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Sample records for health examination survey

  1. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2000 forward. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of...

  2. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in...

  3. Examining national trends in worker health with the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckhaupt, Sara E; Sestito, John P

    2013-12-01

    To describe data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), both the annual core survey and periodic occupational health supplements (OHSs), available for examining national trends in worker health. The NHIS is an annual in-person household survey with a cross-sectional multistage clustered sample design to produce nationally representative health data. The 2010 NHIS included an OHS. Prevalence rates of various health conditions and health behaviors among workers based on multiple years of NHIS core data are available. In addition, the 2010 NHIS-OHS data provide prevalence rates of selected health conditions, work organization factors, and occupational exposures among US workers by industry and occupation. The publicly available NHIS data can be used to identify areas of concern for various industries and for benchmarking data from specific worker groups against national averages.

  4. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: national youth fitness survey plan, operations, and analysis, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrud, Lori; Chiappa, Michele M; Burt, Vicki L; Gahche, Jaime; Zipf, George; Johnson, Clifford L; Dohrmann, Sylvia M

    2014-04-01

    In October 2008, the federal government issued its first-ever Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans to provide science-based guidance on the types and amounts of physical activity that provide substantial health benefits for Americans (1). Guidelines for children and adolescents recommend 60 minutes or more of aerobic, muscle-strengthening, or bone-strengthening physical activity daily (1). While the number of children in the United States who meet the recommendations in the Physical Activity Guidelines is unknown, the percentage that is physically active in the United States may be declining. No recent national data exist on the fitness levels of children and adolescents. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey's (NHANES) National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) was conducted in 2012 and collected data on physical activity and fitness levels for U.S. children and adolescents aged 3-15 years. The objective of NNYFS was to provide national-level estimates of the physical activity and fitness levels of children, based on interview and physical examination data. Results from the survey are intended to contribute to the development of policies and programs to improve youth fitness nationally. The data also may be used in the development of national reference standards for measures of fitness and physical activity. Methods The NNYFS survey design used the design for NHANES, which is a multistage probability sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized resident population of the United States. NNYFS consisted of a household interview and a physical activity and fitness examination in a mobile examination center. A total of 1,640 children and adolescents aged 3-15 were interviewed, and 1,576 were examined. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  5. The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008 (DANHES 2007-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Louise; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: The Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES 2007-2008) was carried out by the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, in 13 Danish municipalities in 2007-2008. The focus of the survey was diet, smoking, alcohol, and physical activity. The aim of the survey......, and living conditions, and a supplementary food frequency questionnaire. The health examination contained measurements of blood pressure, resting heart rate, height, weight, fat percentage, waist and hip circumference, blood and hair samples, spirometry, bone mineral density, physical performance, muscle...

  6. National health and nutrition examination survey: plan and operations, 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipf, George; Chiappa, Michele; Porter, Kathryn S; Ostchega, Yechiam; Lewis, Brenda G; Dostal, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    Background-Starting in 1999, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) became a continuous, ongoing annual survey of the noninstitutionalized civilian resident population of the United States. A continuous survey allowed content to change to meet emerging needs. Objective-This report describes how NHANES for 1999-2010 was designed and implemented. NHANES is a national survey designed to provide national estimates on various health-related topics. Methods-The survey used in-person face-to-face interviews and physical examinations for data collection. Approximately 5,000 people per year participated in NHANES. The 5,000 people surveyed each year are representative of the entire U.S. population. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  7. Job characteristics in relation to the prevalence of myocardial infarction in the US Health Examination Survey (HES) and the Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasek, R A; Theorell, T; Schwartz, J E; Schnall, P L; Pieper, C F; Michela, J L

    1988-08-01

    Associations between psychosocial job characteristics and past myocardial infarction (MI) prevalence for employed males were tested with the Health Examination Survey (HES) 1960-61, N = 2,409, and the Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES) 1971-75, N = 2,424. A new estimation method is used which imputes to census occupation codes, job characteristic information from national surveys of job characteristics (US Department of Labor, Quality of Employment Surveys). Controlling for age, we find that employed males with jobs which are simultaneously low in decision latitude and high in psychological work load (a multiplicative product term isolating 20 per cent of the population) have a higher prevalence of myocardial infarction in both data bases. In a logistic regression analysis, using job measures adjusted for demographic factors and controlling for age, race, education, systolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol, smoking (HANES only), and physical exertion, we find a low decision latitude/high psychological demand multiplicative product term associated with MI in both data bases. Additional multiple logistic regressions show that low decision latitude is associated with increased prevalence of MI in both the HES and the HANES. Psychological workload and physical exertion are significant only in the HANES.

  8. Bisphenol-A and Sleep Adequacy among Adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, Hind A.; Beydoun, May A.; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Zonderman, Alan B.; Eid, Shaker M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate bisphenol-A (BPA) level and its relationship to sleep adequacy in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey whereby data were collected using in-person interviews, physical examination and laboratory testing. BPA level was measured in urine samples and analyzed as loge-transformed variable and in quartiles ( 8 h); (Bisphenol-A and sleep adequacy among adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. SLEEP 2016;39(2):467–476. PMID:26446109

  9. The physical examination content of the Japanese National Health and Nutrition Survey: temporal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hisako; Imai, Shino; Nakade, Makiko; Imai, Eri; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2016-12-01

    Survey items of the Japan National Nutrition Survey (J-NNS) have changed over time. Several papers on dietary surveys have been published; however, to date, there are no in-depth papers regarding physical examinations. Therefore, we investigated changes in the survey items in the physical examinations performed in the J-NNS and the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS), with the aim of incorporating useful data for future policy decisions. We summarized the description of physical examinations and marshalled the changes of survey items from the J-NNS and NHNS from 1946 to 2012. The physical examination is roughly classified into the following six components: some are relevant to anthropometric measurements, clinical measurements, physical symptoms, blood tests, lifestyle and medication by interview, and others. Items related to nutritional deficiency, such as anaemia and tendon reflex disappearance, and body weight measurements were collected during the early period, according to the instructions of the General Headquarters. From 1989, blood tests and measurement of physical activity were added, and serum total protein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, blood glucose, red blood corpuscles and haemoglobin measurements have been performed continuously for more than 20 years. This is the first report on the items of physical examination in the J-NNS and NHNS. Our research results provide basic information for the utilization of the J-NNS and NHNS, to researchers, clinicians or policy makers. Monitoring the current state correctly is essential for national health promotion, and also for improvement of the investigation methods to apply country-by-country comparisons.

  10. Factors Associated with Hemorrhoids in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hun; Shin, Jin-Young; Song, Yun-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Background Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common anal diseases among Koreans, risk factors for hemorrhoids have not been well identified. Methods We analyzed the data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2009. Study subjects were 17,228 participants of KNHANES who were aged 19 years or older. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between hemorrhoids and probable risk factors. Results Overall pre...

  11. The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and human exposure to environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, Antonia M

    2012-02-01

    Researchers are increasingly interested in using human biomonitoring - the measurement of chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in biological specimens/body fluids - for investigating exposure to environmental chemicals. General population human biomonitoring programs are useful for investigating human exposure to environmental chemicals and an important tool for integrating environment and health. One of these programs, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), conducted in the United States is designed to collect data on the health and nutritional status of the noninstitutionalized, civilian U.S. population. NHANES includes a physical examination, collecting a detailed medical history, and collecting biological specimens (i.e., blood and urine). These biological specimens can be used to assess exposure to environmental chemicals. NHANES human biomonitoring data can be used to establish reference ranges for selected chemicals, provide exposure data for risk assessment, and monitor exposure trends. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. [Physical activity: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, S; Jordan, S; Mensink, G B M; Müters, S; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2013-05-01

    Regular physical activity can have a positive effect on health at any age. Today's lifestyles, however, can often be characterised as sedentary. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity and sports has become an integral part of public health measures. The representative data of adults aged 18 to 79 years in Germany obtained from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) provide an overview of self-estimated current physical activity behaviour. The results show that one third of the adult population claims to pay close attention to reaching a sufficient level of physical activity and one fourth participates in sports for at least 2 h/week on a regular basis. Thus, the percentage of adults regularly engaged in sports has increased compared to the previous "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998". Still, four out of five adults do not achieve at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-intensity physical activity as recommended by the World Health Organisation. Consequently, future individual-level and population-level interventions should focus on target group-specific measures while continuing to promote regular physical activity in all segments of the population. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  13. Bisphenol-A and Sleep Adequacy among Adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, Hind A; Beydoun, May A; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Zonderman, Alan B; Eid, Shaker M

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate bisphenol-A (BPA) level and its relationship to sleep adequacy in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey whereby data were collected using in-person interviews, physical examination and laboratory testing. BPA level was measured in urine samples and analyzed as loge-transformed variable and in quartiles (Sleep adequacy was operationalized with three questions: "How much sleep do you usually get at night on weekdays or workdays?", "Have you ever told a doctor or other health professionals that you have trouble sleeping?" and "Have you ever been told by a doctor or other health professional that you have a sleep disorder?" Sleep duration was further categorized as ( 8 h); (sleep duration defined, in hours, as a continuous variable, a dichotomous variable (≥ 6, sleep problems and diagnosis with sleep disorders were not significantly associated with loge-transformed BPA level in fully adjusted models. Loge-transformed BPA level may be associated with fewer hours of sleep among U.S. adults, with implications for prevention. Further research involving diverse populations are needed to confirm these study findings. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. Risk of mental health problems in adolescents skipping meals: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyungjoo; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Hyunju

    Adolescents frequently skip meals, doing so even more than once per day. This is associated with more mental health problems. This study identified mental health problems' associations with skipping meals and the frequency thereof among adolescents. This cross-sectional population-based study used a data set of 1,413 adolescents from the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine the risk of mental health problems, including stress, depressive mood, and suicidal ideation in relation to skipping meals and the frequency thereof per day. Breakfast skipping significantly increased the risks of stress and depressive mood. Stress, depressive mood, and suicidal ideation were significantly prevalent as the daily frequency of skipping meals increased. Specific strategies should be developed at government or school level to decrease the frequency of skipping meals per day, associated with serious mental health problems in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between anthropometric parameters and open angle glaucoma: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Yeun Lee

    Full Text Available To evaluate the relationships between open-angle glaucoma (OAG and various anthropometric measurements.Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, a population-based cross-sectional study using a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey.A total of 5,255 participants including 247 glaucoma patients, aged ≥ 19 years were included from the KNHANES V database. Glaucoma diagnosis was based on International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Various anthropometric data regarding obesity were analyzed including body mass index (BMI, total body fat mass, total body muscle mass (lean body mass, non-bone lean body mass, and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM mass, and waist circumference (WC. The differences in OAG prevalence with respect to anthropometric parameter quartiles were examined.In males, the multivariate general linear model adjusted for age, alcohol, smoking, exercise, systemic hypertension, diabetes, and intraocular pressure (IOP showed the quartiles for the anthropometric parameters BMI, fat mass/weight ratio and fat mass/muscle mass ratio were negatively associated with OAG. However, muscle mass parameter/BMI ratio was significantly positively associated with OAG (P for trend<0.05. In females, height and fat mass/BMI showed a significant relationship with the risk of OAG. (P value<0.05.In the present study, high fat mass was associated with low OAG risk. Body composition seemed to affect the prevalence of OAG, but further evaluation is needed.

  16. Diabetes, vestibular dysfunction, and falls: analyses from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Yuri; Carey, John P; Della Santina, Charles C; Schubert, Michael C; Minor, Lloyd B

    2010-12-01

    Patients with diabetes are at increased risk both for falls and for vestibular dysfunction, a known risk factor for falls. Our aims were 1) to further characterize the vestibular dysfunction present in patients with diabetes and 2) to evaluate for an independent effect of vestibular dysfunction on fall risk among patients with diabetes. National cross-sectional survey. Ambulatory examination centers. Adults from the United States aged 40 years and older who participated in the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 5,86). Diagnosis of diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, and retinopathy. Vestibular function measured by the modified Romberg Test of Standing Balance on Firm and Compliant Support Surfaces and history of falling in the previous 12 months. We observed a higher prevalence of vestibular dysfunction in patients with diabetes with longer duration of disease, greater serum hemoglobin A1c levels and other diabetes-related complications, suggestive of a dose-response relationship between diabetes mellitus severity and vestibular dysfunction. We also noted that vestibular dysfunction independently increased the odds of falling more than 2-fold among patients with diabetes (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.1), even after adjusting for peripheral neuropathy and retinopathy. Moreover, we found that including vestibular dysfunction, peripheral neuropathy, and retinopathy in multivariate models eliminated the significant association between diabetes and fall risk. Vestibular dysfunction may represent a newly recognized diabetes-related complication, which acts as a mediator of the effect of diabetes mellitus on fall risk.

  17. Relationship between anthropometric parameters and open angle glaucoma: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Yeun; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Hyun Tae; Lee, Mi Yeon; Min, Hye Won; Won, Yu Sam; Kwon, Hyun Seok; Park, Ki Ho; Kim, Joon Mo

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the relationships between open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and various anthropometric measurements. Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a population-based cross-sectional study using a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey. A total of 5,255 participants including 247 glaucoma patients, aged ≥ 19 years were included from the KNHANES V database. Glaucoma diagnosis was based on International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Various anthropometric data regarding obesity were analyzed including body mass index (BMI), total body fat mass, total body muscle mass (lean body mass, non-bone lean body mass, and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) mass), and waist circumference (WC). The differences in OAG prevalence with respect to anthropometric parameter quartiles were examined. In males, the multivariate general linear model adjusted for age, alcohol, smoking, exercise, systemic hypertension, diabetes, and intraocular pressure (IOP) showed the quartiles for the anthropometric parameters BMI, fat mass/weight ratio and fat mass/muscle mass ratio were negatively associated with OAG. However, muscle mass parameter/BMI ratio was significantly positively associated with OAG (P for trend<0.05). In females, height and fat mass/BMI showed a significant relationship with the risk of OAG. (P value<0.05). In the present study, high fat mass was associated with low OAG risk. Body composition seemed to affect the prevalence of OAG, but further evaluation is needed.

  18. Neighborhood Racial Diversity and Metabolic Syndrome: 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kelin; Wen, Ming; Fan, Jessie X

    2018-03-30

    This study investigated the independent association between neighborhood racial/ethnic diversity and metabolic syndrome among US adults, and focused on how this association differed across individual and neighborhood characteristics (i.e., race/ethnicity, sex, age, urbanity, neighborhood poverty). Objectively-measured biomarker data from 2003 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were linked to census-tract profiles from 2000 decennial census (N = 10,122). Multilevel random intercept logistic regression models were estimated to examine the contextual effects of tract-level racial/ethnic diversity on individual risks of metabolic syndrome. Overall, more than 20% of the study population were identified as having metabolic syndrome, although the prevalence also varied across demographic subgroups and specific biomarkers. Multilevel analyses showed that increased racial/ethnic diversity within a census tract was associated with decreased likelihood of having metabolic syndrome (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.96), particularly among female (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.43-0.96), young adults (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.39-0.93), and residents living in urban (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.48-0.93) or poverty neighborhoods (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.31-0.95). The findings point to the potential benefits of neighborhood racial/ethnic diversity on individual health risks.

  19. Sexual orientation measurement and chronic disease disparities: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joanne G; Jabson, Jennifer M

    2018-02-01

    To examine chronic disease disparities by sexual orientation measurement among sexual minorities. We pooled data from the 2009-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine differences in chronic disease prevalence between heterosexual and sexual minority people as defined by sexual identity, lifetime sexual behavior, 12-month sexual behavior, and concordance of lifetime sexual behavior and sexual identity. Self-identified lesbian women reported greater odds of asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.19; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.37-7.47) and chronic bronchitis (aOR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.21-5.72) than self-identified heterosexual women. Self-identified sexual minority women with a history of same-sex sexual behavior reported greater odds of arthritis (aOR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.02-2.74). Compared with heterosexual men, gay men reported greater odds of chronic bronchitis when sexual orientation was defined by sexual identity (aOR, 4.68; 95% CI, 1.90-11.56) or 12-month sexual behavior (aOR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.27-8.20), as did bisexual men defined by lifetime sexual behavior (aOR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.14-4.89). Bisexual men reported greater odds of asthma when measured by lifetime sexual behavior (aOR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.12-3.19), as did self-identified heterosexual men with a history of same-sex sexual behavior (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.10-4.46). How we define sexual orientation influences our understanding of chronic disease prevalence. Capturing subgroups of sexual minority people in health surveillance is essential for identifying groups most at risk and developing targeted interventions to reduce chronic disease disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral health and cognitive function in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Robert; Sabbah, Wael; Tsakos, Georgios; D'Aiuto, Francesco; Watt, Richard G

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the association between oral health and cognitive function in early-, mid-, and late-adult life. A secondary analysis was carried out of a large, well-characterized community sample (NHANES III). Analyzed variables included three measures of oral health (gingival bleeding, loss of periodontal attachment, loss of teeth) and three measures of cognitive function: the Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST), the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT) (both in 5138 participants aged 20-59 years), and a Story Recall test (in 1555 participants aged >or=70 years). Other covariates in linear regression models included age, gender, ethnicity, education and poverty, and cardiovascular risk factors. Worse scores on all three measures of oral health status were significantly associated with poorer performance on all three measures of cognitive function after adjustment for age. Education was an important confounding factor. However, after full adjustment for all other covariates, gingival bleeding (%) and loss of periodontal attachment (%) remained associated with relative impairment on SDST score (B coefficients both = 0.003), and gingival bleeding was associated with relative impairment on SDLT (B = 0.017). No effect modification by age was observed. Poor oral health is associated with worse cognitive function throughout adult life. This may, in part, be accounted for by early life education and social status. However, the possibility of direct causal pathways requires further investigation.

  1. Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard; Lee, Sundong

    2011-01-01

    Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 μg/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 μg/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

  2. Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard [Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, Sundong, E-mail: sdlee@sangji.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Oriental Medicine, Sangji University, Wonju, Kangwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 {mu}g/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 {mu}g/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

  3. Findings from the oral health study of the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Johanne; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    , carried out in mobile units by three trained and calibrated dental hygienists. The data were processed with descriptive statistics and mono- and bivariate analyses. Results. The mean age was 54.1 years and 60% were women. The mean number of natural teeth was 26.6; the mean DMFT/DMFS values were 18...... rate was more common among females than males (17.7% vs 10.4%) and this was reflected by the reported frequency of dry mouth. Conclusion. This extensive cross-sectional study provides a platform for obtaining future knowledge of the impact of health- and lifestyle-related factors on oral diseases...

  4. Association between physical activity and kidney function: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Marquis S; Sevick, Mary Ann; Richardson, Caroline R; Fried, Linda F; Arena, Vincent C; Kriska, Andrea M

    2011-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a condition characterized by the deterioration of the kidney's ability to remove waste products from the body. Although treatments to slow the progression of the disease are available, chronic kidney disease may eventually lead to a complete loss of kidney function. Previous studies have shown that physical activities of moderate intensity may have renal benefits. Few studies have examined the effects of total movement on kidney function. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between time spent at all levels of physical activity intensity and sedentary behavior and kidney function. Data were obtained from the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional study of a complex, multistage probability sample of the US population. Physical activity was assessed using an accelerometer and questionnaire. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study formula. To assess linear associations between levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior with log-transformed estimated GFR (eGFR), linear regression was used. In general, physical activity (light and total) was related to log eGFR in females and males. For females, the association between light and total physical activity with log eGFR was consistent regardless of diabetes status. For males, the association between light and total physical activity and log eGFR was only significant in males without diabetes. When examining the association between physical activity, measured objectively with an accelerometer, and kidney function, total and light physical activities were found to be positively associated with kidney function.

  5. Comparison of Health Examination Survey Methods in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, England, Scotland, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jennifer S; Moody, Alison; Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I; Alfaro, Tania; Frenz, Patricia; Scholes, Shaun; Gonzalez, Silvia A; Margozzini, Paula; de Oliveira, Cesar; Sanchez Romero, Luz Maria; Alvarado, Andres; Cabrera, Sebastián; Sarmiento, Olga L; Triana, Camilo A; Barquera, Simón

    2017-09-15

    Comparability of population surveys across countries is key to appraising trends in population health. Achieving this requires deep understanding of the methods used in these surveys to examine the extent to which the measurements are comparable. In this study, we obtained detailed protocols of 8 nationally representative surveys from 2007-2013 from Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, the United Kingdom (England and Scotland), and the United States-countries that that differ in economic and inequity indicators. Data were collected on sampling frame, sample selection procedures, recruitment, data collection methods, content of interview and examination modules, and measurement protocols. We also assessed their adherence to the World Health Organization's "STEPwise Approach to Surveillance" framework for population health surveys. The surveys, which included half a million participants, were highly comparable on sampling methodology, survey questions, and anthropometric measurements. Heterogeneity was found for physical activity questionnaires and biological samples collection. The common age range included by the surveys was adults aged 18-64 years. The methods used in these surveys were similar enough to enable comparative analyses of the data across the 7 countries. This comparability is crucial in assessing and comparing national and subgroup population health, and to assisting the transfer of research and policy knowledge across countries. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Serum Phosphorus Concentrations in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Ian H.; Rue, Tessa C.; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Background Higher serum phosphorus concentrations within the normal laboratory range have been associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in large prospective cohort studies of individuals with and without kidney disease. Reasons for interindividual variation in steady-state serum phosphorus concentrations are largely unknown. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 15,513 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Predictors Demographic data, dietary intake measured by means of 24-hour dietary recall and food-frequency questionnaire, and established cardiovascular risk factors. Outcome & Measurements Serum phosphorus concentration. Results Mean serum phosphorus concentrations were significantly greater in women (+0.16 mg/dL versus men; P phosphorus and phosphorus-rich foods were associated only weakly with circulating serum phosphorus concentrations, if at all. Higher serum phosphorus levels were associated with lower calculated Framingham coronary heart disease risk scores, which are based on traditional atherosclerosis risk factors. In aggregate, demographic, nutritional, cardiovascular, and kidney function variables explained only 12% of the variation in circulating serum phosphorus concentrations. Limitations Results may differ with advanced kidney disease. Conclusions Serum phosphorus concentration is weakly related to dietary phosphorus and not related to a diverse array of phosphorus-rich foods in the general population. Factors determining serum phosphorus concentration are largely unknown. Previously observed associations of serum phosphorus concentrations with cardiovascular events are unlikely to be a result of differences in dietary intake or traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:18992979

  7. Diet quality on meatless days: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Zach; Karlsen, Micaela; Chui, Kenneth; Jahns, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    To compare diet quality scores between adult non-meat eaters and meat eaters, and to compare the consumption of diet components across quintiles of diet quality. Cross-sectional analysis. The Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) and Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010) were used to assess mean diet quality. Differences in consumption of diet components between quintiles of diet quality were tested using post hoc Wald tests and z tests. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2012. The sample consisted of 16810 respondents aged≥18 years, including 280 individuals who reported not consuming meat, poultry, game birds or seafood on two non-consecutive days of dietary recall. Dietary data were obtained from one dietary recall per individual. Non-meat eaters had substantially greater HEI-2010 and AHEI-2010 scores than meat eaters (Pempty calories and unsaturated:saturated fatty acids. Mean consumption across AHEI-2010 quintiles demonstrated different (Pempty calories, and increased consumption of nuts and legumes, PUFA and vegetables, as a way to improve overall dietary quality.

  8. Lung function and metabolic syndrome: Findings of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010*

    Science.gov (United States)

    FORD, Earl S.; CUNNINGHAM, Timothy J.; MERCADO, Carla I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Considerable uncertainty remains about obstructive lung function (OLF) in adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the present study was to examine pulmonary function status in adults with and without MetS. Methods We used data from 3109 participants aged ≥20 years of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Subjects’ MetS status was established on the basis of the 2009 harmonizing definition. Participants received spirometry. Results After age adjustment, 79.3% (SE 1.1) of participants with MetS had normal lung function, 8.7% (0.9) had restrictive lung function (RLF), 7.1% (0.8) had mild OLF, and 4.8% (0.6) had moderate OLF or worse. Among participants without MetS, these estimates were 78.7% (1.2), 3.9% (0.6), 10.9% (1.1), and 6.4% (0.8), respectively. After multiple adjustment, participants with MetS were more likely to have RLF (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.67, 2.90) and less likely to have any OLF (aPR 0.73; 95% CI 0.62, 0.86) than those without MetS. Furthermore, participants with MetS had lower mean levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1 % predicted, forced vital capacity (FVC), and FVC % predicted, but a higher FEV1/FVC ratio than participants without MetS. Mean levels of FEV1, FEV1 % predicted, FVC, and FVC % predicted declined significantly, but not the FEV1/FVC ratio, as the number of components increased. Conclusions Compared with adults without MetS, spirometry is more likely to show a restrictive pattern and less likely to show an obstructive pattern among adults with MetS. PMID:26677470

  9. Cardiovascular health metrics and accelerometer-measured physical activity levels: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Tiago V; Harrington, Deirdre M; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether relationships exist between accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and other cardiovascular (CV) health metrics in a large sample. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2006, were used. Overall, 3454 nonpregnant adults 20 years or older who fasted for 6 hours or longer, with valid accelerometer data and with CV health metrics, were included in the study. Blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), smoking status, diet, fasting plasma glucose level, and total cholesterol level were defined as ideal, intermediate, and poor on the basis of American Heart Association criteria. Results were weighted to account for sampling design, oversampling, and nonresponse. Significant increasing linear trends in mean daily MVPA were observed across CV health levels for BMI, BP, and fasting plasma glucose (Pphysical activity in the overall definition of ideal CV health. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors Associated with Hemorrhoids in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Background Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common anal diseases among Koreans, risk factors for hemorrhoids have not been well identified. Methods We analyzed the data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2009. Study subjects were 17,228 participants of KNHANES who were aged 19 years or older. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between hemorrhoids and probable risk factors. Results Overall prevalence of hemorrhoids among study subjects was 14.4%, being more prevalent among women (15.7%) than among men (13.0%). Obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with a higher risk of hemorrhoids with odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) of 1.13 (1.01 to 1.26) and 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30), respectively. Both self-reported depression (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.62 to 2.08) and physician diagnosed depression (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.17) were associated with significantly higher risk of hemorrhoids. No regular walking (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.23) and experience of pregnancy (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.25) for women were also associated with higher risk of hemorrhoids. However, educational level, alcohol consumption, physical activities, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, fiber, fat intake, and energy intake were not associated with a risk of hemorrhoids. Low quality of life assessed with EuroQol-5 Dimension and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale was significantly associated with hemorrhoids. Conclusion This nationwide cross-sectional study of Korean adults suggests that obesity, abdominal obesity, depression, and past pregnancy may be risk factors for hemorrhoids and hemorrhoids affect quality of life negatively. PMID:25309703

  11. Thyroid hormones and electrocardiographic parameters: findings from the third national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyi Zhang

    Full Text Available Altered thyroid status exerts a major effect on the heart. Individuals with hypo- or hyperthyroidism showed various changes in electrocardiograms. However, little is known about how variations in thyroid hormone levels within the normal range affect electrical activities of the heart in the general population.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 5,990 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Serum total T4 was measured by immunoassay and TSH was measured by chemiluminescent assay. We categorized T4 and TSH into 7 groups with cut-offs at the 5(th, 20(th, 40(th, 60(th, 80(th, and 95(th percentiles of the weighted population distribution. Electrocardiographic parameters were measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. We found a positive linear association between serum total T4 level and heart rate in men, and a U-shape association between T4 and PR interval in men and women. TSH level was positively associated with QRS interval in men, while a U-shape association between TSH and QRS was observed in women. No clear graded association between thyroid hormones and corrected QT or JT was found, except that men in the highest category of T4 levels appeared to have longer corrected QT and JT, and men in the lowest category of T4 appeared to have shorter corrected QT and JT.Variation in thyroid hormone levels in the general population, even within the normal range, was associated with various ECG changes.

  12. Prevalence and Determinants of Diabetic Nephropathy in Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hee Ahn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDiabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end stage renal disease and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. It manifests as albuminuria or impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy varies with ethnicity. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its determinants in Korean adults have not previously been studied at the national level. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of albuminuria and chronic kidney disease (CKD in Korean patients with diabetes.MethodsThe Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, conducted in 2011, was used to define albuminuria (n=4,652, and the dataset of KNHANES IV-V (2008-2011 was used to define CKD (n=21,521. Selected samples were weighted to represent the entire civilian population in Korea. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio >30 mg/g. CKD was defined as a GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2.ResultsAmong subjects with diabetes, 26.7% had albuminuria, and 8.6% had CKD. Diabetes was associated with an approximate 2.5-fold increased risk of albuminuria, with virtually no difference between new-onset and previously diagnosed diabetes. Only systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with albuminuria, and old age, high serum triglyceride levels, and previous cardiovascular disease (CVD were related with CKD in subjects with diabetes.ConclusionKorean subjects with diabetes had a higher prevalence of albuminuria and CKD than those without diabetes. Blood pressure was associated with albuminuria, and age, triglyceride level, and previous CVD were independent determinants of CKD in subjects with diabetes.

  13. Lung function and metabolic syndrome: Findings of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Earl S; Cunningham, Timothy J; Mercado, Carla I

    2014-11-01

    Considerable uncertainty remains about obstructive lung function( OLF) in adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the present study was to examine pulmonary function status in adults with and without MetS. We used data from 3109 participants aged ≥20 years of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010. Subjects'MetS status was established on the basis of the 2009 harmonizing definition. Participants received spirometry. After age adjustment, 79.3% (SE 1.1) of participants with MetS had normal lung function, 8.7% (0.9) had restrictive lung function (RLF), 7.1% (0.8) had mild OLF, and 4.8% (0.6) had moderate OLF or worse. Among participants without MetS, these estimates were 78.7% (1.2), 3.9% (0.6), 10.9%(1.1), and 6.4% (0.8), respectively. After multiple adjustment, participants with MetS were more likely to have RLF (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.67, 2.90) and less likely to have any OLF (aPR 0.73; 95% CI 0.62, 0.86) than those without MetS. Furthermore, participants with MetS had lower mean levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1 % predicted, forced vital capacity (FVC), and FVC % predicted, but a higher FEV1/FVC ratio than participants without MetS. Mean levels of FEV1, FEV1 % predicted, FVC, and FVC % predicted declined significantly, but not the FEV1/FVC ratio, as the number of components increased. Compared with adults without MetS, spirometry is more likely to show a restrictive pattern and less likely to show an obstructive pattern among adults with MetS. 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Electronic Health Record Data Versus the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): A Comparison of Overweight and Obesity Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Luke M; Shan, Ying; Voils, Corrine I; Kloke, John; Hanrahan, Lawrence P

    2017-06-01

    Estimating population-level obesity rates is important for informing policy and targeting treatment. The current gold standard for obesity measurement in the United States-the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)-samples health system-level measurement. To assess the feasibility of using body mass index (BMI) data from the electronic health record (EHR) to assess rates of overweight and obesity and compare these rates to national NHANES estimates. Using outpatient data from 42 clinics, we studied 388,762 patients in a large health system with at least 1 primary care visit in 2011-2012. We compared crude and adjusted overweight and obesity rates by age category and ethnicity (white, black, Hispanic, Other) between EHR and NHANES participants. Adjusted overweight (BMI≥25) and obesity rates were calculated by a 2-step process. Step 1 accounted for missing BMI data using inverse probability weighting, whereas step 2 included a poststratification correction to adjust the EHR population to a nationally representative sample. Adjusted rates of obesity (BMI≥30) for EHR patients were 37.3% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 37.1-37.5] compared with 35.1% (95% CI, 32.3-38.1) for NHANES patients. Among the 16 different obesity class, ethnicity, and sex strata that were compared between EHR and NHANES patients, 14 (87.5%) contained similar obesity estimates (ie, overlapping 95% CIs). EHRs may be an ideal tool for identifying and targeting patients with obesity for implementation of public health and/or individual level interventions.

  15. Relationship between alcohol consumption and age at menopause: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong In; Han, Kyung-do; Lee, Dae Woo; Kim, Min Jeong; Shin, Yeon Joo; Lee, Hae Nam

    2017-08-01

    We used data from the 2011-2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) to investigate whether the age at menopause is related to alcohol consumption in South Korean women. This was a cross-sectional study of the data for 940 women who became menopausal within the 3 years preceding the KNHANES. The numbers of nondrinkers, mild to moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers in this group were 345 (34.7%), 573 (62.2%), and 22 (3%). Body mass index (BMI), smoking, and exercise were adjusted in model 1 and age was additionally adjusted in model 2. The mean ages at menopause were 51.6 ± 0.2, 50.8 ± 0.1, and 50.4 ± 0.5 years (p = 0.0025) in model 1 and 51.7 ± 0.2, 51.1 ± 0.1, and 50.1 ± 0.5 years (p = 0.0018) in model 2 for nondrinkers, mild to moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers, respectively. BMI, smoking, exercise, educational level, income, duration of menopause, age at menarche, age at first delivery, and gravidity were adjusted in model 3, and the respective mean ages at menopause were 51.3 ± 0.2, 50.7 ± 0.2, and 50.1 ± 0.8 years (p = 0.0402). The population was classified into groups using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores of menopause according to AUDIT score were 51.3 ± 0.1, 50.5 ± 0.3, and 50.4 ± 0.4 years (p = 0.0222, model 1), 51.4 ± 0.1, 50.8 ± 0.3, and 50.8 ± 0.3 years (p = 0.0261, model 2), and 51.1 ± 0.1, 50.6 ± 0.4, and 49.5 ± 0.6 years (p = 0.0241, model 3) respectively. In Korean women, alcohol consumption was associated with younger age at menopause. A higher AUDIT score was also related to younger age at menopause. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Pulmonary Impairment in Tuberculosis Survivors: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Woo; Choi, Jae-Chol; Shin, Jong-Wook; Kim, Jae-Yeol; Choi, Byoung-Whui; Park, In-Won

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can affect lung function, but studies regarding long-term follow-up in patients with no sequelae on chest X-ray (CXR) have not been performed. We evaluated lung functional impairment and persistent respiratory symptoms in those with prior pulmonary TB and those with prior pulmonary TB with no residual sequelae on CXR, and determined risk factors for airflow obstruction. We used data from adults aged ≥ 40 years from the annual Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted between 2008 and 2012. P values for comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, and smoking status. In total of 14,967 adults, 822 subjects (5.5%) had diagnosed and treated pulmonary TB (mean 29.0 years ago). The FVC% (84.9 vs. 92.6), FEV1% (83.4 vs. 92.4), and FEV1/FVC% (73.4 vs. 77.9) were significantly decreased in subjects with prior pulmonary TB compared to those without (p pulmonary TB (296, 2.3%) had significantly lower FEV1% (90.9 vs. 93.4, p = 0.001) and FEV1/FVC% (76.6 vs. 78.4, p pulmonary TB as well as subjects with no sequalae on CXR were more likely to experience cough and physical activity limitations due to pulmonary symptoms than those without prior pulmonary TB (p pulmonary TB (OR, 2.314; 95% CI, 1.922-2.785), along with age, male, asthma, and smoking mount was risk factor for airflow obstruction. In subjects with prior pulmonary tuberculosis, inactive TB lesion on chest x-ray (OR, 2.300; 95% CI, 1.606-3.294) were risk factors of airflow obstruction. In addition to subjects with inactive TB lesion on CXR, subjects with no sequelae on CXR can show impaired pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms. Prior TB is a risk factor for airflow obstruction and that the risk is more important when they have inactive lesions on chest X-ray. Hence, the patients with treated TB should need to have regular follow-up of lung function and stop smoking for early detection and prevention of the chronic airway disease.

  17. Association between socioeconomic status and oral health behaviors: The 2008-2010 Korea national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Beom; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu; Ko, Youngkyung

    2016-10-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has been reported to be associated with oral health behavior. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the relationship between SES and oral health behaviors in a large sample of the Korean population. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted between 2008 and 2010 by the Division of Chronic Disease Surveillance under the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare, were used in the present study. Daily tooth brushing frequency and the use of secondary oral products according to demographic variables and anthropometric characteristics of the participants were assessed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the associations between daily tooth brushing frequency and the use of secondary oral products, and SES, urban/rural residence, body mass index (BMI), alcohol intake and smoking. An association between SES and tooth brushing frequency and the use of secondary oral products was detected after adjustment. Following adjustment for age, gender, BMI, smoking, drinking, exercise, energy intake, fat intake, periodontal treatment needs and education or income, the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of tooth brushing ≥3 per day in the highest income group were 1.264 (95% CI, 1.094-1.460) and 2.686 (95% CI, 2.286-3.155) for highest education level group. The adjusted odds ratios for the use of secondary oral products in the highest income and highest education groups were 1.835 (95% CI, 1.559-2.161) and 5.736 (95% CI, 4.734-6.951), respectively, after adjustment for age, gender, smoking, BMI, exercise, calorie intake, periodontal treatment requirements or income. The present study demonstrated an association between SES and oral health behaviors in a large sample of the Korean population. Within the limits of the present study, income and education were suggested as potential risk indicators

  18. A Profile of Puerto Rican Health in the United States: Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1982-84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Eric; And Others

    The health conditions and health status of Hispanic Americans will assume increased importance as their population increases. The goal of this book of charts is to present data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) on Puerto Ricans. The Puerto Rican HHANES sampling procedure is a multi-stage probability sample of…

  19. Health Insurance Status as a Barrier to Ideal Cardiovascular Health for U.S. Adults: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A McClurkin

    Full Text Available Little is known about the association between cardiovascular (CV health and health insurance status. We hypothesized that U.S. adults without health insurance coverage would have a lower likelihood of ideal cardiovascular health.Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data from 2007-2010, we examined the relationship between health insurance status and ideal CV health in U.S. adults aged ≥19 years and <65 (N = 3304. Ideal CV health was defined by the American Heart Association (AHA as the absence of clinically manifested CV disease and the simultaneous presence of 6-7 "ideal" CV health factors and behaviors. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine the relationship between health insurance status and the odds of ideal CV health. Of the U.S. adult population, 5.4% attained ideal CV health, and 23.5% were without health insurance coverage. Those without health insurance coverage were more likely to be young (p<0.0001, male (p<0.0001, non-white (p<0.0001, with less than a high school degree (p<0.0001, have a poverty-to-income ratio less than 1 (p<0.0001 and unemployed (p<0.0001 compared to those with coverage. Lack of health insurance coverage was associated with a lower likelihood of ideal CV health; however, this relationship was attenuated by socioeconomic status.U.S. adults without health insurance coverage are less likely to have ideal CV health. Population-based strategies and interventions directed at the community-level may be one way to improve overall CV health and reach this at-risk group.

  20. Reliability and prevalence of physical performance examination assessing mobility and balance in older persons in the US: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostchega, Y; Harris, T B; Hirsch, R; Parsons, V L; Kington, R; Katzoff, M

    2000-09-01

    This report provides reliability and prevalence estimates by sex, age, and race/ethnicity of an observed physical performance examination (PPE) assessing mobility and balance. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) 1988-1994. A cross-sectional nationally representative survey. All persons aged 60 and older (n = 5,403) who performed the PPE either in the mobile examination center (MEC) or in the home during NHANES III (conducted 1988-1994). The PPE included timed chair stand, full tandem stand, and timed 8-foot walk. Timed chair stand and 8-foot timed walk were reliable measurements (Intraclass Correlations > 0.5). Women were significantly slower (P physically limited than men.

  1. Hypertension Among US Adults by Disability Status and Type, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Alissa; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Cathleen; Armour, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension among people with disabilities is not well understood. We combined data from the 2001–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to obtain estimates of hypertension prevalence by disability status and type (cognitive, hearing, vision, or mobility limitation) and assess the association between disability and hypertension. Overall, 34% of adults with disabilities had hypertension compared with 27% of adults without disabilities; adults with mobility lim...

  2. A Novel Survey to Examine the Relationship Between Health IT Adoption and Nurse-Physician Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Eric; Manojlovich, Milisa; Adler-Milstein, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background As EHR adoption in US hospitals becomes ubiquitous, a wide range of IT options are theoretically available to facilitate physician-nurse communication, but we know little about the adoption rate of specific technologies or the impact of their use. Objectives To measure adoption of hardware, software, and telephony relevant to nurse-physician communication in US hospitals. To assess the relationship between non-IT communication practices and hardware, software, and telephony adoption. To identify hospital characteristics associated with greater adoption of hardware, software, telephony, and non-IT communication practices. Methods We conducted a survey of 105 hospitals in the National Nursing Practice Network. The survey captured adoption of hardware, software, and telephony to support nurse-physician communication, along with non-IT communication practices. We calculated descriptive statistics and then created four indices, one for each category, by scoring degree of adoption of technologies or practices within each category. Next, we examined correlations between the three technology indices and the non-IT communication practices index. We used multivariate OLS regression to assess whether certain types of hospitals had higher index scores. Results The majority of hospitals surveyed have a range of hardware, software, and telephony tools available to support nurse-physician communication; we found substantial heterogeneity across hospitals in non-IT communication practices. More intensive non-IT communication was associated with greater adoption of software (r=0.31, p=0.01), but was not correlated with hardware or telephony. Medium-sized hospitals had lower adoption of software (r =-1.14,p=0.04) in comparison to small hospitals, while federally-owned hospitals had lower software (r=-2.57, p=0.02) and hardware adoption (r=-1.63, p=0.01). Conclusions The positive relationship between non-IT communication and level of software adoption suggests that

  3. Iron status and reproduction in US women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Miller

    Full Text Available Women experience significant changes in iron status throughout their reproductive lifespans. While this is evident in regions with high rates of malnutrition and infectious disease, the extent of reproductive-related changes is less well known in countries with low rates of iron deficiency anemia, such as the United States. The goal of this study is determine the relationship between women's reproductive variables (pregnancy, parity, currently breastfeeding, regular menstruation, hormonal contraceptive use, and age at menarche and iron status (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin receptor, and % transferrin saturation using an anthropological framework for interpreting the results. Data from women aged 18-49 were taken from the 1999-2006 US NHANES, a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of US women. Using multiple imputation and complex survey statistics, women's reproductive variables were regressed against indicators of iron status. Pregnant women had significantly poorer iron status, by most indicators, than non-pregnant women. All biomarkers demonstrated significantly lower iron levels with increasing parity. Women who were having regular periods had iron indicators that suggested decreased iron levels, while women who used hormonal contraceptives had iron indicators that suggested increased iron levels. Despite relatively good iron status and widespread availability of iron-rich foods in the US, women still exhibit patterns of iron depletion across several reproductive variables of interest. These results contribute to an ecological approach to iron status that seeks to understand variation in iron status, with the hopes that appropriate, population-specific recommendations can be developed to improve women's health.

  4. Educational disparities in quality of diabetes care in a universal health insurance system: evidence from the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Young Kyung; Eggleston, Karen N

    2011-08-01

    To investigate educational disparities in the care process and health outcomes among patients with diabetes in the context of South Korea's universal health insurance system. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses of data from a cross-sectional health survey. A nationally representative and population-based survey, the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Respondents aged 40 or older who self-reported prior diagnosis with diabetes (n= 1418). Seven measures of the care process and health outcomes, namely (i) receiving medical treatment for diabetes, (ii) ever received diabetes education, (iii) received dilated eye examination in the past year, (iv) received microalbuminuria test in the past year, (v) having activity limitation due to diabetes, (vi) poor self-rated health and (vii) self-rated health on a visual analog scale. Except for receiving medical care for diabetes, overall process quality was low, with only 25% having ever received diabetes education, 39% having received a dilated eye examination in the past year and 51% having received a microalbuminuria test in the past year. Lower education level was associated with both poorer care processes and poorer health outcomes, whereas lower income level was only associated with poorer health outcomes. While South Korea's universal health insurance system may have succeeded in substantially reducing financial barriers related to diabetes care, the quality of diabetes care is low overall and varies by education level. System-level quality improvement efforts are required to address the weaknesses of the health system, thereby mitigating educational disparities in diabetes care quality.

  5. Physical activity and depression symptoms among pregnant women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Fitzgerald, Elizabeth M; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2012-03-01

    To examine the association between objectively measured physical activity and depression symptoms among a nationally representative sample of pregnant women to provide a more accurate understanding of the relationship between physical activity and depression symptoms. We employed a cross-sectional study design. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 were used for this study. One-hundred and forty-one pregnant women wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 7 days and completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 to assess depression status. More than 19% of the participants experienced some depression symptoms, and compared to their counterparts not having depression symptoms, they were less physically active. An inverse association was found between physical activity and depression symptoms among pregnant women. When feasible, nurses are encouraged to help facilitate physical activity among pregnant women, assuming an uncomplicated pregnancy. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  6. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portugal: Results from the First Portuguese Health Examination Survey (INSEF 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaio, Vânia; Antunes, Liliana; Namorado, Sónia; Barreto, Marta; Gil, Ana; Kyslaya, Irina; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana; Bøhler, Linn; Castilho, Emília; Vargas, Patrícia; do Carmo, Isabel; Nunes, Baltazar; Dias, Carlos Matias

    Obesity is recognised as a serious public health issue, due to its associated morbidity and mortality. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Portuguese population through direct measurements obtained by the 1st National Health Examination Survey (INSEF 2015) and to identify its associated sociodemographic factors. INSEF was a nationally representative cross-sectional prevalence study conducted on 4911 Portuguese adults aged 25-74 years, in 2015. Height and weight were measured according to the European Health Examination Survey procedures. Poisson regression was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios of overweight and obesity according to age, marital status, occupational activity, education, urbanization of living area and smoking status. Overall prevalences of overweight and obesity were 39.1% and 28.6%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight was higher among men (45.5% vs 33.2%) while the prevalence of obesity was higher among women (32% vs 25%). The sociodemographic factors associated with overweight and obesity were age, marital status and education. Smoking status was associated with overweight and obesity but only in women. INSEF suggests that a high prevalences of overweight and obesity are found in older individuals, married, with lower education levels and non-smoking women. Public health interventions are urgently required for obesity prevention, namely throughout health literacy strategies. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Who Is Food Insecure? Implications for Targeted Recruitment and Outreach, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Tammy; Xuan, Lei; Amory, Richard; Higashi, Robin T.; Nguyen, Oanh Kieu; Pezzia, Carla; Swales, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Food insecurity is negatively associated with health; however, health needs may differ among people participating in food assistance programs. Our objectives were to characterize differences in health among people receiving different types of food assistance and summarize strategies for targeted recruitment and outreach of various food insecure populations. Methods We examined health status, behaviors, and health care access associated with food insecurity and receipt of food assistance among US adults aged 20 years or older using data from participants (N = 16,934) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005 through 2010. Results Food insecurity affected 19.3% of US adults (95% confidence interval, 17.9%–20.7%). People who were food insecure reported poorer health and less health care access than those who were food secure (P food insecure, 58.0% received no assistance, 20.3% received only Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits, 9.7% received only food bank assistance, and 12.0% received both SNAP and food bank assistance. We observed an inverse relationship between receipt of food assistance and health and health behaviors among the food insecure. Receipt of both (SNAP and food bank assistance) was associated with the poorest health; receiving no assistance was associated with the best health. For example, functional limitations were twice as prevalent among people receiving both types of food assistance than among those receiving none. Conclusion Receipt of food assistance is an overlooked factor associated with health and has the potential to shape future chronic disease prevention efforts among the food insecure. PMID:27736055

  8. A comparison of prevalence estimates for selected health indicators and chronic diseases or conditions from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the National Health Interview Survey, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoyang; Balluz, Lina S; Ford, Earl S; Okoro, Catherine A; Zhao, Guixiang; Pierannunzi, Carol

    2012-06-01

    To compare the prevalence estimates of selected health indicators and chronic diseases or conditions among three national health surveys in the United States. Data from adults aged 18 years or older who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2007 and 2008 (n=807,524), the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in 2007 and 2008 (n=44,262), and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during 2007 and 2008 (n=5871) were analyzed. The prevalence estimates of current smoking, obesity, hypertension, and no health insurance were similar across the three surveys, with absolute differences ranging from 0.7% to 3.9% (relative differences: 2.3% to 20.2%). The prevalence estimate of poor or fair health from BRFSS was similar to that from NHANES, but higher than that from NHIS. The prevalence estimates of diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke were similar across the three surveys, with absolute differences ranging from 0.0% to 0.8% (relative differences: 0.2% to 17.1%). While the BRFSS continues to provide invaluable health information at state and local level, it is reassuring to observe consistency in the prevalence estimates of key health indicators of similar caliber between BRFSS and other national surveys. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 among Hispanics in the USA: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, M; Romaguera, R A; Valentine, J; Tao, G

    2011-07-01

    To examine the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) among Hispanics in the USA, we used the cross-sectional, nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to compare the seroprevalence of HSV-2 between Hispanic persons of Mexican heritage and non-Mexican heritage aged 14-44 years, from survey years 2007-2008. The overall HSV-2 seroprevalence among Hispanics aged 14-44 years was 17.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.2, 20.1) in the USA. HSV-2 seroprevalence was significantly lower among Mexican Americans than among other Hispanics (11.7% vs. 27.8%, P heritage and non-Mexican heritage suggested that targeting specific subgroups of Hispanics for preventive interventions may be a strategy to reduce the transmission of HSV-2 and HIV among Hispanics in the USA.

  10. Examining impacts of allergic diseases on psychological problems and tobacco use in Korean adolescents: the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hong Chun

    Full Text Available Asthma during adolescence can induce social, psychological, and behavioral problems. We examined the impact of asthma and other allergic diseases on psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors among South Korean adolescents.In this population-based cross-sectional study, 3192 adolescents (10-18 years of age participating in the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were enrolled. Psychological problems associated with clinically diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis were assessed using questionnaires and surveys. Data was analyzed using logistic regression to determine the association of depression with allergic disease while controlling for age, sex, body mass index, smoking experience, and alcohol use.Asthma and atopic dermatitis were associated with a higher prevalence of depression (17.2% and 13%, respectively. After adjusting for the covariates, asthma patients were approximately two times as likely to have depression as non-allergic participants (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-2.68. Psychosocial stress significantly increased in the following order: no allergy, any allergy without asthma, asthma only, and asthma with any allergy (p for linear trend = 0.01. The asthma without other allergies group showed the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking (p = 0.007.In this study, asthma with or without other allergies was significantly related to increases in depression, psychosocial stress, and smoking experience. Thus, care should be taken to adjust treatment to account for the psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors common among asthmatic adolescents.

  11. Familial concordance of metabolic syndrome in Korean population--Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Ha; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Thomas, G Neil; Ahn, Song Vogue; Hur, Nam Wook; Choi, Dong Phil; Suh, Il

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the familial concordance of metabolic syndrome and its components in a nationally representative survey in Korean. We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a nationwide survey examining the general health and nutritional status of the Korean people. We enrolled 1641 married couples and 1527 parents-1342 offspring. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 17.1% for husbands, 11.7% for wives, 14.3% for parents, and 7.2% for offspring. After adjustment for age, there were strong positive correlations between family members for the metabolic variables. Compared with husbands whose wives did not have metabolic syndrome, adjusted odds ratio in husbands whose wives had metabolic syndrome was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.10-1.87) for the risk of having metabolic syndrome. Similarly, wives whose husbands had metabolic syndrome had 1.41 (95% CI: 1.08-1.84) times higher risk of having metabolic syndrome. Compared with children whose parents did not have metabolic syndrome, adjusted odds ratio in children with at least one parent with the metabolic syndrome was 2.56 (95% CI: 1.09-5.98) for the metabolic syndrome. Our study revealed that there is significant familial concordance for metabolic syndrome and its components in Korean families. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 75 FR 32191 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples: Guidelines for Proposals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ...; (5) to study the relation among diet, nutrition and health; (6) to explore emerging public health... race or ethnic groups (only applicable for a subsample request) or if information about the race or... and Ethnic Minorities in Research In NHANES III, NHANES 1999-2002, and NHANES 2007-2008 race...

  13. The associations between smoking and occupational categories: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungroul; Kim, Junhyoung

    2015-03-01

    The implementation of smoke-free policies for workplaces and their impacts have been far from satisfactory. We investigated smoking prevalence in various occupations using data (n = 9283) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey collected from 2008 to 2010. Young adults who were working in the occupation categories of "service and sales," "skilled agricultural, fishery, and forest workers," and "crafts and machine operation" for men and "service and sales" for women showed 1.8 to 7.1 and 3.7 times higher (P Korea, and evidence supporting the improvement of prevention by the concomitant reduction of risk factors. © 2012 APJPH.

  14. The relationships between pesticide metabolites and neurobehavioral test performance in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Edward F

    2013-01-01

    Regression analysis was used to estimate and test for relationships between urinary pesticide metabolites and neurobehavioral test performance in adults, 20 to 59 years old, participating in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The 12 pesticide metabolites included 2 naphthols, 8 phenols, a phenoxyacetic acid, and a pyridinol. The 3 neurobehavioral tests included in the survey were simple reaction time, symbol-digit substitution, and serial digit learning. As the 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, and the pentachlorophenol concentrations increased, performance on the serial digit learning test improved. As the 2,5-dichlorophenol concentration increased, performance on the symbol-digit substitution test improved. At low concentrations, the parent compounds of these metabolites may act at acetylcholine and γ-aminobutyric acid synapses in the central nervous system to improve neurobehavioral test performance.

  15. Factors associated with health-related quality of life in Koreans aged over 50 Years: the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyoung Min; Lee, Jung Soo; Jeon, Na Eun; Kim, Yeo Hyung

    2017-12-16

    To evaluate and analyse the factors associated with health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in the Korean population aged 50 years and older. We used data obtained from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-V) 2007-2012, a national, cross-sectional health examination and survey, for which representative data on the health, nutritional status, and physical activities of the Korean general population are collected by the Korea Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). The sampling protocol for the KNHANES was designed to involve a complex, stratified, multistage probability cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population in South Korea using a cross-sectional design. The association between HR-QoL and socio-economic factors and medical comorbidities in adults aged 50 years and older was investigated using data from the KNHANES IV-V from 2007 to 2012 (n = 17,937). The EuroQol 5-Dimension Questionnaire (EQ-5D) was used to evaluate HR-QoL, and the factors associated with HR-QoL were analysed after adjusting for socio-economic and demographic factors, anthropometric measurements and clinical comorbidities. Health status declined with ageing, and low socio-economic status had negative associations with health status. Gender had no association with health status. Among chronic medical conditions, arthritis and depression had significant associations with health status in older people when stratified by age and gender (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that older people may value the ability to perform daily activities, which may mean that it is necessary to pay more attention to the factors associated with musculoskeletal pain and emotional distress, as well as socio-economic status or chronic diseases. The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES) is not a clinical trial registry, but the national health survey conducted by the Government of the

  16. Food Insecurity and Depression Among Adults With Diabetes: Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Joshua; Lu, Juan; Ratliff, Scott; Mezuk, Briana

    2017-06-01

    Purpose While both food insecurity and depression have been linked to risk of type 2 diabetes, little is known about the relationship between food insecurity and depression among adults with diabetes. Research Design and Methods Cross-sectional analyses of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011-2014), a nationally representative, population-based survey. Analytic sample was limited to adults aged ≥20 with diabetes determined by either fasting plasma glucose (≥126 mg/dL) or self-report (n = 1724) and adults age ≥20 with prediabetes determined by fasting plasma glucose (100-125 mg/dL) or self-report (n = 2004). Food insecurity was measured using the US Food Security Survey Module. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between food insecurity and depression while accounting for sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors. Results Approximately 10% of individuals with diabetes and 8.5% of individuals with prediabetes had severe food insecurity in the past year; an additional 20.3% of individuals with diabetes and 14.3% of those with prediabetes had mild food insecurity. Among individuals with diabetes, both mild and severe food insecurity were associated with elevated odds of depression These relationships were similar in magnitude among individuals with prediabetes. Conclusions Food insecurity is significantly associated with depressive symptoms in people with diabetes and prediabetes. Results point to the need to address economic issues in conjunction with psychosocial issues for comprehensive diabetes care.

  17. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by periodical health examination, (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Tsutomu; Dohy, Hiroo; Okita, Hajime

    1980-01-01

    Serum ferritin was determined in A-bomb survivors, and its significance was evaluated. A low-ferritin group included many of the females under the age of 50, who mostly had iron deficient anemia. A high-ferritin group included many older-aged A-bomb survivors who had secondary anemia due to hemochromatosis, paroxismal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), and multiple myeloma. Secondary anemia due to hemochromatosis, PNH, leukemia, and sideroblastic anemia was detected in those who were old and had underlying moderate or severe anemia with a high ferritin level. As the results of this investigation, blood examination combined with serum ferritin determination is valuable for diagnosis of anemia and detection of underlying diseases. (Ueda, J.)

  18. Diabetes Screening in US Women With a History of Gestational Diabetes, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Bernice; Turyk, Mary E; Kominiarek, Michelle A; Xia, Yinglin; Gerber, Ben S

    2016-09-08

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined individual, socioeconomic, and health care use characteristics of women with a history of GDM and the association of those characteristics with diabetes screening, and we estimated their rates of undiagnosed prediabetes and diabetes. Using 3 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2011-2012), we identified 284 women with a history of GDM who were eligible for diabetes screening. Screening status was defined by self-report of having had a blood test for diabetes within the prior 3 years. Undiagnosed prediabetes and diabetes were assessed by hemoglobin A1c measurement. Among women with a history of GDM, 67% reported diabetes screening within the prior 3 years. Weighted bivariate analyses showed screened women differed from unscreened women in measured body mass index (BMI) category (P = .01) and number of health visits in the prior year (P = .001). In multivariable analysis, screening was associated with a greater number of health visits in the prior year (1 visit vs 0 visits, adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-5.18; 2 or 3 visits, AOR, 7.05; and ≥4 visits, AOR, 5.83). Overall, 24.4% (95% CI, 18.3%-31.7%) of women had undiagnosed prediabetes and 6.5% (95% CI, 3.7%-11.3%) had undiagnosed diabetes. More health visits in the prior year was associated with receiving diabetes screening. Fewer opportunities for screening may delay early detection, clinical management, and prevention of diabetes. Prediabetes in women with a history of GDM may be underrecognized and inadequately treated.

  19. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomi, Yoshinori; Kamada, Nanao; Uchino, Haruto; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohkita, Takeshi

    1976-01-01

    For investigation of delayed effects on atomic bomb survivors, age, the association with exposure conditions, and individual pathological conditions were examined on 200 survivors for whom hypoplastic anemia was suspected in a year, April 1, 1972-March 31, 1973. Anemia was prevalent among the aged: in the females (170 cases) the incidence according to age was 1.2% in those aged 29 or below, 8.8% in those aged between 30 and 39, 12.4% in those aged between 40 and 49, 21.2% in those aged between 50 and 59, 28.8% in those aged between 60 and 69, and 24.1% aged between 70 and 79. In the males (30 cases) it was 73.3% in those aged 60 or above. The incidence according to exposure distance in the females was 4.1% in the group of 0.9km or less, 36.5% in the group of 1.9km or less, and 41.8% in the group of 2km or more, and the incidence in the males was 43.3% in the group of 1.9km or less. Anemia was not necessarily frequent among the short-distance victims. As for the distribution of hemoglobin, anemia with 10g/dl or less was found in 18%, and a white blood cell count of less than 3000 was rather infrequent (12%). Although, according to age, the amount of hemoglobin showed a slight increase in the subjects aged 70 or above, there was no significant difference. Neither of the values showed any particular decrease in relation to exposure diatance. Up to present, however, anemia has not been improved in many of the subjects in whom a mean of more than 10 years has elapsed. In addition to senile anemia, iron deficiency anemia and posthemorrhagic anemia represented most cases. There were 22 cases of hypoplastic anemia, of which three were aplastic. The exposure distance in these three cases was 1.3km, 1.5km, and 2.5km, but its relation to the incidence was not found because of the small number. (Kanao, K.)

  20. Association between psoriasis and leisure-time physical activity: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Young Kyung; Lakhani, Naheed; Malhotra, Rahul; Halstater, Brian; Theng, Colin; Østbye, Truls

    2015-02-01

    Despite evidence that physical activity can reduce the cardiometabolic risk of patients with psoriasis, these patients may engage in less physical activity than those without psoriasis. The aim of this study was to examine the association of the extent of psoriatic skin lesions with the likelihood of participating in leisure-time moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and metabolic equivalent task (MET)-minutes of MVPA amongst those who participated. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a population-based survey among U.S. adults. A total of 6549 persons aged 20-59 years responded to the 2003-2006 NHANES dermatology questionnaires, which asked about participation in leisure-time MVPA and MET-minutes of MVPA amongst those who participated. Compared with individuals without psoriasis, those with psoriasis were less likely to have engaged in leisure MVPA in the past 30 days, although this association was not statistically significant. Amongst those who participated in leisure-time MVPA, MET-minutes of leisure-time MVPA were lower on average for patients currently having few to extensive cutaneous lesions (but not for those currently having little or no psoriatic patches), relative to individuals never diagnosed with psoriasis by approximately 30%. Clinicians should encourage patients with psoriasis, especially those with more severe disease, to be more physically active; they should help identify and address possible psychological and physical barriers to their patients' physical activity. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  1. Relations among obesity, family socioeconomic status, oral health behaviors, and dental caries in adolescents: the 2010-2012 Korea National Health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Ah; Choi, Hayon Michelle; Seo, Yunhee; Kang, Dae Ryong

    2018-06-22

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among obesity, family socioeconomic status, oral health behaviors, and dental caries and to identify possible differences in factors related with dental caries according to gender among a representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data were obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted between 2010 and 2012. This nationally representative cross-sectional survey included approximately 10,000 individuals, including adolescents, each year as a survey sample, and collected information on socioeconomic status, health-related behaviors, quality of life, healthcare utilization, anthropometric measures, biochemical and clinical profiles for non-communicable diseases, and dietary intake via three component surveys (health interview, health examination, and nutrition survey). The health interview and health examination were conducted by trained staff members. A total of 1646 adolescents of ages 13 to 18 years old were included in this study; there were 879 males and 767 females. Data were analyzed by t-test, X 2 -test, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses using SAS 9.4 and 'R' statistical software for Windows to account for the complex sampling design. In males, significant associations between family income and dental caries on permanent teeth were noted after adjusting for confounding variables; the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals thereof were 0.43(0.24-0.76), 0.41(0.24-0.70), and 0.28(0.16-0.49) for low-middle, middle-high, and high family income, respectively. Smoking experience showed a significant association with dental caries on permanent teeth in females. Oral health behaviors, such as tooth brushing frequency, were associated with dental caries in only male adolescents. There was no association between obesity and dental caries on permanent teeth in either male or female adolescents. The present study demonstrated that

  2. Hypertension Among US Adults by Disability Status and Type, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney-Long, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Cathleen; Armour, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension among people with disabilities is not well understood. We combined data from the 2001–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to obtain estimates of hypertension prevalence by disability status and type (cognitive, hearing, vision, or mobility limitation) and assess the association between disability and hypertension. Overall, 34% of adults with disabilities had hypertension compared with 27% of adults without disabilities; adults with mobility limitations were more likely to have hypertension than adults without disabilities (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.16–1.32). Our results suggest that adults living with disabilities are an important subpopulation to include in hypertension reporting and intervention efforts. PMID:25121351

  3. Hypertension among US adults by disability status and type, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Alissa; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Cathleen; Armour, Brian S

    2014-08-14

    The prevalence of hypertension among people with disabilities is not well understood. We combined data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to obtain estimates of hypertension prevalence by disability status and type (cognitive, hearing, vision, or mobility limitation) and assess the association between disability and hypertension. Overall, 34% of adults with disabilities had hypertension compared with 27% of adults without disabilities; adults with mobility limitations were more likely to have hypertension than adults without disabilities (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.16-1.32). Our results suggest that adults living with disabilities are an important subpopulation to include in hypertension reporting and intervention efforts.

