work-family conflict (WFC), family-work conflict (FWC) and health, as well as the moderating effect of social support. The study was based on the Job Demands-Resources model. There were 567 nurses from 21 Polish hospitals participating in the study. To verify the hypothesis four scales, which measured WFC, FWC, social support, physical complaints and job burnout, were used. The results partially support the hypothesis. As predicted, high WFC and FWC were correlated with low physical (H1) and mental health (H2). Social support moderated negative effects of WFC (but not FWC) on mental health (H3). The effects of WFC and FWC on physical health were not moderated by social support (H4). The results also partially support the notion of the Job Demands-Resources model and provide further insight into processes leading to the high well-being of nurses in the workplace.
Harms, N.J.; Smits, J.E. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)
Oil sand mining companies in Alberta continue to explore reclamation strategies for tailings water and are evaluating the ecological effectiveness of constructed wetlands for the bioremediation of liquid and solid tailings contaminated with naphthenic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and dissolved inorganic ions. The success of reclaimed sites and ecosystem health can be measured by examining health variables in wild tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting on experimental wetlands receiving tailings or water from tailings ponds. This presentation reported on a study that measured clutch size, egg mass, and hatching and fledging success of 40 breeding pairs of tree swallows on 3 experimental wetlands on Suncor Energy Inc. and Syncrude Canada Ltd. oil sands leases. The Shallow Wetlands/Demonstration Pond (Syncrude), Consolidated Tailings and Natural Wetlands (Suncor) represent sites of different ages and different categories of wetland reclamation, notably mature, maturing, and newly reclaimed. Due to lack of nesting success on the selected reference site, the Shallow Wetlands/Demonstration Pond was selected as the reference site because it has undergone nearly complete bioremediation and had a very low level of contamination. Nestling growth and survival were measured in 199 tree swallows nestlings on the 3 experimental wetlands. Two mid-weight nestlings from 12 nest boxes on each study site were also examined for feather corticosterone levels and adaptive immune function.
Danielle Lopes de Alencar
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the perception of the nursing staff of the Family Health Strategy (FHS on health promotion. Methods: This was a qualitative and descriptive study, which occurred in nine FHS of the city of Crato-CE in the period October-December 2010. The subjects were nine nurses and eight of the nursing technicians with service time of three to eight years at FHS investigated. Randomly chosen and electing the criterion of saturation data, we used semi-structured interview, which was recorded. During data analysis, we opted for collective subject discourse (CSD, which emerged the central ideas that enabled the formation of CSD for each professional category. The subjects were informed about the research objectives by submitting the Term of Consent, which was signed by all. The project was approved by the Ethics Committee at the Rural University of Cariri (RUCA, with approval No. 21/2010. Results: It was observed that the conceptual and practical vision on health promotion approaches the concept of prevention, however, nurses recognize health more broadly, in the context of the social construction of individual, differing from the CSD of the nursing technicians. The actions taken in the field of health promotion are still delimited by lectures. Conclusion: Perceptions of professionals are constituted by a weakness related to CSD and the actions performed by them, constituting an obstacle to the consolidation of a new model of care that has as central to health promotion.
Gear, Claire; Koziol-McLain, Jane; Wilson, Denise; Clark, Faye
Despite primary health care being recognised as an ideal setting to effectively respond to those experiencing family violence, responses are not widely integrated as part of routine health care. A lack of evidence testing models and approaches for health sector integration, alongside challenges of transferability and sustainability, means the best approach in responding to family violence is still unknown. The Primary Health Care Family Violence Responsiveness Evaluation Tool was developed as a guide to implement a formal systems-led response to family violence within New Zealand primary health care settings. Given the difficulties integrating effective, sustainable responses to family violence, we share the experience of primary health care sites that embarked on developing a response to family violence, presenting the enablers, barriers and resources required to maintain, progress and sustain family violence response development. In this qualitative descriptive study data were collected from two sources. Firstly semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted during 24-month follow-up evaluation visits of primary health care sites to capture the enablers, barriers and resources required to maintain, progress and sustain a response to family violence. Secondly the outcomes of a group activity to identify response development barriers and implementation strategies were recorded during a network meeting of primary health care professionals interested in family violence prevention and intervention; findings were triangulated across the two data sources. Four sites, representing three PHOs and four general practices participated in the focus group interviews; 35 delegates from across New Zealand attended the network meeting representing a wider perspective on family violence response development within primary health care. Enablers and barriers to developing a family violence response were identified across four themes: 'Getting started', 'Building effective
Coverdale, Gillian E; Long, Andrew F
Promoting mental health and emotional wellbeing (EWB) in children and young people (YP) is vitally important for their psycho-social development. Critical review of the literature reveals a dearth of research that has explored the perspective of the child, adolescent or adult in this concept, with much research being intervention focused and promoted at crisis level. The current study aims to address this gap in understanding of young persons' and parents' perspectives. A small-scale, exploratory qualitative study was conducted with YP, and parents of YP aimed at exploring the meaning of EWB and how it could be promoted. Data were collected via focus groups with 15 YP (aged 18-24 years) and 15 interviews with parents of a different group of YP. Study participants identified key constructs for good EWB as stability, coping ability, happiness, confidence, balance, empathy and being grounded. Feeling comfortable with self, managing and controlling emotions and having the confidence to persevere with challenges were all felt to contribute to a positive sense of EWB. Sources of support were overwhelmingly cited as family and friends, with schools identified as a potentially good environment for supporting and promoting the EWB of pupils. Participants stressed the need for a positive attitude change towards YP, advocating this as promoting a sense of belonging and community citizenship. A lay-informed 'recipe' for successful EWB promotion is drawn out, centred on the core goal of raising awareness and understanding of YP's EWB, in the YP themselves, their parents, schools and the wider community. This research provides key messages for society, policy makers, education and public health and healthcare practitioners for integration into the delivery of services for YP and families that include education on supporting EWB, activities for YP and a multi-agency approach to supporting families within the community. © Royal Society for Public Health 2014.
Kelly, Erin L; Moen, Phyllis; Oakes, J Michael; Fan, Wen; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Davis, Kelly D; Hammer, Leslie; Kossek, Ellen; King, Rosalind Berkowitz; Hanson, Ginger; Mierzwa, Frank; Casper, Lynne
Schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life are work resources that may help employees manage the work-family interface. However, existing data and designs have made it difficult to conclusively identify the effects of these work resources. This analysis utilizes a group-randomized trial in which some units in an information technology workplace were randomly assigned to participate in an initiative, called STAR, that targeted work practices, interactions, and expectations by (a) training supervisors on the value of demonstrating support for employees' personal lives and (b) prompting employees to reconsider when and where they work. We find statistically significant, though modest, improvements in employees' work-family conflict and family time adequacy and larger changes in schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life. We find no evidence that this intervention increased work hours or perceived job demands, as might have happened with increased permeability of work across time and space. Subgroup analyses suggest the intervention brings greater benefits to employees more vulnerable to work-family conflict. This study advances our understanding of the impact of social structures on individual lives by investigating deliberate organizational changes and their effects on work resources and the work-family interface with a rigorous design.
Maybery, Darryl; Goodyear, Melinda; O'Hanlon, Brendan; Cuff, Rose; Reupert, Andrea
There is a large gulf between what psychiatric services should (or could) provide and what they do in practice. This article sought to determine practice differences between the differing professions working in adult mental health services in terms of their family focused work. Three hundred and seven adult mental health professionals completed a cross-sectional survey of family focused practices in adult mental health services. Findings highlight that social workers engaged in more family focused practice compared to psychiatric nurses, who performed consistently the lowest on direct family care, compared to both social workers and psychologists. Clear skill, knowledge, and confidence differences are indicated between the professions. The article concludes by offering direction for future profession education and training in family focused practices. © 2014 Family Process Institute.
Becker, Sara J.; Swenson, Rebecca; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Cataldo, Andrea; Spirito, Anthony
Military families with adolescents experience high levels of stress associated with parental deployment, but many of these families do not seek or utilize mental health services. The current qualitative study was designed to better understand barriers to mental health treatment experienced by adolescents in military families. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with military adolescents (n = 13), military (non-enlisted) parents (n = 12), and mental health service providers who treat adolescents in military families (n = 20). Discussions primarily explored barriers to seeking treatment, with supplemental questions assessing the ideal elements of mental health services for this population. Seven barriers to engaging in mental health services were identified: four internal (confidentiality concerns, stigma, ethic of self-reliance, lack of perceived relevance) and three external (time and effort concerns, logistical concerns, financial concerns). Challenges engaging military adolescents in mental health services are discussed and several recommendations are offered for service providers attempting to work with this population. PMID:25574070
Renzaho, A M N; de Silva-Sanigorski, A
To examine the strength of associations between child oral health and aspects of the home environment (child behaviour, parental psychological distress and family functioning) in a large sample of 1- to 12-year-old Australian children. The current study used data from the 2006 Victorian Child Health and Wellbeing Study. Data were obtained on 4590 primary carers. Measures of the family environment included the level of family functioning, parental psychological distress, child's emotion and behavioural problems and the family structure. The odds of children having good oral health status were lower with increasing parental psychological distress and poor family functioning across all age groups, and lower with increasing child mental health or conduct problems among children aged 4 years or older. Socioeconomic factors were also related to child oral health status, but this was significant only among children aged 4-7 years, with the odds of children having good oral health status 68% higher in households with a yearly income ≥AUD$ 60 000 compared with households with income family functioning and the mental health of parents and children into existing systems reaching vulnerable community members may improve child oral health outcomes and reduce the unequal distribution of oral disease across the social gradient. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
White, Rebecca M B; Roosa, Mark W; Zeiders, Katharine H
We present an integrated model for understanding Mexican American youth mental health within family, neighborhood, and cultural contexts. We combined two common perspectives on neighborhood effects to hypothesize that (a) parents' perceptions of neighborhood risk would negatively impact their children's mental health by disrupting key parenting and family processes, and (b) objective neighborhood risk would alter the effect parent and family processes had on youth mental health. We further incorporated a cultural perspective to hypothesize that an ethnic minority group's culture-specific values may support parents to successfully confront neighborhood risk. We provided a conservative test of the integrated model by simultaneously examining three parenting and family process variables: maternal warmth, maternal harsh parenting, and family cohesion. The hypothesized model was estimated prospectively in a diverse, community-based sample of Mexican American adolescents and their mothers (N = 749) living in the southwestern United States. Support for specific elements of the hypothesized model varied depending on the parenting or family process variable examined. For family cohesion results were consistent with the combined neighborhood perspectives. The effects of maternal warmth on youth mental health were altered by objective neighborhood risk. For harsh parenting, results were somewhat consistent with the cultural perspective. The value of the integrated model for research on the impacts of family, neighborhood, and cultural contexts on youth mental health are discussed, as are implications for preventive interventions for Mexican American families and youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Zeiders, Katharine H.
We present an integrated model for understanding Mexican American youth mental health within family, neighborhood, and cultural contexts. We combined two common perspectives on neighborhood effects to hypothesize that (a) parents’ perceptions of neighborhood risk would negatively impact their children’s mental health by disrupting key parenting and family processes, and (b) objective neighborhood risk would alter the effect parent and family processes had on youth mental health. We further incorporated a cultural perspective to hypothesize that an ethnic minority group’s culture-specific values may support parents to successfully confront neighborhood risk. We provided a conservative test of the integrated model by simultaneously examining three parenting and family process variables: maternal warmth, maternal harsh parenting, and family cohesion. The hypothesized model was estimated prospectively in a diverse, community-based sample of Mexican American adolescents and their mothers (N = 749) living in the Southwestern, U.S. Support for specific elements of the hypothesized model varied depending on the parenting or family process variable examined. For family cohesion results were consistent with the combined neighborhood perspectives. The effects of maternal warmth on youth mental health were altered by objective neighborhood risk. For harsh parenting results were somewhat consistent with the cultural perspective. The value of the integrated model for research on the impacts of family, neighborhood, and cultural contexts on youth mental health are discussed, as are implications for preventive interventions for Mexican American families and youth. PMID:22866932
Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R
The objective of this study was to examine the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults and the relationships among them. This study was designed to be a descriptive correlation study using questionnaire. Subjects were 246 older people who were over 65 years of age in Seoul and Daegu metropolitan city, Korea. Measures were the Cornell Medical Index-Simple Korean Form to measure the perceived health status, the Family Support Instrument to measure the family support and the Standard Life Satisfaction Instrument for Korean people to measure the life satisfaction. Perceived health state was worse as average 3.3, family support was good as average 3.4 and life satisfaction was low as average 3.1. There were statistically significant positive correlations among perceived health state, family support and life satisfaction and between family support and life satisfaction. The predictors of life satisfaction in elderly were family support, age, monthly allowance and perceived health state. These factors explained 37.5% of the total variance. The major influencing factor was family support. This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that to develop nursing strategy to increase family support of older Korean adults is needed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Hackett, Christina; Feeny, David; Tompa, Emile
We estimate the intergenerational relationship between the residential school (RS) attendance of an older generation family member and the physical and mental health of a younger generation. Data from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) is used to examine the relationship between previous generational family RS attendance and the current physical and mental health of off-reserve First Nations, Métis and Inuit Canadians. Five outcomes are considered (self-perceived health, mental health, distress, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt). Direct (univariate) and indirect (multivariate) effects of family RS attendance are examined for each dependent variable. We draw from the general and indigenous-specific social determinants of health literature to inform the construction of our models. Familial RS attendance is shown to affect directly all five health and mental health outcomes, and is associated with lower self-perceived health and mental health, and a higher risk for distress and suicidal behaviours. Background, mediating and structural-level variables influence the strength of association. Odds of being in lower self-perceived health remain statistically significantly higher with the presence of familial attendance of RS when controlling for all covariates. The odds of having had a suicide attempt within the past 12 months remain twice as high for those with familial attendance of RS. Health disparities exist between indigenous and non-indigenous Canadians, an important source of which is a family history of RS attendance. This has implications for clinical practice and Canadian public health, as well as countries with similar historical legacies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Verhage, Chantal L; Gillebaart, Marleen; van der Veek, Shelley M C; Vereijken, Carolus M J L
Family meals are associated with multiple health benefits in children and adolescents including evidence that eating together as a family may play a role in reducing childhood obesity. The current review aims to investigate whether the beneficial health effects of the family meal also apply to infants and toddlers. PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and PsycInfo were searched and 14 empirical studies were identified. The findings were discussed according to frequency of having a family meal and parental perception, associations between the family meal and health aspects (e.g., eating behaviors and diet quality) and causal influences of these associations. Descriptive data showed that mothers offer food at a structured mealtime, but that eating together as a family was not always upheld. The frequency of family meals was positively associated with more nutrient-dense food intake and a more balanced diet. Different advantages (e.g., social importance, practical considerations) and obstacles (e.g., planning, possible mess) of the family meal were mentioned by parents. Further, having structured mealtimes and family meals was associated with more food enjoyment and less fussy and emotional eating. Finally, no causal studies were identified. The limited number of studies suggests that the pattern of positive associations between family meal and child health which has been shown in older children may also exist in infants and toddlers. More specific research is needed to examine the causality of the associations between the family meal and health of the infant and toddler. The associations between the family meal and less fussiness and emotional eating, more food enjoyment and better nutrient intake suggest that the family meal is a valuable moment to promote healthy eating in toddlers and infants. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B.; Romero, Andrea; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel A.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Soto, Daniel W.; Villamar, Juan A.; Lizzi, Karina M.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J.
Latino parents can experience acculturation stressors, and according to the Family Stress Model, parent stress can influence youth mental health and substance use by negatively affecting family functioning. To understand how acculturation stressors come together and unfold over time to influence youth mental health and substance use outcomes, the current study investigated the trajectory of a latent parent acculturation stress factor and its influence on youth mental health and substance use ...
Women's increasing participation in the labor force has resulted from availability of fertility control, changed attitudes toward family size, a strong demand for occupations traditionally filled by women, and other factors. Despite many social changes, employed women continue to be concentrated in lower-income pursuits and frequently have major responsibility for the household. This paper is drawn from a study that explored the association of occupation and home responsibilities with the health of employed women and men and compared them with female homemakers. It also examined variations in the use of physician and hospital services. The principal data source was the National Health Interview Survey tapes for 1975-77. Nurturant role responsibilities were derived from records of members of the index adult's household. This paper reports on comparisons of employed women with homemakers using multiple regression analysis, and also on direct comparisons of the three work-sex groups. Study findings suggest that better health is associated with desired, positive roles such as marriage and married parenthood. Worse health is associated with unwelcome role expansions such as single parenthood, child disability, having a sick spouse and marital dissolution. Effects vary by both sex and work status. It is suggested that it is not the number of activities that may be burdensome to women's health but inability to choose one's roles and organize one's resources to meet their demands.
Kelly, Erin L.; Moen, Phyllis; Oakes, J. Michael; Fan, Wen; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Davis, Kelly D.; Hammer, Leslie; Kossek, Ellen; King, Rosalind Berkowitz; Hanson, Ginger; Mierzwa, Frank; Casper, Lynne
Schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life are work resources that may help employees manage the work-family interface. However, existing data and designs have made it difficult to conclusively identify the effects of these work resources. This analysis utilizes a group-randomized trial in which some units in an information technology workplace were randomly assigned to participate in an initiative, called STAR, that targeted work practices, interactions, and expecta...
Sterrett, Emma M; Williams, Joel; Thompson, Kirsten; Johnson, Knowlton; Bright, Mikia; Karam, Eli; Jones, V Faye
To examine the relationships between 2 parenting styles and family nutrition and physical activity. Parents of elementary/primary school children in the southeastern United States (N = 145) completed surveys regarding family relationships and health behaviors. Parents exhibiting a laissez-faire parenting style reported lower levels of family nutrition and physical activity. In addition, parent BMI moderated the relationship between laissez-faire parenting and these health behaviors. This study indicates that family-oriented nutrition and physical activity programs may benefit from including a focus on decreasing laissez-faire parenting, as well as helping overweight parents reduce their BMIs.
Mouradian, Wendy E; Huebner, Colleen E; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Slavkin, Harold C
Children's health outcomes result from the complex interaction of biological determinants with sociocultural, family, and community variables. Dental professionals' efforts to reduce oral health disparities often focus on improving access to dental care. However, this strategy alone cannot eliminate health disparities. Rising rates of early childhood caries create an urgent need to study family and community factors in oral health. Using Los Angeles as a multicultural laboratory for understanding health disparities, the Santa Fe Group convened an experiential conference to consider models of ensuring child and family health within communities. This article summarizes key conference themes and insights regarding 1) children's needs and societal priorities; 2) the science of child health determinants; 3) the rapidly changing demographics of the United States; and 4) the importance of communities that support children and families. Conference participants concluded that to eliminate children's oral health disparities we must change paradigms to promote health, integrate oral health into other health and social programs, and empower communities. Oral health advocates have a key role in ensuring oral health is integrated into policy for children. Dental schools have a leadership role to play in expanding community partnerships and providing education in health determinants. Participants recommended replicating this experiential conference in other venues.
