Kent, Jennifer A; Patel, Vinisha; Varela, Natalie A
The existence of disparities in delivery of health care has been the subject of increased empirical study in recent years. Some studies have suggested that disparities between men and women exist in the diagnoses and treatment of health conditions, and as a result measures have been taken to identify these differences. This article uses several examples to illustrate health care gender bias in medicine. These examples include surgery, peripheral artery disease, cardiovascular disease, critical care, and cardiovascular risk factors. Additionally, we discuss reasons why these issues still occur, trends in health care that may address these issues, and the need for acknowledgement of the current system's inequities in order to provide unbiased care for women in the future. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.
Mawn, Barbara; Siqueira, Eduardo; Koren, Ainat; Slatin, Craig; Devereaux Melillo, Karen; Pearce, Carole; Hoff, Lee Ann
In this article we describe the process of an interdisciplinary case study that examined the social contexts of occupational and general health disparities among health care workers in two sets of New England hospitals and nursing homes. A political economy of the work environment framework guided the study, which incorporated dimensions related to market dynamics, technology, and political and economic power. The purpose of this article is to relate the challenges encountered in occupational health care settings and how these could have impacted the study results. An innovative data collection matrix that guided small-group analysis provided a firm foundation from which to make design modifications to address these challenges. Implications for policy and research include the use of a political and economic framework from which to frame future studies, and the need to maintain rigor while allowing flexibility in design to adapt to challenges in the field.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in The Role of Data in Health Care Disparities in Medicaid Managed Care, published in Volume 2, Issue 4 of the Medicare and Medicaid...
Awosogba, Temitope; Betancourt, Joseph R.; Conyers, F. Garrett; Estapé, Estela S.; Francois, Fritz; Gard, Sabrina J.; Kaufman, Arthur; Lunn, Mitchell R.; Nivet, Marc A.; Oppenheim, Joel D.; Pomeroy, Claire; Yeung, Howa
Despite yearly advances in life-saving and preventive medicine, as well as strategic approaches by governmental and social agencies and groups, significant disparities remain in health, health quality, and access to health care within the United States. The determinants of these disparities include baseline health status, race and ethnicity, culture, gender identity and expression, socioeconomic status, region or geography, sexual orientation, and age. In order to renew the commitment of the medical community to address health disparities, particularly at the medical school level, we must remind ourselves of the roles of doctors and medical schools as the gatekeepers and the value setters for medicine. Within those roles are responsibilities toward the social mission of working to eliminate health disparities. This effort will require partnerships with communities as well as with academic centers to actively develop and to implement diversity and inclusion strategies. Besides improving the diversity of trainees in the pipeline, access to health care can be improved, and awareness can be raised regarding population-based health inequalities. PMID:23659676
Awosogba, Temitope; Betancourt, Joseph R; Conyers, F Garrett; Estapé, Estela S; Francois, Fritz; Gard, Sabrina J; Kaufman, Arthur; Lunn, Mitchell R; Nivet, Marc A; Oppenheim, Joel D; Pomeroy, Claire; Yeung, Howa
Despite yearly advances in life-saving and preventive medicine, as well as strategic approaches by governmental and social agencies and groups, significant disparities remain in health, health quality, and access to health care within the United States. The determinants of these disparities include baseline health status, race and ethnicity, culture, gender identity and expression, socioeconomic status, region or geography, sexual orientation, and age. In order to renew the commitment of the medical community to address health disparities, particularly at the medical school level, we must remind ourselves of the roles of doctors and medical schools as the gatekeepers and the value setters for medicine. Within those roles are responsibilities toward the social mission of working to eliminate health disparities. This effort will require partnerships with communities as well as with academic centers to actively develop and to implement diversity and inclusion strategies. Besides improving the diversity of trainees in the pipeline, access to health care can be improved, and awareness can be raised regarding population-based health inequalities. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.
... Health and Health Disparities conduct transdisciplinary research involving social, behavioral, biological, and genetic research to improve knowledge of the causes of health disparities and devise effective methods of preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease and promoting ...
Cook, Benjamin Lê
To evaluate the impact of Medicaid Managed Care (MMC) on racial disparities in access to care consistent with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) definition of racial disparity, which excludes differences stemming from health status but includes socioeconomic status (SES)-mediated differences. Secondary data from the Adult Samples of the 1997-2001 National Health Interview Survey, metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level Medicaid Health Maintenance Organization (MHMO) market share from the 1997 to 2001 InterStudy MSA Trend Dataset, and MSA characteristics from the 1997 to 2001 Area Resource File. I estimate multivariate regression models to compare racial disparities in doctor visits, emergency room (ER) use, and having a usual source of care between enrollees in MMC and Medicaid Fee-for-Service (FFS) plans. To contend with potential selection bias, I use a difference-in-difference analytical strategy and assess the impact of greater MHMO market share at the MSA level on Medicaid enrollees' access measures. To implement the IOM definition of racial disparity, I adjust for health status but not SES factors using a novel method to transform the distribution of health status for minority populations to approximate the white health status distribution. MMC enrollment is associated with lowered disparities in having any doctor visit in the last year for blacks, and in having any usual source of care for both blacks and Hispanics. Increasing Medicaid HMO market share lowered disparities in having any doctor visits in the last year for both blacks and Hispanics. Although disparities in most other measures were not much affected, black-white ER use disparities exist among MMC enrollees and in areas of high MHMO market share. MMC programs' reduction of some disparities suggests that recent shifts in Medicaid policy toward managed care plans have benefited minority enrollees. Future research should investigate whether black-white disparities in ER use within MMC groups
Mouradian, W E; Wehr, E; Crall, J J
Dental caries can be prevented by a combination of community, professional, and individual measures including water fluoridation, professionally applied topical fluorides and dental sealants, and use of fluoride toothpastes. Yet, tooth decay is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Dental care is the most prevalent unmet health need in US children with wide disparities existing in oral health and access to care. Only 1 in 5 children covered by Medicaid received preventive oral care for which they are eligible. Children from low income and minority families have poorer oral health outcomes, fewer dental visits, and fewer protective sealants. Water fluoridation is the most effective measure in preventing caries, but only 62% of water supplies are fluoridated, and lack of fluoridation may disproportionately affect poor and minority children. Childhood oral disease has significant medical and financial consequences that may not be appreciated because of the separation of medicine and dentistry. The infectious nature of dental caries, its early onset, and the potential of early interventions require an emphasis on preventive oral care in primary pediatric care to complement existing dental services. However, many pediatricians lack critical knowledge to promote oral health. We recommend financial incentives for prioritizing Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, and Treatment dental services; managed care accountability; integration of medical and dental professional training, clinical care, and research; and national leadership. JAMA. 2000;284:2625-2631.
McLaren, Zoë M; Ardington, Cally; Leibbrandt, Murray
Access to health care is a particular concern given the important role of poor access in perpetuating poverty and inequality. South Africa's apartheid history leaves large racial disparities in access despite post-apartheid health policy to increase the number of health facilities, even in remote rural areas. However, even when health services are provided free of charge, monetary and time costs of travel to a local clinic may pose a significant barrier for vulnerable segments of the population, leading to overall poorer health. Using newly available health care utilization data from the first nationally representative panel survey in South Africa, together with administrative geographic data from the Department of Health, we use graphical and multivariate regression analysis to investigate the role of distance to the nearest facility on the likelihood of having a health consultation or an attended birth. Ninety percent of South Africans live within 7 km of the nearest public clinic, and two-thirds live less than 2 km away. However, 14% of Black African adults live more than 5 km from the nearest facility, compared to only 4% of Whites, and they are 16 percentage points less likely to report a recent health consultation (p apartheid but progress is still needed to achieve equity in health care access.
The established relationships among social determinants of health (SDH), health disparities, and race/ethnicity highlight the need for health-care professionals to adequately address SDH in their encounters with patients. The ethnic demographic transition slated to occur during the next several decades in the United States will have numerous effects on the health-care sector, particularly as it pertains to the need for a more diverse and culturally aware workforce. In recent years, a substantial body of literature has developed, exploring the extent to which diversity in the health-care workforce may be used as a tool to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care in the U.S. We explore existing literature on this topic, propose a conceptual framework, and identify next steps in health-care policy for reducing and eliminating health disparities by addressing SDH and diversification of the health-care workforce. PMID:24385659
LaVeist, Thomas A; Pierre, Geraldine
The established relationships among social determinants of health (SDH), health disparities, and race/ethnicity highlight the need for health-care professionals to adequately address SDH in their encounters with patients. The ethnic demographic transition slated to occur during the next several decades in the United States will have numerous effects on the health-care sector, particularly as it pertains to the need for a more diverse and culturally aware workforce. In recent years, a substantial body of literature has developed, exploring the extent to which diversity in the health-care workforce may be used as a tool to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care in the U.S. We explore existing literature on this topic, propose a conceptual framework, and identify next steps in health-care policy for reducing and eliminating health disparities by addressing SDH and diversification of the health-care workforce.
Pierre-Louis, Bosny J; Moore, Angelo D; Hamilton, Jill B
The existence of health disparities in military populations has become an important topic of research. However, to our knowledge, this is the first study to examine health disparities, as related to access to care and health status, among active duty soldiers and their families. Specifically, the purpose of this analysis was to evaluate whether health disparities exist in access to care and health outcomes of patient satisfaction, physical health status, and mental health status according to race, gender, and sponsor rank in the population of active duty soldiers and their family members. In this cross-sectional study, active duty army soldiers and family members were recruited from either one particular army health clinic where they received their health care or from an adjacent shopping center frequented by eligible participants. Data were collected using validated measures to assess concepts of access to care and health status. Statistical analysis, including one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to investigate differences in study outcome measures across four key demographic subgroups: race, gender, sponsor rank, and component (active soldier or family member). A total of 200 participants completed the study questionnaires. The sample consisted of 45.5 % soldiers and 54.5 % family members, with 88.5 % reporting a sponsor rank in the category of junior or senior enlisted rank. Mean scores for access to care did not differ significantly for the groups race/ethnicity (p = 0.53), gender (p = 0.14), and sponsor rank (p = 0.10). Furthermore, no significant differences were observed whether respondents were active soldiers or their family members (p = 0.36). Similarly, there were no statistically significant subgroup (race/ethnicity, gender, sponsor rank, or component) differences in mean patient satisfaction, physical health, and mental health scores. In a health equity system of care such as the military health care system, active duty
Davitt, Joan K.
Medicare home health care provides critical skilled nursing and therapy services to patients in their homes, generally after a period in an inpatient facility or nursing home. Disparities in access to, or outcomes of, home health care can result in patient deterioration and increased cost to the Medicare program if patient care needs intensify.…
Vo, Dzung X; Park, M Jane
Racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care are receiving increasing national attention from the fields of public health and medicine. Efforts to reduce disparities should adopt a life-span approach and recognize the role of gender. During adolescence, young people make increasingly independent decisions about health-related behavior and health care, while developing gender identity. Little is known about how cultural context shapes gender identity and gender identity's influence on health-related behavior and health care utilization. The authors review disparities in health status and health care among adolescents, especially young men, by reviewing health care access, clinical services, and issues related to culture, identity, and acculturation. Significant differences in health status by gender exist in adolescence, with young men faring worse on many health markers. This article discusses gaps in research and offers recommendations for improving health care quality and strengthening the research base on gender and disparities during adolescence.
Hunt, Justin B; Eisenberg, Daniel; Lu, Liya; Gathright, Molly
The authors apply the Institute of Medicine's definition of health care disparities to college students. The analysis pools data from the first two waves of the Healthy Minds Study, a multicampus survey of students' mental health (N = 13,028). A probit model was used for any past-year service utilization, and group differences in health status were adjusted by transforming the entire distribution for each minority population to approximate the white distribution. Disparities existed between whites and all minority groups. Compared to other approaches, the predicted service disparities were greater because this method included the effects of mediating SES variables. Health care disparities persist in the college setting despite improved access and nearly universal insurance coverage. Our findings emphasize the importance of investigating potential sources of disparities beyond geography and coverage.
Tsai, Wen-Chen; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Wang, Jong-Yi
Children with disabilities face more barriers accessing preventive health services. Prior research has documented disparities in the receipt of these services. However, most are limited to specific types of disability or care. This study investigates disparities in the use of preventive health care among children with disabilities in Taiwan. Three…
Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye; Pierre, Geraldine; Hilliard, Tandrea S
Older minority Americans experience worse health outcomes than their white counterparts, exhibiting the need for social justice in all areas of their health care. Justice, fairness, and equity are crucial to minimizing conditions that adversely affect the health of individuals and communities. In this paper, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is used as an example of a health care disparity among elderly Americans that requires social justice interventions. Cultural factors play a crucial role in AD screening, diagnosis, and access to care, and are often a barrier to support and equality for minority communities. The "conundrum of health disparities" refers to the interplay between disparity, social justice, and cultural interpretation, and encourages researchers to understand both (1) disparity caused by economic and structural barriers to access, treatment, and diagnosis, and (2) disparity due to cultural interpretation of disease, in order to effectively address health care issues and concerns among elderly Americans. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
Rural-Urban Disparities in Health and Health Care in Africa: Cultural Competence, Lay-beliefs in Narratives of Diabetes among the Rural Poor in the Eastern Cape ... to exist in the utilization of cardiac diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, prescription of analgesia for pains, treatment of diabetes (e.g. gym exercise).
McGuire, Thomas G; Alegria, Margarita; Cook, Benjamin L; Wells, Kenneth B; Zaslavsky, Alan M
In a recent report, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) defines a health service disparity between population groups to be the difference in treatment or access not justified by the differences in health status or preferences of the groups. This paper proposes an implementation of this definition, and applies it to disparities in outpatient mental health care. Health Care for Communities (HCC) reinterviewed 9,585 respondents from the Community Tracking Study in 1997-1998, oversampling individuals with psychological distress, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, or mental health treatment. The HCC is designed to make national estimates of service use. Expenditures are modeled using generalized linear models with a log link for quantity and a probit model for any utilization. We adjust for group differences in health status by transforming the entire distribution of health status for minority populations to approximate the white distribution. We compare disparities according to the IOM definition to other methods commonly used to assess health services disparities. Our method finds significant service disparities between whites and both blacks and Latinos. Estimated disparities from this method exceed those for competing approaches, because of the inclusion of effects of mediating factors (such as income) in the IOM approach. A rigorous definition of disparities is needed to monitor progress against disparities and to compare their magnitude across studies. With such a definition, disparities can be estimated by adjusting for group differences in models for expenditures and access to mental health services.
Chin, Marshall H; Clarke, Amanda R; Nocon, Robert S; Casey, Alicia A; Goddu, Anna P; Keesecker, Nicole M; Cook, Scott C
Over the past decade, researchers have shifted their focus from documenting health care disparities to identifying solutions to close the gap in care. Finding Answers: Disparities Research for Change, a national program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, is charged with identifying promising interventions to reduce disparities. Based on our work conducting systematic reviews of the literature, evaluating promising practices, and providing technical assistance to health care organizations, we present a roadmap for reducing racial and ethnic disparities in care. The roadmap outlines a dynamic process in which individual interventions are just one part. It highlights that organizations and providers need to take responsibility for reducing disparities, establish a general infrastructure and culture to improve quality, and integrate targeted disparities interventions into quality improvement efforts. Additionally, we summarize the major lessons learned through the Finding Answers program. We share best practices for implementing disparities interventions and synthesize cross-cutting themes from 12 systematic reviews of the literature. Our research shows that promising interventions frequently are culturally tailored to meet patients' needs, employ multidisciplinary teams of care providers, and target multiple leverage points along a patient's pathway of care. Health education that uses interactive techniques to deliver skills training appears to be more effective than traditional didactic approaches. Furthermore, patient navigation and engaging family and community members in the health care process may improve outcomes for minority patients. We anticipate that the roadmap and best practices will be useful for organizations, policymakers, and researchers striving to provide high-quality equitable care.
Mobula, Linda M; Okoye, Mekam T; Boulware, L Ebony; Carson, Kathryn A; Marsteller, Jill A; Cooper, Lisa A
Community health worker (CHW) interventions improve health outcomes of patients from underserved communities, but health professionals' perceptions of their effectiveness may impede integration of CHWs into health care delivery systems. Whether health professionals' attitudes and skills, such as those related to cultural competence, influence perceptions of CHWs, is unknown. A questionnaire was administered to providers and clinical staff from 6 primary care practices in Maryland from April to December 2011. We quantified the associations of self-reported cultural competence and preparedness with attitudes toward the effectiveness of CHWs using logistic regression adjusting for respondent age, race, gender, provider/staff status, and years at the practice. We contacted 200 providers and staff, and 119 (60%) participated. Those reporting more cultural motivation had higher odds of perceiving CHWs as helpful for reducing health care disparities (odds ratio [OR] = 9.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.48-28.80). Those reporting more frequent culturally competent behaviors also had higher odds of believing CHWs would help reduce health disparities (OR = 3.58, 95% CI = 1.61-7.92). Attitudes toward power and assimilation were not associated with perceptions of CHWs. Cultural preparedness was associated with perceived utility of CHWs in reducing health care disparities (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.21-4.51). Providers and staff with greater cultural competence and preparedness have more positive expectations of CHW interventions to reduce healthcare disparities. Cultural competency training may complement the use of CHWs and support their effective integration into primary care clinics that are seeking to reduce disparities. © The Author(s) 2014.
medical health care system, rural-urban disparities would seem obvious. .... have led to the development and onset of the illness and cure/controllability, what the ..... and then went back for the result but the nurse that I saw said that I should ...
Mallinger, Julie B; Lamberti, J Steven
Psychiatrists may perpetuate racial-ethnic disparities in health care through racially biased, albeit unconscious, behaviors. Changing these behaviors requires that physicians accept that racial-ethnic disparities exist and accept their own contributions to disparities. The purposes of this study were to assess psychiatrists' awareness of racial disparities in mental health care, to evaluate the extent to which psychiatrists believe they contribute to disparities, and to determine psychiatrists' interest in participating in disparities-reduction programs. A random sample of psychiatrists, identified through the American Psychiatric Association's member directory, was invited to complete the online survey. The survey was also distributed to psychiatrists at a national professional conference. Of the 374 respondents, most said they were not familiar or only a little familiar with the literature on racial disparities. Respondents tended to believe that race has a moderate influence on quality of psychiatric care but that race is more influential in others' practices than in their own practices. One-fourth had participated in any type of disparities-reduction program within the past year, and approximately one-half were interested in participating in such a program. Psychiatrists may not recognize the pervasiveness of racial inequality in psychiatric care, and they may attribute racially biased thinking to others but not to themselves. Interventions to eliminate racial-ethnic disparities should focus on revealing and modifying unconscious biases. Lack of physician interest may be one barrier to such interventions.
Holmes, Laurens; Kalle, Fanta; Grinstead, Laura; Jimenez, Maritza; Murphy, Meghan; Oceanic, Pat; Fitzgerald, Diane; Dabney, Kirk
Study conducted at Nemours /Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE 19803 BACKGROUND: Although the treatment and management of asthma hasimproved over time, incidence and prevalence among children continues to rise in the United States. Asthma prevalence, health services utilization, and mortality rate demonstrate remarkable disparities. The underlying causes of these disparities are not fully understood. We aimed to examine racial/ethnic variances in pediatric asthma prevalence/admission. We retrospectively reviewed data on 1070 patients and applied a cross-sectional design to assess asthma admission between 2010 and 2011. Information was available on race/ethnicity, sex, insurance status, severity of illness (SOI), and length of stay/hospitalization (LOS).Chi-square statistic was used for the association between race and other variables in an attempt to explain the racial/ethnic variance. The proportionate morbidity of asthma was highest amongCaucasians (40.92%) and African Americans (40.54%), intermediate among others (16.57%), and lowest among Asian (0.56%), American Indian/Alaska Native (0.28%), and Hawaiian Native/Pacific Islander (0.28%). Overall there were disparities by sex, with more boys (61.80%) diagnosed with asthma than girls (38.20%), χ2(7)=20.1, p=0.005. Insurance status, and SOI varied by race/ethnicity, but not LOS. Caucasian children were more likely to have private insurance, while African Americans and Hispanics were more likely to have public insurance (p<0.005). Asthma was more severe among non-Hispanic children, χ2(14)=154.6, p<0.001. While the overall readmission proportion was 2.8%, readmission significantly varied by race/ethnicity. Racial/ethnic disparities in asthma admission exist among children in the Delaware Valley. There were racial/ethnic disparities in insurance status, asthma severity, and sex differed by race/ethnicity, but not in length of hospitalization. © 2015 National Medical Association. Published by
Maldonado, Maria E; Fried, Ethan D; DuBose, Thomas D; Nelson, Consuelo; Breida, Margaret
Despite the 2002 Institute of Medicine report that described the moral and financial impact of health care disparities and the need to address them, it is evident that health care disparities persist. Recommendations for addressing disparities include collecting and reporting data on patient race and ethnicity, supporting language interpretation services, increasing awareness of health care disparities through education, requiring cultural competency training for all health care professionals, and increasing diversity among those delivering health care. The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education places strong emphasis on graduate medical education's role in eliminating health care disparities by asking medical educators to objectively evaluate and report on their trainees' ability to practice patient-centered, culturally competent care. Moreover, one of the objectives of the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education Clinical Learning Environment Review visits as part of the Next Accreditation System is to identify how sponsoring institutions engage residents and fellows in the use of data to improve systems of care, reduce health care disparities, and improve patient outcomes. Residency and fellowship programs should ensure the delivery of meaningful curricula on cultural competency and health care disparities, for which there are numerous resources, and ensure resident assessment of culturally competent care. Moreover, training programs and institutional leadership need to collaborate on ensuring data collection on patient satisfaction, outcomes, and quality measures that are broken down by patient race, cultural identification, and language. A diverse physician workforce is another strategy for mitigating health care disparities, and using strategies to enhance faculty diversity should also be a priority of graduate medical education. Transparent data about institutional diversity efforts should be provided to interested medical students
Jackson, Chazeman S; Gracia, J Nadine
Despite major advances in medicine and public health during the past few decades, disparities in health and health care persist. Racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States are at disproportionate risk of being uninsured, lacking access to care, and experiencing worse health outcomes from preventable and treatable conditions. As reducing these disparities has become a national priority, insight into the social determinants of health has become increasingly important. This article offers a rationale for increasing the diversity and cultural competency of the health and health-care workforce, and describes key strategies led by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Minority Health to promote cultural competency in the health-care system and strengthen community-level approaches to improving health and health care for all.