  4. Serum Lipid Levels in Relation to Consumption of Yogurt: The 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Bong-Kyung; Kim, Nam-Eun; Park, Kyong-Min; Park, Kye-Yeung; Park, Hoon-Ki

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum lipid levels in Korean adults after consumption of different types of yogurt. Methods Study subjects were 3,038 individuals (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Yogurt intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire by using the 24-hour recall method. We conducted complex samples general linear analysis with adjustment for covariates. Results The serum triglyceride levels in the group consuming viscous yogurt were lower than those in the group consuming non-viscous yogurt. Conclusion Consumption of viscous yogurt is associated with low serum triglyceride levels in Korean adults. PMID:29026484

  5. The Association between Food Insecurity and Obesity in Children-The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasbir; Lamb, Molly M; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2015-05-01

    Food insecurity can put children at greater risk of obesity because of altered food choices and nonuniform consumption patterns. We examined the association between obesity and both child-level food insecurity and personal food insecurity in US children. Data from 9,701 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2010, aged 2 to 11 years were analyzed. Child-level food insecurity was assessed with the US Department of Agriculture's Food Security Survey Module based on eight child-specific questions. Personal food insecurity was assessed with five additional questions. Obesity was defined, using physical measurements, as body mass index (calculated as kg/m²) greater than or equal to the age- and sex-specific 95th percentile of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Logistic regressions adjusted for sex, race/ethnic group, poverty level, and survey year were conducted to describe associations between obesity and food insecurity. Obesity was significantly associated with personal food insecurity for children aged 6 to 11 years (odds ratio=1.81; 95% CI 1.33 to 2.48), but not in children aged 2 to 5 years (odds ratio=0.88; 95% CI 0.51 to 1.51). Child-level food insecurity was not associated with obesity among 2- to 5-year-olds or 6- to 11-year-olds. Personal food insecurity is associated with an increased risk of obesity only in children aged 6 to 11 years. Personal food-insecurity measures may give different results than aggregate food-insecurity measures in children. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Associations Between Periodontitis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: The 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Ho; Hwang, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sun-Hyun; Kim, Tae Ho

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether oral hygiene and self-care, particularly in periodontal health, are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the Korean population. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012 were used to assess the community periodontal index (CPI) of 5,878 participants (normal lung function: n = 5,181; obstructive spirometric pattern: n = 697) aged ≥40 years, who underwent spirometry. Participants with COPD brushed their teeth less frequently and used the following less frequently: 1) dental floss and/or interdental brush; 2) mouthwash; and 3) electric toothbrush (P periodontitis in patients with COPD (58.1%) was significantly higher than in those without COPD (34.0%, P periodontal severity. Periodontitis (CPI 3 and 4) was associated in males with COPD after adjustment for: 1) age; 2) income; 3) education; 4) smoking; 5) alcohol consumption; 6) exercise; 7) body mass index; 8) toothbrushing frequency; 9) diabetes mellitus; and 10) number of teeth (CPI 3: relative risk [RR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12 to 2.05; CPI 4: RR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.56). Findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that COPD in males may be associated with severe periodontitis and indicates the importance of promoting dental care in patients with COPD.

  7. Relationship between dietary quality, tinnitus and hearing level: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey, 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spankovich, Christopher; Bishop, Charles; Johnson, Mary Frances; Elkins, Alex; Su, Dan; Lobarinas, Edward; Le Prell, Colleen G

    2017-10-01

    To examine the relationship between the healthy eating index (HEI), a measure of dietary quality based on United States Department of Agriculture recommendations and report of tinnitus. This cross-sectional analysis was based on HEI data and report of tinnitus. Data for adults between 20 and 69 years of age were drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002. The NHANES is a programme of studies, to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States. Two thousand one hundred and seventy-six participants were included in the analytic sample. Of the sample, 21.1% reported tinnitus within the past year and 11.7% reported persistent tinnitus, defined as tinnitus experienced at least monthly or greater. Controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, diabetes, noise exposure and smoking status, we found that with healthier diet (poorer vs. better HEI) there was decreased odds of reported persistent tinnitus [odds ratio (OR); 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45-0.98; p = 0.03]. The current findings support a possible relationship between healthier diet quality and reported persistent tinnitus.

  8. Sitting Time and Obesity or Abdominal Obesity in Older South Koreans: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Minsung; Cho, Kyung-Hwan; Han, Kyung-Do; Choi, Mankyu; Kim, Yang-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    We examined relationships between sitting time and obesity or abdominal obesity according to sex and socioeconomic status in elderly people. We analyzed data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013, and 1565 participants were included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine relationships between sitting time and obesity or abdominal obesity according to sex and socioeconomic status. Sitting time was positively correlated with body mass index in men and women and waist circumference in men. When considering socioeconomic factors, men who sat for 5 hours or longer and fell within the lowest income were more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity relative to men who sat for 5 hours or shorter and earned higher incomes (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.80 [1.14-2.84] and 1.63 [1.02-2.61] respectively), and women who sat for 5 hours or longer and fell within the lowest educational level were more likely to have obesity relative to women who sat for 5 hours or less and were educated to a higher level (1.24 [1.01-1.85]). Strategies to reduce sedentary behavior would help to prevent obesity in older men who earn low incomes and women with lower levels of educational attainment.

  9. Association between Chronic Laryngitis and Particulate Matter Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Hoon Joo

    Full Text Available Chronic laryngitis (CL has been described as chronic inflammation of the larynx. CL have various causes such as long-term smoking, acid reflux, voice overuse, bronchitis, allergies, pneumonia, excessive exposure to toxic chemicals and complications from the flu or a chronic cold. However, the prevalence of CL and role of air pollution in the etiology is uncertain.The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between CL and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10 in South Korea using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES during 2008-2012.KNHANES is a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea (n = 21,116. A field survey team that included an otolaryngologist moved with a mobile examination unit and performed interviews and physical examinations. The mean annual concentrations of ambient PM10, SO2, O3, NO2, and CO levels in Korea were determined from monitoring station data. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the relationship of air pollution to CL.Among the population ≥ 19 years of age, the weighted prevalence of CL was 3.37 ± 0.30% (95% confidence interval, 2.79-3.95%. CL was more prevalent in men, current smokers, and those with lower household income and prevalence increased with age. A significant decrease over time was observed in the prevalence of CL (P for trend = 0.0049 and the annual average concentrations of PM10 (P for trend < 0.0001 from 2008 to 2012. In a multivariate model, the factors associated with CL included PM10 (odds ratio [OR], 1.378, p = 0.0457, age (OR, 1.020, p<0.0001, sex (OR, 0.734, p = 0.0179, and smoking status (OR, 1.438, p = 0.0054.Elevated PM10 exposures could be associated with increased risk of CL in South Koreans. Further epidemiological and experimental studies are necessary to clarify the impact of chronic PM10 exposure on CL.

  10. Primer on Health Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Nordstrom

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce novice researchers to surveys as a method of data collection. It starts with the definition of a survey, its major purposes and types as well as changes in the goals surveys have helped to achieve over time. Advantages and disadvantages of surveys over population censuses and medical examinations are discussed. Approaches to questionnaire construction are introduced along with properties that questionnaires are evaluated for. Modes of administration, sample size issues, and data analysis approaches are also introduced. The primer is illustrated with examples of surveys conducted in different countries with various public health purposes.

  11. Web based health surveys: Using a Two Step Heckman model to examine their potential for population health analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Karyn; Kinderman, Peter; Pontin, Eleanor; Tai, Sara; Schwannauer, Mathias

    2016-08-01

    In June 2011 the BBC Lab UK carried out a web-based survey on the causes of mental distress. The 'Stress Test' was launched on 'All in the Mind' a BBC Radio 4 programme and the test's URL was publicised on radio and TV broadcasts, and made available via BBC web pages and social media. Given the large amount of data created, over 32,800 participants, with corresponding diagnosis, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics; the dataset are potentially an important source of data for population based research on depression and anxiety. However, as respondents self-selected to participate in the online survey, the survey may comprise a non-random sample. It may be only individuals that listen to BBC Radio 4 and/or use their website that participated in the survey. In this instance using the Stress Test data for wider population based research may create sample selection bias. Focusing on the depression component of the Stress Test, this paper presents an easy-to-use method, the Two Step Probit Selection Model, to detect and statistically correct selection bias in the Stress Test. Using a Two Step Probit Selection Model; this paper did not find a statistically significant selection on unobserved factors for participants of the Stress Test. That is, survey participants who accessed and completed an online survey are not systematically different from non-participants on the variables of substantive interest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Volatile Organic Compounds and Pulmonary Function in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994

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    Elliott, Leslie; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Kissling, Grace E.; London, Stephanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Background Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are present in much higher concentrations indoors, where people spend most of their time, than outdoors and may have adverse health effects. VOCs have been associated with respiratory symptoms, but few studies address objective respiratory end points such as pulmonary function. Blood levels of VOCs may be more indicative of personal exposures than are air concentrations; no studies have addressed their relationship with respiratory outcomes. Objective We examined whether concentrations of 11 VOCs that were commonly identified in blood from a sample of the U.S. population were associated with pulmonary function. Methods We used data from 953 adult participants (20–59 years of age) in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994) who had VOC blood measures as well as pulmonary function measures. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between 11 VOCs and measures of pulmonary function. Results After adjustment for smoking, only 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) was associated with reduced pulmonary function. Participants in the highest decile of 1,4-DCB concentration had decrements of −153 mL [95% confidence interval (CI), −297 to −8] in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and −346 mL/sec (95% CI, −667 to −24) in maximum mid-expiratory flow rate, compared with participants in the lowest decile. Conclusions Exposure to 1,4-DCB, a VOC related to the use of air fresheners, toilet bowl deodorants, and mothballs, at levels found in the U.S. general population, may result in reduced pulmonary function. This common exposure may have long-term adverse effects on respiratory health. PMID:16882527

  13. Volatile organic compounds and pulmonary function in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Leslie; Longnecker, Matthew P; Kissling, Grace E; London, Stephanie J

    2006-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are present in much higher concentrations indoors, where people spend most of their time, than outdoors and may have adverse health effects. VOCs have been associated with respiratory symptoms, but few studies address objective respiratory end points such as pulmonary function. Blood levels of VOCs may be more indicative of personal exposures than are air concentrations; no studies have addressed their relationship with respiratory outcomes. We examined whether concentrations of 11 VOCs that were commonly identified in blood from a sample of the U.S. population were associated with pulmonary function. We used data from 953 adult participants (20-59 years of age) in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) who had VOC blood measures as well as pulmonary function measures. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between 11 VOCs and measures of pulmonary function. After adjustment for smoking, only 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) was associated with reduced pulmonary function. Participants in the highest decile of 1,4-DCB concentration had decrements of -153 mL [95% confidence interval (CI) , -297 to -8] in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and -346 mL/sec (95% CI, -667 to -24) in maximum mid-expiratory flow rate, compared with participants in the lowest decile. Exposure to 1,4-DCB, a VOC related to the use of air fresheners, toilet bowl deodorants, and mothballs, at levels found in the U.S. general population, may result in reduced pulmonary function. This common exposure may have long-term adverse effects on respiratory health.

  14. Association between dental pain and depression in Korean adults using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Yang, S E; Park, Y G; Han, K; Min, J A; Kim, S Y

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the prevalence of depression and dental pain using a well characterised, nationally representative, population-based study. This study analysed data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 4886). Oral health status was assessed using the oral health questionnaire, and oral examination was performed by trained dentists. Depression was defined as the participant having been diagnosed as depression during the previous year. Logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for a range of covariates. Results demonstrated that participants included in 'root canal treatment is necessary' showed higher prevalence of self-reported dental pain; in particular, participants with depression presented more dental pain than those without depression. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-reported dental pain increased in participants with depression. The AOR (95% CI) for having self-reported dental pain was 1·58 (1·08-2·33) in dentists' diagnosis of no dental pain/depression group, 1·62 (1·32-1·98) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/no depression group and 2·84 (1·10-7·37) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/depression group. It was concluded that depression was associated with dental pain after adjustment for potential confounders in Korean adults. Thus, dentists should consider the possible presence of psychopathology when treating patients with dental pain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Diet and food insufficiency among Hispanic youths: acculturation and socioeconomic factors in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Mazur, Robert E; Marquis, Grace S; Jensen, Helen H

    2003-12-01

    Low socioeconomic status is associated with poor diet, food insufficiency, and poor child health. Hispanic households have disproportionately low incomes. Acculturation-related changes may augment the effects of poverty on children's diet and health. The goal was to determine the associations that acculturation, measured by parents' language use, and income have with dietary intakes and food insufficiency among Hispanic youths. Data on 2985 Hispanic youths aged 4-16 y were from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Nutrient intake data were from one 24-h dietary recall. The analysis was controlled for demographic, socioeconomic, and program variables. Parents' exclusive use of Spanish was associated in bivariate analyses with differences in intakes of energy, protein, sodium, and folate and in percentages of energy from fat and saturated fat. When other factors were controlled for, less acculturation was associated with differences in intakes of energy and sodium and in percentages of energy from fat and saturated fat. Individuals in poorer households had higher intakes of energy, protein, sodium, and some micronutrients. Although not significant for all indicators of food insufficiency, consistent patterns showed that household food insufficiency decreased with less acculturation (odds ratio: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.7 for adult meal size reduced) and increased with low income [odds ratio: 5.9 (3.0, 11.7) for not enough food and 5.4 (2.2, 13.4) for child meal size reduced]. Both acculturation and poverty have roles in children's diets and in household food insufficiency. Culturally specific public health and nutrition education should complement efforts to improve the financial security of low-income households.

  16. Family Consumer Behaviors, Adolescent Prediabetes and Diabetes in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2010).

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    Nagarajan, Sairaman; Khokhar, Aditi; Holmes, Danielle Sweetnam; Chandwani, Sheenu

    2017-01-01

    Prediabetes or diabetes (characterized by hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] levels ≥ 5.7 gm%) has been associated with numerous long-term complications. Family consumer behaviors are important risk factors that lead to impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. However, few studies have studied the association between the family consumer environment and prediabetes and diabetes in adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the association between family consumer behaviors (healthy food availability and supermarket spending) and adolescent prediabetes and diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier #NCT03136289.) Methods: Data from a nationwide survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES] 2007-2010 data) were used for these analyses. Adolescents aged 12-19 years were selected for this study. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression models assessed the relationship between family consumer behaviors and the prevalence of adolescent prediabetes and diabetes. Multivariable models adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, physical activity, education, income, and household size. A total of 2520 adolescents were eligible for this study. Adolescents with healthier household food availability had negative odds (odds ratio [OR] = 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-1.00), as did higher log supermarket spending (OR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85). Interaction models demonstrated that adolescent females had more negative odds of prediabetes/diabetes for both healthier food availability (OR = 0.79, 95% CI, 0.39-1.29) and for greater log supermarket spending (OR = 0.69, 95% CI, 0.57-0.85). This study shows that both healthy food availability and an increase in supermarket spending were associated with a decreased adjusted prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes in adolescents, with a greater effect in females. These results suggest the need for policy and dietary interventions targeting the consumer

  17. The Prevalence of "Drinking and Biking" and Associated Risk Factors: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Hwang, Se Hwan; Ahn, Ma Rhip; Han, Kyung Do; Lee, Jung Ho

    2017-09-01

    With the steady rise of health and environmental awareness, the number of bicyclists is increasing. However, there are few epidemiologic studies on bicycling under the influence (BUI). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of BUI and the associated risk factors in a representative Korean population. The data of 4,833 adult bicyclists who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012) were analyzed. Among the 4,833 participants investigated in this study, 586 (12.1%) had experienced BUI. As participants' age increased, so did the prevalence of BUI (P < 0.001), with the participants who were aged 60-69 showing the highest prevalence of BUI (19.6%). With regard to BUI and drinking habits, the likelihood of being a heavy or high-risk drinker increased with the frequency of BUI (P < 0.001). In addition, there was a positive relationship between the frequency of BUI and alcohol use disorder identification score level. Finally, those who had previous experiences of BUI were significantly more likely to drive and ride motorcycles under the influence (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the prevalence of BUI was 12.1% and several associated risk factors for BUI were elucidated in this study. The development of specific preventive strategies and educational programs aimed at deterring individuals at a high risk of engaging in BUI is expected to reduce the number of alcohol-related bicycle injuries. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  18. Prevalence of Diabetes and Relationship with Socioeconomic Status in the Thai Population: National Health Examination Survey, 2004–2014

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    Wichai Aekplakorn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence and trend of diabetes, related glycemic control, and influential socioeconomic (SES factors in the Thai population aged ≥20 years during 2004–2014. Methods. Data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey 2004, 2009, and 2014 were used. Age-adjusted prevalence was calculated, and the associations of education levels with prevalence of diabetes and glycemic control were examined using logistic regression. Results. Age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes increased from 7.7% in 2004 to 7.8% in 2009 and 9.9% in 2014 (8.9% among men and 10.8% among women. Proportions of undiagnosed diabetes were slightly decreased but remained high in 2014 (51.2% for men and 41.3% for women. Diabetes prevalence was higher among those with primary education in both sexes; however, undiagnosed diabetes was higher among women with secondary and university educations. The percentages of those treated and controlled slightly improved among men (45.9% but not among women (36.4%. Unmet glycemic control was also higher among women with secondary education levels and among men with university-level educations. Conclusions. Epidemic diabetes continues to grow in the Thai population, particularly in individuals with lower educational attainment. Measures to detect new cases and strengthen glycemic control should be scaled up.

  19. Diabetes, Triglyceride Levels, and Other Risk Factors for Glaucoma in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Fang; Boland, Michael V; Gupta, Priya; Gadkaree, Shekhar K; Vitale, Susan; Guallar, Eliseo; Zhao, Di; Friedman, David S

    2016-04-01

    To determine risk factors for glaucoma in a population-based study in the United States. Participants age 40 and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey underwent questionnaires, physical examination, laboratory tests, and vision tests including fundus imaging. Glaucoma was determined based on expert grading of fundus photographs. Regression modeling of glaucoma risk factors was performed. Participants with glaucoma (172) were older (mean age 68.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 65.6-70.7] vs. 56.4 years [95% CI 55.6-57.2, P glucose, insulin dependence, body mass index, cholesterol levels, diastolic hypertension, systolic hypotension, obstructive sleep apnea, and marijuana were not associated with glaucoma. Multivariable modeling showed associations between glaucoma and older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.09 per year, 95% CI 1.04-1.14), black race (OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.71-11.30), and poverty (OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.73-6.66). Diabetes was no longer associated with glaucoma after adjustment for triglyceride levels. Sex, education, insurance status, body mass index, blood pressure, obstructive sleep apnea, and smoking were not associated with glaucoma. People who are older, of black race, and with lower income levels have a higher prevalence of glaucoma. A novel association between diabetes, triglyceride levels, and glaucoma is also identified.

  20. Association of vegetables and fruits consumption with sarcopenia in older adults: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Yunhwan; Kye, Seunghee; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2015-01-01

    several studies have found nutrients, including antioxidants, to be associated with sarcopenia. However, whether specific foods, such as vegetables and fruits, are associated with sarcopenia has not been studied. to examine the association of the frequency of vegetables and fruits consumption with sarcopenia in older people. this study used cross-sectional data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008-09. Subjects were community-dwelling 823 men and 1,089 women aged ≥65 years. Frequency of food group consumption was obtained by using the food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and sarcopenia was defined as appendicular lean mass adjusted for height and fat mass. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of the frequency of food group consumption with sarcopenia, controlling for sociodemographics and health-related variables. dietary intake of vegetables, fruits and both vegetables and fruits was associated with a significantly reduced risk of sarcopenia after controlling for covariates in men (P = 0.026 for trend, P = 0.012 for trend, P = 0.003 for trend, respectively). Men in the highest quintile, compared with those in the lowest quintile, of vegetables [odds ratio (OR) = 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24-0.95], fruits (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13-0.70) and vegetables and fruits consumption (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.16-0.67) demonstrated a lower risk of sarcopenia. In women, high consumption of fruits demonstrated a lower risk of sarcopenia (OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18-0.83). frequent vegetables and fruits consumption was inversely associated with sarcopenia in older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Sarcopenia and Hearing Loss in Older Koreans: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2010.

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    Jieun Lee

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI is becoming a more significant issue as geriatric population increases. Sarcopenia in older people is known to have a diverse health problem in various circumstances in recent studies. We assessed whether the decrease in muscle mass is related to ARHI. We used the 2010 data of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES to examine the associations between sarcopenia and ARHI. A total number of participants was 1,622 including 746 males and 876 females aged 60 years or older. Muscle mass was assessed as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass, and hearing loss was defined as the pure-tone averages (PTA of test frequencies 0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz at a threshold of 40 dB or higher in worse hearing side of the ear. Among 1,622 participants, 298 men and 256 women had hearing loss. Appendicular muscle mass (ASM, expressed as kg, was categorized in tertiles. In female population, after adjusting for age, smoking, drinking, amount of exercise, total body fat, education level, income level, and tinnitus, the odds ratio (OR for hearing loss was 1.57 (95% confidence interval (CI = 0.92-2.68 in the middle tertile and 1.79 (1.03-3.08 in the lowest tertile, compared with the highest tertile. P for trend in this model was 0.036. Controlling further for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and three types of noise exposure did not change the association. Larger muscle mass is associated with lower prevalence of hearing loss in elderly Korean females.

  2. A Sustained Decline in Postmenopausal Hormone Use: Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Brian L.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Cronin, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Short-term declines in postmenopausal hormone use were observed following the Women’s Health Initiative trial results in 2002. While concerns about the trial’s generalizability have been expressed, long-term trends in hormone use in a nationally representative sample have not been reported. We sought to evaluate national trends in the prevalence of hormone use, and assess variation by type of formulation and patient characteristics. Methods We examined postmenopausal hormone use during 1999–2010 using cross-sectional data on 10,107 women aged 40 years and older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results In 1999–2000, the prevalence of oral postmenopausal hormone use was 22.4% (95% CI: 19.0, 25.8) overall, 16.8% (95% CI: 14.2, 19.3) for estrogen only, and 5.2% (95% CI: 3.6, 6.8) for estrogen plus progestin. A sharp decline in use of all formulations occurred in 2003–2004, when the overall prevalence dropped to 11.9% (95% CI: 9.6, 14.2). This decline was initially limited to non-Hispanic whites; use among non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics did not decline substantially until 2005–2006. Hormone use continued to decline through 2009–2010 across all patient demographic groups, with the current prevalence now at 4.7% (95% CI: 3.3, 6.1) overall, 2.9% (95% CI: 2.1, 3.7) for estrogen only, and 1.5% (95% CI: 0.5, 2.5) for estrogen plus progestin. Patient characteristics currently associated with hormone use include history of hysterectomy, non-Hispanic white race or ethnicity, and income. Conclusions Postmenopausal hormone use in the United States has declined in a sustained fashion to very low levels across a wide variety of patient subgroups. PMID:22914469

  3. Applying the ACSM Preparticipation Screening Algorithm to U.S. Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2004.

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    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Riebe, Deborah; Magal, Meir; Liguori, Gary

    2017-10-01

    For most people, the benefits of physical activity far outweigh the risks. Research has suggested that exercise preparticipation questionnaires might refer an unwarranted number of adults for medical evaluation before exercise initiation, creating a potential barrier to adoption. The new American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) prescreening algorithm relies on current exercise participation; history and symptoms of cardiovascular, metabolic, or renal disease; and desired exercise intensity to determine referral status. Our purpose was to compare the referral proportion of the ACSM algorithm to that of previous screening tools using a representative sample of U.S. adults. On the basis of responses to health questionnaires from the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we calculated the proportion of adults 40 yr or older who would be referred for medical clearance before exercise participation based on the ACSM algorithm. Results were stratified by age and sex and compared with previous results for the ACSM/American Heart Association Preparticipation Questionnaire and the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire. On the basis of the ACSM algorithm, 2.6% of adults would be referred only before beginning vigorous exercise and 54.2% of respondents would be referred before beginning any exercise. Men were more frequently referred before vigorous exercise, and women were more frequently referred before any exercise. Referral was more common with increasing age. The ACSM algorithm referred a smaller proportion of adults for preparticipation medical clearance than the previously examined questionnaires. Although additional validation is needed to determine whether the algorithm correctly identifies those at risk for cardiovascular complications, the revised ACSM algorithm referred fewer respondents than other screening tools. A lower referral proportion may mitigate an important barrier of medical clearance from exercise participation.

  4. Total physical activity volume, physical activity intensity, and metabolic syndrome: 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Churilla, James R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the association of total physical activity volume (TPAV) and physical activity (PA) from three domains [leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), domestic, transportation] with metabolic syndrome. We also investigated the relationship between LTPA intensity and metabolic syndrome risk. Sample included adults who participated in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Physical activity measures were created for TPAV, LTPA, domestic PA, and transportational PA. For each, a six-level measure based upon no PA (level 1) and quintiles (levels 2-6) of metabolic equivalents (MET)·min·wk(-1) was created. A three-level variable associated with the current Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) PA recommendation was also created. SAS and SUDAAN were used for the statistical analysis. Adults reporting the greatest volume of TPAV and LTPA were found to be 36% [odds ratio (OR) 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.83] and 42% (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.43-0.77), respectively, less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Domestic and transportational PA provided no specific level of protection from metabolic syndrome. Those reporting a TPAV that met the DHHS PA recommendation were found to be 33% (OR 0.67; 95%; CI 0.55-0.83) less likely to have metabolic syndrome compared to their sedentary counterparts. Adults reporting engaging in only vigorous-intensity LTPA were found to be 37% (OR 0.63; 95 CI 0.42-0.96) to 56% (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.29-0.67) less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Volume, intensity, and domain of PA may all play important roles in reducing the prevalence and risk of metabolic syndrome.

  5. Depression among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiting; Lopez, Janice M S; Bolge, Susan C; Zhu, Vivienne J; Stang, Paul E

    2016-04-05

    Depression in people with diabetes can result in increased risk for diabetes-related complications. The prevalence of depression has been estimated to be 17.6 % in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), based on studies published between 1980 and 2005. There is a lack of more recent estimates of depression prevalence among the US general T2DM population. The present study used the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2012 data to provide an updated, population-based estimate for the prevalence of depression in people with T2DM. NHANES is a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Starting from 2005, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was included to measure signs and symptoms of depression. We defined PHQ-9 total scores ≥ 10 as clinically relevant depression (CRD), and ≥ 15 as clinically significant depression (CSD). Self-reported current antidepressant use was also combined to estimate overall burden of depression. Predictors of CRD and CSD were investigated using survey logistic regression models. A total of 2182 participants with T2DM were identified. The overall prevalence of CRD and CSD among people with T2DM is 10.6 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 8.9-12.2 %), and 4.2 % (95 % CI 3.4-5.1 %), respectively. The combined burden of depressive symptoms and antidepressants may be as high as 25.4 % (95 % CI 23.0-27.9 %). Significant predictors of CRD include age (younger than 65), sex (women), income (lower than 130 % of poverty level), education (below college), smoking (current or former smoker), body mass index (≥30 kg/m(2)), sleep problems, hospitalization in the past year, and total cholesterol (≥200 mg/dl). Significant predictors of CSD also include physical activity (below guideline) and cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of CRD and CSD among people with T2DM in the US may be lower than in earlier studies, however, the burden of

  6. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung Min; Han, Kyungdo; Chung, Youn Jee; Yoon, Kun Ho; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2017-06-01

    Menstrual irregularity is an indicator of endocrine disorders and reproductive health status. It is associated with various diseases and medical conditions, including obesity and underweight. We aimed to assess the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity in Korean women. A total of 4,621 women 19 to 54 years of age who participated in the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect medical information assessing menstrual health status and body weight changes. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to evaluate the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity. Significantly higher ORs (95% CI) were observed in the association between menstrual irregularity and both weight loss (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.48) and weight gain (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86) after adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, calorie intake, education, income, metabolic syndrome, age of menarche, parity, and stress perception. Of note, significant associations were only observed in subjects with obesity and abdominal obesity, but not in non-obese or non-abdominally obese subjects. U-shaped patterns were demonstrated in both obese and abdominally obese subjects, indicating that greater changes in body weight are associated with higher odds of menstrual irregularity. We found a U-shaped pattern of association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity among obese women in the general Korean population. This result indicates that not only proper weight management but also changes in body weight may influence the regulation of the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  7. Poor Adherence to US Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Emilyn C; Liu, Yan; Davis, Jennifer S; Chang, Shine; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C

    2016-01-01

    Poor diet quality in childhood and adolescence is associated with adverse health outcomes throughout life, yet the dietary habits of American children and how they change across childhood and adolescence are unknown. This study sought to describe diet quality among children and adolescents by assessing adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) and to determine whether any differences in adherence occurred across childhood. We employed a cross-sectional design using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Of 9,280 children aged 4 to 18 years who participated in NHANES from 2005 to 2010, those with insufficient data on dietary recall (n=852) or who were pregnant or lactating during the time of interview (n=38) were excluded from the final study sample (n=8,390). We measured adherence to the DGA using the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) and stratified participants into three age groups (4 to 8, 9 to 13, and 14 to 18 years of age). We analyzed each of 12 HEI-2010 components and total HEI-2010 score. The youngest children had the highest overall diet quality due to significantly greater scores for total fruit, whole fruit, dairy, and whole grains. These children also had the highest scores for sodium, refined grains, and empty calories. Total HEI-2010 scores ranged from 43.59 to 52.11 out of 100, much lower than the minimum score of 80 that is thought to indicate a diet associated with good health. Overall, children and adolescents are failing to meet the DGA and may be at an increased risk of chronic diseases throughout life. By analyzing which food groups show differences between age groups, we provide data that can inform the development of dietary interventions to promote specific food groups targeting specific ages and improve diet quality among children and adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012

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    Kyung Min Ko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMenstrual irregularity is an indicator of endocrine disorders and reproductive health status. It is associated with various diseases and medical conditions, including obesity and underweight. We aimed to assess the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity in Korean women.MethodsA total of 4,621 women 19 to 54 years of age who participated in the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect medical information assessing menstrual health status and body weight changes. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated to evaluate the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity.ResultsSignificantly higher ORs (95% CI were observed in the association between menstrual irregularity and both weight loss (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.48 and weight gain (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86 after adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, calorie intake, education, income, metabolic syndrome, age of menarche, parity, and stress perception. Of note, significant associations were only observed in subjects with obesity and abdominal obesity, but not in non-obese or non-abdominally obese subjects. U-shaped patterns were demonstrated in both obese and abdominally obese subjects, indicating that greater changes in body weight are associated with higher odds of menstrual irregularity.ConclusionWe found a U-shaped pattern of association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity among obese women in the general Korean population. This result indicates that not only proper weight management but also changes in body weight may influence the regulation of the menstrual cycle.

  9. Association between Sarcopenia and Dipstick Proteinuria in the Elderly Population: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2009–2011

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    Hwang, Duna; Cho, Mi-Ryung; Choi, Minyong; Lee, Sang Hyun; Park, Youngmin

    2017-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia and proteinuria are significant health difficulties in the elderly; however, few studies have investigated their relationship. In this study, we investigated the association between sarcopenia and proteinuria in Korean subjects over 60 years old. Methods We included data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey conducted from 2009 to 2011 (n=4,008). Sarcopenia was defined using appendicular skel...

  10. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, (3)

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    Taketomi, Y; Abe, T; Kamada, N; Kuramoto, A; Takahashi, H [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1978-04-01

    The actual condition of polycythemia in atomic bomb survivors was evaluated laying stress on the results of general clinical examinations in Hiroshima A-bomb Survivors Health Control Clinic in 1973. Of 40,410 subjects examined in 1973 (male 15,390; female 25,020), 218 males and 220 females, 438 in total, excluding the patients with cardiopulmonary diseases, satisfied the criteria for polycythemia that males show higher values over 17.1 g/dl of Hb and 51.5% of Ht and females over 15.2 g/dl of Hb and 46.0% of Ht. The incidence of this disease was higher in younger males but it increased with age in females. However, there was no correlationship between the incidence of this disease and the distance from the epicenter. Further, 10 males and 8 females, 18 in total, of these patients satisfied the Komiya's criteria for polycythemia (RBC 6,000,000, Ht 50% in males, and RBC 5,500,000, Ht>50% in females) in 1973 or before, and one of them was diagnosed as polycythemia vera by the present examination (1977). This survey was made on 40,410 subjects, one of which was diagnosed as polycythemia vera. Because of a lower incidence of polycythemia than that of leukemia, it was difficult to give an accurate diagnosis and it was also hard to evaluate the incidence of this disease in atomic bomb survivors comparing with that in healthy people. It is therefore required to pile up the data year after year. In various blood diseases such as chronic myelogenic leukemia and acute leukemia, the foregoing state of myeloid proliferation was sometimes observed preceding the onset of these blood diseases. Therefore, the 18 cases at least which satisfied the Komiya's criteria should be followed up carefully.

  11. Obesity as a Potential Risk Factor for Blepharoptosis: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sun Paik

    Full Text Available To examine obesity parameters as potential risk factors associated with blepharoptosis in a representative Korean population.We analyzed the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, conducted between 2008 and 2010. 10,285 Korean adults (4,441 men and 5,844 women aged 40 years or older was enrolled. We compared body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and percentage body fat (BF, according to the severity of blepharoptosis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations of each obesity parameter with blepharoptosis.The overall prevalence of age-related blepharoptosis was 14.8 % in South Korea. There were significant and graded associations between increasing blepharoptosis severity and the mean value of obesity parameters (P for trend < 0.05. As marginal reflex distance 1 (MRD1 decreased, the prevalence of general obesity and overweight status increased (P for trend=0.121 in men and < 0.001 in women; the prevalence of abdominal obesity increased (P for trend < 0.001 for both genders; the prevalence of highest quartile of percentage BF increased (P for trend ≤0.001 for both genders. Blepharoptosis was significantly associated with general obesity in women (adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 2.14; 95% confidence intervals (CI, 1.32-3.47; and with the highest quartile of percentage BF in men (aOR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.34-2.97 and in women (aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.06-2.3317, after adjusting for age, smoking exercise, drinking alcohol, total energy intake, fat intake, total cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes, hypertension, and family history of eye disease.The etiology of age-related blepharoptosis may be multifactorial and is unclear. Our results suggest that obesity parameters such as BMI, WC and percentage BF might be potential risk factors for age-related blepharoptosis in a representative Korean population.

  12. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomi, Yoshinori; Abe, Tsutomu; Kamada, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    The actual condition of polycythemia in atomic bomb survivors was evaluated laying stress on the results of general clinical examinations in Hiroshima A-bomb Survivors Health Control Clinic in 1973. Of 40,410 subjects examined in 1973 (male 15,390; female 25,020), 218 males and 220 females, 438 in total, excluding the patients with cardiopulmonary diseases, satisfied the criteria for polycythemia that males show higher values over 17.1 g/dl of Hb and 51.5% of Ht and females over 15.2 g/dl of Hb and 46.0% of Ht. The incidence of this disease was higher in younger males but it increased with age in females. However, there was no correlationship between the incidence of this disease and the distance from the epicenter. Further, 10 males and 8 females, 18 in total, of these patients satisfied the Komiya's criteria for polycythemia (RBC 6,000,000, Ht 50% in males, and RBC 5,500,000, Ht>50% in females) in 1973 or before, and one of them was diagnosed as polycythemia vera by the present examination (1977). This survey was made on 40,410 subjects, one of which was diagnosed as polycythemia vera. Because of a lower incidence of polycythemia than that of leukemia, it was difficult to give an accurate diagnosis and it was also hard to evaluate the incidence of this disease in atomic bomb survivors comparing with that in healthy people. It is therefore required to pile up the data year after year. In various blood diseases such as chronic myelogenic leukemia and acute leukemia, the foregoing state of myeloid proliferation was sometimes observed preceding the onset of these blood diseases. Therefore, the 18 cases at least which satisfied the Komiya's criteria should be followed up carefully. (Ueda, J.)

  13. Ethnic differences in the nutrient intake adequacy of premenopausal US women: results from the Third National Health Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Lenore; Carriquiry, Alicia; Steck-Scott, Susan; Gaudet, Mia M

    2003-08-01

    To examine the adequacy of dietary intake of calcium; folate; and vitamins C, D, E, B-6, and B-12 in premenopausal US women of differing ethnicity. Analyses of single and duplicate 24-hour recalls were conducted to determine dietary intake during the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Three thousand five hundred eighty-five randomly selected women aged 20 to 50 years from across the United States who were not pregnant or lactating were examined between 1988 and 1994. Usual nutrient intake distributions were estimated using the Iowa State University method for adjustment of the distribution. The Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method was used to determine the proportion of women with inadequate intake for each nutrient in each ethnic group. More than 75% of women irrespective of ethnic group had usual intakes of calcium lower than the new Adequate Intake. More than 90% of the women had inadequate intakes of folate and vitamin E from food sources alone. More than half of smokers had inadequate intakes of vitamin C. Intakes of vitamins B-6 and B-12 were low in less than 10% of these women. This article provides evidence that a high proportion of premenopausal US women are underconsuming a variety of nutrients. Dietary intakes alone are not currently adequate to meet the new recommended intakes. Nutritional supplement use is widespread and effective, but does not eliminate the concerns for at-risk populations. Awareness of the general inadequacies in intakes of vitamin E and folic acid at large, and in many women vitamin C as well, can help direct individual dietary recommendations and place the emphasis in group counseling on nutrients that are of widespread concern. In addition, foods rich in vitamins B-6 and of general nutritional benefit should be emphasized among African American women in the United States as a substantial proportion of this group is still showing inadequate intakes from foods.

  14. Relationship between socioeconomic status and type 2 diabetes: results from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jongnam; Shon, Changwoo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and type 2 diabetes using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010–2012. Design A pooled sample cross-sectional study. Setting A nationally representative population survey data. Participants A total of 14 330 individuals who participated in the KNHANES 2010–2012 were included in our analysis. Primary outcome Prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Results The relationship between SES and type 2 d...

  15. Serum phosphorus and mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III): effect modification by fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex R; Grams, Morgan E

    2014-10-01

    Serum phosphorus levels have been associated with mortality in some but not all studies. Because dietary intake prior to measurement can affect serum phosphorus levels, we hypothesized that the association between serum phosphorus level and mortality is strongest in those who have fasted longer. Prospective cohort study. Nationally representative sample of 12,984 participants 20 years or older in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Serum phosphorus level, fasting duration (dichotomized as ≥ 12 or fasting duration recorded as time since food or drink other than water was consumed. Individuals fasting 12 or more hours had lower serum phosphorus levels than those fasting less than 12 hours (3.34 vs 3.55 mg/dL; P fasting 12 or more hours (adjusted HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.38-2.20; reference, lowest quartile) but not in participants fasting less than 12 hours (adjusted HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.89-1.32; P for interaction = 0.002). Relationships were consistent using 8 hours as the fasting cutoff point or cardiovascular mortality as the outcome. Observational study, lack of fibroblast growth factor 23 or intact parathyroid hormone measurements. Fasting but not nonfasting serum phosphorus levels were associated with increased mortality. Risk prognostication based on serum phosphorus may be improved using fasting levels. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Type 2 diabetes mellitus unawareness, prevalence, trends and risk factors: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nana; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Bin; Huang, Tianyi; Ji, Qiuhe

    2017-04-01

    Objectives To determine whether the associations with key risk factors in patients with diagnosed and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are different using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010. Methods The study analysed the prevalence and association with risk factors of undiagnosed and diagnosed T2DM using a regression model and a multinomial logistic regression model. Data from the NHANES 1999-2010 were used for the analyses. Results The study analysed data from 10 570 individuals. The overall prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed T2DM increased significantly from 1999 to 2010. The prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM was significantly higher in non-Hispanic whites, in individuals 130-159 mg/dl) or very high (≥220 mg/dl) non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with diagnosed T2DM. Body mass index, low economic status or low educational level had no effect on T2DM diagnosis rates. Though diagnosed T2DM was associated with favourable diet/carbohydrate intake behavioural changes, it had no effect on physical activity levels. Conclusion The overall T2DM prevalence increased between 1999 and 2010, particularly for undiagnosed T2DM in patients that were formerly classified as low risk.

  17. Systemic Comorbidities of Dry Eye Syndrome: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V, 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hyun Cheol; Lee, Jimmy K; Kim, Martha; Oh, Jong-Hyun; Chang, Min-Wook; Chuck, Roy S; Park, Choul Yong

    2016-02-01

    To identify systemic comorbidities in patients with dry eye syndrome in South Korea. From 2010 to 2012, 17,364 participants aged 20 or older were randomly included in the nationwide Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V. The prevalence of dry eye syndrome and demographics of these patients were investigated. We performed conditional logistic regression analyses based on age, sex, residential area, education level, occupation type, and household income level to obtain the odds ratio for each systemic comorbidity among subjects with and without dry eye syndrome. The prevalence of dry eye syndrome in this study was 10.4%. Age [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.02], female gender (AOR: 3.01), and indoor occupation (AOR: 1.30) were associated with a higher prevalence of dry eye syndrome and found to be less prevalent in those residing in rural areas (AOR: 0.73) and with lower education levels (AOR: 0.66-0.99). With regard to systemic comorbidities, dyslipidemia (AOR: 1.63), degenerative arthritis (AOR: 1.56), rheumatoid arthritis (AOR: 1.44), thyroid disease (AOR: 1.79), and renal failure (AOR: 2.56) were associated with a significantly higher prevalence of dry eye syndrome. We found that patients with dry eye syndrome have a higher prevalence of several systemic comorbidities. A more comprehensive therapeutic approach considering the effect of systemic medication may be necessary in these patients.

  18. Type 2 diabetes mellitus unawareness, prevalence, trends and risk factors: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nana; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Bin; Huang, Tianyi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the associations with key risk factors in patients with diagnosed and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are different using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010. Methods The study analysed the prevalence and association with risk factors of undiagnosed and diagnosed T2DM using a regression model and a multinomial logistic regression model. Data from the NHANES 1999–2010 were used for the analyses. Results The study analysed data from 10 570 individuals. The overall prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed T2DM increased significantly from 1999 to 2010. The prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM was significantly higher in non-Hispanic whites, in individuals educational level had no effect on T2DM diagnosis rates. Though diagnosed T2DM was associated with favourable diet/carbohydrate intake behavioural changes, it had no effect on physical activity levels. Conclusion The overall T2DM prevalence increased between 1999 and 2010, particularly for undiagnosed T2DM in patients that were formerly classified as low risk. PMID:28415936

  19. The Association of Metabolic Syndrome with Diabetic Retinopathy: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Kyong Kim

    Full Text Available To explore gender differences and associations between metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components, and diabetic retinopathy (DR in Korean adults aged 40 years and older with diabetes.We analyzed data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2012. In total, 2,576 type 2 diabetic participants, aged 40 and older, were evaluated. Seven standard retinal fundus photographs were obtained after pupil dilation in both eyes. DR was graded using the modified Airlie House classification system. Vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR included proliferative diabetic retinopathy and clinically significant macular edema. MetS was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement, proposed in 2009, by the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between MetS and its individual components with DR and VTDR.After controlling for confounders, MetS was not associated with DR in men or women. Moreover, the risk for DR or VTDR did not increase with increasing MetS components. However, high waist circumference was significantly inversely associated with VTDR (adjusted odds ratio = 0.36; 95% confidence interval = 0.14-0.93 only in men.MetS was not associated with DR or VTDR in a Korean diabetic population. However, among MetS components, it seems that abdominal obesity was inversely associated with VTDR in Korean diabetic men.

  20. Association Between Chewing Difficulty and Symptoms of Depression in Adults: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hye-Sun; Ahn, Yong-Soon; Lim, Do-Seon

    2016-12-01

    To assess the association between chewing difficulty and symptoms of depression in a representative sample of the Korean population. Cross-sectional. Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). KNHANES participants (N = 5,158). Chewing difficulty was assessed according to the self-reported presence of chewing problems using a structured questionnaire. Symptoms of depression were defined as having feelings of sadness or depression consecutively over 2 weeks during the last 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the associations between chewing difficulty and symptoms of depression, adjusted for age; sex; monthly household income; education; number of teeth; number of decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth; periodontitis; state of dentition; tooth brushing frequency; regular dental visits; smoking status; alcohol consumption; hypertension; diabetes mellitus; and obesity. The interaction effects between chewing difficulty and confounders were evaluated, and age- and sex-stratified analyses were performed. There was a significant positive association between chewing difficulty and symptoms of depression in the fully adjusted model (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.48-2.33). The strength of the association was highest in men aged 60 and older (AOR = 3.28, 95% CI = 1.54-7.00). Chewing difficulty was independently associated with symptoms of depression in a representative sample of Korean adults. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Association Between Serum Antibodies to Periodontal Bacteria and Rheumatoid Factor in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Charlene E; Kopp, Jacob; Papapanou, Panos N; Molitor, Jerry A; Demmer, Ryan T

    2016-10-01

    Alterations in the microbiome, including the periodontal microbiome, may be a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Most studies that have analyzed this association are relatively small, focus primarily on a single periodontal pathogen (Porphyromonas gingivalis), and are not population based. This study was undertaken to investigate the association between elevated serum levels of IgG antibodies to 19 periodontal species and the prevalence of rheumatoid factor (RF) in a large nationally representative sample of adults. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III) is a cross-sectional sample of the noninstitutionalized US population (n = 33,994). Our study population included all dentate participants who were 60 years and older, did not have RA as defined by a modified version of the American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria, and had complete data for both serum IgG antibodies against periodontal bacteria and serum RF antibody titer (n = 2,461). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) summarizing the relationship between the 19 periodontal serum IgG antibodies and RF seropositivity ranged from 0.53 (95% CI 0.29-0.97) to 1.27 (95% CI 0.79-2.06), and 17 of the 19 observed ORs were periodontal bacteria are mostly unassociated with RF seropositivity in the nationally representative NHANES-III. Elevated levels of antibodies to P intermedia and C ochracea are associated with lower odds of RF seropositivity. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Physical Activity Level of Korean Adults with Chronic Diseases: The Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ho-Seong; An, Ah-Reum; Choi, Ho-Chun; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Shin, Dong-Heon; Oh, Seung-Min; Seo, Young-Gyun; Cho, Be-Long

    2015-11-01

    Proper physical activities are known to be helpful in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. However, the physical activity level of patients with chronic diseases is low. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the physical activity compliance of patients with hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia in Korea. This study analyzed the 2010-2012 Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. We included 13,873 individuals in the analysis. The level of physical activity compliance was measured by performing multivariate logistic regression analyses. In the univariate analysis, the subjects with hypertension or diabetes tended to comply with the physical activity guidelines less faithfully than their healthy counterparts. The proportion of subjects with hypertension who were insufficiently physically active was 65.4% among the men and 75.8% among the women. For diabetes, the proportions were 66.7% and 76.8%, respectively. No significant difference was found between the subjects with dyslipidemia and their healthy counterparts. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant difference in physical activity compliance was observed between the subjects with hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia and their healthy counterparts for both sexes. The patients with hypertension or diabetes tended to have lower physical activity prevlaence than their healthy counterparts. However, for dyslipidemia, no significant difference was found between the two groups. Given the significance of physical activities in the management of chronic diseases, the physical activities of these patients need to be improved.

  3. Participation in Types of Physical Activities Among US Adults--National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shifan; Carroll, Dianna D; Watson, Kathleen B; Paul, Prabasaj; Carlson, Susan A; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-06-01

    Information on specific types of physical activities in which US adults participate is important for community and program development to promote physical activity. Prevalence of participation and average time spent for 33 leisure-time aerobic activities and 10 activity categories were calculated using self-reported data from 22,545 participants aged ≥ 18 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006. Overall, 38% of US adults reported no leisure-time physical activities, and 43% reported 1 or 2 activities in the past 30 days. Walking was the most frequently reported activity for both men (29%) and women (38%). Among walkers, the average time spent walking was 198 minutes/week for men and 152 minutes/week for women. The most reported activities for men after walking were bicycling and yard work, and for women were aerobics and dance. For most activity categories, participation was lower among adults aged ≥ 65 years than among younger adults, and among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic blacks than among non-Hispanic whites. Participation in most categories increased with increasing educational attainment. Participation in physical activity differs by types of activities and demographic characteristics. Physical activity promotion programs should take these differences into account when developing intervention strategies.

  4. Association of meal frequency with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chan-Hee; Lee, Ji Sung; Ahn, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin-Sun; Noh, Min Young; Lee, Ji Jeung; Lee, Eun Young; Lim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Young Ran; Yoon, So Yoon; Kim, Chong Hwa; Cho, Dong-Hyeok; Choi, Young Sik; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2017-01-01

    Although previous studies have established a close relationship between caloric intake and metabolic syndrome, there is limited research exploring the impact of meal frequency adjusted by caloric intake on metabolic syndrome (MetS). To evaluate the association of meal frequency and MetS after adjusting for confounding factors including caloric intake in Korean men and women. We analyzed the national representative data of a total 12,389 adults (5171 men, 7218 women) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. Subjects were categorized as eating 3 meals/day (MF3) or 2 or fewer meals/day (MF ≤ 2). Daily caloric intake was calculated using CAN-Pro 4.0 (The Korean Nutrition Society, Seoul, Korea). The prevalence of components of MetS differed significantly according to meal frequency in both men and women. In an unadjusted analysis, the prevalence of MetS in women was significantly higher in the MF3 group than the MF ≤ 2 group (27.5% vs. 17.8%, P  meal frequency did not affect the risk of metabolic syndrome in women after adjusting for confounding factors including caloric intake (OR = 1.09, 95%, CI = 0.90-1.31). This study suggests that lower meal frequency adjusted for caloric intake, physical activity, age, smoking, alcohol, income, and education may be associated with increased risk of MetS in Korean men.

  5. Implication of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity on Lung Function in Healthy Elderly: Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji Hyun; Kong, Mi Hee; Kim, Hyeon Ju

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a positive association between obesity and decreased lung function. However, the effect of muscle and fat has not been fully assessed, especially in a healthy elderly population. In this study, we evaluated the impact of low muscle mass (LMM) and LMM with obesity on pulmonary impairment in healthy elderly subjects. Our study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Men and women aged 65 yr or older were included. Muscle mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. LMM was defined as two standard deviations below the sex-specific mean for young healthy adults. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2). The prevalence of LMM in individuals aged over 65 was 11.9%. LMM and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second) were independently associated after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and frequency of exercise. LMM with obesity was also related to a decrease in pulmonary function. This study revealed that LMM is an independent risk factor of decreased pulmonary function in healthy Korean men and women over 65 yr of age.

  6. Parity and increased risk of insulin resistance in postmenopausal women: the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hwi; Lee, Sung Jong

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association between parity and insulin resistance in nondiabetic, postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey administered by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare. A total of 1,243 nondiabetic postmenopausal women were included in this study and subdivided into three groups according to parity (1-2, 3-4, and ≥5 live births). Insulin resistance was measured using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. The relationship between parity and insulin resistance was investigated using analysis of covariance. HOMA-IR showed a positive relationship with parity. Mean HOMA-IR (geometric mean and 95% CI) increased according to increasing parity group (1-2, 3-4, and ≥5 live births) after adjustment for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income, and body mass index as follows: 2.1 (2.0-2.2) insulin resistance was accompanied by obesity. The mean parity of the obese and insulin-resistant group was significantly higher than that of the nonobese insulin-sensitive group (3.6 ± 0.1 vs 3.2 ± 0.1, P = 0.047). Our study provides the first evidence that parity is significantly associated with insulin resistance in nondiabetic postmenopausal women. Further prospective longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the impact of parity on insulin resistance.

  7. Age-Related Imbalance Is Associated With Slower Walking Speed: An Analysis From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanjun J; Liu, Elizabeth Y; Anson, Eric R; Agrawal, Yuri

    Walking speed is an important dimension of gait function and is known to decline with age. Gait function is a process of dynamic balance and motor control that relies on multiple sensory inputs (eg, visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular) and motor outputs. These sensory and motor physiologic systems also play a role in static postural control, which has been shown to decline with age. In this study, we evaluated whether imbalance that occurs as part of healthy aging is associated with slower walking speed in a nationally representative sample of older adults. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the previously collected 1999 to 2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data to evaluate whether age-related imbalance is associated with slower walking speed in older adults aged 50 to 85 years (n = 2116). Balance was assessed on a pass/fail basis during a challenging postural task-condition 4 of the modified Romberg Test-and walking speed was determined using a 20-ft (6.10 m) timed walk. Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate the association between imbalance and walking speed, adjusting for demographic and health-related covariates. A structural equation model was developed to estimate the extent to which imbalance mediates the association between age and slower walking speed. In the unadjusted regression model, inability to perform the NHANES balance task was significantly associated with 0.10 m/s slower walking speed (95% confidence interval: -0.13 to -0.07; P imbalance mediates 12.2% of the association between age and slower walking speed in older adults. In a nationally representative sample, age-related balance limitation was associated with slower walking speed. Balance impairment may lead to walking speed declines. In addition, reduced static postural control and dynamic walking speed that occur with aging may share common etiologic origins, including the decline in visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular sensory and

  8. Sleep disordered breathing and depression among U.S. adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G; Perry, Geraldine S; Chapman, Daniel P; Croft, Janet B

    2012-04-01

    To determine if symptoms of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) are associated with depression symptomology in a national sample. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. U.S., 2005-2008. 9,714 adults (≥ 18 years). Respondents were asked about frequency of snoring and snorting, gasping, or stopping breathing while asleep and completed the PHQ-9 (a 9-item depression screener). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for SDB symptom-associated probable major depression (defined as a PHQ-9 score ≥ 10) were obtained from sex-specific logistic regression analyses adjusted for body mass index, age, race/ethnicity, and education. Among men, 6.0% reported physician-diagnosed sleep apnea, 37.2% snored ≥ 5 nights/week, 7.1% snorted/stopped breathing ≥ 5 nights/week, and 5.0% had PHQ-9 scores ≥ 10. Among women, 3.1% reported sleep apnea, 22.4% snored ≥ 5 nights/week, 4.3% snorted/stopped breathing ≥ 5 nights/week, and 8.4% had PHQ-9 scores ≥ 10. Sleep apnea was associated with probable major depression (OR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.5, 3.6 among men; OR = 5.2; 95% CI: 2.7, 9.9 among women). Snoring was not associated with depression symptoms in men or women. Snorting/stopping breathing ≥ 5 nights/week compared to never was strongly associated with probable major depression in men (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.8, 5.2) and women (OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.6, 5.4). Frequent snorting/stopping breathing was associated with probable major depression by the PHQ-9 in a national sample of adults. Additional research may be needed to determine whether regular screening for these conditions by mental health professionals and sleep specialists should be recommended.

  9. Helping veterans achieve work: A Veterans Health Administration nationwide survey examining effective job development practices in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; McGuire, Alan B; Strasburger, Amy M; Belanger, Elizabeth; Bakken, Shana K

    2018-06-01

    Veterans Health Administration vocational services assist veterans with mental illness to acquire jobs; one major component of these services is job development. The purpose of this study was to characterize the nature of effective job development practices and to examine perceptions and intensity of job development services. A national mixed-methods online survey of 233 Veterans Health Administration vocational providers collected data regarding frequency of employer contacts, perceptions of job development ease/difficulty, and effective job development practices when dealing with employers. Qualitative responses elucidating effective practices were analyzed using content analysis. Vocational providers had a modest number of job development employer contacts across 2 weeks (M = 11.0, SD = 10.6) and fewer were face-to-face (M = 7.6, SD = 8.4). Over 70% of participants perceived job development to be difficult. Six major themes emerged regarding effective job development practices with employers: using an employer-focused approach; utilizing a targeted marketing strategy; engaging in preparation and follow-up; going about the employer interaction with genuineness, resilience, and a strong interpersonal orientation; serving as an advocate for veterans and educator of employers; utilizing specific employer-tailored strategies, such as arranging a one-on-one meeting with a decision maker and touring the business, individualizing a prescripted sales pitch, connecting on a personal level, and engaging in ongoing communication to solidify the working relationship. Respondents highlight several potentially effective job development strategies; tools and resources may be developed around these strategies to bolster job development implementation and allow opportunities for fruitful employer interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Normal range albuminuria and metabolic syndrome in South Korea: the 2011-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Young Park

    Full Text Available It is well-known that there is a close relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS and microalbuminuria. However, some recent studies have found that even normal range albuminuria was associated with MetS and cardiometabolic risk factors. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between MetS and normal range albuminuria and to calculate the cutoff value for albuminuria that correlates with MetS in the representative fraction of Korean population.Data were obtained from the 2011-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and included 9,650 subjects aged ≥ 19 years. We measured metabolic parameters: fasting blood glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, and lipids, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR. The optimal ACR cutoff points for MetS were examined by the receiver operating characteristic curve. Multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain the prevalence of MetS and its components according to the ACR levels.The first cutoff value of ACR were 4.8 mg/g for subjects with ≥ 3 components of MetS. There was a graded association between ACR and prevalence of MetS and its components. If ACR was <4 mg/g, there was no significant increase in the prevalence of MetS or its components. From the ACR level of 4-5 mg/g, the prevalence of MetS significantly increased after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, and medications for diabetes mellitus and hypertension (odds ratio; 95% confidence intervals = 1.416; 1.041-1.926.Albuminuria within the normal range (around 5 mg/g was associated with prevalence of MetS in the Korean population.

  11. Acculturation and the prevalence of diabetes in US Latino Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

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    O'Brien, Matthew J; Alos, Victor A; Davey, Adam; Bueno, Angeli; Whitaker, Robert C

    2014-10-09

    US Latinos are growing at the fastest rate of any racial/ethnic group in the United States and have the highest lifetime risk of diabetes. Acculturation may increase the risk of diabetes among all Latinos, but this hypothesis has not been studied in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that acculturation was associated with an increased risk of diabetes in such a sample. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis including 3,165 Latino participants in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants with doctor-diagnosed diabetes and participants without diagnosed diabetes who had glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) values of 6.5% or higher were classified as having diabetes. An acculturation score, ranging from 0 (lowest) to 3 (highest), was calculated by giving 1 point for each of 3 characteristics: being born in the United States, speaking predominantly English, and living in the United States for 20 years or more. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between acculturation and diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes among Latinos in our sample was 12.4%. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, the likelihood of diabetes (95% confidence interval [CI]) increased with level of acculturation- 1.71 (95% CI, 1.31-2.23), 1.63 (95% CI, 1.11-2.39), and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.27-3.29) for scores of 1, 2, and 3, respectively. This association persisted after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI), total dietary calories, and physical inactivity. Acculturation was associated with a higher risk of diabetes among US Latinos, and this risk was only partly explained by BMI and weight-related behaviors. Future research should examine the bio-behavioral mechanisms that underlie the relationship between acculturation and diabetes in Latinos.

  12. Low pulmonary function in individuals with impaired fasting glucose: the 2007-2009 Korea national health and nutrition examination survey.

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    Lee, Yun Jeong; Kim, Na Kyung; Yang, Ju Yean; Noh, Jung Hyun; Lee, Sung-Soon; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the association between fasting plasma glucose level and pulmonary function. Nutritional information, pulmonary function data, and laboratory test data from 9,223 subjects from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were examined. The participants were divided into five groups according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level: normal fasting glucose (NFG)1, FPG fasting glucose (IFG)1: FPG 100-109 mg/dl; IFG2, FPG 110-125 mg/dl; and diabetes, FPG ≥126 mg/dl and/or current anti-diabetes medications. After adjustment for several variables, the percentage of predicted forced vital capacity(FVC%) decreased with increasing fasting plasma glucose level in both sexes[men: (mean ± SEM) 92.0±0.3 in NFG1; 91.9±0.3 in NFG2; 92.0±0.4 in IFG1; 90.2±0.7 in IFG2; and 89.9±0.5 in diabetes, P = 0.004; women: 93.7±0.3 in NFG1; 93.7±0.3 in NFG2; 93.1±0.5 in IFG1; 91.1±0.9 in IFG2; and 90.7±0.6 in diabetes, P<0.001]. A logistic regression analysis found that IFG2 and diabetes were independently associated with the lowest quintile of predicted FVC% (IFG2: odds ratio [95%CI], 1.50 [1.18-1.89], P = 0.001; diabetes: 1.56 [1.30-1.88], P<0.001) using NFG1 as a control. The current data suggest that forced vital capacity may begin to decrease in the higher range of IFG.