Thériault, François L; Colman, Ian
Many adults suffering from mental disorders never receive the care they need. The role of family and friends in overcoming mental health treatment barriers is poorly understood. We investigated the association between awareness of lifetime mental health treatment history in one's family or friends, and likelihood of having recently received mental health care for oneself. Using Canadian Community Health Survey 2012-Mental Health data, we defined care seekers as individuals who talked about mental health issues to at least one health professional in the past 12 months. Seekers were matched to non-seekers based on estimated care seeking propensity, and 1933 matched pairs were created. Reported awareness of lifetime treatment history in family and friends was compared between seekers and non-seekers. There were no differences in the distribution of any confounder of interest between seekers and non-seekers. 73% of seekers were aware of treatment history in family or friends, compared to only 56% of non-seekers (RR 1.3; 95% CI 1.2, 1.3). Awareness of treatment history in family members had nearly identical associations with care seeking as awareness of treatment history in friends. We have found a social clustering of mental health care seeking behavior; individuals who were aware of lifetime treatment history in family or friends were more likely to have recently sought care for themselves. These novel results are consistent with a social learning model of care seeking behavior, and could inform efforts to bridge the current mental health treatment gap.
Mauksch, Larry B; Fogarty, Colleen T
Social and economic disadvantage and civil rights infringement, worsens overall health (Adler, Glymour, & Fielding, 2016; McGowan, Lee, Meneses, Perkins, & Youdelman, 2016; Teitelbaum, 2005). While addressing these challenges is not new, there is reason to believe that the administration of Donald Trump and a republican majority in congress will exacerbate these challenges and their effects. How can collaborative family health care (CFHC) practitioners and our field help? The editors pondered this question and also asked a selection of leaders in the field. The editors will first share their ideas about the potential of CFHC to make a difference in daily interactions with patients. Next, they will identify key areas of risk and vulnerability. Finally, using the contributions of respected colleagues, they will propose a partial agenda for CFHC clinicians and the field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
McClung, Nancy; Glidewell, Jill; Farr, Sherry L
To examine the financial burdens and mental health needs of families of children with special healthcare needs (CSHCN) with congenital heart disease (CHD). Data from the 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN) were used to examine parent-reported financial burdens (out-of-pocket expenses, financial problems, employment impact, caregiving hours) and family members' need for mental health services in families of CSHCN with CHD. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare financial burdens and family members' need for mental health services among CSHCN with and without CHD. Among CSHCN with CHD, multivariable logistic regression, stratified by age (0-5 and 6-17 years), was used to assess characteristics associated with the outcomes. Overall, families of 89.1% of CSHCN with CHD experienced at least one financial burden and 14.9% needed mental health services due to the child's condition. Compared with CSHCN without CHD, those with CHD had families with a higher prevalence of all financial burdens (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] range: 1.4-1.8) and similar family member need for mental health services (aPR = 1.3, 95% CI [1.0, 1.6]). Across both age groups, insurance type, activity limitations, and comorbidities were significantly associated with financial burdens and/or family members' need for mental health services. CSHCN with CHD, compared with those without CHD, lived in families with more financial burdens. Interventions that reduce financial burdens and improve mental health of family members are needed, especially among CSHCN with CHD who are uninsured and have comorbidities or activity limitations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Recognizing the health impact of timing and spacing pregnancies, the Sustainable Development Goals call for increased access to family planning globally. While faith-based organizations in Africa provide a significant proportion of health services, family planning service delivery has been limited. This evaluation seeks to assess the effectiveness of implementing a systems approach in strengthening the capacity of Christian Health Associations to provide family planning and increase uptake in their communities.From January 2014 to September 2015, the capacity of three Christian Health Associations in East Africa—Caritas Rwanda, Uganda Catholic Medical Bureau, and Uganda Protestant Medical Bureau—was strengthened with the aims of improving access to women with unmet need and harmonizing faith-based service delivery contributions with their national family planning programs. The key components of this systems approach to family planning included training, supervision, commodity availability, family planning promotion, data collection, and creating a supportive environment. Community-based provision of family planning, including fertility awareness methods, was introduced across intervention sites for the first time. Five hundred forty-seven facility- and community-based providers were trained in family planning, and 393,964 people were reached with family planning information. Uptake of family planning grew substantially in Year 1 (12,691 and Year 2 (19,485 across all Christian Health Associations as compared to the baseline year (3,551. Cumulatively, 32,176 clients took up a method during the intervention, and 43 percent of clients received this service at the community level. According to a provider competency checklist, facility- and community-based providers were able to adequately counsel clients on new fertility awareness methods. Integration of Christian Health Associations into the national family planning strategy improved through
Full Text Available The most represented tree species in the Banjica Forest are Acer negundo, Quercus robur, Acer pseudoplatanus, Populus nigra, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Fraxinus ornus and Robinia pseudoacacia. According to the ICP Forests combined assessment (degree of defoliation and decolorization, endangered species are Populus nigra (64.3% of heavily damaged trees, Quercus robur (45.5%, Fraxinus pennsylvanica (37.0% and Acer negundo (26.6%, while the situation is much better for Acer pseudoplatanus and Fraxinus ornus. For Robinia pseudoacacia, 83% of trees are without decolorization, however, defoliation is established. In the period from April to October 2009, the average pH of rainwater was 5.46, and 5.18 in the period from November 2009 to March 2010. The concentration of SO42- in the period from April to October 2009 amounted to an average of 24.21 mg/l, and 28.87 mg/l in the period from November 2009 to March 2010. The concentration of SO42- and pH values is a possible explanation for the condition of the trees. [Acknowledgments. The results are a part of the project III47007 funded by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia.
Hendrie, Gilly A; Coveney, John; Cox, David N
To characterise the family activity environment in a questionnaire format, assess the questionnaire's reliability and describe its predictive ability by examining the relationships between the family activity environment and children's health behaviours - physical activity, screen time and fruit and vegetable intake. This paper describes the creation of a tool, based on previously validated scales, adapted from the food domain. Data are from 106 children and their parents (Adelaide, South Australia). Factor analysis was used to characterise factors within the family activity environment. Pearson-Product Moment correlations between the family environment and child outcomes, controlling for demographic variation, were examined. Three factors described the family activity environment - parental activity involvement, opportunity for role modelling and parental support for physical activity - and explained 37.6% of the variance. Controlling for demographic factors, the scale was significantly correlated with children's health behaviour - physical activity (r=0.27), screen time (r=-0.24) and fruit and vegetable intake (r=0.34). The family activity environment questionnaire shows high internal consistency and moderate predictive ability. This study has built on previous research by taking a more comprehensive approach to measuring the family activity environment. This research suggests the family activity environment should be considered in family-based health promotion interventions. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.
Patterson, Jo Ellen; Edwards, Todd M; Vakili, Susanna
Global mental health (GMH) is an emerging field that focuses on the need for culturally sensitive mental health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While many new initiatives have been established worldwide to understand GMH needs and to provide care in LMICs, family therapists have primarily worked with families in high-income countries. The few existing family-based initiatives in GMH focus on psychoeducation and are typically not based on general systems theory. However, emerging trends in family therapy may enable family therapists to impact mental health issues in LMICs. These trends, which are shared interests of both family therapy and GMH, include collaborative care, a growing emphasis on the importance of culture in understanding and treating mental health issues, recognition of the ability of families to support or impede recovery from mental illness, and the use of strength-based and evidence-based treatments. This paper describes ways for family therapists to become active in the GMH community. © 2017 Family Process Institute.
Braun, Rebecca; Lasway, Christine; Agarwal, Smisha; L'Engle, Kelly; Layer, Erica; Silas, Lucy; Mwakibete, Anna; Kudrati, Mustafa
The global rapid growth in mobile technology provides unique opportunities to support community health workers (CHWs) in providing family planning (FP) services. FHI 360, Pathfinder International and D-tree International developed an evidence-based mobile job aid to support CHW counseling, screening, service provision and referrals, with mobile forms for client and service data, and text-message reporting and reminders. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the acceptability and potential benefits to service quality from the perspective of CHWs and their clients. The mobile job aid was piloted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Data collection tools included a demographic survey of all 25 CHWs trained to use the mobile job aid, in-depth interviews with 20 of the CHWs after 3 months and a survey of 176 clients who received FP services from a CHW using the mobile job aid after 6 months. Both CHWs and their clients reported that the mobile job aid was a highly acceptable FP support tool. CHWs perceived benefits to service quality, including timelier and more convenient care; better quality of information; increased method choice; and improved privacy, confidentiality and trust with clients. Most clients discussed multiple FP methods with CHWs; only 1 in 10 clients reported discussion of all 9 methods. This research suggests that mobile phones can be effective tools to support CHWs with FP counseling, screening and referrals, data collection and reporting, and communication. Challenges remain to support informed contraceptive choice. Future research should focus on implementation, including scale-up and sustainability. Mobile job aids can uniquely enhance FP service provision at the community level through adherence to standard protocols, real-time feedback and technical assistance, and provision of confidential care. This study can inform future efforts to support and expand the role of CHWs in increasing FP access and informed contraceptive choice. Copyright © 2016
Full Text Available Occupational therapy is presented as the core knowledge involved in the remodeling and strengthening of Primary Health Care in the Brazilian Unified Health Care System (Sistema Único de Saúde – SUS. In this study, we aimed to describe the interventions in the process of occupational therapy in supervised family care in a primary health care service in the municipality of Várzea Paulista, São Paulo state. In this case study, the moments of care were described and analyzed in light of narratives on the supervised practice of occupational therapy with a family. The results showed forms of intervention that characterize the process of occupational therapy focused on family health needs in favor of creativity and the role for changes in health practices in everyday life. Through the accomplishment of occupational activities directed to self-care, Occupational Therapy can aid families to cope with daily life adversity.
Pereira, Isabel; Veloso, Ana; Silva, Isabel Soares; Costa, Patricio
This study explored the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction among workers in family health units. Six family health units in the North of Portugal participated, including 105 health professionals (physicians, nurses, and clinical secretaries). The study used the Portuguese adaptations of the Organizational Commitment Scale by Meyer & Allen (1997) and the Job Satisfaction Survey (Spector, 1985). The results suggest a positive association between organizational commitment and job satisfaction. The professionals are moderately satisfied and committed to the family health units; the most satisfactory aspects are the nature of the work, relationship to coworkers, and communication, while pay is the most unsatisfactory. The affective component of the commitment appears, highlighting the professionals' involvement in (and identification with) the family health units project. The linear regression model proved significant, and organizational commitment explains 22.7% of the variance in job satisfaction. For this sample, organizational commitment predicts job satisfaction.
Full Text Available Purpose - analysis of the approaches of family education in a Polish family in the direction of forming a culture of children's health. Material: The analysis of the publications of post-communist countries and Poland scientists. Used the results of a questionnaire on health culture. Results: It was found that healthsaving aspect of family education in Polish family plays a significant role in forming health culture. Highlighted in national traditions of family upbringing of a healthy child. It is noted that social support, as a result of active participation in the religious life, helps to better cope with the challenges of everyday life, reduces anxiety and excessive sadness, increases the feeling of well-being. There is a possibility in the Ukrainian family and the school to ensure the spiritual education of children, the right of parents to ensure the education and upbringing of their children in conformity with their own philosophical convictions. Considered necessary to strengthen the role of the family and school education of students in the context of building a culture of health. The main factors of a healthy lifestyle today's young people are: quality of food, measures to prevent stress, problems of environmental protection, sports, leisure. Conclusions: It is recommended to involve parents in various activities of the societies and volunteers of various organizations. Considered necessary to strengthen the role of the family and school education of students in the context of building a culture of health.
Marzari, Carla Kowalski; Backes, Dirce Stein; Backes, Marli Stein; Marchiori, Mara Teixeira; Souza, Martha Teixeira de; Carpes, Adriana Dornelles
The scope of this paper is to ascertain the perception of community leadership, health professionals and users regarding citizenship status and the enhancement of the healthcare conditions of families belonging to a vulnerable community. This is an exploratory study of a qualitative nature, guided by theory based on data. Data were collected between July and December 2009, by means of interviews with four community health leaders, a team of eight family health team professionals and twelve health users. The codification of the data resulted in the following categories: Understanding the social conditions, the political conditions, the environmental conditions and the health conditions of families in a vulnerable community. The conclusions reached were, that if on the one hand the social security and health policies made it possible to reduce poverty and local inequalities, on the other hand they do not ensure the requisite enhancement of citizenship or even the improvement of health conditions.
Prichard, I; Lee, A; Hutchinson, A D; Wilson, C
Risk for colorectal cancer, breast cancer, heart disease and diabetes has both a familial and a lifestyle component. This quasi-experimental study aimed to determine whether a Family Health History (FHH) assessment and the subsequent provision of risk information would increase young adults' (17-29 years) intentions to modify health behaviours associated with the risk of these chronic diseases (i.e. alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity) and to talk to their family about their risk. After baseline measures of current and intended health-related behaviours, participants (n = 116) were randomly allocated to either a FHH assessment or control information. Based on the FHH provided, participants in the FHH condition were then classified as 'above-average risk' or 'average risk'. One week later, participants were provided with tailored health information and completed follow-up measures of intended health-related behaviours and perceived vulnerability. Participants classified as 'above-average risk' had increased perceptions of vulnerability to a chronic disease. Despite this, no group differences were found in intentions to change physical activity or fruit and vegetable consumption. Participants with above-average risk reported greater intentions to decrease the frequency of their alcohol consumption than average risk/control participants. In addition, completing a FHH assessment promoted intended communication with family members about chronic disease risk. FHH assessments may have the greatest value within the family context. SO WHAT? Future research could examine the impact of providing FHH information to different family members as a health promotion strategy.
Jiang, Chunhong; Ma, Jingdong; Zhang, Xiang; Luo, Wujin
As the world's largest developing country, China has entered into the epidemiological phase characterized by high life expectancy and high morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and malignant tumors have become the leading causes of death since the 1990s. Constant payments for maintaining the health status of a family member who has chronic diseases could exhaust household resources, undermining fiscal support for other necessities and eventually resulting in poverty. The purpose of this study is to probe to what degree health expenditure for chronic diseases can impoverish rural families and whether the New Cooperative Medical Scheme can effectively protect families with chronic patients against catastrophic health expenditures. We used data from the 4th National Health Services Survey conducted in July 2008 in China. The rural sample we included in the analysis comprised 39,054 households. We used both households suffering from medical impoverishment and households with catastrophic health expenditures to compare the financial protection for families having a chronic patient with different insurance coverage statuses. We used a logistic regression model to estimate the impact of different benefit packages on health financial protection for families having a chronic patient. An additional 10.53% of the families with a chronic patient were impoverished because of healthcare expenditure, which is more than twice the proportion in families without a chronic patient. There is a higher catastrophic health expenditure incidence in the families with a chronic patient. The results of logistic regression show that simply adding extra benefits did not reduce the financial risks. There is a lack of effective financial protection for healthcare expenditures for families with a chronic patient in rural China, even though there is a high coverage rate with the New Cooperative Medical Schemes. Given the
Wei, Xin; Yu, Jennifer W
This study examines the concurrent and longitudinal effects of children's disability types and health on family experiences, namely, parent divorce, mother's unemployment, and receipt of social welfare. The parent and school staff survey data for 1999 and 2004 from the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study were analyzed, when the ages of children with disabilities ranged from 6 to 17. Weighted logistic regressions using Taylor Series Linearization were used to model the concurrent associations and longitudinal association between children's disability types and health and family experiences. Models were adjusted to account for other children in the family with disabilities, sociodemographic characteristics, and other family experiences variables. Family experiences varied significantly by disability type in 1999. Compared with families of children with learning disabilities, parents of children with emotional disturbances were 81% more likely to get divorced, and 2.5 times more likely to receive welfare from 1999 to 2004. Mothers of children with a secondary disability were 81% more likely to be unemployed than those of children without a secondary disability. These findings indicate that specific disability types in children have an influence on family experience, and that some of those influences may persist over time. Families of children with emotional disturbances appear to be particularly at risk for negative family experiences. Clinicians, educators, and policymakers should be aware of the complex needs of families of children with disabilities when considering the types of services and supports provided to both children with disabilities and their families.
Palacio, Danielle da Costa; Vazquez, Fabiana de Lima; Ramos, Danielle Viana Ribeiro; Peres, Stela Verzinhasse; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Guerra, Luciane Miranda; Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Bulgareli, Jaqueline Vilela
Objective To evaluate the evolution of indicators after the implementation of 21 Oral Healthcare Teams in the Family Health Strategy. Methods We used data from outpatient services of Oral Healthcare Teams to evaluate efficiency, access, percentage of absences and emergencies of oral healthcare professionals who worked in the partnership between the Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira Hospital Albert Einstein and the Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de São Paulo, during the period 2009-2011. Results Percentages of emergencies, income, and access showed a significant difference during the period analyzed, but no difference for percentage of absences was found. When monthly analysis was made, it is noteworthy that at the beginning of service implementation a fluctuation occurred, which may indicate that the work was consolidated over the months, becoming capable of receiving new professionals and increasing the population served. Comparison of the indicators in that period with the goals agreed upon between the Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira Hospital Albert Einstein and the Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de São Paulo made it possible to notice that the Oral Health Teams had a good performance. Conclusion The results showed that the goals were achieved reflecting the increasing number of professionals, the maturing of work processes in the Oral Health Teams, and optimization of the manpower available to perform the activities. Understanding these results will be important to guide the actions of Oral Health Teams for the following years and to assess the achievement of goals. PMID:25295445
Guo, Huey-Ming; Shyu, Yea-Ing Lotus; Chang, Her-Kun
In this article, the authors provide an overview of a research method to predict quality of care in home health nursing data set. The results of this study can be visualized through classification an regression tree (CART) graphs. The analysis was more effective, and the results were more informative since the home health nursing dataset was analyzed with a combination of the logistic regression and CART, these two techniques complete each other. And the results more informative that more patients' characters were related to quality of care in home care. The results contributed to home health nurse predict patient outcome in case management. Improved prediction is needed for interventions to be appropriately targeted for improved patient outcome and quality of care.