Pourat, Nadereh; Andersen, Ronald M; Marcus, Marvin
Existing studies of disparities in access to oral health care for underserved populations often focus on supply measures such as number of dentists. This approach overlooks the importance of other aspects of the dental care delivery system, such as personal and practice characteristics of dentists, that determine the capacity to provide care. This study aims to assess the role of such characteristics in access to care of underserved populations. We merged data from the 2003 California Health Interview Survey and a 2003 survey of California dentists in their Medical Study Service Areas (MSSAs). We examined the role of overall supply and other characteristics of dentists in income and racial/ethnic disparities in access, which was measured by annual dental visits and unmet need for dental care due to costs. We found that some characteristics of MSSAs, including higher proportions of dentists who were older, white, busy or overworked, and did not accept public insurance or discounted fees, inhibited access for low-income and minority populations. These findings highlight the importance of monitoring characteristics of dentists in addition to traditional measures of supply such as licensed-dentist-to-population ratios. The findings identify specific aspects of the delivery system such as dentists' participation in Medicaid, provision of discounted care, busyness, age, race/ethnicity, and gender that should be regularly monitored. These data will provide a better understanding of how the dental care delivery system is organized and how this knowledge can be used to develop more narrowly targeted policies to alleviate disparities. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Langellier, Brent A; Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Inkelas, Moira; Ortega, Alexander N
It is important to understand the source of health-care disparities between Latinos and other children in the United States. We examine parent-reported health-care access and utilization among Latino, White, and Black children (≤17 years old) in the United States in the 2006-2011 National Health Interview Survey. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition, we portion health-care disparities into two parts (1) those attributable to differences in the levels of sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., income) and (2) those attributable to differences in group-specific regression coefficients that measure the health-care 'return' Latino, White, and Black children receive on these characteristics. In the United States, Latino children are less likely than Whites to have a usual source of care, receive at least one preventive care visit, and visit a doctor, and are more likely to have delayed care. The return on sociodemographic characteristics explains 20-30% of the disparity between Latino and White children in the usual source of care, delayed care, and doctor visits and 40-50% of the disparity between Latinos and Blacks in emergency department use and preventive care. Much of the health-care disadvantage experienced by Latino children would persist if Latinos had the sociodemographic characteristics as Whites and Blacks. © The Author(s) 2014.
Like, Robert C
An extensive body of literature has documented significant racial and ethnic disparities in health and health care. Cultural competency interventions, including the training of physicians and other health care professionals, have been proposed as a key strategy for helping to reduce these disparities. The continuing medical education (CME) profession can play an important role in addressing this need by improving the quality and assessing the outcomes of multicultural education programs. This article provides an overview of health care policy, legislative, accreditation, and professional initiatives relating to these subjects. The status of CME offerings on cultural competence/disparities is reviewed, with examples provided of available curricular resources and online courses. Critiques of cultural competence training and selected studies of its effectiveness are discussed. The need for the CME profession to become more culturally competent in its development, implementation, and evaluation of education programs is examined. Future challenges and opportunities are described, and a call for leadership and action is issued. Copyright © 2010 The Alliance for Continuing Medical Education, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical Education.
Betancourt, Joseph R; Green, Alexander R; Carrillo, J Emilio; Ananeh-Firempong, Owusu
Racial/ethnic disparities in health in the U.S. have been well described. The field of "cultural competence" has emerged as one strategy to address these disparities. Based on a review of the relevant literature, the authors develop a definition of cultural competence, identify key components for intervention, and describe a practical framework for implementation of measures to address racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. The authors conducted a literature review of academic, foundation, and government publications focusing on sociocultural barriers to care, the level of the health care system at which a given barrier occurs, and cultural competence efforts that address these barriers. Sociocultural barriers to care were identified at the organizational (leadership/workforce), structural (processes of care), and clinical (provider-patient encounter) levels. A framework of cultural competence interventions--including minority recruitment into the health professions, development of interpreter services and language-appropriate health educational materials, and provider education on cross-cultural issues--emerged to categorize strategies to address racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. Demographic changes anticipated over the next decade magnify the importance of addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. A framework of organizational, structural, and clinical cultural competence interventions can facilitate the elimination of these disparities and improve care for all Americans.
Jones, Rhys G; Trivedi, Amal N; Ayanian, John Z
Reducing racial and ethnic disparities in health care has become an important policy goal in the United States and other countries, but evidence to inform interventions to address disparities is limited. The objective of this study was to identify important dimensions of interventions to reduce health care disparities. We used qualitative research methods to examine interventions aimed at improving diabetes and/or cardiovascular care for patients from racial and ethnic minority groups within five health care organizations. We interviewed 36 key informants and conducted a thematic analysis to identify important features of these interventions. Key elements of interventions included two contextual factors (external accountability and alignment of incentives to reduce disparities) and four factors related to the organization or intervention itself (organizational commitment, population health focus, use of data to inform solutions, and a comprehensive approach to quality). Consideration of these elements could improve the design, implementation, and evaluation of future interventions to address racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stacey A. Tovino
Full Text Available This article compares and contrasts public and private health insurance coverage of skilled medical rehabilitation, including cognitive rehabilitation, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and skilled nursing services (collectively, skilled care. As background, prior scholars writing in this area have focused on Medicare coverage of skilled care and have challenged coverage determinations limiting Medicare coverage to beneficiaries who are able to demonstrate improvement in their conditions within a specific period of time (the Improvement Standard. By and large, these scholars have applauded the settlement agreement approved on 24 January 2013, by the U.S. District Court for the District of Vermont in Jimmo v. Sebelius (Jimmo, as well as related motions, rulings, orders, government fact sheets, and Medicare program manual statements clarifying that Medicare covers skilled care that is necessary to prevent or slow a beneficiary’s deterioration or to maintain a beneficiary at his or her maximum practicable level of function even though no further improvement in the beneficiary’s condition is expected. Scholars who have focused on beneficiaries who have suffered severe brain injuries, in particular, have framed public insurance coverage of skilled brain rehabilitation as an important civil, disability, and educational right. Given that approximately two-thirds of Americans with health insurance are covered by private health insurance and that many private health plans continue to require their insureds to demonstrate improvement within a short period of time to obtain coverage of skilled care, scholarship assessing private health insurance coverage of skilled care is important but noticeably absent from the literature. This article responds to this gap by highlighting state benchmark plans’ and other private health plans’ continued use of the Improvement Standard in skilled care coverage decisions and
Bridges, Ana J.; Andrews, Arthur R.; Villalobos, Bianca T.; Pastrana, Freddie A.; Cavell, Timothy A.; Gomez, Debbie
Integrated behavioral health care (IBHC) is a model of mental health care service delivery that seeks to reduce stigma and service utilization barriers by embedding mental health professionals into the primary care team. This study explored whether IBHC service referrals, utilization, and outcomes were comparable for Latinos and non-Latino White primary care patients. Data for the current study were collected from 793 consecutive patients (63.8% Latino; M age = 29.02 years [SD = 17.96]; 35.1% under 18 years; 65.3% women; 54.3% uninsured) seen for behavioral health services in 2 primary care clinics during a 10.5 month period. The most common presenting concerns were depression (21.6%), anxiety (18.5%), adjustment disorder (13.0%), and externalizing behavior problems (9.8%). Results revealed that while Latino patients had significantly lower self-reported psychiatric distress, significantly higher clinician-assigned global assessment of functioning scores, and fewer received a psychiatric diagnosis at their initial visit compared to non-Latino White patients, both groups had comparable utilization rates, comparable and clinically significant improvements in symptoms (Cohen’s d values > .50), and expressed high satisfaction with integrated behavioral services. These data provide preliminary evidence suggesting integration of behavioral health services into primary care clinics may help reduce mental health disparities for Latinos. PMID:25309845
López, Lenny; Green, Alexander R; Tan-McGrory, Aswita; King, Roderick; Betancourt, Joseph R
Racial and ethnic disparities in health care have been consistently documented in the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of many common clinical conditions. There has been an acceleration of health information technology (HIT) implementation in the United States, with health care reform legislation including multiple provisions for collecting and using health information to improve and monitor quality and efficiency in health care. Despite an uneven and generally low level of implementation, research has demonstrated that HIT has the potential to improve quality of care and patient safety. If carefully designed and implemented, HIT also has the potential to eliminate disparities. Several root causes for disparities are amenable to interventions using HIT, particularly innovations in electronic health records, as well as strategies for chronic disease management. Recommendations regardinghealth care system, provider, and patient factors can help health care organizations address disparities as they adopt, expand, and tailor their HIT systems. In terms of health care system factors, organizations should (1) automate and standardize the collection of race/ethnicity and language data, (2) prioritize the use of the data for identifying disparities and tailoring improvement efforts, (3) focus HIT efforts to address fragmented care delivery for racial/ethnic minorities and limited-English-proficiency patients, (4) develop focused computerized clinical decision support systems for clinical areas with significant disparities, and (5) include input from racial/ethnic minorities and those with limited English proficiency in developing patient HIT tools to address the digital divide. As investments are made in HIT, consideration must be given to the impact that these innovations have on the quality and cost of health care for all patients, including those who experience disparities.
Kogan, M D; Kotelchuck, M; Alexander, G R; Johnson, W E
OBJECTIVES. The relationship between certain maternal behaviors and adverse pregnancy outcomes has been well documented. One method to alter these behaviors is through the advice of women's health care providers. Advice from providers may be particularly important in minority populations, who have higher rates of infant mortality and prematurity. This study examines racial disparities according to women's self-report of advice received from health care providers during pregnancy in four areas: tobacco use, alcohol consumption, drug use, and breast-feeding. METHODS. Health care providers' advice to 8310 White non-Hispanic and Black women was obtained from the National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. RESULTS. After controlling for sociodemographic, utilization, and medical factors, Black women were more likely to report not receiving advice from their prenatal care providers about smoking cessation and alcohol use. The difference between Blacks and Whites also approached significance for breast-feeding. No overall difference was noted in advice regarding cessation of drug use, although there was a significant interaction between race and marital status. CONCLUSIONS. These data suggest that Black women may be at greater risk for not receiving information that could reduce their chances of having an adverse pregnancy outcome. PMID:8279618
Chapman, Elizabeth N; Kaatz, Anna; Carnes, Molly
Although the medical profession strives for equal treatment of all patients, disparities in health care are prevalent. Cultural stereotypes may not be consciously endorsed, but their mere existence influences how information about an individual is processed and leads to unintended biases in decision-making, so called "implicit bias". All of society is susceptible to these biases, including physicians. Research suggests that implicit bias may contribute to health care disparities by shaping physician behavior and producing differences in medical treatment along the lines of race, ethnicity, gender or other characteristics. We review the origins of implicit bias, cite research documenting the existence of implicit bias among physicians, and describe studies that demonstrate implicit bias in clinical decision-making. We then present the bias-reducing strategies of consciously taking patients' perspectives and intentionally focusing on individual patients' information apart from their social group. We conclude that the contribution of implicit bias to health care disparities could decrease if all physicians acknowledged their susceptibility to it, and deliberately practiced perspective-taking and individuation when providing patient care. We further conclude that increasing the number of African American/Black physicians could reduce the impact of implicit bias on health care disparities because they exhibit significantly less implicit race bias.
Madara, James L
Physician membership organizations vary in the extent of their engagement in activities to address health disparities. Increasing engagement of those organizations not already highly active in this critical area is, thus, an opportunity. Studies that provide definitional contours of key issues, like disparities, are necessary and must be iteratively refined. However, parallel activities of intervention with measured outcomes to assess the effects of these interventions are necessary to truly address major problems in the health care system. To date, work in the problem definition category exceeds work toward intervention in and mitigation of these problems with measured outcomes. Many problems in health care, including disparities, are now sufficiently understood that it is time to shift focus toward bold intervention with measured outcomes. Optimal approaches that yield superior outcomes generally require collaboration across the provider-payer spectrum and the private sectors, including physicians, hospitals, insurers, etc. Stakeholders are now free to act in such coordinated fashion; it only requires social capital that permits cooperation and compromise. Interventions for problems such as health care disparities can be developed in the private sector and mirrored by government payers if physicians and organizations can get real about collaborating to implement outcomes-based initiatives to improve the health of all patients.
Patricia Collins Higgins; Erin Fries Taylor
Disparities in the quality of health care contribute to higher rates of disease, disability, and mortality in racial and ethnic minority groups. A new policy brief examines recent federal and state activities aimed at strengthening the collection of health-related data on race, ethnicity, and primary language. It highlights three statesâ€”California, Massachusetts, and New Jerseyâ€”that implemented laws or regulations guiding data collection activities by hospitals, health plans, and governme...
Tsai, Wen-Chen; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Wang, Jong-Yi
Children with disabilities face more barriers accessing preventive health services. Prior research has documented disparities in the receipt of these services. However, most are limited to specific types of disability or care. This study investigates disparities in the use of preventive health care among children with disabilities in Taiwan. Three nationwide databases from the Ministry of the Interior, Bureau of Health Promotion, and National Health Research Institutes were linked to gather related information between 2006 and 2008. A total of 8572 children with disabilities aged 1-7 years were included in this study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to adjust for covariates. Nationally, only 37.58% of children with disabilities received preventive health care in 2008. Children with severe and very severe disabilities were less likely to use preventive care than those with mild severity. Children with disabilities from the lowest income family were less likely to have preventive care than other income groups. Urbanization was strongly associated with the receipt of preventive health care. However, surprisingly, urban children with disabilities were less likely to receive preventive care than all others. Under universal health insurance coverage, the overall usage of preventive health care is still low among children with disabilities. The study also identified several disparities in their usage. Potential factors affecting the lack of use deserve additional research. Policymakers should target low socioeconomic brackets and foster education about the importance of preventive care. Mobile health services should be continually provided in those areas in need. Capitation reimbursement and other incentives should be considered in improving the utilization among children with disabilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Purchasers can play an important role in eliminating racial and ethnic disparities in health care. A need exists to develop a compelling "business case" from the employer perspective to put, and keep, the issue of racial/ethnic disparities in health care on the quality improvement agenda for health plans and providers. Methods To illustrate a method for calculating an employer business case for disparity reduction and to compare the business case in two clinical areas, we conducted analyses of the direct (medical care costs paid by employers and indirect (absenteeism, productivity effects of eliminating known racial/ethnic disparities in mammography screening and appropriate medication use for patients with asthma. We used Markov simulation models to estimate the consequences, for defined populations of African-American employees or health plan members, of a 10% increase in HEDIS mammography rates or a 10% increase in appropriate medication use among either adults or children/adolescents with asthma. Results The savings per employed African-American woman aged 50-65 associated with a 10% increase in HEDIS mammography rate, from direct medical expenses and indirect costs (absenteeism, productivity combined, was $50. The findings for asthma were more favorable from an employer point of view at approximately $1,660 per person if raising medication adherence rates in African-American employees or dependents by 10%. Conclusions For the employer business case, both clinical scenarios modeled showed positive results. There is a greater potential financial gain related to eliminating a disparity in asthma medications than there is for eliminating a disparity in mammography rates.
Nerenz, David R; Liu, Yung-wen; Williams, Keoki L; Tunceli, Kaan; Zeng, Huiwen
Purchasers can play an important role in eliminating racial and ethnic disparities in health care. A need exists to develop a compelling "business case" from the employer perspective to put, and keep, the issue of racial/ethnic disparities in health care on the quality improvement agenda for health plans and providers. To illustrate a method for calculating an employer business case for disparity reduction and to compare the business case in two clinical areas, we conducted analyses of the direct (medical care costs paid by employers) and indirect (absenteeism, productivity) effects of eliminating known racial/ethnic disparities in mammography screening and appropriate medication use for patients with asthma. We used Markov simulation models to estimate the consequences, for defined populations of African-American employees or health plan members, of a 10% increase in HEDIS mammography rates or a 10% increase in appropriate medication use among either adults or children/adolescents with asthma. The savings per employed African-American woman aged 50-65 associated with a 10% increase in HEDIS mammography rate, from direct medical expenses and indirect costs (absenteeism, productivity) combined, was $50. The findings for asthma were more favorable from an employer point of view at approximately $1,660 per person if raising medication adherence rates in African-American employees or dependents by 10%. For the employer business case, both clinical scenarios modeled showed positive results. There is a greater potential financial gain related to eliminating a disparity in asthma medications than there is for eliminating a disparity in mammography rates. © 2011 Nerenz et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Lau, Brandyn D; Haider, Adil H; Streiff, Michael B; Lehmann, Christoph U; Kraus, Peggy S; Hobson, Deborah B; Kraenzlin, Franca S; Zeidan, Amer M; Pronovost, Peter J; Haut, Elliott R
All hospitalized patients should be assessed for venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk factors and prescribed appropriate prophylaxis. To improve best-practice VTE prophylaxis prescription for all hospitalized patients, we implemented a mandatory computerized clinical decision support (CCDS) tool. The tool requires completion of checklists to evaluate VTE risk factors and contraindications to pharmacological prophylaxis, and then recommends the risk-appropriate VTE prophylaxis regimen. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of a quality improvement intervention on race-based and sex-based health care disparities across 2 distinct clinical services. This was a retrospective cohort study of a quality improvement intervention. The study included 1942 hospitalized medical patients and 1599 hospitalized adult trauma patients. In this study, the proportion of patients prescribed risk-appropriate, best-practice VTE prophylaxis was evaluated. Racial disparities existed in prescription of best-practice VTE prophylaxis in the preimplementation period between black and white patients on both the trauma (70.1% vs. 56.6%, P=0.025) and medicine (69.5% vs. 61.7%, P=0.015) services. After implementation of the CCDS tool, compliance improved for all patients, and disparities in best-practice prophylaxis prescription between black and white patients were eliminated on both services: trauma (84.5% vs. 85.5%, P=0.99) and medicine (91.8% vs. 88.0%, P=0.082). Similar findings were noted for sex disparities in the trauma cohort. Despite the fact that risk-appropriate prophylaxis should be prescribed equally to all hospitalized patients regardless of race and sex, practice varied widely before our quality improvement intervention. Our CCDS tool eliminated racial disparities in VTE prophylaxis prescription across 2 distinct clinical services. Health information technology approaches to care standardization are effective to eliminate health care disparities.
Leung, Lucinda B; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Martinez, Ana E; Chen, Xiao; Rodriguez, Hector P
To conduct a parallel analysis of disparities in diabetes care quality among Latino and Asian community health center (CHC) patients by English language preference. Clinical outcomes (2011) and patient survey data (2012) for Type 2 diabetes adults from 14 CHCs (n = 1,053). We estimated separate regression models for Latino and Asian patients by English language preference for Clinician & Group-Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and System, Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care, hemoglobin A1c, and self-reported hypoglycemic events. We used the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method to parse out observed and unobserved differences in outcomes between English versus non-English language groups. After adjusting for socioeconomic and health characteristics, disparities in patient experiences by English language preference were found only among Asian patients. Unobserved factors largely accounted for linguistic disparities for most patient experience measures. There were no significant differences in glycemic control by language for either Latino or Asian patients. Given the importance of patient retention in CHCs, our findings indicate opportunities to improve CHC patients' experiences of care and to reduce disparities in patient experience by English preference for Asian diabetes patients. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Full Text Available Despite steadily declining incarceration rates overall, racial and ethnic minorities, namely African Americans, Latinos, and American Indians and Alaska Natives, continue to be disproportionately represented in the justice system. Ex-offenders commonly reenter communities with pressing health conditions but encounter obstacles to accessing care and remaining in care. The lack of health insurance coverage and medical treatment emerge as the some of the most reported reentry health needs and may contribute to observed health disparities. Linking ex-offenders to care and services upon release increases the likelihood that they will remain in care and practice successful disease management. The Affordable Care Act (ACA offers opportunities to address health disparities experienced by the reentry population that places them at risk for negative health outcomes and recidivism. Coordinated efforts to link ex-offenders with these newly available opportunities may result in a trajectory for positive health and overall well-being as they reintegrate into society.
Williams, Shanita D; Hansen, Kristen; Smithey, Marian; Burnley, Josepha; Koplitz, Michelle; Koyama, Kirk; Young, Janice; Bakos, Alexis
It is widely accepted that diversifying the nation's health-care workforce is a necessary strategy to increase access to quality health care for all populations, reduce health disparities, and achieve health equity. In this article, we present a conceptual model that utilizes the social determinants of health framework to link nursing workforce diversity and care quality and access to two critical population health indicators-health disparities and health equity. Our proposed model suggests that a diverse nursing workforce can provide increased access to quality health care and health resources for all populations, and is a necessary precursor to reduce health disparities and achieve health equity. With this conceptual model as a foundation, we aim to stimulate the conceptual and analytical work-both within and outside the nursing field-that is necessary to answer these important but largely unanswered questions.
Full Text Available Recently the existence and prevalence of health and health care disparities has increased with accompanying research showing that minorities (African Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, Native Americans, and Pacific Islanders are disproportionately affected resulting in poorer health outcomes compared to non-minority populations (whites. This is due to multiple factors including and most importantly the social determinants of health which includes lower levels of education, overall lower socioeconomic status, inadequate and unsafe housing, and living in close proximity to environmental hazards; all contributing to poor health. Given the ever widening gap in health and health care disparities, the growing number of individuals living at or below the poverty level, the low number of college graduates and the growing shortage of health care professionals (especially minority the goals of this paper are to: (1 Define diversity and inclusion as interdependent entities. (2 Review the health care system as it relates to barriers/problems within the system resulting in the unequal distribution of quality health care. (3 Examine institutional and global benefits of increasing diversity in research. (4 Provide recommendations on institutional culture change and developing a diverse culturally competent healthcare workforce.
Full Text Available Abstract Background After more than two decades of the Safe Motherhood Initiative and Millennium Development Goals aimed at reducing maternal mortality, women continue to die in childbirth at unacceptably high rates in Pakistan. While an extensive literature describes various programmatic strategies, it neglects the rigorous analysis of the reasons these strategies have been unsuccessful, especially for women living at the economic and social margins of society. A critical gap in current knowledge is a detailed understanding of the root causes of disparities in maternal health care, and in particular, how gender and class influence policy formulation and the design and delivery of maternal health care services. Taking Pakistan as a case study, this research builds upon two distinct yet interlinked conceptual approaches to understanding the phenomenon of inequity in access to maternal health care: social exclusion and health systems as social institutions. Methods/Design This four year project consists of two interrelated modules that focus on two distinct groups of participants: (1 poor, disadvantaged women and men and (2 policy makers, program managers and health service providers. Module one will employ critical ethnography to understand the key axes of social exclusion as related to gender, class and zaat and how they affect women’s experiences of using maternal health care. Through health care setting observations, interviews and document review, Module two will assess policy design and delivery of maternal health services. Discussion This research will provide theoretical advances to enhance understanding of the power dynamics of gender and class that may underlie poor women’s marginalization from health care systems in Pakistan. It will also provide empirical evidence to support formulation of maternal health care policies and health care system practices aimed at reducing disparities in maternal health care in Pakistan. Lastly, it
... ik People" People Awakening Resilience Project (PARP), Cuqyun "Measuring" Treatment and Health Services Research Alcohol Treatment and ... addressing Health Disparities . 1 2009-2013 Health Disparities Strategic Plan, p.4 2 Ibid, p.4 3 ...