  13. Dyslipidemia and Food Security in Low-Income US Adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010.

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    Tester, June M; Laraia, Barbara A; Leung, Cindy W; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L

    2016-02-11

    Low levels of food security are associated with dyslipidemia and chronic disease in adults, particularly in women. There is a gap in knowledge about the relationship between food security among youth and dyslipidemia and chronic disease. We investigated the relationship between food security status and dyslipidemia among low-income adolescents. We analyzed data from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years (N = 1,072) from households with incomes at or below 200% of the federal poverty level from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2010. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between household food security status and the odds of having abnormalities with fasting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), serum triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), TG/HDL-C ratio, and apolipoprotein B (Apo B). Models included age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, partnered status in the household, and maternal education, with additional adjustment for adiposity. Household food security status was not associated with elevated TC or LDL-C. Adolescents with marginal food security were more likely than food-secure peers to have elevated TGs (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-3.05), TG/HDL-C ratio (OR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.11-2.82), and Apo B (OR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.17-3.36). Female adolescents with marginal food security had greater odds than male adolescents of having low HDL-C (OR = 2.69; 95% CI, 1.14-6.37). No elevated odds of dyslipidemia were found for adolescents with low or very low food security. Adjustment for adiposity did not attenuate estimates. In this nationally representative sample, low-income adolescents living in households with marginal food security had increased odds of having a pattern consistent with atherogenic dyslipidemia, which represents a cardiometabolic burden above their risk from adiposity alone.

  14. Sexting, Risk Behavior, and Mental Health in Adolescents: An Examination of 2015 Pennsylvania Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data

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    Frankel, Anne S.; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Patterson, Freda; Dai, Ting; Brown, Deanna

    2018-01-01

    Background: Sexting, the sharing of sexually suggestive photos, may be a gateway behavior to early sexual activity and increase the likelihood of social ostracism. Methods: Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 6021) data from 2015 among Pennsylvania 9th-12th grade students were used to examine associations between consensual and nonconsensual sexting…

  15. Psoriasis and the Risk of Depression in the US Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2012.

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    Cohen, Brandon E; Martires, Kathryn J; Ho, Roger S

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a risk factor for depression. Depression may also trigger or exacerbate psoriasis. The relationship between psoriasis and depression, however, remains to be fully explored. To investigate the association between psoriasis and major depression in the US population. Population-based study using participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2009 through 2012. Diagnosis of major depression based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. We identified 351 (2.8%) cases of psoriasis and 968 (7.8%) cases of major depression among 12,382 US citizens included in our study. Fifty-eight (16.5%) patients with psoriasis met criteria for a diagnosis of major depression. The mean (SD) Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score was significantly higher among patients with a history of psoriasis than those without psoriasis (4.54 [5.7] vs 3.22 [4.3], P < .001). Psoriasis was significantly associated with major depression, even after adjustment for sex, age, race, body mass index, physical activity, smoking history, alcohol use, history of myocardial infarction (MI), history of stroke, and history of diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.09 [95% CI, 1.41-3.11], P < .001). Interaction term analyses involving patients with a history of both psoriasis and a cardiovascular event, specifically MI or stroke, did not reveal a synergistically increased risk of major depression (psoriasis and MI: OR, 1.09 [95% CI, 0.28-3.60], P = .91; psoriasis and stroke: OR, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.12-3.66], P = .63). In adjusted multivariable models, the risk of major depression was not significantly different between patients with limited vs extensive psoriasis (OR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.18-2.44], P = .53). Self-reported history of psoriasis was independently associated with major depression as assessed by a validated screening tool, even when controlling for comorbidities. History of cardiovascular event did not modify the risk of major depression for patients with psoriasis. The severity

  16. Relationship between delivery history and health-related quality of life in menopausal South Korean women: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong In; Han, Kyung-do; Kim, Sa Jin; Kim, Min Jeong; Shin, Jae Eun; Lee, Hae Nam

    2016-10-01

    The study investigated the association between childbirth history and health-related quality of life (QOL) in menopausal South Korean women. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) for 4277 menopausal women aged over 50. We used the EuroQol index to measure health-related QOL. The relationship between delivery history and health-related QOL in menopausal South Korean women was analyzed. After adjustment for age (model 1), women who were younger at their first delivery and who had a greater number of deliveries had a significantly higher risk of problems with mobility, self-care, usual activities and pain or discomfort; the risk of anxiety or depression was not increased. After adjustment for age, BMI, smoking, use of alcohol, exercise, income, education, marital status, metabolic syndrome and stress (model 2), women who were younger at their first delivery and who had a greater number of deliveries had a significantly higher risk of problems with mobility, self-care and pain or discomfort. Age at last delivery was not significantly associated with health-related QOL in either model. South Korean women who were younger at their first delivery and who had more deliveries appear to be at increased risk of health-related QOL problems after menopause. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between mental health status and bone mineral density: Analysis of the 2008-2010 Korea national health and nutrition examination survey.

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    Changtae Hahn

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the association between mental health status and bone mineral density (BMD using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2008-2010. We enrolled 15,876 South Korean participants (4,010 postmenopausal females, 4,836 premenopausal females, and 7,016 males, all aged 20 years or older. BMD was measured using dual-energy radiography absorptiometry at the femoral neck (NK, lumbar spine (LSP, and total femur (TFM. Mental health status data were obtained from a self-report questionnaire that assessed psychological stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation. Psychological stress was negatively correlated with BMD in the LSP, NK, and TFM for the male group. Depressed mood was associated with lower BMD in the LSP, NK and TFM for the premenopausal female group, and in the LSP for the male group. Suicidal ideation was associated with lower BMD in the NK and TFM for the male group. Mental health problems were associated with lower BMD, especially in premenopausal females and males. Future investigations should focus on the shared pathophysiology between mental health problems and BMD, and the interrelationship between increased BMD and recovery from mental health problems.

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Chronic Otitis Media: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012

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    Park, Mina; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung Ha; Park, Moo Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The performance of nationwide studies of chronic otitis media (COM) in adults has been insufficient in Korea. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of COM in Korea. Methods This study was conducted using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 23,621). After excluding the subjects under 20 year old and suffered from cancers, 16,063 patients were evaluated for COM. Participants underwent a medical interview, physical examination, endoscopic examination, and blood and urine test. COM was diagnosed by trained residents in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology using an ear, nose, and throat questionnaire and otoendoscopy findings. Data on the presence and absence of COM were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify its risk factors. Results Of the 16,063 participants aged above 20 year old, the weighted prevalence of COM was 3.8%. In the multivariate analyses, the following factors showed high odds ratios (ORs) for COM: pulmonary tuberculosis (adjusted OR, 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.01), chronic rhinosinusitis (adjusted OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.17-2.98), mild hearing impairment (adjusted OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.34-2.85), moderate hearing impairment (adjusted OR, 4.00; 95% CI, 2.21-7.22), tinnitus (adjusted OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.34-2.49), increased hearing thresholds in pure tone audiometry in the right ear (adjusted OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03), and left ear (adjusted OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04). The following factors showed low odds ratios for COM: hepatitis B (adjusted OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08-0.94) and rhinitis (adjusted OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42-0.88). In addition, high levels of vitamin D, lead, and cadmium, EQ-5D index; and low red blood cell counts were associated with development of COM (Student’s t-test, P < 0.01). Conclusions Our population-based study showed that COM is not rare in Korea, and its development may be associated with various host and

  19. A Methodological Approach to Assessing the Health Impact of Environmental Chemical Mixtures: PCBs and Hypertension in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Paul White

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe an approach to examine the association between exposure to chemical mixtures and a health outcome, using as our case study polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and hypertension. The association between serum PCB and hypertension among participants in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was examined. First, unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals. Next, correlation and multicollinearity among PCB congeners was evaluated, and clustering analyses performed to determine groups of related congeners. Finally, a weighted sum was constructed to represent the relative importance of each congener in relation to hypertension risk. PCB serum concentrations varied by demographic characteristics, and were on average higher among those with hypertension. Logistic regression results showed mixed findings by congener and class. Further analyses identified groupings of correlated PCBs. Using a weighted sum approach to equalize different ranges and potencies, PCBs 66, 101, 118, 128 and 187 were significantly associated with increased risk of hypertension. Epidemiologic data were used to demonstrate an approach to evaluating the association between a complex environmental exposure and health outcome. The complexity of analyzing a large number of related exposures, where each may have different potency and range, are addressed in the context of the association between hypertension risk and exposure to PCBs.

  20. Examination of the association between mental health, morbidity, and mortality in late life: findings from longitudinal community surveys.

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    Burns, Richard A; Butterworth, Peter; Browning, Colette; Byles, Julie; Luszcz, Mary; Mitchell, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2015-05-01

    Physical health has been demonstrated to mediate the mental health and mortality risk association. The current study examines an alternative hypothesis that mental health mediates the effect of physical health on mortality risk. Participants (N = 14,019; women = 91%), including eventual decedents (n = 3,752), were aged 70 years and older, and drawn from the Dynamic Analyses to Optimise Ageing (DYNOPTA) project. Participants were observed on two to four occasions, over a 10-year period. Mediation analysis compared the converse mediation of physical and mental health on mortality risk. For men, neither physical nor mental health was associated with mortality risk. For women, poor mental health reported only a small effect on mortality risk (Hazard Risk (HR) = 1.01; p physical health (HR = 1.04; p effects were observed. Mental health effects on mortality were fully attenuated by physical health in men, and partially so in women. Neither mental nor physical health mediated the effect of each other on mortality risk for either gender. We conclude that physical health is a stronger predictor of mortality risk than mental health.

  1. Timing of Introduction of Complementary Foods to US Infants, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2014.

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    Barrera, Chloe M; Hamner, Heather C; Perrine, Cria G; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2018-03-01

    Although there has been inconsistency in recommendations regarding the optimal time for introducing complementary foods, most experts agree that introduction should not occur before 4 months. Despite recommendations, studies suggest that 20% to 40% of US infants are introduced to foods at younger than 4 months. Previous studies focused on the introduction of solid foods and are not nationally representative. Our aims were to provide a nationally representative estimate of the timing of introduction of complementary foods and to describe predictors of early (introduction. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 2009-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The study included 1,482 children aged 6 to 36 months. Timing of first introduction to complementary foods (anything other than breast milk or formula) was analyzed. Prevalence estimates of first introduction to complementary foods are presented by month. Logistic regression was used to assess characteristics associated with early (introduction. In this sample, 16.3% of US infants were introduced to complementary foods at introduction varied by breastfeeding status; race/Hispanic origin; Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children participation; and maternal age. In adjusted analyses, only breastfeeding status remained significant; infants who never breastfed or stopped at introduction in this nationally representative sample than previous studies that included only solids. However, many young children were still introduced to complementary foods earlier than recommended. Strategies to support caregivers to adhere to infant feeding guidelines may be needed. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between Regional Body Fat Distribution and Diabetes Mellitus: 2008 to 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

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    Soo In Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to investigate the association between regional body fat distribution, especially leg fat mass, and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM in adult populations.MethodsA total of 3,181 men and 3,827 postmenopausal women aged 50 years or older were analyzed based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008 to 2010. Body compositions including muscle mass and regional fat mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.ResultsThe odds ratios (ORs for DM was higher with increasing truncal fat mass and arm fat mass, while it was lower with increasing leg fat mass. In a partial correlation analysis adjusted for age, leg fat mass was negatively associated with glycosylated hemoglobin in both sexes and fasting glucose in women. Leg fat mass was positively correlated with appendicular skeletal muscle mass and homeostasis model assessment of β cell. In addition, after adjusting for confounding factors, the OR for DM decreased gradually with increasing leg fat mass quartiles in both genders. When we subdivided the participants into four groups based on the median values of leg fat mass and leg muscle mass, higher leg fat mass significantly lowered the risk of DM even though they have smaller leg muscle mass in both genders (P<0.001.ConclusionThe relationship between fat mass and the prevalence of DM is different according to regional body fat distribution. Higher leg fat mass was associated with a lower risk of DM in Korean populations. Maintaining leg fat mass may be important in preventing impaired glucose tolerance.

  3. Prevalence of Glaucoma in the United States: The 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Gupta, Priya; Zhao, Di; Guallar, Eliseo; Ko, Fang; Boland, Michael V.; Friedman, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the prevalence of glaucoma in the US population based on optic nerve head photography, to estimate the prevalence of glaucoma awareness, and to identify demographic and ocular risk factors for being unaware of having glaucoma. Methods The study included 5746 men and women 40 years of age and older participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2008. Each participant had 45° photographs of the macula and optic disc of both eyes. Fundus photographs were first graded by a reading center, and those with a cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) ≥ 0.6 were regraded by three glaucoma specialists to determine the presence or absence of glaucoma. Analyses were performed using NHANES weights to account for the complex multistage probability sampling design. Results The estimated overall prevalence of glaucoma in the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population 40 years of age and older was 2.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7%–2.6%). Glaucoma affected 2.9 million individuals, including 1.4 million women; 1.5 million men; 2.3 million people 60 years of age and older; and 0.9 million blacks, Mexican Americans, and people of other races. The prevalence of glaucoma was highest in non-Hispanic blacks, followed by non-Hispanic whites, Mexican Americans, and others. Over half of participants with glaucoma were unaware that they had the disease. Conclusions The prevalence of glaucoma based on optic nerve fundus photography assessment in the general US population 40 years of age and older was 2.1%. Approximately half of glaucoma cases were previously undiagnosed. Studies to determine whether and how to identify undiagnosed glaucoma are an important next step. PMID:27168366

  4. Obesity and Insulin Resistance Screening Tools in American Adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joey A; Laurson, Kelly R

    2016-08-01

    To identify which feasible obesity and insulin resistance (IR) screening tools are most strongly associated in adolescents by using a nationally representative sample. Adolescents aged 12.0 to 18.9 years who were participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n=3584) and who were measured for height, weight, waist circumference (WC), triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, glycated hemoglobin, fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) level were included. Adolescents were split by gender and grouped by body mass index (BMI) percentile. Age- and gender-specific classifications were constructed for each obesity screening tool measure to account for growth and maturation. General linear models were used to establish groups objectively for analysis based on when IR began to increase. Additional general linear models were used to identify when IR significantly increased for each IR measure as obesity group increased and to identify the variance accounted for among each obesity-IR screening tool relationship. As the obesity group increased, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and FI significantly increased, while FG increased only (above the referent) in groups with BMI percentiles ≥95.0, and glycated hemoglobin level did not vary across obesity groups. The most strongly associated screening tools were WC and FI in boys (R(2)=0.253) and girls (R(2)=0.257). FI had the strongest association with all of the obesity measures. BMI associations were slightly weaker than WC in each in relation to IR. Our findings show that WC and FI are the most strongly associated obesity and IR screening tool measures in adolescents. These feasible screening tools should be utilized in screening practices for at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Relationship between Metabolically Obese Non-Obese Weight and Stroke: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Young-Gyun Seo

    Full Text Available Both metabolic syndrome (MetS and obesity increase the risk of stroke. However, few studies have compared the risks of stroke associated with metabolically obese non-obese weight (MONW and metabolically healthy obesity (MHO. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of stroke in MONW and MHO individuals.A total of 25,744 subjects aged ≥40 years were selected from the 2007-2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. MetS was defined using 2001 National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III and 2005 American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria. Non-obese weight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI <25 kg/m2 and ≥25 kg/m2, respectively. MONW was defined as meeting the MetS criteria with a BMI <25 kg/m2 and MHO was defined as not meeting the MetS criteria with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2.Women with MONW had a higher prevalence of stroke than those with MHO (odds ratio [OR] = 2.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45-3.57. The prevalence of stroke increased as the number of MetS components increased. The ORs for MONW with 3, 4, and 5 MetS components were 1.95 (95% CI: 1.19-3.21, 2.49 (95% CI: 1.46-4.24 and 2.74 (95% CI: 1.39-5.40, respectively.Our study findings may better emphasize the risk of stroke among more lean but unhealthy individuals, who appear healthy but may be suffering from MetS. These findings also highlight the need for stroke risk factor assessment in non-obese weight individuals.

  6. Sarcopenia exacerbates obesity-associated insulin resistance and dysglycemia: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III.

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    Preethi Srikanthan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia often co-exists with obesity, and may have additive effects on insulin resistance. Sarcopenic obese individuals could be at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. We performed a study to determine whether sarcopenia is associated with impairment in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in obese and non-obese individuals.We performed a cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III data utilizing subjects of 20 years or older, non-pregnant (N = 14,528. Sarcopenia was identified from bioelectrical impedance measurement of muscle mass. Obesity was identified from body mass index. Outcomes were homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA IR, glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1C, and prevalence of pre-diabetes (6.0≤ HbA1C<6.5 and not on medication and type 2 diabetes. Covariates in multiple regression were age, educational level, ethnicity and sex.Sarcopenia was associated with insulin resistance in non-obese (HOMA IR ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.26 to 1.52 and obese individuals (HOMA-IR ratio 1.16, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.18. Sarcopenia was associated with dysglycemia in obese individuals (HbA1C ratio 1.021, 95% CI 1.011 to 1.043 but not in non-obese individuals. Associations were stronger in those under 60 years of age. We acknowledge that the cross-sectional study design limits our ability to draw causal inferences.Sarcopenia, independent of obesity, is associated with adverse glucose metabolism, and the association is strongest in individuals under 60 years of age, which suggests that low muscle mass may be an early predictor of diabetes susceptibility. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, further research is urgently needed to develop interventions to prevent sarcopenic obesity and its metabolic consequences.

  7. Deterministic modeling of the exposure of individual participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to polychlorinated biphenyls.

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    Wood, Stephen A; Armitage, James M; Binnington, Matthew J; Wania, Frank

    2016-09-14

    A population's exposure to persistent organic pollutants, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is typically assessed through national biomonitoring programs, such as the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). To complement statistical methods, we use a deterministic modeling approach to establish mechanistic links between human contaminant concentrations and factors (e.g. age, diet, lipid mass) deemed responsible for the often considerable variability in these concentrations. Lifetime exposures to four PCB congeners in 6128 participants from NHANES 1999-2004 are simulated using the ACC-Human model supplied with individualized input parameters obtained from NHANES questionnaires (e.g., birth year, sex, body mass index, dietary composition, reproductive behavior). Modeled and measured geometric mean PCB-153 concentrations in NHANES participants of 13.3 and 22.0 ng g -1 lipid, respectively, agree remarkably well, although lower model-measurement agreement for air, water, and food suggests that this is partially due to fortuitous error cancellation. The model also reproduces trends in the measured data with key factors such as age, parity and sex. On an individual level, 62% of all modeled concentrations are within a factor of three of their corresponding measured values (Spearman r s = 0.44). However, the model attributes more of the inter-individual variability to differences in dietary lipid intake than is indicated by the measured data. While the model succeeds in predicting levels and trends on the population level, the accuracy of individual-specific predictions would need to be improved for refined exposure characterization in epidemiological studies.

  8. Association between sleep quality and C-reactive protein: results from national health and nutrition examination survey, 2005-2008.

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    Rong Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to explore the association between poor sleep quality and hs_CRP in an adult U.S. population. METHODS: This study focused on 9,317 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 2005-2008 who were aged 20-85 years, completed a sleep disorder questionnaire, and had available information on serum hs_CRP. Sleep quality was classified into three categories (good, moderate, poor based on the responses of participants to the NHANES sleep disorder questionnaire. High CRP was defined as hs-CRP >1 md/dL. Linear regression model was applied to investigate the association between poor sleep quality and log-transformed hs_CRP. And logistic regression model was fitted to evaluate the association between sleep quality and the risk of high CRP. RESULTS: Females were more likely to report poor sleep quality than males (26% vs. 19%, p<0.0001. Each sleep disorder was significantly associated with increased hs_CRP and correlative to other sleep disorders. In fully-adjusted linear regression model, poor sleep quality was significantly associated with elevated hs_CRP (log transformed among the overall sample and in females only (β = 0.10, se = 0.03, p<0.01 and β = 0.13, se = 0.04, p<0.01, respectively. In fully-adjusted logistics regression model, poor sleep quality was linked with risk of high CRP(OR: 1.42, 95%CI: 1.15-1.76 in overall sample and OR: 1.59, 95%CI: 1.18-2.14 in females, respectively. CONCLUSION: We found that poor sleep quality was independently associated with elevated hs_CRP in females but not in males in a U.S. adult population.

  9. The Relationship between Visual Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yuli; Shin, Jeong Ah; Yang, Suk Woo; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hyun Seung; Park, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Korean adults with visual impairment(VI) using various measures based on a nationally distributed sample. Methods Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2012) data, we compared EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) and EQ-visual analogue scale (VAS) scores after adjusting for socio-demographic and psychosocial factors as well as for comorbidities with VI. Logistic regressions were used to elucidate determinants for the lowest quintile HRQoL scales according to VI severity. Uncorrected visual acuity (VA) which implies vision of ordinary life was measured using an international standard vision chart based on Snellen scale. Results 28,825 participants (sum of weights; 37,562,376) were included in the analysis. The mean EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores were significantly lower in the VI groups than in the normal vision (defined as VA 20/20-20/25) group based on the better or worse seeing eye (Pimpaired HRQoL compared with the normal vision population. The analyses presented here elicited even mild VI could potentially deteriorate the health-related quality of life (or subjective perception of health quality) and therefore, therapeutic approaches should also focus on the subjective perception and better management of health condition. PMID:26192763

  10. Actinic skin damage and mortality--the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to sunlight may decrease the risk of several diseases through the synthesis of vitamin D, whereas solar radiation is the main cause of some skin and eye diseases. However, to the best of our knowledge, the association of sun-induced skin damage with mortality remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects were 8472 white participants aged 25-74 years in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Cardiovascular disease mortality, cancer mortality, and all-cause mortality were obtained by either a death certificate or a proxy interview, or both. Actinic skin damage was examined and recorded by the presence and severity (absent, minimal, moderate, or severe of overall actinic skin damage and its components (i.e., fine telangiectasia, solar elastosis, and actinic keratoses. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier methods were applied to explore the associations. A total of 672 cancer deaths, 1500 cardiovascular disease deaths, and 2969 deaths from all causes were documented through the follow-up between 1971 and 1992. After controlling for potential confounding variables, severe overall actinic skin damage was associated with a 45% higher risk for all-cause mortality (95% CI: 1.22, 1.72; P<0.001, moderate overall skin damage with a 20% higher risk (95% CI: 1.08., 1.32; P<0.001, and minimal overall skin damage with no significant mortality difference, when compared to those with no skin damage. Similar results were obtained for all-cause mortality with fine telangiectasia, solar elastosis, and actinic keratoses. The results were similar for cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The present study gives an indication of an association of actinic skin damage with cardiovascular disease, cancer and all-cause mortality in white subjects. Given the lack of support in the scientific literature and potential unmeasured confounding factors, this finding should be

  11. Physical activity patterns and socioeconomic position: the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Jonas D; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lampert, Thomas; Mensink, Gert B M

    2012-12-15

    We investigated the associations between education and leisure-time, occupational, sedentary and total physical-activity levels based on data from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98). The roles of income level, occupational status and other mediating variables for these associations were also examined. The total study sample of the GNHIES98 comprised 7,124 participants between the ages of 18 and 79. Complete information was available for 6,800 persons on leisure-time, sedentary and total physical-activity outcomes and for 3,809 persons in regular employment on occupational activity outcomes. The associations between educational level and physical activity (occupational, sedentary, leisure-time and total physical activity) were analysed separately for men and women using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (OR) of educational level on physical-activity outcomes were calculated and adjusted for age, region, occupation, income and other mediating variables. After adjusting for age and region, a higher education level was associated with more leisure-time activity - with an OR of 1.6 (95% CI, 1.3-2.0) for men with secondary education and 2.1 (1.7-2.7) for men with tertiary education compared to men with primary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 1.3 (1.1-1.6) and 1.7 (1.2-2.4), respectively. Higher education was associated with a lower level of vigorous work activity: an OR of 6.9 (4.6-10.3) for men with secondary education and 18.6 (12.0-27.3) for men with primary education compared to men with tertiary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 2.8 (2.0-4.0) and 5.8 (4.0-8.5), respectively. Higher education was also associated with a lower level of total activity: an OR of 2.9 (2.2-3.8) for men with secondary education and 4.3 (3.3-5.6) for men with tertiary education compared to men with primary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 1.6 (1.2-2.0) and 1.6 (1.2-2.1), respectively

  12. Dyslipidemia and Food Security in Low-Income US Adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Leung, Cindy W.; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low levels of food security are associated with dyslipidemia and chronic disease in adults, particularly in women. There is a gap in knowledge about the relationship between food security among youth and dyslipidemia and chronic disease. We investigated the relationship between food security status and dyslipidemia among low-income adolescents. Methods We analyzed data from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years (N = 1,072) from households with incomes at or below 200% of the federal poverty level from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2010. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between household food security status and the odds of having abnormalities with fasting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), serum triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), TG/HDL-C ratio, and apolipoprotein B (Apo B). Models included age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, partnered status in the household, and maternal education, with additional adjustment for adiposity. Results Household food security status was not associated with elevated TC or LDL-C. Adolescents with marginal food security were more likely than food-secure peers to have elevated TGs (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14–3.05), TG/HDL-C ratio (OR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.11–2.82), and Apo B (OR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.17–3.36). Female adolescents with marginal food security had greater odds than male adolescents of having low HDL-C (OR = 2.69; 95% CI, 1.14–6.37). No elevated odds of dyslipidemia were found for adolescents with low or very low food security. Adjustment for adiposity did not attenuate estimates. Conclusion In this nationally representative sample, low-income adolescents living in households with marginal food security had increased odds of having a pattern consistent with atherogenic dyslipidemia, which represents a cardiometabolic burden above their risk from adiposity

  13. Asthma management practices in adults--findings from the German Health Update (GEDA) 2010 and the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steppuhn, Henriette; Langen, Ute; Mueters, Stephan; Dahm, Stefan; Knopf, Hildtraud; Keil, Thomas; Scheidt-Nave, Christa

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, population-wide data on adherence to national asthma management guidelines are lacking, and performance measures (PM) for quality assurance in asthma care are systematically monitored for patients with German national asthma disease management program (DMP) enrollment only. We used national health survey data to assess variation in asthma care PM with respect to patient characteristics and care context, including DMP enrollment. Among adults 18-79 years with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma in the past 12 months identified from a recent German National Health Interview Survey (GEDA 2010: N = 1096) and the German National Health interview and Examination Survey 2008-2011 (DEGS1: N = 333), variation in asthma care PM was analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Overall, 38.4% (95% confidence interval: 32.5-44.6%) of adults with asthma were on current inhaled corticosteroid therapy. Regarding non-drug asthma management, low coverage was observed for inhaler technique monitoring (35.2%; 31.2-39.3%) and for provision of an asthma management plan (27.3%; 24.2-30.7%), particularly among those with low education. Specific PM were more complete among persons with than without asthma DMP enrollment (adjusted odds ratios ranging up to 10.19; 5.23-19.86), even if asthma patients were regularly followed in a different care context. Guideline adherence appears to be suboptimal, particularly with respect to PM related to patient counseling. Barriers to the translation of recommendations into practice need to be identified and continuous monitoring of asthma care PM at the population level needs to be established.

  14. Association of Individual and Neighborhood Factors with Home Food Availability: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Weiwen; Fan, Jessie X; Wen, Ming

    2018-05-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests the important role of the home food environment in an individual's dietary intake. This study examined the associations of individual and neighborhood-level factors with the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in the home using a nationally representative sample from the 2007 to 2008 and 2009 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). A cross-sectional study design was used with NHANES merged with the 2000 census data. Food availability was measured through self-report questionnaire regarding the frequency of foods or drinks available in the home. The analysis included 8,975 participants aged 19 to 65 years. Associations of individual and neighborhood factors with home food availability (always or most of the time available) were assessed using logistic regression modeling accounting for NHANES' complex survey design and weights. Individual-level and neighborhood-level factors were simultaneously included in the analysis. Family income-to-needs ratio was positively associated with the availability of dark green vegetables (odds ratio [OR]=1.07; 95% CI=1.00 to 1.13), fat-free or low-fat milk (OR=1.16; 95% CI=1.07 to 1.25), and salty snacks (OR=1.12; 95% CI=1.04 to 1.20) in the home. College graduates were more likely to have fruits (OR=1.96, 95% CI=1.48 to 2.60), vegetables (OR=1.48; 95% CI=1.16 to 1.88), and fat-free or low-fat milk (OR=1.81; 95% CI=1.55 to 2.12) and less likely to have salty snacks (OR=0.77; 95% CI=0.63 to 0.95) and sugary drinks (OR=0.46, 95% CI=0.37 to 0.57) available compared with non-college graduates. Tract socioeconomic status (SES) scores were positively associated with fruit (OR=1.15; 95% CI=1.02 to 1.29), vegetable (OR=1.14; 95% CI=1.03 to 1.26), and fat-free or low-fat milk (OR=1.25; 95% CI=1.10 to 1.42) availability. Urban residents were associated with greater availability of fruits (OR=1.47; 95% CI=1.05 to 2.08) and fat-free or low-fat milk (OR=1.33; 95% CI=1.02 to 1

  15. The Benefit of Bone Health by Drinking Coffee among Korean Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjoo Choi

    Full Text Available Although the concern about coffee-associated health problems is increasing, the effect of coffee on osteoporosis is still conflicting. This study aimed to determine the relationship between coffee consumption and bone health in Korean postmenopausal women.A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed using a nationally representative sample of the Korean general population. All 4,066 postmenopausal women (mean age 62.6 years from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011, who completed the questionnaire about coffee consumption and had data of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA examination. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured using DXA at the femoral neck and lumbar spine and osteoporosis was defined by World Health Organization T-score criteria in addition to self-report of current anti-osteoporotic medication use.After adjusting for various demographic and lifestyle confounders (including hormonal factors, subjects in the highest quartile of coffee intake had 36% lower odds for osteoporosis compared to those in the lowest quartile (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.95; P for trend = 0.015. This trend was consistent in osteoporosis of lumbar spine and femoral neck (aOR = 0.65 and 0.55; P for trend = 0.026 and 0.003, respectively. In addition, age- and body mass index (BMI-adjusted BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine increased with higher coffee intake (P for trend = 0.019 and 0.051, respectively.Coffee consumption may have protective benefits on bone health in Korean postmenopausal women in moderate amount. Further, prospective studies are required to confirm this association.

  16. The Benefit of Bone Health by Drinking Coffee among Korean Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunjoo; Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Sang Min; Shin, Doosup; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Cho, Eunyoung

    2016-01-01

    Although the concern about coffee-associated health problems is increasing, the effect of coffee on osteoporosis is still conflicting. This study aimed to determine the relationship between coffee consumption and bone health in Korean postmenopausal women. A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed using a nationally representative sample of the Korean general population. All 4,066 postmenopausal women (mean age 62.6 years) from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011), who completed the questionnaire about coffee consumption and had data of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using DXA at the femoral neck and lumbar spine and osteoporosis was defined by World Health Organization T-score criteria in addition to self-report of current anti-osteoporotic medication use. After adjusting for various demographic and lifestyle confounders (including hormonal factors), subjects in the highest quartile of coffee intake had 36% lower odds for osteoporosis compared to those in the lowest quartile (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.95; P for trend = 0.015). This trend was consistent in osteoporosis of lumbar spine and femoral neck (aOR = 0.65 and 0.55; P for trend = 0.026 and 0.003, respectively). In addition, age- and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine increased with higher coffee intake (P for trend = 0.019 and 0.051, respectively). Coffee consumption may have protective benefits on bone health in Korean postmenopausal women in moderate amount. Further, prospective studies are required to confirm this association.

  17. The Benefit of Bone Health by Drinking Coffee among Korean Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Min; Shin, Doosup; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Cho, Eunyoung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although the concern about coffee-associated health problems is increasing, the effect of coffee on osteoporosis is still conflicting. This study aimed to determine the relationship between coffee consumption and bone health in Korean postmenopausal women. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed using a nationally representative sample of the Korean general population. All 4,066 postmenopausal women (mean age 62.6 years) from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011), who completed the questionnaire about coffee consumption and had data of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using DXA at the femoral neck and lumbar spine and osteoporosis was defined by World Health Organization T-score criteria in addition to self-report of current anti-osteoporotic medication use. Results After adjusting for various demographic and lifestyle confounders (including hormonal factors), subjects in the highest quartile of coffee intake had 36% lower odds for osteoporosis compared to those in the lowest quartile (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43–0.95; P for trend = 0.015). This trend was consistent in osteoporosis of lumbar spine and femoral neck (aOR = 0.65 and 0.55; P for trend = 0.026 and 0.003, respectively). In addition, age- and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine increased with higher coffee intake (P for trend = 0.019 and 0.051, respectively). Conclusions Coffee consumption may have protective benefits on bone health in Korean postmenopausal women in moderate amount. Further, prospective studies are required to confirm this association. PMID:26816211

  18. Brief Alcohol Intervention by Newly Trained Workers Versus Leaflets: Comparison of Effect in Older Heavy Drinkers Identified in a Population Health Examination Survey: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Blædel Gottlieb; Becker, Ulrik; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To test if a brief motivational intervention (BMI) in a non-treatment seeking population of heavy drinkers results in a reduced alcohol intake. Methods: Screening of 12,364 participants in a Danish health examination survey led to 1026 heavy drinkers of whom 772 were included and randomized...

  19. Sugary soda consumption and albuminuria: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Shoham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease rates rose following widespread introduction of high fructose corn syrup in the American diet, supporting speculation that fructose harms the kidney. Sugar-sweetened soda is a primary source of fructose. We therefore hypothesized that sugary soda consumption was associated with albuminuria, a sensitive marker for kidney disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Design was a cross-sectional analysis. Data were drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1999-2004. The setting was a representative United States population sample. Participants included adults 20 years and older with no history of diabetes mellitus (n = 12,601; after exclusions for missing outcome and covariate information (n = 3,243, the analysis dataset consisted of 9,358 subjects. Exposure was consumption of two or more sugary soft drinks, based on 24-hour dietary recall. The main outcome measure was Albuminuria, defined by albumin to creatinine ratio cutpoints of >17 mg/g (males and >25 mg/g (females. Logistic regression adjusted for confounders (diet soda, age, race-ethnicity, gender, poverty. Interactions between age, race-ethnicity, gender, and overweight-obesity were explored. Further analysis adjusted for potential mediators: energy intake, basal metabolic rate, obesity, hypertension, lipids, serum uric acid, smoking, energy expenditure, and glycohemoglobin. Alternative soda intake definitions and cola consumption were employed. RESULTS: Weighted albuminuria prevalence was 11%, and 17% consumed 2+ sugary soft drinks/day. The confounder-adjusted odds ratio for sugary soda was 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.74. Associations were modified by gender (p = 0.008 and overweight-obesity (p = 0.014. Among women, the OR was 1.86 (95% CI: 1.37, 2.53; the OR among males was not significant. In the group with body mass under 25 kg/m(2, OR = 2.15 (95% confidence interval: 1.42, 3.25. Adjustment for potential

  20. Exposure to DDT and diabetic nephropathy among Mexican Americans in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Charles J; Thompson, Olivia M; Dismuke, Clara E

    2017-03-01

    Concentrations of the pesticide DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and its metabolite DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), in the blood of Mexican Americans, were evaluated to determine their relationships with diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. The data were derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 (unweighted N = 1,411, population estimate = 13,760,609). The sample included teens, 12-19 years old, which accounted for 19.8% of the data. The time of the study overlapped the banning of DDT in Mexico in the year 2000, and those participants born in Mexico were exposed to DDT before they immigrated to the US. We sought to better understand the relationship of DDT with diabetes in a race/ethnicity group prone to develop diabetes and exposed to DDT. In this study, nephropathy was defined as urinary albumin to creatinine ratio >30 mg/g, representing microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria, and total diabetes was defined as diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes (glycohemoglobin, A1c ≥ 6.5%). The proportion with the isomer p,p'-DDT >0.086 ng/g (above the maximum limit of detection) was 13.3% for Mexican Americans born in the US, and 36.9% for those born in Mexico. Levels of p,p'-DDT >0.086 ng/g were associated with total diabetes with nephropathy (odds ratio = 4.42, 95% CI 2.23-8.76), and with total diabetes without nephropathy (odds ratio = 2.02, 95% CI 1.19-3.44). The third quartile of p,p'-DDE (2.99-7.67 ng/g) and the fourth quartile of p,p'-DDE (≥7.68 ng/g) were associated with diabetic nephropathy and had odds ratios of 5.32 (95% CI 1.05-26.87) and 14.95 (95% CI 2.96-75.48) compared to less than the median, respectively, whereas p,p'-DDE was not associated with total diabetes without nephropathy. The findings of this study differ from those of a prior investigation of the general adult US population in that there were more associations found with the Mexican Americans sample. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Cigarette Smoking in Persons Living with Hepatitis C: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ryung S; Weinberger, Andrea H; Chander, Geetanjali; Sulkowski, Mark S; Norton, Brianna; Shuter, Jonathan

    2018-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is common in persons living with hepatitis C (hepatitis C+), but national statistics on this harmful practice are lacking. A better understanding of smoking behaviors in hepatitis C+ individuals may help in the development of targeted treatment strategies. We extracted data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 1999 and 2014. Hepatitis C+ were compared with hepatitis C- adults in the entire sample and in the subset of current smokers. Measures included demographics, current smoking, cigarettes/day, nicotine dependence, other tobacco use, substance use, and medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Complete smoking and hepatitis C virus (HCV) data were available for 39,472 (90.1%) of 43,793 adult participants in NHANES during the study years. Hepatitis C+ smoked at almost triple the rate of hepatitis C- adults (62.4% vs 22.9%), with no significant difference between hepatitis C+ men and women (64.5% vs 58.2%). Hepatitis C+ smokers were more likely to smoke daily than hepatitis C- smokers (87.5% vs 80.0%), but had similar levels of nicotine dependence. Hepatitis C+ smokers were more likely to be older (mean age: 47.1 vs 41.5 years), male (69.4% vs 54.4%), Black (21.2% vs 12.1%), less educated (any college: 31.8% vs 42.9%), poor (mean family monthly poverty index: 1.80 vs 2.47), uninsured (43.9% vs 30.4%), use drugs (cocaine: 11.1% vs 3.2%; heroin: 4.0% vs 0.6%), and be depressed (33.2% vs 13.5%). Multivariate analyses revealed significant associations of both hepatitis C infection and cigarette smoking with current depression and hypertension. There is a cigarette smoking epidemic embedded within the hepatitis C epidemic in the United States. The sociodemographic profile of hepatitis C+ smokers suggests that the implementation of effective tobacco treatment will be challenging. Thoughtful treatment strategies that are mindful of the unique characteristics of this group are needed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier

  2. Prevalence of Elevated Cardiovascular Risks in Young Adults: A Cross-sectional Analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Krishna K; Taksler, Glen B; Hu, Bo; Rothberg, Michael B

    2017-06-20

    The 2013 cholesterol management guidelines from the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) recommend lipid screening in all adults older than 20 years to identify those at increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Statins may be considered for patients with elevated 10-year risk (>5%) or a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level of 4.92 mmol/L (190 mg/dL) or greater. To describe the prevalence of elevated ASCVD risk among nondiabetic adults younger than 50 years. Cross-sectional. NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), 1999 to 2000 through 2011 to 2012. Adults aged 30 to 49 years without known ASCVD or diabetes. 10-year ASCVD risk was estimated by using the 2013 ACC/AHA ASCVD risk calculator. Participants were subdivided by age, sex, and history of smoking and hypertension. The percentages of adults in each subgroup with a 10-year ASCVD risk greater than 5% and of those with an LDL-C level of 4.92 mmol/L (190 mg/dL) or greater were estimated. Low-prevalence subgroups were defined as those in which a greater than 1% prevalence of elevated cardiovascular risk could be ruled out (that is, the upper 95% confidence bound for prevalence was ≤1%). Overall, 9608 NHANES participants representing 67.9 million adults were included, with approximately half (47.12%, representing 32 million adults) in low-prevalence subgroups. In the absence of smoking or hypertension, 0.09% (95% CI, 0.02% to 0.35%) of adult men younger than 40 years and 0.04% (CI, 0.0% to 0.26%) of adult women younger than 50 years had an elevated risk. Among other subgroups, 0% to 75.9% of participants had an increased risk. Overall, 2.9% (CI, 2.3% to 3.5%) had an LDL-C level of 4.92 mmol/L (190 mg/dL) or greater. No information was available regarding cardiovascular outcomes. In the absence of risk factors, the prevalence of increased ASCVD risk is low among women younger than 50 and men younger than 40 years. None.

  3. Association between Nutrition Label Reading and Nutrient Intake in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2007-2009 (KNHANES IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-Gyou; Oh, Seung-Won; Han, Na-Rae; Song, Dong-Ju; Um, Jae-Yean; Bae, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuktae; Lee, Cheol-Min; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Hong, Sung-woo

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutrition labels provide various information on the nutrient contents of food. However, despite the recent increase in the interest in dietary intake and expansion of related policies, studies on the association between nutrition label reading and dietary intake are lacking in Korea. Methods This study analyzed the 2007-2009 KNHANES (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data. To examine macronutrients and micronutrients intake according to nutrition label readin...

  4. Body Fat Percentile Curves for Korean Children and Adolescents: A Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kirang; Yun, Sung Ha; Jang, Myoung Jin; Oh, Kyung Won

    2013-01-01

    A valid assessment of obesity in children and adolescents is important due to significant change in body composition during growth. This study aimed to develop percentile curves of body fat and fat free mass using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method, and to examine the relationship among body mass index (BMI), fat mass and fat free mass in Korean children and adolescents, using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010. The study subjects were 834 for boys an...

  5. Food Security and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003?2008

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Earl S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the relationship between food security status and predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between food security status and cardiovascular disease risk factors and predicted 10-year risk in a national sample of US adults. Methods A cross-sectional analysis using data from 10,455 adults aged 20 years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003?2008 was conducted. Fou...

  6. An association of health behaviors with depression and metabolic risks: Data from 2007 to 2014 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ozodiegwu, Ifeoma D; Yu, Yang; Hess, Rick; Bie, Ronghai

    2017-08-01

    Both depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS) confer an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence suggests healthy behaviors are crucial to maintain, improve and manage chronical disease and mental health; and unhealthy diet and sedentary behavior were found two major risk factors of MetS. The objective of this study was to investigate whether health behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking, diet and recreational physical activity) are associated with depression and metabolic syndrome simultaneously. This study included 1300 participants aged 20 years and over who had answered mental health-depression screener questions (PHQ-9) and finished examinations and laboratory tests related to five risk factors of MetS during the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2014. A set of series of weighted logistic regression models were used to investigate the aforementioned relationship. The prevalence of depression among U.S. adults is 15.08%. The two most often reported depression symptoms were "Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much" and "Feeling tired or having little energy", with rates of14.68% and 13.09%, respectively. Participants who engaged in only light physical activity were more likely to have been identified as experiencing depression and MetS than those who engaged in vigorous physical activity with odd ratios 3.18 (95% CI: 1.59, 6.37) and 3.50 (95%CI: 2.17, 5.63), respectively. Individuals in the study having poor diets were more likely to suffer from depression than those eating good diets (OR=2.17, 95%CI: 1.47, 3.22). Physical activity is strongly and inversely associated with depression and MetS. Diet is significantly associated with depression rather than MetS in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nationwide survey on pediatric CT among children of public health and school nurses to examine a possibility for a follow-up study on radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, K.; Ban, N.; Ojima, M.; Yoshinaga, S.; Akahane, K.; Fujii, K.; Toyota, M.; Hamada, F.; Kouriyama, C.; Akiba, S.; Kunugita, N.; Shimada, Y.; Kai, M.

    2011-01-01

    A nationwide survey was conducted in Japan on paediatric CT among children of public health and school nurses to examine a possibility for a follow-up study on radiation effects. A survey questionnaire was sent out to 3173 public primary and junior high schools and 317 public health centres during October to December in 2009. According to the collected responses, 410 (16.2 %) children received the CT scans and the total number of CT scans was 585. Most of respondents expressed a high interest in radiation health effects and an intent to participate in the epidemiological study that will follow-up the health conditions of children. This study provides information to discuss the feasibility of the epidemiological study on health effects in children who received CT scans. (authors)

  8. Gender differences in physical activity and health-related behaviors among stroke survivors: data from the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yookyung; Kim, Won-Seok; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2017-07-01

    Physical activity and health-related behaviors are important in primary prevention of stroke and are also recommended for secondary prevention. Gender differences in physical activity and health-related behaviors have been reported in various populations and diseased states but data is lacking on stroke survivors. To assess gender disparities in physical activity in stroke patients and to investigate possible reasons for such disparities. This is a cross-sectional study using nationwide data from the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012). A total of 9539 participants (stroke (n = 170), non-stroke (n = 9369)) between the ages of 40-80, with no problems walking were included. Physical activity, smoking, and alcohol drinking of stroke survivors were assessed by gender and compared with non-stroke groups. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for insufficient physical activity and possible explanatory variables for gender differences. Women showed higher prevalence of insufficient physical activity after adjusting for age (OR = 7.32, 95% CI: 1.89-28.32) compared to men. Medical conditions such as depression and comorbidities failed to explain the low physical activity in women with stroke but adding socioeconomic factors to the model nullified the gender difference in physical activity. In order to reduce noted gender disparities in physical activity following stroke, more focused effort to increase physical activity in women, especially with lower socioeconomic status, has to be considered.

  9. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima a-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomi, Yoshinori; Abe, Tsutomu; Okita, Hajime; Kamada, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi

    1980-01-01

    Certain blood examinations were performed on a-bomb survivors having anemia more than moderate stage (the hemoglobin value under 9.0 g/dl), who were found out by the periodical health examination performed in Hiroshima-A-bomb Survivors Health Control Clinic during the latter period of the fiscal year 1975. The total number of a-bomb survivors who received the periodical health examination was 50,973, and the number of survivors whose hemoglobin value was under 9.0 g/dl was 201 (0.39%). The incidence of such anemia was high in women. There was not a relationship between this anemia and the exposure distance from the hypocenter. The incidence of this anemia was high in young a-bomb survivors, and more than 50% of a-bomb survivors having this anemia was under the age of 50. Iron-deficiency anemia was found in 88% of a-bomb survivors, and the course of their anemia ran in many years in many a-bomb survivors. (Tsunoda, M.)

  10. Comorbidities in obstructive lung disease in Korea: data from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Park HJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hee Jin Park, Ah Young Leem, Sang Hoon Lee, Ju Han Song, Moo Suk Park, Young Sam Kim, Se Kyu Kim, Joon Chang, Kyung Soo Chung Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Institute of Chest Disease, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Background: Comorbidities can occur frequently in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and can influence mortality and morbidity independently. It is increasingly recognized that many patients with COPD have comorbidities that have a major impact on their quality of life and survival. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of comorbidities in Korean COPD populations. Methods: We used data obtained in the 6 years of the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV and V. Among 50,405 subjects, 16,151 subjects aged ≥40 years who performed spirometry adequately were included in this study. Airway obstruction was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <0.7, and the Global Initiative For Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage was used to evaluate the severity of airway obstruction. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.2. Results: Among the 16,151 subjects (43.2% male, 56.8% female; mean age: 57.1 years for men and 57.2 years for women, 13.1% had obstructive lung function; 11.3%, restrictive lung function; and 75.6%, normal lung function. Among individuals with obstructive lung function, 45.3%, 49.4%, and 5.3% had mild, moderate, and severe and very severe airflow limitation. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM, underweight, and hypertriglyceridemia was higher in the obstructive lung function group than in the normal lung function group (49.6% vs 35.2%; 16.8% vs 10.5%; 3.3% vs 1.3%; 19.7% vs 17.0%. According to the severity of airway obstruction, hypertension and underweight were more common as severity increased

  11. Dietary vitamin C intake protects against COPD: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2012

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    Park HJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hye Jung Park,1 Min Kwang Byun,1 Hyung Jung Kim,1 Jae Yeol Kim,2 Yu-Il Kim,3 Kwang-Ha Yoo,4 Eun Mi Chun,5 Ji Ye Jung,6 Sang Haak Lee,7 Chul Min Ahn1 On behalf of the Korean Smoking Cessation Study Group 1Department of Internal Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, 6Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Chest Disease, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 7Division of Pulmonology, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea Background: Vitamin C, as an antioxidant, has recently been suggested to provide protection against COPD; however, only few national cohort studies have investigated these effects. We aimed to confirm the protective effects of vitamin C against COPD in Korean patients. Patients and methods: We analyzed the data of 3,283 adults aged ≥40 years (representing 23,541,704 subjects who underwent pulmonary function tests and responded to questionnaires on smoking history and vitamin C intake, with stratification variables and sampling weight designated by the Korea 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results: Among all the subjects, 512 (representing 3,459,679 subjects; 15.6% were diagnosed as having COPD based on pulmonary function test results. Male gender, old age, residence in suburban/rural regions, low household income, low educational level, an occupation in agriculture or fisheries, and heavy smoking were significantly associated with COPD. Low intake of nutrients, including potassium, vitamin A, carotene, retinol

  12. Comparison of Health Status and Nutrient Intake between Depressed Women and Non-depressed Women: Based on the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Myeong Suk; Kim, Sunghee; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to provide supporting data for the management of dietary habits in depression by comparing health and nutrition in adult Korean women according to depression status. A total of 2,236 women aged between 19 and 64 years who participated in the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into a depression group (n = 315) and a non-depression group (n = 1,921). Among 19-29-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, and suicidal thoughts than the non-depression group. The depression group showed lower intake of cereal, chocolate, meat, and carbonated drinks, as well as a lower index of nutritional quality (INQ) for protein, iron, and niacin. Among 30-49-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, chronic disease, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of rice with mixed grains and higher intake of instant and cup noodles than the non-depression group. Among 50-64-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of vegetables, mushrooms, and seaweed, lower nutritional intake of fat, saturated fat, and n-3 fatty acids, as well as a lower INQ for niacin and a lower Recommended Food Score. For all age groups, individuals with depression showed poorer health and nutritional intake than healthy individuals, demonstrating a correlation of depression with health and nutritional intake.

  13. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomi, Yoshinori; Kamada, Nanao; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohkita, Takeshi; Ito, Chikako.

    1976-01-01

    An actual condition of anemia in A-bomb survivors was discussed from the periodical health examination of the fiscal years 1972 and 1973. Under 11.5 g/dl of hemoglobin was determined as anemia. An actual number of cases with anemia in both fiscal years was nearly the same, but ratio of anemia to the total number of recipient of periodical health examination increased 1.9% in the fiscal year 1973. 35.3% of the subjects with anemia in both fiscal years was the same persons. In the following examination of 478 subjects with under 10.0 g/dl of hemoglobin, in the fiscal year 1972, 96 subjects (20.1%) still showed under 10.0 g/dl of hemoglobin in the fiscal year 1975. Characteristics of anemia were that hypochromic anemia was comparatively frequent in the young, and normochromic anemia was frequent in the aged. In the former, marked decrease of value of iron in serum was recognized, and in the latter, fall of hematopoiesis by old age and secondary anemia were recognized. Marked relationship between exposure distance and anemia in each group was not recognized. 17.9% of cases with moderate anemia showed positive in stool guaiac test and 8.9% and past history of duodenal or peptic ulcer. (Kanao, N.)

  14. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, (9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohy, Hiroo; Taketomi, Yoshinori; Oguma, Nobuo; Takamatsu, Yumiko; Kamada, Nanao

    1984-01-01

    Of 195,146 A-bomb survivors undergoing the periodic health examination, 607 in whom anemia was confirmed were investigated. Iron deficiency anemia was seen in 77.3% of the survivors (mostly consisting of women under the age of 54 years). There was no significant difference in other types of anemia between men and women. Renal anemia was frequent in survivors aged between 60 and 80 years. Refractory anemia was frequent in survivors older than those with renal anemia. The white blood cell count and platelet count were within the normal range in three types of anemia. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Nativity and language preference as drivers of health information seeking: examining differences and trends from a U.S. population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Philip M; Langellier, Brent A; Sentell, Tetine; Manganello, Jennifer

    2017-12-01

    To examine differences in health information seeking between U.S.-born and foreign-born populations in the U.S. Data from 2008 to 2014 from the Health Information National Trends Survey were used in this study (n = 15,249). Bivariate analyses, logistic regression, and predicted probabilities were used to examine health information seeking and sources of health information. Findings demonstrate that 59.3% of the Hispanic foreign-born population reported looking for health information, fewer than other racial/ethnic groups in the sample. Compared with non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black (OR = 0.62) and Hispanic foreign-born individuals (OR = 0.31) were the least likely to use the internet as a first source for health information. Adjustment for language preference explains much of the disparity in health information seeking between the Hispanic foreign-born population and Whites; controlling for nativity, respondents who prefer Spanish have 0.25 the odds of using the internet as a first source of health information compared to those who prefer English. Foreign-born nativity and language preference are significant determinants of health information seeking. Further research is needed to better understand how information seeking patterns can influence health care use, and ultimately health outcomes. To best serve diverse racial and ethnic minority populations, health care systems, health care providers, and public health professionals must provide culturally competent health information resources to strengthen access and use by vulnerable populations, and to ensure that all populations are able to benefit from evolving health information sources in the digital age.

  16. Estimated Trans-Lamina Cribrosa Pressure Differences in Low-Teen and High-Teen Intraocular Pressure Normal Tension Glaucoma: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Si Hyung; Kwak, Seung Woo; Kang, Eun Min; Kim, Gyu Ah; Lee, Sang Yeop; Bae, Hyoung Won; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the association between estimated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD) and prevalence of normal tension glaucoma (NTG) with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP) using a population-based study design. Methods A total of 12,743 adults (? 40 years of age) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2009 to 2012 were included. Using a previously developed formula, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (C...

  17. Relationship between prosthodontic status and nutritional intake in the elderly in Korea: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y K; Park, D Y; Kim, Y

    2014-11-01

    Many health issues have been reported to be associated with poor nutritional status. We sought to examine the association between nutritional intake and oral health status in elderly people. The association between perceived disability in mastication and prosthodontic status was analysed using multiple logistic regression. Multiple linear regression was used to analyse the association between prosthodontic status and nutritional intake. The elderly subjects with partial or full dentures reported chewing difficulties 1.62-fold more frequently (95% CI: 1.06-2.49) than those with natural teeth or a fixed prosthesis after adjusting for gender, TMD (temporomandibular disorder), household income and education level. Additionally, daily nutritional intakes of energy, protein, fat, ash, calcium, phosphorus and thiamine were decreased significantly in elderly with partial or full dentures compared with those with no prosthesis or with a fixed prosthesis (P oral health status and perceived disability in mastication are associated with dietary imbalances in the elderly. We suggest that the evaluation of patients' nutritional status should be considered as a part of an overall plan for dental hygiene care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Relationship between Visual Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Park

    Full Text Available To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL in Korean adults with visual impairment(VI using various measures based on a nationally distributed sample.Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2012 data, we compared EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D and EQ-visual analogue scale (VAS scores after adjusting for socio-demographic and psychosocial factors as well as for comorbidities with VI. Logistic regressions were used to elucidate determinants for the lowest quintile HRQoL scales according to VI severity. Uncorrected visual acuity (VA which implies vision of ordinary life was measured using an international standard vision chart based on Snellen scale.28,825 participants (sum of weights; 37,562,376 were included in the analysis. The mean EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores were significantly lower in the VI groups than in the normal vision (defined as VA 20/20-20/25 group based on the better or worse seeing eye (P<.0001 and P<.0001, respectively. Participants with moderate (VA 20/80-20/160 and severe VI (VA ≤20/200 had higher scores of multivariate-adjusted odd ratios (aORs for the lowest quintile than did the normal vision group which was particularly evident in the results from EQ-5D, whereas the results of the mild VI (VA 20/32-20/63 group did not identify significant differences from the normal vision group independent of classification according to the better or the worse seeing eye. Conversely, EQ-VAS revealed significantly higher score of multivariate-aORs for the lowest quintile in participants with mild VI either for the better or worse seeing eye.The severity of VI was definitely associated with impaired HRQoL compared with the normal vision population. The analyses presented here elicited even mild VI could potentially deteriorate the health-related quality of life (or subjective perception of health quality and therefore, therapeutic approaches should also focus on the subjective

  19. A frequency survey of radiological examinations carried out in National Health Service hospitals in Great Britain in 1977 for diagnostic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, G.M.; Darby, S.C.; Harries, S.V.; Rae, S.

    1980-06-01

    Medical irradiation is the largest man-made contributor to the radiation dose received by the population of Great Britain, and diagnostic radiology is the most important component of medical irradiation. The work described here is a survey of the numbers and types of radiological examinations carried out in National Health Service hospitals in Great Britain in 1977. The overall level of diagnostic radiology in Great Britain as a whole is reported and separate estimates for England, Wales and Scotland are given. Discussion of topics such as the frequency of particular types of examination, the number of films per examination and the use of gonad shields is included, and the results of the present survey are compared with those of the last national survey which was carried out in 1957. Also reported is an estimate of the amount of radiology undertaken outside the Health Service. The findings will be combined with estimates of gonadal doses from the different examinations and child expectancy data to estimate the genetically significant dose to the population of Great Britain. (author)

  20. Lesotho - Health Facility Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The main objective of the 2011 Health Facility Survey (HFS) was to establish a baseline for informing the Health Project performance indicators on health facilities,...

  1. National Health Interview Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...

  2. Effect change of obesity on diabetes depending on measurement: self-reported body mas index from 2012 Community Health Survey vs. directly measured from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyuhyun Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a well-recognized risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM among young and middle-aged adults in South Korea. To elaborate on the association between obesity and Diabetes mellitus (DM, subjective data from self-reporting survey or objective data from health examination is generally used. This study was conducted to validate the change of association from using these different measurements. METHODS: Community Health Survey data and Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, as subjective and objective data respectively, were used. Population, resident in Seoul and over 45 aged, were selected for the study and the association between obesity and DM were defined by using multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: In subjective data, DM prevalence was 12.4% (male, 14.7; female, 10.6 and obesity prevalence was 26.0% (male, 29.2; female, 23.4. Whereas, in objective data, DM prevalence was 15.0% (male, 17.8; female, 12.9, and obese population was 32.4% (male, 34.4; female, 30.8. Based on the effect of obesity on DM prevalence from each data, using objective data increased the impact of obesity. Difference of relative risk of obesity between from subjective data and from objective was bigger in female than male and statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The differences of association pattern between subjective and objective data were found, due to higher obesity prevalence in objective data, and discrepancies of socio-economic status. These discrepancies could be inevitable Therefore we have to face them proactively, and understand the different aspect of various variables from different measurement.

  3. Testing the Invariance of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey's Sexual Behavior Questionnaire Across Gender, Ethnicity/Race, and Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Anne Q; Hsueh, Loretta; Roesch, Scott C; Vaughn, Allison A; Sotelo, Frank L; Lindsay, Suzanne; Klonoff, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    Federal and state policies are based on data from surveys that examine sexual-related cognitions and behaviors through self-reports of attitudes and actions. No study has yet examined their factorial invariance--specifically, whether the relationship between items assessing sexual behavior and their underlying construct differ depending on gender, ethnicity/race, or age. This study examined the factor structure of four items from the sexual behavior questionnaire part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). As NHANES provided different versions of the survey per gender, invariance was tested across gender to determine whether subsequent tests across ethnicity/race and generation could be done across gender. Items were not invariant across gender groups so data files for women and men were not collapsed. Across ethnicity/race for both genders, and across generation for women, items were configurally invariant, and exhibited metric invariance across Latino/Latina and Black participants for both genders. Across generation for men, the configural invariance model could not be identified so the baseline models were examined. The four item one factor model fit well for the Millennial and GenerationX groups but was a poor fit for the baby boomer and silent generation groups, suggesting that gender moderated the invariance across generation. Thus, comparisons between ethnic/racial and generational groups should not be made between the genders or even within gender. Findings highlight the need for programs and interventions that promote a more inclusive definition of "having had sex."

  4. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, (4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taketomi, Y; Abe, T; Kamada, N; Kuramoto, A; Takahashi, H [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1978-09-01

    Status of leukopenia in a-bomb survivors was studied on 202 cases in which leukopenia (white cell count of below 3900) was recognized during successive 3 years in the periodical health examination of the fiscal years from 1973 to 1975. A white cell count of below 3900 was recogenized in about 4% of the total subjects of the year, and the half overlapped in other years. Incidence of leukopenia was higher in the aged, and there was not a marked difference according to the distance from the explosion center. As to a relationship to anemia, hemoglobin amount of below 11.5 g/dl was recognized in 98 of 202 cases, and aplastic anemia was recognized in 3 cases under medical treatment. Concerning a relationship to other disease, chronic liver dysfunction was recognized in 33 of 202 cases, and anemia, in 14 cases. As to classification of leukocyte, abnormality (neutrocytopenia, lymphocytosis) was not recognized in 70 of 202 cases. About a relationship to anemia and liver dysfunction in cases of lymphocytic abnormality, the incidence of lymphocytic abnormality was higher in cases of liver dysfunction (23 of 33 cases of chronic liver dysfunction, 69.7%), and there was not difference between cases of anemia alone and cases without anemia and liver dysfunction (54 of 84 cases, 64.3%). The incidence of lymphocytic abnormality was higher in cases of liver dysfunction and cases without anemia.