Steven Hancock1, Rachel Gaulton1, Mark Danson2 1School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, UK, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org 2 School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, UK, F.M.Danson@salford.ac.uk Forests are a vital part of the Earth's carbon cycle and drive interactions between the land and atmosphere. Accurate and repeatable measurement of forests is essential for understanding the Earth system. Terrestrial laser scanning can be a powerful tool for characterising forests. However, there are a number of issues that have yet to be resolved. Commercial laser scanners are optimised for measuring buildings and other hard targets. Vegetation canopies are complex and porous, confounding standard interpretation techniques. Commercial systems struggle with partial hits and cannot distinguish leaf from wood (Danson et al 2007). A new generation of terrestrial laser scanners, optimised for vegetation measurement, are in development. The Salford Advanced Laser Canopy Analyser (SALCA, Gaulton et al 2013) aims to overcome these issues using full-waveform analysis and two wavelengths (1064 nm and 1545 nm), allowing the characterisation of a porous canopy, the identification of leaf and wood and derivation of information on leaf biochemistry. Gaulton et al (2013) showed that SALCA is capable of measuring the Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT) of individual leaves in laboratory conditions. In this study, the method was applied to complete tree canopies. A controlled experiment simulating a small 'forest' of potted broadleaved (Tilia cordata) and coniferous trees (Pinus nigra) was established and groups subjected to different moisture stresses over a one month period. Trees were repeatedly scanned by SALCA and regular measurements were made of leaf EWT, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, spectral properties (using an ASD field spectroradiometer) and, for a limited number of trees, leaf area (by destructive
Márcia Stefânia Ribeiro Macêdo
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the investments to implement and operational costs of a type I Oral Health Care Team in the Family Health Care Strategy. METHODS This is an economic assessment study, for analyzing the investments and operational costs of an oral health care team in the city of Salvador, BA, Northeastern Brazil. The amount worth of investments for its implementation was obtained by summing up the investments in civil projects and shared facilities, in equipments, furniture, and instruments. Regarding the operational costs, the 2009-2012 time series was analyzed and the month of December 2012 was adopted for assessing the monetary values in effect. The costs were classified as direct variable costs (consumables and direct fixed costs (salaries, maintenance, equipment depreciation, instruments, furniture, and facilities, besides the indirect fixed costs (cleaning, security, energy, and water. The Ministry of Health’s share in funding was also calculated, and the factors that influence cost behavior were described. RESULTS The investment to implement a type I Oral Health Care Team was R$29,864.00 (US$15,236.76. The operational costs of a type I Oral Health Care Team were around R$95,434.00 (US$48,690.82 a year. The Ministry of Health’s financial incentives for investments accounted for 41.8% of the implementation investments, whereas the municipality contributed with a 59.2% share of the total. Regarding operational costs, the Ministry of Health contributed with 33.1% of the total, whereas the municipality, with 66.9%. Concerning the operational costs, the element of heaviest weight was salaries, which accounted for 84.7%. CONCLUSIONS Problems with the regularity in the supply of inputs and maintenance of equipment greatly influence the composition of costs, besides reducing the supply of services to the target population, which results in the service probably being inefficient. States are suggested to partake in funding
Macêdo, Márcia Stefânia Ribeiro; Chaves, Sônia Cristina Lima; Fernandes, Antônio Luis de Carvalho
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the investments to implement and operational costs of a type I Oral Health Care Team in the Family Health Care Strategy. METHODS This is an economic assessment study, for analyzing the investments and operational costs of an oral health care team in the city of Salvador, BA, Northeastern Brazil. The amount worth of investments for its implementation was obtained by summing up the investments in civil projects and shared facilities, in equipments, furniture, and instruments. Regarding the operational costs, the 2009-2012 time series was analyzed and the month of December 2012 was adopted for assessing the monetary values in effect. The costs were classified as direct variable costs (consumables) and direct fixed costs (salaries, maintenance, equipment depreciation, instruments, furniture, and facilities), besides the indirect fixed costs (cleaning, security, energy, and water). The Ministry of Health’s share in funding was also calculated, and the factors that influence cost behavior were described. RESULTS The investment to implement a type I Oral Health Care Team was R$29,864.00 (US$15,236.76). The operational costs of a type I Oral Health Care Team were around R$95,434.00 (US$48,690.82) a year. The Ministry of Health’s financial incentives for investments accounted for 41.8% of the implementation investments, whereas the municipality contributed with a 59.2% share of the total. Regarding operational costs, the Ministry of Health contributed with 33.1% of the total, whereas the municipality, with 66.9%. Concerning the operational costs, the element of heaviest weight was salaries, which accounted for 84.7%. CONCLUSIONS Problems with the regularity in the supply of inputs and maintenance of equipment greatly influence the composition of costs, besides reducing the supply of services to the target population, which results in the service probably being inefficient. States are suggested to partake in funding, especially to cover the
Zhou, Ting; Yi, Chunli; Zhang, Xuxia; Wang, Yuyin
Caregiver mental health is widely considered to be an important factor influencing children's asthma symptoms. The present study aimed to examine key factors that contribute to caregiver mental health in pediatric asthma with a Chinese sample. Two hundred participants reported their family socioeconomic status (SES), proneness to shame, asthma symptoms control of their child, family functioning, and their depression and anxiety symptoms. Results suggested that low family SES, low family functioning, and a high level of shame proneness were associated with high levels of anxiety and depression for caregivers. Family functioning mediated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver mental health and also moderated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver depression. This study highlights the importance of reducing experience of shame and enhancing family functioning in families affected by pediatric asthma. © 2014 Family Process Institute.
DeVoe, Jennifer E.; Baez, Alia; Angier, Heather; Krois, Lisa; Edlund, Christine; Carney, Patricia A.
PURPOSE Public health insurance programs have expanded coverage for the poor, and family physicians provide essential services to these vulnerable populations. Despite these efforts, many Americans do not have access to basic medical care. This study was designed to identify barriers faced by low-income parents when accessing health care for their children and how insurance status affects their reporting of these barriers. METHODS A mixed methods analysis was undertaken using 722 responses to an open-ended question on a health care access survey instrument that asked low-income Oregon families, “Is there anything else you would like to tell us?” Themes were identified using immersion/crystallization techniques. Pertinent demographic attributes were used to conduct matrix coded queries. RESULTS Families reported 3 major barriers: lack of insurance coverage, poor access to services, and unaffordable costs. Disproportionate reporting of these themes was most notable based on insurance status. A higher percentage of uninsured parents (87%) reported experiencing difficulties obtaining insurance coverage compared with 40% of those with insurance. Few of the uninsured expressed concerns about access to services or health care costs (19%). Access concerns were the most common among publicly insured families, and costs were more often mentioned by families with private insurance. Families made a clear distinction between insurance and access, and having one or both elements did not assure care. Our analyses uncovered a 3-part typology of barriers to health care for low-income families. CONCLUSIONS Barriers to health care can be insurmountable for low-income families, even those with insurance coverage. Patients who do not seek care in a family medicine clinic are not necessarily getting their care elsewhere. PMID:18025488
Devoe, Jennifer E; Baez, Alia; Angier, Heather; Krois, Lisa; Edlund, Christine; Carney, Patricia A
Public health insurance programs have expanded coverage for the poor, and family physicians provide essential services to these vulnerable populations. Despite these efforts, many Americans do not have access to basic medical care. This study was designed to identify barriers faced by low-income parents when accessing health care for their children and how insurance status affects their reporting of these barriers. A mixed methods analysis was undertaken using 722 responses to an open-ended question on a health care access survey instrument that asked low-income Oregon families, "Is there anything else you would like to tell us?" Themes were identified using immersion/crystallization techniques. Pertinent demographic attributes were used to conduct matrix coded queries. Families reported 3 major barriers: lack of insurance coverage, poor access to services, and unaffordable costs. Disproportionate reporting of these themes was most notable based on insurance status. A higher percentage of uninsured parents (87%) reported experiencing difficulties obtaining insurance coverage compared with 40% of those with insurance. Few of the uninsured expressed concerns about access to services or health care costs (19%). Access concerns were the most common among publicly insured families, and costs were more often mentioned by families with private insurance. Families made a clear distinction between insurance and access, and having one or both elements did not assure care. Our analyses uncovered a 3-part typology of barriers to health care for low-income families. Barriers to health care can be insurmountable for low-income families, even those with insurance coverage. Patients who do not seek care in a family medicine clinic are not necessarily getting their care elsewhere.
Full Text Available Hypothesizing that members of families enriched for longevity delay morbidity compared to population controls and approximate the health-span of centenarians, we compared the health spans of older generation subjects of the Long Life Family Study (LLFS to controls without family history of longevity and to centenarians of the New England Centenarian Study (NECS using Bayesian parametric survival analysis. We estimated hazard ratios, the ages at which specific percentiles of subjects had onsets of diseases, and the gain of years of disease-free survival in the different cohorts compared to referent controls. Compared to controls, LLFS subjects had lower hazards for cancer, cardiovascular disease, severe dementia, diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis and stroke. The age at which 20% of the LLFS siblings and probands had one or more age-related diseases was approximately 10 years later than NECS controls. While female NECS controls generally delayed the onset of age-related diseases compared with males controls, these gender differences became much less in the older generation of the LLFS and disappeared amongst the centenarians of the NECS. The analyses demonstrate extended health-span in the older subjects of the LLFS and suggest that this aging cohort provides an important resource to discover genetic and environmental factors that promote prolonged health-span in addition to longer life-span.
Silk, Hugh; Savageau, Judith A; Sullivan, Kate; Sawosik, Gail; Wang, Min
National initiatives have encouraged oral health training for family physicians and other nondental providers for almost 2 decades. Our national survey assesses progress of family medicine residency programs on this important health topic since our last survey in 2011. Family medicine residency program directors (PDs) completed an online survey covering various themes including number of hours of oral health (OH) teaching, topics covered, barriers, evaluation, positive influences, and program demographics. Compared to 2011, more PDs feel OH should be addressed by physicians (86% in 2017 vs 79% in 2011), yet fewer programs are teaching OH (81% vs 96%) with fewer hours overall (31% vs 45% with 4 or more hours). Satisfaction with the competence of graduating residents in OH significantly decreased (17% in 2017 vs 32% in 2011). Program directors who report graduates being well prepared to answer board questions on oral health topics are more likely to have an oral health champion (P<0.001) and report satisfaction with the graduates' level of oral health competency (P<0.001). Programs with an oral health champion, or having a relationship with a state or national oral health coalition, or having routine teaching from a dental professional are significantly more likely to have more hours of oral health curriculum (P<0.001). Family medicine PDs are more aware of the importance of oral health, yet less oral health is being taught in residency programs. Developing more faculty oral health champions and connecting programs to dental faculty and coalitions may help reduce this educational void.
Wallace, Danielle; Fahmy, Chantal; Cotton, Lindsy; Jimmons, Charis; McKay, Rachel; Stoffer, Sidney; Syed, Sarah
A significant number of prisoners experience mental health problems, and adequate social support is one way that facilitates better mental health. Yet, by being incarcerated, social support, particularly family support, is likely to be strained or even negative. In this study, we examine whether familial support--either positive or negative--in-prison and after release affects mental health outcomes post-release. Using the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) dataset, we regress post-release mental health on in-prison familial support, post-incarceration familial support, and changes in familial support. We find that while in-prison family support does not affect mental health, post-release familial support does. Also, experiencing an increase in negative familial support is associated with lower post-incarceration mental health. We conclude with a discussion of policies which may facilitate better familial support environments. © The Author(s) 2014.
Doyle, Sarah T; Perrin, Paul B; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Olivera, Silvia Leonor; Quintero, Lorena Medina; Otálvaro, Nadezda Yulieth Méndez; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos
This study examined the connections between family dynamics and the mental health of caregivers of youth with spinal cord injuries/disorders (SCI/D) caregivers from Colombia, South America. It was hypothesized that lower family functioning would be associated with poorer caregiver mental health. A cross-sectional study of self-report data collected from caregivers through the Hospital Universatario Hernando Moncaleano Perdomo in Neiva, Colombia. Thirty caregivers of children with SCI/D from Nevia, Colombia who were a primary caregiver for ≥3 months, providing care for an individual who was ≥6 months post-injury/diagnosis, familiar with the patient's history, and without neurological or psychiatric conditions. Caregivers' average age was 41.30 years (SD = 10.98), and 90% were female. Caregivers completed Spanish versions of instruments assessing their own mental health and family dynamics. Family dynamics explained 43.2% of the variance in caregiver burden and 50.1% of the variance in satisfaction with life, although family dynamics were not significantly associated with caregiver depression in the overall analysis. Family satisfaction was the only family dynamics variable to yield a significant unique association with any index of caregiver mental health (satisfaction with life). If similar findings emerge in future intervention research, interventions for pediatric SCI/D caregivers in Colombia and other similar global regions could benefit from including techniques to improve family dynamics, especially family satisfaction, given the strong potentially reciprocal connection between these dynamics and caregiver mental health. The degree of disability resulting from SCI/D can vary greatly depending on the severity and level of the lesion, though permanent impairment is often present that profoundly impacts both physical and psychological functioning. Very little is known about the impact of pediatric SCI/D in developing countries, despite the high rates of
Verônica Lourdes Lima Batista Maia
Full Text Available Background: Mental disorders of the elderly constitute a public health problem due to their high prevalence, shortage of specialized services offered in Brazil, difficulties of access by the population and deficiency in the training of professionals of the Family Health Strategy for the identification, receptiveness and psychosocial assistance to the elderly. Objectives: To analyze the training of professionals of the Family Health Strategy on psychosocial care for the elderly in the context of the Psychosocial Care Network – RAPS (Rede de Atenção Psicossocial, and to discuss how professional training influences the care provided to the elderly. Methodology: Descriptive, qualitative study carried out with 31 professionals, 13 physicians and 18 nurses, who work at the Family Health Strategy of the city of Picos, Piauí, Brazil. The data were collected in January 2016, through a semi-structured interview guide, processed by the IRAMUTEQ software and analyzed by means of the Descending Hierarchical Classification. Results: The results were presented in three segments, namely: 1. The practice of professionals from the Family Health Strategy in psychosocial care in the family context; 2. Training of specialized professionals, in the attention to the elderly, in the Family Health Strategy; 3. The Psychosocial Attention Network in the care of elderly users of alcohol and other drugs; Conclusion: Health professionals have difficulties in dealing with the elderly with mental disorders in basic care. In order to facilitate access to specialized health services and to develop actions for social reintegration, prevention and harm reduction, it is necessary to implement a policy of ongoing training and education for health professionals to improve care for the elderly. Keywords: Aging; Mental Health; Mental disorders; Family Health Strategy.
Lynn B. Wilson
Full Text Available Poor oral health in early childhood can have long-term consequences, and parents often are unaware of the importance of preventive measures for infants and toddlers. Children in rural, low-income families suffer disproportionately from the effects of poor oral health. Participants were 91 parents of infants and toddlers enrolled in Early Head Start (EHS living in rural Hawai'i, USA. In this quasi-experimental design, EHS home visitors were assigned to use either a didactic or family-centered video with parents they served. Home visitors reviewed short segments of the assigned videos with parents over an eight-week period. Both groups showed significant prepost gains on knowledge and attitudes/behaviors relating to early oral health as well as self-reported changes in family oral health routines at a six-week followup. Controlling for pretest levels, parents in the family-centered video group showed larger changes in attitudes/behaviors at posttest and a higher number of positive changes in family oral health routines at followup. Results suggest that family-centered educational videos are a promising method for providing anticipatory guidance to parents regarding early childhood oral health. Furthermore, establishing partnerships between dental care, early childhood education, and maternal health systems offers a model that broadens potential reach with minimal cost.
Liu, Yin; Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H.
Objective The study examines family caregivers’ health changes over 1 year on four health dimensions and explores the association of differential health trajectories with adult day service (ADS) use and caregiving transitions. Method The participants were 153 primary caregivers of individuals with dementia (IWDs) who provided information on care situations and their own health at baseline, 6-month, and 12-month interviews. Results Caregivers showed increasing functional limitations and decreasing bodily pain over time, whereas role limitation and general health perception remained stable. Furthermore, caregivers’ trajectories of functional limitation were associated with their extent of ADS use at baseline and their relatives’ placement. Discussion Health is multidimensional; all dimensions of caregiver health do not change in a uniform manner. The findings underscore the importance of the association of caregiving transitions and caregiver health and the potential health benefits of ADS use for family caregivers. PMID:25348275
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B; Romero, Andrea; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J
Latino parents can experience acculturation stressors, and according to the Family Stress Model (FSM), parent stress can influence youth mental health and substance use by negatively affecting family functioning. To understand how acculturation stressors come together and unfold over time to influence youth mental health and substance use outcomes, the current study investigated the trajectory of a latent parent acculturation stress factor and its influence on youth mental health and substance use via parent-and youth-reported family functioning. Data came from a 6-wave, school-based survey with 302 recent (stress loaded onto a latent factor of acculturation stress at each of the first 4 time points. Earlier levels of and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted worse youth-reported family functioning. Additionally, earlier levels of parent acculturation stress predicted worse parent-reported family functioning and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted better parent-reported family functioning. While youth-reported positive family functioning predicted higher self-esteem, lower symptoms of depression, and lower aggressive and rule-breaking behavior in youth, parent-reported family positive functioning predicted lower youth alcohol and cigarette use. Findings highlight the need for Latino youth preventive interventions to target parent acculturation stress and family functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Durham, Judith A.; Miah, M. Mizanur Rahman
Literature review addresses the status of farm families; farm stresses and their effects; dysfunctional family relationships; and the unique attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions of rural culture toward social service intervention. By implementing coordinated service programs and initiating new legislation that addresses rural health care issues,…
Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.; Duku, Eric
Data from a nationally representative sample of 13,470 children aged 4-11 years were used to study contextual influences on children's mental health and school performance, the moderating effects of family immigrant status and underlying family processes that might explain these relationships. Despite greater socioeconomic disadvantage, children…
Schlenker, Eleanor D.
Analysis of research on food, nutrition, and health in the Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences and Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal 1985-2000 (n=172) identified four categories: (1) changes in dietary standards and nutrient requirements; (2) public policy and guidance on nutrition; (3) food behavior and nutrition intervention; and…
McGilton, Katherine S.; Guruge, Sepali; Librado, Ruby; Bloch, Lois; Boscart, Veronique
Research on the relationships between health care aides (HCAs) and families of clients has been situated mainly in long-term care settings and includes scant findings about the perceptions of HCAs. Based on the findings of a larger qualitative study using a grounded theory approach, this paper addresses the topic of HCA-family relationships in…
Manning, Terri M.
The evolution of the family concerns health educators because family environment has been consistently linked to development of various addictions and negative behaviors, such as drug and alcohol abuse, eating disorders, workaholism, excessive exercise, sexual promiscuity, vandalism, youth crime, and violence and abuse. It is recognized that a…
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify the factors associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of family caregivers of Chinese stroke patients. One hundred and twenty-three stroke patients consecutively admitted to a stroke clinic and their 123 family caregivers were recruited. The caregivers' HRQOLs were assessed…
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the extent to which health shocks play a role in black-white wealth inequality. Deploying data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we implement a first-differences identification strategy in estimating the effects of acute health events on changes in wealth for couples across waves of data from 1999 to 2011. We find that although such shocks affect both white and black families, they make black families more vulnerable financially as family heads near retirement. In comparison with their white counterparts, black families that experience an acute health shock are more likely to rely on social safety nets, such as food stamps and Social Security Disability Insurance. Findings hold implications across multiple policy arenas, including health-care and labor law.