Kim, Joyce J; Basu, Mohua; Plantinga, Laura; Pastan, Stephen O; Mohan, Sumit; Smith, Kayla; Melanson, Taylor; Escoffery, Cam; Patzer, Rachel E
Despite the important role that health care providers at dialysis facilities have in reducing racial disparities in access to kidney transplantation in the United States, little is known about provider awareness of these disparities. We aimed to evaluate health care providers' awareness of racial disparities in kidney transplant waitlisting and identify factors associated with awareness. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a survey of providers from low-waitlisting dialysis facilities ( n =655) across all 18 ESRD networks administered in 2016 in the United States merged with 2014 US Renal Data System and 2014 US Census data. Awareness of national racial disparity in waitlisting was defined as responding "yes" to the question: "Nationally, do you think that African Americans currently have lower waitlisting rates than white patients on average?" The secondary outcome was providers' perceptions of racial difference in waitlisting at their own facilities. Among 655 providers surveyed, 19% were aware of the national racial disparity in waitlisting: 50% (57 of 113) of medical directors, 11% (35 of 327) of nurse managers, and 16% (35 of 215) of other providers. In analyses adjusted for provider and facility characteristics, nurse managers (versus medical directors; odds ratio, 7.33; 95% confidence interval, 3.35 to 16.0) and white providers (versus black providers; odds ratio, 2.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.39 to 5.02) were more likely to be unaware of a national racial disparity in waitlisting. Facilities in the South (versus the Northeast; odds ratio, 3.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 8.94) and facilities with a low percentage of blacks (versus a high percentage of blacks; odds ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 3.39) were more likely to be unaware. One quarter of facilities had >5% racial difference in waitlisting within their own facilities, but only 5% were aware of the disparity. Among a limited sample of dialysis facilities with low
Mitchell, Dennis A.; Lassiter, Shana L.
The racial/ethnic composition of our nation is projected to change drastically in the coming decades. It is therefore important that the health professions improve their efforts to provide culturally competent care to all patients. We reviewed literature concerning health care disparities and workforce diversity issues—particularly within the oral health field—and provide a synthesis of recommendations to address these issues. This review is highly relevant to both the medical and public health professions, because they are facing similar disparity and workforce issues. In addition, the recent establishment of relationships between oral health and certain systemic health conditions will elevate oral health promotion and disease prevention as important points of intervention in the quest to improve our nation’s public health. PMID:17077406
Samuel, Cleo A; Landrum, Mary Beth; McNeil, Barbara J; Bozeman, Samuel R; Williams, Christina D; Keating, Nancy L
We assessed cancer care disparities within the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system and whether between-hospital differences explained disparities. We linked VA cancer registry data with VA and Medicare administrative data and examined 20 cancer-related quality measures among Black and White veterans diagnosed with colorectal (n = 12,897), lung (n = 25,608), or prostate (n = 38,202) cancer from 2001 to 2004. We used logistic regression to assess racial disparities for each measure and hospital fixed-effects models to determine whether disparities were attributable to between- or within-hospital differences. Compared with Whites, Blacks had lower rates of early-stage colon cancer diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.72, 0.90), curative surgery for stage I, II, or III rectal cancer (AOR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.41, 0.78), 3-year survival for colon cancer (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.62, 0.89) and rectal cancer (AOR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.87), curative surgery for early-stage lung cancer (AOR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.41, 0.60), 3-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated radiation (3-D CRT/IMRT; AOR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.47, 0.59), and potent antiemetics for highly emetogenic chemotherapy (AOR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.78, 0.98). Adjustment for hospital fixed-effects minimally influenced racial gaps except for 3-D CRT/IMRT (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.65, 0.87) and potent antiemetics (AOR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.82, 1.10). Disparities in VA cancer care were observed for 7 of 20 measures and were primarily attributable to within-hospital differences.
Parikh-Patel, Arti; Morris, Cyllene R; Kizer, Kenneth W
Escalating costs and concerns about quality of cancer care have increased calls for quality measurement and performance accountability for providers and health plans. The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to assess variability in the quality of cancer care by health insurance type in California.Persons with breast, ovary, endometrium, cervix, colon, lung, or gastric cancer during the period 2004 to 2014 were identified in the California Cancer Registry. Individuals were stratified into 5 health insurance categories: private insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, dual Medicare and Medicaid eligible, and uninsured. Quality of care was evaluated using Commission on Cancer quality measures. Logistic regression models were generated to assess the independent effect of health insurance type on stage at diagnosis, quality of care and survival after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES).A total of 763,884 cancer cases were evaluated. Individuals with Medicaid or Medicare-Medicaid dual-eligible coverage and the uninsured had significantly lower odds of receiving recommended radiation and/or chemotherapy after diagnosis or surgery for breast, endometrial, and colon cancer, relative to those with private insurance. Dual eligible patients with gastric cancer had 21% lower odds of having the recommended number of lymph nodes removed and examined compared to privately insured patients.After adjusting for known demographic confounders, substantial and consistent disparities in quality of cancer care exist according to type of health insurance in California. Further study is needed to identify particular factors and mechanisms underlying the identified treatment disparities across sources of health insurance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Feng, Xing Lin; Guo, Sufang; Yang, Qing; Xu, Ling; Zhu, Jun; Guo, Yan
China was one of the 68 "countdown" countries prioritized to attain Millennium Development Goals (MDG 4). The aim of this study was to analyze data on child survival and health care coverage of proven cost-effective interventions in China, with a focus on national disparities. National maternal and child mortality surveillance data were used to estimate child mortality. Coverage for proven interventions was analyzed based on data from the National Health Services Survey, National Nutrition and Health Survey, and National Immunization Survey. Consultations and qualitative field observations by experts were used to complement the Survey data. Analysis of the data revealed a significant reduction in the overall under-5 (U5) child mortality rate in China from 1996 to 2007, but also great regional disparities, with the risk of child mortality in rural areas II-IV being two- to sixfold higher than that in urban areas. Rural areas II-IV also accounted for approximately 80% of the mortality burden. More than 60% of child mortality occurred during the neonatal period, with 70% of this occurring during the first week of life. The leading causes of neonatal mortality were asphyxia at birth and premature birth; during the post-neonatal period, these were diarrhea and pneumonia, especially in less developed rural areas. Utilization of health care services in terms of both quantity and quality was positively correlated with the region's development level. A large proportion of children were affected by inadequate feeding, and the lack of safe water and essential sanitary facilities are vital indirect factors contributing to the increase in child mortality. The simulation analysis revealed that increasing access to and the quality of the most effective interventions combined with relatively low costs in the context of a comprehensive approach has the potential to reduce U5 deaths by 34%. China is on track to meet MDG 4; however, great disparities in health care do exist within
Prins, Esther; Mooney, Angela
This chapter explores the relationship between literacy and health disparities, focusing on the concept of health literacy. Recommendations are provided for ways to bridge the health literacy gap for learners in adult basic education and family literacy programs.
Diamond, Lisa C; Jacobs, Elizabeth A
Clinicians should be educated about how language barriers contribute to disparities for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). However, educators must avoid developing educational interventions that increase health disparities for LEP patients. For example, studies suggest that teaching "Medical Spanish" or related courses may actually contribute to health care disparities if clinicians begin using these non-English language skills inappropriately with patients. We discuss the risks and benefits of teaching specific cultural competence skills and make evidence-based recommendations for the teaching content and methods for educational interventions focused on overcoming language barriers in health care. At minimum, we suggest such interventions include: (1) the role of language barriers in health disparities, (2) means of overcoming language barriers, (3) how to work with interpreters, (4) identifying and fixing problems in interpreted encounters, and (5) appropriate and safe use of one's own limited non-English language skills.
Spitzer, Denise L
How is gender implicated in our exploration of health disparities in Canada? Set against the backdrop of federal government policy, this review paper examines the ways in which gender intersects with other health determinants to produce disparate health outcomes. An overview of salient issues including the impact of gender roles, environmental exposures, gender violence, workplace hazards, economic disparities, the costs of poverty, social marginalization and racism, aging, health conditions, interactions with health services, and health behaviours are considered. This review suggests health is detrimentally affected by gender roles and statuses as they intersect with economic disparities, cultural, sexual, physical and historical marginalization as well as the strains of domestic and paid labour. These conditions result in an unfair health burden borne in particular by women whose access to health determinants is--in various degrees--limited. While progress has certainly been made on some fronts, the persistence of health disparities among diverse populations of women and men suggests a postponement of the vision of a just society with health for all that was articulated in the Federal Plan on Gender Equality. Commitment, creativity and collaboration from stakeholders ranging from various levels of government, communities, academics, non-governmental agencies and health professionals will be required to reduce and eliminate health disparities between and among all members of our society.
Ingram, Maia; Marrone, Nicole; Sanchez, Daisey Thalia; Sander, Alicia; Navarro, Cecilia; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Colina, Sonia; Harris, Frances
Hearing loss is associated with cognitive decline and impairment in daily living activities. Access to hearing health care has broad implications for healthy aging of the U.S. population. This qualitative study investigated factors related to the socio-ecological domains of hearing health in a U.S.–Mexico border community experiencing disparities in access to care. A multidisciplinary research team partnered with community health workers (CHWs) from a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) in designing the study. CHWs conducted interviews with people with hearing loss (n = 20) and focus groups with their family/friends (n = 27) and with members of the community-at-large (n = 47). The research team conducted interviews with FQHC providers and staff (n = 12). Individuals experienced depression, sadness, and social isolation, as well as frustration and even anger regarding communication. Family members experienced negative impacts of deteriorating communication, but expressed few coping strategies. There was general agreement across data sources that hearing loss was not routinely addressed within primary care and assistive hearing technology was generally unaffordable. Community members described stigma related to hearing loss and a need for greater access to hearing health care and broader community education. Findings confirm the causal sequence of hearing impairment on quality of life aggravated by socioeconomic conditions and lack of access to hearing health care. Hearing loss requires a comprehensive and innovative public health response across the socio-ecological framework that includes both individual communication intervention and greater access to hearing health resources. CHWs can be effective in tailoring intervention strategies to community characteristics. PMID:27574602
Goodridge, Donna; Hawranik, Pamela; Duncan, Vicky; Turner, Hollie
Home health care services are expanding at a rapid pace in order to meet the needs of the growing population of older adults and those with chronic illnesses. Because of current restrictions on home health care as an insured service in some countries, individuals may be required to pay for some or all of their home care services out of pocket. These payments may potentially limit access to needed home care services for persons in the lowest socioeconomic strata. Previous research demonstrates a clear socioeconomic gradient in access to acute and primary care services, where those most in need of services are the most disadvantaged and under-serviced. There has been little attention paid thus far, however, to the way in which socioeconomic status may affect the receipt of home health care services. To determine what is known from existing literature about socioeconomic disparities in home health care access and utilization. A scoping review was used to map the extent and nature of the literature in this area. A search of the databases CINAHL, Medline, SocIndex and Sociological Abstracts as well as Dissertations International. A total of 206 potentially relevant articles were published between 2000 and April 2011. Two reviewers independently reviewed the articles, leaving 15 research articles to be included in the scoping review. The majority of articles reported secondary analyses of administrative datasets related to utilization of home health care. Several studies examined access and utilization using qualitative approaches. The distinction between professional and supportive home care services was not always clear in the articles. Individual and composite measures of socioeconomic status were reported, with the most frequently used indicator being income. Several studies used more complex composite ecological indicators of socieconomic status. There was general agreement that utilization of home health services favored persons with greater economic disadvantage
Chen, Jie; Mullins, C. Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B.
Designing culturally sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients' involvement in their treatment and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and…
... in the Delta Region for specific data. U.S. – Mexico Border While life expectancy in many counties of ... documents the successes, challenges, and relevant information for planning. ... on rural/urban disparities see What sources cover health behaviors and ...
Ryvicker, Miriam; Sridharan, Sridevi
Older adults' health is sensitive to variations in neighborhood environment, yet few studies have examined how neighborhood factors influence their health care access. This study examined whether neighborhood environmental factors help to explain racial and socioeconomic disparities in health care access and outcomes among urban older adults with diabetes. Data from 123 233 diabetic Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older in New York City were geocoded to measures of neighborhood walkability, public transit access, and primary care supply. In 2008, 6.4% had no office-based "evaluation and management" (E&M) visits. Multilevel logistic regression indicated that this group had greater odds of preventable hospitalization in 2009 (odds ratio = 1.31; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-1.40). Nonwhites and low-income individuals had greater odds of a lapse in E&M visits and of preventable hospitalization. Neighborhood factors did not help to explain these disparities. Further research is needed on the mechanisms underlying these disparities and older adults' ability to navigate health care. Even in an insured population living in a provider-dense city, targeted interventions may be needed to overcome barriers to chronic illness care for older adults in the community.
Richmond, Nicole E; Tran, Tri; Berry, Susan
The Medical Home (MH) is shown to improve health outcomes for Youth with Special Health Care Needs (YSHCN). Some MH services involve Transition from pediatric to adult providers to ensure YSHCN have continuous care. Studies indicate racial/ethnic disparities for Transition, whereas the MH is shown to reduce health disparities. This study aims to (1) Determine the Transition rate for YSHCN with a MH (MH Transition) nationally, and by race/ethnicity (2) Identify which characteristics are associated with MH Transition (3) Determine if racial/ethnic disparities exist after controlling for associated characteristics, and (4) Identify which characteristics are uniquely associated with each race/ethnic group. National survey data were used. YSCHN with a MH were grouped as receiving Transition or not. Characteristics included race, ethnicity (Non-Hispanic (NH), Hispanic), sex, health condition effect, five special health care need categories, education, poverty, adequate insurance, and urban/rural residence. Frequencies, chi-square, and logistic regression were used to calculate rates and define associations. Alpha was set to 0.05. About 57.0% of YSHCN received MH Transition. Rates by race/ethnicity were 59.0, 45.5, 60.2, 41.9, and 44.6% for NH-White, NH-Black, NH-Multiple race, NH-Other, and Hispanic YSHCN, respectively. Disparities remained between NH-White and NH-Black YSHCN. All characteristics except urban/rural status were associated. Adequate insurance was associated for all race/ethnic groups, except NH-Black YSHCN. Almost 57.0% of YSHCN received MH Transition. Disparities remained. Rates and associated characteristics differed by race/ethnic group. Culturally tailored interventions incorporating universal factors to improve MH Transition outcomes are warranted.
Moaddab, Amirhossein; Dildy, Gary A; Brown, Haywood L; Bateni, Zhoobin H; Belfort, Michael A; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Clark, Steven L
To quantitate the contribution of various demographic factors to the U.S. maternal mortality ratio. This was a retrospective observational study. We analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics database and the Detailed Mortality Underlying Cause of Death database (CDC WONDER) from 2005 to 2014 that contains mortality and population counts for all U.S. counties. Bivariate correlations between the maternal mortality ratio and all maternal demographic, lifestyle, health, and medical service utilization characteristics were calculated. We performed a maximum likelihood factor analysis with varimax rotation retaining variables that were significant (Pmulticollinearity among the existing variables. The United States has experienced an increase in maternal mortality ratio since 2005 with rates increasing from 15 per 100,00 live births in 2005 to 21-22 per 100,000 live births in 2013 and 2014. (P<.001) This increase in mortality was most pronounced in non-Hispanic black women, with ratios rising from 39 to 49 per 100,000 live births. A significant correlation between state mortality ranking and the percentage of non-Hispanic black women in the delivery population was demonstrated. Cesarean deliveries, unintended births, unmarried status, percentage of deliveries to non-Hispanic black women, and four or fewer prenatal visits were significantly (P<.05) associated with the increased maternal mortality ratio. The current U.S. maternal mortality ratio is heavily influenced by a higher rate of death among non-Hispanic black or unmarried patients with unplanned pregnancies. Racial disparities in health care availability and access or utilization by underserved populations are important issues faced by states seeking to decrease maternal mortality.
Askim-Lovseth, Mary K; Aldana, Adriana
Health disparities are pervasive in the United States; but among Hispanics, access to health care is encumbered by poverty, lack of insurance, legal status, and racial or minority status. Research has identified certain aspects of Hispanic culture, values, and traditions contributing to the nature of the Hispanic patient-doctor relationship and the quality of the health care service. Current educational efforts by nonprofit organizations, government, health professionals, and pharmaceutical manufacturers fail to address the needs for accessible and appropriately culture-sensitive information when approaching the diverse Hispanic community. Understanding Hispanics' consumptive practices and expectations surrounding medications is critical to the success of many treatment regimens. Recommendations are presented to address this health care issue.
Horner-Johnson, Willi; Dobbertin, Konrad; Lee, Jae Chul; Andresen, Elena M
To examine differences in access to health care and receipt of clinical preventive services by type of disability among working-age adults with disabilities. Secondary analysis of Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data from 2002 to 2008. We conducted cross-sectional logistic regression analyses comparing people with different types of disabilities on health insurance status and type; presence of a usual source of health care; delayed or forgone care; and receipt of dental checkups and cancer screening. We pooled annualized MEPS data files across years. Our analytic sample consisted of adults (18-64 years) with physical, sensory, or cognitive disabilities and nonmissing data for all variables of interest. Individuals with hearing impairment had better health care access and receipt than people with other disability types. People with multiple types of limitations were especially likely to have health care access problems and unmet health care needs. There are differences in health care access and receipt of preventive care depending on what type of disability people have. More in-depth research is needed to identify specific causes of these disparities and assess interventions to address health care barriers for particular disability groups. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Flores, Glenn; Abreu, Milagros; Tomany-Korman, Sandra C
Approximately 3.5 million U.S. schoolchildren are limited in English proficiency (LEP). Disparities in children's health and health care are associated with both LEP and speaking a language other than English at home, but prior research has not examined which of these two measures of language barriers is most useful in examining health care disparities. Our objectives were to compare primary language spoken at home vs. parental LEP and their associations with health status, access to care, and use of health services in children. We surveyed parents at urban community sites in Boston, asking 74 questions on children's health status, access to health care, and use of health services. Some 98% of the 1,100 participating children and families were of non-white race/ethnicity, 72% of parents were LEP, and 13 different primary languages were spoken at home. "Dose-response" relationships were observed between parental English proficiency and several child and parental sociodemographic features, including children's insurance coverage, parental educational attainment, citizenship and employment, and family income. Similar "dose-response" relationships were noted between the primary language spoken at home and many but not all of the same sociodemographic features. In multivariate analyses, LEP parents were associated with triple the odds of a child having fair/poor health status, double the odds of the child spending at least one day in bed for illness in the past year, and significantly greater odds of children not being brought in for needed medical care for six of nine access barriers to care. None of these findings were observed in analyses of the primary language spoken at home. Individual parental LEP categories were associated with different risks of adverse health status and outcomes. Parental LEP is superior to the primary language spoken at home as a measure of the impact of language barriers on children's health and health care. Individual parental LEP
Jarlenski, Marian; Baller, Julia; Borrero, Sonya; Bennett, Wendy L
To examine time trends in disparities in low-income children's health insurance coverage and access to care by family immigration status. We used data from the National Survey of Children's Health in 2003 to 2011-2012, including 83,612 children aged 0 to 17 years with family incomes immigration status categories: citizen children with nonimmigrant parents; citizen children with immigrant parents; and immigrant children. We used multivariable regression analyses to obtain adjusted trends in health insurance coverage and access to care. All low-income children experienced gains in health insurance coverage and access to care from 2003 to 2011-2012, regardless of family immigration status. Relative to citizen children with nonimmigrant parents, citizen children with immigrant parents had a 5 percentage point greater increase in health insurance coverage (P = .06), a 9 percentage point greater increase in having a personal doctor or nurse (P Immigrant children had significantly lower health insurance coverage than other groups. However, the group had a 14 percentage point greater increase in having a personal doctor or nurse (P immigration status have lessened over time among children in low-income families, although large disparities still exist. Policy efforts are needed to ensure that children of immigrant parents and immigrant children are able to access health insurance and health care. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ryvicker, Miriam; Peng, Timothy R; Feldman, Penny Hollander
The Patient Activation Measure (PAM) assesses people's ability to self-manage their health. Variations in PAM score have been linked with health behaviors, outcomes, and potential disparities. This study assessed the relative impacts of activation, socio-demographic and clinical factors on health care outcomes in a racially diverse sample of chronically ill, elderly homecare patients. Using survey and administrative data from 249 predominantly non-White patients, logistic regression was conducted to examine the effects of activation level and patient characteristics on the likelihood of subsequent hospitalization and emergency department (ED) use. Activation was not a significant predictor of hospitalization or ED use in adjusted models. Non-Whites were more likely than Whites to have a hospitalization or ED visit. Obesity was a strong predictor of both outcomes. Further research should examine potential sources of disadvantage among chronically ill homecare patients to design effective interventions to reduce health disparities in this population.
McKendall, Sherron Benson; Kasten, Kasandra; Hanks, Sara; Chester, Ann
Health and educational disparities are national issues in the United States. Research has shown that health care professionals from underserved backgrounds are more likely than others to work in underserved areas. The Association of American Medical Colleges' Project 3000 by 2000, to increase the number of underrepresented minorities in medical schools, spurred the West Virginia School of Medicine to start the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) in 1994 with the goal of supporting interested underrepresented high school students in pursuing college and health professions careers. The program was based on three beliefs: (1) if underrepresented high school students have potential and the desire to pursue a health professions career and are given the support, they can reach their goals, including obtaining a health professions degree; (2) underserved high school students are able to predict their own success if given the right resources; and (3) community engagement would be key to the program's success.In this Perspective, the authors describe the HSTA and its framework and philosophy, including the underlying theories and pedagogy from research in the fields of education and the behavioral/social sciences. They then offer evidence of the program's success, specifically for African American students, including graduates' high college-going rate and overwhelming intention to choose a health professions major. Finally, the authors describe the benefits of the HSTA's community partnerships, including providing mentors to students, adding legislative language providing tuition waivers and a budgetary line item devoted to the program, and securing program funding from outside sources.
White, Augustus A; Stubblefield-Tave, Beauregard
Studies of inequalities in health care have documented 13 groups of patients who receive disparate care. Disparities are partly due to socioeconomic factors, but nonsocioeconomic factors also play a large contributory role. This article reviews nonsocioeconomic factors, including unconscious bias, stereotyping, racism, gender bias, and limited English proficiency. The authors discuss the clinician's role in addressing these factors and reducing their impact on the quality of health care. They indicate the significance of cultural humility on the part of caregivers as a means of amelioration. Based on a review of the clinician's role as well as background considerations in the health care environment, the authors put forward a set of 18 recommendations in the form of a checklist. They posit that implementing these recommendations as part of the patient clinician interaction will maximize the delivery of equitable care, even in the absence of desirable in-depth cross-cultural and psychosocial literacy on the part of the clinician. Trust, mutual respect, and understanding on the part of the caregiver and patient are crucial to optimizing therapeutic outcomes. The guidelines incorporated here are tools to furthering this goal.
Akinyemiju, T. F.
Breast cancer survival has improved significantly in the US in the past 10-15 years. However, disparities exist in breast cancer survival between black and white women. Purpose. To investigate the effect of county health care resources and SES as well as individual SES status on breast cancer survival disparities between black and white women. Methods. Data from 1,796 breast cancer cases were obtained from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study dataset. Cox Proportional Hazards models were constructed accounting for clustering within counties. Three sequential Cox models were fit for each outcome including demographic variables; demographic and clinical variables; and finally demographic, clinical, and county-level variables. Results. In unadjusted analysis, black women had a 53% higher likelihood of dying of breast cancer and 32% higher likelihood of dying of any cause ( P < 0.05) compared with white women. Adjusting for demographic variables explained away the effect of race on breast cancer survival (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.99-1.97), but not on all-cause mortality. The racial difference in all-cause survival disappeared only after adjusting for county-level variables (HR, 1.27; CI, 0.95-1.71). Conclusions. Improving equitable access to health care for all women in the US may help eliminate survival disparities between racial and socioeconomic groups.