  5. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomi, Yoshinori; Abe, Tsutomu; Kamada, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    Status of leukopenia in a-bomb survivors was studied on 202 cases in which leukopenia (white cell count of below 3900) was recognized during successive 3 years in the periodical health examination of the fiscal years from 1973 to 1975. A white cell count of below 3900 was recogenized in about 4% of the total subjects of the year, and the half overlapped in other years. Incidence of leukopenia was higher in the aged, and there was not a marked difference according to the distance from the explosion center. As to a relationship to anemia, hemoglobin amount of below 11.5 g/dl was recognized in 98 of 202 cases, and aplastic anemia was recognized in 3 cases under medical treatment. Concerning a relationship to other disease, chronic liver dysfunction was recognized in 33 of 202 cases, and anemia, in 14 cases. As to classification of leukocyte, abnormality (neutrocytopenia, lymphocytosis) was not recognized in 70 of 202 cases. About a relationship to anemia and liver dysfunction in cases of lymphocytic abnormality, the incidence of lymphocytic abnormality was higher in cases of liver dysfunction (23 of 33 cases of chronic liver dysfunction, 69.7%), and there was not difference between cases of anemia alone and cases without anemia and liver dysfunction (54 of 84 cases, 64.3%). The incidence of lymphocytic abnormality was higher in cases of liver dysfunction and cases without anemia. (Tsunoda, M.)

  6. Coffee, alcohol, smoking, physical activity and QT interval duration: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyi Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in the electrocardiographic QT interval duration have been associated with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, there is substantial uncertainty about the effect of modifiable factors such as coffee intake, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity on QT interval duration.We studied 7795 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994. Baseline QT interval was measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. Coffee and tea intake, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activities over the past month, and lifetime smoking habits were determined using validated questionnaires during the home interview.In the fully adjusted model, the average differences in QT interval comparing participants drinking ≥6 cups/day to those who did not drink any were -1.2 ms (95% CI -4.4 to 2.0 for coffee, and -2.0 ms (-11.2 to 7.3 for tea, respectively. The average differences in QT interval duration comparing current to never smokers was 1.2 ms (-0.6 to 2.9 while the average difference in QT interval duration comparing participants drinking ≥7 drinks/week to non-drinkers was 1.8 ms (-0.5 to 4.0. The age, race/ethnicity, and RR-interval adjusted differences in average QT interval duration comparing men with binge drinking episodes to non-drinkers or drinkers without binge drinking were 2.8 ms (0.4 to 5.3 and 4.0 ms (1.6 to 6.4, respectively. The corresponding differences in women were 1.1 (-2.9 to 5.2 and 1.7 ms (-2.3 to 5.7. Finally, the average differences in QT interval comparing the highest vs. the lowest categories of total physical activity was -0.8 ms (-3.0 to 1.4.Binge drinking was associated with longer QT interval in men but not in women. QT interval duration was not associated with other modifiable factors including coffee and tea intake, smoking, and physical activity.

  7. Coffee, alcohol, smoking, physical activity and QT interval duration: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Post, Wendy S; Dalal, Darshan; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Tomaselli, Gordon F; Guallar, Eliseo

    2011-02-28

    Abnormalities in the electrocardiographic QT interval duration have been associated with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, there is substantial uncertainty about the effect of modifiable factors such as coffee intake, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity on QT interval duration. We studied 7795 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994). Baseline QT interval was measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. Coffee and tea intake, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activities over the past month, and lifetime smoking habits were determined using validated questionnaires during the home interview. In the fully adjusted model, the average differences in QT interval comparing participants drinking ≥6 cups/day to those who did not drink any were -1.2 ms (95% CI -4.4 to 2.0) for coffee, and -2.0 ms (-11.2 to 7.3) for tea, respectively. The average differences in QT interval duration comparing current to never smokers was 1.2 ms (-0.6 to 2.9) while the average difference in QT interval duration comparing participants drinking ≥7 drinks/week to non-drinkers was 1.8 ms (-0.5 to 4.0). The age, race/ethnicity, and RR-interval adjusted differences in average QT interval duration comparing men with binge drinking episodes to non-drinkers or drinkers without binge drinking were 2.8 ms (0.4 to 5.3) and 4.0 ms (1.6 to 6.4), respectively. The corresponding differences in women were 1.1 (-2.9 to 5.2) and 1.7 ms (-2.3 to 5.7). Finally, the average differences in QT interval comparing the highest vs. the lowest categories of total physical activity was -0.8 ms (-3.0 to 1.4). Binge drinking was associated with longer QT interval in men but not in women. QT interval duration was not associated with other modifiable factors including coffee and tea intake, smoking, and physical activity.

  8. Multilevel model to estimate county-level untreated dental caries among US children aged 6-9years using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei; Zhang, Xingyou; Holt, James B; Robison, Valerie; Li, Chien-Hsun; Griffin, Susan O

    2018-06-01

    Because conducting population-based oral health screening is resource intensive, oral health data at small-area levels (e.g., county-level) are not commonly available. We applied the multilevel logistic regression and poststratification method to estimate county-level prevalence of untreated dental caries among children aged 6-9years in the United States using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2010 linked with various area-level data at census tract, county and state levels. We validated model-based national estimates against direct estimates from NHANES. We also compared model-based estimates with direct estimates from select State Oral Health Surveys (SOHS) at state and county levels. The model with individual-level covariates only and the model with individual-, census tract- and county-level covariates explained 7.2% and 96.3% respectively of overall county-level variation in untreated caries. Model-based county-level prevalence estimates ranged from 4.9% to 65.2% with median of 22.1%. The model-based national estimate (19.9%) matched the NHANES direct estimate (19.8%). We found significantly positive correlations between model-based estimates for 8-year-olds and direct estimates from the third-grade State Oral Health Surveys (SOHS) at state level for 34 states (Pearson coefficient: 0.54, P=0.001) and SOHS estimates at county level for 53 New York counties (Pearson coefficient: 0.38, P=0.006). This methodology could be a useful tool to characterize county-level disparities in untreated dental caries among children aged 6-9years and complement oral health surveillance to inform public health programs especially when local-level data are not available although the lack of external validation due to data unavailability should be acknowledged. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Associations between Food Security Status and Dietary Inflammatory Potential within Lower-Income Adults from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Cycles 2007 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmans, Rachel S; Palta, Mari; Robert, Stephanie A; Berger, Lawrence M; Ehrenthal, Deborah B; Malecki, Kristen M

    2018-06-01

    Evidence suggests both that chronic inflammation mediates the association of food insecurity with adverse health outcomes and that diet may be a significant source of inflammation among food insecure individuals. To examine whether food security status is associated with dietary inflammatory potential. Cross-sectional data came from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), cycles 2007 to 2014 (n=10,630). The analysis sample is representative of noninstitutionalized US adults with an income-to-poverty ratio ≤3.00. Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) score, calculated using the average of two 24-hour dietary recalls, was the main outcome measure. Type III F tests or χ 2 tests compared population characteristics by food security status, defined using the US Food Security Survey Module. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between food security status and the DII score and moderation by demographic factors. Survey weighting procedures accounted for the effects of stratification and clustering used in the NHANES study design. When accounting for socioeconomic status, demographic factors, and health status, DII score was higher at greater levels of food insecurity (P=0.0033). Those with very low food security had a 0.31 (95% CI=0.12 to 0.49) higher DII score than those with high food security. Age moderated the association between food security status and DII score (interaction P=0.0103), where the magnitude of the association between DII score and severity of food insecurity was higher for those >65 years than for younger age groups. Food security status may be associated with dietary inflammatory potential, which is hypothesized to play a role in multiple chronic health conditions. Further research is needed to determine the causal nature of this relationship and evaluate how best to implement programs designed to address health disparities within food insecure populations. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and

  10. What are patient factors associated with the quality of diabetes care?: results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Ki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently there has been a growing interest in healthcare quality control in Korea. We examined the association between patient factors and quality indicators of diabetic care among Korean adults with diabetes. Methods We obtained a sample of 335 adults aged 20 or older diagnosed with diabetes from the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Patient factors were divided into two categories: socioeconomic position and health-related factors. Quality indicators for diabetes care were defined as receiving preventive care services for diabetes complications (e.g., fundus examination, microalbuminuria examination, diabetes education and diabetes-related clinical outcomes (e.g., HbA1c, blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses for each quality indicator. Results We found that people with lower education levels or shorter duration of diabetes illness were less likely to receive preventive care services for diabetes complications. Women or people with longer duration of diabetes were less likely to reach the glycemic target. Obese diabetic patients were less likely to accomplish adequate control of blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol. Conclusions Several factors of patients with diabetes, such as education level, duration of illness, gender, and obesity grade are associated with the quality of diabetes care. These findings can help inform policy makers about subpopulations at risk in developing a public health strategy in the future.

  11. Allostatic load in foreign-born and US-born blacks: evidence from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doamekpor, Lauren A; Dinwiddie, Gniesha Y

    2015-03-01

    We tested whether the immigrant health advantage applies to non-Hispanic Black immigrants and examined whether nativity-based differences in allostatic load exist among non-Hispanic Blacks. We used pooled data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to compare allostatic load scores for US-born (n = 2745) and foreign-born (n = 152) Black adults. We used multivariate logistic regression techniques to assess the association between nativity and high allostatic load scores, controlling for gender, age, health behaviors, and socioeconomic status. For foreign-born Blacks, length of stay and age were powerful predictors of allostatic load scores. For older US-born Blacks and those who were widowed, divorced, or separated, the risk of high allostatic load was greater. Foreign-born Blacks have a health advantage in allostatic load. Further research is needed that underscores a deeper understanding of the mechanisms driving this health differential to create programs that target these populations differently.

  12. Temporal changes in predicted risk of type 2 diabetes in Germany: findings from the German Health Interview and Examination Surveys 1997–1999 and 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprott, Rebecca; Mensink, Gert B M; Schulze, Matthias B; Thiele, Silke; Mühlenbruch, Kristin; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Heidemann, Christin

    2017-01-01

    Objective Over time, prevalence changes in individual diabetes risk factors have been observed for Germany and other European countries. We aimed to investigate the temporal change of a summary measure of type 2 diabetes risk in Germany. Design Comparison of data from two cross-sectional surveys that are about 12 years apart. Setting Two nationwide health examination surveys representative for the non-institutionalised population aged 18–79 years in Germany. Participants The study included participants without diagnosed diabetes from the national health examination surveys in 1997–1999 (n=6457) and 2008–2011 (n=6095). Outcome measures Predicted 5-year type 2 diabetes risk was calculated using the German Diabetes Risk Score (GDRS), which considers information on age, anthropometry, lifestyle factors, hypertension and family history of diabetes. Results Between the two survey periods, the overall age- and sex-standardised predicted 5-year risk of type 2 diabetes decreased by 27% from 1.5% (95% CI 1.4% to 1.6%) to 1.1% (1.0% to 1.2%). The decrease in red meat intake and waist circumference had the highest impact on the overall decrease in diabetes risk. In stratified analyses, diabetes risk decreased among both sexes and within strata of age and body mass index. Diabetes risk also decreased among highly educated persons, but remained unchanged among persons with a middle or low educational level. Conclusions Monitoring type 2 diabetes risk by a summary measure such as the GDRS could essentially contribute to interpret the dynamics in diabetes epidemiology. PMID:28694339

  13. Temporal changes in predicted risk of type 2 diabetes in Germany: findings from the German Health Interview and Examination Surveys 1997-1999 and 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprott, Rebecca; Mensink, Gert B M; Schulze, Matthias B; Thiele, Silke; Mühlenbruch, Kristin; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Heidemann, Christin

    2017-07-09

    Over time, prevalence changes in individual diabetes risk factors have been observed for Germany and other European countries. We aimed to investigate the temporal change of a summary measure of type 2 diabetes risk in Germany. Comparison of data from two cross-sectional surveys that are about 12 years apart. Two nationwide health examination surveys representative for the non-institutionalised population aged 18-79 years in Germany. The study included participants without diagnosed diabetes from the national health examination surveys in 1997-1999 (n=6457) and 2008-2011 (n=6095). Predicted 5-year type 2 diabetes risk was calculated using the German Diabetes Risk Score (GDRS), which considers information on age, anthropometry, lifestyle factors, hypertension and family history of diabetes. Between the two survey periods, the overall age- and sex-standardised predicted 5-year risk of type 2 diabetes decreased by 27% from 1.5% (95% CI 1.4% to 1.6%) to 1.1% (1.0% to 1.2%). The decrease in red meat intake and waist circumference had the highest impact on the overall decrease in diabetes risk. In stratified analyses, diabetes risk decreased among both sexes and within strata of age and body mass index. Diabetes risk also decreased among highly educated persons, but remained unchanged among persons with a middle or low educational level. Monitoring type 2 diabetes risk by a summary measure such as the GDRS could essentially contribute to interpret the dynamics in diabetes epidemiology. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Menopause, postmenopausal hormone use and serum uric acid levels in US women - The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Elisabeth (Elisabeth); H.K. Choi (Hyon)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Despite the substantial prevalence of gout in the ageing female population, female hormonal influence has not been comprehensively examined. We evaluated and quantified the potential independent association between menopause, postmenopausal hormone use and serum uric acid

  15. Groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI]: a health survey and clinical examination of community inhabitants (Kanpur, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Sharma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We assessed the health effects of hexavalent chromium groundwater contamination (from tanneries and chrome sulfate manufacturing in Kanpur, India. METHODS: The health status of residents living in areas with high Cr (VI groundwater contamination (N = 186 were compared to residents with similar social and demographic features living in communities having no elevated Cr (VI levels (N = 230. Subjects were recruited at health camps in both the areas. Health status was evaluated with health questionnaires, spirometry and blood hematology measures. Cr (VI was measured in groundwater samples by diphenylcarbazide reagent method. RESULTS: Residents from communities with known Cr (VI contamination had more self-reports of digestive and dermatological disorders and hematological abnormalities. GI distress was reported in 39.2% vs. 17.2% males (AOR = 3.1 and 39.3% vs. 21% females (AOR = 2.44; skin abnormalities in 24.5% vs. 9.2% males (AOR = 3.48 and 25% vs. 4.9% females (AOR = 6.57. Residents from affected communities had greater RBCs (among 30.7% males and 46.1% females, lower MCVs (among 62.8% males and less platelets (among 68% males and 72% females than matched controls. There were no differences in leucocytes count and spirometry parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Living in communities with Cr (VI groundwater is associated with gastrointestinal and dermatological complaints and abnormal hematological function. Limitations of this study include small sample size and the lack of long term follow-up.

  16. Groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)]: a health survey and clinical examination of community inhabitants (Kanpur, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priti; Bihari, Vipin; Agarwal, Sudhir K; Verma, Vipin; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan N; Pangtey, Balram S; Mathur, Neeraj; Singh, Kunwar Pal; Srivastava, Mithlesh; Goel, Sudhir K

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the health effects of hexavalent chromium groundwater contamination (from tanneries and chrome sulfate manufacturing) in Kanpur, India. The health status of residents living in areas with high Cr (VI) groundwater contamination (N = 186) were compared to residents with similar social and demographic features living in communities having no elevated Cr (VI) levels (N = 230). Subjects were recruited at health camps in both the areas. Health status was evaluated with health questionnaires, spirometry and blood hematology measures. Cr (VI) was measured in groundwater samples by diphenylcarbazide reagent method. Residents from communities with known Cr (VI) contamination had more self-reports of digestive and dermatological disorders and hematological abnormalities. GI distress was reported in 39.2% vs. 17.2% males (AOR = 3.1) and 39.3% vs. 21% females (AOR = 2.44); skin abnormalities in 24.5% vs. 9.2% males (AOR = 3.48) and 25% vs. 4.9% females (AOR = 6.57). Residents from affected communities had greater RBCs (among 30.7% males and 46.1% females), lower MCVs (among 62.8% males) and less platelets (among 68% males and 72% females) than matched controls. There were no differences in leucocytes count and spirometry parameters. Living in communities with Cr (VI) groundwater is associated with gastrointestinal and dermatological complaints and abnormal hematological function. Limitations of this study include small sample size and the lack of long term follow-up.

  17. Hypertension and age at onset of natural menopause in Korean postmenopausal women: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Park, Yoon-Hyung; Kim, Jun-Mo; Lee, Bo-Ra

    2016-08-01

    Menopause is a natural phenomenon of aging, although the timing and management of menopause can significantly affect a woman's quality of life. It is therefore important to identify measures to ensure a healthy menopause. We set out to investigate the association between hypertension and early menopause in Korean women. This cross-sectional study was based on 2008-2013 data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Of the 53,829 participants surveyed, 13,584 women were selected. We analyzed the contents of the health interview, health examination, and nutrition survey. The main outcome was defined based on hazard ratios (HR) to identify the effects of hypertension on age at onset of menopause. Among postmenopausal women (n=6650), the mean age at onset of menopause was 50.4 years. Premenopausal hypertension was statistically significantly associated with age at menopause, oral contraceptive usage, household income, education level, occupation, marital status and smoking and drinking habits. With lower age at diagnosis of hypertension, HRs for menopause tended to be higher, and hypertension diagnosed before age 40 years conferred a statistically significantly higher HR (Model 1, HR=2.32, 95% CI=1.87-2.88; Model 2, HR=2.31, 95% CI=1.86-2.86; Model 3, HR=2.23, 95% CI=1.80-2.77; Model 4, HR=2.00, 95% CI=1.52-2.63). Premature menopause is strongly associated with lifestyle factors, in combination with incomplete management of chronic diseases. Our findings support the hypothesis that younger age at diagnosis of hypertension is associated with younger age at onset of menopause in Korean women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Primer on Health Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    David L Nordstrom; David L Nordstrom

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce novice researchers to surveys as a method of data collection. It starts with the definition of a survey, its major purposes and types as well as changes in the goals surveys have helped to achieve over time. Advantages and disadvantages of surveys over population censuses and medical examinations are discussed. Approaches to questionnaire construction are introduced along with properties that questionnaires are evaluated for. Modes of administration, sam...

  19. Effects of exercise on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus in Koreans: the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hye; Lee, Young-Eun

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise on glycemic control using data from fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and to provide appropriate exercise guidelines for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korea. [Subjects and Methods] We selected 1,328 patients from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database who had type 2 diabetes and ranged in age from 30 to 90 years. Statistical analyses included χ(2) tests, multiple linear regression, and logistic regression. [Results] Factors found to be significantly related to glycemic control included income level, physical activity based on intensity of aerobic exercise, use of diabetes medicine, presence of hypertension, duration of diabetes, and waist circumference. In addition, engaging in combined low- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise when adjusted for resistance exercise was found to lower the risk of glycemic control failure. [Conclusion] Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korea should engage in combined low- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise such as walking for 30 minutes or more five times a week. Physical activity is likely to improve glycemic control and thus prevent the acute and chronic complications of diabetes mellitus.

  20. Working hours and depressive symptomatology among full-time employees: Results from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inah; Kim, Hyunjoo; Lim, Sinye; Lee, Mira; Bahk, Jinwook; June, Kyung Ja; Kim, Soyeon; Chang, Won Joon

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the distribution of working hours and the association between working hours and depressive symptomatology using representative data from a national, population-based survey. Data came from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009), which employed a systematic, stratified cluster-sampling method. We used logistic regression procedures to estimate the importance of weekly working hours as a predictor of depressive symptomatology. The prevalence of depressive symptomatology was 10.2%. The work week, which averaged 48.3 hours for the sample as a whole, was longer for men (49.8 hours) than women (45.3 hours), and 12.1% of respondents were engaged in shift work. In logistic regression analyses, compared to those working hours per week, the odds ratios (OR) of working hours as a predictor of depressive symptomatology were 1.19 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.77-1.85] for those working 52-59 hours per week and 1.62 (95% CI 1.20-2.18) for those working ≥ 60 hours per week, after adjustment for demographic characteristics, health behaviors, socioeconomic status, employment status, and work schedules. It showed a positive dose-response relationship between working hours and depressive symptomatology (P = 0.0059). Working hours in Korea are long. There is an association between working hours and depressive symptomatology, and there seems be a trend in working hours and depressive symptomatology.

  1. The traditional Korean dietary pattern is associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome: findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Cho, Mi Sook

    2014-01-01

    The traditional Korean diet has several healthy components, including abundant vegetables, fermented foods, a variety of foodstuffs, and a balance of animal and vegetable food intake. Although the traditional Korean diet has many healthy components, few studies have been conducted on the health advantages of the Korean dietary pattern. This study is intended to clarify the relationship between Korean dietary patterns and chronic diseases using the Integrated Korean Dietary Pattern Score (I-KDPS). I-KDPS is an index for measuring Korean dietary patterns based on traditional Korean meals and reflects the complex and multifaceted characteristics of Korean food culture. I-KDPS is composed of seven items to measure the level of balance and adequacy of Korean food consumption, with a maximum score of 60. When I-KDPS was applied to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2009), a nationwide survey, I-KDPS was closely related to the risk of metabolic syndrome. Even though there were a few differences among the years surveyed, the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased as I-KDPS increased. These results indicate that risk of diseases, including metabolic syndrome, decreases in individuals adhering to traditional Korean dietary patterns in adequate levels and those who eat a balanced diet. The result of this study shows that the traditional Korean table setting, which comprises side dishes, including seasoned vegetables, grilled dishes, and fermented products with cooked rice (bap), soup (guk), and kimchi, contains traits that help prevent metabolic syndrome. I-KDPS coupled with the basic study of the healthfulness of the Korean dietary lifestyle is expected to help establish a foundation for continuous development of health promoting Korean foods and dietary culture.

  2. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet, Weight Status, and Blood Pressure among Children and Adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Lehnerd, Megan E; Houser, Robert F; Rimm, Eric B

    2017-09-01

    The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is associated with lower blood pressure and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease among adults, but little is known about accordance with this dietary pattern or health benefits among children and adolescents. The objectives were to evaluate accordance with the DASH diet, differences over time, and the association with health attributes among a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2003-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were analyzed. Data from 9,793 individuals aged 8 to 18 years were examined. DASH accordance was estimated based on nine nutrient targets: total fat, saturated fat, protein, cholesterol, fiber, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium; possible score range is 0 to 9. Accordance with the DASH diet across time was examined comparing the 2011-2012 to 2003-2004 NHANES surveys. The association between DASH score and weight status was examined using multinomial logistic regression, and the associations with waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were examined using multivariable linear regression. Accordance with the DASH diet was low across the age groups, with a range of mean DASH scores from 1.48 to 2.14. There were no significant changes across time. DASH score was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) among 14- to 18-year-olds (β=-.46; 95% CI -.83 to -.09) among the larger sample of participants who completed at least one dietary recall, but no significant differences were seen in other age categories. In the subsample of participants with both dietary recalls, a significant inverse association was seen between DASH score and systolic blood pressure for 11- to 13-year-olds (β=-.57; 95% CI -1.02 to -.12). There were no significant associations between this dietary pattern and weight status, waist circumference, or diastolic blood pressure. Few US

  3. Role of Age and Acculturation in Diet Quality Among Mexican Americans - Findings From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yilin; Scribner, Richard; Chen, Liwei; Broyles, Stephanie; Phillippi, Stephen; Tseng, Tung-Sung

    2017-07-20

    Age and acculturation may play a role in diet quality among Mexican Americans. This study examined diet quality in Mexican Americans by age and whether acculturation influences diet quality across different age groups, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Diet quality, measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2010, improved with age except in categories of dairy, sodium, and refined grains. More acculturation was associated with lower scores in overall diet quality and categories of vegetables, fruits, and sodium and empty calories across almost all ages, but higher scores in grain categories, especially in younger groups. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables but low in fat and sodium should be promoted among more acculturated Mexican Americans, and whole-grain foods should be promoted among young but less acculturated Mexican Americans.

  4. A cross-national examination of differences in classification of lifetime alcohol use disorder between DSM-IV and DSM-5: Findings from the World Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Tim; Chiu, Wai-Tat; Glantz, Meyer; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lago, Luise; Sampson, Nancy; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Florescu, Silvia; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Murphy, Sam; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; de Galvis, Yolanda Torres; Viana, Maria Carmen; Xavier, Miguel; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2016-01-01

    Aims To examine the diagnostic overlap in DSM-IV and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) and determine the clinical correlates of changing diagnostic status across the two classification systems. Design DSM-IV and DSM-5 definitions of AUD were compared using cross-national community survey data. Setting Nine low-, middle- and high-income countries. Participants/Cases 31,367 respondents to surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Measures Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3.0 was used to derive DSM-IV and DSM-5 lifetime diagnoses of AUD. Clinical characteristics, also assessed in the surveys, included lifetime DSM-IV anxiety, mood and drug use disorders, lifetime suicidal ideation, plan and attempt, general functional impairment and psychological distress. Findings Compared to DSM-IV AUD (12.3%, SE=0.3%), the DSM-5 definition yielded slightly lower prevalence estimates (10.8%, SE=0.2%). Almost one third (n=802) of all DSM-IV Abuse cases switched to sub-threshold according to DSM-5 and one quarter (n=467) of all DSM-IV diagnostic orphans switched to mild AUD according to DSM-5. New cases of DSM-5 AUD were largely similar to those who maintained their AUD across both classifications. Similarly, new DSM-5 non-cases were similar to those who were sub-threshold across both classifications. The exception to this was with regards to the prevalence of any lifetime drug use disorder. Conclusions In this large cross-national community sample, the prevalence of DSM-5 lifetime AUD was only slightly lower than the prevalence of DSM-IV lifetime AUD. Nonetheless there was considerable diagnostic switching, with a large number of people inconsistently identified across the two DSM classifications. PMID:27426631

  5. The effect of Medicaid adult vision coverage on the likelihood of appropriate correction of distance vision: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Brandy J; Decker, Sandra L

    2016-02-01

    Medicaid is the main public health insurance program for individuals with low income in the United States. Some state Medicaid programs cover preventive eye care services and vision correction, while others cover emergency eye care only. Similar to other optional benefits, states may add and drop adult vision benefits over time. This article examines whether providing adult vision benefits is associated with an increase in the percentage of low-income individuals with appropriately corrected distance vision as measured during an eye exam. We estimate the effect of Medicaid vision coverage on the likelihood of having appropriately corrected distance vision using examination data from the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We compare vision outcomes for Medicaid beneficiaries (n = 712) and other low income adults not enrolled in Medicaid (n = 4786) before and after changes to state vision coverage policies. Between 29 and 33 states provided Medicaid adult vision benefits during 2001-2008, depending on the year. Our findings imply that Medicaid adult vision coverage is associated with a significant increase in the percentage of Medicaid beneficiaries with appropriately corrected distance vision of up to 10 percentage points. Providing vision coverage to adults on Medicaid significantly increases the likelihood of appropriate correction of distance vision. Further research on the impact of vision coverage on related functional outcomes and the effects of Medicaid coverage of other services may be appropriate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of Perceived Dysphonia and Its Correlation With the Prevalence of Clinically Diagnosed Laryngeal Disorders: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Haewon

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of perceived dysphonia and its correlation with the prevalence of clinically diagnosed laryngeal disorders. Subjects were 8713 non-institutionalized civilian adults over the age of 19 (3810 men and 4912 women) who completed the laryngeal examination of the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A Poisson regression was used to examine the association between perceived dysphonia and laryngeal disorders. Adjusting for covariates (age, sex, education level, income, occupation, alcohol drinking, and self-reported health status), those with perceived voice problems were 4.8 times (OR=4.75, 95% CI, 3.77-5.99) more likely to have laryngeal disorders than those without voice problems. In particular, the vocal fold pathology correlated with perceived dysphonia was: vocal fold nodules (OR=5.32, 95% CI, 3.43-8.26), vocal polyps (OR=3.73, 95% CI, 1.57-8.86), vocal cysts (OR=11.97, 95% CI, 1.97-72.72), Reinke's edema (OR=9.27, 95% CI, 4.77-18.00), laryngeal paralysis (OR=3.58, 95% CI, 1.56-8.26), laryngeal granulomas (OR=4.31, 95% CI, 1.01-18.80), epiglottic cyst (OR=2.94, 95% CI, 1.21-7.13), and laryngitis (OR=4.07, 95% CI, 2.91-5.69). People with self-perceived dysphonia had a high risk of laryngeal disorders. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Socioeconomic status, food security, and dental caries in US children: mediation analyses of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Masterson, Erin E; Carle, Adam C; Mancl, Lloyd A; Coldwell, Susan E

    2014-05-01

    We examined associations of household socioeconomic status (SES) and food security with children's oral health outcomes. We analyzed 2007 and 2008 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for children aged 5 to 17 years (n = 2206) to examine the relationship between food security and untreated dental caries and to assess whether food security mediates the SES-caries relationship. About 20.1% of children had untreated caries. Most households had full food security (62%); 13% had marginal, 17% had low, and 8% had very low food security. Higher SES was associated with significantly lower caries prevalence (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval = 0.63, 0.94; P = .01). Children from households with low or very low food security had significantly higher caries prevalence (PR = 2.00 and PR = 1.70, respectively) than did children living in fully food-secure households. Caries prevalence did not differ among children from fully and marginally food-secure households (P = .17). Food insecurity did not appear to mediate the SES-caries relationship. Interventions and policies to ensure food security may help address the US pediatric caries epidemic.

  8. Evaluation of general practitioners' assessment of overweight among children attending the five-year preventive child health examination: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Merethe Kousgaard; Christensen, Bo; Obel, Carsten; Søndergaard, Jens

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate general practitioners' (GPs') assessment of potential overweight among children attending the five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE) by comparing their assessment of the children's weight-for-stature with overweight defined by body mass index (BMI) according to paediatric standard definitions. A cross-sectional survey. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of children's health in general and their growth in particular. The five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE) in general practice in the Central Denmark Region. Children attending the five-year PCHE in general practice, regardless of their weight status. Paediatric standard definitions for childhood overweight based on BMI were used as the gold standard for categorizing weight-for-stature. Identification of overweight was analysed with regard to sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the GPs' assessment of weight-for-stature. A total of 165 GPs conducted 1138 PCHEs. GPs assessed that 171 children had a weight-for-stature above normal. Use of the Danish Standards (DS), i.e. the Danish national growth charts for BMI, as the gold standard yielded a sensitivity of 70.1% (95% CI 62.0-77.3) and a specificity of 92.4% (95% CI 90.6-93.9). The sensitivity was influenced by the GPs' use of BMI and the presence of previous notes regarding abnormal weight development. At the five-year PCHE almost one-third of overweight children were assessed to be normal weight by GPs. Use of BMI and presence of notes on abnormal weight in medical records were positively associated with a higher identification. Hence, utilization of medical record data and BMI charts may refine GPs' assessment of childhood overweight.

  9. Comorbid anxiety disorders alter the association between cardiovascular diseases and depression: the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Phillip J; Baune, Bernhard T

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to examine whether specific anxiety disorder comorbidity alters the purported association between depression and specific cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In 4,181 representative German participants of the general population, 12-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders was assessed through the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and CVDs by physician verified diagnosis. Adjusting for conventional risk factors logistic regression analyzed the association between CVDs (peripheral vascular disease (PVD), hypertension, cerebrovascular disease and heart disease) and combinations of comorbidity between depression and anxiety disorder types (panic disorder, specific phobia, social phobia and generalized anxiety). There were 770 cases of hypertension (18.4 %), 763 cases of cerebrovascular disease (18.2 %), 748 cases of PVD (17.9 %), and 1,087 cases of CVD (26.0 %). In adjusted analyses phobia comorbid with depression was associated with cerebrovascular disease (odds ratio (OR) 1.61; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-2.50) as was panic disorder (OR 2.89; 95 % CI 1.47-5.69). PVD was significantly associated with panic disorder (adjusted OR 2.97; 95 % CI 1.55-5.69). Panic disorder was associated with CVDs (adjusted OR 2.28; 95 % CI 1.09-4.77) as was phobia (adjusted OR 1.35; 95 % CI 1.04-1.78). Classification of anxiety and depression according to comorbidity groups showed discrete effects for panic disorder and specific phobia with CVDs, independent from covariates and depression.

  10. Dental caries and periodontal disease among U.S. pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F; Alverson, C J; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed and compared the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the prevalence of periodontal disease among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-44 years) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES (1999-2004). Estimates were derived from a sample of 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women. Chi-square and two-sample t-tests were used to assess differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty. Bonferroni method was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. In general, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence estimates of dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant women and nonpregnant women. However, results showed significant differences when stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. For example, the prevalence of untreated dental caries among women aged 15-24 years was significantly higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (41 percent versus 24 percent, P = 0.001). Regardless of their pregnancy status, racial/ethnic minorities or women with less education or lower family income had higher prevalence of untreated dental caries, severity of dental caries, and periodontal disease compared to the respective reference groups of non-Hispanic whites or women with more education or higher family income. Results of this study show few clinical differences in dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant and nonpregnant women but persistent disparities by sociodemographic characteristics. In order to reduce oral health disparities in the United States, it is important to improve access to oral health care particularly among vulnerable groups. Integrating oral health into the overall health care could benefit and improve women's oral health outcomes. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  11. Total Blood Mercury Levels and Depression among Adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tsz Hin H.; Mossey, Jana M.; Lee, Brian K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mercury is a neurotoxicant linked with psychiatric symptoms at high levels of exposure. However, it is unclear whether an association is present at the low exposure levels in the US adult population. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional associations of total blood mercury and depression were assessed in 6,911 adults age ≥20 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005–2008. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depression (high likelihood of a depressive spectrum disorder diagnosis; score 5–27). Results Unadjusted survey weighted logistic regression suggested that higher total blood mercury was associated with lower odds of depression (Odds Ratio  = 0.49, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.36–0.65, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles). This association largely disappeared after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (income-poverty ratio, education, marital status). However, in age-stratified analyses, this inverse relationship remained in older adults (age ≥40) even after adjustment for sociodemographic variables. Simulation analyses adjusting for expected confounding effects of fish intake suggested that the inverse relationship among older adults may be plausibly attributed to residual confounding (Odds Ratio  = 0.75, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.50–1.12, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles). Conclusions Higher total blood mercury was not associated with increased odds of depression. The lower odds of depression in older adults with higher total blood mercury may be due to residual confounding. PMID:24244482

  12. Prevalence of gluten-free diet adherence among individuals without celiac disease in the USA: results from the Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiacomo, Daniel V; Tennyson, Christina A; Green, Peter H; Demmer, Ryan T

    2013-08-01

    Clinical inference suggests the prevalence of non-celiac gluten sensitivity is substantially higher than that of celiac disease in the USA. Unfortunately, there are currently no data supporting these claims. The authors analyzed nationally representative data to estimate the prevalence of adherence to a gluten-free diet among participants without celiac disease and also to characterize the demographics and general health status of these participants. The Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010 enrolled 7762 individuals representing the civilian, non-institutionalized, US population free of celiac disease. Participants responded to interviewer administered questionnaires regarding current adherence to a gluten-free diet. Prevalence estimates were computed using SAS survey procedures. There were 49 individuals who reported current adherence to a gluten-free diet reflecting a weighted prevalence of 0.548% (95% CI 0.206-0.889). The prevalence of a gluten-free diet was higher in females (0.58%) than males (0.37%), although this was not statistically significant (p = 0.34). Participants reporting a gluten-free diet were older (46.6 vs. 40.5 years, p = 0.005), had higher high-density lipoprotein, lower iron and lower body mass index. The estimated national prevalence of non-celiac gluten sensitivity is 0.548%, approximately half that of celiac disease. Future studies are merited in order to better understand the population burden of non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

  13. Associations Among Oral Hygiene Behavior and Hypertension Prevalence and Control: The 2008 to 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Min; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu; Park, Jun-Beom

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a positive association has been reported between hypertension and periodontitis. The authors hypothesized that oral hygiene promotion activities could have an effect on hypertension prevention or the degree of hypertension control. Therefore, this study examines the relationship between oral hygiene behaviors and hypertension using data from a nationally representative survey, the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Using data from the KNHANES (2008 to 2010), 19,560 adults with complete data sets were included. The authors analyzed the relationship of the prevalence and control rate of hypertension and numerous variables, including oral hygiene behavior. As the frequency of toothbrushing increased, the prevalence of hypertension decreased in multivariate analysis after adjusting for various factors, including the presence of periodontitis. In a subgroup analysis, this relationship was also observed in individuals without periodontitis. In particular, systolic blood pressure levels progressively decreased as the frequency of toothbrushing and the number of secondary oral products used increased. The adjusted odds ratio of hypertension prevalence was 1.195 (95% confidence interval 1.033 to 1.383) for individuals who brushed their teeth hardly ever or once daily compared with those who brushed after every meal. Individuals with poor oral hygiene behavior are more likely to have a higher prevalence of hypertension, even before periodontitis is shown. Oral hygiene behavior may be considered an independent risk indicator for hypertension, and maintaining good oral hygiene may help to prevent and control hypertension.

  14. Predictors of exclusive breastfeeding across three time points in Bangladesh: an examination of the 2007, 2011 and 2014 Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Sarah R; Sanghvi, Tina

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore predictors of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in Bangladesh using data from 2007, 2011 and 2014, specifically focusing on potential reasons why rates of EBF changed over those time periods. Data on mother/infant pairs with infants <6 months of age were examined at the three time points using the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. The EBF prevalence, changes in EBF since the previous survey and determinants of EBF at each time period were examined using t-tests, χ2 and multilevel logistic regression. The prevalence of EBF was 42.5, 65 and 59.4% in 2007, 2011 and 2014, respectively. The age of the child was significantly associated with EBF across all time points. The largest changes in EBF occurred in the 3- to 5-month age group. Predictors of EBF in this specific age group were similar to overall predictors (e.g. age of the child and region). Participation of the mother in household decisions was a significant predictor in 2014. EBF prevalence in Bangladesh increased between 2007 and 2011 and then decreased between 2011 and 2014. The increase in 2011 may have been the result of widespread initiatives to promote EBF in that time frame. Due to the unexplained decrease in EBF between 2011 and 2014, there is still a need for interventions such as peer counselling, antenatal education and community awareness to promote EBF.

  15. Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  16. Food sources of alpha-linolenic acid (PFA 18:3), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food sources of alpha-linolenic acid (PFA 18:3), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  17. Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  18. Iron deficiency is associated with food insecurity in pregnant females in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Clara Y; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2014-12-01

    Food-insecure pregnant females may be at greater risk of iron deficiency (ID) because nutrition needs increase and more resources are needed to secure food during pregnancy. This may result in a higher risk of infant low birth weight and possibly cognitive impairment in the neonate. The relationships of food insecurity and poverty income ratio (PIR) with iron intake and ID among pregnant females in the United States were investigated using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data (n=1,045). Food security status was classified using the US Food Security Survey Module. One 24-hour dietary recall and a 30-day supplement recall were used to assess iron intake. Ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, or total body iron classified ID. Difference of supplement intake prevalence, difference in mean iron intake, and association of ID and food security status or PIR were assessed using χ(2) analysis, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, race, survey year, PIR/food security status, education, parity, trimester, smoking, C-reactive protein level, and health insurance coverage), respectively. Mean dietary iron intake was similar among groups. Mean supplemental and total iron intake were lower, whereas odds of ID, classified by ferritin status, were 2.90 times higher for food-insecure pregnant females compared with food-secure pregnant females. Other indicators of ID were not associated with food security status. PIR was not associated with iron intake or ID. Food insecurity status may be a better indicator compared with income status to identify populations at whom to direct interventions aimed at improving access and education regarding iron-rich foods and supplements. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dental caries and periodontal disease among U.S. pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Alverson, C. J.; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed and compared the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the prevalence of periodontal disease among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15–44 years) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES (1999–2004). Methods Estimates were derived from a sample of 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women. Chi-square and two-sample t-tests were used to assess differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty. Bonferroni method was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results In general, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence estimates of dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant women and nonpregnant women. However, results showed significant differences when stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. For example, the prevalence of untreated dental caries among women aged 15–24 years was significantly higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (41 percent versus 24 percent, P=0.001). Regardless of their pregnancy status, racial/ethnic minorities or women with less education or lower family income had higher prevalence of untreated dental caries, severity of dental caries, and periodontal disease compared to the respective reference groups of non-Hispanic whites or women with more education or higher family income. Conclusion Results of this study show few clinical differences in dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant and nonpregnant women but persistent disparities by sociodemographic characteristics. In order to reduce oral health disparities in the United States, it is important to improve access to oral health care particularly among vulnerable groups. Integrating oral health into the overall health care could benefit and improve women’s oral health outcomes. PMID:27154283

  20. Associations Between Reported Dietary Sodium Intake and Osteoporosis in Korean Postmenopausal Women: The 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunmi; Kim, Hyun-Young; Kim, Jung Hwan

    2017-07-01

    Osteoporosis is prevalent among postmenopausal women, and increasing evidence has linked salt intake with this disease. In this article, we explored the association between dietary sodium intake and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women. We analyzed data for 3635 postmenopausal women extracted from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We found that 1542 participants (42.4%) have osteoporosis. The adjusted prevalence rates of osteoporosis at the lumbar spine were significantly higher in participants who consumed ≥4001 mg of salt than those who consumed ≤2000 mg. At the femoral neck, rates were significantly higher for those who consumed ≥5001 mg compared with those who consumed ≤4000 mg. Participants with a higher sodium intake showed a significantly higher odds ratio of developing lumbar and femoral neck osteoporosis, compared with those with a lower intake. Our results suggest that excessive daily sodium intake is associated with a higher osteoporosis prevalence in Korean postmenopausal women.

  1. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Sarcopenia in Korean Cancer Survivors: Based on Data Obtained by the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Kirang; Kim, Young Saing; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Jeong, Yu Mi; Kim, Jeong Ho; Choi, Won-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Using a representative dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2011, we analyzed anthropometric and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-determined body composition findings for 493 cancer survivors (mean age a61.1 ± 12.6 years; 35.7% male). A much higher proportion of men (30.1%) than women (0.6%) met the criteria of sarcopenia. Subjects with a history of lung cancer, genitourinary cancer, or gastric cancer were prone to develop sarcopenia (31.6%, 26.3%, and 21.4%, respectively). Furthermore, sarcopenia was more prevalent among elderly (≥65 years; P sarcopenia was significantly associated with male gender (odds ratio [OR], 68.14; 95% CI, 15.52-299.13), a BMI of sarcopenia in Korean cancer survivors.

  2. Accelerometer-Derived Pattern of Sedentary and Physical Activity Time in Persons with Mobility Disability: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, Patricia; Ezeugwu, Victor; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Vallance, Jeff; Healy, Genevieve N

    2015-07-01

    To describe objectively determined sedentary and activity outcomes (volume and pattern) and their associations with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers in individuals with and without mobility disability. Cross-sectional. Population based. Community-dwelling older adults (≥60) living in the United States who were participants in the 2003 to 2004 or 2005 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were classified as with or without mobility disability according to responses to self-reported questions about ability to walk, climb stairs, and/or use of ambulatory aids. Accelerometer-derived sedentary and activity variables for volume (time in sedentary (activity and pattern (number of breaks from sedentary time, duration of sedentary bouts, duration of activity bouts). Survey-weighted regression models, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, education, and smoking, were used to examine the associations between pattern of activity and cardiometabolic health risk factors (blood pressure, waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). Of the 2,017 participants, 547 were classified as having a mobility disability. Participants with mobility disability had more sedentary time and less active time than those without. Sedentary bouts were longer and active bouts shorter in those with disability. The total number of sedentary breaks (transitions from sedentary to nonsedentary) differed between groups after adjustment for total sedentary time. Fewer breaks, longer sedentary bouts, and shorter activity bouts were associated with higher average waist circumference regardless of disability status. This study provides rationale for the development and testing of interventions to change the pattern of activity (e.g., include more breaks and longer activity bout durations) in older adults with mobility disability. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in community dwelling women: the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Se Young; Kim, Suyeon; Lee, Kiheon; Kim, Ju Young; Bae, Woo Kyung; Lee, Keehyuck; Han, Jong-Soo; Kim, Sarah

    2015-07-16

    To assess the association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in women in South Korea. Population-based cross-sectional study. South Korea (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V). 1490 non-smoking women who took part in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012), in which blood levels of lead and cadmium were measured. The primary outcome was blood levels of lead and cadmium in accordance with the duration of secondhand smoke exposure. The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium in women who were never exposed to secondhand smoke was 1.21 (0.02) µg/L. Among women who were exposed less than 1 h/day, the mean cadmium level was 1.13 (0.03) µg/L, and for those exposed for more than 1 h, the mean level was 1.46 (0.06) µg/L. In particular, there was a significant association between duration of secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace and blood cadmium concentration. The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium concentration in the never exposed women's group was less than that in the 1 h and more exposed group, and the 1 h and more at workplace exposed group: 1.20, 1.24 and 1.50 µg/L, respectively. We could not find any association between lead concentration in the blood and secondhand smoke exposure status. This study showed that exposure to secondhand smoke and blood cadmium levels are associated. Especially, there was a significant association at the workplace. Therefore, social and political efforts for reducing the exposure to secondhand smoke at the workplace are needed in order to promote a healthier working environment for women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. The association between long working hours and the metabolic syndrome: evidences from the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2010 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Uk; Jeon, Man Joong; Sakong, Joon

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the association between the working hours of Korean employees and the metabolic syndrome and the effects of long working hours on metabolic syndrome based on the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012). Based on the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012), 4,456 Korean employees without shift work, aged over 15, who work 30 hours or more per week were targeted in this study. The association between the general characteristics, including age, smoking, alcohol drinking, exercise, and the metabolic syndrome criteria defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and weekly working hours were analyzed. In addition, the association between weekly working hours and the metabolic syndrome of the subjects stratified by gender was analyzed through multiple logistic regression analyses and generalized linear mixed model after adjusting the general characteristics. In the results of stratified analysis by gender, in male subjects, in comparison with the 30-39 weekly working hours group, there were no significant adjusted odds ratios to the other working hours groups. In female subjects, in comparison with the 30-39 weekly working hours group, there were no significant adjusted odds ratios to the other working hours groups. In addition, no trend associations were observed among weekly working hour groups in both stratified genders. No significant differences in prevalence of metabolic syndrome of the subjects stratified by gender were found according to weekly increasing working hours. However, due to some limitations of this study, further prospective studies may be necessary for verification.

  5. Well-being in residency training: a survey examining resident physician satisfaction both within and outside of residency training and mental health in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patten Scott

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the critical importance of well-being during residency training, only a few Canadian studies have examined stress in residency and none have examined well-being resources. No recent studies have reported any significant concerns with respect to perceived stress levels in residency. We investigated the level of perceived stress, mental health and understanding and need for well-being resources among resident physicians in training programs in Alberta, Canada. Methods A mail questionnaire was distributed to the entire resident membership of PARA during 2003 academic year. PARA represents each of the two medical schools in the province of Alberta. Results In total 415 (51 % residents participated in the study. Thirty-four percent of residents who responded to the survey reported their life as being stressful. Females reported stress more frequently than males (40% vs. 27%, p Residents highly valued their colleagues (67%, program directors (60% and external psychiatrist/psychologist (49% as well-being resources. Over one third of residents wished to have a career counselor (39% and financial counselor (38%. Conclusion Many Albertan residents experience significant stressors and emotional and mental health problems. Some of which differ among genders. This study can serve as a basis for future resource application, research and advocacy for overall improvements to well-being during residency training.

  6. Dietary intakes and serum nutrients differ between adults from food-insufficient and food-sufficient families: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L B; Winkleby, M A; Radimer, K L

    2001-04-01

    Approximately 10.2 million persons in the United States sometimes or often do not have enough food to eat, a condition known as food insufficiency. Using cross-sectional data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), we examined whether dietary intakes and serum nutrients differed between adults from food-insufficient families (FIF) and adults from food-sufficient families (FSF). Results from analyses, stratified by age group and adjusted for family income and other important covariates, revealed several significant findings (P milk/milk products, fruits/fruit juices and vegetables. In addition, younger adults from FIF had lower serum concentrations of total cholesterol, vitamin A and three carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein/zeaxanthin). Older adults (aged > or =60 y) from FIF had lower intakes of energy, vitamin B-6, magnesium, iron and zinc and were more likely to have iron and zinc intakes below 50% of the recommended amount on a given day. Older adults from FIF also had lower serum concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, albumin, vitamin A, beta-cryptoxanthin and vitamin E. Both younger and older adults from FIF were more likely to have very low serum albumin (<35 g/L) than were adults from FSF. Our findings show that adults from FIF have diets that may compromise their health.

  7. Trends in nutrient intakes and consumption while eating-out among Korean adults based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2012) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Seok; Ju, Se-Young

    2014-12-01

    Eating-out among Korean people has become an important part of modern lifestyle due to tremendous growth of the food service industry and various social and economic changes. This study examined trends in meal patterns and meal sources while eating-out among Korean adults aged 19 years and older. Data were from the 1998-2012 KNHNES (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) by the 24-hour dietary recall method. This study included 55,718 adults aged 19 years and older. For analysis of eating-out frequency, data were categorized by source of meals and serving place. Average frequency of meals consumed away from home increased from 1998 to 2012, although it remained lower than that of meals at home. In addition, male, unmarried, employed, higher educated, and high income individuals more frequently consumed meals away from home. Moreover, sodium intake while eating-out significantly increased from 2,370 mg in 1998 to 2,935 mg in 2012. Lastly, percentage contributions of daily total protein intake, fat intake, and sodium intake from eating-out increased to more than half (53-55%) in 2012 compared with 47-48% in 1998. As eating-out has grown in popularity, greater recognition of public health and nutritional education aimed at promoting healthy food choices is needed. In addition to developing consumer education for overall healthier eating patterns, individuals who are younger, unmarried, higher educated, and males are especially at risk and require attention.

  8. Food Sources of Total Energy and Nutrients among U.S. Infants and Toddlers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carley A. Grimes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dietary intakes of infants and toddlers is important because early life nutrition influences future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary sources of total energy and 16 nutrients in a nationally representative sample of U.S. infants and toddlers aged 0–24 months. Data from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed in 2740 subjects using one 24-h dietary recall. The population proportion was used to determine the contribution of foods and beverages to nutrient intakes. Overall infant formulas and baby foods were the leading sources of total energy and nutrients in infants aged 0–11.9 months. In toddlers, the diversity of food groups contributing to nutrient intakes was much greater. Important sources of total energy included milk, 100% juice and grain based mixed dishes. A number of foods of low nutritional quality also contributed to energy intakes including sweet bakery products, sugar-sweetened beverages and savory snacks. Overall non-flavored milks and ready-to-eat cereals were the most important contributors to micronutrient intakes. In conclusion this information can be used to guide parents regarding appropriate food selection as well as inform targeted dietary strategies within public health initiatives to improve the diets of infants and toddlers.

  9. Food Sources of Total Energy and Nutrients among U.S. Infants and Toddlers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Campbell, Karen J; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2015-08-14

    Understanding the dietary intakes of infants and toddlers is important because early life nutrition influences future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary sources of total energy and 16 nutrients in a nationally representative sample of U.S. infants and toddlers aged 0-24 months. Data from the 2005-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed in 2740 subjects using one 24-h dietary recall. The population proportion was used to determine the contribution of foods and beverages to nutrient intakes. Overall infant formulas and baby foods were the leading sources of total energy and nutrients in infants aged 0-11.9 months. In toddlers, the diversity of food groups contributing to nutrient intakes was much greater. Important sources of total energy included milk, 100% juice and grain based mixed dishes. A number of foods of low nutritional quality also contributed to energy intakes including sweet bakery products, sugar-sweetened beverages and savory snacks. Overall non-flavored milks and ready-to-eat cereals were the most important contributors to micronutrient intakes. In conclusion this information can be used to guide parents regarding appropriate food selection as well as inform targeted dietary strategies within public health initiatives to improve the diets of infants and toddlers.

  10. [Relationship between physical activity and health in children and adolescents. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) and the "Motorik-Modul" (MoMo)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, S; Jekauc, D; Poethko-Müller, C; Woll, A; Schlaud, M

    2012-01-01

    The question of whether physical activity is associated with positive aspects of health becomes increasingly more important in the light of the health status in today's children and adolescents and due to the changing lifestyle with respect to everyday activity. The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) collected the first set of nationwide representative cross-sectional data to examine the relationship between health and physical activity. Taking sociodemographic parameters into consideration, the results suggest a positive association between self-estimated general health and several types of physical activity. The results vary with respect to gender and type of physical activity. For methodological reasons, causal conclusions can only be drawn after longitudinal data of the second wave of KiGGS are available.

  11. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. Methods The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. Results The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits—eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking—was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. Conclusion We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for

  12. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Shik

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits-eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking-was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for health promotion.

  13. [Use of electronic media in adolescence. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, T; Sygusch, R; Schlack, R

    2007-01-01

    The use of electronic media is playing an ever greater role in adolescents' recreational behaviour. From the point of view of the health sciences, one question which arises is the extent to which intensive media use is detrimental to physical activity and adolescents' health development. The data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), which were evaluated with a focus on 11-17-year-olds, confirm this heavy use of electronic media. However, there are distinct group-specific differences. For example, boys spend more time than girls on computers, the internet and games consoles, whereas girls more often listen to music and use their mobile phones. Watching television and videos is equally popular among girls and boys. Adolescents of low social status or a low level of school education use electronic media far more frequently and for longer times, especially television and video, games consoles and mobile phones. The same is true of boys and girls from the former states of the GDR and for boys (but not girls) with a background of migration. A connection to physical activity has been established for adolescents who spend more than five hours a day using electronic media. Moreover, this group of heavy users is more often affected by adiposity. The results of the KiGGS study, which are in line with earlier research findings, thus demonstrate that the use of electronic media is also of relevance from the point of view of public health and should be included in investigations into the health of children and adolescents.

  14. Relationship between Long Working Hours and Suicidal Thoughts: Nationwide Data from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Jung, Pil Kyun; Roh, Jaehoon; Seok, Hongdeok; Won, Jong-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Long working hours are a worldwide problem and may increase the risk of various health issues. However, the health effects of long working hours on suicidal thoughts have not been frequently studied. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between long working hours and suicidal thoughts in the rapidly developing country of Korea. Data from 12,076 participants (7,164 men, 4,912 women) from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were used for the current analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for suicidal thoughts. Combined effects of long working hours and lower socioeconomic status or sleep disturbance were also estimated. Compared to groups who worked less than 52 hours per week, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for suicidal thoughts in groups who worked 60 hours or more per week were 1.36 (1.09-1.70) for males and 1.38 (1.11-1.72) for females, even after controlling for household income, marital status, history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus, health-related behaviors, and past two weeks' experience of injury, intoxication, or acute or chronic diseases, as well as type of work. The combined effects of long working hours with lower socioeconomic status, or with sleep disturbance, were also significantly higher compared to participants who worked less than 52 hours per week with higher socioeconomic status, or with 6-8 hours of nighttime sleep. In this study, long working hours were linked to suicidal thoughts for both genders. Additionally, the odds of those suicidal thoughts were higher for lower socioeconomic groups. To prevent adverse psychological health problems such as suicidal thoughts, a strategy regarding long working hours should be investigated.

  15. Relationship between Long Working Hours and Suicidal Thoughts: Nationwide Data from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Jin-Ha Yoon

    Full Text Available Long working hours are a worldwide problem and may increase the risk of various health issues. However, the health effects of long working hours on suicidal thoughts have not been frequently studied. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between long working hours and suicidal thoughts in the rapidly developing country of Korea.Data from 12,076 participants (7,164 men, 4,912 women from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were used for the current analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for suicidal thoughts. Combined effects of long working hours and lower socioeconomic status or sleep disturbance were also estimated.Compared to groups who worked less than 52 hours per week, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals for suicidal thoughts in groups who worked 60 hours or more per week were 1.36 (1.09-1.70 for males and 1.38 (1.11-1.72 for females, even after controlling for household income, marital status, history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus, health-related behaviors, and past two weeks' experience of injury, intoxication, or acute or chronic diseases, as well as type of work. The combined effects of long working hours with lower socioeconomic status, or with sleep disturbance, were also significantly higher compared to participants who worked less than 52 hours per week with higher socioeconomic status, or with 6-8 hours of nighttime sleep.In this study, long working hours were linked to suicidal thoughts for both genders. Additionally, the odds of those suicidal thoughts were higher for lower socioeconomic groups. To prevent adverse psychological health problems such as suicidal thoughts, a strategy regarding long working hours should be investigated.

  16. Relationship between the number of family members and stress by gender: Cross-sectional analysis of the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Kyoung-Beom; Park, Jumin; Hong, Janghun; Kwon, Young Dae

    2017-01-01

    Due to gendered inequalities in the division of domestic work, women with paid employment and family caregiving responsibilities can feel extremely tired with general distress and depression. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between the number of family members and stress level by gender among Korean adults using a nationally representative dataset. We used a sample of 6,293 subjects aged 19 or older (3,629 female and 2,264 male) from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A multivariable logistic regression analysis with sociodemographic and health-related characteristics was conducted. Because there were gender differences, a stratified analysis was performed for each gender. Age, number of family members, education level, occupational status, depression, self-rated health status, and chronic diseases were found to have a significant association with stress level in the study subjects (pstress increased among females from family with two members (OR 1.521), three family members (OR 1.893), or four or more family members without spouse (OR 2.035) compared to those who live alone. We found that unmarried women are more likely to be stressed as the number of family members increases. Gender expectations giving women the main responsibility for domestic and care work may become a source of stress. Reconciliation of family and work remains women's responsibility in Korea. As family problems are recently becoming a big issue, our study shows the importance of considering gender difference in studies on stress according to family roles and functions.

  17. Conflicting Role of Sarcopenia and Obesity in Male Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Park, Joo-Hyun; Park, Hye Kyeong; Jung, Hoon; Lee, Sung-Soon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of sarcopenia and obesity on pulmonary function and quality of life (QOL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Research Design and Methods Data were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including data from health interviews, health examinations, nutritional questionnaires, and laboratory findings. Laboratory data included pulmonary function assessment and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry results. Sarcopenia was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was defined by body mass index. Male COPD patients were then classified into 4 groups according to the presence of sarcopenia and obesity. Results In male patients with COPD, the prevalence of sarcopenia was found to be 29.3%, and that of sarcopenic obesity was 14.2%. Furthermore, 22.5% of the patients observed in this study had impaired QOL. Following multivariable statistical analysis, both sarcopenia and obesity were independent risk factors for worsening lung function. Adjusted values of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were the lowest in the sarcopenic obesity group. Sarcopenia was also associated with more subjective activity limitation and poorer QOL; however obesity was related to less subjective limitation and better QOL after multivariable analysis. Adjusted value of QOL was the lowest in sarcopenic subjects without obesity, and the highest in obese subject without sarcopenia. Conclusions Both sarcopenia and obesity were found to be associated with worsening lung function in male COPD patients. However, obesity was positively correlated with improved QOL while sarcopenia was negatively correlated with QQL. PMID:25353344

  18. Energy intake from commercially-prepared meals by food source in Korean adults: Analysis of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

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    Choi, Injoo; Kim, Won Gyoung

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The commercial foodservice industry in Korea has shown rapid growth recently. This study examined Korean adults' consumption of commercially-prepared meals based on where the food was prepared. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data from a 24-hour dietary recall of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed. A total of 10,539 subjects (n = 6,152 in 2001; n = 4,387 in 2011) aged 19-64 years were included for analysis. Commercially-prepared meals were classified into four food source groups based on where the food was prepared: Korean restaurants, Chinese/Western/Japanese restaurants, fast-food restaurants, and retail stores. Subjects' energy intake, including the amount and proportion of calories, was examined for each food source. The analysis was also conducted by gender for age-stratified groups: 19-29, 30-49, and 50-64 years old. RESULTS Korean adults' energy intake from commercially-prepared meals increased in the amount of calories (551 kcal to 635 kcal, P food source of commercially-prepared meals was Korean restaurants in both years. The amount and proportion of calories from retail stores increased from 83 kcal to 143 kcal (P Korean adults consumed about one-fourth of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. In particular, males aged 30-49 years and females aged 19-29 years consumed more than one-third of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. Korean restaurants played a significant role in Korean adults' energy intake. Retail stores increased influence on Korean adults' energy intake. These results could be useful for developing health promotion policies and programs. PMID:28386389

  19. Serum ferritin level is higher in male adolescents with obesity: results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010

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    Yeon Jin Jeon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposePrevious reports show an association between high serum ferritin levels and metabolic syndrome (MS in adults. In adolescents, little information is available with obesity and serum ferritin levels.MethodsThis is a cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (K-NHANES conducted during 2010 by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare. A total of 849 subjects aged 10-18 years participated in the 2010 survey. A body mass index (BMI ≥95th percentile for age and sex or a BMI ≥25 was used to diagnose as obesity.ResultsThe weighted prevalence of obesity was 13.4% (62/462 in male and 8.5% (33/387 in female. We observed significantly higher serum ferritin in male than in female (mean±standard error [SE], 50.5±2.3 µU/L vs. 30.6±1.3 µU/L; P<0.0001. In male, serum ferritin is positively correlated with age (P<0.0001. White blood cell (WBC count, serum fasting blood sugar, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and ferritin levels were higher and high-density lipoprotein (HDL were lower in the obesity than in the normal group. In female adolescents, WBC count, TG, insulin, and HOMA-IR were higher and HDL were lower in the obesity than in the normal group. In male, serum ferritin levels showed positive association with obesity (β=21.196, P=0.016.ConclusionSerum ferritin levels appear to be associated with obesity in Korean male adolescents.

  20. Prevalence and cardiovascular risk profile of chronic kidney disease in Italy: results of the 2008-12 National Health Examination Survey.