Minke, Kathleen M.; Vickers, Harleen S.
Effective family-school collaboration is essential for promoting students' success at school, but collaborative relationships must be proactively developed and intentionally nurtured. These relationships are particularly critical when children are struggling behaviorally or emotionally. Strategies for building effective relationships are…
Full Text Available Grant Dewson, Ruth M KluckMolecular Genetics of Cancer Division, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: Apoptotic cell death is essential for embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and a well-functioning immune system, with aberrant apoptosis contributing to numerous disease conditions. Inadequate cell death is a major contributing factor to tumorigenesis, while excess cell death contributes to neurodegeneration and autoimmune disease. The major pathway of apoptotic cell death, the mitochondrial pathway, is controlled by the Bcl-2 family of proteins. The members of this family, more than 17 in humans, share significant sequence and structural homology, and fulfil either prosurvival or proapoptotic roles. Specific interactions between these functionally polar proteins, and their relative expression levels, govern the susceptibility of each cell to toxic insults. Here we review the current understanding on how apoptotic cell death is controlled by this important protein family. We also discuss how excessive or insufficient cell death can contribute to disease, and how targeting the Bcl-2 family offers novel therapeutic opportunities.Keywords: apoptosis, Bcl-2, cancer, cytochrome c, mitochondria
Carmo, Andrius M.J.; Paiva, Jose Daniel S. de; Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L. de; Franca, Elvis J. de; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: email@example.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Bacchi, Marcio A.; Fernandes, Elisabete A.N., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil).
This study aims to evaluate the distribution of K, Rb and Cs in leaves of trees of the Atlantic Forest through studies of correlation between the chemical elements. For this, we used the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis for the quantification of the chemical elements. The concentration ranges found were 6700-24000 mg / kg for K, 16 to 72mg / kg for Rb and 0.08 to 0,92mg / kg for Cs. As Rb has chemical similarity to K, is easily absorbed by plants, leading to a high value (0.9) of the Pearson correlation. For the correlation between K and Cs, no significant values were detected except for some species of the Myrtaceae family. However, average correlations (0.6
Background The objective of this study is to determine the incidence and the risk factors of the urinary incontinence in women visiting the Health Family Center. Methods 430 women, who visited three Family Health Centers in the city center of Erzurum for any reason between 25 November and 20 January 2016, were included in this study without any sampling. The data were collected by using the face-to-face interview method. Percentage distribution, Chi square test, and logistic regression analys...
Brännlund, Annica; Edlund, Jonas
Research has established that school performance relates: (i) negatively with poor mental health during childhood and (ii) positively with family socioeconomic resources. In this article, we examine the potentially moderating effects of family resources on the relationship between school performance and poor mental health, using register data covering all children born in Sweden in 1990. The dependent variable is graduation from upper secondary school. We perform separate analyses for girls a...
Sprauve-Holmes, Nancy E; Gaughan, John; Kaslow, Nadine J.
Abstract Background Family violence among older women encompasses intimate partner violence (IPV) and elder maltreatment, both linked to poor health status. Little is known about the association between family violence and the health status of older innercity African American women. Methods One hundred fifty-eight African American women, aged ≥50, were interviewed in the ambulatory clinics of a large public hospital. Lifetime family violence exposure as an adult was measured by the Family Violence against Older Women (FVOW) scale; physical and mental health status were measured by the physical and mental component summary scores of the Short Form 8® scale. Results Mean participant age was 61.5 years (SD 7.1). Participants with FVOW scores in the top quartile were considered to have high lifetime family violence exposure. Participants with higher family violence exposure and those younger, unemployed, or disabled reported worse physical and mental health status. Lower income and not having Medicare were associated with worse physical and mental health status, respectively. Using stepwise linear regression techniques, only employment status and high family violence exposure were associated with worse physical (F = 7.16, p = 0.0011) and mental health (f = 7.09, p = 0.0012) status. Women with high FVOW scores reported physical and mental component summary scores that were 4.18 and 4.6 points lower, respectively, than those of women with lower FVOW scores. Conclusions Among older, innercity, African American women, lack of employment and high levels of family violence exposure as an adult are associated with worse physical and mental health status. Clinicians caring for older African American women need to be cognizant of the role both current and prior violence exposure may play in their patients' current health status. PMID:19183088
Fowler, Cathrine; Schmied, Virginia; Psaila, Kim; Kruske, Sue; Rossiter, Chris
Australia has a well-established universal child and family health service predominately staffed by specialist/qualified child and family health nurses. Two common and interrelated concerns are the need for nurses to be ready for practice after completing a nursing education program and the means to ensure ongoing nursing competence. To investigate the readiness of CFH nurses to practise after qualification and their continuing engagement with learning. The study used an interpretive descriptive approach. This paper presents data from four questions from a larger survey of child and family health nurses across Australia. 1098 child and family health nurses responded to the survey. Qualitative survey responses from the four education questions were analysed using inductive thematic content analysis. Five significant themes were identified: hands-on experience (student clinical practice/placement); drawing on prior experience; learning on the job; learning (learning over time); and barriers to learning. This paper provides insights into nurses' readiness for practice at the completion of a postgraduate child and family health nursing qualification and their maintenance of competence and specialist knowledge. It highlights: the need for clinical placement to be retained and enhanced; the significant contribution of more experienced child and family health nurses mentoring newly graduated child and family health nurses; the need for minimum education standards; the importance of reviewing education courses in relation to graduates' readiness for child and family health nursing practice; the importance of supporting ongoing professional development; and the removal of barriers to accessing education opportunities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Identification is a basic activity and one of primary objective on systematic. For plant biodiversity studies, it was the first steps that researcher performed before studying any topics in the research area. Unfortunately, species identification is usually a time consuming activity. One of the main objectives of this study was to obtain a set of leaf morphology characters that were useful and efficient enough for species identification, especially on the tree habits group in order to reduce time consuming for the identification species. All of the leaf morphology characters were selected by correlation coefficient and separation coefficient values. Besides of that, the stability, simplicity and validity of the characters were also part of concern. The characters that had high value of separation coefficient and low value of correlation coefficient would be added one by one as in their rank, until the value of the combination separation coefficient was equal to 1 (100%. The result of this study suggested that 30 from 92 characters of leaf morphology were recommended as a set of characters that useful and efficient enough for species identification.
Nelson, Kimberly M; Carey, Kate B; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Eckert, Tanya L; Park, Aesoon; Vanable, Peter A; Ewart, Craig K; Carey, Michael P
Research regarding the role of gender in relations between family characteristics and health risk behaviors has been limited. This study aims to investigate gender differences in associations between family processes and risk-taking in adolescents. Adolescents (N = 249; mean age = 14.5 years) starting their first year at an urban high school in the northeastern USA completed self-report measures that assessed family characteristics (i.e., parental monitoring, family social support, family conflict) and health behaviors (i.e., tobacco use, alcohol use, marijuana use, sex initiation) as part of a prospective, community-based study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate gender differences in associations between the family characteristics and health behaviors. Among males, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of using tobacco and having ever engaged in sex. Among females, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of marijuana use, alcohol use, and having ever engaged in sex. However, in contrast to males, among females (a) higher levels of perceived family social support were associated with lower odds of alcohol use and having ever engaged in sex and (b) higher levels of perceived family conflict were associated with higher odds of marijuana use and having ever engaged in sex. Family processes were more strongly related to health behaviors among adolescent females than adolescent males. Interventions that increase parental monitoring and family social support as well as decrease family conflict may help to protect against adolescent risk taking, especially for females.
Ferrão, L J; Fernandes, Tito H
In the remote northern region of Mozambique the ratio of doctors to patients is 1:50,000. In 2007, Lúrio University initiated an innovative, "One Student/One Family" program of teaching and learning for health professions students, to complement their traditional core curriculum. All students of each of the school's six health degree programs complete a curriculum in "Family and Community Health" in each year of their training. Groups of six students from six different health professions training programs make weekly visits to communities, where each student is allocated to a family. Students learn from their families about community life and health issues, within a community where 80% of the population still lacks access to modern health care and rely on indigenous doctors and traditional remedies. In turn, students transmit information to families about modern health care and report to the faculty any major health problems they find. The educational/experiential approach is interprofessional and community-oriented. The main perceived advantages of the program are that it is applied and problem-based learning for students, while simultaneously providing needed healthcare services to the community. The major disadvantages include the complexity of coordinating multidisciplinary groups, the time and distance required of students in traveling to communities, and interpretation of multiple reports with variable data. This community-oriented education program involving students from six disciplines uses nontraditional teaching/learning methods is the basis of the ex libris of Lúrio University.
Miller, Alexander; Hess, Julia Meredith; Bybee, Deborah; Goodkind, Jessica R
Consistent evidence documents the negative impacts of family separation on refugee mental health and concerns for the welfare of distant family members and desire to reunite with family members as priorities for refugees postmigration. Less is known about refugees' emic perspectives on their experiences of family separation. Using mixed methods data from a community-based mental health intervention study, we found that family separation was a major source of distress for refugees and that it was experienced in a range of ways: as fear for family still in harm's way, as a feeling of helplessness, as cultural disruption, as the greatest source of distress since resettlement, and contributing to mixed emotions around resettlement. In addition to these qualitative findings, we used quantitative data to test the relative contribution of family separation to refugees' depression/anxiety symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and psychological quality of life. Separation from a family member was significantly related to all 3 measures of mental health, and it explained significant additional variance in all 3 measures even after accounting for participants' overall level of trauma exposure. Relative to 26 other types of trauma exposure, family separation was 1 of only 2 traumatic experiences that explained additional variance in all 3 measures of mental health. Given the current global refugee crisis and the need for policies to address this large and growing issue, this research highlights the importance of considering the ways in which family separation impacts refugee mental health and policies and practices that could help ameliorate this ongoing stressor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Read, Sanna; Grundy, Emily
As shared family context may be an important influence on mental health, and gender differences in mental health, in later life we investigated how gender, family-related variables and gender roles were associated with mental health in older married couples. Using data on a sample of 2,511 married couples born between 1923 and 1953 (drawn from the British Household Panel Survey) we analysed differences in the mental health of husbands and wives by fertility history, length of marriage, presence of co-resident children, reported social support, hours of household work, attitudes to gender roles and health of husband and wife. Mental health in 2001 was measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Multilevel modelling was used to assess effects in husbands and wives and variations between husbands and wives. Results showed that although the mental health of married couples was correlated, wives had poorer mental health than their husbands. The gender difference was smaller in couples who lived with a child aged 16 or more (and had no younger co-resident children) and in couples in which both spouses had experienced early parenthood. The influence of individual and family characteristics on mental health also differed between husbands and wives. For husbands, early fatherhood and co-residence with a child or children aged 16 or more increased the odds of poor mental health. For wives, having had a child when aged 35 or more appeared protective while having traditional gender role attitudes increased the odds of poorer mental health. The role of family characteristics in the shared marital context has complex associations with mental health, some of which seem gender specific. Although wives express more mental distress, husbands in general show poorer mental health related to family characteristics.
Full Text Available Town settlements have different load level by emissions originated mostly from transport, industry and heating system. Their environmental and climate conditions are more or less changed that effect to growth, physiology and vigor of woody plants at the city public vegetation areas. Our study on determining the impact of urban environment on the tree health status was focused on the quantities of nutrients and main components of the pigment complex – chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids. Leaves of Acer platanoides L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Betula pendula Roth. were sampled from urban areas with different type of anthropogenic pressure in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria. Concentrations of the elements Ca, K, Mg, N, Na, P, and S were analyzed by ICP-MS. Health condition of trees in the city parks and suburban areas was acceptable, but in the central part and close to the industrial area it was non-satisfactory. This preliminary research pointed ecophysiological tools as useful to develop new criteria for sustainable urban arboriculture, including species selection (based on stress tolerance criteria, nursery hardening and preconditioning, and care after planting.
Full Text Available Trees remove air pollution by the interception of particulate matter on plant surfaces and the absorption of gaseous pollutants through leaf stomata. However, to date, we have rather few empirical studies on the magnitude and value of the effects of trees on air quality and human health, especially especially within the climatic conditions of Central Europe. To investigate the significance of urban trees from the point of view of air pollution removal, an i-Tree Eco model was implemented. The results indicate that the 932 trees in Krasiński Gardens (Warsaw, Poland absorb 267.12 kg of pollutants per year: 149.9 kg of O3, 94.4 kg of NO2, 11.8 kg of SO2 and 10.9 kg of PM2.5. That makes an average removal per tree (calculated by summarizing the values of all of the pollutants of 0.287 kg/year. Furthermore, health values were used to estimate their pollution removal services in monetary terms. The total benefit of air purification by trees in Krasiński Gardens is estimated at 26250 PLN/year with an average value per tree of: 28 PLN. Although PM2.5 removal is the lowest among the four air pollutants analysed, accounting for only 4% of the total mass reduction, it provides 69% of the total economic value. The benefit associated with absorption of O3 provided 28% of the value, with the absorption of NO2 and SO2 at just 3%. The results also show that large tree species (with a crown diameter of 14-15m can provide around 10 times higher benefits, than small ones (5-6m.
Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Le Méner, Erwan; Oppenchaim, Nicolas; Arnaud, Amandine; Jangal, Candy; Caum, Carme; Vuillermoz, Cécile; Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Lioret, Sandrine; Roze, Mathilde; Le Strat, Yann; Guyavarch, Emmanuelle
The objectives were to estimate the size of homeless family population in Paris region, to describe their living conditions and health and to analyse the impact of homelessness on children's growth and development, which was never investigated in France. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of homeless sheltered families in 2013. Families were interviewed in 17 languages and a nurse took anthropometric measures, blood samples and collected health data from child health reports. The population size was estimated at 10 280 families. Half were single-parent female families and 94% were born outside France. Most families had experienced housing instability and 94% were living below the poverty line (828 euros/month). Malnutrition was a major problem: the prevalence of food insecurity was high (77% of parents and 69% of children), as well as anaemia (50% of mothers and 38% of children), overweight (38% of mothers and 22% of children) and obesity (32% of mothers and 4% of children). High rates of depressive disorders were found in 30% of homeless mothers and 20% of children had signs of possible mental health disorders. These first results highlight the important number of families among the homeless population in Paris region. Families differed from other homeless people regarding social characteristics such as birthplace, single-parent status and residential instability that are likely to influence schooling, social ties, health and access to care. These results demonstrate the need for urgent actions targeting homeless families, in terms of reducing housing instability and providing adequate care, especially for children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Untas, Aurélie; Rascle, Nicole; Idier, Laetitia; Lasseur, Catherine; Combe, Christian
This study investigated the effect of family relations on patients' adjustment to dialysis. The two main aims were to develop a family typology, and to explore the influence of family profile on the patient's anxiety, depression and adherence to nutritional guidelines. The sample consisted of 120 patients (mean age 63 years; 67.5% of men). They completed several measures 1, 6 and 12 months after dialysis initiation. The scales used were the Family Relationship Index and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Perceived adherence to nutritional guidelines was assessed using two visual analogical scales. Results showed that family relations remained stable over time. Cluster analysis yielded three family profiles, which were named conflict, communicative and supportive families. Patients belonging to conflict families perceived themselves as less adhering to nutritional guidelines. For these patients, anxiety and depressive moods increased significantly over time, whereas mental health remained stable over time for communicative and supportive families. This research underlines that family relations are essential in global consideration of the care of patients treated by dialysis. Conflict families seem especially at risk. They should be identified early to help them adapt to this stressful treatment.
Sugawara, Norio; Danjo, Kazuma; Furukori, Hanako; Sato, Yasushi; Tomita, Tetsu; Fujii, Akira; Nakagami, Taku; Kitaoka, Kazuyo; Yasui-Furukori, Norio
Occupational stress among mental health nurses may affect their psychological health, resulting in reduced performance. To provide high-quality, sustainable nursing care, it is necessary to identify and control the factors associated with psychological health among mental health nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of work-family conflict (WFC) in the well-known relationship between occupational stress and psychological health among mental health nurses in Japan. In this cross-sectional study, data were gathered from 180 mental health nurses who had a coresident child or were married. Data from the Work-Family Conflict Scale, the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale were obtained via self-report questionnaires. The effects of occupational stress and WFC on psychological health were explored by hierarchical linear regression analysis. The relationship between emotional exhaustion and occupational factors, including quantitative workload and the variance in workload, disappeared with the addition of WFC (each work interference with family [WIF] or family interference with work [FIW]). The relationship between emotional exhaustion and mental demands disappeared only with the addition of WIF. The relationship between depressive symptoms and variance in workload disappeared with the addition of WFC (each WIF or FIW). Our findings may encourage hospital administrators to consider the risks of medical staff WFC. Furthermore, longitudinal investigations into the factors associated with WFC are required for administrative and psychological interventions.
Engelhardt, H Tristram
A complex interaction of ideological, financial, social, and moral factors makes the financial sustainability of health care systems a challenge across the world. One difficulty is that some of the moral commitments of some health care systems collide with reality. In particular, commitments to equality in access to health care and to fair equality of opportunity undergird an unachievable promise, namely, to provide all with the best of basic health care. In addition, commitments to fair equality of opportunity are in tension with the existence of families, because families are aimed at advantaging their own members in preference to others. Because the social-democratic state is committed to fair equality of opportunity, it offers a web of publicly funded entitlements that make it easier for persons to exit the family and to have children outside of marriage. In the United States, in 2008, 41% of children were born outside of wedlock, whereas, in 1940, the percentage was only 3.8%, and in 1960, 5%, with the further consequence that the social and financial capital generated through families, which aids in supporting health care in families, is diminished. In order to explore the challenge of creating a sustainable health care system that also supports the traditional family, the claims made for fair equality of opportunity in health care are critically reconsidered. This is done by engaging the expository device of John Rawls's original position, but with a thin theory of the good that is substantively different from that of Rawls, one that supports a health care system built around significant copayments, financial counseling, and compulsory savings, with a special focus on enhancing the financial and social capital of the family. This radical recasting of Rawls, which draws inspiration from Singapore, is undertaken as a heuristic to aid in articulating an approach to health care allocation that can lead past the difficulties of social-democratic policy.