Do, Young Kyung; Eggleston, Karen N
To investigate educational disparities in the care process and health outcomes among patients with diabetes in the context of South Korea's universal health insurance system. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses of data from a cross-sectional health survey. A nationally representative and population-based survey, the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Respondents aged 40 or older who self-reported prior diagnosis with diabetes (n= 1418). Seven measures of the care process and health outcomes, namely (i) receiving medical treatment for diabetes, (ii) ever received diabetes education, (iii) received dilated eye examination in the past year, (iv) received microalbuminuria test in the past year, (v) having activity limitation due to diabetes, (vi) poor self-rated health and (vii) self-rated health on a visual analog scale. Except for receiving medical care for diabetes, overall process quality was low, with only 25% having ever received diabetes education, 39% having received a dilated eye examination in the past year and 51% having received a microalbuminuria test in the past year. Lower education level was associated with both poorer care processes and poorer health outcomes, whereas lower income level was only associated with poorer health outcomes. While South Korea's universal health insurance system may have succeeded in substantially reducing financial barriers related to diabetes care, the quality of diabetes care is low overall and varies by education level. System-level quality improvement efforts are required to address the weaknesses of the health system, thereby mitigating educational disparities in diabetes care quality.
Akhavan, Sharareh; Karlsen, Saffron
To investigate variations in explanations given for disparities in health care use between migrant and non-migrant groups, by clients and care providers in Sweden. Qualitative evidence collected during in-depth interviews with five 'migrant' health service clients and five physicians. The interview data generated three categories which were perceived by respondents to produce ethnic differences in health service use: "Communication issues", "Cultural differences in approaches to medical consultations" and "Effects of perceptions of inequalities in care quality and discrimination". Explanations for disparities in health care use in Sweden can be categorized into those reflecting social/structural conditions and the presence/absence of power and those using cultural/behavioural explanations. The negative perceptions of 'migrant' clients held by some Swedish physicians place the onus for addressing their poor health with the clients themselves and risks perpetuating their health disadvantage. The power disparity between doctors and 'migrant' patients encourages a sense of powerlessness and mistreatment among patients.
Litow, Mark E
Since their introduction following World War II, single-payer health care systems and universally mandated health care systems have stumbled, but in their pratfalls are many lessons that apply to the universal health care proposals currently on the table in the United States. The critical and often-over-looked point is that universal coverage does not guarantee that individuals will receive needed care--In many cases guaranteed access to care is a false promise or available only on a delayed timetable. A more feasible alternative lies in providing a safety net for citizens who truly need care and financial support with an appropriate system of checks and balances--without disrupting the economic and actuarial fundamental principles of supply and demand and risk classification.
Sternthal, Michelle J.; Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R.
Despite the widespread assumption that racial differences in stress exist and that stress is a key mediator linking racial status to poor health, relatively few studies have explicitly examined this premise. We examine the distribution of stress across racial groups and the role of stress vulnerability and exposure in explaining racial differences in health in a community sample of Black, Hispanic, and White adults, employing a modeling strategy that accounts for the correlation between types of stressors and the accumulation of stressors in the prediction of health outcomes. We find significant racial differences in overall and cumulative exposure to eight stress domains. Blacks exhibit a higher prevalence and greater clustering of high stress scores than Whites. American-born Hispanics show prevalence rates and patterns of accumulation of stressors comparable to Blacks, while foreign-born Hispanics have stress profiles similar to Whites. Multiple stressors correlate with poor physical and mental health, with financial and relationship stressors exhibiting the largest and most consistent effects. Though we find no support for the stress-vulnerability hypothesis, the stress-exposure hypothesis does account for some racial health disparities. We discuss implications for future research and policy.
Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Kim, Chun-Bae; Park, Myung-Bae; Acharaya, Sambhu
Disparity in adult mortality (AM) with reference to social dynamics and health care has not been sufficiently examined. This study aimed to identify the gap in the understanding of AM in relation to religion, political stability, economic level, and universal health coverage (UHC). A cross-national study was performed with different sources of data, using the administrative record linkage theory. Data was created from the 2013 World Bank data catalogue by region, The Economist (Political instability index 2013), Stuckler David et al. (Universal health coverage, 2010), and religious categories of all UN country members. Descriptive statistics, a t-test, an ANOVA followed by a post hoc test, and a linear regression were used where applicable. The average AM rate for males and females was 0.20 ± 0.10 and 0.14 ± 0.10, respectively. There was high disparity of AM between countries with and without UHC and between groups with low and high income. UHC and political stability would significantly reduce AMR by >0.41 in both sexes and high economic status would reduce male AMR by 0.44, and female AMR by 0.70. It can be concluded that effective health care; UHC and political stability significantly reduce AM.
Kennedy, Jae; Wood, Elizabeth Geneva; Frieden, Lex
The objective of this study was to assess trends in health insurance coverage, health service utilization, and health care access among working-age adults with and without disabilities before and after full implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), and to identify current disability-based disparities following full implementation of the ACA. The ACA was expected to have a disproportionate impact on working-age adults with disabilities, because of their high health care usage as well as...
Levine, Cynthia S; Ambady, Nalini
People from racial minority backgrounds report less trust in their doctors and have poorer health outcomes. Although these deficiencies have multiple roots, one important set of explanations involves racial bias, which may be non-conscious, on the part of providers, and minority patients' fears that they will be treated in a biased way. Here, we focus on one mechanism by which this bias may be communicated and reinforced: namely, non-verbal behaviour in the doctor-patient interaction. We review 2 lines of research on race and non-verbal behaviour: (i) the ways in which a patient's race can influence a doctor's non-verbal behaviour toward the patient, and (ii) the relative difficulty that doctors can have in accurately understanding the nonverbal communication of non-White patients. Further, we review research on the implications that both lines of work can have for the doctor-patient relationship and the patient's health. The research we review suggests that White doctors interacting with minority group patients are likely to behave and respond in ways that are associated with worse health outcomes. As doctors' disengaged non-verbal behaviour towards minority group patients and lower ability to read minority group patients' non-verbal behaviours may contribute to racial disparities in patients' satisfaction and health outcomes, solutions that target non-verbal behaviour may be effective. A number of strategies for such targeting are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Allison A. Vanderbilt
Full Text Available Healthcare in the United States (US is burdened with enormous healthcare disparities associated with a variety of factors including insurance status, income, and race. Highly vulnerable populations, classified as those with complex medical problems and/or social needs, are one of the fastest growing segments within the US. Over a decade ago, the US Surgeon General publically challenged the nation to realize the importance of oral health and its relationship to general health and well-being, yet oral health disparities continue to plague the US healthcare system. Interprofessional education and teamwork has been demonstrated to improve patient outcomes and provide benefits to participating health professionals. We propose the implementation of interprofessional education and teamwork as a solution to meet the increasing oral and systemic healthcare demands of highly vulnerable US populations.
Alang, Sirry M
Mental disorders are among the leading causes of disability in the United States. In 2011, over 10 million adults felt that even though they needed treatment for mental health problems, they received insufficient or no mental health care and reported unmet need. This article assesses associations between sociodemographic characteristics and perceived causes of unmet needs for mental health care. A sample of 2,564 adults with unmet mental health need was obtained from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Outcome variables were 5 main reasons for unmet need: cost, stigma, minimization, low perceived treatment effectiveness, and structural barriers. Each cause of unmet need was regressed on sociodemographic, health, and service use characteristics. Women had higher odds of cost-related reasons for unmet need than men. Odds of stigma and structural barriers were greater among Blacks than Whites, and among rural than metropolitan residents. Compared with the uninsured, insured persons were less likely to report cost barriers. However, insured persons had higher odds of stigma and minimization of mental disorders. Insurance alone is unlikely to resolve the problem of unmet need. Understanding the social epidemiology of perceived unmet need will help identify populations at risk of not receiving mental health care or insufficient care. Focusing on specific programs and services that are designed to address the causes of perceived unmet need in particular populations is important. Future research should explore how intersecting social statuses affect the likelihood of perceived unmet need. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Hearing loss is associated with cognitive decline and impairment in daily living activities. Access to hearing health care has broad implications for healthy aging of the U.S. population. This qualitative study investigated factors related to the socio-ecological domains of hearing health in a US-Mexico border community experiencing disparities in access to care. A multidisciplinary research team partnered with Community Health Workers (CHWs from a Federally Qualified Health Center in designing the study. CHWs conducted interviews with people with hearing loss (n=20 and focus groups with their family/friends (n=27 and with members of the community-at-large (n=47. The research team conducted interviews with FQHC providers and staff (n=12. Individuals experienced depression, sadness and social isolation, as well as frustration and even anger regarding communication. Family members experienced negative impacts of deteriorating communication, but expressed few coping strategies. There was general agreement across data sources that hearing loss was not routinely addressed within primary care and assistive hearing technology was generally unaffordable. Community members described stigma related to hearing loss and a need for greater access to hearing health care and broader community education. Findings confirm the causal sequence of hearing impairment on quality of life aggravated by socio-economic conditions and lack of access to hearing health care. Hearing loss requires a comprehensive and innovative public health response across the socio-ecological framework that includes both individual communication intervention and greater access to hearing health resources. Community health workers can be effective in tailoring intervention strategies to community characteristics.
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Feng, Xiaoying; Roberts, Kellie W; Gibbs, Micaela; Catalanotto, Frank A; Hudson-Vassell, Charisse M
Service-learning in dental education helps students integrate knowledge with practice in an underserved community setting. The aim of this study was to explore how a service-learning experience affected a small group of dental students' beliefs about cultural competence, professionalism, career development, desire to practice in a community service setting, and perceptions about access and disparities issues. Prior to beginning their first year of dental school, five first-year dental students at one U.S. dental school participated in a six-week service-learning program in which they interned at one of three at-risk settings in order to experience health care delivery there. After the program, 60 reflective writing assignments completed by the participants were analyzed using grounded theory methods; interviews with the students were used to corroborate the findings from that analysis. Seven themes identified in the journal reflections and interview findings showed enhanced awareness of social health care issues and patient differences, as well as a social justice orientation and desire to address disparities. Building on this study, future research should explore the curricular components of service-learning programs to ensure students receive ample opportunity to reflect upon their experiences in order to integrate previously held assumptions with their newfound knowledge.
Missmer, Stacey A; Seifer, David B; Jain, Tarun
To identify cultural differences in access to infertility care. Cross-sectional, self-administered survey. University hospital-based fertility center. Thirteen hundred fifty consecutive women who were seen for infertility care. None. Details about demographic characteristics, health care access, and treatment opinions based on patient race or ethnicity. The median age of participants was 35 years; 41% were white, 28% African American, 18% Hispanic, and 7% Asian. Compared with white women, African American and Hispanic women had been attempting to conceive for 1.5 years longer. They also found it more difficult to get an appointment, to take time off from work, and to pay for treatment. Forty-nine percent of respondents were concerned about the stigma of infertility, 46% about conceiving multiples, and 40% about financial costs. Disappointing one's spouse was of greater concern to African-American women, whereas avoiding the stigmatization of infertility was of greatest concern to Asian-American women. While the demand for infertility treatment increases in the United States, attention to cultural barriers to care and cultural meanings attributed to infertility should be addressed. Enhanced cultural competencies of the health care system need to be employed if equal access is to be realized as equal utilization for women of color seeking infertility care. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bawa, Harpreet S; Weick, Jack W; Dirschl, Douglas R
Women older than 50 years have higher prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and experience greater functional disability than men. No studies have examined large populations to identify knee OA-related health care utilization differences. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate gender differences in the utilization of OA-related health care resources in the 12 months preceding total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters and Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefit databases were reviewed from 2005 to 2012. Subjects were included if they underwent TKA, had associated diagnosis of lower leg OA, and were continuously in the database for 12 months preceding TKA. Patient-specific OA-related health care utilization was identified. Multivariate logistic regression analysis controlling for age, region, and Charlson Comorbidity Index was performed to isolate the influence of gender. A total of 244,059 patients with a mean age of 64.8 years consisting of 61.2% women were included. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted odds ratios showed that when compared to men, women were 30%, 20%, 31%, 18%, 19%, 29%, and 39%, more likely to receive a narcotic analgesic, nonnarcotic analgesics, corticosteroid injection, hyaluronic acid injection, knee magnetic resonance imaging, a physical therapy evaluation, and occupational therapy evaluation in the 12 months preceding TKA, respectively. Women have a significantly higher utilization of knee OA-related health care in the 12 months preceding TKA. Although the precise cause for this discrepancy in care cannot be determined from this study, it highlights a potential bias in management of advanced knee OA and directions for further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Corrine W Ruktanonchai
Full Text Available Geographic accessibility to health facilities represents a fundamental barrier to utilisation of maternal and newborn health (MNH services, driving historically hidden spatial pockets of localized inequalities. Here, we examine utilisation of MNH care as an emergent property of accessibility, highlighting high-resolution spatial heterogeneity and sub-national inequalities in receiving care before, during, and after delivery throughout five East African countries.We calculated a geographic inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility at 300 x 300 m using a dataset of 9,314 facilities throughout Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Using Demographic and Health Surveys data, we utilised hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression to examine the odds of: 1 skilled birth attendance, 2 receiving 4+ antenatal care visits at time of delivery, and 3 receiving a postnatal health check-up within 48 hours of delivery. We applied model results onto the accessibility surface to visualise the probabilities of obtaining MNH care at both high-resolution and sub-national levels after adjusting for live births in 2015.Across all outcomes, decreasing wealth and education levels were associated with lower odds of obtaining MNH care. Increasing geographic inaccessibility scores were associated with the strongest effect in lowering odds of obtaining care observed across outcomes, with the widest disparities observed among skilled birth attendance. Specifically, for each increase in the inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility, the odds of having skilled birth attendance at delivery was reduced by over 75% (0.24; CI: 0.19-0.3, while the odds of receiving antenatal care decreased by nearly 25% (0.74; CI: 0.61-0.89 and 40% for obtaining postnatal care (0.58; CI: 0.45-0.75.Overall, these results suggest decreasing accessibility to the nearest health facility significantly deterred utilisation of all maternal health care services. These
Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Ruktanonchai, Nick W; Nove, Andrea; Lopes, Sofia; Pezzulo, Carla; Bosco, Claudio; Alegana, Victor A; Burgert, Clara R; Ayiko, Rogers; Charles, Andrew Sek; Lambert, Nkurunziza; Msechu, Esther; Kathini, Esther; Matthews, Zoë; Tatem, Andrew J
Geographic accessibility to health facilities represents a fundamental barrier to utilisation of maternal and newborn health (MNH) services, driving historically hidden spatial pockets of localized inequalities. Here, we examine utilisation of MNH care as an emergent property of accessibility, highlighting high-resolution spatial heterogeneity and sub-national inequalities in receiving care before, during, and after delivery throughout five East African countries. We calculated a geographic inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility at 300 x 300 m using a dataset of 9,314 facilities throughout Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Using Demographic and Health Surveys data, we utilised hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression to examine the odds of: 1) skilled birth attendance, 2) receiving 4+ antenatal care visits at time of delivery, and 3) receiving a postnatal health check-up within 48 hours of delivery. We applied model results onto the accessibility surface to visualise the probabilities of obtaining MNH care at both high-resolution and sub-national levels after adjusting for live births in 2015. Across all outcomes, decreasing wealth and education levels were associated with lower odds of obtaining MNH care. Increasing geographic inaccessibility scores were associated with the strongest effect in lowering odds of obtaining care observed across outcomes, with the widest disparities observed among skilled birth attendance. Specifically, for each increase in the inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility, the odds of having skilled birth attendance at delivery was reduced by over 75% (0.24; CI: 0.19-0.3), while the odds of receiving antenatal care decreased by nearly 25% (0.74; CI: 0.61-0.89) and 40% for obtaining postnatal care (0.58; CI: 0.45-0.75). Overall, these results suggest decreasing accessibility to the nearest health facility significantly deterred utilisation of all maternal health care services. These results
Mesa, Marady Sabiaga
Regular medical checkups indicate a patient's level of adherence to health care treatment, and the frequency of cancelled appointments or no-shows can indicate adherence. This study investigated the use of health care services by men and women and its impact on the control of their type 2 diabetes. This study observed 100 patients with type 2 diabetes aged 45 years or older who lived in Ventura County, California, during January 1, 2015, to January 31, 2016. The data were collected by Magnolia Family Medical Center. A Pearson χ 2 test compared differences between men and women in whether they received a glycated hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) test in previous 6 months, a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol test in previous year, and a retinal examination in previous year. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test compared attendance to medical appointments and HbA 1c values for men and women. Women had a higher rate of scheduling, cancelling or rescheduling, and showing up to their medical appointments than did men, and men had a higher median HbA 1c value than did women; all the Wilcoxon signed-rank tests showed a significant difference (P tests were significant. Although men and women had similar health care services for diabetes, men had less control of their disease and took less advantage of medical appointments than did women.
DE HERT, MARC; CORRELL, CHRISTOPH U.; BOBES, JULIO; CETKOVICH-BAKMAS, MARCELO; COHEN, DAN; ASAI, ITSUO; DETRAUX, JOHAN; GAUTAM, SHIV; MÖLLER, HANS-JURGEN; NDETEI, DAVID M.; NEWCOMER, JOHN W.; UWAKWE, RICHARD; LEUCHT, STEFAN
The lifespan of people with severe mental illness (SMI) is shorter compared to the general population. This excess mortality is mainly due to physical illness. We report prevalence rates of different physical illnesses as well as important individual lifestyle choices, side effects of psychotropic treatment and disparities in health care access, utilization and provision that contribute to these poor physical health outcomes. We searched MEDLINE (1966 – August 2010) combining the MeSH terms of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder with the different MeSH terms of general physical disease categories to select pertinent reviews and additional relevant studies through cross-referencing to identify prevalence figures and factors contributing to the excess morbidity and mortality rates. Nutritional and metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, viral diseases, respiratory tract diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, sexual dysfunction, pregnancy complications, stomatognathic diseases, and possibly obesity-related cancers are, compared to the general population, more prevalent among people with SMI. It seems that lifestyle as well as treatment specific factors account for much of the increased risk for most of these physical diseases. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence that people with SMI are less likely to receive standard levels of care for most of these diseases. Lifestyle factors, relatively easy to measure, are barely considered for screening; baseline testing of numerous important physical parameters is insufficiently performed. Besides modifiable lifestyle factors and side effects of psychotropic medications, access to and quality of health care remains to be improved for individuals with SMI. PMID:21379357
Kondo, Karli; Low, Allison; Everson, Teresa; Gordon, Christine D; Veazie, Stephanie; Lozier, Crystal C; Freeman, Michele; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua; Mendelson, Aaron; Friesen, Mark; Paynter, Robin; Friesen, Caroline; Anderson, Johanna; Boundy, Erin; Saha, Somnath; Quiñones, Ana; Kansagara, Devan
Goals for improving the quality of care for all Veterans and eliminating health disparities are outlined in the Veterans Health Administration Blueprint for Excellence, but the degree to which disparities in utilization, health outcomes, and quality of care affect Veterans is not well understood. To characterize the research on health care disparities in the Veterans Health Administration by means of a map of the evidence. We conducted a systematic search for research studies published from 2006 to February 2016 in MEDLINE and other data sources. We included studies of Veteran populations that examined disparities in 3 outcome categories: utilization, quality of health care, and patient health. We abstracted data on study design, setting, population, clinical area, outcomes, mediators, and presence of disparity for each outcome category. We grouped the data by population characteristics including race, disability status, mental illness, demographics (age, era of service, rural location, and distance from care), sex identity, socioeconomic status, and homelessness, and created maps illustrating the evidence. We reviewed 4249 citations and abstracted data from 351 studies which met inclusion criteria. Studies examining disparities by race/ethnicity comprised by far the vast majority of the literature, followed by studies examining disparities by sex, and mental health condition. Very few studies examined disparities related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity or homelessness. Disparities findings vary widely by population and outcome. Our evidence maps provide a "lay of the land" and identify important gaps in knowledge about health disparities experienced by different Veteran populations.
Bodenmann, P; Green, A R
Since 1887, the Policlinique Médicale Universitaire (PMU) has brought care to vulnerable populations who are at risk of poor physical, mental and social health. These include marginalised Swiss natives and immigrant communities (asylum seekers, undocumented immigrants). These patients are at risk of health disparities given their poor access to the health care system and lack of adapted quality care. Clinical approach must address these potential disparities, reinforced by a research describing them in order to explain their cause, and propose possible solutions, and a medical training addressing these topics from the undergraduate to the attending level. Through those holistic clinical approach, robust research and improved medical training, health providers will contribute to give quality care to all citizens, without exception!
Bethell, Christina; Forrest, Christopher B; Stumbo, Scott; Gombojav, Narangerel; Carle, Adam; Irwin, Charles E
School success predicts many pathways for health and well-being across the life span. Factors promoting or potentially impeding school success are critical to understand for all children and for children with special health care needs (CSHCN), whose life course trajectories are already impacted by their chronic health problems. The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health was used (1) to estimate national and state prevalence and within and across states disparities in factors promoting school success (engagement, participation, safety) or potentially impeding success (missing school, grade repetition, school identified problems) for all children and CSHCN and (2) to evaluate associations with CSHCN service need complexity and presence of emotional, behavioral or developmental problems (EBD) as well as with school case management policies in states. Among school age children, 60 % experienced all three factors promoting school success (49.3-73.8 % across states), dropping to 51.3 % for CSHCN (39.4-64.7 % across states) and to 36.2 % for the 40 % of all CSHCN who have both more complex service needs and EBD. CSHCN were more likely to experience factors potentially impeding school success. After accounting for child factors, CSHCN living in states requiring case management in schools for children with disabilities were less likely to experience grade repetition (OR 0.65). Within-state disparities between non-CSHCN and CSHCN varied across states. Threats to school success for US children are pervasive and are especially pronounced for CSHCN with more complex needs and EBD. Findings support broad, non-condition specific efforts to promote school success for CSHCN and consideration of state school policies, such as case management.
Kazak, A.E.; Bosch, J.; Klonoff, E.A.