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    De Nicola, Luca; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Minutolo, Roberto; Lo Noce, Cinzia; Palmieri, Luigi; De Curtis, Amalia; Iacoviello, Licia; Zoccali, Carmine; Gesualdo, Loreto; Conte, Giuseppe; Vanuzzo, Diego; Giampaoli, Simona

    2015-05-01

    National surveys in countries outside Europe have reported a high prevalence (11-13%) of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Studies in Europe have provided a variable prevalence likely due to differences in study design, including age and extent of geographic areas, equation used to evaluate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and CKD stages examined. The 2008-12 National Health Examination Survey in Italy randomly extracted samples from the general population aged 35-79 years, stratified by age and gender, from the resident list of each Italian region (440 persons/1.5 million of residents). We estimated the prevalence of CKD by means of urinary albumin : creatinine ratio and eGFR (CKD-EPI equation-enzymatic assay of serum creatinine). Cardiovascular (CV) risk profile was also evaluated. Three thousand eight hundred and forty-eight men and 3704 women were examined. In the whole population, mean age was 57 ± 12 and 56 ± 12 years in men and women, respectively; hypertension was prevalent in men and women, respectively (56 and 43%) and the same held true for overweight (48 and 33%), obesity (26 and 27%), diabetes (14 and 9%) and smoking (21 and 18%), whereas CV disease was less frequent (9 and 6%). Overall, the prevalence of CKD (95% confidence interval) was 7.05% (6.48-7.65). Early stages constituted 59% of the CKD population [Stage G1-2 A2-3: 4.16% (3.71-4.61) and Stage G3-5: 2.89% (2.51-3.26)]. At multivariate regression analysis, age, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, CV disease and smoking were all independent correlates of CKD. CKD has a relatively lower prevalence in Italy, in particular for advanced stages, when compared with similar national surveys outside Europe. This occurs despite older age and unfavourable CV risk profile of the whole population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  1. Validation of the German Diabetes Risk Score among the general adult population: findings from the German Health Interview and Examination Surveys

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    Paprott, Rebecca; Mühlenbruch, Kristin; Mensink, Gert B M; Thiele, Silke; Schulze, Matthias B; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Heidemann, Christin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the German Diabetes Risk Score (GDRS) among the general adult German population for prediction of incident type 2 diabetes and detection of prevalent undiagnosed diabetes. Methods The longitudinal sample for prediction of incident diagnosed type 2 diabetes included 3625 persons who participated both in the examination survey in 1997–1999 and the examination survey in 2008–2011. Incident diagnosed type 2 diabetes was defined as first-time physician diagnosis or antidiabetic medication during 5 years of follow-up excluding potential incident type 1 and gestational diabetes. The cross-sectional sample for detection of prevalent undiagnosed diabetes included 6048 participants without diagnosed diabetes of the examination survey in 2008–2011. Prevalent undiagnosed diabetes was defined as glycated haemoglobin ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol). We assessed discrimination as area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC (95% CI)) and calibration through calibration plots. Results In longitudinal analyses, 82 subjects with incident diagnosed type 2 diabetes were identified after 5 years of follow-up. For prediction of incident diagnosed diabetes, the GDRS yielded an ROC-AUC of 0.87 (0.83 to 0.90). Calibration plots indicated excellent prediction for low diabetes risk and overestimation for intermediate and high diabetes risk. When considering the entire follow-up period of 11.9 years (ROC-AUC: 0.84 (0.82 to 0.86)) and including incident undiagnosed diabetes (ROC-AUC: 0.81 (0.78 to 0.84)), discrimination decreased somewhat. A previously simplified paper version of the GDRS yielded a similar predictive ability (ROC-AUC: 0.86 (0.82 to 0.89)). In cross-sectional analyses, 128 subjects with undiagnosed diabetes were identified. For detection of prevalent undiagnosed diabetes, the ROC-AUC was 0.84 (0.81 to 0.86). Again, the simplified version yielded a similar result (ROC-AUC: 0.83 (0.80 to 0.86)). Conclusions The GDRS might be applied

  2. Changes in daily activity patterns with age in U.S. men and women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-04 and 2005-06.

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    Martin, Kathryn R; Koster, Annemarie; Murphy, Rachel A; Van Domelen, Dane R; Hung, Ming-yang; Brychta, Robert J; Chen, Kong Y; Harris, Tamara B

    2014-07-01

    To compare daily and hourly activity patterns according to sex and age. Cross-sectional, observational. Nationally representative community sample: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-04 and 2005-06. Individuals (n = 5,788) aged 20 and older with 4 or more valid days of monitor wear-time, no missing data on valid wear-time minutes, and covariates. Activity was examined as average counts per minute (CPM) during wear-time; percentage of time spent in nonsedentary activity; and time (minutes) spent in sedentary (physical activity (MVPA (≥ 760)). Analyses accounted for survey design, adjusted for covariates, and were sex specific. In adjusted models, men spent slightly more time (~1-2%) in nonsedentary activity than women aged 20 to 34, with levels converging at age 35 to 59, although the difference was not significant. Women aged 60 and older spent significantly more time (~3-4%) in nonsedentary activity than men, despite similarly achieved average CPM. With increasing age, all nonsedentary activity decreased in men; light activity remained constant in women (~30%). Older men had fewer CPM at night (~20), more daytime sedentary minutes (~3), fewer daytime light physical activity minutes (~4), and more MVPA minutes (~1) until early evening than older women. Although sex differences in average CPM declined with age, differences in nonsedentary activity time emerged as men increased sedentary behavior and reduced MVPA time. Maintained levels of light-intensity activity suggest that women continue engaging in common daily activities into older age more than men. Findings may help inform the development of behavioral interventions to increase intensity and overall activity levels, particularly in older adults. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Novel exposure biomarkers of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET): Data from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Calafat, Antonia M; Baker, Samuel E; Wong, Lee-Yang; Bishop, Amanda M; Morales-A, Pilar; Valentin-Blasini, Liza

    2016-01-01

    N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) is a widely used insect repellent in the United States. To assess exposure to DEET in a representative sample of persons 6years and older in the U.S. general population from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We analyzed 5348 urine samples by using online solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We used regression models to examine associations of various demographic parameters with urinary concentrations of DEET biomarkers. We detected DEET in ~3% of samples and at concentration ranges (>0.08μg/L-45.1μg/L) much lower than those of 3-(diethylcarbamoyl)benzoic acid (DCBA) (>0.48μg/L-30,400μg/L) and N,N-diethyl-3-hydroxymethylbenzamide (DHMB) (>0.09μg/L-332μg/L). DCBA was the most frequently detected metabolite (~84%). Regardless of survey cycle and the person's race/ethnicity or income, adjusted geometric mean concentrations of DCBA were higher in May-Sep than in Oct-Apr. Furthermore, non-Hispanic whites in the warm season were more likely than in the colder months [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=10.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.28-35.79] and more likely than non-Hispanic blacks (OR=3.45; 95% CI, 1.51-7.87) to have DCBA concentrations above the 95th percentile. The general U.S. population, including school-age children, is exposed to DEET. However, reliance on DEET as the sole urinary biomarker would likely underestimate the prevalence of exposure. Instead, oxidative metabolites of DEET are the most adequate exposure biomarkers. Differences by season of the year based on demographic variables including race/ethnicity likely reflect different lifestyle uses of DEET-containing products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of socioeconomic status as a risk factor of pterygium using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2011: A STROBE-compliant article.

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    Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Su Young; Park, Yong Gyu; Han, Kyung Do; Kim, Jin-Wou; Chae, Hiun Suk; Lee, Young Chun

    2017-03-01

    Pterygium is a common conjunctival disorder. The socioeconomic risk factors of pterygium have not been systematically evaluated in Korea. The study investigated risk factors of pterygium considering socioeconomic status.Participants were 9839 adults aged 19 to 74 years, who underwent ophthalmic slit-lamp examinations as part of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2011. Pterygium was diagnosed as a growth of fibrovascular tissue over the cornea. The socioeconomic risk factors were analyzed in association with the presence of pterygium. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the odds ratios for differences in socioeconomic status.The presence of pterygium was associated with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and sun exposure time (>5 h/d). The blood level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was higher in the pterygium group than in the control group, but both groups were deficient in 25-hydroxyvitamin D compared with the normal reference level. Pterygium was almost 3 times as frequent among persons who worked outdoors, such as skilled agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers, than among those who worked indoors (odds ratio 3.061, 95% confidence interval 1.946-4.813). Low educational status and longer working hours were also significantly associated with pterygium.This study used a nationwide population-based survey conducted by the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to reveal that pterygium is associated with low socioeconomic status. Efforts should be made to reduce the risk of pterygium by changing modifiable risk factors, especially among people with low socioeconomic status.

  5. Gender differences in the associations between urinary bisphenol A and body composition among American children: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2006

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    Ji Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: As an endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A (BPA exposure has been implicated as a potential risk factor in childhood obesity, which is defined using percentiles of body mass index for age. We aimed to examine the associations between BPA exposure, reflected by urinary BPA concentration, and body composition in American children. Methods: Data of 1860 children aged 8–19 years who participated in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were analyzed in this study. Urinary BPA concentration (ng/mL was used to indicate BPA status in the body. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Multivariate linear regression models were fitted using survey procedures to investigate the associations between urinary BPA level and body composition separately for boys and girls. Results: After adjusting for demographic and lifestyle covariates, higher quartiled and log-transformed urinary BPA levels were significantly associated with elevated lean body mass index (LBMI z-scores in boys (p < 0.05, and significantly associated with elevated fat mass index (FMI z-scores in girls (p < 0.05. Lower urinary BPA concentration was associated with lower percentage of trunk fat in girls (compared to 1st quartile, 2nd-quartile: β = 2.85, 95% CI, 0.92–4.78; 3rd-quartile: β = 2.57, 95% CI, 0.28–4.85; 4th-quartile: β = 2.79, 95% CI, 0.44–5.14; all p < 0.05. Such patterns were not observed in boys. Conclusions: Higher BPA levels may be associated with elevated LBM in boys, but not in girls, while higher BPA levels may be associated with elevated FM in girls, but not in boys.

  6. Association between the number of natural teeth and diabetic retinopathy among type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Korea national health and nutrition examination survey.

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    Song, Su Jeong; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Seong-Su; Park, Jun-Beom

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the number of teeth and diabetic retinopathy among Korean population.This was a retrospective analysis using data of total 45,811 individuals who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008 to 2012. Among these, 2593 (5.7%) participants were identified as having type 2 diabetes mellitus. After excluding participants without ophthalmic evaluation or other variables, 2078 (80%) participants were included. Demographic factors including dental status were analyzed and compared between participants with and without diabetic retinopathy.Among the 2078 type 2 diabetes, 358 (17.2%) had diabetic retinopathy. Type 2 diabetes with fewer teeth were more likely to have diabetic retinopathy (P diabetes with diabetic retinopathy when compared with type 2 diabetes with ≥28 teeth (95% confidence interval: 2.69-28.3) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, hypertension, diabetes mellitus duration, and glycated hemoglobin level.The number of teeth was found to be an independent risk factor for diabetic retinopathy. Thus, a comprehensive approach of dentists and ophthalmologists is needed to minimize the complications of diabetes mellitus. Whether the teeth number reflects microvascular changes of the retina among type 2 diabetes warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [High risk groups in health behavior defined by clustering of smoking, alcohol, and exercise habits: National Heath and Nutrition Examination Survey].

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    Kang, Kiwon; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Chang Yup

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the clustering of selected lifestyle factors (cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, lack of physical exercise) and identified the population characteristics associated with increasing lifestyle risks. Data on lifestyle risk factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and history of chronic diseases were obtained from 7,694 individuals >/=20 years of age who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Clustering of lifestyle risks involved the observed prevalence of multiple risks and those expected from marginal exposure prevalence of the three selected risk factors. Prevalence odds ratio was adopted as a measurement of clustering. Multiple correspondence analysis, Kendall tau correlation, Man-Whitney analysis, and ordinal logistic regression analysis were conducted to identify variables increasing lifestyle risks. In both men and women, increased lifestyle risks were associated with clustering of: (1) cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and (2) smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and lack of physical exercise. Patterns of clustering for physical exercise were different from those for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. The increased unhealthy clustering was found among men 20-64 years of age with mild or moderate stress, and among women 35-49 years of age who were never-married, with mild stress, and increased body mass index (>30 kg/m(2)). Addressing a lack of physical exercise considering individual characteristics including gender, age, employment activity, and stress levels should be a focus of health promotion efforts.

  8. Preventive Aspirin and Other Antiplatelet Medication Use Among U.S. Adults Aged ≥40 Years: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012

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    Dillon, Charles F.; Eberhardt, Mark S.; Wright, Jacqueline D.; Burt, Vicki L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We estimated the prevalence of preventive aspirin and/or other antiplatelet medication use and the dosage of aspirin use in the U.S. adult population. Methods We conducted cross-sectional analyses of a representative sample (n=3,599) of U.S. adults aged ≥40 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012. Results In 2011–2012, one-third of U.S. adults aged ≥40 years reported taking preventive aspirin and/or other antiplatelet medications, 97% of whom indicated preventive aspirin use. Preventive aspirin use increased with age (from 11% of those aged 40–49 years to 54% of those ≥80 years of age, paspirin than non-Hispanic Asian (20%, paspirin. Among those with cardiovascular disease, 76% reported taking preventive aspirin and/or other antiplatelet medications, of whom 91% were taking preventive aspirin. Among adults without cardiovascular disease, 28% reported taking preventive aspirin. Adherence rates to medically recommended aspirin use were 82% overall, 91% for secondary prevention, and 79% for primary prevention. Among current preventive aspirin users, 70% were taking 81 milligrams (mg) of aspirin daily and 13% were taking 325 mg of aspirin daily. Conclusion The vast majority of antiplatelet therapy is preventive aspirin use. A health-care provider's recommendation to take preventive aspirin is an important determinant of current preventive aspirin use. PMID:26556936

  9. Estimating the association between metabolic risk factors and marijuana use in U.S. adults using data from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Thompson, Christin Ann; Hay, Joel W

    2015-07-01

    More research is needed on the health effects of marijuana use. Results of previous studies indicate that marijuana could alleviate certain factors of metabolic syndrome, such as obesity. Data on 6281 persons from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005 to 2012 were used to estimate the effect of marijuana use on cardiometabolic risk factors. The reliability of ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models was tested by replacing marijuana use as the risk factor of interest with alcohol and carbohydrate consumption. Instrumental variable methods were used to account for the potential endogeneity of marijuana use. OLS models show lower fasting insulin, insulin resistance, body mass index, and waist circumference in users compared with nonusers. However, when alcohol and carbohydrate intake substitute for marijuana use in OLS models, similar metabolic benefits are estimated. The Durbin-Wu-Hausman tests provide evidence of endogeneity of marijuana use in OLS models, but instrumental variables models do not yield significant estimates for marijuana use. These findings challenge the robustness of OLS estimates of a positive relationship between marijuana use and fasting insulin, insulin resistance, body mass index, and waist circumference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bone Mineral Density and Food-frequency in Korean Adults: The 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Yoon, Eui-Hyun; Noh, Hyoung; Lee, Hyang-Mee; Hwang, Hwan-Sik; Park, Hoon-Ki; Park, Yong-Soon

    2012-09-01

    Diet and Nutrition are important modulators of bone health in men and women. We investigated the associations between frequency of food intake among certain food groups and bone mineral density (BMD) in a large population of Korean adults. We used the data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008 to 2009. Participants were aged 20 years and over. BMDs were measured at lumbar spine and femoral neck with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary and supplement intakes were assessed by food-frequency questionnaire. We used multiple linear regression analysis to evaluate the relationships between annual food-frequency of each food group and BMD. After adjustment of multiple covariates, femoral neck and lumbar BMD significantly increased as the frequency of fruit consumption increased in both men and women. Frequency of other carbohydrates consumption was significantly associated with greater femoral neck and lumbar BMD for women. Frequency of milk and dairy product consumption was significantly associated with greater femoral neck BMD in men. Other food groups, however, had no significant associations with BMDs. Frequent consumption of fruit has a positive association with BMDs in men and women. Milk and dairy products and other carbohydrates also had positive effects on BMD for men and women, respectively.

  11. Is one's usual dinner companion associated with greater odds of depression? Using data from the 2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Lee, Sang Ah; Park, Eun-Cheol; Ju, Yeong Jun; Nam, Jin Young; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Support from one's family has been reported to have a positive effect on depression severity. Hence, family dinnertimes, when whole family can gather together, can be effective to depression by providing support from family. We investigate the association between the dinner companion and depression, and the differences in this association by gender, living arrangement and household composition. We used the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014 data. A total of 4,181 individuals were included. We classified participants by their dinner companions as follows: dinner with family, dinner with others and eating alone. Depression was measured by using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association. Those who ate dinner alone (odds ratio (OR): 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-2.25) had higher depression rate compared to those who had dinner with family. The subgroup analysis indicated that men, those who live with others and those living in a second-generation household who ate dinner alone had greater odds of having depressive symptoms. Those who usually eat dinner alone have greater odds of developing depression compared to those who have dinner with their family. As such, family dinnertimes may help to alleviate depressive moods. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Blood Cadmium Is Associated with Osteoporosis in Obese Males but Not in Non-Obese Males: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011.

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    Choi, Won-Jun; Han, Sang-Hwan

    2015-09-28

    Osteoporosis in males is becoming an important health concern in an aging society. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between cadmium exposure and osteoporosis by considering the effect of obesity in aged males using a representative sample of the Korean population. Using the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 1098 males over 50 years of age were analyzed. The blood cadmium concentration was measured. The bone mineral density in the total hip, femur neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. T-scores to determine the presence of osteoporosis were calculated using a Korean reference. Subjects were stratified into two groups according to obesity status (body mass index obese subjects with blood cadmium 1.50 μg/L had odds ratios of 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-14.01) and 5.71 (95% CI 1.99-16.38) at the femur neck and any site, respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, serum creatinine, vitamin D deficiency, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity level. However, this association was not significant in non-obese males. In conclusion, the effect of cadmium on osteoporosis was different by obesity status in aged males.

  13. Blood Cadmium Is Associated with Osteoporosis in Obese Males but Not in Non-Obese Males: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Jun; Han, Sang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis in males is becoming an important health concern in an aging society. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between cadmium exposure and osteoporosis by considering the effect of obesity in aged males using a representative sample of the Korean population. Using the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 1089 males over 50 years of age were analyzed. The blood cadmium concentration was measured. The bone mineral density in the total hip, femur neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. T-scores to determine the presence of osteoporosis were calculated using a Korean reference. Subjects were stratified into two groups according to obesity status (body mass index obese subjects with blood cadmium 1.50 μg/L had odds ratios of 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49–14.01) and 5.71 (95% CI 1.99–16.38) at the femur neck and any site, respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, serum creatinine, vitamin D deficiency, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity level. However, this association was not significant in non-obese males. In conclusion, the effect of cadmium on osteoporosis was different by obesity status in aged males. PMID:26426028

  14. Does the active use of nutrition labeling reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus? Results of insulin resistance using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Seung Ju; Kim, Dong Jun; Kim, Sun Jung

    2018-05-29

    In 1995, nutrition labeling became mandatory in South Korea. These regulations help consumers make reasonable choices when purchasing food based on nutritional value by providing the nutritional properties of processed foods. We investigated the association between perceptions about nutrition labeling and insulin resistance (IR) in people with no diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study used data from the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI-3 in 2015, n=2931). We used multiple regression analysis to investigate the relationship between perceptions about nutrition labeling and the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). 75.2% of participants were aware of nutrition labeling and 24.8% of participants checked nutrition labeling and actively used the information. "Actively checked and used the nutrition labeling" was inversely associated with HOMA-IR scores (check nutrition facts and make labeling-dependent purchase decisions: β=-0.108, p=0.0164). These associations were more significant in people who were obese or paid more attention to their health. High levels of perceptions about nutrition labeling and active use of such information could have positive effects on reducing IR and preventing DM. Therefore, it is necessary to improve public perception for effective implementation of healthcare programs. Copyright © 2018 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in older adults in Korea: analysis of data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mona; Yeom, Hye-A; Jung, Dukyoo

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is consistently increasing among Korean adults and is reported to be particularly high among older adults in Korea. This paper reports the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and identifies the association between metabolic syndrome and physical activity in Korean older adults. Subjects of this study were 3653 older adults who participated in the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during the years 2007-2009. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the study population was 46.84%. The prevalences of abdominal obesity, elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure were 39.51, 45.53, 39.55, 48.24, and 69.14%, respectively, in the study population. Compared to subjects who reported low levels of physical activity, the odds ratios of metabolic syndrome for those who were moderately active and highly active were 0.93 and 0.63, respectively. Nurses should develop metabolic syndrome management programs that are tailored to the needs of the targeted group and that include individually adapted physical activity programs to promote health. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Blood Cadmium Is Associated with Osteoporosis in Obese Males but Not in Non-Obese Males: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Jun Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in males is becoming an important health concern in an aging society. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between cadmium exposure and osteoporosis by considering the effect of obesity in aged males using a representative sample of the Korean population. Using the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 1098 males over 50 years of age were analyzed. The blood cadmium concentration was measured. The bone mineral density in the total hip, femur neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. T-scores to determine the presence of osteoporosis were calculated using a Korean reference. Subjects were stratified into two groups according to obesity status (body mass index <25 kg/m2 and ≥25 kg/m2. In comparison with obese subjects with blood cadmium <1.00 μg/L, those with blood cadmium >1.50 μg/L had odds ratios of 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49–14.01 and 5.71 (95% CI 1.99–16.38 at the femur neck and any site, respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, serum creatinine, vitamin D deficiency, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity level. However, this association was not significant in non-obese males. In conclusion, the effect of cadmium on osteoporosis was different by obesity status in aged males.

  17. Association of elevated blood pressure with low distress and good quality of life: results from the nationwide representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, Angela; Meyer, Thomas; Hulpke-Wette, Martin; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph

    2013-05-01

    Quality of life is often impaired in patients with known hypertension, but it is less or not at all reduced in people unaware of their elevated blood pressure. Some studies have even shown less self-rated distress in adults with elevated blood pressure. In this substudy of the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KIGGS), we addressed the question whether, also in adolescents, hypertensive blood pressure is linked to levels of distress and quality of life. Study participants aged 11 to 17 years (N = 7688) received standardized measurements of blood pressure, quality of life (using the Children's Quality of Life Questionnaire), and distress (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Elevated blood pressure was twice as frequent as expected, with 10.7% (n = 825) above published age-, sex- and height-adjusted 95th percentiles. Hypertensive participants were more likely to be obese and to report on adverse health behaviors, but they showed better academic success than did normotensive participants. Elevated blood pressure was significantly and positively associated with higher self- and parent-rated quality of life (for both, p ≤ .006), less hyperactivity (for both, p parent-rated emotional (p pressure to better well-being and low distress can partly be explained by the absence of confounding physical comorbidity and the unawareness of being hypertensive. It also corresponds to earlier research suggesting a bidirectional relationship with repressed emotions leading to elevated blood pressure and, furthermore, elevated blood pressure serving as a potential stress buffer.

  18. Frozen yogurt and ice cream were less healthy than yogurt, and adding toppings reduced their nutrition value: evidence from 1999-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Jiang, Ning

    2017-06-01

    It was hypothesized that frozen yogurt and ice cream would be less healthy than yogurt. We examined daily energy and nutrient intake from yogurt, frozen yogurt, and ice cream among US adults. In-person 24-hour dietary recall data (n=6453) came from the 1999-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Regression analyses were performed to examine the differences in energy/nutrient intake from frozen yogurt and ice cream (with/without toppings) in comparison to yogurt. Approximately 5.3%, 0.9%, and 14.3% of US adults consumed yogurt, frozen yogurt, and ice cream on any given day, respectively. Among frozen yogurt and ice cream consumers, 29.7% and 14.8% added toppings to their consumption, respectively. Compared with yogurt, frozen yogurt consumption with and without toppings was associated with increased daily energy intake by 214.6 and 97.9kj, respectively; whereas ice cream consumption with and without toppings was associated with increased daily energy intake by 427.2 and 343.5kj, respectively. Compared with yogurt, frozen yogurt consumption was associated with a decreased intake of most vitamins/minerals under examination, but increased intake of sugar, total/saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, and iron. Adding toppings to frozen yogurt further increased total and saturated fat intake. Compared with yogurt, ice cream consumption was associated with a decreased intake of multiple micronutrients, but increased intake of sugar, total/saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, vitamins A and E, and iron. Adding toppings to ice cream further increased sugar intake. In conclusion, frozen yogurt and ice cream were less healthy than yogurt, and adding toppings made them even less desirable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Associations between meal and snack frequency and overweight and abdominal obesity in US children and adolescents from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-05-28

    The association between eating frequency (EF) and adiposity in young populations is inconsistent. This cross-sectional study examined associations of EF, meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with adiposity measures in US children aged 6-11 years (n 4346) and adolescents aged 12-19 years (n 6338) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. Using data from two 24-h dietary recalls, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 or snacks. In adolescents, after adjustment for EI:EER, positive associations were observed for EF (abdominal obesity only), SF based on energy contribution and MF based on self-report, whereas there was an inverse association between MF based on energy contribution and overweight. In conclusion, higher SF and EF, but not MF, were associated with higher risks of overweight and abdominal obesity in children, whereas associations varied in adolescents, depending on the definition of meals and snacks. Prospective studies are needed to establish the associations observed here.

  20. Associations between Meal and Snack Frequency and Diet Quality in US Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-07-01

    The associations between eating frequency and diet quality are inconclusive, which might be a result of different effects of meal frequency and snack frequency. This cross-sectional study examined the associations of eating frequency, meal frequency, and snack frequency with diet quality, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. Dietary intake was assessed in 19,427 US adults aged 20 years or older, using two 24-hour dietary recalls. All eating occasions providing ≥50 kcal were divided into either meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to daily energy intake (≥15% or snack frequency (independent variables) with dietary intake variables (dependent variables). Higher eating frequency was modestly and positively associated with higher HEI-2010 in both men and women; one additional eating occasion per day increased HEI-2010 by 1.77 points in men and 2.22 points in women (both Psnack frequency were also modestly and positively associated with HEI-2010 in both sexes, irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks. However, the associations were stronger for meal frequency than for snack frequency; one additional meal per day increased HEI-2010 by 2.14 to 5.35 points, and one additional snack per day increased HEI-2010 by 1.25 to 1.97 points (all Psnack frequency were modestly associated with better diet quality. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The association of Socio-demographics characteristics and social support from family and community with depression: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

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    Erfan Ayubi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims & objectives: Protective effect of social support networks on depressive symptoms has been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and social support from family and community using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2006. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional population-based study of 10,348 people participating in the NHANES 2005-2006. Participants were interviewed on their level of social support and depressive symptoms. Logistic regression and analysis of variance was used to assess the effects of demographic variables and social support with depression. Results: Bing married and having a high education level is inversely related to depressive symptoms. Also social supports from family had protective effect on depression symptoms and impacts of each family member were different. It also became clear that family support in associated with social support had a protective effect on the emergence of depressive symptoms. In this effect, the interaction between spouse and professional support on depressive symptoms were more prominent. In addition to, interaction between children’s emotional support and religious practices was important. Conclusion: The result of this study adherent with the protective theory of social support on depression.

  2. The association of Socio-demographics characteristics and social support from family and community with depression: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Dinesh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims & objectives: Protective effect of social support networks on depressive symptoms has been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and social support from family and community using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2006. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional population-based study of 10,348 people participating in the NHANES 2005-2006. Participants were interviewed on their level of social support and depressive symptoms. Logistic regression and analysis of variance was used to assess the effects of demographic variables and social support with depression. Results: Bing married and having a high education level is inversely related to depressive symptoms. Also social supports from family had protective effect on depression symptoms and impacts of each family member were different. It also became clear that family support in associated with social support had a protective effect on the emergence of depressive symptoms. In this effect, the interaction between spouse and professional support on depressive symptoms were more prominent. In addition to, interaction between children’s emotional support and religious practices was important. Conclusion: The result of this study adherent with the protective theory of social support on depression.

  3. Temporal Dietary Patterns Derived among the Adult Participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 Are Associated with Diet Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Khanna, Nitin; Boushey, Carol J; Gelfand, Saul B; Delp, Edward J

    2016-02-01

    Temporal dietary patterns, the distribution of energy or nutrient intakes observed over a period of time, is an emerging area of dietary patterns research that incorporates time of dietary intake with frequency and amount of intake to determine population clusters that may have similar characteristics or outcomes related to diet quality. We examined whether differences in diet quality were present between clusters of individuals with similar daily temporal dietary patterns. The first-day 24-hour dietary recall data from the cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004, were used to determine proportional energy intake, time of intake, frequency of intake occasions, and mean diet quality. Data from 9,326 US adults aged 20 to 65 years were included. The mean diet quality, classified by the Healthy Eating Index-2005, of participant clusters with similar temporal dietary patterns derived on the basis of individual proportional energy intake, time of intake, and frequency of intake, were inferentially compared using multiple linear regression that controlled for potential confounders and other covariates (PDiet quality differences were present between US population clusters exhibiting similar daily temporal dietary patterns (Pdiet quality, demonstrating that elements beyond food and nutrient intake, such as time, can be incorporated with dietary patterns to determine links to diet quality that enhance knowledge of the complicated interplay of time and dietary patterns. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of Magnesium Intake with High Blood Pressure in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Bae, Yun Jung

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnesium is known to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies on its relationship with hypertension, a single and common cause of various chronic diseases, are limited and their findings are not consistent. The purpose of the present study is to identify the relationship between magnesium intake and high blood pressure (HBP) risk in Koreans. Methods This research is a cross-sectional study based on the 2007~2009 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey data. This study investigated 11,685 adults aged over 20 to examine their general characteristics, anthropometry and blood pressure. Daily magnesium intake was analyzed using the 24-hour dietary recall method. To calculate the odds ratio (OR) of HBP risk (130/85 mmHg or over) according to the quartile of magnesium intake (mg/1000kcal) together with its 95% confidence interval (CI), multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. Results No significant association between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of HBP was found. In obese women, particularly, after adjusting relevant factors, the adjusted odds ratio of HBP prevalence in the highest magnesium intake quartile was 0.40 compared with the lowest magnesium intake quartile (95% CI = 0.25~0.63, P for trend = 0.0014). Women, especially obese women, were found to have a negative relationship of magnesium intake with HBP. Conclusions The present results indicate that sufficient magnesium intake could be useful in decreasing the high blood pressure risk of obese women. PMID:26075385

  5. Diet Quality Associated with Total Sodium Intake among US Adults Aged ≥18 Years-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Carla I; Cogswell, Mary E; Perrine, Cria G; Gillespie, Cathleen

    2017-10-25

    Diet quality or macronutrient composition of total daily sodium intake (dNa) <2300 mg/day in the United States (US) is unknown. Using data from 2011-2014 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), we examined 24-h dietary recalls ( n = 10,142) from adults aged ≥18 years and investigated how diet composition and quality are associated with dNa. Diet quality was assessed using components of macronutrients and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Associations were tested using linear regression analysis adjusted for total energy (kcal), age, gender, and race/ethnicity. One-day dNa in the lower quartiles were more likely reported among women, older adults (≥65 years old), and lower quartiles of total energy (kcal) ( p -values ≤ 0.001). With increasing dNa, there was an increase in the mean protein, fiber, and total fat densities, while total carbohydrates densities decreased. As dNa increased, meat protein, refined grains, dairy, and total vegetables, greens and beans densities increased; while total fruit and whole fruit densities decreased. Modified HEI-2010 total score (total score without sodium component) increased as dNa increased (adjusted coefficient: 0.11, 95% confidence interval = 0.07, 0.15). Although diet quality, based on modified HEI-2010 total score, increased on days with greater dNa, there is much room for improvement with mean diet quality of about half of the optimal level.

  6. Sarcopenia as an Independent Risk Factor for Decreased BMD in COPD Patients: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V (2008-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Won; Choi, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    Background A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is a systemic consequence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Past reports have rarely examined any correlation between sarcopenia and BMD. We investigated the relationship cross-sectionally between the presence of sarcopenia and BMD reduction in COPD patients. Methods COPD patients aged 50 or older with qualifying spirometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry data were from participants in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V (2008–2011). Results There were 286 (33.3%) subjects in the sarcopenia group and 572 (66.7%) in the non-sarcopenia group. The sarcopenia group had lower T-scores than the non-sarcopenia group (femur: -0.73±0.88 vs. -0.18±0.97, p sarcopenia group and 45.6% and 13.3% in the non-sarcopenia group (both p sarcopenia associated with increased the risk of osteopenia, osteoporosis, and a low BMD (OR = 3.227, 95% CI = 2.125–4.899, p sarcopenia was associated with increased the risk for decreased BMD in COPD. PMID:27749901

  7. Association between systemic inflammatory markers and serum prostate-specific antigen in men without prostatic disease - the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Alicia C; Vira, Manish A; Vidal, Adriana C; Gan, Wenqi; Freedland, Stephen J; Taioli, Emanuela

    2014-05-01

    Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) may be elevated in otherwise healthy men; systemic inflammation has been associated with cancer. The study of systemic inflammatory markers in men without clinical prostate disease, but with elevated PSA may characterize the subgroup of men at higher risk for subsequent prostate cancer. We investigated the associations between systemic inflammatory markers and serum PSA in 3,164 healthy men without prostatic disease, aged >40 years, from the 2001 to 2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Serum total PSA levels and concentrations of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma fibrinogen, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, and platelet count were recorded. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) ratio and platelet-lymphocyte (PLR) ratio were calculated. PSA elevation was defined as levels equal or greater than 4 ng/ml. Elevated serum PSA (194 men, 6.1% of the total), was significantly associated with plasma fibrinogen (ORmultiv  = 1.88; 95% CI, 1.09-3.25), and NLR (ORmultiv  = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03-1.26), after adjustment for age, smoking, body mass index, education, race, co-morbidities, and use of medications. Markers of systemic inflammation were associated with elevated PSA in men without known prostatic disease. Future studies are needed to examine these markers' relationship with prostate cancer occurrence and progression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Interrelationships of Sex, Physician-Diagnosed Arthritis, Chronic Inflammation, and Physical Functioning in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

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    Hind A. Beydoun MPH, PhD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine whether serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP and fibrinogen were associated with total score on a validated 12-item physical functioning scale and whether the magnitude and direction of these associations differed according to sex and physician-diagnosed arthritis. Method: Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were conducted using a representative sample of 4,606 older adults, 60 years and older. Results: Linear models suggested that overall physical functioning was strongly and independently associated with CRP (adjusted β = +.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [+0.42, +0.94] and fibrinogen (adjusted β = +1.66, 95% CI = [+0.89, +2.42]; these associations were modified by physician-diagnosed arthritis status, with strongest associations observed among individuals diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis or no arthritis and weakest association observed among those diagnosed with osteoarthritis. Conclusion: CRP and fibrinogen may be associated with poorer physical functioning in older adults, especially among those having rheumatoid arthritis or no arthritis.

  9. Sociodemographic Differences in the Association Between Obesity and Stress: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Leigh, J Paul

    2015-01-01

    Few population-based studies have used an econometric approach to understand the association between two cancer risk factors, obesity and stress. This study investigated sociodemographic differences in the association between obesity and stress among Korean adults (6,546 men and 8,473 women). Data were drawn from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2008, 2009, and 2010. Ordered logistic regression models and propensity score matching methods were used to examine the associations between obesity and stress, stratified by gender and age groups. In women, the stress level of the obese group was found to be 27.6% higher than the nonobese group in the ordered logistic regression; the obesity effect on stress was statistically significant in the propensity score-matched analysis. Corresponding evidence for the effect of obesity on stress was lacking among men. Participants who were young, well-educated, and working were more likely to report stress. In Korea, obesity causes stress in women but not in men. Young women are susceptible to a disproportionate level of stress. More cancer prevention programs targeting young and obese women are encouraged in developed Asian countries.

  10. Correlations between Poor Micronutrition in Family Members and Potential Risk Factors for Poor Diet in Children and Adolescents Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Ah Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on data from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we investigated correlations between micronutrients in the diet of family members and the possible risk factors for children and adolescents consuming an inadequate diet. We examined two-generation households with children aged 2–18 years. The quality of the family diet with regard to the following nine nutrients (protein, calcium, phosphorous, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, and vitamin C was assessed based on the Index of Nutritional Quality. Correlations between quality of diet and selected variables were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology software, and those between diet quality and potential risk factors for poor diet in offspring were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Overall, calcium was the most commonly under-consumed micronutrient. More than half of sons and daughters showed insufficient vitamin A, vitamin C, and iron intake, and both mothers and fathers showed insufficiency with respect to vitamin A, vitamin B2, and vitamin C. The correlation between a poor diet in parents and that in offspring was 0.17 (p < 0.0001, and this correlation coefficient was higher between mothers and offspring than between fathers and offspring. Additionally, eating breakfast provided a significant protective effect against the risk of poor nutrition in offspring, even after adjusting for covariates. Our results add to evidence indicating that children should be encouraged to eat breakfast to improve the quality of their diet.

  11. Diet Quality Associated with Total Sodium Intake among US Adults Aged ≥18 Years—National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla I. Mercado

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet quality or macronutrient composition of total daily sodium intake (dNa <2300 mg/day in the United States (US is unknown. Using data from 2011–2014 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined 24-h dietary recalls (n = 10,142 from adults aged ≥18 years and investigated how diet composition and quality are associated with dNa. Diet quality was assessed using components of macronutrients and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010. Associations were tested using linear regression analysis adjusted for total energy (kcal, age, gender, and race/ethnicity. One-day dNa in the lower quartiles were more likely reported among women, older adults (≥65 years old, and lower quartiles of total energy (kcal (p-values ≤ 0.001. With increasing dNa, there was an increase in the mean protein, fiber, and total fat densities, while total carbohydrates densities decreased. As dNa increased, meat protein, refined grains, dairy, and total vegetables, greens and beans densities increased; while total fruit and whole fruit densities decreased. Modified HEI-2010 total score (total score without sodium component increased as dNa increased (adjusted coefficient: 0.11, 95% confidence interval = 0.07, 0.15. Although diet quality, based on modified HEI-2010 total score, increased on days with greater dNa, there is much room for improvement with mean diet quality of about half of the optimal level.

  12. Obesity explains gender differences in the association between education level and metabolic syndrome in South Korea: the results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ki Dong; Cho, BeLong; Lee, Won Chul; Lee, Hae Won; Lee, Hyun Ki; Oh, Bum Jo

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the association of educational level with metabolic syndrome (MS) and its risk factors by gender in South Korea. A total of 6178 participants aged 20 years or older from The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. A generalized linear model and adjusted proportion were used to identify educational disparities in MS, its components, and its risk factors (smoking, high-risk alcohol consumption, obesity, and stress). In women, a clearly inverse association between education level and MS were observed with significant trend, and the decreasing trends of all risk factors across education quartiles were in line with the inverse association. However, the association between education level and MS was not observed with a significant trend among men. An opposite trend of risk factors across education levels was shown in men, with an increasing trend for obesity and decreasing trends for smoking and high-risk alcohol consumption. These findings demonstrate that obesity can explain gender differences in the association between education level and MS in South Korea. © 2013 APJPH.

  13. The Attributable Proportion of Specific Leisure-Time Physical Activities to Total Leisure Activity Volume Among US Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kathleen Bachtel; Dai, Shifan; Paul, Prabasaj; Carlson, Susan A; Carroll, Dianna D; Fulton, Janet

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have examined participation in specific leisure-time physical activities (PA) among US adults. The purpose of this study was to identify specific activities that contribute substantially to total volume of leisure-time PA in US adults. Proportion of total volume of leisure-time PA moderate-equivalent minutes attributable to 9 specific types of activities was estimated using self-reported data from 21,685 adult participants (≥ 18 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006. Overall, walking (28%), sports (22%), and dancing (9%) contributed most to PA volume. Attributable proportion was higher among men than women for sports (30% vs. 11%) and higher among women than men for walking (36% vs. 23%), dancing (16% vs. 4%), and conditioning exercises (10% vs. 5%). The proportion was lower for walking, but higher for sports, among active adults than those insufficiently active and increased with age for walking. Compared with other racial/ethnic groups, the proportion was lower for sports among non-Hispanic white men and for dancing among non-Hispanic white women. Walking, sports, and dance account for the most activity time among US adults overall, yet some demographic variations exist. Strategies for PA promotion should be tailored to differences across population subgroups.

  14. ATSDR Marines Health Survey

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-30

    This podcast gives an overview of the health survey ATSDR is conducting of more than 300,000 people who lived or worked at Camp Lejeune or Camp Pendleton in the 1970s and 1980s.  Created: 8/30/2011 by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR).   Date Released: 8/30/2011.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment and blindness in Korea: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Tyler H T; Nam, Jae S; Choi, Moonjung; Lee, Sung C; Lee, Christopher S

    2014-06-01

    To describe the age, gender specific prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment and blindness in Korea. From 2008 to 2010, a total 14 924 randomly selected national representative participants of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey underwent additional ophthalmologic examinations by the Korean Ophthalmologic Society. Best Corrected Distance Visual Acuity was measured using an international standard vision chart based on Snellen scale (Jin's vision chart). Independent risk factors for visual impairment were investigated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of visual impairment (≤20/40) of adults 40 years and older was 4.1% (95% CI, 3.6-4.6) based on the better seeing eye. The overall prevalence of blindness (≤20/200) for adults 40 years and older was 0.2% (95% CI, 0.1-0.3). Risk indicators of visual impairment were increasing age, low education status, living in rural area, being unemployed, being without spouse and the absence of private health insurance. The visually impaired were more likely to have eye diseases compared with the normal subjects, and they were less likely to utilize eye care. The prevalence of visual impairment was demonstrated to be higher while that of blindness was similar to previous population studies in Asia or U.S. Sociodemographic disparities are present in the prevalence of visual impairment and more targeted efforts are needed to promote vision screening in high risk groups. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Lower Odds of Poststroke Symptoms of Depression When Physical Activity Guidelines Met: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Stacey E; Gregory, Chris M; Simpson, Annie N

    2016-08-01

    One-third of individuals with stroke report symptoms of depression, which has a negative impact on recovery. Physical activity (PA) is a potentially effective therapy. Our objective was to examine the associations of subjectively assessed PA levels and symptoms of depression in a nationally representative stroke sample. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 175 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012 cycle. Moderate, vigorous, and combination equivalent PA metabolic equivalent (MET)-minutes per week averages were derived from the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, and .the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines/American College of Sports Medicine recommendations of ≥500 MET-minutes per week of moderate, vigorous, or combination equivalent PA were used as cut points. Depression symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Meeting moderate PA guidelines resulted in 74% lower odds of having depression symptoms (P depression (P = .0003). Meeting vigorous guidelines showed a 91% lower odds of having mild symptoms of depression (P = .04). Participating in some moderate, vigorous, or combination equivalent PA revealed the odds of depression symptoms 13 times greater compared with meeting guidelines (P = .005); odds of mild symptoms of depression were 9 times greater (P = .01); and odds of major symptoms of depression were 15 times greater (P = .006). There is a lower risk of developing mild symptoms of depression when vigorous guidelines for PA are met and developing major symptoms of depression when moderate guidelines met. Participating in some PA is not enough to reduce the risk of depression symptoms.

  17. Health Examination by PET. (1) Cancer Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    Cancer examination by positron emission tomography (PET) started in Japan in 1994 and has been rapidly popularized. This paper describes author's experience of the examination in his hospital along the recent Japanese guideline for the PET cancer examination. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is intravenously injected at 3.7 (or 4.6, for diabetic patients) MBq/kg after 4-5 hr fasting and 40 min later, imaging is conducted with additional delayed scan at 2 hr to reduce the possible false positive. Image is taken by the equipment with PET-specific camera, of which quality assurance (QA) is maintained according to the guideline, and 3D image is constructed by the ordered subset expectation maximization method. Number of examinees during 4.5 years are 18,210 (M/F=9,735/8,475), and 236 (1.3%), together with use of other test measures like ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical marker and occult blood as well, are found to have cancer of thyroid, large bowel, lung, breast and others. The false negative rate by PET alone is 78/236 (33%) for cancer. PET examination has problems of image reading and specificity of organs, and tasks of informed consent, test cost, increased exchange of information and radiation exposure. However, PET cancer examination will be established as a routine diagnostic tool when the accumulated evidence of early cancer detection is shown useful for improving the survival rate and for reducing the medicare cost. (T.I.)

  18. Suicidal ideation among postmenopausal women on hormone replacement therapy: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V) from 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Yoon; Park, Yong-Kyu; Cho, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Seon-Mee; Choi, Youn-Seon; Kim, Do-Hoon; Nam, Ga-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kim, Yang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem around the world. Some studies have found that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with depression in postmenopausal women. Depression is a well-known risk factor for suicide; therefore, we investigated the relationship between HRT and suicidal ideation in postmenopausal Korean women. We included 2286 postmenopausal women with or without HRT from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012. The use and duration of HRT and mental health status, including stress, depressive mood, and suicidal ideation and attempts, were assessed by self-report questionnaires. The proportion of participants with depressive mood and suicidal ideation was higher in the HRT group than the non-HRT group (all p valuessuicidal ideation increased (p for trend=0.006). After adjusting for all covariates, the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for suicidal ideation was 1.742 (1.223-2.482) in the women with HRT, compared to women without HRT. HRT duration longer than 10 years was associated with suicidal ideation (odds ratio=2.089 and 95% confidence intervals=1.069-4.084). The cross-sectional design, a possibility of incorrect answer about menopausal status, and no assessment of the type of HRT are the main limitations of this study. Postmenopausal women receiving HRT, especially for more than 10 years, showed increased suicidal ideation compared with postmenopausal women without HRT. Physicians should pay attention to mood symptoms and suicidal ideation in postmenopausal women with HRT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Usual intake of added sugars and lipid profiles among the U.S. adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zefeng; Gillespie, Cathleen; Welsh, Jean A; Hu, Frank B; Yang, Quanhe

    2015-03-01

    Although studies suggest that higher consumption of added sugars is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents, none have adjusted for measurement errors or examined its association with the risk of dyslipidemia. We analyzed data of 4,047 adolescents aged 12-19 years from the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. We estimated the usual percentage of calories (%kcal) from added sugars using up to two 24-hour dietary recalls and the National Cancer Institute method to account for measurement error. The average usual %kcal from added sugars was 16.0%. Most adolescents (88.0%) had usual intake of ≥10% of total energy, and 5.5% had usual intake of ≥25% of total energy. After adjustment for potential confounders, usual %kcal from added sugars was inversely associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and positively associated with triglycerides (TGs), TG-to-HDL ratio, and total cholesterol (TC) to HDL ratio. Comparing the lowest and highest quintiles of intake, HDLs were 49.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.4-51.6) and 46.4 mg/dL (95% CI, 45.2-47.6; p = .009), TGs were 85.6 (95% CI, 75.5-95.6) and 101.2 mg/dL (95% CI, 88.7-113.8; p = .037), TG to HDL ratios were 2.28 (95% CI, 1.84-2.70) and 2.73 (95% CI, 2.11-3.32; p = .017), and TC to HDL ratios were 3.41 (95% CI, 3.03-3.79) and 3.70 (95% CI, 3.24-4.15; p = .028), respectively. Comparing the highest and lowest quintiles of intake, adjusted odds ratio of dyslipidemia was 1.41 (95% CI, 1.01-1.95). The patterns were consistent across sex, race/ethnicity, and body mass index subgroups. No association was found for TC, low-density lipoprotein, and non-HDL cholesterol. Most U.S. adolescents consumed more added sugars than recommended for heart health. Usual intake of added sugars was significantly associated with several measures of lipid profiles. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Usual Intake of Added Sugars and Lipid Profiles Among the U.S. Adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zefeng; Gillespie, Cathleen; Welsh, Jean A.; Hu, Frank B.; Yang, Quanhe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although studies suggest that higher consumption of added sugars is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents, none have adjusted for measurement errors or examined its association with the risk of dyslipidemia. Methods We analyzed data of 4,047 adolescents aged 12–19 years from the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. We estimated the usual percentage of calories (%kcal) from added sugars using up to two 24-hour dietary recalls and the National Cancer Institute method to account for measurement error. Results The average usual %kcal from added sugars was 16.0%. Most adolescents (88.0%) had usual intake of ≥10% of total energy, and 5.5% had usual intake of ≥25% of total energy. After adjustment for potential confounders, usual %kcal from added sugars was inversely associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and positively associated with triglycerides (TGs), TG-to-HDL ratio, and total cholesterol (TC) to HDL ratio. Comparing the lowest and highest quintiles of intake, HDLs were 49.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.4–51.6) and 46.4 mg/dL(95% CI, 45.2–47.6; p = .009), TGs were 85.6 (95% CI, 75.5–95.6) and 101.2 mg/dL(95% CI, 88.7–113.8; p = .037), TG to HDL ratios were 2.28 (95% CI, 1.84–2.70) and 2.73 (95% CI, 2.11–3.32; p = .017), and TC to HDL ratios were 3.41 (95% CI, 3.03–3.79) and 3.70 (95% CI, 3.24–4.15; p = .028), respectively. Comparing the highest and lowest quintiles of intake, adjusted odds ratio of dyslipidemia was 1.41 (95% CI, 1.01–1.95). The patterns were consistent across sex, race/ethnicity, and body mass index subgroups. No association was found for TC, low-density lipoprotein, and non-HDL cholesterol. Conclusions Most U.S. adolescents consumed more added sugars than recommended for heart health. Usual intake of added sugars was significantly associated with several measures of lipid profiles. PMID:25703323

  1. Association of urinary phenolic compounds, inflammatory bowel disease and chronic diarrheal symptoms: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Punyanganie S. de; Yang, Xuan; Korzenik, Joshua R.; Goldman, Rose H.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.

    2017-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors such as phenolic compounds and parabens may be involved in chronic non-infective disease. While products incorporating these compounds are extensively utilized in consumer and personal products, little is known about their effect on bowel health. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - consisting of the diseases ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease - and irritable bowel syndrome are common chronic non-infectious diarrheal diseases. Despite limited knowledge on the etiology of IBD, these diseases have increased prevalence in industrialized countries and cause significant impairment to quality of life. In the present study we examine relationships between urinary environmental phenolic compounds, chronic diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease. Data was obtained from the 2005–2010 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) including demographics, lifestyle factors, self-reported health conditions, inflammatory markers and urinary phenolic chemical concentrations. Only participants with complete environmental phenols & parabens component were included in our analysis. Chronic diarrheal symptoms were determined by using the 2009–2010 NHANES questionnaire which included questions pertaining to bowel health. We utilized chronic bowel leakage symptoms as a surrogate marker for chronic diarrhea. The presence of IBD was also analyzed from 2009 to 2010 NHANES data, as a sub-analysis for arthropathy directly querying the presence or absence of IBD. Among the subset of 5218 American adults aged 20–80 years in the NHANES study period who completed environmental phenols & parabens component, 25.5% reported chronic diarrheal symptoms. Abnormal markers of inflammation were present in 2200 (42.2%) of respondents. For IBD, 19 individuals with arthropathy confirmed a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis, and 1 person confirmed a Crohn's diagnosis. After adjustment for demographics, inflammatory and subsample weighing; lower paraben

  2. Examining Internet and eHealth Practices and Preferences: Survey Study of Australian Older Adults With Subjective Memory Complaints, Mild Cognitive Impairment, or Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMonica, Haley M; English, Amelia; Hickie, Ian B; Ip, Jerome; Ireland, Catriona; West, Stacey; Shaw, Tim; Mowszowski, Loren; Glozier, Nick; Duffy, Shantel; Gibson, Alice A; Naismith, Sharon L

    2017-10-25

    Interest in electronic health (eHealth) technologies to screen for and treat a variety of medical and mental health problems is growing exponentially. However, no studies to date have investigated the feasibility of using such e-tools for older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of Internet use, as well as interest in and preferences for eHealth technologies among older adults with varying degrees of cognitive impairment. A total of 221 participants (mean age=67.6 years) attending the Healthy Brain Ageing Clinic at the University of Sydney, a specialist mood and memory clinic for adults ≥50 years of age, underwent comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological assessment and completed a 20-item self-report survey investigating current technology use and interest in eHealth technologies. Descriptive statistics and Fisher exact tests were used to characterize the findings, including variability in the results based on demographic and diagnostic factors, with diagnoses including subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), MCI, and dementia. The sample comprised 27.6% (61/221) SCI, 62.0% (137/221) MCI, and 10.4% (23/221) dementia (mean Mini-Mental State Examination=28.2). The majority of participants reported using mobile phones (201/220, 91.4%) and computers (167/194, 86.1%) routinely, with most respondents having access to the Internet at home (204/220, 92.6%). Variability was evident in the use of computers, mobile phones, and health-related websites in relation to sociodemographic factors, with younger, employed respondents with higher levels of education being more likely to utilize these technologies. Whereas most respondents used email (196/217, 90.3%), the use of social media websites was relatively uncommon. The eHealth intervention of most interest to the broader sample was memory strategy training, with 82.7% (172/208) of participants reporting they would utilize this form of intervention

  3. Dental sealants and restorations and urinary bisphenol A concentrations in children in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Christy; Rue, Tessa; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Martin, Michael; Seminario, Ana Lucia; DeRouen, Timothy

    2014-07-01

    Resin-based dental sealants and composites contain bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate, a bisphenol A (BPA) derivative. The authors hypothesized that a greater number of sealants or restorations would be associated with higher urinary BPA concentrations. The authors examined urinary BPA measurements (in nanograms per milliliter) and oral examination data for 1,001 children aged 6 to 19 years from data sets of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). They categorized children according to number of occlusal sealants and number of restorations, with four categories in each of the two groups. They estimated associations by using unadjusted and adjusted tobit regression models. The lowest quartile of BPA concentrations ranged from 0.3 ng/mL to 1.9 ng/mL, whereas the highest quartile ranged from 7.3 ng/mL to 149 ng/mL. In adjusted analysis, children with seven to 16 sealants had geometric mean BPA concentrations 25 percent higher than those of children with no sealants (95 percent confidence interval [CI], -14 percent to 82 percent; P = .23). In adjusted analysis, children with seven to 42 restorations had geometric mean BPA concentrations 20 percent higher than those of children with no restorations (95 percent CI, -6 percent to 53 percent; P = .13). Neither of these adjusted estimates was statistically significant. Though the findings were in the direction hypothesized, the authors did not observe a statistically significant association between a greater number of sealants or restorations and higher urinary BPA concentrations. Additional studies are needed to determine the extent of oral and systemic exposure to BPA from resin-based dental restorative materials over time. Dentists should follow this issue carefully as it develops and as the body of evidence grows. There is insufficient evidence to change practice at this time.

  4. Moderate and vigorous physical activity patterns among marijuana users: Results from the 2007-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidot, Denise C; Bispo, Jordan B; Hlaing, WayWay M; Prado, Guillermo; Messiah, Sarah E

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between marijuana use and recreational physical activity has yet to be explored in the United States. Our aim was to examine this relationship in a population-based sample of 20-to-59-year olds (N=12,618) using 2007-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Marijuana use was categorized as never (reference group), past (previously but not within the last 30-days), and current (>1day in the last 30-days) use. Current users were further categorized based on frequency of use (light, moderate, and heavy users). Physical activity was self-reported as moderate (small increase in heartrate/breathing for >10min; MPA) and vigorous (large increase in heartrate/breathing for >10min; VPA). Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for the relationship between marijuana use and physical activity were estimated via logistic regression models. The majority of the overall sample reported either past (40.5%) or current (12.6%) marijuana use. Marijuana users had a lower prevalence of moderate physical activity than never users (current: 51.9%, past: 50.4%, never: 55.3%, p=0.001). Current (66.8%) and past (67.9%) marijuana users also had a lower prevalence of vigorous physical activity than never users (71.9%, p=0.001). Current and past users had lower odds of recreational MPA (current user AOR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.50-0.87; past user AOR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.98) than never users. As the frequency of marijuana use increased, time spent on MPA decreased. Results suggest that current and past marijuana users were less likely to report recreational MPA than never users. Future studies should examine the potential mechanisms and temporality of this relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Trends in urinary arsenic among the U.S. population by drinking water source: Results from the National Health and Nutritional Examinations Survey 2003-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Barrett; Smit, Ellen; Cardenas, Andres; Hystad, Perry; Kile, Molly L

    2018-04-01

    In 2001, the United States revised the arsenic maximum contaminant level for public drinking water systems from 50µg/L to 10µg/L. This study aimed to examine temporal trends in urinary arsenic concentrations in the U.S. population from 2003 to 2014 by drinking water source among individuals aged 12 years and older who had no detectable arsenobetaine - a biomarker of arsenic exposure from seafood intake. We examined data from 6 consecutive cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2014; N=5848). Total urinary arsenic (TUA) was calculated by subtracting arsenobetaine's limit of detection and detectable arsenocholine from total arsenic. Additional sensitivity analyses were conducted using a second total urinary arsenic index (TUA2, calculated by adding arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid). We classified drinking water source using 24-h dietary questionnaire data as community supply (n=3427), well or rain cistern (n=506), and did not drink tap water (n=1060). Geometric means (GM) of survey cycles were calculated from multivariate regression models adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, BMI, income, creatinine, water source, type of water consumed, recent smoking, and consumption of seafood, rice, poultry, and juice. Compared to 2003-2004, adjusted TUA was 35.5% lower in 2013-2014 among the general U.S. Stratified analysis by smoking status indicated that the trend in lower TUA was only consistent among non-smokers. Compared to 2003-2004, lower adjusted TUA was observed in 2013-2014 among non-smoking participants who used community water supplies (1.98 vs 1.16µg/L, pwater (2.24 vs 1.53µg/L, pwater supplier and to a lesser extent those who did not drink tap water. However, the sensitivity analysis showed overall exposure stayed the same or was higher among well or rain cistern users. Finally, the greatest decrease in TUA was among participants within the highest exposure percentiles (e.g. 95th percentile had

  6. Women Are Diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes at Higher Body Mass Indices and Older Ages than Men: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010

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    Su Kyoung Kwon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMany epidemiologic studies have shown that women with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease compared with men with diabetes. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether disparities of adiposity, age and insulin resistance (IR at the time of diabetes diagnosis exist between women and men in the adult Korean population.MethodsData from The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, performed in Korea from 2007 to 2010, were used. In the survey, anthropometric data and blood samples were obtained during a fasting state. IR and β-cell function were calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and HOMA-β, respectvely.ResultsThe mean age of diabetes diagnosis was 58.5 years in women and was 55.1 years in men (P=0.015. The mean body mass index (BMI of newly diagnosed diabetes subjects was 26.1 kg/m2 in women and 25.0 kg/m2 in men (P=0.001. The BMI was inversely related to age in both genders, and the higher BMI in women than men was consistent throughout all age groups divided by decade. The HOMA-IR in women with diabetes is higher than in men with diabetes (7.25±0.77 vs. 5.20±0.32; P=0.012.ConclusionKorean adult women are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at higher BMI and older age than men and are more insulin-resistant at the time of diabetes diagnosis. This may help explain why women with diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease after the diagnosis of diabetes, compared to men.

  7. Variation in LPA is associated with Lp(a levels in three populations from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Dumitrescu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] levels can differ dramatically across diverse racial/ethnic populations. The extent to which genetic variation in LPA can explain these differences is not fully understood. To explore this, 19 LPA tagSNPs were genotyped in 7,159 participants from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. NHANES III is a diverse population-based survey with DNA samples linked to hundreds of quantitative traits, including serum Lp(a. Tests of association between LPA variants and transformed Lp(a levels were performed across the three different NHANES subpopulations (non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans. At a significance threshold of p<0.0001, 15 of the 19 SNPs tested were strongly associated with Lp(a levels in at least one subpopulation, six in at least two subpopulations, and none in all three subpopulations. In non-Hispanic whites, three variants were associated with Lp(a levels, including previously known rs6919246 (p = 1.18 × 10(-30. Additionally, 12 and 6 variants had significant associations in non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, respectively. The additive effects of these associated alleles explained up to 11% of the variance observed for Lp(a levels in the different racial/ethnic populations. The findings reported here replicate previous candidate gene and genome-wide association studies for Lp(a levels in European-descent populations and extend these findings to other populations. While we demonstrate that LPA is an important contributor to Lp(a levels regardless of race/ethnicity, the lack of generalization of associations across all subpopulations suggests that specific LPA variants may be contributing to the observed Lp(a between-population variance.

  8. Inflammation gene variants and susceptibility to albuminuria in the U.S. population: analysis in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1991-1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Man-huei

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Albuminuria, a common marker of kidney damage, serves as an important predictive factor for the progression of kidney disease and for the development of cardiovascular disease. While the underlying etiology is unclear, chronic, low-grade inflammation is a suspected key factor. Genetic variants within genes involved in inflammatory processes may, therefore, contribute to the development of albuminuria. Methods We evaluated 60 polymorphisms within 27 inflammatory response genes in participants from the second phase (1991-1994 of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, a population-based and nationally representative survey of the United States. Albuminuria was evaluated as logarithm-transformed albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR, as ACR ≥ 30 mg/g, and as ACR above sex-specific thresholds. Multivariable linear regression and haplotype trend analyses were conducted to test for genetic associations in 5321 participants aged 20 years or older. Differences in allele and genotype distributions among non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans were tested in additive and codominant genetic models. Results Variants in several genes were found to be marginally associated (uncorrected P value IL1B (rs1143623 among Mexican Americans remained significantly associated with increased odds, while IL1B (rs1143623, CRP (rs1800947 and NOS3 (rs2070744 were significantly associated with ACR ≥ 30 mg/g in this population (additive models, FDR-P TNF rs1800750, which failed the test for Hardy-Weinberg proportions in this population. Haplotypes within MBL2, CRP, ADRB2, IL4R, NOS3, and VDR were significantly associated (FDR-P Conclusions Our findings suggest a small role for genetic variation within inflammation-related genes to the susceptibility to albuminuria. Additional studies are needed to further assess whether genetic variation in these, and untested, inflammation genes alter the

  9. Recent trends in the prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity in Korean adults: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1998 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Young Shin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent obesity studies have reported that the rising trend in obesity has stabilized or leveled off. Our study aimed to update estimates of the recent prevalence trend in obesity based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998–2014. Methods: A total of 66,663 subjects were included and defined as being either underweight, overweight, or obese, in accordance with a BMI of 18.5 kg/m2 or lower, 23 kg/m2 or higher, and 25 kg/m2 or higher, respectively. Results: The prevalence of underweight in KNHANES I through VI surveys was 5.4%, 6.1%, 5.8%, 6.5%, 7.6%, and 7.5%, respectively, in men (p for trend = 0.04, β = 0.003 and 4.7%, 3.3%, 3.4%, 3.3%, 2.7%, and 2.6%, respectively, in women (p for trend = 0.03, β = −0.002. Also for KNHANES I through VI, the respective prevalence of overweight/obesity was 50.3%, 57.2%, 62.5%, 62.3%, 61.4%, and 61.3% in men (p for trend<0.01, β = 0.009 and 48.3%, 50.3%, 50.0%, 47.8%, 47.0%, and 45.3% in women (p for trend<0.01, β = −0.01, respectively. Conclusions: The obesity occurrence in men was trending upward with respect to overweight/obesity and for grade 1 and 2 obesity, but not for abdominal obesity. However, the obesity trends in women were leveling off from overweight/obesity, grade 1 obesity, and abdominal obesity measures. Further studies are required with data on muscle mass and adiposity for effective obesity control policies.