Full Text Available Holism is an ancient theory that can be applied contemporarily to adolescent health and its determinants. This theory suggests that there is value in considering factors that influence health together as integrated wholes, in addition to consideration of individual components. Characteristics of families are fundamental determinants of health and provide opportunity for exploration of this theory. In a “proof-of-concept” analysis we therefore: (1 developed a multidimensional, composite (holistic measure to be used to characterize family systems; and (2 related this measure and its individual components to adolescent health outcomes, in order to test the theory of holism. Cross-sectional analyses of survey reports from the 2014 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (weighted n = 19,333 were performed. Factor analysis was used to confirm the psychometric properties of the holistic measure to describe a family system (the “holistic measure”. Associations between this holistic measure, its individual components, and various indicators of health were examined descriptively and using binomial regression. The holistic measure (4 items, α = 0.62; RMSEA = .04; SRMR = 0.01; AGFI = 0.99 included components describing family: material wealth, meal practices, neighbourhood social capital, and social connections. It was consistently associated with various health behaviours, and social and emotional health outcomes. In 22/24 comparisons, this holistic measure related to positive health outcomes more strongly than did its individual components; for negative health outcomes this occurred in 20/24 comparisons. Study findings suggest that it is possible to assess family systems holistically. Such systems are strongly associated with adolescent health outcomes, and there is etiological and theoretical value in considering family systems as integrated wholes.
Kageyama, M; Nakamura, Y; Kobayashi, S; Yokoyama, K
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Empowerment of family caregivers of adults with mental health issues has received increasing attention among mental health nurses in Japan and has been recognized as a new goal of family interventions. The Family Empowerment Scale (FES) was originally developed to measure the empowerment status of parents of children with emotional disorders. However, it was later applied to broader health issues. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We developed a Japanese version of the FES for family caregivers of adults with mental health issues (FES-AMJ) and examined the validity and reliability among parents. Results showed that the FES-AMJ had acceptable concurrent validity and reliability; however, insufficient construct validity was found, especially for the subscale regarding the service system. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Further studies need to modify the scale. Clarification of ideal family empowerment status in the service system through discussion with mental health nurses and family caregivers may be important. Introduction The Family Empowerment Scale (FES) was originally developed for parents of children with emotional disorders. In Japan, family empowerment is gaining increasing attention and may be one goal of nursing interventions. Aim To develop a Japanese version of the FES for family caregivers of adults with mental health issues and to study the validity and reliability of this scale among parents. Method We translated the FES into Japanese and administered this self-report questionnaire to 275 parents. Results The multitrait scaling analysis revealed acceptable convergent validity and insufficient discriminant validity among all subscales. In particular, all items of the Service system subscale had insufficient discriminant and/or convergent validity. Each subscale significantly correlated with the indicator of empowerment. The intraclass correlation coefficients of each subscale were .855-.917. Cronbach
Pohl, Christine D
In many ancient cultures, hospitality was a significant moral and religious practice in responding to the needs of strangers. Although largely trivialized in contemporary society, the practice of hospitality continues to create contexts that contribute to individual and communal flourishing and that resist several dehumanizing social trends. A recovery of the practice can help faith communities connect their moral and theological commitments to the needs of children, families, and neighborhoods. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
This article draws upon research examining the impact of new health imperatives on schools in the United Kingdom. Specifically, it examines features of emerging surveillant relations, which not only speak to the changing nature of health-related practices in schools but have particular currency for broader understandings of theorisations of…
Levendosky, Alytia A; Huth-Bocks, Alissa; Semel, Michael A
Examined the impact of domestic violence, child abuse, and attachment style on adolescent mental health and relationship functioning. Data were collected on 111 adolescents, ages 14 to 16, and their mothers. Results indicate that both attachment and family violence experiences negatively impact mental health. In addition, family violence significantly predicted attachment style. Significant protective and vulnerability factors included maternal psychological functioning, maternal positive parenting, and perceived social support from friends. However, findings provided only limited support for the model of attachment as a mediator of the impact of family violence on adolescent relationships.
Javier, Joyce R; Galura, Kristina; Aliganga, Frank Anthony P; Supan, Jocelyn; Palinkas, Lawrence A
Filipinos are a large, yet invisible, minority at high risk for adolescent behavioral health problems. Limited research describes the family as offering a source of positive support for some Filipino youths and yet for some it is also a source of stress and isolation, leading to struggles with adolescent depression and suicidal behavior. This article describes a qualitative study that investigates the role of family when understanding behavioral health needs among Filipino adolescents. Findings highlight the importance of addressing family cohesion when designing interventions aimed at improving the well-being of Filipino youth.
Mori, Érika Chediak; Naghettini, Alessandra Vitorino
Considering the worker's health one of the Unified Health System (SUS) tasks, the Primary Health Care (PHC) and the Family Health Strategy (FHS) play an important role in the development of health actions in the field health-work. In Brazil, where the number of informal and domiciled jobs is high, the FHS becomes a reference in the workers' health actions. Therefore, if the FHS is not attentive to the relation between professional occupation and disease, several diseases that affect workers can overload the system without obtaining a cure. The aim of this study is to evaluate doctors and nurses recognition of the Family Health Strategy on occupational diseases in Aparecida de Goiânia. This is a qualitative descriptive study and the data analysis was done by content analysis. The setting for this study contemplates FHS units in the municipality of Aparecida de Goiânia, Goiás. There were 8 Basic Health Units and 16 health professionals were interviewed. The data was collected in the participants of the interview workplaces, from February through April, 2013, after being approved by the Ethics and Research Committee. The discourses were analyzed according to Minayo (2007), using thematic analysis. The interviews were recorded and later transcribed for analysis. Among the 16 professionals interviewed we observed that only 3 (18.75%) received professional training on occupational health in their Institution, however the aim of the courses were towards situations of biological hazards and not about workers care. Practitioners reported lack of knowledge in the occupational health area, and also observed that the area is still undervalued and underexplored in the academic and professional fields, and even by the Municipality health management. Evaluating the academic education it is possible to observe the inadequacy of the subject workload, where professionals reported the lack of knowledge in the area and the low workload of the subject in the academic field. There is
Fisher, Celia B
In pediatric environmental health research, information about family members is often directly sought or indirectly obtained in the process of identifying child risk factors and helping to tease apart and identify interactions between genetic and environmental factors. However, federal regulations governing human subjects research do not directly address ethical issues associated with protections for family members who are not identified as the primary "research participant." Ethical concerns related to family consent and privacy become paramount as pediatric environmental health research increasingly turns to questions of gene-environment interactions. In this article I identify issues arising from and potential solutions for the privacy and informed consent challenges of pediatric environmental health research intended to adequately protect the rights and welfare of children, family members, and communities. I first discuss family members as secondary research participants and then the specific ethical challenges of longitudinal research on late-onset environmental effects and gene-environment interactions. I conclude with a discussion of the confidentiality and social risks of recruitment and data collection of research conducted within small or unique communities, ethnic minority populations, and low-income families. The responsible conduct of pediatric environmental health research must be conceptualized as a goodness of fit between the specific research context and the unique characteristics of subjects and other family stakeholders.
Fisher, Celia B.
Background In pediatric environmental health research, information about family members is often directly sought or indirectly obtained in the process of identifying child risk factors and helping to tease apart and identify interactions between genetic and environmental factors. However, federal regulations governing human subjects research do not directly address ethical issues associated with protections for family members who are not identified as the primary “research participant.” Ethical concerns related to family consent and privacy become paramount as pediatric environmental health research increasingly turns to questions of gene–environment interactions. Objectives In this article I identify issues arising from and potential solutions for the privacy and informed consent challenges of pediatric environmental health research intended to adequately protect the rights and welfare of children, family members, and communities. Discussion I first discuss family members as secondary research participants and then the specific ethical challenges of longitudinal research on late-onset environmental effects and gene–environment interactions. I conclude with a discussion of the confidentiality and social risks of recruitment and data collection of research conducted within small or unique communities, ethnic minority populations, and low-income families. Conclusions The responsible conduct of pediatric environmental health research must be conceptualized as a goodness of fit between the specific research context and the unique characteristics of subjects and other family stakeholders. PMID:17035154
Dallacker, M; Hertwig, R; Mata, J
Findings on the relationship between family meal frequency and children's nutritional health are inconsistent. The reasons for these mixed results have to date remained largely unexplored. This systematic review and meta-analysis of 57 studies (203,706 participants) examines (i) the relationship between family meal frequency and various nutritional health outcomes and (ii) two potential explanations for the inconsistent findings: sociodemographic characteristics and mealtime characteristics. Separate meta-analyses revealed significant associations between higher family meal frequency and better overall diet quality (r = 0.13), more healthy diet (r = 0.10), less unhealthy diet (r = -0.04) and lower body mass index, BMI (r = -0.05). Child's age, country, number of family members present at meals and meal type (i.e. breakfast, lunch or dinner) did not moderate the relationship of meal frequency with healthy diet, unhealthy diet or BMI. Socioeconomic status only moderated the relationship with BMI. The findings show a significant relationship between frequent family meals and better nutritional health - in younger and older children, across countries and socioeconomic groups, and for meals taken with the whole family vs. one parent. Building on these findings, research can now target the causal direction of the relationship between family meal frequency and nutritional health. © 2018 World Obesity Federation.
Fagan, Thomas; Dutta, Arin; Rosen, James; Olivetti, Agathe; Klein, Kate
Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have substantially improved access to family planning over the past 50 years. Many have also recently adopted explicit declarations of universal rights to health and universal health coverage (UHC) and have begun implementing UHC-oriented health financing schemes. These schemes will have important implications for the sustainability and further growth of family planning programs throughout the region. We examined the status of contraceptive methods in major health delivery and financing schemes in 9 LAC countries. Using a set of 37 indicators on family planning coverage, family planning financing, health financing, and family planning inclusion in UHC-oriented schemes, we conducted a desk review of secondary sources, including population surveys, health financing assessments, insurance enrollment reports, and unit cost estimates, and interviewed in-country experts. Findings: Although the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) has continued to increase in the majority of LAC countries, substantial disparities in access for marginalized groups remain. On average, mCPR is 20% lower among indigenous women than the general population, 5% lower among uninsured women than insured, and 7% lower among the poorest women than the wealthiest. Among the poorest quintile of women, insured women had an mCPR 16.5 percentage points higher than that of uninsured women, suggesting that expansion of insurance coverage is associated with increased family planning access and use. In the high- and upper-middle-income countries we reviewed, all modern contraceptive methods are typically available through the social health insurance schemes that cover a majority of the population. However, in low- and lower-middle-income countries, despite free provision of most family planning services in public health facilities, stock-outs and implicit rationing present substantial barriers that prevent clients from accessing their preferred method
Christiaens, Wendy; Bracke, Piet
Combination pressure or work-life imbalance is linked to adverse health. However, it remains unclear how work-family conflict is related to healthcare utilisation. Does work-family conflict function as a barrier or as a facilitator in relation to the use of health services and prescription medication? Lack of time may prevent people from visiting a doctor when they feel unwell. However, combination pressure can also be expected to intensify the use of health services, as the need for a quick fix is prioritised. Further, do women and men differ in their susceptibility to medicalisation and time pressure resulting from work-life imbalance? This article investigates the use of health services and prescription medication of dual-income couples with children, based on data from 23 countries in the European Social Survey round 2 (N(women) = 3755; N(men) = 3142). It was found that medical services and prescription medications are used more frequently in dual-income couples experiencing work-to-family spillover, but for women only this is irrespective of their self-reported health. Family-to-work spillover does not result in increased health service or medication use for either men or women. While women opt for a medical response to work-life imbalance, men's reluctance to seek formal health support is confirmed. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Boogaard, Jannie A; Werner, Perla; Zisberg, Anna; van der Steen, Jenny T
In a context of increasing emphasis on shared decision-making and palliative care in dementia, research on family caregivers' trust in health professionals in advanced dementia is surprisingly scant. The aim of the present study was to assess trust in nursing home health professionals of family caregivers of nursing home residents with advanced dementia, and possible correlates, such as family caregivers' satisfaction, involvement in care, care burden and patients' symptom burden. A cross-sectional study was carried out using structured questionnaires administered through the telephone. Generalized estimating equation analyses with adjustment for nursing home clustering were applied to assess the most important associations with family caregivers' trust. A total of 214 family caregivers of persons with dementia residing in 25 nursing homes participated in the study. The majority of the participants (67%) were women and adult children (75%). The majority of the family caregivers trusted physicians, nurses and nurses' aides at a moderate-to-high level. Approximately half to one-third reported moderate-to-low levels of trust. Higher levels of trust were associated with more positive care outcomes, such as higher family satisfaction with care and more positive evaluations of physician-family communication. The present study showed the importance of family caregivers trusting nursing home health professionals for their experiences as caregivers. Although causation cannot be established, increased family caregivers' trust in nursing home health professionals by improving communication and exchange of information might provide a good basis for providing optimal palliative care in advanced dementia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2466-2471. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Huang, Yacheng; Fang, Yongjun; Long, Xiangyu; Liu, Linya; Wang, Jia; Zhu, Jinheng; Ma, Yanyan; Qin, Yunxia; Qi, Jiyan; Hu, Xinwen; Tang, Chaorong
Metallothioneins (MTs) as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers play important roles in stress response and heavy metal homeostasis. In Hevea brasiliensis (the para rubber tree that is the source of commercial natural rubber) and in other trees, the functions of MTs are not well understood. Latex exudes when the rubber tree is tapped. The flow of latex and its regeneration can be enhanced by tapping, wounding and ethylene treatment, all of which produce ROS as a by-product. Here, we show the presence of four MT genes in H. brasiliensis, comprising three Type 2 (HbMT2, -2a and -2b) and one Type 3 (HbMT3L) isoforms, representing one of the smallest MT gene families among angiosperms. The four HbMTs exhibited distinct tissue expression patterns: HbMT2 and HbMT3L mainly in leaves, HbMT2a specifically in flowers and HbMT2b in diverse tissues. The expression of HbMT2b, an isoform present in latex, decreased significantly in the latex following the stress-inducing treatments of tapping, wounding and ethephon (an ethylene generator). The expressions of the leaf-abundant isoforms, HbMT2 and -3L were up-regulated following pathogenic fungus infection and high-temperature stress, but down-regulated by low-temperature stress. These reactions were consistent with multiple defense- and hormone-responsive cis-acting elements in the HbMT promoters. Nine transcription factors were shown to implicate in the high-temperature responsiveness of HbMT2 and -3L in leaves. Overexpression of HbMT2 in Escherichia coli enhanced the bacterium's tolerance to heavy metals and ROS, consistent with its predicted role as an ROS scavenger. Taken together, our results, along with other relevant studies, suggest an important role of HbMTs in latex regeneration as well as species adaptation via the regulation of ROS homeostasis. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Podlaski, Rafał; Dołęgowska, Sabina; Michalik, Artur
Application of chemical road deicers has a negative impact on roadside vegetation. Every year, the trees in cities suffer from direct and indirect effects of salt application for winter road maintenance. To elucidate this problem in the city of Kielce, the chemistry of snow, soil, tree bark, and leaf samples has been investigated together with an assessment of the health status of the trees. Twelve investigation sites were selected along the roads with different traffic intensity. Snow samples were collected twice during the winter and analyzed for pH, EC, Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Cl(-). In soil (collected from two depth intervals), tree bark, and leaf samples, the concentrations of B, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, S, and Zn were determined. The contents of total organic carbon (TOC) in soils, as well as the pH of soil and tree bark samples were also measured. Negative symptoms revealed by roadside trees included the loss of assimilative apparatus and decreased vitality. The results of chemical analyses indicated that the snowmelt might be a substantial source of chloride ions and alkalizing substances that influenced higher pH of soils. The soil samples displayed elevated concentrations of S and Zn and lower than typical for soil contents of B, Mg, and TOC. The pH of alkaline soils favored greater bioavailability of B and reduced bioavailability of Na and Zn by the trees examined.
Gibbons, Susanne W; Barnett, Scott D; Hickling, Edward J
This study uses data from the 2005 Department of Defense Survey of Health-Related Behaviors Among Military Personnel to examine relationships between family stress and posttraumatic stress symptoms across 4 subgroups of Operation Iraqi Freedom-deployed (i.e., war in Iraq) or Operation Enduring Freedom-deployed (i.e., war in Afghanistan) active-duty military service members. Results suggest the following: (a) the greatest positive correlation of family stressors with posttraumatic stress symptoms was found within the military health care officer group, and (b) these military health care officers differed in family stressors mediating posttraumatic stress with divorce and financial problems accounting for significant and unique portions of the variance. Implications for care of service members and their families are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kovács, Karolina Eszter
Full Text Available The frequency of health-risk behaviours like smoking, alcohol consumption and substance use is usually higher in adolescence. In addition, its appearance is higher among students coming from non-intact families. These factors also have a strong influence on academic achievement as students from fragile families and students having these health-damaging habits tend to be less effective. According to our results, four different student clusters can be detected regarding health behaviour (traditional risk-takers, hard risk-takers, ambivalent students and risk-avoiders. Ambivalent students reached the best achievement while hard risk-takers showed the poorest efficacy. Finally, students from intact families showed better results compared to their peers from single-parent or patchwork families.
Lent, Megan D; Petrovic, Lindsay E; Swanson, Josephine A; Olson, Christine M
Little is known about the causal relationship between and the mechanisms linking depression and food insecurity. Our purpose was to examine these knowledge gaps. Chi-squared analysis of longitudinal data from 29 rural upstate New York families followed for three years and qualitative analysis of interviews were used to identify associations and mechanisms. Depressive symptoms (p=.009) and poor mental health (p=.01) in mothers limited the likelihood families would leave food insecurity. This relationship was mediated through limiting the employment of adult family members and operated in three ways: preventing the depressed household member from working, preventing a different household member from working, and limiting access to childcare for depressed children so adults could work. Poor mental health is associated with keeping families food-insecure by limiting their employment. High-quality, accessible mental health care is needed for poverty-associated food insecurity to be alleviated.
Santos, Paula Dayanna Sousa Dos; Santos, Zélia Maria de Sousa Araújo; Diógenes, Léa Maria Moura Barroso; Caldas, José Manuel Peixoto de; Rodrigues, Kátia Alves Ferreira; Carneiro, Rithianne Frota
To evaluate the changes in the participation of the family caregiver in the treatment of the hypertensive person with the application of the Educational Technology in Health (ETH). Participant research carried out in a Primary Health Care Unit with 11 family caregivers (FC). The ETH was elaborated based on health education and applied in ten meetings between June and August 2016. We organized the results into categories. FCs experienced learning experiences through the exchange of information, socialization of experiences, and linkage establishments. The FCs were encouraged to share their doubts and experiences, so that, supported by listening to the professional, they felt welcomed and determined to fulfill their role with hypertensive relatives. Final considerations: The changes that have taken place have been highlighted in the learning of FCs and their commitment to family and self-care, as well as to the conviction that the family environment is indicated to make these changes effective.