With the initiation of this new ongoing special series in Health Psychology on health disparities, we will publish articles that highlight ways in which health psychology can contribute to understanding and ameliorating these disparities. We welcome articles for this new special series and
Fagan, Pebbles; Moolchan, Eric T; Lawrence, Deirdre; Fernander, Anita; Ponder, Paris K
Few frameworks have addressed work-force diversity, inequities and inequalities as part of a comprehensive approach to eliminating tobacco-related health disparities. This paper summarizes the literature and describes the known disparities that exist along the tobacco disease continuum for minority racial and ethnic groups, those living in poverty, those with low education and blue-collar and service workers. The paper also discusses how work-force diversity, inequities in research practice and knowledge allocation and inequalities in access to and quality of health care are fundamental to addressing disparities in health. We examined the available scientific literature and existing public health reports to identify disparities across the tobacco disease continuum by minority racial/ethnic group, poverty status, education level and occupation. Results indicate that differences in risk indicators along the tobacco disease continuum do not explain fully tobacco-related cancer consequences among some minority racial/ethnic groups, particularly among the aggregate groups, blacks/African Americans and American Indians/Alaska Natives. The lack of within-race/ethnic group data and its interactions with socio-economic factors across the life-span contribute to the inconsistency we observe in the disease causal paradigm. More comprehensive models are needed to understand the relationships among disparities, social context, diversity, inequalities and inequities. A systematic approach will also help researchers, practitioners, advocates and policy makers determine critical points for interventions, the types of studies and programs needed and integrative approaches needed to eliminate tobacco-related disparities.
Timmermans, Stefan; McKay, Tara
Bioethicists have warned against the dangers of mixing research with treatment. They are concerned that research priorities may take precedence over individual patient needs and that research subjects tend to misunderstand the purpose of research or overestimate the direct medical benefits of participating in studies. Yet, other work has questioned whether clinical research can always be separated from therapeutic benefit for participants. Using in-depth interviews with participants in two phase III randomized U.S. clinical trials for methamphetamine dependency, we examine the treatment options available to participants, their experiences with participating in the trials, and potential problems of trial participation. We find that while participants have experience with four alternative treatment modalities - quitting alone, support groups, in-patient treatment facilities, and consulting primary care physicians - the randomized clinical trials compare favorably to alternatives because they provide access to evidence-based behavioral treatments, specialized medical professionals, non-judgmental staff, and the possibility of receiving an experimental drug. We conclude that while randomized clinical trials are imperfect substitutes for clinical care, they constitute a fragile and sporadic therapeutic niche in a country with fundamental problems in access to health care, a mixed punitive-therapeutic drug addiction policy, and a profit-driven pharmaceutical development and approval process.
Chung, Hyun Jung; Han, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hyerang; Finkelstein, Julia L
Childhood immunization rates are at an all-time high globally, and national data for China suggests close to universal coverage. Refugees from North Korea and their children may have more limited health care access in China due to their legal status. However, there is no data on immunization rates or barriers to coverage in this population. This study was conducted to determine the rates and correlates of immunizations in children (≥1 year) born to North Korean refugees in Yanbien, China. Child immunization data was obtained from vaccination cards and caregiver self-report for 7 vaccines and 1:3:3:3:1 series. Age-appropriate vaccination rates of refugee children were compared to Chinese and migrant children using a goodness-of-fit test. Logistic regression was used to determine correlates of immunization coverage for each vaccine and the 1:3:3:3:1 series. Age-appropriate immunization coverage rates were significantly lower in children born to North Korean refugees (12.1-97.8 %), compared to Chinese (99 %) and migrant (95 %) children. Increased father's age and having a sibling predicted significantly lower vaccination rates. Children born to North Korean refugees had significantly lower immunization rates, compared to Chinese or migrant children. Further research is needed to examine barriers of health care access in this high-risk population.
Green, Alexander R
In the last 20 years, the issue of disparities in health between racial/ethnic groups has moved from the realm of common sense and anecdote to the realm of science. Hard, cold data now force us to consider what many had long taken for granted. Not only does health differ by race/ethnicity, but our health care system itself is deeply biased. From lack of diversity in the leadership and workforce, to ethnocentric systems of care, to biased clinical decision-making, the American health care system is geared to treat the majority, while the minority suffers. The photos shown here are of patients and scenes that recall some of the important landmarks in research on racial/ethnic disparities in health. The purpose is to put faces and humanity onto the numbers. While we now have great bodies of evidence upon which to lobby for change, in the end, each statistic still represents a personal tragedy or an individual triumph.
Ahmed, S.; Shahid, R.K.
Canada is facing cancer crisis. Cancer has become the leading cause of death in Canada. Despite recent advances in cancer management and research, growing disparities in cancer care have been noticed, especially in socio-economically disadvantaged groups and under-served communities. With the rising incidence of cancer and the increasing numbers of minorities and of social disparities in general, and without appropriate interventions, cancer care disparities will become only more pronounced. ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine recommendation by a health care provider (HCP is an important predictor of vaccine receipt. We examined whether being of a minority race/ethnicity, having lower income and education, and the lack of health insurance and a regular HCP are each associated with a lower likelihood of a discussion on HPV vaccine occurring between a woman and her HCP. Methods A sample of 1,631 women aged 18 years and older was drawn from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey. Given that only a subgroup of women who were aware of the HPV vaccine were asked if they had a discussion with their HCPs, we estimated a probit model correcting for sample selection. Results Among those aware of the HPV vaccine, 17.3% of respondents reported having discussions on the vaccine with their HCPs. Compared with Whites, African Americans were less likely to be aware of the HPV vaccine but more likely to have discussions with their HCPs concerning the vaccine. A statistically significant association between lower income and education levels and a lower likelihood of HPV vaccine awareness was observed, but low levels of income and education did not appear to affect the probability of having HPV vaccine discussions with HCPs. Conclusions Socioeconomically disadvantaged women did not show a lower propensity to have vaccine discussions with their HCPs, suggesting that HCPs can be a major catalyst in increasing vaccine receipt among the higher risk group. The results of the study suggest a two-pronged approach that seeks to raise vaccine awareness among socioeconomically disadvantaged women at the population level and encourages HCPs to intensify discussions about the HPV vaccine with patients.
The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing. PMID:21551378
Davis, Melinda M; Spurlock, Margaret; Dulacki, Kristen; Meath, Thomas; Li, Hsin-Fang Grace; McCarty, Dennis; Warne, Donald; Wright, Bill; McConnell, K John
Research on urban/rural disparities in alcohol, drug use, and mental health (ADM) conditions is inconsistent. This study describes ADM condition prevalence and access to care across diverse geographies in a predominantly rural state. Multimodal cross-sectional survey in South Dakota from November 2013 to October 2014, with oversampling in rural areas and American Indian reservations. Measures assessed demographic characteristics, ADM condition prevalence using clinical screenings and participant self-report, perceived need for treatment, health service usage, and barriers to obtaining care. We tested for differences among urban, rural, isolated, and reservation geographic areas, controlling for participant age and gender. We analyzed 7,675 surveys (48% response rate). Generally, ADM condition prevalence rates were not significantly different across geographies. However, respondents in isolated and reservation areas were significantly less likely to have access to primary care. Knowledge of treatment options was significantly lower in isolated regions and individuals in reservation areas had significantly lower odds of reporting receipt of all needed care. Across the sample there was substantial discordance between ADM clinical screenings and participant self-reported need; 98.1% of respondents who screened positive for alcohol or drug misuse and 63.8% of respondents who screened positive for a mental health condition did not perceive a need for care. In a predominantly rural state, geographic disparities in ADM conditions are related to differences in access as opposed to prevalence, particularly for individuals in isolated and reservation areas. Educational interventions about ADM condition characteristics may be as important as improving access to care. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.
Onukwugha, Eberechukwu; Duru, O Kenrik; Peprah, Emmanuel
The articles presented in this special issue advance the conversation by describing the current efforts, findings and concerns related to Big Data and health disparities. They offer important recommendations and perspectives to consider when designing systems that can usefully leverage Big Data to reduce health disparities. We hope that ongoing Big Data efforts can build on these contributions to advance the conversation, address our embedded assumptions, and identify levers for action to reduce health care disparities.
Zanoni, Brian C; Mayer, Kenneth H
Little is known about how adolescents and young adults contribute to the declines in the cascade of care from HIV-1 diagnosis to viral suppression. We reviewed published literature from the Unites States reporting primary data for youth (13-29 years of age) at each stage of the HIV cascade of care. Approximately 41% of HIV-infected youth in the United States are aware of their diagnosis, while only 62% of those diagnosed engage medical care within 12 months of diagnosis. Of the youth who initiate antiretroviral therapy, only 54% achieve viral suppression and a further 57% are not retained in care. We estimate less than 6% of HIV-infected youth in the United States remain virally suppressed. We explore the cascade of care from HIV diagnosis through viral suppression for HIV-infected adolescents and young adults in the United States to highlight areas for improvement in the poor engagement of the infected youth population.
Elam, Angela R; Andrews, Chris; Musch, David C; Lee, Paul P; Stein, Joshua D
glaucoma testing compared with persons with commercial health insurance. Disparities in testing are observed across all races/ethnicities but were most notable for blacks. These findings are particularly disconcerting because blacks are more likely than whites to go blind from OAG and there are disproportionately more blacks in Medicaid. Efforts are needed to improve the quality of glaucoma care for Medicaid recipients, especially racial minorities. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zanoni, Brian C.; Mayer, Kenneth H.
Little is known about how adolescents and young adults contribute to the declines in the cascade of care from HIV-1 diagnosis to viral suppression. We reviewed published literature from the Unites States reporting primary data for youth (13–29 years of age) at each stage of the HIV cascade of care. Approximately 41% of HIV-infected youth in the United States are aware of their diagnosis, while only 62% of those diagnosed engage medical care within 12 months of diagnosis. Of the youth who init...
Ault-Brutus, Andrea; Alegria, Margarita
This study examines whether there are racial/ethnic differences in perceived need for mental health care among those with a mood and/or anxiety disorder in 1990-1992 and 2001-2003 in the US. Then among those with perceived need, we examine whether racial/ethnic disparities in use of mental health care existed in both time periods. Using data from the 1990-1992 National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) and 2001-2003 National Comorbidity Survey - Replication (NCS-R), the study analyzes whether whites differed from blacks and Latinos in rates of perceived need among those with a mood and/or anxiety disorder in 1990-1992 and 2001-2003. Then among those with a disorder and perceived need, rates of mental health care use for whites are compared to black rates and Latino rates in within the 1990-1992 cohort and then within the 2001-2003 cohort. There were no statistical racial/ethnic differences in perceived need in both time periods. Among those with perceived need in 1990-1992, there were no statistical racial/ethnic disparities in the use of mental health care. However, in 2001-2003, disparities in mental health care use existed among those with perceived need. The emergence of racial/ethnic disparities in use of mental health care among those with a perceived need for care in 2001-2003 suggests that personal/cultural belief along with issues concerning access and quality of mental health care may create barriers to receiving perceived needed care. More research is needed to understand why these disparities emerged among those with perceived need in the latter time period and whether these disparities continue to exist in more recent years.
Bukowski, Leigh A; Blosnich, John; Shipherd, Jillian C; Kauth, Michael R; Brown, George R; Gordon, Adam J
Research shows transgender individuals experience pronounced health disparities compared with their nontransgender peers. Yet, there remains insufficient research about health differences within transgender populations. This study seeks to fill this gap by exploring how current urban/rural status is associated with lifetime diagnosis of mood disorder, alcohol dependence disorder, illicit drug abuse disorder, tobacco use, posttraumatic stress disorder, human immunodeficiency virus, and suicidal ideation or attempt among veterans with transgender-related diagnoses. This study used a retrospective review of The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) administrative data for transgender patients who received VA care from 1997 through 2014. Transgender patients were defined as individuals that had a lifetime diagnosis of any of 4 International Classification of Diseases-9 diagnosis codes associated with transgender status. Independent multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore associations of rural status with medical conditions. Veterans with transgender-related diagnoses residing in small/isolated rural towns had increased odds of tobacco use disorder (adjusted odds ratio=1.39; 95% confidence intervals, 1.09-1.78) and posttraumatic stress disorder (adjusted odds ratio=1.33; 95% confidence intervals, 1.03-1.71) compared with their urban transgender peers. Urban/rural status was not significantly associated with other medical conditions of interest. This study contributes the first empirical investigations of how place of residence is associated with medical diagnoses among veterans with transgender-related diagnoses. The importance of place as a determinant of health is increasingly clear, but for veterans with transgender-related diagnoses this line of research is currently limited. The addition of self-reported sex identity data within VA electronic health records is one way to advance this line of research.
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Life at the top of the globe is drastically different. Harsh climate devoid of sunlight part of the year, pockets of extreme poverty, and lack of physical infrastructure interfere with healthcare and public health services. Learn about the challenges of people in the Arctic and how research and the International Polar Year address them.
Life at the top of the globe is drastically different. Harsh climate devoid of sunlight part of the year, pockets of extreme poverty, and lack of physical infrastructure interfere with healthcare and public health services. Learn about the challenges of people in the Arctic and how research and the International Polar Year address them. Created: 2/4/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases. Date Released: 2/20/2008.
Barnett, Miya L; Lau, Anna S; Miranda, Jeanne
Mobilizing lay health workers (LHWs) to deliver evidence-based treatments (EBTs) is a workforce strategy to address mental health disparities in underserved communities. LHWs can be leveraged to support access to EBTs in a variety of ways, from conducting outreach for EBTs delivered by professional providers to serving as the primary treatment providers. This critical review provides an overview of how LHW-supported or -delivered EBTs have been leveraged in low-, middle-, and high-income countries (HICs). We propose a conceptual model for LHWs to address drivers of service disparities, which relate to the overall supply of the EBTs provided and the demand for these treatments. The review provides illustrative case examples that demonstrate how LHWs have been leveraged globally and domestically to increase access to mental health services. It also discusses challenges and recommendations regarding implementing LHW-supported or -delivered EBTs.
Wamala, Sarah; Merlo, Juan; Boström, Gunnel
To analyse the effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on access to dental care services and on oral health. Design, setting and outcomes: Cross-sectional data from the Swedish National Surveys of Public Health 2004 and 2005. Outcomes were poor oral health (self-rated oral health and symptoms of periodontal disease) and lack of access to dental care services. A socioeconomic disadvantage index (SDI) was developed, consisting of social welfare beneficiary, being unemployed, financial crisis and lack of cash reserves. Swedish population-based sample of 17 362 men and 20 037 women. Every instance of increasing levels of socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with worsened oral health but, simultaneously, with decreased utilisation of dental care services. After adjusting for age, men with a mild SDI compared with those with no SDI had 2.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5 to 3.0) times the odds for self-rated poor oral health, whereas odds related to severe SDI were 6.8 (95% CI 6.2 to 7.5). The corresponding values among women were 2.3 (95% CI 2.1 to 2.5) and 6.8 (95% CI 6.3 to 7.5). Nevertheless, people with severe socioeconomic disparities were 7-9 times as likely to refrain from seeking the required dental treatment. These associations persisted even after controlling for living alone, education, occupational status and lifestyle factors. Lifestyle factors explained only 29% of the socioeconomic differences in poor oral health among men and women, whereas lack of access to dental care services explained about 60%. The results of the multilevel regression analysis indicated no additional effect of the administrative boundaries of counties or of municipalities in Sweden. Results call for urgent public health interventions to increase equitable access to dental care services.
Towne, Samuel D; Probst, Janice C; Hardin, James W; Bell, Bethany A; Glover, Saundra
In the United States (US) and elsewhere, residents of low resource areas face health-related disparities, and may experience different outcomes throughout times of severe economic flux. We aimed to identify individual (e.g. sociodemographic) and environmental (e.g. region, rurality) factors associated with self-reported health and forgone medical care due to the cost of treatment in the US across the Great Recession (2008-2009). We analyzed nationally representative data (2004-2010) using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in the US. Individual and geospatial factors (rurality, census region) were used to identify differences in self-reported health and forgone medical care due to the cost. Adjusted-analyses taking into account individual and geospatial factors among those with incomes Recession were more likely to report forgone care than before the Recession. Having insurance and/or being employed (versus unemployed) was a protective factor in terms of reporting fair/poor health and having to forgo health care due to cost. Policies affecting improvements in health and access for vulnerable populations (e.g., low-income minority adults) are critical. Monitoring trends related to Social Determinants of Health, including the relationship between health and place (e.g. Census region, rurality), is necessary in efforts targeted towards ameliorating disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Glover, Saundra; Bellinger, Jessica D.; Bae, Sejong; Rivers, Patrick A.; Singh, Karan P.
Objective: The objective of this study is to determine racial and ethnic variations in specialty care utilization based on (a) perceived health status and (b) chronic disease status. Methods: Variations in specialty care utilization, by perceived health and chronic disease status, were examined using the Commonwealth Fund Health Care Quality…
Jones, Cynthia M
Health disparities exist along lines of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic class in US society. I argue that we should work to eliminate these health disparities because their existence is a moral wrong that needs to be addressed. Health disparities are morally wrong because they exemplify historical injustices. Contractarian ethics, Kantian ethics, and utilitarian ethics all provide theoretical justification for viewing health disparities as a moral wrong, as do several ethical principles of primary importance in bioethics. The moral consequences of health disparities are also troubling and further support the claim that these disparities are a moral wrong. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides additional support that health disparities are a moral wrong, as does an analogy with the generally accepted duty to provide equal access to education. In this article, I also consider and respond to 3 objections to my thesis.
Chandoevwit, Worawan; Phatchana, Phasith
The Thai elderly are eligible for the Civil Servant Medical Benefit Scheme (CS) or Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS) depending on their pre-retirement or their children work status. This study aimed to investigate the disparity in inpatient care expenditures in the last year of life among Thai elderly individuals who used the two public health insurance schemes. Using death registration and inpatient administrative data from 2007 to 2011, our subpopulation group included the elderly with four chronic disease groups: diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, heart disease, and cancer. Among 1,242,150 elderly decedents, about 40% of them had at least one of the four chronic disease conditions and were hospitalized in their last year of life. The results showed that the means of inpatient care expenditures in the last year of life paid by CS and UCS per decedent were 99,672 Thai Baht and 52,472 Thai Baht, respectively. On average, UCS used higher healthcare resources by diagnosis-related group relative weight measure per decedent compared with CS. In all cases, the rates of payment for inpatient treatment per diagnosis-related group adjusted relative weight were higher for CS than UCS. This study found that the disparities in inpatient care expenditures in the last year of life stemmed mainly from the difference in payment rates. To mitigate this disparity, unified payment rates for various types of treatment that reflect costs of hospital care across insurance schemes were recommended. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nyarko, Kwame A.; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.
Objectives. We sought to quantify how socioeconomic, health care, demographic, and geographic effects explain racial disparities in low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) rates in Brazil. Methods. We employed a sample of 8949 infants born between 1995 and 2009 in 15 cities and 7 provinces in Brazil. We focused on disparities in LBW (Public policies to improve children’s health should target prenatal care and geographic location differences to reduce health disparities between infants of African and European ancestries in Brazil. PMID:26313046
James H. Price
Full Text Available Racial/ethnic minorities are 1.5 to 2.0 times more likely than whites to have most of the major chronic diseases. Chronic diseases are also more common in the poor than the nonpoor and this association is frequently mediated by race/ethnicity. Specifically, children are disproportionately affected by racial/ethnic health disparities. Between 1960 and 2005 the percentage of children with a chronic disease in the United States almost quadrupled with racial/ethnic minority youth having higher likelihood for these diseases. The most common major chronic diseases of youth in the United States are asthma, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, dental disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, mental illness, cancers, sickle-cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and a variety of genetic and other birth defects. This review will focus on the psychosocial rather than biological factors that play important roles in the etiology and subsequent solutions to these health disparities because they should be avoidable and they are inherently unjust. Finally, this review examines access to health services by focusing on health insurance and dental insurance coverage and access to school health services.
Kennedy, Jae; Wood, Elizabeth Geneva; Frieden, Lex
The objective of this study was to assess trends in health insurance coverage, health service utilization, and health care access among working-age adults with and without disabilities before and after full implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), and to identify current disability-based disparities following full implementation of the ACA. The ACA was expected to have a disproportionate impact on working-age adults with disabilities, because of their high health care usage as well as their previously limited insurance options. However, most published research on this population does not systematically look at effects before and after full implementation of the ACA. As the US Congress considers new health policy reforms, current and accurate data on this vulnerable population are essential. Weighted estimates, trend analyses and analytic models were conducted using the 1998-2016 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) and the 2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Compared with working-age adults without disabilities, those with disabilities are less likely to work, more likely to earn below the federal poverty level, and more likely to use public insurance. Average health costs for this population are 3 to 7 times higher, and access problems are far more common. Repeal of key features of the ACA, like Medicaid expansion and marketplace subsidies, would likely diminish health care access for working-age adults with disabilities.
Study Protocol: establishing good relationships between patients and health care providers while providing cardiac care. Exploring how patient-clinician engagement contributes to health disparities between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians in South Australia
Roe Yvette L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies that compare Indigenous Australian and non-Indigenous patients who experience a cardiac event or chest pain are inconclusive about the reasons for the differences in-hospital and survival rates. The advances in diagnostic accuracy, medication and specialised workforce has contributed to a lower case fatality and lengthen survival rates however this is not evident in the Indigenous Australian population. A possible driver contributing to this disparity may be the impact of patient-clinician interface during key interactions during the health care process. Methods/Design This study will apply an Indigenous framework to describe the interaction between Indigenous patients and clinicians during the continuum of cardiac health care, i.e. from acute admission, secondary and rehabilitative care. Adopting an Indigenous framework is more aligned with Indigenous realities, knowledge, intellects, histories and experiences. A triple layered designed focus group will be employed to discuss patient-clinician engagement. Focus groups will be arranged by geographic clusters i.e. metropolitan and a regional centre. Patient informants will be identified by Indigenous status (i.e. Indigenous and non-Indigenous and the focus groups will be convened separately. The health care provider focus groups will be convened on an organisational basis i.e. state health providers and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services. Yarning will be used as a research method to facilitate discussion. Yarning is in congruence with the oral traditions that are still a reality in day-to-day Indigenous lives. Discussion This study is nestled in a larger research program that explores the drivers to the disparity of care and health outcomes for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians who experience an acute cardiac admission. A focus on health status, risk factors and clinical interventions may camouflage critical issues within a patient
Fletcher, Rebecca Adkins
A major goal of The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is to broaden health care access through the extension of insurance coverage. However, little attention has been given to growing disparities in access to health care among the insured, as trends to reduce benefits and increase cost sharing (deductibles, co-pays) reduce affordability and access. Through a political economic perspective that critiques moral hazard, this article draws from ethnographic research with the United Steelworkers (USW) at a steel mill and the Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union (RWDSU) at a food-processing plant in urban Central Appalachia. In so doing, this article describes difficulties of health care affordability on the eve of reform for differentially insured working families with employer-sponsored health insurance. Additionally, this article argues that the proposed Cadillac tax on high-cost health plans will increase problems with appropriate health care access and medical financial burden for many families. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.
Cox, Raymond L.