  10. Objectively measured sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on the health-related quality of life in US adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghoon; Im, Jeong-Soo; Choi, Yoon-Hyeong

    2017-05-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) represents an individual's perception of physical, mental, and social well-being and is a strong predictor of health status. Few studies have examined associations of sedentary behavior (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with HRQOL in the general population. This study aimed to determine combined associations of objectively measured SB and MVPA on the risk of poor HRQOL in the general US population, after controlling for potential confounding factors. We analyzed data from 5359 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006. HRQOL was measured using a HRQOL-4 consisting of four questions focused on the self-perception of general health, physical health, mental health, and activity limitation. We dichotomized each HRQOL-4 component as good versus poor and defined poor overall HRQOL when participants had any poor HRQOL components. SB and MVPA were measured using an accelerometer. Survey logistic models were examined to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for poor HRQOL by SB and MVPA as tertiles. When examined as a combination of SB and MVPA, a substantial decrease in the risk of poor overall HRQOL was found in individuals with low SB/high MVPA [OR 0.69 (95% CI 0.51-0.94) and moderate SB/high MVPA (OR 0.56 (95% CI 0.40-0.78)], but no significant decrease was found in individuals with high SB/high MVPA (vs. high SB/low MVPA). Our findings suggest that both increasing MVPA and reducing time spent in SB may be useful strategies to improve HRQOL.

  11. The basic data for residents aged 16 years or older who received a comprehensive health check examinations in 2011-2012 as a part of the Fukushima Health Management Survey after the great East Japan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohira, Tetsuya; Satoh, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Sakai, Akira; Ohtsuru, Akira; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kobashi, Gen; Kamiya, Kenji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Abe, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    To assist in the long-term health management of residents and evaluate health impacts after the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Fukushima Prefecture, the Fukushima prefectural government decided to conduct the Fukushima Health Management Survey. This report describes the results for residents aged 16 years or older who received the health check examinations and evaluates the data obtained from 2011 and 2012. The target group consisted of residents aged 16 years or older who had lived in the evacuation zone. The health check examinations were performed on receipt of an application for a health check examination from any of the residents. The examinations, including measurements of height, weight, abdominal circumference/body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, biochemical laboratory findings, and peripheral blood findings, were performed as required. 1) A total of 56,399 (30.9%) and 47,009 (25.4%) residents aged 16 years or older received health checks in 2011 and 2012, respectively. 2) In both years, a number of male and female residents in the 16-39 year age group were found to suffer obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, or liver dysfunction, and the prevalence of obesity and hyperlipidemia among residents increased with age. Furthermore, the proportion of residents with hypertension, glucose metabolic abnormalities or renal dysfunction was higher in those aged 40 years or older. 3) The frequencies of obesity, hypertension and hyperlipidemia among residents in 2012 were lower than those in 2011. However, the prevalence of liver dysfunction, hyperuricemia, glucose metabolic abnormalities and renal dysfunction among residents was higher in 2012 than in 2011. These results suggested the number of residents who had lived in the evacuation zone with obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, liver dysfunction, hypertension, glucose metabolic abnormalities, or renal dysfunction increased with age in all age groups

  12. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity and their association with dyslipidemia in Korean elderly men: the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, S J; Nam, G E; Han, K D; Choi, S W; Jung, S W; Bok, A R; Kim, Y H; Lee, K S; Han, B D; Kim, D H

    2014-03-01

    Recently, aging has been shown to be associated with sarcopenic obesity (SO), of which decreased muscle mass and increased fat mass are features. Sarcopenia and obesity alone are known to be associated with abnormal lipid metabolism. However, it remains unclear whether SO has greater adverse effects on dyslipidemia than on sarcopenia or obesity alone. We aimed to investigate the association between SO and dyslipidemia in elderly Koreans. This study was based on data collected during the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We included 1,466 men and 2,017 women aged 65 years and over. Sarcopenia was indicated in participants with height- or weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle that was 1 standard deviation below the sex-specific mean for the young reference group, and obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2). Dyslipidemia was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III. After adjusting for confounding factors, the SO group had a higher risk for dyslipidemia [odds ratio (OR) 2.82 (95 % confidence interval 1.76-4.51)] than the obese group [2.12 (1.11-4.07)] and sarcopenic group [1.46 (1.01-2.11)] (p elderly men, SO was associated with an increased risk for dyslipidemia compared with sarcopenia or obesity alone.

  13. Association between the Eating Family Meal and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Using Data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Ae; Park, Woo-Chul; Kwon, Yu-Jin; Shim, Jae-Yong

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have shown that family meals promote a well-balanced and healthier diet and weight status. Metabolic syndrome is related to eating behavior. This study investigated the association between eating family meals and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. This cross-sectional study included 4,529 subjects who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007-2012). A self-reported questionnaire was used to assess dietary status. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the guidelines of the modified version of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. We compared the overall quality of dietary intake in family meal. Nutritional adequacy ratios for energy, protein, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin B 1 , vitamin B 2 , vitamin C, niacin, and potassium, and the mean adequacy ratio were significantly higher in the family meal group (Pmetabolic syndrome was lower in the family meal group (Pfamily meals and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. This study demonstrated that eating family meals appeared to be associated with nutrient adequacy. However, we observed no significant differences in prevalence of metabolic syndrome between the 2 groups.

  14. Association between the Eating Family Meal and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Using Data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Ae; Park, Woo-Chul; Kwon, Yu-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that family meals promote a well-balanced and healthier diet and weight status. Metabolic syndrome is related to eating behavior. This study investigated the association between eating family meals and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Methods This cross-sectional study included 4,529 subjects who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007–2012). A self-reported questionnaire was used to assess dietary status. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the guidelines of the modified version of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. We compared the overall quality of dietary intake in family meal. Results Nutritional adequacy ratios for energy, protein, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C, niacin, and potassium, and the mean adequacy ratio were significantly higher in the family meal group (Pmetabolic syndrome was lower in the family meal group (Pfamily meals and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion This study demonstrated that eating family meals appeared to be associated with nutrient adequacy. However, we observed no significant differences in prevalence of metabolic syndrome between the 2 groups. PMID:28572888

  15. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Metabolically Healthy Obesity in Korean Children and Adolescents: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Da Young; Lee, Young Ah; Lee, Jieun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2017-11-01

    Metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) are differentiated by the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) and insulin resistance (IR). This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of MHO in Korean children and adolescents and to investigate the anthropometric, laboratory, and lifestyle predictors of MHO. This study included data from 530 obese subjects, aged 10-19 years, obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects were classified into MHO and MUO groups according to the presence of CMRF (MHO(CMRF)/MUO(CMRF)) and degree of IR (MHO(IR)/MUO(IR)). Demographic, anthropometric, cardiometabolic, and lifestyle factors were compared between the groups. Logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were performed to identify factors that predicted MHO. The prevalence of MHO(CMRF) and MHO(IR) in obese Korean youth was 36.8% (n = 197) and 68.8% (n = 356), respectively. CMRF profiles were significantly less favorable in MUO children. Longer and more vigorous physical activity and less protein intake were associated with MHO(CMRF) phenotype. The best predictors of MHO(CMRF) and MHO(IR) were waist circumference (odds ratio [OR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-0.88; P obesity in youth, the approach to individuals with MHO and MUO should be personalized due to variation in clinical characteristics. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate long-term consequences of MHO. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  16. [Prevalence and Comorbidity of Self-Reported Diagnosis of Burnout Syndrome in the General Population - Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and comorbid mental disorders of self-reported diagnosis of burnout syndrome in the general population of Germany. Methods: In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) self-reported diagnosis of a burnout syndrome made by a physician or psychotherapist was assessed in a standardized interview (N = 7987). For N = 4483 mental disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalences were calculated. Results: Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed burnout syndrome was 4.2 % (women 5.2 %, men 3.3 %), 12-month prevalence was 1.5 % (women 1.9 %, men 1.1 %). Highest prevalences were found in 40 - 59 year olds, in people with middle and high socio-economic status and in women with low and men with high social support. Among the 12-month cases, 70.9 % had at least one DSM-IV disorder. Associations were found for the diagnosis of burnout syndrome with somatoform, affective and anxiety disorders. Conclusion: The diagnosis of burnout syndrome is less frequently given and reported than expected. People with a burnout diagnosis often have a manifest mental disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Low muscle mass is associated with metabolic syndrome only in nonobese young adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Chul; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Sae-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Merchant, Anwar T; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the relationship between body composition and metabolic risk factors in young adults. We hypothesized that low muscle mass (LMM) is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in young adults and that the associations vary by obesity. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. In total, 5300 young adults aged 19 to 39 years were evaluated. Low muscle mass was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass/weight less than 1 SD below the mean for each participant's corresponding sex and age group. Obesity was defined as a body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2. The prevalence of LMM was higher in obese than nonobese participants (37.6% vs. 9.6%). In the nonobese participants, the prevalence of MetS, high waist circumference, high triglycerides, and high blood pressure was significantly greater in the LMM group than in the high muscle mass group. In the nonobese group, compared with high muscle mass participants, those with LMM had odds ratios for MetS of 3.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.48-8.76; P young adults with LMM may have a high risk of MetS, especially when they are nonobese. Interventions aimed at increasing muscle mass at younger ages may have the potential to reduce MetS. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008–2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 μg/L), low normal (15.0–30.0 μg/L for women and 15.0–50.0 for men), and normal (≥30.0 μg/L for women and ≥50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

  19. Computer Game Use and Television Viewing Increased Risk for Overweight among Low Activity Girls: Fourth Thai National Health Examination Survey 2008-2009

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    Ladda Mo-suwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the relationship between sedentary behaviors and overweight among children and adolescents show mixed results. The fourth Thai National Health Examination Survey data collected between 2008 and 2009 were used to explore this association in 5,999 children aged 6 to 14 years. The prevalence of overweight defined by the age- and gender-specific body mass index cut-points of the International Obesity Task Force was 16%. Using multiple logistic regression, computer game use for more than 1 hour a day was found to be associated with an increased risk of overweight (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.02–1.93. The effect of computer game use and TV viewing on the risk for overweight was significantly pronounced among girls who spent ≤3 days/week in 60 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity (AOR = 1.99 and 1.72, resp.. On the contrary, these sedentary behaviors did not exert significant risk for overweight among boys. The moderating effect on risk of overweight by physical inactivity and media use should be taken into consideration in designing the interventions for overweight control in children and adolescents. Tracking societal changes is essential for identification of potential areas for targeted interventions.

  20. The prevalence of inflammatory back pain: population-based estimates from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Michael H; Witter, James P; Reveille, John D

    2013-03-01

    To estimate the current US inflammatory back pain (IBP) prevalence using four published case definitions. Analysis of an IBP data collection instrument specifically designed for the 2009-10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects were 5103 US adults ages 20-69 with complete data. IBP prevalence as determined by Calin et al criteria, European Spondylarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) criteria, and Berlin criteria 8a and 7b. Age-adjusted US prevalence of IBP by Calin criteria was 5.0% (95% CI 4.2% to 5.8%). Prevalence of IBP was 5.6% (95% CI 4.7% to 6.5%) by ESSG criteria, and 5.8% (95% CI 5.2% to 6.4%) and 6.0% (95% CI 4.9% to 7.1%) by Berlin Criteria 8a and 7b, respectively. IBP prevalence did not differ significantly by age groups or between men and women. IBP prevalence was significantly lower among non-Hispanic black persons compared with non-Hispanic white persons for the Calin and ESSG IBP criteria. For the ESSG and Berlin 7b criteria, non-Hispanic white persons had significantly higher IBP prevalences compared with Mexican Americans. IBP is associated with spondyloarthritis. Awareness of the prevalence of IBP may be useful for planning future epidemiological studies as well as development and validation of diagnostic and classification criteria for specific clinically defined diseases.

  1. Contribution of dietary patterns to blood heavy metal concentrations in Korean adults: findings from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Park, Ju Yeon; Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and blood levels of lead and mercury in Korean adults. A total of 858 Korean adults (≥20 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-1 2010 were included in this study. Data of biochemical measurements including blood lead and mercury levels, nutrients intakes and anthropometric measurements were acquired. 'Balanced diet', 'Grain and kimchi', and 'Alcohol and noodle' dietary patterns were derived from a factor analysis, and the subjects were divided into tertiles by each dietary pattern score. A logistic multiple regression analysis showed that the balanced diet pattern was negatively associated with blood levels of lead before and after adjustment. On the other hand, the alcohol and noodle pattern was positively associated with blood lead and mercury levels. These results indicate that the alcohol and noodle dietary pattern characterized by high alcohol consumption and lack of various foods, and the balanced dietary pattern, including vegetable, fish, meat and milk intake, was associated with the blood concentrations of heavy metals in Korean adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Age- and sex-specific relationships between household income, education, and diabetes mellitus in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Ra; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Jin-Young; Ersek, Jennifer; Liu, Junxiu; Jo, Sun-Jin; Lee, Kang-Sook; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and sex on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence and control status of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Korean adults. Data came from 16,175 adults (6,951 men and 9,227 women) over the age of 30 who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SES was measured by household income or education level. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence or control status of diabetes were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses across household income quartiles and education levels. The household income-DM and education level-DM relationships were significant in younger age groups for both men and women. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI for diabetes were 1.51 (0.97, 2.34) and 2.28 (1.29, 4.02) for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of household income and education level, respectively, in women younger than 65 years of age (both P for linear trend diabetes was 2.28 (1.53, 3.39) for the lowest vs. highest quartile of household income in men younger than 65 (P for linear trend education with the prevalence of DM in Korea. DM preventive care is needed for groups with a low SES, particularly in young or middle-aged populations.

  3. Total sitting time, leisure time physical activity and risk of hospitalization due to low back pain: The Danish Health Examination Survey cohort 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Mie; Holmberg, Teresa; Petersen, Christina B; Aadahl, Mette; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to test the hypotheses that a high total sitting time and vigorous physical activity in leisure time increase the risk of low back pain and herniated lumbar disc disease. A total of 76,438 adults answered questions regarding their total sitting time and physical activity during leisure time in the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Information on low back pain diagnoses up to 10 September 2015 was obtained from The National Patient Register. The mean follow-up time was 7.4 years. Data were analysed using Cox regression analysis with adjustment for potential confounders. Multiple imputations were performed for missing values. During the follow-up period, 1796 individuals were diagnosed with low back pain, of whom 479 were diagnosed with herniated lumbar disc disease. Total sitting time was not associated with low back pain or herniated lumbar disc disease. However, moderate or vigorous physical activity, as compared to light physical activity, was associated with increased risk of low back pain (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03-1.30 and HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15-1.83). Moderate, but not vigorous physical activity was associated with increased risk of herniated lumbar disc disease. The results suggest that total sitting time is not associated with low back pain, but moderate and vigorous physical activity is associated with increased risk of low back pain compared with light physical activity.

  4. Identifying subgroups of obesity using the product of triglycerides and glucose: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Han, Kyungdo; Yang, Hae Kyung; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-02-01

    To determine whether the TyG index, a product of the levels of triglycerides and glucose, may be a valuable marker for identifying metabolically obese but normal weight (MONW) or metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) individuals. A total of 17 029 nondiabetic subjects (7185 men and 9844 women) were selected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2008-2010. Individuals with a normal body mass index (BMI) (≥18·5 and index was calculated as ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dl) × fasting glucose (mg/dl)/2]. The levels of the TyG index paralleled with various metabolic risk parameters. The index was significantly higher in the MONW group and lower in the MHO group when compared with the non-MONW group and the non-MHO group, respectively. The odds ratios (ORs) of being categorized into the MONW group were approximately fourfold higher in the highest vs lowest quartiles of the TyG index (3·999: 95% CI, 2·508-6·376 in men; 4·737: 95% CI, 3·418-6·565 in women) among normal weight subjects. Conversely, there was a stepwise decrease in the OR of being categorized into the MHO group across the TyG index quartiles among obese subjects. These data highlight the value of the TyG index in discriminating those subjects with higher risks of metabolic diseases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Association of sleep duration with rheumatoid arthritis in Korean adults: analysis of seven years of aggregated data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Kwang Soo; Lee, Yunhwan; Shim, Sungkeun; Kim, Jinhee; Chon, Doukyoung; Lee, Sang-Gue

    2016-12-13

    To investigate the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and self-reported sleep duration. The present study analysed 7 years of aggregated cross-sectional data (2007-2013) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES). A total of 37 979 individuals were selected for the analyses. RA. Sleep duration. After adjusting for confounding factors, the odds of short-duration sleepers (≤6 hours/day) and long-duration sleepers (≥9 hours/day) for RA were 1.23-fold (95% CI 1.101 to 1.51) and 1.27-fold (95% CI 0.85 to 1.88) higher, respectively, than those for persons with sleep duration of 7-8 hours/day. A subgroup analysis according to the extent of pain in RA revealed that the strong relationship between RA and sleep disturbances was observed in those with high pain from RA (OR: 1.28 CI 1.04 to 1.58). Individuals with RA may be at a higher risk for sleep disturbances compared with individuals without RA. Therefore, the provision of comprehensive care for patients with RA by healthcare professionals should include assessments of sleep duration and patients with RA should be encouraged to report sleep problems. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Analysis of audiometric notch as a noise-induced hearing loss phenotype in US youth: data from the National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ishan S; Guthrie, O'neil

    2017-06-01

    Bilateral audiometric notch (BN) at 4000-6000 Hz was identified as a noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) phenotype for genetic association analysis in college-aged musicians. This study analysed BN in a sample of US youth. Prevalence of the BN within the study sample was determined and logistic-regression analyses were performed to identify audiologic and other demographic factors associated with BN. Computer-simulated "flat" audiograms were used to estimate potential influence of false-positive rates in estimating the prevalence of the BN. 2348 participants (12-19 years) following the inclusion criteria were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (2005-2010). The prevalence of BN was 16.6%. Almost 55.6% of the participants showed notch in at least one ear. Noise exposure, gender, ethnicity and age showed significant relationship with the BN. Computer simulation revealed that 5.5% of simulated participants with "flat" audiograms showed BN. Association of noise exposure with BN suggests that it is a useful NIHL phenotype for genetic association analyses. However, further research is necessary to reduce false-positive rates in notch identification.

  7. Low testosterone in non-responsive coeliac disease: A case series, case-control study with comparisons to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurada, Satya; Veeraraghavan, Gopal; Kaswala, Dharmesh; Hansen, Josh; Cohen, David; Kelly, Ciaran; Leffler, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Adults with coeliac disease (CD) often report persistent fatigue, even when CD appears well controlled for unknown reasons. To evaluate common indications for testosterone panel (TP) testing and prevalence of low testosterone (T) in CD. In our case series, we determined common indications for checking TP in CD. Next, we conducted a case-control study to compare TP in CD vs. healthy controls (HC). We compared mean total T (TT), free T (FT) based on serologic, histologic disease activity. Finally, we assessed TT in tissue transglutaminase (tTG)+ vs. tTG- subjects and CD vs. HC obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). 53 coeliac males had TP tested. Common indications included osteoporosis and fatigue. Low FT was observed in 7/13 men with osteoporosis and 5/6 with fatigue. In our case-control study (n=26 each), there was no difference in mean TT or FT between CD vs. HC, tTG+ vs tTG- or Marsh 0 vs. Marsh 3 groups. NHANES data showed no difference in mean TT between tTG+ vs tTG- (n=16 each) or CD vs. HC subjects (n=5 each). Low T occurs in CD patients at a similar rate as the general population. Common presentations of low T may mimic non-responsive CD symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary patterns and pulmonary function in Korean women: findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Seung-Sup; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the association between dietary patterns and pulmonary functions in Korean women older than 40 years. This study analyzed the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007-2010). In total, 7615 women were included in the analysis. Using principal component analysis, two dietary patterns were identified, namely a balanced diet pattern (vegetables, fish, meat, seaweed, and mushrooms) and a refined diet (snacks, bread, milk, dairy products, and fast food). The refined diet pattern was positively associated with energy from fat but negatively associated with vitamin A, β-carotene, niacin, and fiber. After adjusting for potential confounders, the refined diet pattern was negatively associated with levels of predicted forced vital capacity (odds ratio (OR): 0.84, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.70, 0.99) and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (OR: 0.79, 95% CIs: 0.66, 0.93). In conclusion, the refined diet pattern was associated with decreased pulmonary function in Korean women. This information may be useful toward the development of nutritional guidelines for improving pulmonary function in Korean women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors in relation to bone mineral density in Korean middle-aged and older men: 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yoon Jung; Kim, Jihye

    2014-01-01

    Studies on determinants of bone mineral density (BMD) among Asian middle-aged and older men are very limited. The aim of this study was to investigate general determinants and dietary factors influencing BMD in Korean middle-aged and older men. This study was conducted using data from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 2,305 male subjects aged 50-79 years were included. Whole-body, total femur, femoral neck, and lumbar spine BMDs were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was estimated by 24-hour dietary recall. A food frequency questionnaire for 63 food items was also administered. Proportions of osteoporosis at the total femur, femoral neck, and lumbar spine were 0.7, 3.3 and 7.0%, respectively. Age, height, weight, body mass index, fat mass, lean body mass, waist circumference, serum vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and exercise were related to BMD, but the relationships were site specific. Diet quality and intake of vegetables, fruits, and calcium were associated with BMD. These results suggest that a high-quality diet, an adequate intake of fruits, vegetables, and calcium, as well as exercise, high serum vitamin D and weight maintenance might be determinants of BMD among middle-aged and older Asian men.

  10. Inadequate calcium intake is highly prevalent in Korean children and adolescents: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jong Geun; Kim, Shin Hye; Lee, Gyeong-Yoon; Joung, Hyojee; Park, Mi-Jung

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess the adequacy of Ca intake and major food sources of Ca in Korean children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2010. We analysed the daily Ca intake, major food sources of Ca and the prevalence of inadequate Ca intake in the study population. Ca intake was categorized as inadequate when the participant's daily Ca intake was less than the Estimated Average Requirement. Subject The study population consisted of 7233 children and adolescents (3973 boys, 3260 girls; aged 1-18 years). Mean Ca intake was 510·2 mg/d in boys and 431·7 mg/d in girls. Overall, 75·0 % of adolescents (boys 71·6 %, girls 79·1 %) had inadequate Ca intake. The prevalence of inadequate Ca intake increased significantly from toddlers (45-55 %) to adolescents (78-86 %) in both genders. The highest ranked food sources for Ca were dairy products (35·0 %), followed by vegetables (17·3 %), grains (11·3 %) and seafood (9·9 %). Ca intake from dairy products decreased significantly from 57 % in toddlers to 30 % in adolescents, while Ca intakes from other foods increased with age. Inadequate Ca intake is highly prevalent and increased with age in Korean children and adolescents. It should be emphasized to encourage children and adolescents to eat more Ca-rich products to meet their Ca needs.

  11. Biomarkers of Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Cognitive Function among Elderly in the United States (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 2001-2002)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Elizabeth A.; Juarez-Colunga, Elizabeth; James, Katherine; LeBlanc, William G.; Serdar, Berrin

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies report a link between common environmental exposures, such as particulate matter air pollution and tobacco smoke, and decline in cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a selected group of chemicals present in particulate matter and tobacco smoke, and measures of cognitive performance among elderly in the general population. This cross-sectional analysis involved data from 454 individuals aged 60 years and older from the 2001–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The association between PAH exposures (as measured by urinary biomarkers) and cognitive function (digit symbol substitution test (DSST)) was assessed using multiple linear regression analyses. After adjusting for age, socio-economic status and diabetes we observed a negative association between urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, the gold standard of PAH exposure biomarkers, and DSST score. A one percent increase in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene resulted in approximately a 1.8 percent poorer performance on the digit symbol substitution test. Our findings are consistent with previous publications and further suggest that PAHs, at least in part may be responsible for the adverse cognitive effects linked to tobacco smoke and particulate matter air pollution. PMID:26849365

  12. The Association Between Blood Mercury Levels and Risk for Overweight in a General Adult Population: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Seok, Hongdeok; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between blood mercury levels and overweight in Korean adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 9228 participants (4283 men and 4945 women) who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007-2013. The population was divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Blood mercury levels were analyzed using a gold amalgam method with a DMA-80 instrument, categorized into quartiles, and stratified by sex. After adjusting for all covariates, blood mercury was significantly associated with overweight in all subjects. According to the BMI criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.75 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.53-2.01) overall, 2.09 (95 % CI, 1.71-2.55) in men, and 1.58 (95 % CI, 1.32-1.89) in women. According to the WC criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.85 (95 % CI, 1.49-2.30) in men and 1.96 (95 % CI, 1.62-2.36) in women compared to the lowest quartile. Additionally, a trend in overweight across increasing blood mercury levels was observed by the p for trend test in the multiple diagnostic criteria.

  13. Longitudinal Associations of Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Cancer Mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1986–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyati Parekh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal associations between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA and overall cancer mortality were evaluated within the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; 1988–2006; n=15,535. Mortality status was ascertained using the National Death Index. Self-reported LTPA was divided into inactive, regular low-to-moderate and vigorous activity. A frequency-weighted metabolic equivalents (METS/week variable was also computed. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated for overall cancer mortality in the whole sample, by body mass index categories and insulin resistance (IR status. Nonsignificant protective associations were observed for regular low-to-moderate and vigorous activity, and for the highest quartile of METS/week (HRs range: 0.66–0.95. Individuals without IR engaging in regular vigorous activity had a 48% decreased risk of cancer mortality (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.28–0.98 in multivariate analyses. Conversely, nonsignificant positive associations were observed in people with IR. In conclusion, regular vigorous activity may reduce risk of cancer mortality among persons with normal insulin-glucose metabolism in this national sample.

  14. Association between long working hours and serum gamma-glutamyltransferase levels in female workers: data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung-Gwon; Lee, Yong-Jin; Ham, Jung-Oh; Jang, Eun-Chul; Kim, Seong-Woo; Park, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the association between long working hours and serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels, a factor influencing the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011) were used to analyze 1,809 women. Subjects were divided into three groups based on the number of weekly working hours: ≤29, 30-51, and ≥52 hours per week. Complex samples logistic regression was performed after adjusting for general and occupational factors to determine the association between long working hours and high serum GGT levels. The prevalence of high serum GGT levels in groups with ≤29, 30-51, and ≥52 working hours per week was 22.0%, 16.9%, and 26.6%, respectively. Even after adjusting for general and occupational factors, those working 30-51 hours per week had the lowest prevalence of high serum GGT levels. Compared to those working 30-51 hours per week, the odds ratios (OR) of having high serum GGT levels in the groups with ≥52 and ≤29 working hours per week were 1.56 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-2.23) and 1.53 (95% CI, 1.05-2.24), respectively. Long working hours were significantly associated with high serum GGT levels in Korean women.

  15. Blood mercury can be a factor of elevated serum ferritin: analysis of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2008-2012).

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    Joo, Nam-Seok; Choi, Young-Hwa; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Park, Soo-Jung; Choi, Beomhee; Kim, Young-Sang

    2015-03-01

    Serum ferritin as well as blood mercury are reported to be associated with chronic inflammation. However, the relation between serum ferritin and blood mercury has not yet been established. We utilized the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2012) 10,977 subjects (5433 males and 5544 females). To evaluate the association of serum ferritin and blood mercury cross-sectionally, complex sample analysis was conducted after adjustment for the relevant variables. Serum concentrations of ferritin and blood mercury were higher in males than in females (115.7 ± 1.7 vs. 40.9 ± 0.7 ng/mL and 5.0 ± 0.1 vs. 3.6 ± 0.1 μg/L, respectively). Serum ferritin and blood mercury concentrations had significant correlations in both genders after adjustment (r = 0.062, P mercury (P = 0.007) in males. The adjusted odds ratio of having the highest tertile of serum ferritin in the top tertile of blood mercury in males was 1.52 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.05-2.21). Thus, the current study indicates that blood mercury concentration can be a factor for the elevated serum ferritin concentration.

  16. The Impact of Educational Attainment on Observed Race/Ethnic Disparities in Inflammatory Risk in the 2001–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Gniesha Y. Dinwiddie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD and growing evidence suggests Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs and certain Hispanic subgroups have higher inflammation burden compared to Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs. Socioeconomic status (SES is a hypothesized pathway that may account for the higher inflammation burden for race/ethnic groups yet little is known about the biological processes by which SES “gets under the skin” to affect health and whether income and education have similar or distinct influences on elevated inflammation levels. The current study examines SES (income and education associations with multiple levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP, an important biomarker of inflammation, in a sample of 13,362 NHWs, 7696 NHBs and 4545 Mexican Americans (MAs in the United States from the 2001 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, and statin use, NHBs and MAs had higher intermediate and high CRP levels compared to NHWs. Income lessened the magnitude of the association for both race/ethnic groups. The greater intermediate and high CRP burden for NHBs and MAs was strongly explained by educational attainment. MAs were more vulnerable to high CRP levels for the lowest (i.e., less than nine years and post high school (i.e., associates degree educational levels. After additional adjustment for smoking, heavy drinking, high waist circumference, high blood pressure, diabetes and statin use, the strength of the association between race/ethnicity and inflammation was reduced for NHBs with elevated intermediate (RR = 1.31; p ≤ 0.001 and high CRP levels (RR = 1.14; p ≤ 0.001 compared to NHWs but the effect attenuated for MAs for both intermediate (RR = 0.74; p ≤ 0.001 and high CRP levels (RR = 0.38; p ≤ 0.001. These findings suggest educational attainment is a powerful predictor of elevated CRP levels in race/ethnic populations and challenges studies to move beyond

  17. Health Behaviors and Risk Factors Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease in Korean Patients with Diabetes: The Fourth Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey

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    Suk Jeong Lee, PhD, RN

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Since renal functions are affected by lifestyle factors, it is critical for healthcare professionals to provide diabetic patients with health education focused on changing their behavior so that it is conducive to health. It is also necessary to consider that diabetes education should be made more available and provided more effectively to these patients.

  18. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry reference data for GE Lunar systems.

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    Fan, Bo; Shepherd, John A; Levine, Michael A; Steinberg, Dee; Wacker, Wynn; Barden, Howard S; Ergun, David; Wu, Xin P

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004) includes adult and pediatric comparisons for total body bone and body composition results. Because dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements from different manufacturers are not standardized, NHANES reference values currently are applicable only to a single make and model of Hologic DXA system. The purpose of this study was to derive body composition reference curves for GE Healthcare Lunar DXA systems. Published values from the NHANES 1999-2004 survey were acquired from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Using previously reported cross-calibration equations between Hologic and GE-Lunar, we converted the total body and regional bone and soft-tissue measurements from NHANES 1999-2004 to GE-Lunar values. The LMS (LmsChartMaker Pro Version 3.5) curve fitting method was used to generate GE-Lunar reference curves. Separate curves were generated for each sex and ethnicity. The reference curves were also divided into pediatric (≤20 years old) and adult (>20 years old) groups. Adult reference curves were derived as a function of age. Additional relationships of pediatric DXA values were derived as a function of height, lean mass, and bone area. Robustness was tested between Hologic and GE-Lunar Z-score values. The NHANES 1999-2004 survey included a sample of 20,672 participants' (9630 female) DXA scans. A total of 8056 participants were younger than 20 yr and were included in the pediatric reference data set. Participants enrolled in the study who weighed more than 136 kg (over scanner table limit) were excluded. The average Z-scores comparing the new GE-Lunar reference curves are close to zero, and the standard deviation of the Z-scores are close to one for all variables. As expected, all measurements on the GE-Lunar reference curves for participants younger than 20 yr increase monotonically with age. In the adult population, most of the curves are constant at younger

  19. Association Between Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Blood Pressure Among Adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2014.

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    Jackson, Sandra L; Cogswell, Mary E; Zhao, Lixia; Terry, Ana L; Wang, Chia-Yih; Wright, Jacqueline; Coleman King, Sallyann M; Bowman, Barbara; Chen, Te-Ching; Merritt, Robert; Loria, Catherine M

    2018-01-16

    Higher levels of sodium and lower levels of potassium intake are associated with higher blood pressure. However, the shape and magnitude of these associations can vary by study participant characteristics or intake assessment method. Twenty-four-hour urinary excretion of sodium and potassium are unaffected by recall errors and represent all sources of intake, and were collected for the first time in a nationally representative US survey. Our objective was to assess the associations of blood pressure and hypertension with 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium and potassium among US adults. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 766 participants age 20 to 69 years with complete blood pressure and 24-hour urine collections in the 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative survey of the US noninstitutionalized population. Usual 24-hour urinary electrolyte excretion (sodium, potassium, and their ratio) was estimated from ≤2 collections on nonconsecutive days, adjusting for day-to-day variability in excretion. Outcomes included systolic and diastolic blood pressure from the average of 3 measures and hypertension status, based on average blood pressure ≥140/90 and antihypertensive medication use. After multivariable adjustment, each 1000-mg difference in usual 24-hour sodium excretion was directly associated with systolic (4.58 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.64-6.51) and diastolic (2.25 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.83-3.67) blood pressures. Each 1000-mg difference in potassium excretion was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (-3.72 mm Hg; 95% CI, -6.01 to -1.42). Each 0.5 U difference in sodium-to-potassium ratio was directly associated with systolic blood pressure (1.72 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.76-2.68). Hypertension was linearly associated with progressively higher sodium and lower potassium excretion; in comparison with the lowest quartile of excretion, the adjusted odds of hypertension for the highest quartile was

  20. The Association between Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Seo, Jeong Eun; Lee, Hong Soo; Lee, Sang Wha; Shim, Kyung Won; Byun, A Ri; Kim, Jung Hwa; An, Hee Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Background The sodium intake of Koreans was higher than that recommended by the World Health Organization. Urinary sodium, which is correlated with sodium intake, can be easily calculated by the Tanaka's equation. This study aimed to evaluate the association between urinary sodium and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults using the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Methods A total of 5,870 participants from the 2010–2011 KNHANES were included in this study. Twenty-four hour urinary sodium was calculated by the Tanaka's equation using spot urine. Participants were divided into tertiles based on urinary sodium levels. The association between urinary sodium and metabolic syndrome was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of metabolic syndrome for the 2nd and 3rd tertile of urinary sodium levels was 1.51 (1.16–1.97) and 1.56 (1.23–1.97) compared to the lowest tertile of urinary sodium in men. The ORs and 95% CIs of metabolic syndrome in women were 1.20 (0.95–1.51) for the 2nd tertile and 2.16 (1.68–2.78) for the 3rd tertile. These associations remained statistically significant, even after adjusting for multiple covariates such as age, education, regular exercise, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Conclusion These findings indicate that urinary sodium is significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. PMID:28775809

  1. Intake of added sugars and selected nutrients in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006.

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    Marriott, Bernadette P; Olsho, Lauren; Hadden, Louise; Connor, Patty

    2010-03-01

    In the Institute of Medicine (IOM) macronutrient report the Committee recommended a maximal intake of added sugars. The primary objectives of this study were to utilize National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to update the reference table data on intake of added sugars from the IOM report and compute food sources of added sugars. We combined data from NHANES with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) MyPyramid Equivalents Database (MPED) and calculated individual added sugars intake as percent of total energy then classified individuals into 8 added sugars percent energy categories, calculated usual intake with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method, and compared intakes to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Nutrients at most risk for inadequacy based on the Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) were vitamins E, A, C, and magnesium. Nutrient intake was less with each 5% increase in added sugars intake above 5-10%. Thirteen percent of the population had added sugars intake > 25%. The mean g-eq added sugars intake of 83.1 g-eq/day and added sugars food sources were comparable to the mid-1990s. Higher added sugars intakes were associated with higher proportions of individuals with nutrient intakes below the EAR, but the overall high calorie and the low quality of the U.S. diet remained the predominant issue. With over 80% of the population at risk for select nutrient inadequacy, guidance may need to focus on targeted healthful diet communication to reach the highest risk demographic groups for specific life stage nutrient inadequacies.

  2. Age-Related Changes in the Prevalence of Osteoporosis according to Gender and Skeletal Site: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

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    Jongseok Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe incidence of osteoporosis and its related fractures are expected to increase significantly in the rapidly aging Korean population. Reliable data on the prevalence of this disease is essential for treatment planning. However, sparse data on Korean patients is available.MethodsWe analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2008 to 2010. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at the femoral neck and lumbar spine using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Osteopenia and osteoporosis were diagnosed according to the World Health Organization T-score criteria. We analyzed the BMD data of 17,208 people (men, 7,837; women, 9,368.ResultsThe adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis was 7.8% in men versus 37.0% in women. No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of osteopenia between genders (men, 47.0%; women, 48.7%. The prevalence of osteoporosis in men in their 50s was 4.0%, in their 60s was 7.2%, in their 70s was 15.1%, and in their 80s was 26.7%. The figures in women were 15.2%, 36.5%, 62.7%, and 85.8%, respectively. The age group with the maximal BMD differed between genders. In the men, 20s had the highest value in all the skeletal sites. However, in the women, the maximal BMD in the femoral neck, lumbar spine, and the total hip was observed in their 20s, 30s, and 40s, respectively. The onset age of osteoporosis differed between genders. Osteoporosis in the femoral neck began at 55 years in the women and at 60 years in the men.ConclusionThe prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea was significantly high. In addition, the age-related changes in the prevalence of osteoporosis differed according to gender and skeletal site.

  3. Effect of marijuana use on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality: A study using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey linked mortality file.

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    Yankey, Barbara A; Rothenberg, Richard; Strasser, Sheryl; Ramsey-White, Kim; Okosun, Ike S

    2017-11-01

    Background Reports associate marijuana use with cardiovascular emergencies. Studies relating marijuana use to cardiovascular mortality are scarce. Recent advance towards marijuana use legalization emphasizes the importance of understanding relationships between marijuana use and cardiovascular deaths; the primary ranked mortality. Recreational marijuana is primarily smoked; we hypothesize that like cigarette smoking, marijuana use will be associated with increased cardiovascular mortalities. Design The design of this study was based on a mortality follow-up. Method We linked participants aged 20 years and above, who responded to questions on marijuana use during the 2005 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to data from the 2011 public-use linked mortality file of the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Only participants eligible for mortality follow-up were included. We conducted Cox proportional hazards regression analyses to estimate hazard ratios for hypertension, heart disease, and cerebrovascular mortality due to marijuana use. We controlled for cigarette smoking and other relevant variables. Results Of the 1213 eligible participants 72.5% were presumed to be alive. The total follow-up time was 19,569 person-years. Adjusted hazard ratios for death from hypertension among marijuana users compared to non-marijuana users was 3.42 (95% confidence interval: 1.20-9.79) and for each year of marijuana use was 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.07). Conclusion From our results, marijuana use may increase the risk for hypertension mortality. Increased duration of marijuana use is associated with increased risk of death from hypertension. Recreational marijuana use potentially has cardiovascular adverse effects which needs further investigation.

  4. Urinary Albumin Excretion Reflects Cardiovascular Risk in Postmenopausal Women without Diabetes: The 2011 to 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Hee Jung Ahn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe objective of the current study was to determine whether there was an association between urinary albumin excretion and cardiovascular disease (CVD risk by estimating the Framingham Risk Score (FRS in postmenopausal women without diabetes.MethodsThis study was based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare in 2011 to 2013. Data on 2,316 postmenopausal women from a total of 24,594 participants was included in the analysis.ResultsThe mean FRS was significantly different in each of the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR subgroups, and it increased with UACR. The FRS was 12.69±0.12 in the optimal group, 14.30±0.19 in the intermediate normal group, 14.62±0.26 in the high normal group, and 15.86±0.36 in the microalbuminuria group. After fully adjusting for potential confounding factors, high normal levels and microalbuminuria were significantly associated with the highest tertile of FRS ([odds ratio (OR, 1.642; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.124 to 2.400] and [OR, 3.385; 95% CI, 2.088 to 5.488], respectively compared with the optimal subgroup. High normal levels and microalbuminuria were also significantly associated with a ≥10% 10-year risk of CVD ([OR, 1.853; 95% CI, 1.122 to 3.060] and [OR, 2.831; 95% CI, 1.327 to 6.037], respectively after adjusting for potential confounding covariates.ConclusionUrinary albumin excretion reflects CVD risk in postmenopausal women without diabetes, and high normal levels and microalbuminuria were independently associated with a higher risk of CVD.

  5. [The module "Motorik" in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Motor fitness and physical activity of children and young people].

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    Opper, E; Worth, A; Wagner, M; Bös, K

    2007-01-01

    Motor fitness and physical activity are important aspects of a healthy development in childhood and adolescence. However, the assessment of motor fitness and physical activity is not subject to standardized criteria; furthermore, the samples investigated do not provide a representative image of the whole population. Therefore, the existing data only allow very limited statements on the state and development of motor fitness and physical activity. The "Motorik" module, as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), offers nationwide representative data on the motor fitness and physical activity of children and adolescents for the first time. Besides the baseline-analysis, another aim is to analyse the complex relationship between motor fitness, physical activity and health. Motor fitness, based on the systematisation of motor abilities, was assessed using a test profile. The test profile consists of 11 items measuring cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, coordination and mobility. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire containing 51 items on the duration, intensity and frequency of physical activity in everyday life, during leisure time, at school and in sports clubs. The above-mentioned questionnaire subtopics were supplemented by questions on the weekly prevalence of at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity, on material and local conditions, as well as on cognition and motivation for physical activity. In the years 2004 to 2006, the motor fitness and physical activity of 4,529 children and young people between the ages of 4 and 17 years was investigated on 168 sample points in the context of the "Motorik" module. Half of the children and adolescents investigated belong to the middle class, approximately 15% have a background of migration. The majority of the subjects come from small towns, about a quarter live in the city, less than 20% are settled in rural areas.

  6. Factors and common conditions associated with adolescent dietary supplement use: an analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES

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    Davis Roger B

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the prevalence of dietary supplement (DS use in American adolescents. We conducted this study to analyze the prevalence of DS use and factors associated with this use in a national population-based sample. Methods We used data from the 1999 – 2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES for adolescents age 11 to 19. Using weighted logistic regression, we identified demographic and clinical factors associated with the use of any DS, vitamins or minerals, herbs and other DS. Results Among the 5,306 responses representing approximately 36 million Americans 11–19 years old, 27% reported use of one or more DS in the prior month. The most commonly used DS were: multivitamins (16% and vitamin C (6%. In the multivariable analysis, African American [adjusted odds ratio 0.40 (0.31–0.50 95% CI] and Mexican American [0.55 (0.44–0.69] adolescents were less likely to use DS compared with non-Hispanic whites. DS use was more common in those who used prescription medications [1.37 (1.10–1.72] and among those who had a diagnosis of chronic headaches [1.25 (1.04–1.50]. DS use was less common among those reporting fair or poor health status [0.59 (0.40–0.88]. Conclusion Twenty seven percent of American adolescents use DS. DS use is higher among teens that use prescription medications; physicians and pharmacists should be aware of this, ask patients, and check for potential interactions.

  7. Consent to Specimen Storage and Continuing Studies by Race and Ethnicity: A Large Dataset Analysis Using the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Andre Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine if significant differences exist in consent rates for biospecimen storage and continuing studies between non-Hispanic Whites and minority ethnic groups in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Methods. Using logistic regression, we analyzed 2011-2012 NHANES data to determine whether race/ethnicity, age, gender, and education level influence consent to specimen storage or future testing. Results. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, some minorities were less willing to donate a specimen for storage and continuing studies, including other Hispanics (non-Mexican (OR 0.236, 95% CI: 0.079, 0.706, non-Hispanic Asians (OR 0.212, 95% CI: 0.074, 0.602, and other/multiracial ethnic groups (OR 0.189, 95% CI: 0.037, 0.957. Within race and ethnic groups, those aged 20–39 years (OR 2.215, 95% CI: 1.006–4.879 and 40–59 years (OR 9.375, 95% CI: 2.163–40.637 are more willing than those over 60 years to provide consent. Conclusion. Lower consent rates by other Hispanics, non-Hispanic Asians, and other/multiracial individuals in this study represent the first published comparison of consent rates among these groups to our knowledge. To best meet the health care needs of this segment of the population and to aid in designing future genetic studies, reassessment of ethnic minority groups concerning these issues is important.

  8. A history of repetitive cesarean section is a risk factor of anemia in healthy perimenopausal women: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012.

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    Jee Yoon Park

    Full Text Available To determine whether the delivery method is associated with the rate of anemia in later life, using the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES.This study used data from the KNHANES 2010-2012. Among 25,534 participants, 8,126 cases were included in this study after exclusion of males and other inappropriate data. The study population was divided into three groups according to the delivery modes: vaginal delivery (VD only group, single cesarean delivery (SCD group and repetitive cesarean delivery (RCD group. The primary outcome was anemia and iron deficiency. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin <12 g/dl in accordance with the World Health Organization criteria. Iron deficiency was defined as low transferrin saturation (TSAT or ferritin levels. Multivariate analysis was used for determination of association between the delivery modes and anemia.The mean age was 53.4 years and the median time from the last delivery to the survey was 25 years. The VD only group was composed of 6,493 (79.9% women, while 685 (8.4% were classified as the SCD group and 948 (11.7% were classified as a RCD group. The rates of anemia were 11.8%, 13.9%, and 19.7% in VD only group, SCD group, and RCD group, respectively. However, those groups were significantly different in many confounding factors. Therefore, to adjust those factors, multivariate analysis and subgroup analysis were followed. The odds of SCD for anemia and iron deficiency were not different from those of VD only. However, RCD was independently associated with anemia [Odds ratio(OR 1.47, 95% Confidence interval (CI 1.21-1.79, P <0.001] and iron deficiency (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.21-1.67, P <0.001 compared to VD only. In the subgroup analysis, RCD was significantly associated with anemia in perimenopausal women, women with iron deficiency, those without any comorbidity and those without anemia-prone treatment.Repetitive cesarean section may be a risk factor for future development

  9. Increasing effect of body weight perception on suicidal ideation among young Korean women: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 and 2005

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    Dong-Sik Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dong-Sik KimDepartment of Gender Equality and Social Cohesion Research, Korean Women's Development Institute, Seoul, Republic of KoreaObjective: To examine the prevalence of actual and perceived overweight and to compare the mediating effect of perceived overweight on the relationship between actual overweight and suicidal ideation among young Korean women between 2001 and 2005.Methods: Data were gathered from the 2001 and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys involving a nationally representative sample of young women (568 in 2001 and 385 in 2005 aged 20–29 years.Results: Over the 5-year period, the prevalence of actual overweight (body mass index ≥23 kg/m2 and perceived overweight increased by 10.5% and 22.8%, respectively. The discrepancy between actual and perceived body weights was much wider in 2005 than in 2001. After controlling for covariates (age, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and regular exercise, overweight women were more likely to think about suicide than their normal-weight counterparts in both periods. However, in both periods, the association between overweight and suicidal ideation became nonsignificant when perceived weight was considered. In both periods, a self-perception of overweight was associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, but the association was much stronger in 2005 than in 2001.Conclusion: This study suggests a need for educational programs or effective treatments to help young women who perceive themselves as overweight to reduce the potential risk of suicidal ideation in later life.Keywords: body mass index, perceived body weight, body weight, body image, suicidal ideation 

  10. Inverse association between insulin resistance and gait speed in nondiabetic older men: results from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002

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    Yu Yau-Hua

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have revealed the associations between insulin resistance (IR and geriatric conditions such as frailty and cognitive impairment. However, little is known about the relation of IR to physical impairment and limitation in the aging process, eg. slow gait speed and poor muscle strength. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of IR in performance-based physical function, specifically gait speed and leg strength, among nondiabetic older adults. Methods Cross-sectional data were from the population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002. A total of 1168 nondiabetic adults (≥ 50 years with nonmissing values in fasting measures of insulin and glucose, habitual gait speed (HGS, and leg strength were analyzed. IR was assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR, whereas HGS and peak leg strength by the 20-foot timed walk test and an isokinetic dynamometer, respectively. We used multiple linear regression to examine the association between IR and performance-based physical function. Results IR was inversely associated with gait speed among the men. After adjusting demographics, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking status, chronic co-morbidities, and markers of nutrition and cardiovascular risk, each increment of 1 standard deviation in the HOMA-IR level was associated with a 0.04 m/sec decrease (p = 0.003 in the HGS in men. We did not find such association among the women. The IR-HGS association was not changed after further adjustment of leg strength. Last, HOMA-IR was not demonstrated in association with peak leg strength. Conclusion IR is inversely associated with HGS among older men without diabetes. The results suggest that IR, an important indicator of gait function among men, could be further investigated as an intervenable target to prevent walking limitation.

  11. Low transferrin saturation is associated with impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance in the South Korean adults: the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Park, R J; Moon, J D

    2015-05-01

    The associations of transferrin saturation with diabetes have not been well evaluated and conflicting results have been reported. The purpose of this study is to examine the association of iron indices (serum ferritin and transferrin saturation) with risk of impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2413 individuals (1150 men and 1263 women) aged 20-50 years who participated in the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were free of diabetes, malignancy, liver cirrhosis, chronic renal failure, anaemia, pregnancy and menopause. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured as the outcomes. Impaired fasting glucose was more prevalent in the highest compared with the lowest serum ferritin quartile among men (odds ratio [OR], 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-3.24) after adjustment for multiple covariates. Following the same adjustment, impaired fasting glucose was less prevalent in the highest compared with the lowest transferrin saturation quartile among men (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.25-0.80) and women (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.14-0.77). Moreover, a higher ferritin level was significantly associated with higher HOMA-IR after adjusting for confounders in men. Lower transferrin saturation was also significantly associated with higher insulin levels and HOMA-IR in both sexes. Lower transferrin saturations were associated with an increased risk of impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance among general South Korean population. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  12. Combined effects of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodine on thyroid function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–08

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    Steinmaus, Craig; Miller, Mark D.; Cushing, Lara; Blount, Benjamin C.; Smith, Allan H.

    2013-01-01

    Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine intake can all decrease iodide intake into the thyroid gland. This can reduce thyroid hormone production since iodide is a key component of thyroid hormone. Previous research has suggested that each of these factors alone may decrease thyroid hormone levels, but effect sizes are small. We hypothesized that people who have all three factors at the same time have substantially lower thyroid hormone levels than people who do not, and the effect of this combined exposure is substantially larger than the effects seen in analyses focused on only one factor at a time. Using data from the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, subjects were categorized into exposure groups based on their urinary perchlorate, iodine, and thiocyanate concentrations, and mean serum thyroxine concentrations were compared between groups. Subjects with high perchlorate (n=1939) had thyroxine concentrations that were 5.0% lower (mean difference=0.40 μg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.14–0.65) than subjects with low perchlorate (n=2084). The individual effects of iodine and thiocyanate were even smaller. Subjects with high perchlorate, high thiocyanate, and low iodine combined (n=62) had thyroxine concentrations 12.9% lower (mean difference=1.07 μg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.55–1.59) than subjects with low perchlorate, low thiocyanate, and adequate iodine (n=376). Potential confounders had little impact on results. Overall, these results suggest that concomitant exposure to perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine markedly reduces thyroxine production. This highlights the potential importance of examining the combined effects of multiple agents when evaluating the toxicity of thyroid-disrupting agents. -- Highlights: ► Recent data suggest that essentially everyone in the US is exposed to perchlorate. ► Perchlorate exposure may be associated with lower thyroid hormone levels. ► Some groups may be more susceptible to

  13. Socioeconomic disparities in secondhand smoke exposure among US never-smoking adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-2010.

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    Gan, Wen Qi; Mannino, David M; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-11-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a leading preventable cause of illness, disability and mortality. There is a lack of quantitative analyses on socioeconomic disparities in SHS; especially, it is not known how socioeconomic disparities have changed in the past two decades in the USA. To examine socioeconomic disparities and long-term temporal trends in SHS exposure among US never-smoking adults aged ≥20 years. 15 376 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010 were included in the analysis of socioeconomic disparities; additional 8195 participants from NHANES III 1988-1994 were included in the temporal trend analysis. SHS exposure was assessed using self-reported exposure in the home and workplace as well as using serum cotinine concentrations ≥0.05 ng/mL. Individual socioeconomic status (SES) was assessed using poverty-to-income ratio. During the period 1999-2010, 6% and 14% of participants reported SHS exposure in the home and workplace, respectively; 40% had serum cotinine-indicated SHS exposure. Individual SES was strongly associated with SHS exposure in a dose-response fashion; participants in the lowest SES group were 2-3 times more likely to be exposed to SHS compared with those in the highest SES group. During the period 1988-2010, the prevalence declined over 60% for the three types of SHS exposure. However, for cotinine-indicated exposure, the magnitudes of the declines were smaller for lower SES groups compared with higher SES groups, leading to widening socioeconomic disparities in SHS exposure. SHS exposure is still widespread among US never-smoking adults, and socioeconomic disparities for cotinine-indicated exposure have substantially increased in the past two decades. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Active smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke and their relationship to depressive symptoms in the Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sun Jae; Shin, Aesun; Kang, Daehee

    2015-10-14

    The relationship between tobacco smoking, including secondhand smoking, and depression has been assessed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between secondhand smoking among current, former and never smokers and depressive symptoms. For secondhand smoking, gender differences and sources of exposure were examined. Data from 34,693 participants from the fourth and fifth Korean Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2007-2012) were analyzed in 2014. Self-reported exposure to active (current, former or never) and secondhand smoking and depressive symptoms experienced during the past year were analyzed using logistic regression. The dose-response relationship between duration of secondhand smoke exposure and depression was assessed with stratification by gender and sources of exposure (at home only, at the workplace only or both). Regardless of their smoking status, all women who had secondhand smoke exposure at home reported more depressive symptoms than non-smoking women without any exposure to secondhand cigarette smoking (OR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.04-1.96 for current smokers; OR 2.32, 95 % CI 1.04-5.16 for former smokers; OR 1.25, 95 % CI 1.08-1.43 for never smokers). There was also a significant dose-response pattern (p-trend secondhand smoke exposure at home among women. No significant association was found between smoking and depressive symptoms in men. There was a significant association between secondhand smoke exposure at home and depressive symptoms in women. Secondhand smoke exposure at home was associated with depressive symptoms in a dose-response manner.

  15. Association of physical activity with sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in community-dwelling older adults: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Mikyung; Jo, Jaeseong; Lee, Yunhwan; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Kwang-Min; Baek, Weon-Chil

    2013-11-01

    this study examined the association of physical activity with sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity among the community-dwelling Korean elderly. subjects consisted of 2,264 aged 65 years or older in the 2008-09 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sarcopenia was defined as 2 SD below the mean of the appendicular skeletal muscle/weight for healthy young adults. Obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 85 cm for women. Levels of physical activity were classified using the metabolic equivalent task method. the prevalence of sarcopenia was 12.1% in men and 11.9% in women. Among those with sarcopenia, obesity was prevalent in 68.3% of men and 65.0% of women. Adjusting for all covariates, compared with those with low physical activity, men who engaged in moderate and high activity were 38% and 74%, respectively, less likely to have sarcopenia (Ptrend women, the relationship between physical activity and sarcopenia was not significant. For sarcopenic obesity, men participating in moderate [odds ratio (OR) = 0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26-0.87] and high (OR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.12-0.60) physical activity, compared with low activity, had significantly lower risk (Ptrend = 0.001). In women, high physical activity was associated with a lower risk of sarcopenic obesity (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.22-0.86). physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in older Korean adults. There were gender differences in the relationship, with stronger associations observed in men than in women.

  16. Cross-sectional associations of active transport, employment status and objectively measured physical activity: analyses from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Hu, Liang; Hipp, J Aaron; Imm, Kellie R; Schutte, Rudolph; Stubbs, Brendon; Colditz, Graham A; Smith, Lee

    2018-05-05

    To investigate associations between active transport, employment status and objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a representative sample of US adults. Cross-sectional analyses of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 5180 adults (50.2 years old, 49.0% men) were classified by levels of active transportation and employment status. Outcome measure was weekly time spent in MVPA as recorded by the Actigraph accelerometer. Associations between active transport, employment status and objectively measured MVPA were examined using multivariable linear regression models adjusted for age, body mass index, race and ethnicity, education level, marital status, smoking status, working hour duration (among the employed only) and self-reported leisure time physical activity. Patterns of active transport were similar between the employed (n=2897) and unemployed (n=2283), such that 76.0% employed and 77.5% unemployed engaged in no active transport. For employed adults, those engaging in high levels of active transport (≥90 min/week) had higher amount of MVPA than those who did not engage in active transport. This translated to 40.8 (95% CI 15.7 to 65.9) additional minutes MVPA per week in men and 57.9 (95% CI 32.1 to 83.7) additional minutes MVPA per week in women. Among the unemployed adults, higher levels of active transport were associated with more MVPA among men (44.8 min/week MVPA, 95% CI 9.2 to 80.5) only. Findings from the present study support interventions to promote active transport to increase population level physical activity. Additional strategies are likely required to promote physical activity among unemployed women. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Food Security and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the relationship between food security status and predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between food security status and cardiovascular disease risk factors and predicted 10-year risk in a national sample of US adults. Methods A cross-sectional analysis using data from 10,455 adults aged 20 years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2008 was conducted. Four levels of food security status were defined by using 10 questions. Results Among all participants, 83.9% had full food security, 6.7% had marginal food security, 5.8% had low food security, and 3.6% had very low food security. After adjustment, mean hemoglobin A1c was 0.15% greater and mean concentration of C-reactive protein was 0.8 mg/L greater among participants with very low food security than among those with full food security. The adjusted mean concentration of cotinine among participants with very low food security was almost double that of participants with full food security (112.8 vs 62.0 ng/mL, P security status and systolic blood pressure or concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed. Participants aged 30 to 59 years with very low food security were more likely to have a predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk greater than 20% than fully food secure participants (adjusted prevalence ratio, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31–4.31). Conclusion Adults aged 30 to 59 years with very low food security showed evidence of increased predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:24309090

  18. Food security and metabolic syndrome in U.S. adults and adolescents: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Emily D; Widome, Rachel; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Pereira, Mark A

    2010-05-01

    We sought to examine the association of food security and metabolic syndrome in a representative sample of U.S. adults and adolescents. We hypothesized that compared with those in food-secure households, adolescents and adults living in food-insecure households would have increased odds of (MetS). Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1999 to 2006 were combined and analyzed cross-sectionally. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) in the association of household food security (fully food secure, marginal, low, and very low food security) and MetS. Compared with those who were food secure, adults in households with marginal food security had 1.80-fold increased odds of MetS (95% CI, 1.30-2.49), and those with very low food security had a 1.65-fold increased odds of MetS (95% CI 1.12-2.42). There was no association with low food security. The association of marginal household food security and MetS was not significant in adolescents. In adults and adolescents, very low was food security not associated with increased odds of MetS compared with those who were food secure. Members of households with marginal and very low food security are at increased risk of MetS. A mechanism may be that foods that are inexpensive and easily accessible tend to be energy dense and nutrient poor. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Food security and cardiovascular disease risk among adults in the United States: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Earl S

    2013-12-05

    Little is known about the relationship between food security status and predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between food security status and cardiovascular disease risk factors and predicted 10-year risk in a national sample of US adults. A cross-sectional analysis using data from 10,455 adults aged 20 years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008 was conducted. Four levels of food security status were defined by using 10 questions. Among all participants, 83.9% had full food security, 6.7% had marginal food security, 5.8% had low food security, and 3.6% had very low food security. After adjustment, mean hemoglobin A1c was 0.15% greater and mean concentration of C-reactive protein was 0.8 mg/L greater among participants with very low food security than among those with full food security. The adjusted mean concentration of cotinine among participants with very low food security was almost double that of participants with full food security (112.8 vs 62.0 ng/mL, P security status and systolic blood pressure or concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed. Participants aged 30 to 59 years with very low food security were more likely to have a predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk greater than 20% than fully food secure participants (adjusted prevalence ratio, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31-4.31). Adults aged 30 to 59 years with very low food security showed evidence of increased predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk.