Thompson, Sanna J; Cochran, Gerald; Barczyk, Amanda N
This study examined the direct effects of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, poor family communication and worries concerning family relationships, depression, anxiety, and dissociation on posttraumatic stress symptoms. Runaway youth were recruited from emergency youth shelters in New York and Texas. Interviews were completed with 350 youth who averaged 15 years of age. Structural equation modeling was used to examine family functioning, maltreatment, depression, dissociation, and anxiety in relation to posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results indicated that direct effects of family relationship worry to dissociation, β = .77, p family communication and youth dissociation, β = .42, p stress symptoms, but depression was not. Findings underscore the critical role of family relationships in mental health symptoms experienced by runaway adolescents. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Melody N. Mickens
Full Text Available Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS, especially those living in Latin America, often require assistance from family caregivers throughout the duration of the disease. Previous research suggests that family caregivers may experience positive and negative outcomes from providing care to individuals with MS, but few studies have examined the unmet needs of individuals providing care to family members with MS and how these unmet needs may mediate the relationship between MS symptoms and caregiver mental health. The current study examined the relationships among MS impairments (functional, neurological, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional, unmet family needs (household, informational, financial, social support, and health, and caregiver mental health (satisfaction with life, anxiety, burden, and depression in a sample of 81 MS caregivers from Guadalajara, Mexico. A structural equation model demonstrated the mediational effect of unmet family needs on the relationship between MS impairments and caregiver mental health. These findings suggest that intervention research on MS caregivers in Latin America may consider focusing on caregiver mental health problems by addressing unmet family needs and teaching caregivers ways to manage the impairments of the individual with MS.
Crouch, Simon Robert; McNair, Ruth; Waters, Elizabeth
Children with same-sex attracted parents develop well in terms of their health and wellbeing. There are many recognised factors that have an impact on child health, in general, including individual, family and wider social mediators. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of family structure and socio-demographic characteristics on child health and wellbeing in Australian same-sex parent families. A cross-sectional survey of self-identified same-sex attracted parents from across Australia was used to collect information on child health and wellbeing between May and December 2012. Mixed-effects multiple linear regression models were used to identify associations between family structure/socio-demographic characteristics and child wellbeing. Child health outcomes were measured using the Child Health Questionnaire and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. In same-sex parent families, biological relationships, parental gender and parental education were not significantly associated with health and wellbeing. Parental income, rurality and stable parental relationships were associated with health and wellbeing, and living in a single-parent household was associated with poorer wellbeing. Stable dual parent families offer good outcomes for children with same-sex attracted parents. Family processes are most important. This study does not support the assertion that children require both male and female parents, nor that biological relationships are essential to health and wellbeing. This study provides scientific data from a cross-sectional Australian-based study to describe and understand health determinants for children in family contexts that comprise same-sex parent and all family contexts. It recommends equitable, stigma-free family support. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Pakes, Barry; Rouleau, Katherine; MacDonald, Colla J; Arya, Neil; Purkey, Eva; Schultz, Karen; Dhatt, Reena; Wilson, Briana; Hadi, Abdullahel; Pottie, Kevin
Recognizing the growing demand from medical students and residents for more comprehensive global health training, and the paucity of explicit curricula on such issues, global health and curriculum experts from the six Ontario Family Medicine Residency Programs worked together to design a framework for global health curricula in family medicine training programs. A working group comprised of global health educators from Ontario's six medical schools conducted a scoping review of global health curricula, competencies, and pedagogical approaches. The working group then hosted a full day meeting, inviting experts in education, clinical care, family medicine and public health, and developed a consensus process and draft framework to design global health curricula. Through a series of weekly teleconferences over the next six months, the framework was revised and used to guide the identification of enabling global health competencies (behaviours, skills and attitudes) for Canadian Family Medicine training. The main outcome was an evidence-informed interactive framework http://globalhealth.ennovativesolution.com/ to provide a shared foundation to guide the design, delivery and evaluation of global health education programs for Ontario's family medicine residency programs. The curriculum framework blended a definition and mission for global health training, core values and principles, global health competencies aligning with the Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists (CanMEDS) competencies, and key learning approaches. The framework guided the development of subsequent enabling competencies. The shared curriculum framework can support the design, delivery and evaluation of global health curriculum in Canada and around the world, lay the foundation for research and development, provide consistency across programmes, and support the creation of learning and evaluation tools to align with the framework. The process used to develop this framework can be applied
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognizing the growing demand from medical students and residents for more comprehensive global health training, and the paucity of explicit curricula on such issues, global health and curriculum experts from the six Ontario Family Medicine Residency Programs worked together to design a framework for global health curricula in family medicine training programs. Methods A working group comprised of global health educators from Ontario's six medical schools conducted a scoping review of global health curricula, competencies, and pedagogical approaches. The working group then hosted a full day meeting, inviting experts in education, clinical care, family medicine and public health, and developed a consensus process and draft framework to design global health curricula. Through a series of weekly teleconferences over the next six months, the framework was revised and used to guide the identification of enabling global health competencies (behaviours, skills and attitudes for Canadian Family Medicine training. Results The main outcome was an evidence-informed interactive framework http://globalhealth.ennovativesolution.com/ to provide a shared foundation to guide the design, delivery and evaluation of global health education programs for Ontario's family medicine residency programs. The curriculum framework blended a definition and mission for global health training, core values and principles, global health competencies aligning with the Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists (CanMEDS competencies, and key learning approaches. The framework guided the development of subsequent enabling competencies. Conclusions The shared curriculum framework can support the design, delivery and evaluation of global health curriculum in Canada and around the world, lay the foundation for research and development, provide consistency across programmes, and support the creation of learning and evaluation tools to align with the
Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between work-family conflict (WFC, family-work conflict (FWC and health, as well as the moderating effect of social support. The study was based on the Job Demands-Resources model. Materials and Methods: There were 567 nurses from 21 Polish hospitals participating in the study. To verify the hypothesis four scales, which measured WFC, FWC, social support, physical complaints and job burnout, were used. Results: The results partially support the hypothesis. As predicted, high WFC and FWC were correlated with low physical (H1 and mental health (H2. Social support moderated negative effects of WFC (but not FWC on mental health (H3. The effects of WFC and FWC on physical health were not moderated by social support (H4. Conclusion: The results also partially support the notion of the Job Demands-Resources model and provide further insight into processes leading to the high well-being of nurses in the workplace. Med Pr 2013;64(6:775–784
Allen, C. D.; Williams, P.
Increasing warmth and dry climate conditions have affected large portions of western North America in recent years, causing elevated levels of both chronic and acute forest drought stress. In turn, increases in drought stress amplify the incidence and severity of the most significant forest disturbances in this region, including wildfire, drought-induced tree mortality, and outbreaks of damaging insects and diseases. Regional patterns of drought stress and various forest disturbances are reviewed, including interactions among climate and the various disturbance processes; similar global-scale patterns and trends of drought-amplified forest die-off and high-severity wildfire also are addressed. New research is presented that derives a tree-ring-based Forest Drought Stress Index (FDSI) for the three most widespread conifer species (Pinus edulis, Pinus ponderosa, and Pseudotsuga menziesii) in the southwestern US (Arizona, New Mexico), demonstrating nonlinear escalation of FDSI to levels unprecedented in the past 1000 years, in response to both drought and especially recent warming. This new work further highlights strong correlations between drought stress and amplified forest disturbances (fire, bark beetle outbreaks), and projects that by ca. 2050 anticipated regional warming will cause mean FDSI levels to reach extreme levels that may exceed thresholds for the survival of current tree species in large portions of their current range. Given recent trends of forest disturbance and projections for substantially warmer temperatures and greater drought stress for much of western North America in coming years, the growing risks to western forest health are becoming clear. This emerging understanding suggests an urgent need to determine potentials and methods for managing water on-site to maintain the vigor and resilience of western forests in the face of increasing levels of climate-induced water stress.
Barbosa, Carolina; Bray, Jeremy W; Brockwood, Krista; Reeves, Daniel
To estimate the cost to the workplace of implementing initiatives to reduce work-family conflict. Prospective cost analysis conducted alongside a group-randomized multisite controlled experimental study, using a microcosting approach. An information technology firm. Employees (n = 1004) and managers (n = 141) randomized to the intervention arm. STAR (Start. Transform. Achieve. Results.) to enhance employees' control over their work time, increase supervisor support for employees to manage work and family responsibilities, and reorient the culture toward results. A taxonomy of activities related to customization, start-up, and implementation was developed. Resource use and unit costs were estimated for each activity, excluding research-related activities. Economic costing approach (accounting and opportunity costs). Sensitivity analyses on intervention costs. The total cost of STAR was $709,654, of which $389,717 was labor costs and $319,937 nonlabor costs (including $313,877 for intervention contract). The cost per employee participation in the intervention was $340 (95% confidence interval: $330-$351); $597 ($561-$634) for managers and $300 ($292-$308) for other employees (2011 prices). A detailed activity costing approach allows for more accurate cost estimates and identifies key drivers of cost. The key cost driver was employees' time spent on receiving the intervention. Ignoring this cost, which is usual in studies that cost workplace interventions, would seriously underestimate the cost of a workplace initiative.
Shah, P M; Shah, K P; Belsey, M A
The home-based maternal record offers an opportunity for family involvement in health care. Home-based records of maternal health have been used in several developing countries, and have led to increased detection and monitoring of women at high risk for complications during pregnancy. Home-based cards that include menstrual information remind health workers to educate and motivate women for family planning, and serve as a source of health statistics. Records that use pictures and symbols have been used by illiterate traditional birth attendants, and had an accurate completion rate of over 90%. The WHO has prepared a prototype record and guidelines for local adaptation. The objectives were to provide continuity of care throughout pregnancy, ensure recognition of at-risk women, encourage family participation in health care, an provide data on maternal health, breastfeeding, and family planning. The guidelines have been evaluated and results show that the records have improved the coverage, acceptability, and quality of MCH/FP care. The records have also led to an increase in diagnosis and referral of at-risk women and newborns, and the use of family planning and tetanus toxoid immunization has increased in the 13 centers where the reports are being used. Focus group discussions have shown that mothers, community members, primary health workers, and doctors and nurses liked the records. It is important to adapt criteria for high-risk conditions to the local areas where the records will be used to ensure the relevance of risk diagnosis. The evidence shows that home-based maternal and child records can be an important tool in the promotion of self-reliance and family participation in health care. In addition, home-based records can be used for the implementation of primary health care at the local level, and serve as a resource for data collection.
Shimizu, Helena Eri; Rosales, Carlos
This study aimed to identify and analyze the main primary health care practices developed in the Family Health Care Program. Qualitative case study was carried out in the region of São Sebastião, DF. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with team workers and observation of the work process. The author concluded that diverse basic practices are developed in primary health care, but others practices focused in health care promotion are necessary in order to transform the health care model.
Jina Oh, RN, PhD
Conclusions: It can be effectively used as a reference model for future studies and is a suggested direction in health meteorological information service and policy development. We suggest health forecasting as a nursing service and a primary health care network for healthier and more comfortable life.
Margolis, Rachel; Myrskylä, Mikko
We examine how family, money, and health explain variation in life satisfaction over the life cycle across seven global regions using data from the World Values Survey. With a life domain approach, we study whether the importance of the life domains varies by region and age groups and whether the variation explained by each factor is due to the magnitude or prevalence of each factor. Globally, family, money, and health explain a substantial fraction of life satisfaction, increasing from 12 percent in young adulthood to 15 percent in mature adulthood. Health is the most important factor, and its importance increases with age. Income is unimportant above age 50. Remarkably, the contribution of family is small across ages. Across regions health is most important in the wealthier, and income in the poorer regions of the world. Family explains a substantial fraction of life satisfaction only in Western Europe and Anglophone countries. Findings highlight that the population-level importance of family, money, and health in explaining variation in life satisfaction across regions is mainly attributable to the individual-level life satisfaction differences between people of different statuses rather than differences in the distribution of various states such as poor health across regions. PMID:24796263
Full Text Available Intellectual disability is the state of stopped or incomplete mental development which is featured by the impairment of abilities occurring at the development age and contributes to general level of intelligence, such as speech, cognitive, motor and social abilities. Disability can occur together or separately from other mental or physical disorders. 290 million people worldwide are estimated to have disabilities. Health is a core element in quality of life, but poverty, marginalization, limited access to primary health care, and lack of health promotion knowledge compromise health. Based on a research results in all nine areas of the family life quality (health, nancial status, family relations, support of other, support of services, influence of values, career, leisure and recreation, and community interaction community could influence with the permanent preventive measures on 6 concepts of family life quality: importance, possibility, initiative, achievement, stability and satisfaction. The research could be of great help for the development of comprehensive strategies for improvement of quality of life for families that have one or more members with intellectual disability. From inclusion we expect approach to individual and his/her family by the society, to take into account all their diversities, preservation and improvement of their personal physical and mental health, for optimal possible functioning, at all personal and social levels.
Lichtman-Sadot, Shirlee; Bell, Neryvia Pillay
We evaluate changes in elementary school children health outcomes following the introduction of California's Paid Family Leave (PFL) program, which provided parents with paid time off following the birth of a child. Our health outcomes--overweight, ADHD, and hearing-related problems--are characterized by diagnosis rates that only pick up during…
Woodall, James; Kinsella, Karina
Objective: The health of the prison population is of increasing concern, given the disproportionate rates of ill health in this population. Moreover, the challenges faced by prisoners' families and their children are also becoming more apparent, with prisoners' children being more likely than other children to experience mental and emotional…
Ilona, Haapasalo; Raili, Valimaa; Lasse, Kannas
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between students' perceptions of the psychosocial school environment, health-compromising behaviours, and selected family factors. The analyses were based on data provided for the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study (2006). Design/methodology/approach: The data were obtained…
Kuo, Dennis Z; Bird, T Mac; Tilford, J Mick
The objective of this study is to examine the association of family-centered care (FCC) with specific health care service outcomes for children with special health care needs (CSHCN). The study is a secondary analysis of the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. Receipt of FCC was determined by five questions regarding how well health care providers addressed family concerns in the prior 12 months. We measured family burden by reports of delayed health care, unmet need, financial costs, and time devoted to care; health status, by stability of health care needs; and emergency department and outpatient service use. All statistical analyses used propensity score-based matching models to address selection bias. FCC was reported by 65.6% of respondents (N = 38,915). FCC was associated with less delayed health care (AOR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.66), fewer unmet service needs (AOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.60), reduced odds of ≥1 h/week coordinating care (AOR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.93) and reductions in out of pocket costs (AOR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.96). FCC was associated with more stable health care needs (AOR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.21), reduced odds of emergency room visits (AOR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.99) and increased odds of doctor visits (AOR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.37). Our study demonstrates associations of positive health and family outcomes with FCC. Realizing the health care delivery benefits of FCC may require additional encounters to build key elements of trust and partnership.
Moradi, A; Taheri Abkenar, K; Afshar Mohammadian, M; Shabanian, N
Dust is one of the most devastating factors for the environment threatening all animal and plant species. In many regions, the ecological and economic impact of microdust on scarce species is critical. In the western region of Iran, the Zagros forests have been exposed to dust storms for many years. In this study, the effect of dust on oak trees, the most important trees of Zagros forests, is investigated. For this purpose, 3-year-old seedlings of three species of oak trees under natural conditions were exposed to dust during spring and summer months. Seedlings were divided into two groups; one group was assigned as dust treatment and the other as control that the control group washed regularly to remove dust. Anatomical characteristics of leaves and dust deposits on leaves during the study period were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The rate of photosynthesis and gas exchange in control and treated plants was examined by IRGA, LCI. SEM images showed that stomata structure, trichome density, and epicuticular waxes of leaves are different in all three species. This difference in micromorphology of species influences the effects of dust deposited on the leaves. A comparison of leaf species images in control and dust treatment showed that in dust treatment the percentage of stomata blocked by dust in three species (per unit area) of Quercus infectoria, Q. libni, and Q. brantii were 61/6, 48/4, and 38/1%, respectively. The results of leaf gas exchange investigation indicated that stomatal occlusion by dust had a negative impact on the examined parameters of three oak species (P ≤ 0.01). Thus, gas exchange and photosynthetic rates of the treated species were significantly reduced. The results of both parts of the study showed the vulnerability of the three species to dust as Q. infectoria > Q. libni > Q. brantii. Therefore, based on these findings, dust can disrupt the physiological activities of the studied species and the continuation of the
Cheng, Yao; Zhang, Liuyi; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Ping; Ye, Beizhu; Liang, Yuan
Social change, intensified by industrialization and globalization, has not only changed people's work lives but also their personal lives, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to provide evidence and recommendations regarding family structure, function, and mental health to actively respond to rapid social change. A cross-sectional survey was conducted face-to-face and door-to-door from July 2011 to September 2012 in Hubei Province, central China. Family structure comprised alone, couple, nuclear family, and extended family; family function was measured using the family APGAR (Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve) scale, and mental health was measured using the Chinese version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The urban-vs-rural difference of family structure among alone, couple, nuclear family, and extended family was statistically significant (5.21% vs 4.62%; 27.36% vs 13.14%; 33.22% vs 27.74%; 34.20% vs 54.50%, respectively; p family function was not statistically significant (8.11 ± 2.13 vs 8.09 ± 2.27, p = 0.9372). The general linear regression showed that the effect of family structure on mental health, whether urban or rural, was not significant, however, the effect of family function was significant, especially regarding better family functioning with better mental health. Combined the effects of family structure and function on mental health, the external form of family (family structure) may not be important; while the internal quality of role (family function) might be key. Improving the residents' family function would be a priority strategy for family practice with their mental health.
Glied, Sherry; Chakraborty, Ougni; Russo, Therese
ISSUE. Prior research shows that low-income residents of states that expanded Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act are less likely to experience financial barriers to health care access, but the impact on out-of-pocket spending has not yet been measured. GOAL. Assess how the Medicaid expansion affected out-of-pocket health care spending for low-income families compared to those in states that did not expand and consider whether effects differed in states that expanded under conventional Medicaid rules vs. waiver programs. METHODS. Analysis of the Consumer Expenditure Survey 2010–2015. KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS. Compared to families in nonexpansion states, low-income families in states that did expand Medicaid saved an average of $382 in annual spending on health care. In these states, low-income families were less like to report any out-of-pocket spending on insurance premiums or medical care than were similar families in nonexpansion states. For families that did have some out-of-pocket spending, spending levels were lower in states that expanded Medicaid. Low-income families in Medicaid expansion states were also much less likely to have catastrophically high spending levels. The form of coverage expansion — conventional Medicaid or waiver rules — did not have a statistically significant effect on these outcomes.
Rabello, Claudia Azevedo Ferreira Guimarães; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique de Almeida
This study discusses the creation of a new child palliative care program based on the Family Health Program, considering the level of care at home and yielding to family requests. Eighteen members of nine families of technology dependent children (TDC) who were hospital patients in the Instituto Fernandes Figueira (IFF) participated on the study. From those four were being assisted by its palliative care program Programa de Assistência Domiciliar Interdisciplinar (PADI); three were inpatients waiting for inclusion in the program, and finally two inpatients already included in PADI. PADI was chosen because it is the only child palliative care program in Brazil. The results are positive in regards to the connection established between the families and the health care team, the reception of the children, the explanation to the family concerning the disease, and the functional dynamics between the PADI and the IFF. As negative points, difficulties arose as a result of the implementation of the program, from its continuity to the worsening or illness of the entire family. In conclusion, although the PADI is the IFF's way of discharging patients, the domiciliary care provided by the Family Health Program, well articulated with the healthcare system, would be ideal for being the adequate assistance for it.
Rabello, Cláudia Azevedo Ferreira Guimarães; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique de Almeida
This study discusses the creation of a new children palliative care program based on the Family Health Program, considering the level of care at home and yielding to family requests. The study focused on eighteen members of nine families of technology dependent children (TDC) who were hospital patients at Instituto Fernandes Figueira (IFF): four who are being assisted by its palliative care program Programa de Assistência Domiciliar Interdisciplinar (PADI); three who were inpatients waiting for inclusion in the Program, and finally two inpatients already included in PADI. PADI was chosen because it is the only child palliative care program in Brazil. The results are positive in regards to the connection established between the families and the health care team, the reception of the children, the explanation to the family concerning the disease, and the functional dynamics between the PADI and IFF. As negative points, difficulties arose as a result of the implementation of the program, from its continuity to the worsening or illness of the entire family. In conclusion, although the PADI is the IFF's way of discharging patients, the domiciliary cares taken by the Family Health Program, well articulated with the healthcare system, would be ideal for being the adequate assistance for such.
Browne, Dillon T; Plamondon, Andre; Prime, Heather; Puente-Duran, Sofia; Wade, Mark
A substantial body of research links social disadvantage and developmental health via a cascade running from poverty, to cumulative psychosocial risk, to disrupted family dynamics, to child biological regulatory systems and neurocognitive processing, and finally to morbidity across the lifespan. Most research in this area employs single-dyad or between-family methodology. While informative, there are limitations to this approach. Specifically, it is impossible to determine how risk alters psychosocial environments that are similar for all persons within a household, versus processes that are unique to particular children. This is important in light of literature citing the primacy of child-specific environments in driving developmental health. Methodologically speaking, there are both benefits and challenges to family-wide approaches that differentiate between- and within-family environments. This review describes literature linking cumulative risk and developmental health via family process, while articulating the importance of family-wide approaches. Areas of shortcoming and recommendations for a family-wide science are provided. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nunes, Cristina Brandt; Sarti, Cynthia Andersen; Ohara, Conceição Vieira da Silva
The present study sought to understand the conceptions held by health professionals with regards to violence within the family against children and adolescents. Qualitative case-study methodology and techniques of participant observation, interviewing, and search in documents were used. Participants were staffed in a government-run Family Health Basic Unit in Brazil. Health professionals were found to associate violence with the economic, social, and political juncture and with cultural aspects; for some, violent acts are part of the intergenerational cycle and family dynamics. Physical punishment, considered as violence by some, is advocated as an educational measure by others. Participants also base their definition of violence on an a priori construction of subjects as either victims or aggressors, thus missing the relational dimension of the phenomenon. Health professionals were found to have difficulty in understanding violence in the context that gives it a meaning and to recognize it as consequence of a complex relational dynamics.
Han, Mi Ah
This study examined the prevalence of perceived stress and depressive symptoms in cancer survivors and their family members compared with subjects without cancer and without family members with cancer. The subjects of this cross-sectional study were adults ≥19 years old who participated in the 2012 Korea Community Health Survey. Stress and depressive symptoms in cancer survivors and their family members were assessed and compared to symptoms in control groups by chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. Of the 6783 cancer survivors, 26.9% and 8.7% reported having stress and depressive symptoms, respectively, and 27.7% and 5.9% of family members of cancer survivors reported having stress and depressive symptoms, respectively. Cancer survivors showed higher adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for stress (aOR = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16-1.37) and depressive symptoms (aOR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.57-2.11) than subjects without cancer history. Family members of cancer survivors showed a higher OR for stress and depressive symptoms than subjects without a family member who survived cancer. Cancer survivors and family members of cancer survivors had more stress and depressive symptoms than controls. Careful management for cancer patients and their family members should include screening for stress and depression to improve mental health associated with cancer survivorship.
Rodriguez, Aubrey J; Margolin, Gayla
Although military service, and particularly absence due to deployment, has been linked to risk for depression and anxiety among some spouses and children of active duty service members, there is limited research to explain the heterogeneity in family members' reactions to military service stressors. The current investigation introduces the Timeline Followback Military Family Interview (TFMFI) as a clinically useful strategy to collect detailed time-linked information about the service member's absences. Two dimensions of parent absence--the extent to which absences coincide with important family events and cumulative time absent--were tested as potential risks to family members' mental health. Data from 70 mother-adolescent pairs revealed that the number of important family events missed by the service member was linked to elevated youth symptoms of depression, even when accounting for the number of deployments and cumulative duration of the service member's absence. However, youth who reported more frequent contact with the service member during absences were buffered from the effects of extensive absence. Mothers' symptoms were associated with the cumulative duration of the service members' time away, but not with family events missed by the service member. These results identify circumstances that increase the risk for mental health symptoms associated with military family life. The TFMFI provides an interview-based strategy for clinicians wishing to understand military family members' lived experience during periods of service-member absence. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What criteria will the Department of Health and Human Services use to decide which family planning services projects to fund and in what amount? 59.7... FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.7 What criteria will the...
Sayers, Steven L; Farrow, Victoria A; Ross, Jennifer; Oslin, David W
Existing evidence suggests that military veterans with mental health disorders have poorer family functioning, although little research has focused on this topic. To test whether psychiatric symptoms are associated with family reintegration problems in recently returned military veterans. Cross-sectional survey of a clinical population. Respondents who were referred to behavioral health evaluation from April 2006 through August 2007 were considered for the survey. Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Pa. 199 military veterans who served in Iraq or Afghanistan after 2001 and were referred for behavioral health evaluation from primary care (mean age = 32.7 years, SD = 9.1). Measures included the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for psychiatric diagnoses, the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire for depression diagnosis and severity, and screening measures of alcohol abuse and illicit substance use. A measure of military family readjustment problems and a screening measure of domestic abuse were developed for this study. Three fourths of the married/cohabiting veterans reported some type of family problem in the past week, such as feeling like a guest in their household (40.7%), reporting their children acting afraid or not being warm toward them (25.0%), or being unsure about their family role (37.2%). Among veterans with current or recently separated partners, 53.7% reported conflicts involving "shouting, pushing, or shoving," and 27.6% reported that this partner was "afraid of them." Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were both associated with higher rates of family reintegration problems. Mental health problems may complicate veterans' readjustment and reintegration into family life. The findings suggest an opportunity to improve the treatment of psychiatric disorders by addressing family problems. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Full Text Available Research demonstrates an association between poverty and health. Populations in poverty suffer from poor mental and physical health, and thus, poor health-related quality of life. Research also indicates people living in the lower socio-economic categories experience higher levels of stress that are associated with these health declines. Family Scholar House, a local community intervention designed to alleviate poverty and improve socio-economic status by providing college education and support to single parents, combats these health outcomes by addressing the five social determinants of health (economic stability, education, social and community context, health care, and neighborhood and built environment. Quantitative analysis indicates an improvement in mental health among Family Scholar House participants: 0-12 month participants reported significantly more mentally unhealthy days than a control group; however, this difference is no longer significant at the end of participant’s time in the program. Qualitative analysis suggests this improvement may be due to stress reduction related to increased economic stability and financial security gained through an intentional implementation of a financial empowerment curriculum within the Family Scholar House program. Implementation of financial empowerment into community programs designed to alleviate poverty may improve mental health and thus health-related quality of life.
Regidor, Enrique; Pascual, Cruz; de la Fuente, Luis; Santos, Juana M; Astasio, Paloma; Ortega, Paloma
This study evaluates the extent to which domestic workload explains socio-economic differences in poor self-reported health in women and men. In total, 6284 men and women who were employed and living with a partner were selected from the 2003 Spanish Health Interview Survey. The indicators of family demands investigated were person responsible for housework, number of persons in the household and the presence of at least one child under 15 years of age in the household. The measures of socio-economic position were educational level and household income, and the measures of health status were poor perceived health and limitation of activity due to disease. Household size and presence of a child under 15 in the home were not related with the measures of health status. The indicator about the person who does the housework was related with poor perceived health and with activity limitation. Specifically, the worst health status was seen in respondents who lived in homes where the partner or other family members did the housework. In general, the relation between indicators of socio-economic position and measures of health status was not modified after taking into account the person who does the housework. Among working people with a partner, persons who work and do their own housework do not have poorer perceived health than those living in homes where other people do the housework. This indicator of family demands does not explain the socio-economic differences in self-reported health.
The situation in the family preceding a family separation is studied here, to identify risk factors for family dissolution. Information registers covering prospective statistics about health aspects, demographic variables, family violence, self-destructive behaviour, unemployment, and the spousal...
Phelps, Randall A; Pinter, Joseph D; Lollar, Donald J; Medlen, Joan Guthrie; Bethell, Christina D
The functional, financial, and social impact on families of children with Down syndrome (DS) in the United States and the role of the US health care system in ameliorating these impacts have not been well characterized. We sought to describe the demographic characteristics and functional difficulties of these children and to determine whether children with DS, compared with children with "intellectual disability" (ID) generally, and compared with other "children and youth with special health care needs" (CYSHCN), are more or less likely to receive health care that meets quality standards related to care coordination and to have their health care service needs met. This study analyzed data from the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (n = 40,723). Children and youth aged 0 to 17 years with special health care need (CYSHCN) who experience DS (n = 395) and/or IDs (n = 4252) were compared with each other and other CYSHCN on a range of functioning, family impact, and health care quality variables using bivariate and multivariate methods. Data were weighted to represent all CYSHCN in the United States. Compared with CYSHCN without DS, children with DS were significantly less likely to receive comprehensive care within a medical home (29.7% vs 47.3%; p work due to their child's health needs (23.5% vs 55.1%; p performance was poorer for children with DS compared with those with ID and no DS after adjustment for family income, prevalence on most aspects of quality of care and family impacts evaluated were similar for these 2 groups. In this study, the families of children with DS, and ID generally, are burdened disproportionately when compared with other CYSHCN, reflecting the combination of impairments intrinsic to DS and ID and impacts of suboptimal medical care coordination and social support.
Yu, Hao; Dick, Andrew W; Szilagyi, Peter G
Health care costs grew rapidly since 2001, generating substantial economic pressures on families, especially those with children with special health care needs (CSHCN). To examine how the growth of health care costs affected financial burden for families of CSHCN between 2001 and 2004 and to determine the extent to which health insurance coverage protected families of CSHCN against financial burden. In 2001-2004, 5196 families of CSHCN were surveyed by the national Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). The main outcome was financial burden, defined as the proportion of family income spent on out-of-pocket (OOP) health care expenditures for all family members, including OOP costs and premiums. Family insurance coverage was classified as: (1) all members publicly insured, (2) all members privately insured, (3) all members uninsured, (4) partial coverage, and (5) a mix of public and private with no uninsured periods. An upward trend in financial burden for families of CSHCN occurred and was associated with growth of economy-wide health care costs. A multivariate analysis indicated that, given the economy-wide increase in medical costs between 2001 and 2004, a family with CSHCN was at increased risk in 2004 for having financial burden exceeding 10% of family income [odds ratio (OR) = 1.39; P financial burden exceeding 20% of family income. Over 15% of families with public insurance had financial burden exceeding 10% of family income compared with 20% of families with private insurance (P financial burden of >10% or 20% of family income than privately-insured families. Rising health care costs increased financial burden on families of CSHCN in 2001-2004. Public insurance coverage provided better financial protection than private insurance against the rapidly rising health care costs for families of CSHCN.
Nolan Vikki G
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether the National Health Interview Survey is a useful source to identify informative families for genetic studies of birth defects. Methods The 1994/1995 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS was used to identify households where individuals with two or more birth defects reside. Four groups of households were identified: 1 single non-familial (one individual with one birth defect; 2 single familial (more than one individual with one birth defect; 3 multiple non-familial (one individual with more than one birth defect, and 4 multiple familial (more than one individual with more than one birth defect. The March 2000 U.S. Census on households was used to estimate the total number of households in which there are individuals with birth defects. Results Of a total of 28,094 households and surveyed about birth defects and impairments, 1,083 single non-familial, 55 multiple non-familial, 54 single familial, and 8 multiple familial households were identified. Based on the 2000 U.S. census, it is estimated that there are 4,472,385 households where at least one person has one birth defect in the United States and in 234,846 of them there are at least two affected individuals. Western states had the highest prevalence rates. Conclusions Population-based methods, such as the NHIS, are modestly useful to identify the number and the regions where candidate families for genetic studies of birth defects reside. Clinic based studies and birth defects surveillance systems that collect family history offer better probability of ascertainment.
Chien, Su-Chen; Yeh, Yen-Po; Wu, Jyun-Yi; Lin, Chun-Hsiu; Chang, Pei-Chi; Fang, Chiung-Hui; Yang, Hao-Jan
To compare intensiveness of use of child preventive health services (CPHS) between cross-cultural immigrant families and native-born families in Taiwan and to explore factors associated with differences in intensiveness of CPHS use. Cross-cultural immigrant families were defined as families where the mother was an immigrant from another southeast Asian country. In native-born families, both parents were Taiwanese-born. Data were collected from 318 immigrant mothers and 340 native-born mothers of children aged 7 years or younger in a cross-sectional survey in central Taiwan. A social determinants framework of health inequities was constructed, and ordinal logistic regression models were used to examine the effect of four domains of intermediary determinants on the relationship between family type and underuse of CPHS: CPHS-related factors, medical-related factors, maternal acculturation factors, and sociodemographic/socioeconomic characteristics. Cross-cultural immigrant families were less likely to intensively use CPHS than native-born families. This difference appeared to be mediated by the greater likelihood of having an older child or a lower educated father in cross-cultural families. Findings of this study highlight the importance of promoting health behaviors and combating health inequities and social inequalities for cross-cultural immigrant families in Taiwan from a sociodemographic/socioeconomic and political context.
Lal, Shalini; Daniel, Winnie; Rivard, Lysanne
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are increasingly recognized as having an important role in the delivery of mental health services for youth. Recent studies have evaluated young people's access and use of technology, as well as their perspectives on using technology to receive mental health information, services, and support; however, limited attention has been given to the perspectives of family members in this regard. The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives of family members on the use of ICTs to deliver mental health services to youth within the context of specialized early intervention for a first-episode psychosis (FEP). Six focus groups were conducted with family members recruited from an early intervention program for psychosis. Twelve family members participated in the study (target sample was 12-18, and recruitment efforts took place over the duration of 1 year). A 12-item semistructured focus group guide was developed to explore past experiences of technology and recommendations for the use of technology in youth mental health service delivery. A qualitative thematic analysis guided the identification and organization of common themes and patterns identified across the dataset. Findings were organized by the following themes: access and use of technology, potential negative impacts of technology on youth in recovery, potential benefits of using technology to deliver mental health services to youth, and recommendations to use technology for (1) providing quality information in a manner that is accessible to individuals of diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, (2) facilitating communication with health care professionals and services, and (3) increasing access to peer support. To our knowledge, this is among the first (or the first) to explore the perspectives of family members of youth being treated for FEP on the use of technology for mental health care. Our results highlight the importance of considering diverse experiences
Zhang, Yufan; Maximova, Siela N.; Guiltinan, Mark J.
In plants, the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyol-ACP is catalyzed by a plastid-localized soluble stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD). The activity of SAD significantly impacts the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and is thus a major determinant of fatty acid composition. The cacao genome contains eight putative SAD isoforms with high amino acid sequence similarities and functional domain conservation with SAD genes from other species. Sequence variation in known functional domains between different SAD family members suggested that these eight SAD isoforms might have distinct functions in plant development, a hypothesis supported by their diverse expression patterns in various cacao tissues. Notably, TcSAD1 is universally expressed across all the tissues, and its expression pattern in seeds is highly correlated with the dramatic change in fatty acid composition during seed maturation. Interestingly, TcSAD3 and TcSAD4 appear to be exclusively and highly expressed in flowers, functions of which remain unknown. To test the function of TcSAD1 in vivo, transgenic complementation of the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant was performed, demonstrating that TcSAD1 successfully rescued all AtSSI2 related phenotypes further supporting the functional orthology between these two genes. The identification of the major SAD gene responsible for cocoa butter biosynthesis provides new strategies for screening for novel genotypes with desirable fatty acid compositions, and for use in breeding programs to help pyramid genes for quality and other traits such as disease resistance. PMID:25926841
Zhang, Yufan; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J
In plants, the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyol-ACP is catalyzed by a plastid-localized soluble stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD). The activity of SAD significantly impacts the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and is thus a major determinant of fatty acid composition. The cacao genome contains eight putative SAD isoforms with high amino acid sequence similarities and functional domain conservation with SAD genes from other species. Sequence variation in known functional domains between different SAD family members suggested that these eight SAD isoforms might have distinct functions in plant development, a hypothesis supported by their diverse expression patterns in various cacao tissues. Notably, TcSAD1 is universally expressed across all the tissues, and its expression pattern in seeds is highly correlated with the dramatic change in fatty acid composition during seed maturation. Interestingly, TcSAD3 and TcSAD4 appear to be exclusively and highly expressed in flowers, functions of which remain unknown. To test the function of TcSAD1 in vivo, transgenic complementation of the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant was performed, demonstrating that TcSAD1 successfully rescued all AtSSI2 related phenotypes further supporting the functional orthology between these two genes. The identification of the major SAD gene responsible for cocoa butter biosynthesis provides new strategies for screening for novel genotypes with desirable fatty acid compositions, and for use in breeding programs to help pyramid genes for quality and other traits such as disease resistance.