  20. Relationship between high white blood cell count and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in Korean children and adolescents: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J-M; Lee, D-C; Lee, Y-J

    2017-05-01

    Increasing evidence has indicated that insulin resistance is associated with inflammation. However, few studies have investigated the association between white blood cell (WBC) count and insulin resistance, as measured by a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a general pediatric population. This study aimed to examine the association between WBC count and insulin resistance as measured by HOMA-IR in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents. In total, 2761 participants (1479 boys and 1282 girls) aged 10-18 years were selected from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Insulin resistance was defined as a HOMA-IR value greater than the 90th percentile. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for insulin resistance were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. The mean values of most cardiometabolic variables tended to increase proportionally with WBC count quartiles. The prevalence of insulin resistance significantly increased in accordance with WBC count quartiles in both boys and girls. Compared to individuals in the lowest WBC count quartile, the odds ratio for insulin resistance for individuals in the highest quartile was 2.84 in boys and 3.20 in girls, after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, and waist circumference. A higher WBC count was positively associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in Korean children and adolescents. This study suggests that WBC count could facilitate the identification of children and adolescents with insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Combined effects of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodine on thyroid function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmaus, Craig, E-mail: craigs@berkeley.edu [Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1515 Clay St. 16th Floor, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Miller, Mark D., E-mail: ucsfpehsumiller@gmail.com [Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1515 Clay St. 16th Floor, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Cushing, Lara, E-mail: lara.cushing@berkeley.edu [Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 93720-3050 (United States); Blount, Benjamin C., E-mail: bkb3@cdc.gov [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, Mail Stop F47, Atlanta, GA (United States); Smith, Allan H., E-mail: ahsmith@berkeley.edu [Arsenic Health Effects Research Group, 1950 Addison St., Suite 204, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94704 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine intake can all decrease iodide intake into the thyroid gland. This can reduce thyroid hormone production since iodide is a key component of thyroid hormone. Previous research has suggested that each of these factors alone may decrease thyroid hormone levels, but effect sizes are small. We hypothesized that people who have all three factors at the same time have substantially lower thyroid hormone levels than people who do not, and the effect of this combined exposure is substantially larger than the effects seen in analyses focused on only one factor at a time. Using data from the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, subjects were categorized into exposure groups based on their urinary perchlorate, iodine, and thiocyanate concentrations, and mean serum thyroxine concentrations were compared between groups. Subjects with high perchlorate (n=1939) had thyroxine concentrations that were 5.0% lower (mean difference=0.40 μg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.14–0.65) than subjects with low perchlorate (n=2084). The individual effects of iodine and thiocyanate were even smaller. Subjects with high perchlorate, high thiocyanate, and low iodine combined (n=62) had thyroxine concentrations 12.9% lower (mean difference=1.07 μg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.55–1.59) than subjects with low perchlorate, low thiocyanate, and adequate iodine (n=376). Potential confounders had little impact on results. Overall, these results suggest that concomitant exposure to perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine markedly reduces thyroxine production. This highlights the potential importance of examining the combined effects of multiple agents when evaluating the toxicity of thyroid-disrupting agents. -- Highlights: ► Recent data suggest that essentially everyone in the US is exposed to perchlorate. ► Perchlorate exposure may be associated with lower thyroid hormone levels. ► Some groups may be more susceptible to

  2. Effect of physical activity and sedentary behavior on serum prostate-specific antigen concentrations: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Kohli, Manish

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association between accelerometer-derived sedentary and physical activity and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a nationally representative sample of men in the United States. Data from the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles were used in the present study, with data from 1672 adult male participants used in the analyses. The manuscript was prepared between July 7, 2012, and September 26, 2012. Sedentary and physical activity was objectively measured using an accelerometer. Covariates included various demographic, dietary, biological, and immunologic variables including age, height, weight, body mass index, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, and poverty-income ratio; dietary fiber, fat, protein, and carbohydrate intake and total energy intake; vitamin C and vitamin E; alcohol intake; medication use; concentrations of cotinine, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; blood pressure (elevated or not elevated); diabetes; C-reactive protein; and white blood cell count and number of basophils and eosinophils. Only after controlling for all covariates, for every 1-hour increase in sedentary behavior, participants were 16% more likely to have an elevated PSA concentration (odds ratio, 1.16 [95% CI, 1.06-1.27]; P=.001). For every 1-hour increase in light physical activity, participants were 18% less likely to have an elevated PSA concentration (odds ratio, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.68-1.00]; P=.05). Individuals who engage in more sedentary behavior and lower levels of light physical activity have higher PSA concentrations. Future studies are needed to better identify the potential underlying mechanisms delineating the association between sedentary and physical activity and PSA concentration. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The association of physical activity and colorectal and breast cancer: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suh-Jung

    2015-06-01

    Therapeutic importance of physical activity during and after cancer treatment has been supported. To examine the patterns of physical activity according to the stages of breast and colorectal cancer survivor-ship in Korean, Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2008 to 2011 were used. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was utilized to estimate weekly time spent in vigorous- and moderate-intensity physical activity, and walking, and to calculate MET-minute/week. Depending on the survivorship, the subjects were categorized into "never diagnosed with cancer" (group 1), "0-4 yr since cancer diagnosis" (group 2), and "5 or more years since cancer diagnosis" (group 3), separately for colorectal and breast cancer. The associations between physical activity and the cancer survivorship were studied. Following results were obtained: (1) Breast cancer (n=10,167, mean age=48.55±16.27): The mean physical activity levels expressed in MET-minutes/week were 2,064.83, 1748.82, and 1998.36 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Even though cancer survivors tended to be less active compared to people without cancer, there were no statistically significant difference among the three groups. (2) Colorectal cancer (n=17,270, mean age=48.62): MET-minutes/week was 2064.30, 1084.83, and 709.04 36 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The differences were significant between group 1 and 2 (F=5.87, P=0.016) and group 1 and 3 (F=28.99, Pphysical activity, colorectal cancer survivors were less active than people without cancer in Korea.

  4. Contribution of particle-size-fractionated airborne lead to blood lead during the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingyu; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Davis, J Allen; Cohen, Jonathan; Svendsgaard, David; Brown, James S; Tuttle, Lauren; Hubbard, Heidi; Rice, Joann; Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa; Sacks, Jason D; Kirrane, Ellen; Kotchmar, Dennis; Hines, Erin; Ross, Mary

    2014-01-21

    The objective of this work is to examine associations between blood lead (PbB) and air lead (PbA) in particulate matter measured at different size cuts by use of PbB concentrations from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and PbA concentrations from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for 1999-2008. Three size fractions of particle-bound PbA (TSP, PM10, and PM2.5) data with different averaging times (current and past 90-day average) were utilized. A multilevel linear mixed effect model was used to characterize the PbB-PbA relationship. At 0.15 μg/m(3), a unit decrease in PbA in PM10 was significantly associated with a decrease in PbB of 0.3-2.2 μg/dL across age groups and averaging times. For PbA in PM2.5 and TSP, slopes were generally positive but not significant. PbB levels were more sensitive to the change in PbA concentrations for children (1-5 and 6-11 years) and older adults (≥ 60 years) than teenagers (12-19 years) and adults (20-59 years). For the years following the phase-out of Pb in gasoline and a resulting upward shift in the PbA particle size distribution, PbA in PM10 was a statistically significant predictor of PbB. The results also suggest that age could affect the PbB-PbA association, with children having higher sensitivity than adults.

  5. Impact of fish consumption by subjects with prediabetes on the metabolic risk factors: using data in the 2015 (6th) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Yun; Park, Jeong Seop

    2018-06-01

    The effects of fish consumption by subjects with prediabetes on the metabolic risk factors were examined based on the data from the 6 th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys in 2015. A total of 1,520 subjects who agreed to participate in a blood test and dietary intake survey were divided into a prediabetes group and normal blood glucose group, and the level of the subjects' fish consumption was divided into ≤ 17.0 g/day, 18.0-93.0 g/day, and ≥ 94 g/day. The correlation between the level of fish intake and the metabolic risk factors was evaluated by multinomial logistic regression analysis. A significant difference in the gender distribution was observed in the prediabetes group, which is a group with a high risk of non-communicable diseases, according to the fish intake, and there were significant differences in the total energy intake, protein intake, n-3 fatty acids intake, and the intakes of sodium and micro-nutrients according to the intake group ( P < 0.05). In addition, the blood total cholesterol (TC) decreased 0.422 fold in model 1 (unadjusted) [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.211-0.845] and 0.422 fold in model 2 (adjusted for sex) (95% CI: 0.210-0.846) in those with a fish intake of 18.0-93.0 g/day ( P < 0.05) compared to those with a fish intake of ≤ 17.0 g/day. The blood TC decreased 0.555 fold (95% CI: 0.311-0.989) in model 1 and 0.549 fold (95% CI: 0.302-0.997) in model 2 in those with a fish intake of ≥ 94 g/day compared to those with a fish intake of ≤ 17.0 g/day ( P < 0.05). Subjects with prediabetes or the metabolic risk factors can maintain their blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and blood TC concentrations at the optimal level by consuming fish (18.0-93.0 g/day).

  6. Quadriceps strength, quadriceps power, and gait speed in older U.S. adults with diabetes mellitus: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, Rita Rastogi; Tra, Yolande; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Egan, Josephine M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Brancati, Frederick L

    2013-05-01

    To examine the independent association between diabetes mellitus (and its duration and severity) and quadriceps strength, quadriceps power, and gait speed in a national population of older adults. Cross-sectional nationally representative survey. United States. Two thousand five hundred seventy-three adults aged 50 and older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 who had assessment of quadriceps strength. Diabetes mellitus was ascertained according to questionnaire. Measurement of isokinetic knee extensor (quadriceps) strength was performed at 60º/s. Gait speed was assessed using a 20-foot walk test. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between diabetes mellitus status and outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders or mediators. Older U.S. adults with diabetes mellitus had significantly slower gait speed (0.96 ± 0.02 m/s) than those without (1.08 ± 0.01 m/s; P diabetes mellitus was also associated with significantly lower quadriceps strength (-4.6 ± 1.9 Nm; P = .02) and power (-4.9 ± 2.0 W; P = .02) and slower gait speed (-0.05 ± 0.02 m/s; P = .002). Associations remained significant after adjusting for physical activity and C-reactive protein. After accounting for comorbidities (cardiovascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, amputation, cancer, arthritis, fracture, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), diabetes mellitus was independently associated only with gait speed (-0.04 ± 0.02 m/s; P = .02). Diabetes mellitus duration in men and women was negatively associated with age-adjusted quadriceps strength (-5.7 and -3.5 Nm/decade of diabetes mellitus, respectively) and power (-6.1 and -3.8 W/decade of diabetes mellitus, respectively) (all P ≤ .001, no significant interactions according to sex). Glycosylated hemoglobin was not associated with outcomes after accounting for body weight. Older U.S. adults with diabetes mellitus have lower quadriceps strength and quadriceps power that is related

  7. British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry (BASCD) guidance on the statistical aspects of training and calibration of examiners for surveys of child dental health. A BASCD coordinated dental epidemiology programme quality standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, C M; Pitts, N B; Nugent, Z J

    1997-03-01

    The British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry (BASCD) is responsible for the coordination of locally based surveys of child dental health which permit local and national comparisons between health authorities and regions. These surveys began in 1985/86 in England and Wales, 1987/88 in Scotland and 1993/94 in Northern Ireland. BASCD has taken an increasing lead in setting quality standards in discussion with the NHS Epidemiology Coordinators of the Dental Epidemiology Programme. This paper comprises guidance on the statistical aspects of training and calibration of examiners for these surveys.

  8. Trends in botanical dietary supplement use among US adults by cancer status: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Hansen, Richard A; Chou, Chiahung; Calderón, Angela I; Qian, Jingjing

    2018-03-15

    Patients with cancer may use botanical dietary supplements (BDS) in an attempt to manage the side effects of chemotherapy, yet evidence about BDS use among patients with cancer is limited. The authors examined trends in BDS use among US adults according to cancer status and patient characteristics. A serial, cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 through 2014 (n = 43,644). Self-reported cancer diagnosis history and any BDS use in the preceding 30 days were determined. The prevalence of BDS use was calculated in each cycle for respondents with and without cancer, both overall and by patient characteristics. Simple linear regression models were applied to test for trends in BDS use at a 2-sided P value < .05. Multiple logistic regression models were performed to identify the patient factors associated with BDS use. The results were weighted to represent national estimates. The prevalence of BDS use was greater among participants who had cancer compared with participants who did not have cancer, but trends remained stable during 1999 through 2014 for both groups. Trends in BDS use declined in patients with cancer who were older (P trend  = .047), had a low annual family income (P trend  = .028), and had a lower education level (P trend  = .004). Among the respondents without cancer, trends in BDS use declined in those who were middle-aged (P trend  = .025), non-Hispanic whites (P trend  = .025), those with a lower education level (P trend  = .011), and those who were not receiving prescription medication (P trend  = .036). Patient age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, education, and health conditions were associated with BDS use. The overall use of BDS remained stable during 1999 through 2014 for US adults with and without cancer, but it varied by individual characteristics. Cancer 2018;124:1207-15. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer

  9. The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Periodontitis According to Fasting Plasma Glucose in the Korean Adults: The 2012-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Although the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis is well established, the association between periodontitis and prediabetes has been investigated less extensively. Furthermore, there has been little research on the prevalence of periodontitis among individuals with prediabetes and diabetes as well as in the overall population using nationally representative data.Among 12,406 adults (≥19 years' old) who participated in the 2012-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 9977 subjects completed oral and laboratory examinations and were included in this analysis. Periodontitis was defined as a community periodontal index score of ≥ 3 according to the World Health Organization criteria. The fasting plasma glucose level was categorized into the following 5 groups: normal fasting glucose (NFG) 1 (fasting glucose (IFG) 1 (100-110  mg/dL), IFG 2 (111-125  mg/dL), and diabetes (≥126  mg/dL).Overall, the weighted prevalence of periodontitis among the Korean adult population was 24.8% (23.3-26.4%) (weight n = 8,455,952/34,086,014). The unadjusted weighted prevalences of periodontitis were 16.7%, 22.8%, 29.6%, 40.7%, and 46.7% in the NFG 1, NFG 2, IFG 1, IFG 2, and diabetes groups, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking history, heavy alcohol drinking, college graduation, household income, waist circumference, serum triglyceride level, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and the presence of hypertension, the adjusted weighted prevalence of periodontitis increased to 29.7% in the IFG 2 group (P = 0.045) and 32.5% in the diabetes group (P < 0.001), compared with the NFG 1 group (24%). The odds ratios for periodontitis with the above-mentioned variables as covariates were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.77, P = 0.002) in the diabetes group and 1.33 (95% CI 1.01-1.75, P = 0.044) in the IFG 2 group, respectively, compared with the NFG1 group.In conclusion, a

  10. Relationship Between Frequent Recreational Cannabis (Marijuana and Hashish) Use and Periodontitis in Adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Jaffer A; Ahluwalia, Kavita P; Papapanou, Panos N

    2017-03-01

    Recreational use of cannabis, following its legalization in some countries, poses emergent oral and periodontal health concerns. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between frequent recreational cannabis (FRC) (marijuana and hashish) use and periodontitis prevalence among adults in the United States. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011 to 2012 were analyzed. Primary outcome (periodontitis) was defined using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/American Academy of Periodontology classification as well as continuous measurements of probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (AL). Exposure of interest was self-reported cannabis use, defined as "FRC use" versus "non-FRC use." Bivariate and multivariable regression models were performed using the entire analytical sample (model 1) as well as those who had never used tobacco (never-users) (model 2). Of 1,938 participants with available cannabis use data and essential covariates, 26.8% were FRC users. Mean number of sites per participant with PD ≥4, ≥6, and ≥8 mm and AL ≥3, ≥5, and ≥8 mm was significantly higher among FRC users than among non-FRC users (mean difference in number of PD sites: 6.9, 5.6, and 5.6; P <0.05; mean difference in number of AL sites: 12.7, 7.6, and 5.6; P <0.05). Average AL was higher among FRC users than among non-FRC users (1.8 versus 1.6 mm; P = 0.004). Bivariate analysis revealed positive (harmful) association between FRC use and severe periodontitis in the entire sample (odds ratio [OR]: 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3 to 2.4; P = 0.002) as well as in never-smokers (OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.2 to 3.5; P = 0.01). This association was retained in multivariable models adjusted for demographics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, and income level), alcohol and tobacco use, diabetes mellitus, and past periodontal treatment (model 1: adjusted OR [aOR]: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.9; P = 0.07; model 2: aOR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1

  11. Intake of added sugars is not associated with weight measures in children 6 to 18 years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies examining an association between consumption of added sugars (AS) and weight measures in children are inconclusive. This study examined the association between intake of AS and 5 measures of weight or adiposity using a nationally recent representative sample of children. National Health and ...

  12. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Adverse Mental Health Indicators and Lower Quality of Life among Koreans: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Oh Yoen; Kwak, So Young; Cho, Yoonsu; Lee, Kyong Won; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2016-12-16

    Food insecurity is an ongoing public health issue and contributes to mental health status. We investigated whether food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intake and whether it affects mental health indicators (perceived stress/experience of depressive symptom/suicidal ideation) and quality of life (QOL) among Koreans ( n = 5862, 20-64 years) using data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2012-2013). Household food security status was categorized as "food-secure household", "food-insecure household without hunger", and "food-insecure household with hunger". Data on food insecurity, sociodemographic factors, nutrient intake, mental health indicators, and QOL were used. A logistic regression model was conducted to determine odds ratios (ORs) for psychological health. A greater proportion of food-insecure participants were nutritionally deficient compared with expectations of the 2015 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes. These deficiencies were generally higher in both "food-insecure household" groups. Both "food-insecure household" groups, particularly the "food-insecure household with hunger" group showed significantly adverse mental health status (ORs: 1.52-3.83) and lower QOL (ORs: 1.49-3.92) than did the "food-secure household" group before and after adjusting for sex, age, education, household income, smoking/alcohol consumption, physical activity, marital status, and receiving food assistance. In conclusion, food insecurity may be significantly associated with adverse mental health indicators and decreased QOL in young/middle-aged Koreans.

  13. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Adverse Mental Health Indicators and Lower Quality of Life among Koreans: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Oh Yoen; Kwak, So Young; Cho, Yoonsu; Lee, Kyong Won; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Food insecurity is an ongoing public health issue and contributes to mental health status. We investigated whether food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intake and whether it affects mental health indicators (perceived stress/experience of depressive symptom/suicidal ideation) and quality of life (QOL) among Koreans (n = 5862, 20–64 years) using data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2012–2013). Household food security status was categorized as “food-secure household”, “food-insecure household without hunger”, and “food-insecure household with hunger”. Data on food insecurity, sociodemographic factors, nutrient intake, mental health indicators, and QOL were used. A logistic regression model was conducted to determine odds ratios (ORs) for psychological health. A greater proportion of food-insecure participants were nutritionally deficient compared with expectations of the 2015 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes. These deficiencies were generally higher in both “food-insecure household” groups. Both “food-insecure household” groups, particularly the “food-insecure household with hunger” group showed significantly adverse mental health status (ORs: 1.52–3.83) and lower QOL (ORs: 1.49–3.92) than did the “food-secure household” group before and after adjusting for sex, age, education, household income, smoking/alcohol consumption, physical activity, marital status, and receiving food assistance. In conclusion, food insecurity may be significantly associated with adverse mental health indicators and decreased QOL in young/middle-aged Koreans. PMID:27999277

  14. Food sources of total energy and overconsumed nutrients of public health concern among US adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is high intake of energy and overconsumed nutrients of public health concern in adolescents' diet. Overconsumed nutrients are sodium, saturated fatty acids (SFA), and added sugars. Our objective was to identify the most commonly consumed foods by adolescents as percentage of total energy, tota...

  15. Nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity parameters in breakfast patterns compared with no breakfast in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-12-01

    The effect of different breakfast consumption patterns on nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity status is unknown. To compare nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity measures of consumers assigned to different breakfast patterns with breakfast skippers. These associations were assessed in adults 19+ years (N=18,988) participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Intake was determined from 1-day 24-hour dietary recall. Diet quality was quantified using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) and waist circumferences were determined. Twelve patterns (including No Breakfast [approximately 19% of population]), explaining 58% of the variance in energy from the breakfast meal, were examined. Covariate adjusted general linear models were used to compare nutrient intakes, Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores, and body mass index/waist circumference of consumers of different patterns with breakfast skippers. The P value was Bonferroni corrected (Juice and Presweetened Ready-to-Eat Cereal (RTEC)/Lower-Fat Milk patterns had lower daily intakes of nutrients to limit (added sugars, saturated fatty acids, solid fats, cholesterol, and sodium) than breakfast skippers. Consumers of the Grain/100% Fruit Juice; Presweetened RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk; and RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit/100% Fruit Juice patterns had higher daily intakes of all shortfall nutrients examined (dietary fiber; vitamins A, D, and C; calcium, potassium, folate, iron, and magnesium) than breakfast skippers. Consumers of the Grain/100% Fruit Juice; Grain; Presweetened RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk; RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit/100% Fruit Juice; Cooked Cereal; Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit; and Whole Fruit patterns had higher Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores than breakfast skippers. Consumers of the Grain/100% Fruit Juice; Presweetened RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk; RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit/100% Fruit Juice; and Cooked Cereal patterns had lower

  16. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008

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    Wu, Erin W.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Park, Sung Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02–2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91–2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37–8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40–5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. - Highlights: • We examined the association of cadmium and lead with age

  17. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Erin W. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schaumberg, Debra A. [Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Center for Translational Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Park, Sung Kyun, E-mail: sungkyun@umich.edu [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02–2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91–2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37–8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40–5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. - Highlights: • We examined the association of cadmium and lead with age

  18. Geographical variation of overweight, obesity and related risk factors: Findings from the European Health Examination Survey in Luxembourg, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samouda, Hanen; Ruiz-Castell, Maria; Bocquet, Valery; Kuemmerle, Andrea; Chioti, Anna; Dadoun, Frédéric; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Stranges, Saverio

    2018-01-01

    The analyses of geographic variations in the prevalence of major chronic conditions, such as overweight and obesity, are an important public health tool to identify "hot spots" and inform allocation of funding for policy and health promotion campaigns, yet rarely performed. Here we aimed at exploring, for the first time in Luxembourg, potential geographic patterns in overweight/obesity prevalence in the country, adjusted for several demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and health status characteristics. Data came from 720 men and 764 women, 25-64 years old, who participated in the European Health Examination Survey in Luxembourg (2013-2015). To investigate the geographical variation, geo-additive semi-parametric mixed model and Bayesian modelisations based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques for inference were performed. Large disparities in the prevalence of overweight and obesity were found between municipalities, with the highest rates of obesity found in 3 municipalities located in the South-West of the country. Bayesian approach also underlined a nonlinear effect of age on overweight and obesity in both genders (significant in men) and highlighted the following risk factors: 1. country of birth for overweight in men born in a non-European country (Posterior Odds Ratio (POR): 3.24 [1.61-8.69]) and women born in Portugal (POR: 2.44 [1.25-4.43]), 2. low educational level (secondary or below) for overweight (POR: 1.66 (1.06-2.72)] and obesity (POR:2.09 [1.05-3.65]) in men, 3. single marital status for obesity in women (POR: 2.20 [1.24-3.91]), 4.fair (men: POR: 3.19 [1.58-6.79], women: POR: 2.24 [1.33-3.73]) to very bad health perception (men: POR: 15.01 [2.16-98.09]) for obesity, 5. sleeping more than 6 hours for obesity in unemployed men (POR: 3.66 [2.02-8.03]). Protective factors highlighted were: 1. single marital status against overweight (POR: [0.60 (0.38-0.96)]) and obesity (POR: 0.39 [0.16-0.84]) in men, 2. the fact to be widowed against overweight in

  19. Physical and nutrition statuses of geriatric patients after trauma-related hospitalization: Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hang Joo; Hong, Tae Hwa; Kim, Maru

    2018-03-01

    Population aging is associated with increasing numbers of geriatric trauma patients, and various studies have evaluated their short-term outcomes, assessment, and treatment. However, there is insufficient information regarding their long-term outcomes. This study evaluated the physical and nutritional statuses of geriatric patients after trauma-related hospitalization.Data regarding physical and nutritional status were obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013-2015).A total of 21,069 individuals participated in the survey, including 5650 geriatric individuals. After excluding individuals with missing data, 3731 cases were included in the analyses. The average age was 68 years, and most individuals were women (n = 2055, 55.08%). There were 94 patients had been hospitalized because of trauma. Trauma-related hospitalization among geriatric patients was significantly associated with reduced strength exercise (23.56% vs 12.99%, P = .043), activity limitations caused by joint pain (0.65% vs 3.31%, P = .028), self-care problems (8.00% vs 16.77%, P = .008), pain or discomfort (29.48% vs 40.51%, P = .024), hypercholesterolemia (27.37% vs 39.36%, P = .037), and mastication discomfort (39.98% vs 57.85% P = .005). The adjusted analyses revealed that trauma-related hospitalization was independently associated with activity limitations caused by joint pain (odds ratio [OR]: 5.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29-19.67, P = .020), self-care problems (OR: 2.24, 95% CI: 1.11-4.53, P = .025), pain or discomfort (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.08-2.89, P = .023), and mastication discomfort (OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.22-3.46, P = .007).Medical staff should be aware that geriatric patients have relatively poor physical and nutritional statuses after trauma-related hospitalization, and manage these patients accordingly.

  20. A vegetarian dietary pattern as a nutrient-dense approach to weight management: an analysis of the national health and nutrition examination survey 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Bonnie; Larson, Brian T; Fulgoni, Victor L; Rainville, Alice J; Liepa, George U

    2011-06-01

    Population-based studies have shown that vegetarians have lower body mass index than nonvegetarians, suggesting that vegetarian diet plans may be an approach for weight management. However, a perception exists that vegetarian diets are deficient in certain nutrients. To compare dietary quality of vegetarians, nonvegetarians, and dieters, and to test the hypothesis that a vegetarian diet would not compromise nutrient intake when used to manage body weight. Cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2004) dietary and anthropometric data. Diet quality was determined using United States Department of Agriculture's Healthy Eating Index 2005. Participants included adults aged 19 years and older, excluding pregnant and lactating women (N = 13,292). Lacto-ovo vegetarian diets were portrayed by intakes of participants who did not eat meat, poultry, or fish on the day of the survey (n = 851). Weight-loss diets were portrayed by intakes of participants who consumed 500 kcal less than their estimated energy requirements (n = 4,635). Mean nutrient intakes and body mass indexes were adjusted for energy, sex, and ethnicity. Using analysis of variance, all vegetarians were compared to all nonvegetarians, dieting vegetarians to dieting nonvegetarians, and nondieting vegetarians to nondieting nonvegetarians. Mean intakes of fiber, vitamins A, C, and E, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, calcium, magnesium, and iron were higher for all vegetarians than for all nonvegetarians. Although vegetarian intakes of vitamin E, vitamin A, and magnesium exceeded that of nonvegetarians (8.3 ± 0.3 vs 7.0 ± 0.1 mg; 718 ± 28 vs 603 ± 10 μg; 322 ± 5 vs 281 ± 2 mg), both groups had intakes that were less than desired. The Healthy Eating Index score did not differ for all vegetarians compared to all nonvegetarians (50.5 ± 0.88 vs 50.1 ± 0.33, P = 0.6). These findings suggest that vegetarian diets are nutrient dense, consistent with dietary guidelines, and

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of strabismus in children and adolescents in South Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyung Eun; Baek, Seung-Hee; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors associated with horizontal strabismus in children and adolescents in South Korea. Methods A total of 5,935 children and adolescents 5–18 years of age who participated in the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-V) from July 2008 to December 2011 were evaluated and the prevalence of horizontal strabismus was estimated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between demographic, socioeconomic and clinical risk factors and clinically significant exodeviation (≥15 prism diopters [PD]) and esodeviation (≥10 PD). Results Among 5,935 eligible subjects, 84 subjects had clinically significant exodeviation and 13 had clinically significant esodeviation. The overall prevalence of clinically significant horizontal strabismus was 1.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–2.1): 1.3% (95% CI, 1.0–1.7) for clinically significant exodeviation and 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1–0.6) for clinically significant esodeviation. Clinically significant exodeviation was associated with amblyopia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.45; 95% CI, 2.14–19.44), family history of strabismus (aOR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.71–14.08) and astigmatism ≥1.0 D (aOR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.13–2.98). Clinically significant esodeviation was associated with hyperopia (aOR, 12.16; 95% CI, 1.31–113.04) and amblyopia (aOR, 4.70; 95% CI, 1.12–19.81). Other demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical variables were not associated with strabismus. Conclusion This study provides data on the prevalence and independent risk factors for clinically significant exodeviation and esodeviation in a representative population of children and adolescents in South Korea. PMID:29444106

  2. Heavy Alcohol Consumption with Alcoholic Liver Disease Accelerates Sarcopenia in Elderly Korean Males: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

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    Do Seon Song

    Full Text Available Although a few studies have reported that sarcopenia is associated with alcoholic liver disease (ALD, no studies have investigated this association in a large sample representative of the elderly Korean population.This was a cross-sectional study that used data from the Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES on subjects aged 65 years and older. Sarcopenia was defined as a skeletal muscle index (SMI more than 1 SD below the gender-specific mean for young adults; SMI was calculated as the appendicular muscle mass divided by height squared (ASM/Ht2. Heavy alcohol consumption was defined as consuming at least 210 g/week, and elevated liver enzymes were defined as alanine aminotransferase levels of at least 32 U/L or aspartate aminotransferase levels of at least 34 U/L. ALD was defined as heavy alcohol consumption and elevated liver enzymes.The mean age of the 1,151 elderly males was 71.6 ± 0.2 years, and the prevalence of heavy alcohol consumption was 11.8% (136 subjects. SMI did not differ between the non-heavy and heavy alcohol consumer groups (7.1 ± 0.0 kg/m2 vs. 7.3 ± 0.1 kg/m2, respectively, P = 0.145. However, after stratifying by the presence of liver disease and heavy alcohol consumption and adjusting for other confounders in the multivariate logistic regression, SMI was significantly lower among heavy alcohol consumers with ALD (all P < 0.05. Additionally, two-way ANOVA showed a significant interaction between heavy alcohol consumption and liver disease (P = 0.011.Sarcopenia was accelerated in the elderly male ALD group, with a significant interaction between alcohol consumption and liver disease.

  3. Dietary Calcium Intake May Contribute to the HOMA-IR Score in Korean Females with Vitamin D Deficiency (2008–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Jin-Ho Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Vitamin D and calcium are important factors involved in the regulation of blood glucose and insulin secretion. The Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR score is a useful variable for evaluating insulin resistance, and therefore we cross-sectionally compared HOMA-IR scores according to serum vitamin D levels and dietary calcium intake. Methods : We selected data from healthy males (n=5,163 and females (n=7,506 analyzed over 5 years (2008–2012 via the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. We calculated HOMA-IR scores and compared them according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentration classification (30 ng/mL and dietary calcium quintile after adjustment for relevant variables using complex sample analysis. Comparisons were done after data weighting. Results : The mean dietary calcium intake in males and females was 558.1 mg/day and 445.9 mg/day, respectively. The mean serum 25(OHD concentration in males and females was 19.4 ng/mL and 16.8 ng/mL, respectively. After adjustment for relevant variables, HOMA-IR score was significantly correlated with serum 25(OHD concentration and dietary calcium intake in females, whereas it was only correlated with serum 25(OHD concentration in males. HOMA-IR was significantly lower in the top quintile of dietary calcium intake (mean, 866 mg/day within females with vitamin D deficiency (P=0.047. Conclusion : Adequate dietary calcium intake may be important for normal HOMA-IR in females with vitamin D deficiency.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of strabismus in children and adolescents in South Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyung Eun; Baek, Seung-Hee; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lim, Key Hwan

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors associated with horizontal strabismus in children and adolescents in South Korea. A total of 5,935 children and adolescents 5-18 years of age who participated in the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-V) from July 2008 to December 2011 were evaluated and the prevalence of horizontal strabismus was estimated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between demographic, socioeconomic and clinical risk factors and clinically significant exodeviation (≥15 prism diopters [PD]) and esodeviation (≥10 PD). Among 5,935 eligible subjects, 84 subjects had clinically significant exodeviation and 13 had clinically significant esodeviation. The overall prevalence of clinically significant horizontal strabismus was 1.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.1): 1.3% (95% CI, 1.0-1.7) for clinically significant exodeviation and 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1-0.6) for clinically significant esodeviation. Clinically significant exodeviation was associated with amblyopia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.45; 95% CI, 2.14-19.44), family history of strabismus (aOR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.71-14.08) and astigmatism ≥1.0 D (aOR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.13-2.98). Clinically significant esodeviation was associated with hyperopia (aOR, 12.16; 95% CI, 1.31-113.04) and amblyopia (aOR, 4.70; 95% CI, 1.12-19.81). Other demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical variables were not associated with strabismus. This study provides data on the prevalence and independent risk factors for clinically significant exodeviation and esodeviation in a representative population of children and adolescents in South Korea.

  5. Fish consumption, mercury exposure, and the risk of cholesterol profiles: findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011

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    Yong Min Cho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the associations between mercury (Hg exposure and cholesterol profiles were analyzed, and increased Hg levels and cholesterol profiles according to the amount of fish consumption were evaluated. Data on levels of blood Hg, the frequency of fish consumption, total blood cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglyceride (TG in 3951 adults were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011 database. To compare the distribution for each log-transformed indicator, Student’s t-test and analysis of variance were carried out, and the groups were classified according to the frequency of fish consumption through linear regression analysis; the association between Hg level and cholesterol profiles in each group was analyzed. The blood Hg levels (arithmetic mean, median, and geometric mean for all target participants were 4.59, 3.66, and 3.74 µg/L, respectively. The high cholesterol group, low HDL-C group, and high TG group showed a statistically and significantly higher blood Hg level than the low-risk group. In both sexes, as the frequency of fish consumption increased, blood Hg level also increased, but TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG did not show a similar trend. Increased blood Hg level showed a significant association with increased TC and LDL-C. This statistical significance was maintained in the group with less frequent fish consumption (8 times per month did not show a similar trend. The results of this study suggest that fish consumption increases the level of Hg exposure, and that as the level of Hg exposure increases, the levels of cholesterol profiles increase. However, this study also suggests that the levels of cholesterol profiles in those with frequent fish consumption can be diminished.

  6. Barrier Factors to the Completion of Diabetes Education in Korean Diabetic Adult Patients: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Tae; Lee, Kiheon; Jung, Se Young; Oh, Seung-Min; Jeong, Su-Min; Choi, Yoon-Jung

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes is a disease with high social burdens and is expected to increase gradually. A long-term management is essential for the treatment of diabetes, requiring patient self-cares. Diabetes education is important for such self-cares, but it does not sufficiently take place. In addition, little studies have been conducted on the barriers to the completion of diabetes education. This study, thus, aimed to analyze the factors related to the completion of diabetes education and investigate its barriers. Of 50,405 respondents to the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 3,820 were selected for the analysis, excluding those aged 29 or younger and those with missing values. The completion of diabetes education was set as a dependent variable and an analysis was made on the factors that affect the dependent variable. A multivariable logistic regression was employed for the analysis. Lower educational level was associated with less diabetes education, and the degree of diabetes education was lower in the group with male, the group that didn't have a family history or was not aware of a family history, the group that was not currently aware of diabetes and the group without a spouse. There was no difference in the completion of diabetes education by underlying diseases, family income level, age, residing area, economic activity status, insurance coverage, smoking, and drinking. Diabetes education is of importance for the treatment and management of diabetes. Currently, however, diabetes education is not sufficiently carried out in Korea. The completion rate of diabetes education was low in male, patients without or not knowing a family history, patients who were not currently aware of their diabetes, patients without a spouse, and patients with low educational level. Therefore, encouraging these patients to take the education will be a more effective approach to increase the completion rate of diabetes education.

  7. Celiac disease is associated with reduced bone mineral density and increased FRAX scores in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamycheva, E; Goto, T; Camargo, C A

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the association between celiac disease (CD) and bone mass density (BMD) and risk of osteoporotic fractures in the general US population. In children and men ≥18 years, CD was associated with reduced BMD, and in men ≥40 years, CD was associated with increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune condition, characterized by inflammation of the small intestine. CD has an increasing prevalence, and if unrecognized or untreated, CD can lead to complications from malabsorption and micronutrient deficiencies. We aimed to study whether CD is an independent predictor of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and FRAX scores in the general US population. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2010 and 2013-2014. CD was defined by positive tissue transglutaminase IgA antibody test. Multivariable models of BMD and FRAX scores were adjusted for BMI, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin D and calcium supplements, milk intake, serum calcium, and smoking status, when available. In children, aged 8-17 years, CD was associated with decreased Z-scores, by 0.85 for hip and 0.46 for spine (both P hip and with 0.11 g/cm 2 decrease in BMD in spine (P = 0.08 and P hip fracture and by 2.43 % (P = 0.05) for major osteoporotic fracture. CD did not predict FRAX scores in women aged ≥40 years. CD is independently associated with reduced BMD in children and adults aged ≥18 years and is an independent risk factor of osteoporotic fractures in men aged ≥40 years.

  8. Prevalence and patterns of cooking dinner at home in the USA: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virudachalam, Senbagam; Long, Judith A; Harhay, Michael O; Polsky, Daniel E; Feudtner, Chris

    2014-05-01

    To measure the prevalence of cooking dinner at home in the USA and test whether home dinner preparation habits are associated with socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, country of birth and family structure. Cross-sectional analysis. The primary outcome, self-reported frequency of cooking dinner at home, was divided into three categories: 0-1 dinners cooked per week ('never'), 2-5 ('sometimes') and 6-7 ('always'). We used bivariable and multivariable regression analyses to test for associations between frequency of cooking dinner at home and factors of interest. The 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The sample consisted of 10 149 participants. Americans reported cooking an average of five dinners per week; 8 % never, 43 % sometimes and 49 % always cooked dinner at home. Lower household wealth and educational attainment were associated with a higher likelihood of either always or never cooking dinner at home, whereas wealthier, more educated households were more likely to sometimes cook dinner at home (P cooked the fewest dinners at home (mean = 4·4, 95 % CI 4·2, 4·6). Households with foreign-born reference persons cooked more dinners at home (mean = 5·8, 95 % CI 5·7, 6·0) than households with US-born reference persons (mean = 4·9, 95 % CI 4·7, 5·1). Households with dependants cooked more dinners at home (mean = 5·2, 95 % CI 5·1, 5·4) than households without dependants (mean = 4·6, 95 % CI 4·3, 5·0). Home dinner preparation habits varied substantially with socio-economic status and race/ethnicity, associations that likely will have implications for designing and appropriately tailoring interventions to improve home food preparation practices and promote healthy eating.

  9. Determinants of physical activity in America: a first characterization of physical activity profile using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ming-Chih Jeffrey; Jarosz, Renata; Goldin, Michael; Patel, Amy; Smuck, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    To develop and implement methodologies for characterizing accelerometry-derived patterns of physical activity (PA) in the United States in relation to demographics, anthropometrics, behaviors, and comorbidities using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset. Retrospective analysis of nationally representative database. Computer-generated modeling in silico. A total of 6329 adults in the United States from the NHANES 2003-2004 database. To discover subtle multivariate signal in the dynamic and noisy accelerometry data, we developed a novel approach, termed discretized multiple adaptive regression and implemented the algorithm in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Demographic, anthropometric, comorbidity, and behavioral variables. The intensity of PA decreased with both increased age and increased body mass index. Both greater education and greater income correlate with increased activity over short durations and reduced activity intensity over long durations. Numerous predictors demonstrated effects within activity ranges that may be masked by use of the standard activity intensity intervals. These include age, one of the most robust variables, where we discovered decreasing activities inside the moderate activity range. It also includes gender, where women compared with men have increased proportions of active times up to the center of light activity range, and income greater than $45,000, where a complex effect is seen with little correspondence to existing cut-points. The results presented in this study suggest that the method of multiple regression and heat map visualization can generate insights otherwise hidden in large datasets such as NHANES. A review of the provided heat maps reveals the trends discussed previously involving demographic, anthropometric, comorbidity, and behavioral variables. It also demonstrates the power of accelerometry to expose alterations in PA. Ultimately, this study provides a US population-based norm to

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of strabismus in children and adolescents in South Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011.

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    Kyung Eun Han

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors associated with horizontal strabismus in children and adolescents in South Korea.A total of 5,935 children and adolescents 5-18 years of age who participated in the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-V from July 2008 to December 2011 were evaluated and the prevalence of horizontal strabismus was estimated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between demographic, socioeconomic and clinical risk factors and clinically significant exodeviation (≥15 prism diopters [PD] and esodeviation (≥10 PD.Among 5,935 eligible subjects, 84 subjects had clinically significant exodeviation and 13 had clinically significant esodeviation. The overall prevalence of clinically significant horizontal strabismus was 1.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.1: 1.3% (95% CI, 1.0-1.7 for clinically significant exodeviation and 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1-0.6 for clinically significant esodeviation. Clinically significant exodeviation was associated with amblyopia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.45; 95% CI, 2.14-19.44, family history of strabismus (aOR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.71-14.08 and astigmatism ≥1.0 D (aOR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.13-2.98. Clinically significant esodeviation was associated with hyperopia (aOR, 12.16; 95% CI, 1.31-113.04 and amblyopia (aOR, 4.70; 95% CI, 1.12-19.81. Other demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical variables were not associated with strabismus.This study provides data on the prevalence and independent risk factors for clinically significant exodeviation and esodeviation in a representative population of children and adolescents in South Korea.

  11. Characterization of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes according to Body Mass Index: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2011

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    Dong-Hwa Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe present study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in Korean adults according to body mass index (BMI and to analyze the association with cardiovascular disease (CVD.MethodsWe conducted a cross-sectional study of data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2011. A total of 3,370 patients with T2DM were divided into categories according to BMI. We conducted a comparison of the T2DM patient population composition by BMI category between different countries. We investigated the prevalence of awareness, treatment, and target control of T2DM according to BMI.ResultsPatients with T2DM had a higher BMI, and were more likely to have a history of CVD than healthy controls. For Korean adults with T2DM, 8% had BMI ≥30 kg/m2. By contrast, the population of patients with T2DM and BMI ≥30 kg/m2 was 72% in patients in the USA and 56% in the UK. The rate of recognition, treatment, and control has worsened in parallel with increasing BMI. Even in patients with BMI 25 to 29.9 kg/m2, the prevalence of CVD or high risk factors for CVD was significantly higher than in patients with BMI 18.5 to 22.9 kg/m2 (odds ratio, 2.07.ConclusionKorean patients with T2DM had lower BMI than those in Western countries. Higher BMI was associated with lower awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes, and a positive association was observed between CVD or high risk factors for CVD and BMI, even for patients who were overweight but not obese.

  12. Family Meal Frequency and Association with Household Food Availability in United States Multi-Person Households: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

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    Sarah L Newman

    Full Text Available Family meals are associated with a healthier diet among children and adolescents, but how family meal frequency varies in the U.S. population overall by household food availability and sociodemographic characteristics is not well characterized.The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 assessed the frequency of family meals eaten at home in the past week and the household availability of fruits, dark green vegetables, salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages.Computer-assisted face-to-face interviews with a selected adult (≥18 years who owned or rented the home (i.e., the household reference person.We analyzed information on family meal frequency for 18,031 participants living in multi-person households in relation to sociodemographic characteristics and food availability.Among the U.S. population living in households of two or more individuals, the prevalence (95% confidence interval of having 0-2, 3-6 and ≥7 family meals/week was 18.0% (16.6-19.3, 32.4% (31.0-33.9, and 49.6% (47.8-51.4, respectively. Greater household availability of fruits and dark green vegetables and less availability of salty snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with more frequent family meals. Family meals were more prevalent in low-income households and those in which the reference person was ≥65 years, married, or had less than high school education.About half of the US population living in households of 2 or more people shares meals frequently with their family at home. Family meal frequency was positively associated with a healthier pattern of household food availability.

  13. Family Meal Frequency and Association with Household Food Availability in United States Multi-Person Households: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010

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    Newman, Sarah L.; Tumin, Rachel; Andridge, Rebecca; Anderson, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Family meals are associated with a healthier diet among children and adolescents, but how family meal frequency varies in the U.S. population overall by household food availability and sociodemographic characteristics is not well characterized. Design The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 assessed the frequency of family meals eaten at home in the past week and the household availability of fruits, dark green vegetables, salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Setting Computer-assisted face-to-face interviews with a selected adult (≥18 years) who owned or rented the home (i.e., the household reference person). Subjects We analyzed information on family meal frequency for 18,031 participants living in multi-person households in relation to sociodemographic characteristics and food availability. Results Among the U.S. population living in households of two or more individuals, the prevalence (95% confidence interval) of having 0–2, 3–6 and ≥7 family meals/week was 18.0% (16.6–19.3), 32.4% (31.0–33.9), and 49.6% (47.8–51.4), respectively. Greater household availability of fruits and dark green vegetables and less availability of salty snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with more frequent family meals. Family meals were more prevalent in low-income households and those in which the reference person was ≥65 years, married, or had less than high school education. Conclusions About half of the US population living in households of 2 or more people shares meals frequently with their family at home. Family meal frequency was positively associated with a healthier pattern of household food availability. PMID:26636976

  14. Higher Prevalence and Awareness, but Lower Control Rate of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes than General Population: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011

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    Seung-Hyun Ko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in Korean adults with diabetes using nationally representative data.MethodsUsing data of 5,105 adults from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 (4,389 nondiabetes mellitus [non-DM], 242 newly diagnosed with DM (new-DM, and 474 previously diagnosed with DM (known-DM, we analyzed the prevalence of hypertension (mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication and control rate of hypertension (blood pressure [BP] <130/80 mm Hg.ResultsThe prevalence of hypertension in diabetic adults was 54.6% (44.4% in new-DM and 62.6% in known-DM, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively compared with non-DM adults (26.2%. Compared to non-DM, awareness (85.7%, P<0.001 and treatment (97.0%, P=0.020 rates were higher in known-DM, whereas no differences were found between new-DM and non-DM. Control rate among all hypertensive subjects was lower in new-DM (14.9%, compared to non-DM (35.1%, P<0.001 and known-DM (33.3%, P=0.004. Control rate among treated subjects was also lower in new-DM (25.2%, compared to non-DM (68.4%, P<0.0001 and known-DM (39.9%, P<0.0001.ConclusionHigher prevalence and low control rate of hypertension in adults with diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control BP in patients with diabetes, particularly in newly diagnosed diabetic patients.

  15. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Reference Range and Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in the Korean Population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 to 2015

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    2017-01-01

    Background No nationwide epidemiological study evaluating the prevalence of subclinical and overt forms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism has yet been conducted in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the reference range of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and the national prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in Korea. Methods Nation-wide cross-sectional data were analyzed from a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized Korean population (n=6,564) who underwent blood testing for thyroid function and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013 to 2015). Results The reference interval of serum TSH in the Korean reference population was 0.62 to 6.68 mIU/L. Based on this reference interval, the prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism was 0.73% (males 0.40%, females 1.10%) and 3.10% (males 2.26%, females 4.04%), respectively. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age until the age group between 50 to 59 years. Positive TPOAb were found in 7.30% of subjects (males 4.33%, females 10.62%). The prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism TPOAb-positive subjects was 5.16% and 10.88%, respectively. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism was 0.54% (males 0.30%, females 0.81%) and 2.98% (males 2.43%, females, 3.59%), respectively. Conclusion The Serum TSH reference levels in the Korean population were higher than the corresponding levels in Western countries. Differences were found in the prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism according to age, sex, and TPOAb positivity. This study provides important baseline information for understanding patterns of thyroid dysfunction and diseases in Korea. PMID:28116874

  16. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Reference Range and Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in the Korean Population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 to 2015

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    Won Gu Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNo nationwide epidemiological study evaluating the prevalence of subclinical and overt forms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism has yet been conducted in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the reference range of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and the national prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in Korea.MethodsNation-wide cross-sectional data were analyzed from a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized Korean population (n=6,564 who underwent blood testing for thyroid function and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013 to 2015.ResultsThe reference interval of serum TSH in the Korean reference population was 0.62 to 6.68 mIU/L. Based on this reference interval, the prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism was 0.73% (males 0.40%, females 1.10% and 3.10% (males 2.26%, females 4.04%, respectively. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age until the age group between 50 to 59 years. Positive TPOAb were found in 7.30% of subjects (males 4.33%, females 10.62%. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism TPOAb-positive subjects was 5.16% and 10.88%, respectively. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism was 0.54% (males 0.30%, females 0.81% and 2.98% (males 2.43%, females, 3.59%, respectively.ConclusionThe Serum TSH reference levels in the Korean population were higher than the corresponding levels in Western countries. Differences were found in the prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism according to age, sex, and TPOAb positivity. This study provides important baseline information for understanding patterns of thyroid dysfunction and diseases in Korea.

  17. Application of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cholesterol Guideline to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1998 to 2012

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    Young Shin Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA guideline for the treatment of blood cholesterol recommends statin therapy for individuals at high risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD. The aim of this study was to investigate serial trends in the percentages of Korean adults considered eligible for statin therapy according to the new ACC/AHA cholesterol guideline.MethodsData from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES I (1998, n=7,698, II (2001, n=5,654, III (2005, n=5,269, IV (2007 to 2009, n=15,727, and V (2010 to 2012, n=16,304, which used a stratified, multistage, probability sampling design, were used as representative of the entire Korean population.ResultsThe percentage of adults eligible for statin therapy according to the ACC/AHA cholesterol guideline increased with time: 17.0%, 19.0%, 20.8%, 20.2%, and 22.0% in KNHANES I, II, III, IV, and V, respectively (P=0.022. The prevalence of ASCVD was 1.4% in KNHANES I and increased to 3.3% in KNHANES V. The percentage of diabetic patients aged 40 to 75 years with a low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of 70 to 189 mg/dL increased from 4.8% in KNHANES I to 6.1% in KNHANES V. People with an estimated 10-year ASCVD risk ≥7.5% and aged 40 to 75 years accounted for the largest percentage among the four statin benefit groups: 9.1% in KNHANES I and 11.0% in KNHANES V.ConclusionApplication of the 2013 ACC/AHA guideline has found that the percentage of Korean adults in the statin benefit groups has increased over the past 15 years.

  18. Vitamin A Intake, Serum Vitamin D and Bone Mineral Density: Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2011

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    Nam-Seok Joo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The association of high vitamin A intake and low bone mineral density (BMD is still controversial. To determine the association of dietary vitamin A intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentration with BMD, a total of 6481 subjects (2907 men and 3574 women aged ≥50 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011 were divided into groups according to dietary vitamin A intake (tertiles and serum 25(OHD (<50, 50–75, >75 nmol/L, and evaluated for BMD after adjusting for relevant variables. Mean dietary vitamin A intakes were 737 and 600 μg RE (Retinol Equivalents in men and women, respectively. Total hip and femoral neck BMD in men and lumbar spine BMD in women were both positively correlated with dietary vitamin A intake in subjects with serum 25(OHD >75 nmol/L. Among men with serum 25(OHD <50 nmol/L, both the top (mean 1353 μg RE and bottom (mean 218 μg RE tertiles of dietary vitamin A intake had lower BMD than the middle group (mean 577 μg RE. In this population, BMD was the highest among men and women with serum 25(OHD = 50–75 nmol/L and that there were no differences in BMD by vitamin A intake in these vitamin D adequate groups. This cross-sectional study indicates that vitamin A intake does not affect bone mineral density as long as the serum 25(OHD concentration is maintained in the moderate level of 50–75 nmol/L.

  19. Vitamin A intake, serum vitamin D and bone mineral density: analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2011).

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    Joo, Nam-Seok; Yang, Sung-Won; Song, Byeng Chun; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2015-03-10

    The association of high vitamin A intake and low bone mineral density (BMD) is still controversial. To determine the association of dietary vitamin A intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration with BMD, a total of 6481 subjects (2907 men and 3574 women) aged ≥50 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011) were divided into groups according to dietary vitamin A intake (tertiles) and serum 25(OH)D (75 nmol/L), and evaluated for BMD after adjusting for relevant variables. Mean dietary vitamin A intakes were 737 and 600 μg RE (Retinol Equivalents) in men and women, respectively. Total hip and femoral neck BMD in men and lumbar spine BMD in women were both positively correlated with dietary vitamin A intake in subjects with serum 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L. Among men with serum 25(OH)D L, both the top (mean 1353 μg RE) and bottom (mean 218 μg RE) tertiles of dietary vitamin A intake had lower BMD than the middle group (mean 577 μg RE). In this population, BMD was the highest among men and women with serum 25(OH)D = 50-75 nmol/L and that there were no differences in BMD by vitamin A intake in these vitamin D adequate groups. This cross-sectional study indicates that vitamin A intake does not affect bone mineral density as long as the serum 25(OH)D concentration is maintained in the moderate level of 50-75 nmol/L.

  20. Sarcopenia Is Independently Associated with Cardiovascular Disease in Older Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2009

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    Chin, Sang Ouk; Rhee, Sang Youl; Chon, Suk; Hwang, You-Cheol; Jeong, In-Kyung; Oh, Seungjoon; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Woo, Jeong-taek; Kim, Sung-Woon; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Young Seol; Ahn, Hong-Yup

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between sarcopenia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in elderly people has not been adequately assessed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CVD is more prevalent in subjects with sarcopenia independent of other well-established cardiovascular risk factors in older Korean adults. Method This study utilized the representative Korean population data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) which was conducted in 2009. Subjects older than 65 years of age with appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were selected. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the older Korean adults was investigated, and it was determined whether sarcopenia is associated with CVD independent of other well-known risk factors. Results 1,578 subjects aged 65 years and older with the data for ASM were selected, and the overall prevalence of sarcopenia was 30.3% in men and 29.3% in women. Most of the risk factors for CVD such as age, waist circumference, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol showed significant negative correlations with the ratio between appendicular skeletal muscle mass and body weight. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that sarcopenia was associated with CVD independent of other well-documented risk factors, renal function and medications (OR, 1.768; 95% CI, 1.075–2.909, P = 0.025). Conclusions Sarcopenia was associated with the presence of CVD independent of other cardiovascular risk factors after adjusting renal function and medications. PMID:23533671

  1. Sarcopenia is independently associated with cardiovascular disease in older Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2009.

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    Sang Ouk Chin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between sarcopenia and cardiovascular disease (CVD in elderly people has not been adequately assessed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CVD is more prevalent in subjects with sarcopenia independent of other well-established cardiovascular risk factors in older Korean adults. METHOD: This study utilized the representative Korean population data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES which was conducted in 2009. Subjects older than 65 years of age with appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were selected. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the older Korean adults was investigated, and it was determined whether sarcopenia is associated with CVD independent of other well-known risk factors. RESULTS: 1,578 subjects aged 65 years and older with the data for ASM were selected, and the overall prevalence of sarcopenia was 30.3% in men and 29.3% in women. Most of the risk factors for CVD such as age, waist circumference, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol showed significant negative correlations with the ratio between appendicular skeletal muscle mass and body weight. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that sarcopenia was associated with CVD independent of other well-documented risk factors, renal function and medications (OR, 1.768; 95% CI, 1.075-2.909, P = 0.025. CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia was associated with the presence of CVD independent of other cardiovascular risk factors after adjusting renal function and medications.

  2. Age, puberty, body dissatisfaction, and physical activity decline in adolescents. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS

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    Finne Emily

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA shows a marked decline during adolescence. Some studies have pointed to pubertal status or timing as possible PA determinants in this age group. Furthermore, it was supposed that the impact of pubertal changes on PA might be mediated by psychological variables like body dissatisfaction (BDS. Methods The 11- to 17-year-old subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS was used (n = 6 813; 51.3% male, response rate = 66.6%. Through sex-specific sequential multinomial logistic regressions we analysed the univariate and independent associations of chronological age, absolute pubertal status, relative pubertal timing, and BDS with the frequency of PA. Results Chronological age showed a significantly negative association with PA in both sexes, independent of puberty. The odds of inactivity in contrast to nearly daily PA increased about 70% in boys and 35% in girls for each year of age, respectively. Adjusted for age and other possible confounders, inactivity was significantly less likely for boys in late pubertal stages (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.09-0.78. The risk of inactivity was more than doubled in boys maturing earlier than peers in terms of relative pubertal timing (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.36-3.56. No clear significant puberty effects were found in girls, but the inactivity was more likely for those with irregular menstruation (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.06-2.75. BDS also contributed to the prediction of PA in both sexes. It partially mediated puberty effects in boys but not in girls. Conclusions Overall, chronological age was a far more important predictor of PA in German adolescents than absolute pubertal status or relative pubertal timing. Further possible explanatory variables like sociocultural influences, social support or increasing time requirements for education should be analysed in conjunction with chronological age in future studies.

  3. Folate status and concentrations of serum folate forms in the US population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2.

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    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Sternberg, Maya R; Fazili, Zia; Lacher, David A; Zhang, Mindy; Johnson, Clifford L; Hamner, Heather C; Bailey, Regan L; Rader, Jeanne I; Yamini, Sedigheh; Berry, R J; Yetley, Elizabeth A

    2015-06-28

    Serum and erythrocyte (RBC) total folate are indicators of folate status. No nationally representative population data exist for folate forms. We measured the serum folate forms (5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF), unmetabolised folic acid (UMFA), non-methyl folate (sum of tetrahydrofolate (THF), 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-formylTHF), 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (5,10-methenylTHF)) and MeFox (5-methylTHF oxidation product)) by HPLC-MS/MS and RBC total folate by microbiologic assay in US population ≥ 1 year (n approximately 7500) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2. Data analysis for serum total folate was conducted including and excluding MeFox. Concentrations (geometric mean; detection rate) of 5-methylTHF (37·5 nmol/l; 100 %), UMFA (1·21 nmol/l; 99·9 %), MeFox (1·53 nmol/l; 98·8 %), and THF (1·01 nmol/l; 85·2 %) were mostly detectable. 5-FormylTHF (3·6 %) and 5,10-methenylTHF (4·4 %) were rarely detected. The biggest contributor to serum total folate was 5-methylTHF (86·7 %); UMFA (4·0 %), non-methyl folate (4·7 %) and MeFox (4·5 %) contributed smaller amounts. Age was positively related to MeFox, but showed a U-shaped pattern for other folates. We generally noted sex and race/ethnic biomarker differences and weak (Spearman's rfolates. All biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations with recent folic acid-containing dietary supplement use. These first-time population data for serum folate forms generally show similar associations with demographic, physiological and lifestyle variables as serum total folate. Patterns observed for MeFox may suggest altered folate metabolism dependent on biological characteristics.

  4. Folate status and concentrations of serum folate forms in the US population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2

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    Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Sternberg, Maya R.; Fazili, Zia; Lacher, David A.; Zhang, Mindy; Johnson, Clifford L.; Hamner, Heather C.; Bailey, Regan L.; Rader, Jeanne I.; Yamini, Sedigheh; Berry, R. J.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Serum and red blood cell (RBC) total folate are indicators of folate status. No nationally representative population data exist for folate forms. We measured serum folate forms [5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF), unmetabolized folic acid (UMFA), non-methyl folate (sum of THF, 5-formylTHF, 5,10-methenylTHF), and MeFox (5-methylTHF oxidation product)] by HPLC-MS/MS and RBC total folate by microbiologic assay in US persons ≥1 year (n ~7500) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2. Data analysis for serum total folate was conducted including and excluding MeFox. Concentrations (geometric mean; detection rate) of 5-methylTHF (37.5 nmol/L; 100%), UMFA (1.21 nmol/L; 99.9%), MeFox (1.53 nmol/L; 98.8%), and THF (1.01 nmol/L; 85.2%) were mostly detectable. 5-FormylTHF (3.6%) and 5,10-methenylTHF (4.4%) were rarely detected. The biggest contributor to serum total folate was 5-methylTHF (86.7%); UMFA (4.0%), non-methyl folate (4.7%), and MeFox (4.5%) contributed smaller amounts. Age was positively related to MeFox but showed a U-shaped pattern for other folates. We generally noted sex and race-ethnic biomarker differences and weak (Spearman r folates. All biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations with recent folic acid-containing dietary supplement use. These first-time population data for serum folate forms generally show similar associations with demographic, physiologic, and lifestyle variables as serum total folate. Patterns observed for MeFox may suggest altered folate metabolism dependent on biological characteristics. PMID:25917925

  5. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in sera from children 3 to 11 years of age participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2014.

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    Ye, Xiaoyun; Kato, Kayoko; Wong, Lee-Yang; Jia, Tao; Kalathil, Akil; Latremouille, John; Calafat, Antonia M

    2018-01-01

    Several per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been measured in U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants 12 years of age and older since 1999-2000, but PFAS data using NHANES individual samples among children younger than 12 years do not exist. To obtain the first nationally representative PFAS exposure data in U.S. children, we quantified serum concentrations of 14 PFAS including perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), in a nationally representative subsample of 639 3-11year old participants in NHANES 2013-2014. We used on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; limits of detection were 0.1ng/mL for all analytes. We calculated geometric mean concentrations, determined weighted Pearson correlations, and used linear regression to evaluate associations of sex, age (3-5 vs 6-11 years), race/ethnicity (Hispanic vs non-Hispanic), household income, and body mass index with concentrations of PFAS detected in more than 60% of participants. We detected PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA in all children at concentrations similar to those of NHANES 2013-2014 adolescents and adults, suggesting prevalent exposure to these PFAS or their precursors among U.S. 3-11year old children, most of whom were born after the phase out of PFOS in the United States in 2002. PFAS concentration differences by sex, race/ethnicity, and age suggest lifestyle differences that may impact exposure, and highlight the importance of identifying exposure sources and of studying the environmental fate and transport of PFAS. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Association of chronic widespread pain with objectively measured physical activity in adults: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination survey.