Hammer, Leslie B; Johnson, Ryan C; Crain, Tori L; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Davis, Kelly D; Kelly, Erin L; Buxton, Orfeu M; Karuntzos, Georgia; Chosewood, L Casey; Berkman, Lisa
We tested the effects of a work-family intervention on employee reports of safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors in 30 health care facilities using a group-randomized trial. Based on conservation of resources theory and the work-home resources model, we hypothesized that implementing a work-family intervention aimed at increasing contextual resources via supervisor support for work and family, and employee control over work time, would lead to improved personal resources and increased employee performance on the job in the form of self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Multilevel analyses used survey data from 1,524 employees at baseline and at 6-month and 12-month postintervention follow-ups. Significant intervention effects were observed for safety compliance at the 6-month, and organizational citizenship behaviors at the 12-month, follow-ups. More specifically, results demonstrate that the intervention protected against declines in employee self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors compared with employees in the control facilities. The hypothesized mediators of perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family conflict (work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict) were not significantly improved by the intervention. However, baseline perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family climate were significant moderators of the intervention effect on the self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behavior outcomes. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
M D Peu
Full Text Available Health promotion is regarded as the cornerstone of good health. It is the action expected from individuals and families in order to better their own health situation. Health promotion is an art and science (Edelman & Mandle, 2002:16 that is integrated into the primary health care to reduce existing health problems. The purpose of the research on which this article is reporting, was to explore and describe the health promotion needs of families with adolescents orphaned by human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS. The research was located within a qualitative paradigm that is both exploratory and descriptive. Eight families who were purposely selected participated in the research process. Qualitative methods, such as group interviews and field notes were utilised to collect data. The health promotion needs of the families with adolescents orphaned by HIV/AIDS were explored and described. Tesch’s analysis process, which entails a series of steps, was followed (Creswell, 2003:192. Themes, categories and subcategories that form the central focus of health promotion needs emerged during the data analysis. These themes,categories and subcategories are used to develop guidelines for health promotion. Opsomming Die bevordering van gesondheid is die hoeksteen van gesondheid. Dit is die aksie wat van individue en familie verwag word, sodat hulle hul eie gesondheidstoestand kan verbeter. Die bevordering van gesondheid is ‘n kuns en ‘n wetenskap, wat geïntegreer is in primêre gesondheidsorg, om bestaande gesondheidsprobleme te verminder (Edelman & Mandle, 2002:16. Die doel van die navorsing, waarna in hierdie artikel verwys word, was om uit te vind wat die gesondheidsorgbehoeftes van families, met adolessente wat wees gelaat is as gevolg van menslike immunogebrek virus of verworve immuungebrek sindroom (MIV/VIGS, is, en dit te beskryf. Die navorsing was binne die raamwerk van ‘n kwalitatiewe paradigma, wat
Fouquier, Jennifer; Rideout, Jai Ram; Bolyen, Evan; Chase, John; Shiffer, Arron; McDonald, Daniel; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J Gregory; Kelley, Scott T
Fungi play critical roles in many ecosystems, cause serious diseases in plants and animals, and pose significant threats to human health and structural integrity problems in built environments. While most fungal diversity remains unknown, the development of PCR primers for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) combined with next-generation sequencing has substantially improved our ability to profile fungal microbial diversity. Although the high sequence variability in the ITS region facilitates more accurate species identification, it also makes multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis unreliable across evolutionarily distant fungi because the sequences are hard to align accurately. To address this issue, we created ghost-tree, a bioinformatics tool that integrates sequence data from two genetic markers into a single phylogenetic tree that can be used for diversity analyses. Our approach starts with a "foundation" phylogeny based on one genetic marker whose sequences can be aligned across organisms spanning divergent taxonomic groups (e.g., fungal families). Then, "extension" phylogenies are built for more closely related organisms (e.g., fungal species or strains) using a second more rapidly evolving genetic marker. These smaller phylogenies are then grafted onto the foundation tree by mapping taxonomic names such that each corresponding foundation-tree tip would branch into its new "extension tree" child. We applied ghost-tree to graft fungal extension phylogenies derived from ITS sequences onto a foundation phylogeny derived from fungal 18S sequences. Our analysis of simulated and real fungal ITS data sets found that phylogenetic distances between fungal communities computed using ghost-tree phylogenies explained significantly more variance than non-phylogenetic distances. The phylogenetic metrics also improved our ability to distinguish small differences (effect sizes) between microbial communities, though results were similar to non
Lancman, Selma; Gonçalves, Rita Maria de Abreu; Cordone, Nicole Guimarães; Barros, Juliana de Oliveira
To understand the organization of and the working conditions in family health care support centers, as well as subjective experiences related to work in two of these centers. This was a case study carried out during 2011 and 2012 in two family health care support centers in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Data were collected and analyzed using two theoretical-methodological references from ergonomics and work psychodynamics influenced, respectively, by ergonomic work analysis, developed based on open observations of a variety of tasks and on interviews and in practice in work psychodynamics, carried out using think tanks about the work. The work of the Family Health Care Support Centers in question is constituted on the bases of complex, diversified actions to be shared among the various professionals and teams involved. Innovative technological tools, which are not often adopted by primary health care professionals, are used and the parameters and productivity measures do not encompass the specificity and the complexity of the work performed. These situations require constant organizational rearrangement, especially between the Family Health Care Support Centers and the Family Health Care Teams, causing difficulties in carrying out the work as well as in constituting the identity of the professionals studied. The study attempts to lend greater visibility to the work processes at the Family Health Care Support Centers in order to contribute to advances in public policy on primary healthcare. It is important to stress that introducing changes at work, which affect both its organization and work conditions, is above all a commitment, which to be effective, must be permanent and must involve the different levels of hierarchy.
Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir R.; Peltonen, Kirsi
ABSTRACT Background: Trauma affects the family unit as a whole; however, most existing research uses individual or, at most, dyadic approaches to analyse families with histories of trauma. Objective: This study aims to identify potentially distinct family types according to attachment, parenting, and sibling relations, to analyse how these family types differ with respect to war trauma, and to explore how children’s mental health and cognitive processing differ across these family types. Method: Participants included Palestinian mothers and fathers (N = 325) and their children (one per family; 49.4% girls; 10–13 years old; mean ± SD age = 11.35 ± 0.57 years) after the Gaza War of 2008–2009. Both parents reported their exposure to war trauma, secure attachment availability, and parenting practices, as well as the target child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms [Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)]. Children reported their symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (on the Children’s Revised Impact Event Scale), depression (Birleson), and SDQ, as well as their post-traumatic cognitions (Children’s Post Traumatic Cognitions Inventory). Results: A cluster analysis identified four family types. The largest type reflected secure attachment and optimal relationships (security and positive family relationships, 36.2%, n = 102), and the smallest exhibited insecurity and problematic relationships (insecurity and negative family relationships, 15.6%; n = 44). Further, families with discrepant experiences (23.0%; n = 65) and moderate security and neutral relationships (25.2%; n = 71) emerged. The insecurity and negative relationships family type showed higher levels of war trauma; internalizing, externalizing, and depressive symptoms among children; and dysfunctional post-traumatic cognitions than other family types. Conclusion: The family systems approach to mental health is warranted in war conditions, and therapeutic
Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir R; Peltonen, Kirsi
Background : Trauma affects the family unit as a whole; however, most existing research uses individual or, at most, dyadic approaches to analyse families with histories of trauma. Objective : This study aims to identify potentially distinct family types according to attachment, parenting, and sibling relations, to analyse how these family types differ with respect to war trauma, and to explore how children's mental health and cognitive processing differ across these family types. Method: Participants included Palestinian mothers and fathers ( N = 325) and their children (one per family; 49.4% girls; 10-13 years old; mean ± SD age = 11.35 ± 0.57 years) after the Gaza War of 2008-2009. Both parents reported their exposure to war trauma, secure attachment availability, and parenting practices, as well as the target child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms [Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)]. Children reported their symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (on the Children's Revised Impact Event Scale), depression (Birleson), and SDQ, as well as their post-traumatic cognitions (Children's Post Traumatic Cognitions Inventory). Results: A cluster analysis identified four family types. The largest type reflected secure attachment and optimal relationships (security and positive family relationships, 36.2%, n = 102), and the smallest exhibited insecurity and problematic relationships (insecurity and negative family relationships, 15.6%; n = 44). Further, families with discrepant experiences (23.0%; n = 65) and moderate security and neutral relationships (25.2%; n = 71) emerged. The insecurity and negative relationships family type showed higher levels of war trauma; internalizing, externalizing, and depressive symptoms among children; and dysfunctional post-traumatic cognitions than other family types. Conclusion: The family systems approach to mental health is warranted in war conditions, and therapeutic interventions for
White, Margaret; Casey, Leanne
Family members may play an important role in the health and well-being of older adults. However, little is known about the factors that influence the likelihood of family members supporting older relatives to seek help from mental health professionals for mental health concerns. Mental health literacy is associated with people's help-seeking intentions regarding their own mental health concerns, and some studies have suggested it may play a role in help-seeking on behalf of others. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mental health literacy is associated with adults' likelihood of supporting an older relative to seek professional help for mental health concerns. Two hundred and sixty-three participants completed a measure of mental health literacy and responded to a hypothetical scenario by indicating their likelihood of supporting an older relative experiencing mental health problems to seek help from various sources. Mental health literacy was positively associated with intentions to support older relative's help-seeking. Interventions to increase the mental health literacy of the relatives of older adults may lead to additional support for older adults' help-seeking for mental health concerns.
Outcome) High Score=Better Health 3.80 (1.07) 3.48 (1.02) 3.66 (1.05) Predictors Marital Status -1= Unmarried ; 0= Married ; 1=Separated -.348 .168 -.159...members vs . 37% among supporters). • Levels of depression and PTSD symptoms were slightly worse among supporters, compared to service members (PHQ...means among service members was 3.6 vs . 5.7 among supporters; PCL means among service members 27.0 vs . 28.3 among supporters. Taken together
Howrey, Mary M
This commentary discusses the information needs of family caregivers and care recipients in the United States. Health sciences library services and outreach activities that support family caregivers include: (1) advocacy, (2) resource building, and (3) programming and education. Ethical issues related to the privacy and confidentiality of clients are outlined in the commentary for information service providers. Also, continuing professional education resources are identified to assist librarians in providing high-quality information services for this special family caregiver population, such as those designed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) through the NLM 4 Caregivers program.
Mary M. Howrey
Full Text Available This commentary discusses the information needs of family caregivers and care recipients in the United States. Health sciences library services and outreach activities that support family caregivers include: (1 advocacy, (2 resource building, and (3 programming and education. Ethical issues related to the privacy and confidentiality of clients are outlined in the commentary for information service providers. Also, continuing professional education resources are identified to assist librarians in providing high-quality information services for this special family caregiver population, such as those designed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM through the NLM 4 Caregivers program.
Funk, Michelle; Minoletti, Alberto; Drew, Natalie; Taylor, Jacob; Saraceno, Benedetto
The World Health Organization urges countries to become more active in advocacy efforts to put mental health on governments' agendas. Health policy makers, planners and managers, advocacy groups, consumer and family organizations, through their different roles and actions, can move the mental health agenda forward. This paper outlines the importance of the advocacy movement, describes some of the roles and functions of the different groups and identifies some specific actions that can be adopted by Ministries of Health. The mental health advocacy movement has developed over the last 30 years as a means of combating stigma and prejudice against people with mental disorders and improving services. Consumer and family organizations and related NGOs have been able to influence governments on mental health policies and laws and educating the public on social integration of people with mental disorders. Governments can promote the development of a strong mental health advocacy sector without compromising this sector's independence. For instance, they can publish and distribute a directory of mental health advocacy groups, include them in their mental health activities and help fledgling groups become more established. There are also some advocacy functions that government officials can, and indeed, should perform themselves. Officials in the ministry of health can persuade officials in other branches of government to make mental health more of a priority, support advocacy activities with both general health workers and mental health workers and carry out public information campaigns about mental disorders and how to maintain good mental health. In conclusion, the World Health Organization believes mental health advocacy is one of the pillars to improve mental health care and the human rights of people with mental disorders. It is hoped that the recommendations in this article will help government officials and activists to strengthen national advocacy movements.
Rodriguez, Erin M; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W; Brown, Larry K; Houck, Christopher
This study examined associations among family environment, coping, and emotional and conduct problems in adolescents attending therapeutic day schools due to mental health problems. Adolescents (N = 417; 30.2% female) ages 13-20 (M = 15.25) reported on their family environment (affective involvement and functioning), coping (emotion-focused support-seeking, cognitive restructuring, avoidant actions), and emotional and conduct problems. Poorer family environment was associated with less emotion-focused support-seeking and cognitive restructuring, and more emotional and conduct problems. Emotional problems were negatively associated with cognitive restructuring, and conduct problems were negatively associated with all coping strategies. Cognitive restructuring accounted for the relationship between family environment and emotional problems. Cognitive restructuring and emotion-focused support-seeking each partially accounted for the relationship between family functioning and conduct problems, but not the relationship between family affective involvement and conduct problems. Findings implicate the role of coping in the relationship between family environment and adolescent mental health. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saigal, Saroj; Pinelli, Janet; Streiner, David L; Boyle, Michael; Stoskopf, Barbara
The goal was to examine the impact of illness on families and the long-term effects on the health of parents of young adults (YAs) who were born with extremely low birth weight (ELBW), compared with normal birth weight (NBW) control subjects. A longitudinal cohort study was performed. Participants were mothers of eligible ELBW and NBW YAs. Information was obtained with well-validated questionnaires. At young adulthood, 130 (81%) of 161 ELBW group and 126 (89%) of 141 NBW group mothers participated. There were no significant differences in scores between groups with respect to marital disharmony, family dysfunction, maternal mood, state anxiety, social support, depression, and maternal physical and mental health. The finding of no differences was unchanged when 27 YAs with neurosensory impairment (NSI) were excluded, except for family dysfunction scores, which were paradoxically lower for families with YAs with NSI. Although the impact scores revealed that significantly more parents of ELBW YAs were negatively affected with respect to their jobs and educational or training opportunities, mothers of ELBW YAs reported that the experience of caring for their child brought their family closer together and that relatives and friends were more helpful and understanding, compared with mothers of NBW YAs. Significantly more mothers of ELBW YAs with NSI, compared with those without NSI, felt better about themselves for having managed their child's health. It seems that, by young adulthood, there is a minimally negative long-term impact of having an ELBW child in the family, regardless of the presence of NSI.
Beiser, Morton; Hou, Feng; Hyman, Ilene; Tousignant, Michel
Objectives. This study examined the differential effects of poverty on the mental health of foreign-born children, Canadian-born children of immigrant parents, and children of nonimmigrant parents. Methods. Secondary analysis of data from a national Canadian study of children between 4 and 11 years of age was conducted. Results. Compared with their receiving-society counterparts, foreign-born children were more than twice as likely to live in poor families, but they had lower levels of emotional and behavioral problems. The effect of poverty on children's mental health among long-term immigrant and receiving-society families was indirect and primarily mediated by single-parent status, ineffective parenting, parental depression, and family dysfunction. In comparison, the mental health effect of poverty among foreign-born children could not be explained by the disadvantages that poor families often suffer. Conclusions. Poverty may represent a transient and inevitable part of the resettlement process for new immigrant families. For long-stay immigrant and receiving-society families, however, poverty probably is not part of an unfolding process; instead, it is the nadir of a cycle of disadvantage. PMID:11818295
Kershaw, Trace; Ellis, Katrina R; Yoon, Hyojin; Schafenacker, Ann; Katapodi, Maria; Northouse, Laurel
The challenges of advanced cancer have health implications for patients and their family caregivers from diagnosis through end of life. The nature of the patient/caregiver experience suggests that their mental and physical health maybe interdependent, but limited empirical evidence exists. This study used social cognitive theory as a framework to investigate individual and interpersonal influences on patients' and their family caregivers' mental health, physical health, and self-efficacy as individuals to manage the challenges of advanced disease over time. Patients and caregivers (484 patient-caregiver dyads) completed surveys at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Longitudinal dyadic analysis techniques were used to examine (i)the influence that patients and caregivers had on their own mental health, physical health, and self-efficacy (actor effects)and (ii) the influence that they had on each other's health outcomes (partner effects). We also examined the influence of self-efficacy on mental and physical health over time. Consistent with our hypotheses, each person's mental health, physical health, and self-efficacy had significant effects on their own outcomes over time (actor effects). Patients and caregivers influenced one another's mental and physical health (partner effects), but not their self-efficacy. In addition, patients and caregivers with higher self-efficacy had better mental health, and their partners had better physical health. Patients' and caregivers' mental and physical health were interdependent. Each person's cancer-related self-efficacy influenced their own mental and physical health. However, a person's self-efficacy did not influence the other person's self-efficacy.
Kershaw, Trace; Ellis, Katrina R.; Yoon, Hyojin; Schafenacker, Ann; Katapodi, Maria; Northouse, Laurel
Background The challenges of advanced cancer have health implications for patients and their family caregivers from diagnosis through end-of-life. The nature of the patient/caregiver experience suggests that their mental and physical health may be interdependent, but limited empirical evidence exists. Purpose This study used Social Cognitive Theory as a framework to investigate individual and interpersonal influences on patients’ and their family caregivers’ mental health, physical health, and self-efficacy as individuals to manage the challenges of advanced disease over time. Methods Patients and caregivers (484 patient-caregiver dyads) completed surveys at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Longitudinal dyadic analysis techniques were used to examine (i) the influence that patients and caregivers had on their own mental health, physical health, and self-efficacy (actor effects) and (ii) the influence that they had on each other’s health outcomes (partner effects). We also examined the influence of self-efficacy on mental and physical health over time. Results Consistent with our hypotheses, each person’s mental health, physical health, and self-efficacy had significant effects on their own outcomes over time (actor effects). Patients and caregivers influenced one another’s mental and physical health (partner effects), but not their self-efficacy. In addition, patients and caregivers with higher self-efficacy had better mental health, and their partners had better physical health. Conclusions Patient and caregiver mental and physical health were interdependent. Each person’s cancer-related self-efficacy influenced their own mental and physical health. However, a person’s self-efficacy did not influence the other person’s self-efficacy. PMID:26489843
Simmons, R S; Ashraf, A
1. Family planning occupied a subordinate position in the medical and health bureaucracy almost two decades after its introduction. Senior Ministry officials accorded low priority to formal program objectives, while the State Family Planning Officer, the highest state official concerned solely with the family planning program, suffered from a relatively subordinate position in the Directorate and a lack of authority and support. Within the medical profession, family planning was held in low esteem, and the medical and health bureaucracies did not have a mechanism for selecting personnel on the basis of interest and commitment. 2. Organizational adjustment to family planning in the Ministry of Health was a slow and painful process, absorbing the energy and attention of Ministry officials for almost a decade. The repeated reorganizations of the district setup revolving around the division of labor between medical, health, and family planning acitvities and between the rural and urban program, led to months of almost total inertia and detracted substantially from the supervisory capacity of the officials involved. 3. Decision making and guidance suffered from the quick turnover of the Secretary, the most powerful administrator in the Ministry. In Uttar Pradesh Secretaries stayed barely long enough to begin to understand the complex organizational setup of the program. 4. Multiple and often conflicting lines of authority characterized the relationships between the higher and lower echelons within the Ministry. This was accentuated when the District Family Planning Officer was placed under the administrative control of the District Magistrate. While intended to "energize" family planning through the association of the most prestigious and powerful district official with the program, this organizational arrangement resulted in conflicting instructions to the staffs of the primary health centers. 5. The organizational behavior of the Ministry of Health was shaped by the