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    Dansie, Elizabeth J; Turk, Dennis C; Martin, Kathryn R; Van Domelen, Dane R; Patel, Kushang V

    2014-05-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a common and potentially debilitating disorder. Patterns of physical activity (PA) in adults with CWP have primarily been investigated using subjective, self-report measures. The current study sought to characterize PA among community-dwelling individuals with CWP, chronic regional pain, or no chronic pain using objective measurements obtained via accelerometry in the 2003 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from 3,952 participants ages 20 and older were analyzed to assess relationships between pain status and objective measurements of PA. Prevalence of CWP was 3.3% and 5.4% in men and women, respectively. In men and women, the average activity counts per minute and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA were significantly lower for the CWP group than for the no chronic pain group. Interestingly, time spent in sedentary, light, and lifestyle activities was not associated with pain status. Statistical interaction tests indicated that the effects of chronic pain on counts per minute were stronger in men than in women. Despite recommendations for increased moderate-to-vigorous PA as a pain management strategy for CWP, results from this nationally representative study indicate that adults with CWP participate in less moderate-to-vigorous PA than individuals without chronic pain. Using objective measurement of PA in a nationally representative sample, this study demonstrates that adults with CWP participate in reduced daily and moderate-to-vigorous PA in comparison to people with no chronic pain. Findings indicate that clinicians should emphasize the importance of increasing PA in patients with CWP. Copyright © 2014 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and obesity in US males and females, age 8–15 years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2004

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    Byrd, H.C. Michelle; Curtin, Carol; Anderson, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate how associations between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and obesity differ by gender and medication use in a nationally representative sample of US youth in which height and weight were measured. Methods Youth age 8–15 (n=3,050) studied in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2004. Obesity defined as ≥95th percentile of US BMI-for-age reference. ADHD determined by asking parents if child had been diagnosed and using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds of obesity for youth with ADHD (medicated and unmedicated) relative to youth without ADHD. Results Males with ADHD who were medicated had lower odds of obesity compared to males without ADHD (adjusted OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.23 – 0.78). Unmedicated males with ADHD were as likely as males without ADHD to be obese (adjusted OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.43 – 2.42). The odds of obesity for females taking medication for ADHD did not differ statistically from those of females without ADHD (adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.52 – 2.81). Females with ADHD not taking medication had odds of obesity 1.54 times those of females without ADHD; however, the 95% CI (0.79–2.98) was wide and not statistically significant at α = 0.05. Conclusions Associations between ADHD and obesity are influenced by treatment of ADHD with medication and may differ by gender. Youth with ADHD who are not treated with medication are as or more likely than youth without ADHD to be obese. PMID:23325553

  8. Age- and sex-specific relationships between household income, education, and diabetes mellitus in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010.

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    So-Ra Kim

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of age and sex on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and the prevalence and control status of diabetes mellitus (DM in Korean adults.Data came from 16,175 adults (6,951 men and 9,227 women over the age of 30 who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SES was measured by household income or education level. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for the prevalence or control status of diabetes were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses across household income quartiles and education levels.The household income-DM and education level-DM relationships were significant in younger age groups for both men and women. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI for diabetes were 1.51 (0.97, 2.34 and 2.28 (1.29, 4.02 for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of household income and education level, respectively, in women younger than 65 years of age (both P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment. The adjusted OR and 95% CI for diabetes was 2.28 (1.53, 3.39 for the lowest vs. highest quartile of household income in men younger than 65 (P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment. However, in men and women older than 65, no associations were found between SES and the prevalence of DM. No significant association between SES and the status of glycemic control was detected.We found age- and sex-specific differences in the relationship of household income and education with the prevalence of DM in Korea. DM preventive care is needed for groups with a low SES, particularly in young or middle-aged populations.

  9. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006

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    Keast, Debra R.; Fulgoni III, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; O’Neil, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy—milk (7% of energy) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%); protein—milk (13.2%) and poultry (12.8%); total carbohydrate—soft drinks/soda (10.5%) and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%); total sugars—soft drinks/soda (19.2%) and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%); added sugars—soft drinks/soda (29.7%) and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%); dietary fiber—fruit (10.4%) and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%); total fat—cheese (9.3%) and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%); saturated fatty acids—cheese (16.3%) and milk (13.3%); cholesterol—eggs (24.2%) and poultry (13.2%); vitamin D—milk (60.4%) and milk drinks (8.3%); calcium—milk (33.2%) and cheese (19.4%); potassium—milk (18.8%) and fruit juice (8.0%); and sodium—salt (18.5%) and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%). Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient density of

  10. Dietary behaviour and parental socioeconomic position among adolescents: the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2003-2006 (KiGGS).

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    Finger, Jonas D; Varnaccia, Gianni; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lampert, Thomas; Mensink, Gert B M

    2015-05-19

    The positive association between parental socioeconomic position (PSEP) and health among adolescents may be partly explained by dietary behaviour. We investigated the associations between fruit intake, vegetable intake, energy-dense food intake, the Healthy Nutrition Score for Kids and Youth (HuSKY) and parental education in a nationwide, cluster-randomized sample of adolescents in Germany. The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2003-2006 (KiGGS) included 17,641 individuals aged 0-17 years and their parents. Complete information on relevant variables was available for 6359 individuals in the 11-17 age group. The associations between nutrition indicators and parental education were analysed separately for boys and girls, using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, region, income, occupation, physical activity and weight status related variables, were calculated for the associations between parental education and nutrition indicators. After full adjustment, higher parental education level was associated with lower energy-dense food intake - with an OR of 1.3 (95 % CI 1.0-1.7) for boys with secondary educated parents and 1.8 (1.4-2.3) for boys with tertiary educated parents compared to boys with primary educated parents; the corresponding ORs for girls were 1.2 (0.9-1.5) and 1.6 (1.2-2.2). Higher parental education was associated with higher fruit intake - with an OR of 1.3 (1.0-1.7) for boys with secondary educated parents and 2.0 (1.5-2.7) for boys with tertiary educated parents compared to boys with primary educated parents; the corresponding ORs for girls were 1.0 (0.8-1.4) and 1.5 (1.0-2.1). Among boys and girls with tertiary educated parents compared to those with primary educated parents an OR of 1.3 (CI boys: 1.0-1.7, CI girls: 1.0-1.6) was observed for high vegetable intake. Among boys with tertiary educated parents compared to boys with primary educated parents an OR of 1.6 (1

  11. A possible association between dysphonia and sleep duration: A cross-sectional study based on the Korean National Health and nutrition examination surveys from 2010 to 2012.

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    Cho, Jung-Hae; Guilminault, Christian; Joo, Young-Hoon; Jin, Sang-Kyun; Han, Kyung-Do; Park, Chan-Soon

    2017-01-01

    Sleep is important in terms of good general health and appropriate sleep duration has been linked to quality-of-life. Dysphonia may impair communication and social relationships, and is thus also closely related to quality-of-life. No large-scale, cross-sectional epidemiological study of a sample representative of the population of an entire country has yet assessed the possible existence of a relationship between sleep duration and dysphonia. We investigated a possible association between subjective voice problems and self-reported sleep duration in South Korean subjects using 2010-2012 data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Cross-sectional data on 17,806 adults (7,578 males and 10,228 females) over the age of 19 years who completed the KNHANES were analyzed. All participants reported voice problems (if present) and their daily average sleep duration using a self-reporting questionnaire. Sleep duration was classified into five categories as follows: ≤5, 6, 7, 8, and ≥9 h/day. The overall prevalence of dysphonia was 6.8%; 5.7% in males and 7.7% in females. The prevalence for dysphonia by sleep duration exhibited a U-shape, with the lowest point being at sleep duration of 7-8h. After adjustment for covariates (age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, low income, high-level education), a sleep duration of ≤5 h (OR = 1.454; 95% CI, 1.153-1.832) and a sleep duration of ≥9 h (OR = 1.365; 95% CI, 1.017-1.832) were significantly associated with dysphonia, compared to a sleep duration of 7 h. In terms of gender, males who slept for ≥9 h were at a 2-fold (OR = 2.028; 95% CI, 1.22-3.35) higher odds for dysphonia (pdysphonia ≥3 weeks in duration (long-term dysphonia). This is the first study to show that both short and long sleep duration were significantly associated with the development of dysphonia. The association between sleep duration and dysphonia was more marked in males than females. A

  12. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006

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    Victor L. Fulgoni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332 in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy — milk (7% of energy and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%; protein — milk (13.2% and poultry (12.8%; total carbohydrate — soft drinks/soda (10.5% and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%; total sugars — soft drinks/soda (19.2% and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%; added sugars — soft drinks/soda (29.7% and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%; dietary fiber — fruit (10.4% and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%; total fat — cheese (9.3% and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%; saturated fatty acids — cheese (16.3% and milk (13.3%; cholesterol — eggs (24.2% and poultry (13.2%; vitamin D — milk (60.4% and milk drinks (8.3%; calcium — milk (33.2% and cheese (19.4%; potassium — milk (18.8% and fruit juice (8.0%; and sodium — salt (18.5% and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%. Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient

  13. Food sources of energy and nutrients among children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A; O'Neil, Carol E

    2013-01-22

    Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy - milk (7% of energy) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%); protein - milk (13.2%) and poultry (12.8%); total carbohydrate - soft drinks/soda (10.5%) and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%); total sugars - soft drinks/soda (19.2%) and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%); added sugars - soft drinks/soda (29.7%) and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%); dietary fiber - fruit (10.4%) and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%); total fat - cheese (9.3%) and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%); saturated fatty acids - cheese (16.3%) and milk (13.3%); cholesterol - eggs (24.2%) and poultry (13.2%); vitamin D - milk (60.4%) and milk drinks (8.3%); calcium - milk (33.2%) and cheese (19.4%); potassium - milk (18.8%) and fruit juice (8.0%); and sodium - salt (18.5%) and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%). Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient density of children's diets.

  14. Are Mothers' Working Hours Associated with General and Abdominal Obesity in Children and Adolescents? The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2012).

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    Kim, Juyeong; Park, Eun-Cheol; Choi, Young; Park, Sohee

    2018-04-01

    Objectives Despite an increase in the female work force and recent increase in childhood obesity, the association between working hours of mothers and childhood obesity as well as how such association differs according to mothers' weight and intake frequency of energy-dense, nutrition-poor (EDNP) foods remain unclear. Methods Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2012) that included samples from 3914 children in 2526 households were analyzed. Two-level (household-children) mixed-effects modeling was performed to investigate the association between mothers' working hours and childhood obesity based on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Results Long working hours (h) of mothers were associated with both BMI (β = - 0.14; P = 0.324 for 1-20 h, β = 0.10; P = 0.334 for ≤ 21-40 h; β = 0.09; P = 0.429 for 41-68 h, β = 0.51; P = 0.015 for ≥ 69 h) and WC of the child (β = 0.06; P = 0.809 for 1-20 h; β = 0.46; P = 0.017 for ≤ 21-40 h; β = 0.59; P = 0.004 for 41-68 h, β = 1.35; P working ≥ 69 h compared to those working 0 h. We also observed that the association between mothers' working hours and child's BMI and WC was greater for children whose mothers were either overweight or obese and frequently consumed energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods (EDNP). Conclusions for Practice Long working hours of mothers are associated with higher BMI and WC in children. Thus, it is important to improve labor welfare for mothers who work long hours, and provide interventions to promote good health behaviors in both children and working mothers.

  15. A novel use of structural equation models to examine factors associated with prediabetes among adults aged 50 years and older: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006.

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    Bardenheier, Barbara H; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Caspersen, Carl J; Cheng, Yiling J; Gregg, Edward W; Geiss, Linda S

    2013-09-01

    To use structural modeling to test a hypothesized model of causal pathways related with prediabetes among older adults in the U.S. Cross-sectional study of 2,230 older adults (≥ 50 years) without diabetes included in the morning fasting sample of the 2001-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Demographic data included age, income, marital status, race/ethnicity, and education. Behavioral data included physical activity (metabolic equivalent hours per week for vigorous or moderate muscle strengthening, walking/biking, and house/yard work), and poor diet (refined grains, red meat, added sugars, solid fats, and high-fat dairy). Structural-equation modeling was performed to examine the interrelationships among these variables with family history of diabetes, high blood pressure, BMI, large waist (waist circumference: women, ≥ 35 inches; men, ≥ 40 inches), triglycerides ≥ 200 mg/dL, and total and HDL (≥ 60 mg/dL) cholesterol. After dropping BMI and total cholesterol, our best-fit model included three single factors: socioeconomic position (SEP), physical activity, and poor diet. Large waist had the strongest direct effect on prediabetes (0.279), followed by male sex (0.270), SEP (-0.157), high blood pressure (0.122), family history of diabetes (0.070), and age (0.033). Physical activity had direct effects on HDL (0.137), triglycerides (-0.136), high blood pressure (-0.132), and large waist (-0.067); poor diet had direct effects on large waist (0.146) and triglycerides (0.148). Our results confirmed that, while including factors known to be associated with high risk of developing prediabetes, large waist circumference had the strongest direct effect. The direct effect of SEP on prediabetes suggests mediation by some unmeasured factor(s).

  16. Ten-Year Trends in Fiber and Whole Grain Intakes and Food Sources for the United States Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010

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    McGill, Carla R.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Devareddy, Latha

    2015-01-01

    Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG). This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for children/adolescents (n = 14,973) and adults (n = 24,809). Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1) g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19–50 years (y) was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001–2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+ y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01) oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19–50 y was 0.61 (±0.02) oz eq/day and for adults 51+ 0.86 (±0.02) oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001–2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%), grain mixtures (16.3%), other foods (15.8%) and fruits (11.3%). For adults 19+ y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%), other foods (14.3%), grain mixtures (12.0%) and fruits (11.1%). Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (31%), yeast breads/rolls (21%) and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%). The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%), RTEC (23%) and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%). Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S.) population. PMID:25671414

  17. Ten-Year Trends in Fiber and Whole Grain Intakes and Food Sources for the United States Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010

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    Carla R. McGill

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG. This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data for children/adolescents (n = 14,973 and adults (n = 24,809. Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1 g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19–50 years (y was 16.1 (±0.2 g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2 g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001–2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+ y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01 oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19–50 y was 0.61 (±0.02 oz eq/day and for adults 51+ 0.86 (±0.02 oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001–2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%, grain mixtures (16.3%, other foods (15.8% and fruits (11.3%. For adults 19+ y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%, other foods (14.3%, grain mixtures (12.0% and fruits (11.1%. Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC (31%, yeast breads/rolls (21% and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%. The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%, RTEC (23% and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%. Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S. population.

  18. Ten-year trends in fiber and whole grain intakes and food sources for the United States population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Carla R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Devareddy, Latha

    2015-02-09

    Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG). This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for children/adolescents (n=14,973) and adults (n=24,809). Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1) g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19-50 years (y) was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001-2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01) oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19-50 y was 0.61 (±0.02) oz eq/day and for adults 51+0.86 (±0.02) oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001-2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%), grain mixtures (16.3%), other foods (15.8%) and fruits (11.3%). For adults 19+y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%), other foods (14.3%), grain mixtures (12.0%) and fruits (11.1%). Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (31%), yeast breads/rolls (21%) and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%). The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%), RTEC (23%) and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%). Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S.) population.

  19. Sarcopenia as an Independent Risk Factor for Decreased BMD in COPD Patients: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V (2008-2011.

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    Dong-Won Lee

    Full Text Available A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD is a systemic consequence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Past reports have rarely examined any correlation between sarcopenia and BMD. We investigated the relationship cross-sectionally between the presence of sarcopenia and BMD reduction in COPD patients.COPD patients aged 50 or older with qualifying spirometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry data were from participants in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V (2008-2011.There were 286 (33.3% subjects in the sarcopenia group and 572 (66.7% in the non-sarcopenia group. The sarcopenia group had lower T-scores than the non-sarcopenia group (femur: -0.73±0.88 vs. -0.18±0.97, p < 0.001; femur neck: -1.44±0.98 vs. -0.99±1.06, p < 0.001; lumbar: -1.38±1.36 vs. -0.84±1.38, p < 0.001. The prevalences of osteopenia and osteoporosis were 60.8% and 22.0%, respectively, in the sarcopenia group and 45.6% and 13.3% in the non-sarcopenia group (both p < 0.001. After adjusting for multiple variables, the presence of sarcopenia associated with increased the risk of osteopenia, osteoporosis, and a low BMD (OR = 3.227, 95% CI = 2.125-4.899, p < 0.001, OR = 6.952, 95% CI = 3.418-14.139, p < 0.001, and OR = 3.495, 95% CI = 2.315-5.278, p < 0.001, respectively. In a subgroup analysis, similar OR changes were confirmed in the high-body-weight group (n = 493 (OR = 2.248, 95% CI = 1.084-4.665, p = 0.030, OR = 4.621, 95% CI = 1.167-18.291, p = 0.029, and OR = 2.376, 95% CI = 1.158-4.877, p = 0.018, respectively.The presence of sarcopenia was associated with increased the risk for decreased BMD in COPD.

  20. Hemoglobin A1c and Mortality in Older Adults With and Without Diabetes: Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1988-2011).

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    Palta, Priya; Huang, Elbert S; Kalyani, Rita R; Golden, Sherita H; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh

    2017-04-01

    Hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) level has been associated with increased mortality in middle-aged populations. The optimal intensity of glucose control in older adults with diabetes remains uncertain. We sought to estimate the risk of mortality by HbA 1c levels among older adults with and without diabetes. We analyzed data from adults aged ≥65 years ( n = 7,333) from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (1998-1994) and Continuous NHANES (1999-2004) and their linked mortality data (through December 2011). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the relationship of HbA 1c with the risk of all-cause and cause-specific (cardiovascular disease [CVD], cancer, and non-CVD/noncancer) mortality, separately for adults with diabetes and without diabetes. Over a median follow-up of 8.9 years, 4,729 participants died (1,262 from CVD, 850 from cancer, and 2,617 from non-CVD/noncancer causes). Compared with those with diagnosed diabetes and an HbA 1c 8.0%. HRs were 1.6 (95% CI 1.02, 2.6) and 1.8 (95% CI 1.3, 2.6) for HbA 1c 8.0-8.9% and ≥9.0%, respectively ( P for trend 6.5% had a 1.3 (95% CI 1.03, 1.8) times greater risk of all-cause mortality compared with participants without diabetes and HbA 1c 5.0-5.6%. An HbA 1c >8.0% was associated with increased risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in older adults with diabetes. Our results support the idea that better glycemic control is important for reducing mortality; however, in light of the conflicting evidence base, there is also a need for individualized glycemic targets for older adults with diabetes depending on their demographics, duration of diabetes, and existing comorbidities. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Association of individual and community factors with C-reactive protein and 25-hydroxyvitamin D: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES

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    Weiwen Chai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many individual and community/neighborhood factors may contribute to inflammation and vitamin D deficiency leading to the development of chronic diseases. This study examined the associations of serum C-reactive protein (CRP and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] levels with individual and community/neighborhood (tract-level or county-level factors using a nationally representative sample from 2001–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Data from the 2001–2006 waves of the continuous NHANES was merged with the 2000 census and other neighborhood data sources constructed using geographic information system. Associations between multilevel factors and biomarker levels were assessed using multilevel random-intercept regression models. 6643 participants aged 19–65 (3402 men and 3241 women were included in the analysis. Family income-to-needs ratio was inversely associated with CRP (P=0.002 and positively associated with 25(OHD levels (P=0.0003. County crime rates were positively associated with CRP (P=0.007 and inversely associated with 25(OHD levels (P=0.0002. The associations with income-to-needs ratio were significant in men [CRP, P=0.005; 25(OHD, P=0.005] but not in women. For county crime rates, the association was only significant in women for CRP (P=0.004 and was significant in both men (P=0.01 and women (P=0.001 for 25(OHD. Additionally, overall CRP was positively associated with age (P<0.0001, female sex (P<0.0001, Hispanic race/ethnicity (P=0.0001, current smokers (P<0.0001, body mass index (BMI, P<0.0001, and participants who were US-born (P=0.02. Non-Hispanic black (P<0.0001 and Hispanic race/ethnicity (P<0.0001, current smoker (P=0.047, and higher BMI (P<0.0001 were associated with lower serum 25(OHD levels. No significant associations were observed between other community/neighborhood variables and serum CRP and 25(OHD levels. The current results suggest that family income-to-needs ratio and county crime rate may

  2. Intakes of dairy products and calcium and obesity in Korean adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Jeung; Cho, Jang-ik; Lee, Hye-Seung H; Kim, Cho-il; Cho, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    The possible effects of dairy product intake against obesity have been suggested in animal studies; however, the association is still not well established in epidemiological studies. Few studies in Asian countries with relatively low intake of dairy products exist. We investigated the association between dairy products and calcium intake and obesity in Korean population with relatively low intake of dairy products. Our study population consisted of adults (n = 7173) aged 19-64 among participants of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had not made any attempt of intentional weight loss. Dietary intake data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall were used. Dairy products included milk and yogurt in the FFQ. Obesity was defined as BMI≥25 kg/m². Higher frequency of dairy product intake was associated with a reduced prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.45-0.89 for ≥2 times/day vs. ≤1 time/month; p for trend = 0.003) using the intake data from FFQ. Similarly, high frequency of milk or yogurt intake had an inverse association with obesity. The association between milk and yogurt intake and obesity was similar when the intake from 24-hour recall was examined. Higher calcium intake from dairy products as well as total dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.71-0.98 for highest vs. lowest quintile of dairy calcium intake; p for trend = 0.02, OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.64-0.94 for highest vs. lowest quintile of total calcium intake; p for trend = 0.04). The associations appeared to be stronger in women than in men. These results suggest that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and that calcium in dairy products may be one of the components contributing to the association. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to replicate our findings.

  3. Prevalence of microalbuminuria and its associated cardiometabolic risk factors in Korean youth: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Heeyeon Cho

    Full Text Available Microalbuminuria is a known early predictive factor for renal and cardiovascular diseases, not only for patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension but also in the general population. However, the prevalence and risk factors associated with microalbuminuria in Korean youth are unknown.The aims of this study are to evaluate the prevalence of microalbuminuria and the association between microalbuminuria and obesity or cardiometabolic risk factors in Korean children and adolescents without diabetes.This study examines data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (between 2011 and 2014. It includes a total of 1,976 participants aged between 10 and 19 years (boys 1,128 and girls 848. Microalbuminuria was defined as a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR of ≥ 30 mg/g and < 300 mg/g. Association between microalbuminuria and the risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases including insulin resistance was evaluated.The prevalence of microalbuminuria was found to be 3.0% in Korean children and adolescents over this time period. The mean UACR for non-obese youth was significantly greater than that found in obese youth (3.2 ± 0.1 mg/g in the non-obese group vs. 2.1 ± 0.2 mg/g in the obese group; P < 0.001. In multiple logistic regression analysis, microalbuminuria was associated with hyperglycemia (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.09-6.30 and hemoglobin A1c (OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.09-10.17 in the non-obese group and hypertension (OR 14.10, 95% CI 1.12-177.98 and HbA1c (OR 6.68, 95% CI 1.87-23.95 in the obese group.The prevalence of microalbuminuria is not prominent in obese children and adolescents. Our findings demonstrated that the presence of hypertension and hyperglycemia was associated with microalbuminuria. Especially Hemoglobin A1c was associated with microalbuminuria in youths regardless of weight status. Microalbuminuria in pediatric population can be a helpful marker for the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  4. Association of daily physical activity level with health-related factors by gender and age-specific differences among Korean adults based on the sixth (2014-2015) Korea national health and nutrition examination survey

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    Chung, Nana; Park, Hun-Young; Park, Mi-Young; Hwang, Yoon-Young; Lee, Chi-Ho; Han, Jin-Soo; So, Jaemoo; Kim, Jisu; Park, Jonghoon; Lim, Kiwon

    2017-06-30

    This study examined the effects of daily physical activity level on health-related factors according to gender and identified age-specific differences among Korean adults. Using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2014-2015), we selected adults aged 19-64 years who participated in both a health examination and health interview survey. The study included 6,457 participants 19-64 years of age (2,611 men, 3,846 women). Assessment of the differences in health-related factors according to age and physical activity in men and women by repeated two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant interaction effects on total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in male participants, but there were no significant interaction effects for any health-related factors in female participants. The group of female participants aged 40-64 years with daily physical activity levels over 200 kcal showed a significantly increased prevalence of 46% for dyslipidemia compared to that in female participants with daily physical activity levels below 200 kcal. Physical activity was positively correlated with weight and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in men 19-39 years of age, compared to weight, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), and DBP in men 40-64 years of age, and weight, WC, BMI, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and triglyceride (TG) levels in women 19-39 years of age. In women 40- 64 years of age, physical activity was especially significantly positively correlated with weight, BMI, HDL-C and negatively correlated with fasting glucose and TG levels. In male and female participants, the 40-64-year age group showed negative results for health-related factors compared to those in the 19-39-year age group. The higher the weight, WC, BMI, the higher is the physical activity level. Physical activity levels were significantly positively correlated with health-related variables

  5. Antecedents to agenda setting and framing in health news: an examination of priority, angle, source, and resource usage from a national survey of U.S. health reporters and editors.

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    Wallington, Sherrie Flynt; Blake, Kelly; Taylor-Clark, Kalahn; Viswanath, K

    2010-01-01

    The influence of news media on audience cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors in the realm of politics, race relations, science, and health has been extensively documented.Agenda setting and framing studies show that news media influence how people develop schema and place priorities on issues, with media stories serving as a major source of issue frames. Although news media are an important intermediary in the translation of scientific knowledge to different publics, little has been documented about the production of health news and factors that may predict media agenda setting and framing in health journalism. We used data from a 2005 national survey of U.S. health reporters and editors to examine predictors of source, resource, story angle, and frame usage among reporters and editors by variables such as organizational structure, individual characteristics of respondents (such as education and years working as a journalist),and perceptions of occupational autonomy. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed several differences among U.S. health reports and editors in the likelihood of using a variety of news sources, resources, priorities, and angles in reporting. Media agenda setting and framing theories suggest that practitioners familiar with media processes can work with journalists to frame messages, thereby increasing the probability of accurate and effective reporting. Results from this study may help to inform interactions between public health and medical practitioners and the press [corrected].

  6. The prevalence of and factors associated with high-risk alcohol consumption in Korean adults: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Jae Won Hong

    Full Text Available The consequences of alcohol consumption on health outcomes are largely determined by two separate, but related, dimensions of drinking: the total volume of alcohol consumed and the pattern of drinking. Most epidemiological studies focus on the amount of alcohol consumed and do not consider the pattern of drinking.This study evaluated the prevalence of and factors associated with high-risk and heavy alcohol drinking in Korean adults.This study analyzed 15,215 of the 28,009 participants in the 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. High-risk alcohol drinking was defined as Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT scores ≥16, which provides a framework for intervention to identify hazardous and harmful drinking patterns as the cause of alcohol-use disorders, according to World Health Organization guidelines.The prevalence of high-risk drinking was 15.1%, with the highest prevalence of 17.2% in middle-aged adults (45-64 years. In men, the prevalence of high-risk alcohol drinking was 23.7%, with the highest prevalence found in middle-aged adults. In women, the prevalence of high-risk alcohol drinking was 4.2%, with the highest prevalence found in younger adults. Men had higher weighted mean AUDIT scores than women (10.0 vs. 4.0, P<0.001, and age was negatively associated with the AUDIT score (P<0.001. Elementary school graduates had higher mean AUDIT scores than senior high school (P = 0.003 or college (P<0.001 graduates. Regarding occupation, clerical support workers (P = 0.002 and service and sales workers (P<0.001 had higher mean AUDIT scores than managers and professionals. Logistic regression analyses of high-risk alcohol drinking using sex, age, education level, number of family members, household income, and occupation as covariates was performed. Women had a lower risk of high-risk alcohol drinking (odds ratio (OR 0.14, 95% CI: 0.13-0.16, P<0.001 than men. Regarding age, compared to control

  7. Elucidating the structural properties that influence the persistence of PCBs in humans using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset

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    Megson, David, E-mail: dpmegson@hotmail.co.uk [Biogeochemistry Research Centre, SoGEES, Plymouth University, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); O’Sullivan, Gwen [Department of Environmental Science, Mount Royal University, 4825 Mount Royal Gate SW, Calgary, Alberta, T3E 6K6 (Canada); Comber, Sean; Worsfold, Paul J.; Lohan, Maeve C. [Biogeochemistry Research Centre, SoGEES, Plymouth University, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Edwards, Melanie R.; Shields, Walter J. [Exponent Inc., 15375 Southeast 30th Place, Bellevue, WA 98007 (United States); Sandau, Courtney D. [Chemistry Matters Inc., 2120 1st Avenue NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 0B5 (Canada); Patterson, Donald G. [Exponent Inc., One Capital City Plaza, Suite 1620, 3350 Peachtree Road, Atlanta, GA 30326 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    In human exposure studies involving Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), it is useful to establish when an individual was potentially exposed. Age dating PCB exposure is complex but assessments can be made because different PCB congeners have different residence times in the human body. The less chlorinated congeners generally tend to have shorter residence times because they are biotransformed and eliminated faster than more chlorinated congeners. Therefore, the presence of high proportions of less chlorinated congeners is often indicative of recent exposure. The 2003–04 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset contains results for the concentration of 37 PCBs in a sub-sample of the US population. Multivariate statistical analysis of the NHANES data showed that less chlorinated congeners are not always biotransformed faster than higher chlorinated compounds. For example, PCB 28 (a tri-chlorobiphenyl) appears to be more resistant to biotransformation than PCB 101 and 110 (penta-chlorobiphenyls). Using statistical analysis of the NHANES data in conjunction with previously published studies on PCB persistence in humans, it was possible to identify the structural relationships that determine if a PCB is likely to be from a recent exposure (termed ‘episodic’) or from steady state exposure. Congeners with chlorine atoms in the 2,5- and 2,3,6-positions appear to be more susceptible to biotransformation whereas congeners with chlorine bonds in the 2,3,4- 2,4,5- 3,4,5- and 2,3,4,5-positions appear to be more persistent. This work shows that future investigations to date PCB exposure would benefit from the analysis of a wide range of congeners, including the selection of key congeners based not only on the degree of chlorination but also on the positions of the chlorine atoms on the biphenyl. - Highlights: • NHANES data was used to compare the PCB signature of different aged participants. • PCB residence time may be explained by the number

  8. Cancer screening rate in people with diabetes in the Korean population: results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009

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    Kumban Walter Chuck

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES To investigate the screening rates for gastric, breast, and cervical cancer in people with diabetes compared with people without diabetes. METHODS Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009 were used. Cancer-free men who were 40 years old and over and cancer-free women who were 30 years old and over were included. The lifetime screening rate and regular screening rate were compared in people with and without diabetes. RESULTS Fewer people with diabetes than people without diabetes had ever received cancer screening (53.5 vs. 59.5%, p<0.001 for gastric cancer; 60.5 vs. 71.5%, p<0.001 for breast cancer; and 49.1 vs. 59.6%, p<0.001 for cervical cancer. Fewer people with diabetes than people without diabetes received the recommended screenings for gastric cancer (38.9 vs. 42.9%, p<0.001, breast cancer (38.8 vs. 44.6%, p<0.001, and cervical cancer (35.1 vs. 51.2%, p<0.001. In subgroup analyses according to socioeconomic factors, the lifetime and recommended screening rates were lower in the diabetic population in most socioeconomic subgroups. In the multivariate analysis adjusted for socioeconomic factors, people with diabetes showed lower lifetime screening rates for gastric and cervical cancer (odds ratio [OR], 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7 to 0.9 and OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6 to 0.9, and lower regular screening rates for breast and cervical cancer (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6 to 0.9 and OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5 to 0.9. CONCLUSIONS The cancer screening rate in people with diabetes was lower than in people without diabetes. Considering the higher cancer risk in people with diabetes, efforts to increase the screening rate in this high-risk population should be implemented.

  9. Elucidating the structural properties that influence the persistence of PCBs in humans using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megson, David; O’Sullivan, Gwen; Comber, Sean; Worsfold, Paul J.; Lohan, Maeve C.; Edwards, Melanie R.; Shields, Walter J.; Sandau, Courtney D.; Patterson, Donald G.

    2013-01-01

    In human exposure studies involving Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), it is useful to establish when an individual was potentially exposed. Age dating PCB exposure is complex but assessments can be made because different PCB congeners have different residence times in the human body. The less chlorinated congeners generally tend to have shorter residence times because they are biotransformed and eliminated faster than more chlorinated congeners. Therefore, the presence of high proportions of less chlorinated congeners is often indicative of recent exposure. The 2003–04 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset contains results for the concentration of 37 PCBs in a sub-sample of the US population. Multivariate statistical analysis of the NHANES data showed that less chlorinated congeners are not always biotransformed faster than higher chlorinated compounds. For example, PCB 28 (a tri-chlorobiphenyl) appears to be more resistant to biotransformation than PCB 101 and 110 (penta-chlorobiphenyls). Using statistical analysis of the NHANES data in conjunction with previously published studies on PCB persistence in humans, it was possible to identify the structural relationships that determine if a PCB is likely to be from a recent exposure (termed ‘episodic’) or from steady state exposure. Congeners with chlorine atoms in the 2,5- and 2,3,6-positions appear to be more susceptible to biotransformation whereas congeners with chlorine bonds in the 2,3,4- 2,4,5- 3,4,5- and 2,3,4,5-positions appear to be more persistent. This work shows that future investigations to date PCB exposure would benefit from the analysis of a wide range of congeners, including the selection of key congeners based not only on the degree of chlorination but also on the positions of the chlorine atoms on the biphenyl. - Highlights: • NHANES data was used to compare the PCB signature of different aged participants. • PCB residence time may be explained by the number

  10. Evaluation of Audiometric Test Results to Determine Hearing Impairment in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Analysis of Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Hyemin Jeong

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA and hearing impairment in the Korean adult population. Audiometric and laboratory test data from the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES were used for analysis. The relationship between RA and hearing impairment was analyzed, adjusting for various known risk factors associated with hearing impairment. RA was defined in the questionnaire as "RA diagnosed by a physician (yes/no through a standardized interview." We defined hearing impairment according to 2 categories of frequency (low/mid and high as follows (average values in kHz: low/mid frequency, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0, and high frequency, 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0. Of the subjects, 15,158 (weighted n = 32,035,996 completed the audiometric tests. The overall weighted prevalence of RA was 1.5%. The prevalence of hearing impairment was higher in the subjects with RA than in those without RA, in both, the low/mid- and high-frequency categories (21.1% vs 7.5%, p < 0.001 and 43.3% vs. 26.2%, p < 0.001, respectively. In the multivariable logistic analysis, RA (odds ratios [OR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.06, p = 0.025 was an independent risk factor of low/mid-frequency hearing impairment along with age (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.12-1.13, p < 0.001, current smoking (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.03-1.56, p = 0.026, and college graduation (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.39-0.72, p < 0.001. In the multivariable analysis of high-frequency hearing impairment, RA did not show any association with hearing impairment. This study suggests that RA is associated with low/mid-frequency hearing impairment after adjustment for various known risk factors. Further study is needed to verify the hearing impairment in RA.

  11. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obesity in US males and females, age 8-15 years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2004.

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    Byrd, H C M; Curtin, C; Anderson, S E

    2013-12-01

    Youth with ADHD may be at increased risk for obesity. Medications used to treat ADHD can affect weight. Few studies have investigated possible gender differences in associations between ADHD and obesity. Nationally representative of US youth aged 8-15 years. Height and weight were measured, and ADHD assessed by structured diagnostic interview and parent report. Associations between ADHD and obesity are reported for males and females to enable gender comparisons. To investigate how associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity differ by gender and medication use in a nationally representative sample of US youth in which height and weight were measured. Youth age 8-15 (n = 3050) studied in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2004. Obesity was defined as ≥95th percentile of US body mass index-for-age reference. ADHD was determined by asking parents if child had been diagnosed and using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds of obesity for youth with ADHD (medicated and unmedicated) relative to youth without ADHD. Males with ADHD who were medicated had lower odds of obesity compared to males without ADHD (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.23-0.78). Unmedicated males with ADHD were as likely as males without ADHD to be obese (adjusted OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.43-2.42). The odds of obesity for females taking medication for ADHD did not differ statistically from those of females without ADHD (adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.52-2.81). Females with ADHD not taking medication had odds of obesity 1.54 times those of females without ADHD; however, the 95% CI (0.79-2.98) was wide and not statistically significant at α = 0.05. Associations between ADHD and obesity are influenced by treatment of ADHD with medication and may differ by gender. Youth with ADHD who are not

  12. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among South Korean adults: a cross-sectional study of the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Ha Eun-Hee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified that environmental tobacco smoke exposure is associated with sociodemographic factors such as age, sex, and socioeconomic status, but few studies have been conducted in South Korea. In this study, the authors investigated the extent of environmental tobacco smoke exposure and factors related in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. Methods The data of 7,801 adults aged 19 years and over collected during the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Information on smoking habits and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was obtained by self-reports using a standardized questionnaire. Risks of environmental tobacco smoke exposure conferred by sociodemographic variables and behavioral risk factors were evaluated using logistic regression methods. Results Overall, 36.1% of nonsmokers (defined as those not currently smoking and 50.1% of current smokers were found to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke either at work or at home. Among the nonsmokers, women were more likely to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at home (OR = 5.22, 95%CI, 4.08-6.67. Furthermore, an inverse relationship was found between education level and the risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home (OR = 1.73, 95%CI, 1.38-2.17 for those with a high school education; OR = 2.30, 95%CI, 1.68-3.16 for those with a middle school education; and OR = 2.58, 95%CI, 1.85-3.59 for those with less than an elementary school education vs. those with a college education or more. In addition, those with office, sales service, or manual labor jobs were found to be at significantly higher risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure at work than those with professional, administrative, or managerial jobs. Also, the risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in the workplace was significantly higher for alcohol drinkers than non-drinkers (OR = 1.23, 95%CI, 1.07-1.47. After adjusting

  13. Insulin Resistance Distribution and Cut-Off Value in Koreans from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Kyung-Jin; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Park, Yong-Moon; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Song, Ki-Ho; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Background We sought to identify the distribution and cut-off value of the ‘homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance’ (HOMA-IR) according to gender and menopausal status for metabolic syndrome in Koreans. Methods Data were from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008–2010. The subjects included adults aged 20 years or older. We excluded participants who had diabetes or fasting serum glucose ≥ 7 mmol/L. Finally, 11,121 subjects (4,911 men, 3,597 premenopausal women, 2,613 postmenopausal women) were enrolled. The modified Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome. Results The mean HOMA-IR was 2.11 (2.07–2.15) for men, 2.0 (1.97–2.04) for premenopausal women, and 2.14 (2.2–2.19) for postmenopausal women. The first cut-off values in men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women were 2.23 (sensitivity 70.6%, specificity 66.9%), 2.39 (sensitivity 72.3%, specificity 76.4%), and 2.48 (sensitivity 51.9%, specificity 80.2%), respectively. Based on the first HOMA-IR cut-off value, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.9% in men, 13.7% in premenopausal women, and 51.6% in postmenopausal women. The second cut-off value was around 3.2 in all three groups. Based on the second HOMA-IR cut-off value, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 50.8% in men, 42.5% in premenopausal women, and 71.6% in postmenopausal women. Conclusion In conclusion, the first cut-off values for HOMA-IR were 2.2–2.5 and the second cut-off value was 3.2 in Korea. The distribution of HOMA-IR showed differences according to gender and menopausal status. When we apply HOMA-IR, we should consider gender, menopausal status, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:27128847

  14. Estimated Trans-Lamina Cribrosa Pressure Differences in Low-Teen and High-Teen Intraocular Pressure Normal Tension Glaucoma: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Si Hyung Lee

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between estimated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD and prevalence of normal tension glaucoma (NTG with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP using a population-based study design.A total of 12,743 adults (≥ 40 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2009 to 2012 were included. Using a previously developed formula, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP in mmHg was estimated as 0.55 × body mass index (kg/m2 + 0.16 × diastolic blood pressure (mmHg-0.18 × age (years-1.91. TLCPD was calculated as IOP-CSFP. The NTG subjects were divided into two groups according to IOP level: low-teen NTG (IOP ≤ 15 mmHg and high-teen NTG (15 mmHg < IOP ≤ 21 mmHg groups. The association between TLCPD and the prevalence of NTG was assessed in the low- and high-teen IOP groups.In the normal population (n = 12,069, the weighted mean estimated CSFP was 11.69 ± 0.04 mmHg and the weighted mean TLCPD 2.31 ± 0.06 mmHg. Significantly higher TLCPD (p < 0.001; 6.48 ± 0.27 mmHg was found in the high-teen NTG compared with the normal group. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in TLCPD between normal and low-teen NTG subjects (p = 0.395; 2.31 ± 0.06 vs. 2.11 ± 0.24 mmHg. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that TLCPD was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in the high-teen IOP group (p = 0.006; OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.15, but not the low-teen IOP group (p = 0.636. Instead, the presence of hypertension was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in the low-teen IOP group (p < 0.001; OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.16.TLCPD was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in high-teen IOP subjects, but not low-teen IOP subjects, in whom hypertension may be more closely associated. This study suggests that the underlying mechanisms may differ between low-teen and high-teen NTG patients.

  15. Naphthalene biomarkers and relationship with hemoglobin and hematocrit in White, Black, and Hispanic adults: results from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakin, Daniel L; Smit, Ellen; Cardenas, Andres; Harding, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Naphthalene is an important contaminant in indoor and outdoor air. Acute overexposure can have toxic effects, resulting in hemolysis. There have been no studies evaluating the impact of environmental exposure on red blood cell indices. We examined 1- and 2-hydroxynaphthalene urinary metabolites (NAP1 and NAP2) in non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Mexican-American adults in the USA and their relationship with hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (HCT). Using the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, weighted generalized linear regression analyses were used to examine the association between Hb (in grams per deciliter) and HCT (in percent) with NAP1 and NAP2 (per 100,000 ng/L). Beta coefficients ± SE are reported. NAP1 and NAP2 were highest in non-Hispanic Blacks, followed by non-Hispanic Whites, and lowest in Mexican-American adults. There was a positive association between NAP1 and Hb (0.39 ± 0.11, p = 0.0034) and HCT (1.14 ± 0.28, p = 0.0009) after adjusting for age, gender, race, education, and smoking. Stratified analysis by smoking showed similar results with the association being stronger for smokers (Hb 0.63 ± 0.23, p = 0.02; HCT 1.43 ± 0.79, p = 0.09) than nonsmokers (Hb 0.34 ± 0.14, p = 0.03; HCT 1.08 ± 0.42, p = 0.02). The association was also stronger for non-Hispanic blacks (Hb 0.54 ± 0.20, p = 0.02; HCT 1.43 ± 0.55, p = 0.02) than for non-Hispanic whites (Hb 0.37 ± 0.18, p = 0.06; HCT 1.20 ± 0.51, p = 0.03) and was not significant for Mexican-Americans (Hb 0.30 ± 1.7, p = 0.10; HCT 0.99 ± 0.52, p = 0.08). NAP2 was not significantly associated with Hb or HCT. The observed disparity in NAP1 and NAP2 levels by race/ethnicity is consistent with published literature. The origin of these differences in exposure is unclear but may reflect differences in environmental exposure as well as genetic susceptibility. The

  16. Are low-to-middle-income households experiencing food insecurity in Victoria, Australia? An examination of the Victorian Population Health Survey, 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleve, Sue; Davidson, Zoe E; Gearon, Emma; Booth, Sue; Palermo, Claire

    2017-07-01

    Food insecurity affects health and wellbeing. Little is known about the relationship between food insecurity across income levels. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and frequency of food insecurity in low-to-middle-income Victorian households over time and identify factors associated with food insecurity in these households. Prevalence and frequency of food insecurity was analysed across household income levels using data from the cross-sectional 2006-09 Victorian Population Health Surveys (VPHS). Respondents were categorised as food insecure, if in the last 12 months they had run out of food and were unable to afford to buy more. Multivariable logistic regression was used to describe factors associated with food insecurity in low-to-middle-income households (A$40000-$80000 in 2008). Between 4.9 and 5.5% for total survey populations and 3.9-4.8% in low-to-middle-income respondents were food insecure. Food insecurity was associated with limited help from friends, home ownership status, inability to raise money in an emergency and cost of some foods. Food insecurity exists in households beyond those on a very low income. Understanding the extent and implications of household food insecurity across all income groups in Australia will inform effective and appropriate public health responses.

  17. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Adverse Mental Health Indicators and Lower Quality of Life among Koreans: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012–2013

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    Hye-Kyung Chung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity is an ongoing public health issue and contributes to mental health status. We investigated whether food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intake and whether it affects mental health indicators (perceived stress/experience of depressive symptom/suicidal ideation and quality of life (QOL among Koreans (n = 5862, 20–64 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2012–2013. Household food security status was categorized as “food-secure household”, “food-insecure household without hunger”, and “food-insecure household with hunger”. Data on food insecurity, sociodemographic factors, nutrient intake, mental health indicators, and QOL were used. A logistic regression model was conducted to determine odds ratios (ORs for psychological health. A greater proportion of food-insecure participants were nutritionally deficient compared with expectations of the 2015 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes. These deficiencies were generally higher in both “food-insecure household” groups. Both “food-insecure household” groups, particularly the “food-insecure household with hunger” group showed significantly adverse mental health status (ORs: 1.52–3.83 and lower QOL (ORs: 1.49–3.92 than did the “food-secure household” group before and after adjusting for sex, age, education, household income, smoking/alcohol consumption, physical activity, marital status, and receiving food assistance. In conclusion, food insecurity may be significantly associated with adverse mental health indicators and decreased QOL in young/middle-aged Koreans.

  18. Grain Foods Are Contributors of Nutrient Density for American Adults and Help Close Nutrient Recommendation Gaps: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Yanni; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2017-08-14

    The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2015-2020 DGA) maintains recommendations for increased consumption of whole grains while limiting intake of enriched/refined grains. A variety of enriched grains are sources of several shortfall nutrients identified by 2015-2020 DGA, including dietary fiber, folate, iron, and magnesium. The purpose of this study was to determine food sources of energy and nutrients for free-living U.S. adults using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2012. Analyses of grain food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected in adults ≥19 years of age ( n = 10,697). Sources of nutrients contained in all grain foods were determined using United States Department of Agriculture nutrient composition databases and the food grouping scheme for grains (excluding mixed dishes). Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from various grain food groups were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. All grains provided 285 ± 5 kcal/day or 14 ± 0.2% kcal/day in the total diet in adult ≥19 years of age. In the total daily diet, the grain category provided 7.2 ± 0.2% (4.9 ± 0.1 g/day) total fat, 5.4 ± 0.2% (1.1 ± 0.03 g/day) saturated fat, 14.6 ± 0.3% (486 ± 9 mg/day) sodium, 7.9 ± 0.2% (7.6 ± 0.2 g/day) total sugar, 22.8 ± 0.4% (3.9 ± 0.1 g/day) dietary fiber, 13.2 ± 0.3% (122 ± 3 mg/day) calcium, 33.6 ± 0.5% (219 ± 4 mcg dietary folate equivalents (DFE)/day) folate, 29.7 ± 0.4% (5.3 ± 0.1 mg/day) iron, and 13.9 ± 0.3% (43.7 ± 1.1 mg/day) magnesium. Individual grain category analyses showed that breads, rolls and tortillas and ready-to-eat cereals provided minimal kcal/day in the total diet in men and women ≥19 years of age. Similarly, breads, rolls and tortillas, and ready-to-eat cereals supplied meaningful contributions of shortfall nutrients, including dietary fiber, folate and iron, while concurrently providing minimal amounts of nutrients to

  19. The Association Between Long Working Hours and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Older Aged Individuals: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongin; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul

    2018-05-22

    To show the association of hs-CRP level with working hours in different age groups. We used data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of variables for elevated hs-CRP (> 3.0 mg/L) were generated with logistic regression models. Significant variables were verified with an adjusted multivariate logistic model after stratification of age groups. Working for more than 55 hours per week was associated with elevated hs-CRP level in the old-ages group (≥ 60 years old: OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.07-4.45). Working for 40-55 hours per week was associated with decreased hs-CRP in the young-ages group (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37-0.93). Working hours appear to influence the levels of hs-CRP in individuals aged older than 60 years.

  20. Comparison of oral health status and daily nutrient intake between elders who live alone and elders who live with family: Based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI) (2013-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Jeong; Jin, Bo-Hyoung

    2018-06-01

    To compare the nutritional factors and oral status of elders living alone and elders living with their families in Korea. Numerous studies have found that the presence of fewer remaining teeth is associated with decreased nutrient intake; however, there is no study comparing the nutritional status and oral status of elders living alone with that of elders living with family based on a nationally representative sample. A sample of 2904 individuals who participated in the sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was reviewed (65-84 years of age). Living status was defined according to the participants' self-reported questionnaire, and a nutrient intake questionnaire was designed as an open questionnaire and used during the face-to-face interviews. The number of existing teeth was used to determine oral status. A complex-sample general linear analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the association between the number of teeth and nutrient intake among elders living with family and elders living alone after adjusting for confounders. Elders living alone were significantly older and tended to have the following characteristics: women, lower household income, lower educational level, poor perceived health status, non-smokers, non-drinkers and lack of physical activity. Elders living alone had a poorer perceived oral health status, had not received an oral examination in the past year, had chewing problems and had fewer existing teeth (P oral health and nutrient intake status. Participants who had many existing teeth had higher nutrient intake than the participants who had fewer existing teeth. For healthy lives at old age, family support or additional social support for elders living alone should be considered. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Examining the association of abortion history and current mental health: A reanalysis of the National Comorbidity Survey using a common-risk-factors model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Julia R; Finer, Lawrence B

    2011-01-01

    Using the US National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), Coleman, Coyle, Shuping, and Rue (2009) published an analysis indicating that compared to women who had never had an abortion, women who had reported an abortion were at an increased risk of several anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders. Here, we show that those results are not replicable. That is, using the same data, sample, and codes as indicated by those authors, it is not possible to replicate the simple bivariate statistics testing the relationship of ever having had an abortion to each mental health disorder when no factors were controlled for in analyses (Table 2 in Coleman et al., 2009). Furthermore, among women with prior pregnancies in the NCS, we investigated whether having zero, one, or multiple abortions (abortion history) was associated with having a mood, anxiety, or substance use disorder at the time of the interview. In doing this, we tested two competing frameworks: the abortion-as-trauma versus the common-risk-factors approach. Our results support the latter framework. In the bivariate context when no other factors were included in models, abortion history was not related to having a mood disorder, but it was related to having an anxiety or substance use disorder. When prior mental health and violence experience were controlled in our models, no significant relation was found between abortion history and anxiety disorders. When these same risk factors and other background factors were controlled, women who had multiple abortions remained at an increased risk of having a substance use disorder compared to women who had no abortions, likely because we were unable to control for other risk factors associated with having an abortion and substance use. Policy, practice, and research should focus on assisting women at greatest risk of having unintended pregnancies and having poor mental health-those with violence in their lives and prior mental health problems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All

  2. 100% orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Rampersaud, Gail C; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2012-12-12

    Consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ) has been positively associated with nutrient adequacy and diet quality, with no increased risk of overweight/obesity in children; however, no one has examined these factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% OJ consumption with nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a nationally representative sample of adults. Data from adults 19+ years of age (n = 8,861) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were used. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake (UI) of 100% OJ consumption, selected nutrients, and food groups. Percentages of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake (AI) were determined. Diet quality was measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Covariate adjusted logistic regression was used to determine if consumers had a lower odds ratio of being overweight or obese or having risk factors of MetS or MetS. Usual per capita intake of 100% OJ was 50.3 ml/d. Among consumers (n = 2,310; 23.8%), UI was 210.0 ml/d. Compared to non-consumers, consumers had a higher (p juice, whole fruit, and whole grain. Consumers had a lower (p diet.

  3. Unprotected daily sun exposure is differently associated with central adiposity and beta-cell dysfunction by gender: The Korean national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES) V

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    Ohn, Jung Hun [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, In Ho [Department of Dermatology, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of); Park, Juri; Ryu, Ohk Hyun; Lee, Seong Jin; Kim, Doo-Man; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Eun-Gyoung, E-mail: hegletter@hallym.or.kr [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Background: Ultraviolet irradiation by sun exposure has been associated with both harms and benefits to metabolic health. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether unprotected daily sun exposure is associated with the prevalence of diabetes and explore the underlying mechanism. Methods: We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey V from 2010 to 2011. Participants 19–60 years of age were asked about the average amount of time they had been exposed to direct sunlight per day since the age of 19. We categorized participants into three groups with different levels of lifetime daily sun exposure and explored the association of sun exposure with the prevalence of diabetes. Results: The risk of diabetes was higher in subjects with more than 5 h of unprotected sun exposure per day, with an odds ratio of 2.39 (95% CI 1.75–3.25), compared to those with less than 2 h of sun exposure, and the association remained significant after adjusting for diabetes risk factors. Long-term sun exposure was associated with increased central obesity and the possibility of an increase in visceral adiposity, especially among women, and with decrease in beta cell function and peripheral adiposity or percent body fat in men. Conclusions: Our study provides a cutoff for upper limit of sun exposure and suggests unprotected daily sun exposure for more than 5 h should be avoided to prevent diabetes. Increased central adiposity and decreased beta cell function were observed in women and men, respectively, who had long-term unprotected daily sun exposure. - Highlights: • Sun exposure for more than 5 h per day is associated with diabetes risk. • Insulin resistance associated with visceral adiposity may play a role in women. • Insulin secretory defect may explain diabetes risk in men.

  4. Unprotected daily sun exposure is differently associated with central adiposity and beta-cell dysfunction by gender: The Korean national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES) V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohn, Jung Hun; Kwon, In Ho; Park, Juri; Ryu, Ohk Hyun; Lee, Seong Jin; Kim, Doo-Man; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Hong, Eun-Gyoung

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ultraviolet irradiation by sun exposure has been associated with both harms and benefits to metabolic health. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether unprotected daily sun exposure is associated with the prevalence of diabetes and explore the underlying mechanism. Methods: We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey V from 2010 to 2011. Participants 19–60 years of age were asked about the average amount of time they had been exposed to direct sunlight per day since the age of 19. We categorized participants into three groups with different levels of lifetime daily sun exposure and explored the association of sun exposure with the prevalence of diabetes. Results: The risk of diabetes was higher in subjects with more than 5 h of unprotected sun exposure per day, with an odds ratio of 2.39 (95% CI 1.75–3.25), compared to those with less than 2 h of sun exposure, and the association remained significant after adjusting for diabetes risk factors. Long-term sun exposure was associated with increased central obesity and the possibility of an increase in visceral adiposity, especially among women, and with decrease in beta cell function and peripheral adiposity or percent body fat in men. Conclusions: Our study provides a cutoff for upper limit of sun exposure and suggests unprotected daily sun exposure for more than 5 h should be avoided to prevent diabetes. Increased central adiposity and decreased beta cell function were observed in women and men, respectively, who had long-term unprotected daily sun exposure. - Highlights: • Sun exposure for more than 5 h per day is associated with diabetes risk. • Insulin resistance associated with visceral adiposity may play a role in women. • Insulin secretory defect may explain diabetes risk in men

  5. Effect of changing from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III spirometry reference range to that of the Global Lung Initiative 2012 at Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embling, Laura A K; Zagami, Debbie; Sriram, Krishna Bajee; Gordon, Robert J; Sivakumaran, Pathmanathan

    2016-12-01

    The categorisation of lung disease into obstructive ventilatory defect (OVD) and tendency to a restrictive ventilatory defect (TRVD) patterns using spirometry is used to guide both prognostication and treatment. The effectiveness of categorisation depends upon having reference ranges that accurately represent the population they describe. The Global Lung Initiative 2012 (GLI 2012) has spirometry reference ranges drawn from the largest sample size to date. This study aimed to determine whether using spirometry reference ranges from the new GLI 2012 dataset, compared to the previously used National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III (NHANES III) dataset, resulted in a change in diagnosis between OVD, TRVD and normal ventilatory pattern (NVP). Spirometry data were collected from 301 patients, aged 18-80 years, undergoing investigation at the Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service (GCHHS) throughout February and March 2014. OVD was defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) divided by forced vital capacity (FVC) less than lower limit of normal (LLN). TRVD was defined as FEV 1 /FVC ≥ LLN, FEV 1 reference range resulted in a change in diagnosis of lung disease in 5.9% of the individuals included in this study. This variance in diagnosis when changing reference ranges should be taken into account by clinicians as it may affect patient management.

  6. An examination of the maternal social determinants influencing under-5 mortality in Nigeria: Evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Sarah R; Nwaozuru, Ucheoma; Iwelunmor, Juliet

    2017-06-01

    Nigeria is the second largest contributor to child (under-5) mortality in the world, with an average of 128 child deaths per 1000 live births, and is not on track to meet the Millennium Development Goals of reducing childhood mortality rates to 64 per 1000. Data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) report were analysed to explore the relationship between structural and intermediary maternal characteristics and likelihood of childhood mortality. Binary logistic regressions for the first three reported births were conducted with childhood mortality (e.g. death before 59 months of age) as a dependent variable. Maternal characteristics investigated included age, education, region, antenatal care, and breastfeeding. Significant factors for birth 1 included region of residence, breastfeeding, literacy, wealth, number of children, and antenatal care. For second birth, not breastfeeding and attending antenatal care with a nurse were negatively associated with survival. For third birth, wealth and number of children were positively associated with survival. The results point to some maternal characteristics that may be influential in childhood mortality. However, community and systems level factors should be accounted for in interventions, as maternal characteristics do not offer a full explanation for why children are dying so young in Nigeria.

  7. Meal and snack frequency in relation to diet quality in US children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-06-01

    To examine the associations of meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with diet quality. Dietary intake was assessed using two 24 h dietary recalls. All eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to energy intake (≥15 % or snack, respectively), there were no associations for SF based on self-report or time. In analyses in which only plausible energy reporters (3425 children and 3753 adolescents) were included, similar results were obtained. In a representative sample of US children and adolescents, MF was associated with better diet quality, while the associations for SF varied depending on the definition of snacks. The findings highlight the importance of applying different definitions of meals and snacks when assessing the impact of dietary patterns on health.

  8. 100% Orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Neil Carol E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ has been positively associated with nutrient adequacy and diet quality, with no increased risk of overweight/obesity in children; however, no one has examined these factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% OJ consumption with nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS in a nationally representative sample of adults. Methods Data from adults 19+ years of age (n = 8,861 participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were used. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake (UI of 100% OJ consumption, selected nutrients, and food groups. Percentages of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR or above the Adequate Intake (AI were determined. Diet quality was measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005. Covariate adjusted logistic regression was used to determine if consumers had a lower odds ratio of being overweight or obese or having risk factors of MetS or MetS. Results Usual per capita intake of 100% OJ was 50.3 ml/d. Among consumers (n = 2,310; 23.8%, UI was 210.0 ml/d. Compared to non-consumers, consumers had a higher (p  Conclusion The results suggest that moderate consumption of 100% OJ should be encouraged to help individuals meet the USDA daily recommendation for fruit intake and as a component of a healthy diet.

  9. Association between Smoking and Periodontal Disease in Korean Adults: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010 and 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ah-Young; Lee, Jung-Kwon; Shin, Jin-Young; Lee, Hae-Young

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate an association between smoking, smoking cessation, and periodontal disease in Korean adults. The data were collected from 8,336 participants, aged between 20 and 64 years, who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination (2010 and 2012). Smoking status was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Periodontal disease was defined as a community periodontal index ≥3 points. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate an association between smoking, smoking cessation, and periodontal disease after adjusting for age, sex, education, monthly income, diabetes, obesity, alcohol intake, and frequency of tooth brushing. The risk of periodontal disease was higher among current smokers (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.83) than never smokers. Among current smokers, the risk of periodontal disease was increased in smokers of ≥10 cigarettes/d, ≥20 years duration, and >10 pack-years compared with never smokers (Pperiodontal disease after 10 years since cessation declined to 0.56 (95% CI, 0.42-0.75) compared with current smokers and was indistinguishable statistically from never smokers. Periodontal disease is significantly associated with smoking status in Korean adults.

  10. Engineering surveying theory and examination problems for students

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2013-01-01

    Engineering Surveying: Theory and Examination Problems for Students, Volume 1, Third Edition discusses topics concerning engineering surveying techniques and instrumentations. The book is comprised of eight chapters that cover several concerns in engineering survey. Chapter 1 discusses the basic concepts of surveying. Chapter 2 deals with simple and precise leveling, while Chapter 3 covers earthworks. The book also talks about the theodolite and its applications, and then discusses optical distance measurement. Curves, underground and hydrographic surveying, and aspects of dimensional control

  11. An examination of the factors affecting people's participation in future health examinations based on community health exam interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shih-Kai; Liao, Hung-En

    2014-01-01

    Community-based intervention health examinations were implemented at a health care facility to comply with the government's primary health care promotion policy. The theory of planned behavior model was applied to examine the effect that community-based health examinations had on people's health concepts regarding seeking future health examinations. The research participants were individuals who had received a health examination provided at two branches of a hospital in central Taiwan in 2012. The hospital's two branches held a total of 14 free community-based health examination sessions. The hospital provided health examination equipment and staff to perform health examinations during public holidays. We conducted an exploratory questionnaire survey to collect data and implemented cross-sectional research based on anonymous self-ratings to examine the public's intention to receive future community-based or hospital-based health examinations. Including of 807 valid questionnaires, accounting for 89.4% of the total number of questionnaires distributed. The correlation coefficients of the second-order structural model indicate that attitudes positively predict behavioral intentions (γ = .66, p intentions (γ = .66, p intentions (γ = -.71, p > .05). The results of the first-order structural model indicated that the second-order constructs had a high explanatory power for the first-order constructs. People's health concepts regarding health examinations and their desire to continue receiving health examinations must be considered when promoting health examinations in the community. Regarding hospital management and the government's implementation of primary health care, health examination services should address people's medical needs to increase coverage and participation rates and reduce the waste of medical resources.

  12. Associations of Dietary Antioxidants and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Data from the 2007–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yedu Quansah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are suggested to decrease risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D by preventing progressive impairment of pancreatic β-cell and endothelial function. This study was aimed to investigate the association between dietary antioxidants and risk of T2D in Korean adults based on a national representative data. A total of 24,377 adults (19–74 years who completed one-day 24 h dietary recall and health examination were included. Dietary antioxidant intakes including α-carotene (p < 0.0001, lycopene (p = 0.0107, flavan-3-ols (p < 0.0001, and proanthocyanidins (p = 0.0075 were significantly higher in non-diabetic subjects than in diabetic subjects. After adjusting for confounding variables, the highest quartile group of α-carotene intake was associated with a 48% reduced risk of T2D in men (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.34–0.80, p for trend = 0.0037 and a 39% reduced risk in women (OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.38–0.996, p for trend = 0.0377 compared to the lowest quartile group. Men in the highest quartile of β-carotene intake showed lower risk of T2D (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.42–0.97, but no significant decreasing trend. However, the intakes of total carotenoids and other antioxidants showed no significant association with the risk of T2D. These findings suggest that a further comprehensive approach which considers overall die