The United States spends more than the rest of the world on healthcare. In 2000, the U.S. health bill was 1.3 trillion dollars, 14.5% of its gross domestic product. Yet, according to the WHO World Health Report 2000, the United States ranked 37th of 191 member nations in overall health system performance. Racial/ethnic disparities in health outcomes are the most obvious examples of an unbalanced healthcare system. This presentation will examine health disparities in the United States and reveal how health disparities among and within countries affect the health and well-being of the African Diaspora. PMID:15101675
Alas, Alexandriah N; Dunivan, Gena C; Wieslander, Cecelia K; Sevilla, Claudia; Barrera, Biatris; Rashid, Rezoana; Maliski, Sally; Eilber, Karen; Rogers, Rebecca G; Anger, Jennifer Tash
The objective of this study was to compare perceptions and barriers between Spanish-speaking and English-speaking women in public and private hospitals being treated for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Eight focus groups, 4 in English and 4 in Spanish, were conducted at 3 institutions with care in female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery. Standardized questions were asked regarding patients' emotions to when they initially noticed the POP, if they sought family support, and their response to the diagnosis and treatment. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory qualitative methods. Thirty-three women were Spanish-speaking and 25 were English-speaking. Spanish speakers were younger (P = 0.0469) and less likely to have a high school diploma (P speaking women had more concerns that the bulge or treatments could lead to cancer, were more resistant to treatment options, and were less likely to be offered surgery. Women in the private hospital desired more information, were less embarrassed, and were more likely to be offered surgery as first-line treatment. The concept emerged that patient care for POP varied based on socioeconomic status and language and suggested the presence of disparities in care for underserved women with POP. The discrepancies in care for Spanish-speaking women and women being treated at public hospitals suggest that there are disparities in care for POP treatment for underserved women. These differences may be secondary to profit-driven pressures from private hospitals or language barriers, low socioeconomic status, low health literacy, and barriers to health care.
Veale, Jaimie F; Watson, Ryan J; Peter, Tracey; Saewyc, Elizabeth M
This study documented the prevalence of mental health problems among transgender youth in Canada and made comparisons with population-based studies. This study also compared gender identity subgroups and age subgroups (14-18 and 19-25). A nonprobability sample of 923 transgender youth from Canada completed an online survey. Participants were recruited through community organizations, health care settings, social media, and researchers' networks. Mental health measures were drawn from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey. Transgender youth had a higher risk of reporting psychological distress, self-harm, major depressive episodes, and suicide. For example, 65% of transgender 14- to 18-year olds seriously considered suicide in the past year compared with 13% in the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey, and only a quarter of participants reported their mental health was good or excellent. Transgender boys/men and nonbinary youth were most likely to report self-harm and overall mental health remained stable across age subgroups. Although a notable minority of transgender youth did not report negative health outcomes, this study shows the mental health disparities faced by transgender youth in Canada are considerable. Copyright Â© 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heltberg, Andreas; Andersen, John Sahl; Kragstrup, Jakob
Objective: We investigated the association between socioeconomic factors and the attainment of treatment goals and pharmacotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes in Denmark. Design: A cross-sectional population study. Setting: The municipality of Naestved, Denmark. Subjects: We studied 907...... patients with type 2 diabetes identified from a random sample of 21,205 Danish citizens. Main outcome measures: The proportion of patients who were not achieving goals for diabetes care based on their HbA1c, LDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and lifestyle, and the proportion of patients who were treated...... with antihypertensive and cholesterol- and glucose-lowering medication. Methods: We investigated the association of the socioeconomic factors such as age, gender, education, occupation, income, and civil status and attainment of treatment goals and pharmacotherapy in logistic regression analyses. We investigated effect...
... and the bacterium H. pylori (stomach cancer) in immigrant countries of origin contributes to these disparities. ( ACS ) ... Cancer.gov en español Multimedia Publications Site Map Digital Standards for NCI Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy ...
Meghani, Salimah H
The current health care system in the United States is structured in a way that ensures that more opportunity and resources flow to the wealthy and socially advantaged. The values intrinsic to the current profit-oriented culture are directly antithetical to the idea of equitable access. A large body of literature points to disparities in pain treatment and pain outcomes among vulnerable groups. These disparities range from the presence of disproportionately higher numbers and magnitude of risk factors for developing disabling pain, lack of access to primary care providers, analgesics and interventions, lack of referral to pain specialists, longer wait times to receive care, receipt of poor quality of pain care, and lack of geographical access to pharmacies that carry opioids. This article examines the manner in which the profit-oriented culture in medicine has directly and indirectly structured access to pain care, thereby widening pain treatment disparities among vulnerable groups. Specifically, the author argues that the corporatization of pain medicine amplifies disparities in pain outcomes in two ways: 1) directly through driving up the cost of pain care, rendering it inaccessible to the financially vulnerable; and 2) indirectly through an interface with corporate loss-aversion/risk management culture that draws upon irrelevant social characteristics, thus worsening disparities for certain populations. Thus, while financial vulnerability is the core reason for lack of access, it does not fully explain the implications of corporate microculture regarding access. The effect of corporatization on pain medicine must be conceptualized in terms of overt access to facilities, providers, pharmaceuticals, specialty services, and interventions, but also in terms of the indirect or covert effect of corporate culture in shaping clinical interactions and outcomes. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
These examples show how biology contributes to health disparities (differences in disease incidence and outcomes among distinct racial and ethnic groups, ), and how biological factors interact with other relevant factors, such as diet and the environment.
Lion, K Casey; Raphael, Jean L
Disparities in pediatric health care quality are well described in the literature, yet practical approaches to decreasing them remain elusive. Quality improvement (QI) approaches are appealing for addressing disparities because they offer a set of strategies by which to target modifiable aspects of care delivery and a method for tailoring or changing an intervention over time based on data monitoring. However, few examples in the literature exist of QI interventions successfully decreasing disparities, particularly in pediatrics, due to well-described challenges in developing, implementing, and studying QI with vulnerable populations or in underresourced settings. In addition, QI interventions aimed at improving quality overall may not improve disparities, and in some cases, may worsen them if there is greater uptake or effectiveness of the intervention among the population with better outcomes at baseline. In this article, the authors review some of the challenges faced by researchers and frontline clinicians seeking to use QI to address health disparities and propose an agenda for moving the field forward. Specifically, they propose that those designing and implementing disparities-focused QI interventions reconsider comparator groups, use more rigorous evaluation methods, carefully consider the evidence for particular interventions and the context in which they were developed, directly engage the social determinants of health, and leverage community resources to build collaborative networks and engage community members. Ultimately, new partnerships between communities, providers serving vulnerable populations, and QI researchers will be required for QI interventions to achieve their potential related to health care disparity reduction. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health and Health Care: an Assessment and Analysis of the Awareness and Perceptions of Public Health Workers Implementing a Statewide Community Transformation Grant in Texas.
Akinboro, Oladimeji; Ottenbacher, Allison; Martin, Marcus; Harrison, Roderick; James, Thomas; Martin, Eddilisa; Murdoch, James; Linnear, Kim; Cardarelli, Kathryn
Little is known about the awareness of public health professionals regarding racial and ethnic disparities in health in the United States of America (USA). Our study objective was to assess the awareness and perceptions of a group of public health workers in Texas regarding racial health disparities and their chief contributing causes. We surveyed public health professionals working on a statewide grant in Texas, who were participants at health disparities' training workshops. Multivariable logistic regression was employed in examining the association between the participants' characteristics and their perceptions of the social determinants of health as principal causes of health disparities. There were 106 respondents, of whom 38 and 35 % worked in health departments and non-profit organizations, respectively. The racial/ethnic groups with the highest incidence of HIV/AIDS and hypertension were correctly identified by 63 and 50 % of respondents, respectively, but only 17, and 32 % were knowledgeable regarding diabetes and cancer, respectively. Seventy-one percent of respondents perceived that health disparities are driven by the major axes of the social determinants of health. Exposure to information about racial/ethnic health disparities within the prior year was associated with a higher odds of perceiving that social determinants of health were causes of health disparities (OR 9.62; 95 % CI 2.77, 33.41). Among public health workers, recent exposure to information regarding health disparities may be associated with their perceptions of health disparities. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of such exposure on their long-term perception of disparities, as well as the equity of services and programs they administer.
Adler, Nancy E
There is growing concern in the United States about avoidable, unjust differences in health associated with sociodemographic characteristics, such as socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. This concern has sparked research to identify how disparities develop and how they can be reduced. Studies showing that disparities occur at all levels of socioeconomic status, not simply at the very bottom, suggest that psychosocial factors play an important role. The author discusses both content and process issues in psychological research on disparities. Copyright 2009 by the American Psychological Association
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Full Text Available Abstract Background Among European countries, Italy is one of the countries where regional health disparities contribute substantially to socioeconomic health disparities. In this paper, we report on regional differences in self-reported poor health and explore possible determinants at the individual and regional levels in Italy. Methods We use data from the "Indagine Multiscopo sulle Famiglie", a survey of aspects of everyday life in the Italian population, to estimate multilevel logistic regressions that model poor self-reported health as a function of individual and regional socioeconomic factors. Next we use the causal step approach to test if living conditions, healthcare characteristics, social isolation, and health behaviors at the regional level mediate the relationship between regional socioeconomic factors and self-rated health. Results We find that residents living in regions with more poverty, more unemployment, and more income inequality are more likely to report poor health and that poor living conditions and private share of healthcare expenditures at the regional level mediate socioeconomic disparities in self-rated health among Italian regions. Conclusion The implications are that regional contexts matter and that regional policies in Italy have the potential to reduce health disparities by implementing interventions aimed at improving living conditions and access to quality healthcare.
Cutilli, Carolyn Crane; Simko, Lynn C; Colbert, Alison M; Bennett, Ian M
Low health literacy in older adults has been associated with poor health outcomes (i.e., mortality, decreased physical and cognitive functioning, and less preventive care utilization). Many factors associated with low health literacy are also associated with health disparities. Interaction with healthcare providers and sources of health information are influenced by an individual's health literacy and can impact health outcomes. This study examined the relationships between health literacy, sources of health information, and demographic/background characteristics in older adults (aged 65 years and older) related to health literacy and disparities. This descriptive, correlational study is a secondary analysis of the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy, a large-scale national assessment. Older adults with lower health literacy have less income and education, rate their health as poor or fair, have visual or auditory difficulties, need help filling out forms, reading newspaper, or writing notes, and use each source of health information less (print and nonprint). Many of these characteristics and skills are predictive of health literacy and associated with health disparities. The results expand our knowledge of characteristics associated with health literacy and sources of health information used by older adults. Interventions to improve health outcomes including health disparities can focus on recognizing and meeting the health literacy demands of older adults.
Cheng, Tina L; Emmanuel, Mickey A; Levy, Daniel J; Jenkins, Renee R
Pediatric primary and specialty practice has changed, with more to do, more regulation, and more family needs than in the past. Similarly, the needs of patients have changed, with more demographic diversity, family stress, and continued health disparities by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. How can clinicians continue their dedicated service to children and ensure health equity in the face of these changes? This article outlines specific, practical, actionable, and evidence-based activities to help clinicians assess and address health disparities in practice. These tools may also support patient-centered medical home recognition, national and state cultural and linguistic competency standards, and quality benchmarks that are increasingly tied to payment. Clinicians can play a critical role in (1) diagnosing disparities in one's community and practice, (2) innovating new models to address social determinants of health, (3) addressing health literacy of families, (4) ensuring cultural competence and a culture of workplace equity, and (5) advocating for issues that address the root causes of health disparities. Culturally competent care that is sensitive to the needs, health literacy, and health beliefs of families can increase satisfaction, improve quality of care, and increase patient safety. Clinical care approaches to address social determinants of health and interrupting the intergenerational cycle of disadvantage include (1) screening for new health "vital signs" and connecting families to resources, (2) enhancing the comprehensiveness of services, (3) addressing family health in pediatric encounters, and (4) moving care outside the office into the community. Health system investment is required to support clinicians and practice innovation to ensure equity. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
McGregor, Brian; Mack, Dominic; Wrenn, Glenda; Shim, Ruth S; Holden, Kisha; Satcher, David
Despite widespread support for removing barriers to the use of electronic health records (EHRs) in behavioral health care, adoption of EHRs in behavioral health settings lags behind adoption in other areas of health care. The authors discuss barriers to use of EHRs among behavioral health care practitioners, suggest solutions to overcome these barriers, and describe the potential benefits of EHRs to reduce behavioral health care disparities. Thoughtful and comprehensive strategies will be needed to design EHR systems that address concerns about policy, practice, costs, and stigma and that protect patients' privacy and confidentiality. However, these goals must not detract from continuing to challenge the notion that behavioral health and general medical health should be treated as separate and distinct. Ultimately, utilization of EHRs among behavioral health care providers will improve the coordination of services and overall patient care, which is essential to reducing mental health disparities.
Muoto, Ifeoma; Luck, Jeff; Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Snowden, Jonathan M
Policies at the state and federal levels affect access to health services, including prenatal care. In 2012 the State of Oregon implemented a major reform of its Medicaid program. The new model, called a coordinated care organization (CCO), is designed to improve the coordination of care for Medicaid beneficiaries. This reform effort provides an ideal opportunity to evaluate the impact of broad financing and delivery reforms on prenatal care use. Using birth certificate data from Oregon and Washington State, we evaluated the effect of CCO implementation on the probability of early prenatal care initiation, prenatal care adequacy, and disparities in prenatal care use by type of insurance. Following CCO implementation, we found significant increases in early prenatal care initiation and a reduction in disparities across insurance types but no difference in overall prenatal care adequacy. Oregon's reforms could serve as a model for other Medicaid and commercial health plans seeking to improve prenatal care quality and reduce disparities. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Zonderman, Alan B; Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer; Evans, Michele K
Despite the advances in cancer medicine and the resultant 20% decline in cancer death rates for Americans since 1991, there remain distinct cancer health disparities among African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and the those living in poverty. Minorities and the poor continue to bear the disproportionate burden of cancer, especially in terms of stage at diagnosis, incidence, and mortality. Cancer health disparities are persistent reminders that state-of-the-art cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are not equally effective for and accessible to all Americans. The cancer prevention model must take into account the phenotype of accelerated aging associated with health disparities as well as the important interplay of biological and sociocultural factors that lead to disparate health outcomes. The building blocks of this prevention model will include interdisciplinary prevention modalities that encourage partnerships across medical and nonmedical entities, community-based participatory research, development of ethnically and racially diverse research cohorts, and full actualization of the prevention benefits outlined in the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. However, the most essential facet should be a thoughtful integration of cancer prevention and screening into prevention, screening, and disease management activities for hypertension and diabetes mellitus because these chronic medical illnesses have a substantial prevalence in populations at risk for cancer disparities and cause considerable comorbidity and likely complicate effective treatment and contribute to disproportionate cancer death rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lee, S S
This paper examines emerging technologies and recent research on population differences in pharmacogenomics and the perspectives of scientists, community advocates, policymakers, and social critics on the use of race as a proxy for genetic variation. The discussion focuses on how recent developments in genomic science impact social understandings of racial difference and the public health goal to eliminate ongoing health disparities among racially identified groups. This paper examines how factors such as governmental policies--requiring the use of racial and ethnic categories in genetic research and increasing interest in identifying untapped racial market niches by the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries--and weak governmental oversight of race-based therapeutics converge to create an 'infrastructure of racialization' that may alter the vision of personalized medicine that has been so highly anticipated. This paper argues that significant public investment in pharmacogenomics requires careful consideration of the emerging discourse that tethers racial justice to notions of racial biology and discusses the social and ethical implications for the pendulum shift towards a geneticization of race in drug development. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Growing socioeconomic disparity is a global concern, as it could affect population health. The author and colleagues have investigated the health impacts of socioeconomic disparities as well as the pathways that underlie those disparities. Our meta-analysis found that a large population has risks of mortality and poor self-rated health that are attributable to income inequality. The study results also suggested the existence of threshold effects (ie, a threshold of income inequality over which the adverse impacts on health increase), period effects (ie, the potential for larger impacts in later years, specifically after the 1990s), and lag effects between income inequality and health outcomes. Our other studies using Japanese national representative survey data and a large-scale cohort study of Japanese older adults (AGES cohort) support the relative deprivation hypothesis, namely, that invidious social comparisons arising from relative deprivation in an unequal society adversely affect health. A study with a natural experiment design found that the socioeconomic gradient in self-rated health might actually have become shallower after the 1997–98 economic crisis in Japan, due to smaller health improvements among middle-class white-collar workers and middle/upper-income workers. In conclusion, income inequality might have adverse impacts on individual health, and psychosocial stress due to relative deprivation may partially explain those impacts. Any study of the effects of macroeconomic fluctuations on health disparities should also consider multiple potential pathways, including expanding income inequality, changes in the labor market, and erosion of social capital. Further studies are needed to attain a better understanding of the social determinants of health in a rapidly changing society. PMID:22156290
Growing socioeconomic disparity is a global concern, as it could affect population health. The author and colleagues have investigated the health impacts of socioeconomic disparities as well as the pathways that underlie those disparities. Our meta-analysis found that a large population has risks of mortality and poor self-rated health that are attributable to income inequality. The study results also suggested the existence of threshold effects (ie, a threshold of income inequality over which the adverse impacts on health increase), period effects (ie, the potential for larger impacts in later years, specifically after the 1990s), and lag effects between income inequality and health outcomes. Our other studies using Japanese national representative survey data and a large-scale cohort study of Japanese older adults (AGES cohort) support the relative deprivation hypothesis, namely, that invidious social comparisons arising from relative deprivation in an unequal society adversely affect health. A study with a natural experiment design found that the socioeconomic gradient in self-rated health might actually have become shallower after the 1997-98 economic crisis in Japan, due to smaller health improvements among middle-class white-collar workers and middle/upper-income workers. In conclusion, income inequality might have adverse impacts on individual health, and psychosocial stress due to relative deprivation may partially explain those impacts. Any study of the effects of macroeconomic fluctuations on health disparities should also consider multiple potential pathways, including expanding income inequality, changes in the labor market, and erosion of social capital. Further studies are needed to attain a better understanding of the social determinants of health in a rapidly changing society.
DeMeester, Rachel H; Xu, Lucy J; Nocon, Robert S; Cook, Scott C; Ducas, Andrea M; Chin, Marshall H
Payment systems generally do not directly encourage or support the reduction of health disparities. In 2013 the Finding Answers: Solving Disparities through Payment and Delivery System Reform program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation sought to understand how alternative payment models might intentionally incorporate a disparities-reduction component to promote health equity. A qualitative analysis of forty proposals to the program revealed that applicants generally did not link payment reform tightly to disparities reduction. Most proposed general pay-for-performance, global payment, or shared savings plans, combined with multicomponent system interventions. None of the applicants proposed making any financial payments contingent on having successfully reduced disparities. Most applicants did not address how they would optimize providers' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to reduce disparities. A better understanding of how payment and care delivery models might be designed and implemented to reduce health disparities is essential. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Burks, Frank N; Salmon, Scott A; Smith, Aaron C; Santucci, Richard A
Urethroplasty is the gold standard for urethral strictures but its geographic prevalence throughout the United States is unknown. We analyzed where and how often urethroplasty was being performed in the United States compared to other treatment modalities for urethral stricture. De-identified case logs from the American Board of Urology were collected from certifying/recertifying urologists from 2004 to 2009. Results were categorized by ZIP codes to determine the geographic distribution. Case logs from 3,877 urologists (2,533 recertifying and 1,344 certifying) were reviewed including 1,836 urethroplasties, 13,080 urethrotomies and 19,564 urethral dilations. The proportion of urethroplasty varied widely among states (range 0% to 17%). The ratio of urethroplasty-to-urethrotomy/dilation also varied widely from state to state, but overall 1 urethroplasty was performed for every 17 urethrotomies or dilations performed. Certifying urologists were 3 times as likely to perform urethroplasty as recertifying urologists (12% vs 4%, respectively, pUrethroplasties were performed more commonly in states with residency programs (mean 5% vs 3%). Some states reported no urethroplasties during the observation period (Vermont, North Dakota, South Dakota, Maine and West Virginia). To our knowledge this is the first report on the geographic distribution of urethroplasty for urethral stricture disease. There are large variations in the rates of urethroplasty performed throughout the United States, indicating a disparity of care, especially for those regions in which few or no urethroplasties were reported. This disparity may decrease with time as younger certifying urologists are performing 3 times as many urethroplasties as older recertifying urologists. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Statistical software that generates summary measures to evaluate and monitor health disparities. Users can import SEER data or other population-based health data to calculate 11 disparity measurements.
Allison A. Vanderbilt
Full Text Available Among all of the industrialized countries, the United States has the highest infant mortality rate. Racial and ethnic disparities continue to plague the United States with a disproportionally high rate of infant death. Furthermore, racial disparities among infant and neonatal mortality rates remain a chronic health problem in the United States. These risks are based on the geographical variations in mortality and disparities among differences in maternal risk characteristics, low birth weights, and lack of access to health care.
Michael A. Langston
Full Text Available Despite staggering investments made in unraveling the human genome, current estimates suggest that as much as 90% of the variance in cancer and chronic diseases can be attributed to factors outside an individual’s genetic endowment, particularly to environmental exposures experienced across his or her life course. New analytical approaches are clearly required as investigators turn to complicated systems theory and ecological, place-based and life-history perspectives in order to understand more clearly the relationships between social determinants, environmental exposures and health disparities. While traditional data analysis techniques remain foundational to health disparities research, they are easily overwhelmed by the ever-increasing size and heterogeneity of available data needed to illuminate latent gene x environment interactions. This has prompted the adaptation and application of scalable combinatorial methods, many from genome science research, to the study of population health. Most of these powerful tools are algorithmically sophisticated, highly automated and mathematically abstract. Their utility motivates the main theme of this paper, which is to describe real applications of innovative transdisciplinary models and analyses in an effort to help move the research community closer toward identifying the causal mechanisms and associated environmental contexts underlying health disparities. The public health exposome is used as a contemporary focus for addressing the complex nature of this subject.
Disparities based on race that target communities of color are consistently reported in the management of many diseases. Barriers to health care equity include the health care system, the patient, the community, and health care providers. This article focuses on the health care system as well as health care providers and how racism and our implicit biases affect our medical decision making. Health care providers receive little or no training on issues of race and racism. As a result, awareness of racism and its impact on health care delivery is low. I will discuss a training module that helps improve awareness around these issues. Until racial issues are honestly addressed by members of the health care team, it is unlikely that we will see significant improvements in racial health care disparities for Americans.
... disparities research to close the disparity gap in the burden of illness and death experienced by racial and... Number NIH-2007-0931] RIN 0925-AA61 National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Research... disparities research and other health disparities research. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...
... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR... Review Officer, National Institute on Minority Healthand Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite...
1 | P a g e Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0802 TITLE: " Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer." PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Alfred I...CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0802 " Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer." 5b. GRANT NUMBER PC094372 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...developed the tools/methods for working with SEER-Medicare. We plan to use analytic approaches and methods to explore racial disparities in the use of
Ray, Rashawn; Sewell, Abigail A; Gilbert, Keon L; Roberts, Jennifer D
Blacks and Latinos are less likely than whites to access health insurance and utilize health care. One way to overcome some of these racial barriers to health equity may be through advances in technology that allow people to access and utilize health care in innovative ways. Yet, little research has focused on whether the racial gap that exists for health care utilization also exists for accessing health information online and through mobile technologies. Using data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), we examine racial differences in obtaining health information online via mobile devices. We find that blacks and Latinos are more likely to trust online newspapers to get health information than whites. Minorities who have access to a mobile device are more likely to rely on the Internet for health information in a time of strong need. Federally insured individuals who are connected to mobile devices have the highest probability of reliance on the Internet as a go-to source of health information. We conclude by discussing the importance of mobile technologies for health policy, particularly related to developing health literacy, improving health outcomes, and contributing to reducing health disparities by race and health insurance status. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.
... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NCMHD Health Disparities Research on Minority and... Review Officer, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard...
... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel Loan Repayment Program for Health Disparities Research... Review, National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800...
... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; Loan Repayment Program for Health Disparities Research..., National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda...
Lazarus, Jeffery V.; Laut, Kamilla Grønborg; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly
Background: Although advances in HIV medicine have yielded increasingly better treatment outcomes in recent years, HIV-positive people with access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) still face complex health challenges. The EuroSIDA Study Group surveyed its clinics to explore regional differences...... in clinic services. Methods: The EuroSIDA study is a prospective observational cohort study that began enrolling patients in 1994. In early 2014, we conducted a 59-item survey of the 98 then-active EuroSIDA clinics. The survey covered HIV clinical care and other aspects of patient care. The EuroSIDA East...... Europe study region (Belarus, Estonia, Lithuania, the Russian Federation and Ukraine) was compared to a "non-East Europe" study region comprised of all other EuroSIDA countries. Results: A larger proportion of clinics in the East Europe group reported deferring ART in asymptomatic patients until the CD4...
Liu, Xiang; Li, Ningxiu; Liu, Chaojie; Ren, Xiaohui; Liu, Danping; Gao, Bo; Liu, Yuanyuan
Preventive care service is considered pivotal on the background of demographic ageing and a rise in chronic diseases in China. The disparity in utilization of preventive care services between urban and rural in China is a serious issue. In this paper, we explored factors associated with urban-rural disparity in utilization of preventive care services in China, and determined how much of the urban-rural disparity was attributable to each determinant of utilization in preventive care services. Using representative sample data from China Health and Nutrition Survey in 2011 (N = 12,976), the present study performed multilevel logistic model to examine the factors that affected utilization of preventive care services in last 4 weeks. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method was applied to divide the utilization of preventive care disparity between urban and rural residents into a part that can be explained by differences in observed covariates and unobserved part. The percentage of rural residents utilizing preventive care service in last 4 weeks was lower than that of urban residents (5.1% vs 9.3%). Female, the aged, residents with higher education level and household income, residents reporting self-perceived illness in last 4 weeks and physician-diagnosed chronic disease had higher likelihood of utilizing preventive care services. Household income was the most important factor accounting for 26.6% of urban-rural disparities in utilization of preventive care services, followed by education (21.5%), self-perceived illness in last 4 weeks (7.8%), hypertension (4.4%), diabetes (3.3%), other chronic diseases (0.8%), and health insurance (-1.0%). Efforts to reduce financial barriers for low-income individuals who cannot afford preventive services, increasing awareness of the importance of obtaining preventive health services and providing more preventive health services covered by health insurance, may help to reduce the gap of preventive care services utilization between
Gadson, Alexis; Akpovi, Eloho; Mehta, Pooja K
Rates of maternal morbidity and mortality are rising in the United States. Non-Hispanic Black women are at highest risk for these outcomes compared to those of other race/ethnicities. Black women are also more likely to be late to prenatal care or be inadequate users of prenatal care. Prenatal care can engage those at risk and potentially influence perinatal outcomes but further research on the link between prenatal care and maternal outcomes is needed. The objective of this article is to review literature illuminating the relationship between prenatal care utilization, social determinants of health, and racial disparities in maternal outcome. We present a theoretical framework connecting the complex factors that may link race, social context, prenatal care utilization, and maternal morbidity/mortality. Prenatal care innovations showing potential to engage with the social determinants of maternal health and address disparities and priorities for future research are reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thomas, Stephen B; Quinn, Sandra Crouse
The aim of this article is to examine the intersection of race and poverty, two critical factors fueling persistent racial and ethnic health disparities among urban populations. From the morass of social determinants that shape the health of racial and ethnic communities in our urban centers, we will offer promising practices and potential solutions to eliminating racial and ethnic health disparities.
Full Text Available Roy A Pleasants,1–3 Isaretta L Riley,1–3 David M Mannino4 1Duke Asthma, Allergy, and Airways Center, 2Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, 3Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC, 4Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Pulmonary Epidemiology Research Laboratory, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA Abstract: The global burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD continues to grow in part due to better outcomes in other major diseases and in part because a substantial portion of the worldwide population continues to be exposed to inhalant toxins. However, a disproportionate burden of COPD occurs in people of low socioeconomic status (SES due to differences in health behaviors, sociopolitical factors, and social and structural environmental exposures. Tobacco use, occupations with exposure to inhalant toxins, and indoor biomass fuel (BF exposure are more common in low SES populations. Not only does SES affect the risk of developing COPD and etiologies, it is also associated with worsened COPD health outcomes. Effective interventions in these people are needed to decrease these disparities. Efforts that may help lessen these health inequities in low SES include 1 better surveillance targeting diagnosed and undiagnosed COPD in disadvantaged people, 2 educating the public and those involved in health care provision about the disease, 3 improving access to cost-effective and affordable health care, and 4 markedly increasing the efforts to prevent disease through smoking cessation, minimizing use and exposure to BF, and decreasing occupational exposures. COPD is considered to be one the most preventable major causes of death from a chronic disease in the world; therefore, effective interventions could have a major impact on reducing the global burden of the disease, especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Keywords: health disparities
Dietrich, Thomas; Culler, Corinna; Garcia, Raul I; Henshaw, Michelle M
The authors evaluated racial/ethnic differences and their socioeconomic determinants in the oral health status of U.S. children, as reported by parents. The authors used interview data from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, a large representative survey of U.S. children. They calculated weighted, nationally representative prevalence estimates for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, and they used logistic regression to explore the association between parents' reports of fair or poor oral health and various socioeconomic determinants of oral health. The results showed significant racial/ethnic differences in parental reports of fair or poor oral health, with prevalences of 6.5 percent for non-Hispanic whites, 12.0 percent for non-Hispanic blacks and 23.4 percent for Hispanics. Although adjustments for family socioeconomic status (poverty level and education) partially explained these racial/ethnic disparities, Hispanics still were twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites to report their children's oral health as fair or poor, independent of socioeconomic status. The authors did find differences in preventive-care attitudes among groups. However, in multivariate models, such differences did not explain the disparities. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in parental reports of their children's oral health, with Hispanics being the most disadvantaged group. Disparities appear to exist independent of preventive-care attitudes and socioeconomic status.
Knowledge of the sources of race-based health disparities could improve nursing practice and education in minority underserved communities. This purpose of this paper was to consider if Black-nonBlack health disparities were at least in part explained by Black-nonBlack disparities in access to Internet-based health information. With data on the U.S. adult population from the 2012 General Social Survey, the parameters of a health production function in which computer usage as an input was estimated. It was found that while there are Black-nonBlack disparities in health, once computer usage was accounted for, Black-nonBlack health disparities disappeared. This suggests nursing and health interventions that improve Internet access for Black patients in underserved communities could improve the health of Black Americans and close the racial health disparities gap. These findings complement recent nursing researchfindings that suggest closing Black-nonBlack disparities in computer access, the "digital divide," can render nursing practice more effective in providing care to minority and underserved communities.
Parekh, Natasha; Jarlenski, Marian; Kelley, David
Objectives Pennsylvania's maternal mortality, infant mortality, and preterm birth rates rank 24th, 35th, and 25th in the country, and are higher among racial and ethnic minorities. Provision of prenatal and postpartum care represents one way to improve these outcomes. We assessed the extent of disparities in the provision and timeliness of prenatal and postpartum care for women enrolled in Pennsylvania Medicaid. Methods We performed a cross-sectional evaluation of representative samples of women who delivered live births from November 2011 to 2015. Our outcomes were three binary effectiveness-of-care measures: prenatal care timeliness, frequency of prenatal care, and postpartum care timeliness. Pennsylvania's Managed Care Organizations (MCOs) were required to submit these outcomes to the state after reviewing administrative and medical records through a standardized, validated sampling process. We assessed for differences in outcomes by race, ethnicity, region, year, and MCO using logistic regression. Results We analyzed data for 12,228 women who were 49% White, 31% Black/African American, 4% Asian, and 15% Hispanic/Latina. Compared to Black/African American women, white and Asian women had higher odds of prenatal and postpartum care. Hispanic/Latina women had higher frequency of prenatal care than non-Hispanic women. Pennsylvania's Southeast had lower prenatal care and Northwest had lower postpartum care than other regions. Prenatal care significantly decreased in 2014 and increased in 2015. We observed differences between MCOs, and as MCO performance diminished, racial disparities within each plan widened. We explored hypotheses for observed disparities in secondary analyses. Conclusions for Practice Our data demonstrate that interventions should address disparities by race, region, and MCO in equity-promoting measures.
Siddiqi, Arjumand A; Wang, Susan; Quinn, Kelly; Nguyen, Quynh C; Christy, Antony Dennis
Racial disparities in access to regular health care have been reported in the U.S., but little is known about the extent of disparities in societies with universal coverage. To investigate the extent of racial disparities in access to care under conditions of universal coverage by observing the association between race and regular access to a doctor in Canada. Racial disparities in access to a regular doctor were calculated using the largest available source of nationally representative data in Canada--the Canadian Community Health Survey. Surveys from 2000-2010 were analyzed in 2014. Multinomial regression analyses predicted odds of having a regular doctor for each racial group compared to whites. Analyses were stratified by immigrant status--Canadian-born versus shorter-term immigrant versus longer-term immigrants--and controlled for sociodemographics and self-rated health. Racial disparities in Canada, a country with universal coverage, were far more muted than those previously reported in the U.S. Only among longer-term Latin American immigrants (OR=1.90, 95% CI=1.45, 2.08) and Canadian-born Aboriginals (OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.22, 1.47) were significant disparities noted. Among shorter-term immigrants, all Asians were more likely than whites, and among longer-term immigrants, South Asians were more like than whites, to have a regular doctor. Universal coverage may have a major impact on reducing racial disparities in access to health care, although among some subgroups, other factors may also play a role above and beyond health insurance. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Holmes, John H.; Lehman, Amy; Hade, Erinn; Ferketich, Amy K.; Sarah, Gehlert; Rauscher, Garth H.; Abrams, Judith; Bird, Chloe E.
Numerous factors play a part in health disparities. Although health disparities are manifested at the level of the individual, other contexts should be considered when investigating the associations of disparities with clinical outcomes. These contexts include families, neighborhoods, social organizations, and healthcare facilities. This paper reports on health disparities research as a multilevel research domain from the perspective of a large national initiative. The Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHD) program was established by the NIH to examine the highly dimensional, complex nature of disparities and their effects on health. Because of its inherently transdisciplinary nature, the CPHHD program provides a unique environment in which to perform multilevel health disparities research. During the course of the program, the CPHHD centers have experienced challenges specific to this type of research. The challenges were categorized along three axes: sources of subjects and data, data characteristics, and multilevel analysis and interpretation. The CPHHDs collectively offer a unique example of how these challenges are met; just as importantly, they reveal a broad range of issues that health disparities researchers should consider as they pursue transdisciplinary investigations in this domain, particularly in the context of a large team science initiative. PMID:18619398
... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: June 14, 2011. Closed: 8 a.m. to 9:30 a.m. Agenda...
... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: February 22, 2011. Closed: 8 a.m. to 9:30 a.m...
... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: June 12, 2012. Closed: 8:00 a.m. to 9:30 a.m. Agenda...
... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Technologies for Improving Minority Health and Eliminating Health Disparities (R41/ R42). Date: November 8, 2013. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5...
... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: February 28, 2012. Closed: 8 a.m. to 9:30 a.m...
... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... Advisory Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: June 8, 2010. Closed: 8 a.m. to 9 a.m...
... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: September 13, 2011. Closed: 8 to 9:30 a.m. Agenda...
... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Support for Conference and Scientific meetings... Institutes of Health, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Blvd...
... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: September 10, 2013. Closed: 8:00 a.m. to 9:30 a.m...
... Minority Health and Health; Disparities Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Advisory Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: February 26, 2013. Closed: 8:00 a.m. to 9:30 a.m...
... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: June 11, 2013. Closed: 8:00 a.m. to 9:30 a.m. Agenda...
... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Advisory Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be closed to the public in... Health and Health Disparities. Date: September 17, 2012. Time: 12 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and...
... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: September 14, 2010. Closed: 8 a.m. to 9:30 a.m...
... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Social, Behavioral, Health Services, and Policy Research on Minority Health and Health Disparities (R01). Date: November 7-9, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 3 p.m...
Kelly, Ursula A
Persisting health disparities have lead to calls for an increase in health research to address them. Biomedical scientists call for research that stratifies individual indicators associated with health disparities, for example, ethnicity. Feminist social scientists recommend feminist intersectionality research. Intersectionality is the multiplicative effect of inequalities experienced by nondominant marginalized groups, for example, ethnic minorities, women, and the poor. The elimination of health disparities necessitates integration of both paradigms in health research. This study provides a practical application of the integration of biomedical and feminist intersectionality paradigms in nursing research, using a psychiatric intervention study with battered Latino women as an example.
Betancourt, Joseph R; Tan-McGrory, Aswita; Kenst, Karey S; Phan, Thuy Hoai; Lopez, Lenny
Leaders of health care organizations need to be prepared to improve quality and achieve equity in today's health care environment characterized by a focus on achieving value and addressing disparities in a diverse population. To help address this need, the Disparities Solutions Center at Massachusetts General Hospital launched the Disparities Leadership Program in 2007. The leadership program is an ongoing, year-long, executive education initiative that trains leaders from hospitals, health plans, and health centers to improve quality and eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Feedback from participating organizations demonstrates that health care leaders seem to possess knowledge about what disparities are and about what should be done to eliminate them. Data collection, performance measurement, and multifaceted interventions remain the tools of the trade. However, the barriers to success are lack of leadership buy-in, organizational prioritization, energy, and execution, which can be addressed through organizational change management strategies. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
... for the Obesity Epidemic KENNETH E. WARNER 99 8 Patterns and Causes of Disparities in Health DAVID R. WILLIAMS 115 9 Addressing Racial Inequality in Health Care SARA ROSENBAUM AND JOEL TEITELBAU...
... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Research Center in Minority Institution Program... applications. Place: National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite...
... Minority Health and Health Disparities Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; R01. Date: February 16, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, National Institutes...
Corliss, Heather L.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Rosario, Margaret; Kahn, Jessica A.; Austin, S. Bryn
Objectives. Reproductive health screenings are a necessary part of quality health care. However, sexual minorities underutilize Papanicolaou (Pap) tests more than heterosexuals do, and the reasons are not known. Our objective was to examine if less hormonal contraceptive use or less positive health beliefs about Pap tests explain sexual orientation disparities in Pap test intention and utilization. Methods. We used multivariable regression with prospective data gathered from 3821 females aged 18 to 25 years in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS). Results. Among lesbians, less hormonal contraceptive use explained 8.6% of the disparities in Pap test intention and 36.1% of the disparities in Pap test utilization. Less positive health beliefs associated with Pap testing explained 19.1% of the disparities in Pap test intention. Together, less hormonal contraceptive use and less positive health beliefs explained 29.3% of the disparities in Pap test intention and 42.2% of the disparities in Pap test utilization. Conclusions. Hormonal contraceptive use and health beliefs, to a lesser extent, help to explain sexual orientation disparities in intention and receipt of a Pap test, especially among lesbians. PMID:23763393
Zhang, Xinzhi; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Bourne, Philip E.; Peprah, Emmanuel; Duru, O. Kenrik; Breen, Nancy; Berrigan, David; Wood, Fred; Jackson, James S.; Wong, David W.S.; Denny, Joshua
Addressing minority health and health disparities has been a missing piece of the puzzle in Big Data science. This article focuses on three priority opportunities that Big Data science may offer to the reduction of health and health care disparities. One opportunity is to incorporate standardized information on demographic and social determinants in electronic health records in order to target ways to improve quality of care for the most disadvantaged populations over time. A second opportunity is to enhance public health surveillance by linking geographical variables and social determinants of health for geographically defined populations to clinical data and health outcomes. Third and most importantly, Big Data science may lead to a better understanding of the etiology of health disparities and understanding of minority health in order to guide intervention development. However, the promise of Big Data needs to be considered in light of significant challenges that threaten to widen health disparities. Care must be taken to incorporate diverse populations to realize the potential benefits. Specific recommendations include investing in data collection on small sample populations, building a diverse workforce pipeline for data science, actively seeking to reduce digital divides, developing novel ways to assure digital data privacy for small populations, and promoting widespread data sharing to benefit under-resourced minority-serving institutions and minority researchers. With deliberate efforts, Big Data presents a dramatic opportunity for reducing health disparities but without active engagement, it risks further widening them. PMID:28439179
Zhang, Xinzhi; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Bourne, Philip E; Peprah, Emmanuel; Duru, O Kenrik; Breen, Nancy; Berrigan, David; Wood, Fred; Jackson, James S; Wong, David W S; Denny, Joshua
Addressing minority health and health disparities has been a missing piece of the puzzle in Big Data science. This article focuses on three priority opportunities that Big Data science may offer to the reduction of health and health care disparities. One opportunity is to incorporate standardized information on demographic and social determinants in electronic health records in order to target ways to improve quality of care for the most disadvantaged populations over time. A second opportunity is to enhance public health surveillance by linking geographical variables and social determinants of health for geographically defined populations to clinical data and health outcomes. Third and most importantly, Big Data science may lead to a better understanding of the etiology of health disparities and understanding of minority health in order to guide intervention development. However, the promise of Big Data needs to be considered in light of significant challenges that threaten to widen health disparities. Care must be taken to incorporate diverse populations to realize the potential benefits. Specific recommendations include investing in data collection on small sample populations, building a diverse workforce pipeline for data science, actively seeking to reduce digital divides, developing novel ways to assure digital data privacy for small populations, and promoting widespread data sharing to benefit under-resourced minority-serving institutions and minority researchers. With deliberate efforts, Big Data presents a dramatic opportunity for reducing health disparities but without active engagement, it risks further widening them.
In January, CRCHD joins the nation in raising awareness for Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities. This month we share a special focus on NCI/CRCHD research programs that are trying to reduce cervical cancer disparities in underserved communities and the people who are spreading the word about the importance of early detection.
... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel. Date: March 8, 2013. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m..., and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 496-3996...
... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Conference Grant Review (R13). Date: March 15... Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 594-7784, [email protected
Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin
Current practices of using "race" in pharmacogenomics research demands consideration of the ethical and social implications for understandings of group difference and for efforts to eliminate health disparities. This discussion focuses on an "infrastructure of racialization" created by current trajectories of research on genetic differences among racially identified groups, the use of race as a proxy for risk in clinical practice, and increasing interest in new market niches by the pharmaceutical industry. The confluence of these factors has resulted in the conflation of genes, disease, and race. I argue that public investment in pharmacogenomics requires careful consideration of current inequities in health status and social and ethical concerns over reifying race and issues of distributive justice.
Emlet, Charles A
LGBT older adults are a heterogeneous population with collective and unique strengths and challenges. Health, personal, and economic disparities exist in this group when compared to the general population of older adults, yet subgroups such as transgender and bisexual older adults and individuals living with HIV are at greater risk for disparities and poorer health outcomes. As this population grows, further research is needed on factors that contribute to promoting health equity, while decreasing discrimination and improving competent service delivery.
Spearman, C Wendy; Sonderup, Mark W
Disparities in health reflect the differences in the incidence, prevalence, burden of disease and access to care determined by socio-economic and environmental factors. With liver disease, these disparities are exacerbated by a combination of limited awareness and preventable causes of morbidity and mortality in addition to the diagnostic and management costs. Sub-Saharan Africa, comprising 11% of the world's population, disproportionately has 24% of the global disease burden, yet allocates health. It has 3% of the global healthcare workforce with a mean of 0.8 healthcare workers per 1000 population. Barriers to healthcare access are many and compounded by limited civil registration data, socio-economic inequalities, discrepancies in private and public healthcare services and geopolitical strife. The UN 2014 report on the Millennium Development Goals suggest that sub-Saharan Africa will probably not meet several goals, however with HIV/AIDS and Malaria (goal 6), many successes have been achieved. A 2010 Global Burden of Disease study demonstrated that cirrhosis mortality in sub-Saharan Africa doubled between 1980 and 2010. Aetiologies included hepatitis B (34%), hepatitis C (17%), alcohol (18%) and unknown in 31%. Hepatitis B, C and alcohol accounted for 47, 23 and 20% of hepatocellular carcinoma respectively. In 10%, the underlying aetiology was not known. Liver disease reflects the broader disparities in healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa. However, many of these challenges are not insurmountable as vaccines and new therapies could comprehensively deal with the burden of viral hepatitis. Access to and affordability of therapeutics remains the major barrier. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Twenty years of research demonstrate that there are wide disparities in health throughout America. Health disparities are differences in the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and burden of diseases and other adverse health conditions that exist when specific population subgroups are compared. Health Disparities in America: Working Toward Social Justice is a course instructed every fall by Dr. Lovell Jones, director of The Center for Research on Minority Health (CRMH at UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. The CRMH has created a course that examines the social and societal factors that are fundamental in creating disparities in health. Students from 10 different academic programs and institutions participate in this course. The course is unique in the aspect that various, diverse speakers whom are experts in their field of study instruct each class. This health disparities course is conducted at one of three different academic institutions in the Houston area and broadcast via satellite to various academic institutions by means of teleeducation. Tele-education is defined as a mode of instruction utilizing different forms of media such as video, audio technology tools and computers. Video and audio technologies involve the transmission of interface between learners and instructors, either interactive or non-interactive. Tele-education technologies have an important role to play in addressing the dissemination of health disparities education. The purpose of this program is to determine the feasibility of tele-education as a mode of instruction to introduce the multi-disciplinary components of health disparities. Our findings suggest that tele-education is a useful tool in imparting health disparities education.
Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Offutt-Powell, Tabatha; Kaufman, Jay S.; Giles, Wayne; Mays, Vickie
Purpose Epidemiologists have long contributed to policy efforts to address health disparities. Three examples illustrate how epidemiologists have addressed health disparities in the U.S. and abroad through a “social determinants of health” lens. Methods To identify examples of how epidemiologic research has been applied to reduce health disparities, we queried epidemiologists engaged in disparities research in the U.S., Canada, and New Zealand, and drew upon the scientific literature. Results Resulting examples covered a wide range of topic areas. Three areas selected for their contributions to policy were: 1) epidemiology's role in definition and measurement, 2) the study of housing and asthma, and 3) the study of food policy strategies to reduce health disparities. While epidemiologic research has done much to define and quantify health inequalities, it has generally been less successful at producing evidence that would identify targets for health equity intervention. Epidemiologists have a role to play in measurement and basic surveillance, etiologic research, intervention research, and evaluation research. However, our training and funding sources generally place greatest emphasis on surveillance and etiologic research. Conclusions: The complexity of health disparities requires better training for epidemiologists to effectively work in multidisciplinary teams. Together we can evaluate contextual and multilevel contributions to disease and study intervention programs in order to gain better insights into evidenced-based health equity strategies. PMID:22626003
Easter, Sarah Rae; Rosenthal, Emily W; Morton-Eggleston, Emma; Nour, Nawal; Tuomala, Ruth; Zera, Chloe A
To investigate the association among public health insurance, preconception care, and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with pregestational diabetes. This is a retrospective cohort of pregnant women with pregestational type 1 or type 2 diabetes from 2006 to 2011 in Massachusetts-a state with universal insurance coverage since 2006. Women delivering after 24 weeks of gestation and receiving endocrinology and obstetric care in a multidisciplinary clinic were included. Rates of preconception consultation, our primary outcome of interest, were then compared between publicly and privately insured women. We used univariate analysis followed by logistic regression to compare receipt of preconception consultation and other secondary diabetes care measures and pregnancy outcomes according to insurance status. Fifty-four percent (n=106) of 197 women had public insurance. Publicly insured women were younger (median age 30.4 compared with 35.3 years, P<.01) with lower rates of college education (12.3% compared with 45.1%, P<.01). Women with public insurance were less likely to receive a preconception consult (5.7% compared with 31.9%, P<.01), had lower rates of hemoglobin A1C less than 6% at the onset of pregnancy (37.2% compared with 58.4%, P=.01), and experienced higher rates of pregnancies affected by congenital anomalies (10.4% compared with 2.2%, P=.02) compared with those with private insurance. In adjusted analyses controlling for educational attainment, maternal age, and body mass index, women with public insurance were less likely to receive a preconception consult (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.21, 95% CI 0.08-0.58), although the odds of achieving the target hemoglobin A1C (adjusted OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.20-1.02) and congenital anomaly (adjusted OR 2.23, 95% CI 0.37-13.41) were similar after adjustment. Despite continuous access to health insurance, publicly insured women were less likely than privately insured women to receive a preconception consult-an evidence
... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special NCMHD Health Disparities Research on Minority and Underserved... Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892. (301) 594-8696...
Higgins, Stephen T
This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 3rd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of critical importance to improving U.S. population health. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behaviors such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. Hence, effectively promoting health-related behavior change needs to be a key component of health care research and policy. There is also broad recognition that while these problems extend throughout the population, they disproportionately impact economically disadvantaged populations and other vulnerable populations and represent a major contributor to health disparities. Thus, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing health disparities, which receives special attention in this 3rd Special Issue. We also devote considerable space to the longstanding challenges of reducing cigarette smoking and use of other tobacco and nicotine delivery products in vulnerable populations, obesity, and for the first time food insecurity. Across each of these topics we include contributions from highly accomplished policymakers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rogers, Jamie; Kelly, Ursula A
The principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice are well established ethical principles in health research. Of these principles, justice has received less attention by health researchers. The purpose of this article is to broaden the discussion of health research ethics, particularly the ethical principle of justice, to include societal considerations--who and what are studied and why?--and to critique current applications of ethical principles within this broader view. We will use a feminist intersectional approach in the context of health disparities research to firmly establish inseparable links between health research ethics, social action, and social justice. The aim is to provide an ethical approach to health disparities research that simultaneously describes and seeks to eliminate health disparities. © The Author(s) 2011
Malhotra, Chetna; Do, Young Kyung
To assess the magnitude of socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India after correcting for potential reporting heterogeneity by socio-economic characteristics (education and wealth). Data from Wave 1 of the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (2007-2008) involving six Indian states were used. Seven health system responsiveness domains were considered for a respondent's last visit to an outpatient service in 12 months: prompt attention, dignity, clarity of information, autonomy, confidentiality, choice and quality of basic amenities. Hierarchical ordered probit models (correcting for reporting heterogeneity through anchoring vignettes) were used to assess the association of socio-economic characteristics with the seven responsiveness domains, controlling for age, gender and area of residence. Stratified analysis was also conducted among users of public and private health facilities. Our statistical models accounting for reporting heterogeneity revealed socio-economic disparities in all health system responsiveness domains. Estimates suggested that individuals from the lowest wealth group, for example, were less likely than individuals from the highest wealth group to report 'very good' on the dignity domain by 8% points (10% vs 18%). Stratified analysis showed that such disparities existed among users of both public and private health facilities. Socio-economic disparities exist in health system responsiveness in India, irrespective of the type of health facility used. Policy efforts to monitor and improve these disparities are required at the health system level.
Saha, Somnath; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Moore, Richard D; Beach, Mary Catherine
Mistrust among African Americans is often considered a potential source of racial disparities in HIV care. We sought to determine whether greater trust in one's provider among African-American patients mitigates racial disparities. We analyzed data from 1,104 African-American and 201 white patients participating in a cohort study at an urban, academic HIV clinic between 2005 and 2008. African Americans expressed lower levels of trust in their providers than did white patients (8.9 vs. 9.4 on a 0-10 scale; p African Americans were also less likely than whites to be receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) when eligible (85% vs. 92%; p = 0.02), to report complete ART adherence over the prior 3 days (83% vs. 89%; p = 0.005), and to have a suppressed viral load (40% vs. 47%; p = 0.04). Trust in one's provider was not associated with receiving ART or with viral suppression but was significantly associated with adherence. African Americans who expressed less than complete trust in their providers (0-9 of 10) had lower ART adherence than did whites (adjusted OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.25-0.66). For African Americans who expressed complete trust in their providers (10 of 10), the racial disparity in adherence was less prominent but still substantial (adjusted OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.36-0.95). Trust did not affect disparities in receipt of ART or viral suppression. Our findings suggest that enhancing trust in patient-provider relationships for African-American patients may help reduce disparities in ART adherence and the outcomes associated with improved adherence.
... and Health Disparities Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Health Disparities Research (R01). Date: November... Disparities, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Blvd., MSC. 5465, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892...
Sharby, Nancy; Martire, Katharine; Iversen, Maura D
Factors influencing access to health care among people with disabilities (PWD) include: attitudes of health care providers and the public, physical barriers, miscommunication, income level, ethnic/minority status, insurance coverage, and lack of information tailored to PWD. Reducing health care disparities in a population with complex needs requires implementation at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels. This review article discusses common barriers to health care access from the patient and provider perspective, particularly focusing on communication barriers and how to address and ameliorate them. Articles utilized in this review were published from 2005 to present in MEDLINE and CINAHL and written in English that focused on people with disabilities. Topics searched for in the literature include: disparities and health outcomes, health care dissatisfaction, patient-provider communication and access issues. Ineffective communication has significant impacts for PWD. They frequently believe that providers are not interested in, or sensitive to their particular needs and are less likely to seek care or to follow up with recommendations. Various strategies for successful improvement of health outcomes for PWD were identified including changing the way health care professionals are educated regarding disabilities, improving access to health care services, and enhancing the capacity for patient centered care.
Kibiribiri, Edith T; Moodley, Dhayendre; Groves, Allison K; Sebitloane, Motshedisi H
To explore possible disparities in prenatal care between refugees and South African women attending public health facilities in an urban setting in South Africa. A cross-sectional, mixed methods study was conducted at four public health clinics providing prenatal services in Durban between January 29, 2013, and June 15, 2013. Pretested client-satisfaction questionnaires were administered to 200 women attending immunization services at the clinics whose infants were aged 6 months or younger. An additional 16 refugees participated in in-depth interviews. Finally, a maternity chart audit was conducted to compare the quality of basic prenatal care. Among the women enrolled, 78 (39.0%) were refugees and 122 (61.0%) were South African citizens. Dissatisfaction was reported by 23 (19.3%) of 119 citizens and 32 (43.2%) of 74 refugees (Prefugees, 37 citizens) did not reveal significant disparities in the quality of prenatal care. The most recurring categories arising in the in-depth interviews were linguistic barriers and the challenges faced when using informal interpreters. There were no significant disparities in prenatal care; however, refugees unable to communicate in the local languages reported that they were not provided with relevant health information and occasionally faced restricted access to prenatal services. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Telford, Claire; Coulter, Ian; Murray, Liam
Socioeconomic factors are associated with disparities in oral health among adolescents; however, the underlying reasons are not clear. The authors conducted a study to determine if known indicators of oral health can explain such disparities. The authors examined data from a 2007 California Health Interview Survey of adolescents. The outcome of interest was self-reported condition of the teeth; covariates were socioeconomic status (SES) (that is, family poverty level and parental education) and a range of other variables representing health-influencing behaviors, dental care and other social factors. The authors conducted analyses by using logistic regression to explain disparities in self-reported condition of the teeth associated with SES. The authors found that socioeconomic disparities decreased substantially after they added all potential explanatory variables to the model, leaving poverty level as the only variable associated with differences in the self-reported condition of the teeth. Adolescents living below the federal poverty guidelines were more likely to report that the condition of their teeth was fair or poor than were adolescents who were least poor (odds ratio = 1.58; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.04-2.41). In multivariate analyses, further oral health disparities existed in relation to behaviors that influence health, social environment and dental care. The results of this study showed that a number of factors decreased, but did not eliminate, the observed relationship between SES and oral health in Californian adolescents. Most of these explanatory factors are modifiable, indicating that socioeconomic differences associated with oral health among adolescents may be amenable to change. Practice Implications. By promoting a healthy lifestyle (including healthy diet, exercise and regular dental attendance) and conveying to patients in languages other than English how to maintain oral health, dentists may be able to ameliorate the effects of
Pollack, Craig Evan; Cubbin, Catherine; Sania, Ayesha; Hayward, Mark; Vallone, Donna; Flaherty, Brian; Braveman, Paula A
Though wide disparities in wealth have been documented across racial/ethnic groups, it is largely unknown whether differences in wealth are associated with health disparities within racial/ethnic groups. Data from the Survey of Consumer Finances (2004, ages 25-64) and the Health and Retirement Survey (2004, ages 50+), containing a wide range of assets and debts variables, were used to calculate net worth (a standard measure of wealth). Among non-Hispanic black, Hispanic and non-Hispanic white populations, we tested whether wealth was associated with self-reported poor/fair health status after accounting for income and education. Except among the younger Hispanic population, net worth was significantly associated with poor/fair health status within each racial/ethnic group in both data sets. Adding net worth attenuated the association between education and poor/fair health (in all racial/ethnic groups) and between income and poor/fair health (except among older Hispanics). The results add to the literature indicating the importance of including measures of wealth in health research for what they may reveal about disparities not only between but also within different racial/ethnic groups.
Foglia, Mary Beth; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I
This paper describes the significance of key empirical findings from the recent and landmark study Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging and Sexuality Study (with Karen I. Fredriksen-Goldsen as the principal investigator), on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender aging and health disparities. We will illustrate these findings with select quotations from study participants and show how nonconscious bias (i.e., activation of negative stereotypes outside conscious awareness) in the clinical encounter and health care setting can threaten shared decision-making and perpetuate health disparities among LGBT older adults. We recognize that clinical ethicists are not immune from nonconscious bias but maintain that they are well situated to recognize bias and resulting injustice by virtue of their training. Further, we discuss how clinical ethicists can influence the organization's ethical culture and environment to improve the quality and acceptability of health care for LGBT older adults. © 2014 by The Hastings Center.
Gonzalez, Cristina M; Kim, Mimi Y; Marantz, Paul R
The varying treatment of different patients by the same physician are referred to as within provider disparities. These differences can contribute to health disparities and are thought to be the result of implicit bias due to unintentional, unconscious assumptions. The purpose is to describe an educational intervention addressing both health disparities and physician implicit bias and the results of a subsequent survey exploring medical students' attitudes and beliefs toward subconscious bias and health disparities. A single session within a larger required course was devoted to health disparities and the physician's potential to contribute to health disparities through implicit bias. Following the session the students were anonymously surveyed on their Implicit Association Test (IAT) results, their attitudes and experiences regarding the fairness of the health care system, and the potential impact of their own implicit bias. The students were categorized based on whether they disagreed ("deniers") or agreed ("accepters") with the statement "Unconscious bias might affect some of my clinical decisions or behaviors." Data analysis focused specifically on factors associated with this perspective. The survey response rate was at least 69%. Of the responders, 22% were "deniers" and 77% were "accepters." Demographics between the two groups were not significantly different. Deniers were significantly more likely than accepters to report IAT results with implicit preferences toward self, to believe the IAT is invalid, and to believe that doctors and the health system provide equal care to all and were less likely to report having directly observed inequitable care. The recognition of bias cannot be taught in a single session. Our experience supports the value of teaching medical students to recognize their own implicit biases and develop skills to overcome them in each patient encounter, and in making this instruction part of the compulsory, longitudinal undergraduate
Hsieh, Ning; Ruther, Matt
Previous studies suggest that members of sexual minority groups have poorer access to health services than heterosexuals. However, few studies have examined how sexual orientation interacts with gender and race to affect health care experience. Moreover, little is known about the role in health care disparities played by economic strains such as unemployment and poverty, which may result from prejudice and discrimination based on sexual orientation. Using data for 2013-15 from the National Health Interview Survey, we found that most members of sexual minority groups no longer have higher uninsurance rates than heterosexuals, but many continue to experience poorer access to high-quality care. Gay nonwhite men, bisexual white women, and bisexual and lesbian nonwhite women are disadvantaged in multiple aspects of access, compared to straight white men. Only some of these disparities are attributable to economic factors, which implies that noneconomic barriers to care are substantial. Our results suggest that the intersection of multiple social identities can reveal important gaps in health care experience. Making culturally sensitive services available may be key to closing the gaps. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
McGrath, Barbara Burns; Puzan, Elayne
As we get a feel for this new century, collective creativity is called for while we confront the challenges presented. Globalization, with its flow of ideas, people, and materials is no longer a theoretical concept and its advantages and disadvantages are becoming clear. While the axiom that "all politics are local" remains relevant, world events touch all corners of the globe. In the world of science, there are exciting advances being made,but many of these are accompanied by concerns about unequal access to biomedicine and technology, and misplaced health care priorities. One of the effects of transnationalism is that multiculturalism becomes the norm so that the label "minority" begins to lose its meaning. In the field of women's health, the issues have not changed as much as the conceptualization of them. The fact that biology and society contribute to sex differences is well known, but understanding how these interact at all levels (from the molecular to the community level) requires innovative research strategies. Efforts to describe gender disparities in health status are inadequate unless they are linked with actions that will improve the well being of diverse populations. An approach suggested in this article is to direct research and policy attention to the lifestyles and needs of particular women living in a particular time and place in society. This is the first step before meaningful interventions can be implemented and the women's health paradigm expanded.
Olden, Kenneth; White, Sandra L
Racial disparities in health cannot be explained solely on the basis of poverty, access to health care, behavior, or environmental factors. Their complex etiology is dependent on interactions between all these factors plus genetics. Scientists have been slow to consider genetics as a risk factor because genetic polymorphisms tend to be more variable within a race than between races. Now that studies are demonstrating the existence of racial differences in allelic frequencies for multiple genes affecting a single biologic mechanism, the present argument for a significant genetic role in contributing to health disparities is gaining support. Individuals vary, often significantly, in their response to environmental agents. This variability provides a high "background noise" when scientists examine human populations to identify environmental links to disease. This variability often masks important environmental contributors to disease risk and is a major impediment to efforts to investigate the causes of diseases.Fortunately, investments in the various genome projects have led to the development of tools and databases that can be used to help identify the genetic variations in environmental response genes that can lead to such wide differences in disease susceptibility. NIEHS developed the environ-mental genome project to catalog these genetic variants (polymorphisms)and to identify the ones that play a major role in human susceptibility to environmental agents. This information is being used in epidemiologic studies to pinpoint environmental contributors to disease better. The research summarized in this article is critically important for tying genetics and the environment to health disparities, and for the development of a rational approach to gauge environmental threats. Common variants in genes play pivotal roles in determining if or when illness or death result from exposure to drugs or environmental xenobiotics. Most common variants exist in all human
Pourat, Nadereh; Finocchio, Len
Poor oral health has important implications for the healthy development of children. Children in Medicaid, especially Latinos and African Americans, experience high rates of tooth decay, yet they visit dentists less often than privately insured children. Even Latino and African American children with private insurance are less likely than white children to visit dentists and have longer intervals between dental visits. Furthermore, Latino and African American children in Medicaid are more likely than white children in Medicaid to have longer intervals between visits. These findings raise concerns about Medicaid's ability to address disparities in dental care access and, more broadly, in health care.
Peek, Monica E.; Wilson, Shannon C.; Bussey-Jones, Jada; Lypson, Monica; Cordasco, Kristina; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.; Bright, Cedric; Brown, Arleen F.
Purpose To characterize national physician organizations’ efforts to reduce health disparities and identify organizational characteristics associated with such efforts. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2009 and June 2010. The authors used two-sample t tests and chi-square tests to compare the proportion of organizations with disparity-reducing activities between different organizational types (e.g., primary care versus subspecialty organizations, small [5,000 members]). Inclusion criteria required physician organizations to be (1) focused on physicians, (2) national in scope, and (3) membership based. Results The number of activities per organization ranged from 0 to 22. Approximately half (53%) of organizations had 0 or 1 disparity-reducing activities. Organiza-tional characteristics associated with having at least 1 disparity-reducing effort included membership size (88% of large groups versus 58% of small groups had at least 1 activity; P = .004) and the presence of a health disparities committee (95% versus 59%; P organizations and racial/ethnic minority physician organizations were more likely to have disparity-reducing efforts, although findings were not statistically significant. Common themes addressed by activities were health care access, health care disparities, workforce diversity, and language barriers. Common strategies included education of physicians/trainees and patients/general public, position statements, and advocacy. Conclusions Despite the national priority to eliminate health disparities, more than half of national physician organizations are doing little to address this problem. Primary care and minority physician organizations, and those with disparities committees, may provide leadership to extend the scope of disparity-reduction efforts. PMID:22534593
Ahn, SangNam; Burdine, James N; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G; Phillips, Charles D
The purposes of the study were (a) to identify disparities between urban and rural adults in oral health and (b) to examine contextual (i.e., external environment and access to dental care) and individual (i.e., predisposing, enabling, and lifestyle behavioral) factors associated with oral health problems in a community population. Study data were derived from a two-stage, telephone-mailed survey conducted in 2006. The subjects were 2,591 adults aged 18 years and older. Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistics for categorical variables were applied to explore conditional independence between both health access and individual factors and oral health problems after controlling for the urban or rural residence. Logistic regression was used to investigate the simultaneous associations of contextual and individual factors in both rural and urban areas. Approximately one quarter (24.1%) of the study population reported oral health problems. Participants residing in rural areas reported more oral health disparities. Oral health problems were significantly associated with delaying dental care. These problems also were more common among those who were less educated, were African American, skipped breakfast every day, and currently smoked. The study findings suggest that oral health disparities persist for people in rural areas, and improving oral health status is strongly related to better access to oral health care and improved lifestyles in both rural and urban areas.
Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Kind, Amy J. H.
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience increased morbidity and decreased life expectancy compared to the general population, and these disparities are likely exacerbated for those individuals who are otherwise disadvantaged. We conducted a review to ascertain what is known about health and health system quality (e.g., high…
Adler, Nancy; Bush, Nicole R; Pantell, Matthew S
Health disparities research spans multiple fields and methods and documents strong links between social disadvantage and poor health. Associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health are often taken as evidence for the causal impact of SES on health, but alternative explanations, including the impact of health on SES, are plausible. Studies showing the influence of parents' SES on their children's health provide evidence for a causal pathway from SES to health, but have limitations. Health disparities researchers face tradeoffs between "rigor" and "vigor" in designing studies that demonstrate how social disadvantage becomes biologically embedded and results in poorer health. Rigorous designs aim to maximize precision in the measurement of SES and health outcomes through methods that provide the greatest control over temporal ordering and causal direction. To achieve precision, many studies use a single SES predictor and single disease. However, doing so oversimplifies the multifaceted, entwined nature of social disadvantage and may overestimate the impact of that one variable and underestimate the true impact of social disadvantage on health. In addition, SES effects on overall health and functioning are likely to be greater than effects on any one disease. Vigorous designs aim to capture this complexity and maximize ecological validity through more complete assessment of social disadvantage and health status, but may provide less-compelling evidence of causality. Newer approaches to both measurement and analysis may enable enhanced vigor as well as rigor. Incorporating both rigor and vigor into studies will provide a fuller understanding of the causes of health disparities.
Dyer, Janyce G
Florida, the "Sunshine State", is paradise for international tourists and has been adopted as seasonal or permanent home by many wealthy individuals and celebrities. However, Florida is not paradise for the growing number of residents who suffer from poverty, health problems, and a lack of access to health care and social services. The purpose of this paper is to present data on health care problems and disparities throughout the state of Florida and in select south Florida counties. Flaskerud and Winslow (1998) have provided a framework which can be used to analyze disparities in resource availability, relative risk, and health status indicators and suggests areas in which nursing and other health professionals can ethically intervene through research, practice, and political action.
Nunez Lopez, Omar; Jupiter, Daniel C; Bohanon, Fredrick J; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S; Bowen-Jallow, Kanika A
Bariatric surgery represents an appropriate treatment for adolescent severe obesity, but its utilization remains low in this patient population. We studied the impact of race and sex on preoperative characteristics, outcomes, and utilization of adolescent bariatric surgery. Retrospective analysis (2007-2014) of adolescent bariatric surgery using the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database, a national database that collects bariatric surgical care data. We assessed the relationships between baseline characteristics and outcomes (weight loss and remission of obesity-related conditions [ORCs]). Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and U.S. census data, we calculated the ratio of severe obesity and bariatric procedures among races and determined the ratio of ratios to assess for disparities. About 1,539 adolescents underwent bariatric surgery. Males had higher preoperative body mass index (BMI; 51.8 ± 10.5 vs. 47.1 ± 8.7, p adolescents underwent bariatric surgery at a higher proportion than blacks and Hispanics (2.5 and 2.3 times higher, respectively). Preoperative characteristics vary according to race and sex. Race and sex do not impact 12-month weight loss or ORC's remission rates. Minority adolescents undergo bariatric surgery at lower-than-expected rates. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Artaza, Jorge N.; Contreras, Sandra; Garcia, Leah A.; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Gibbons, Gary; Shohet, Ralph; Martins, David; Norris, Keith C.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes coronary artery disease and stroke, is the leading cause of mortality in the nation. Excess CVD morbidity and premature mortality in the African American community is one of the most striking examples of racial/ethnic disparities in health outcomes. African Americans also suffer from increased rates of hypovitaminosis D, which has emerged as an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. This overview examines the potential role of hypovitaminosis D as a contributor to racial and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We review the epidemiology of vitamin D and CVD in African Americans and the emerging biological roles of vitamin D in key CVD signaling pathways that may contribute to the epidemiological findings and provide the foundation for future therapeutic strategies for reducing health disparities. PMID:22102304
Shippee, Tetyana P; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Rowan, Kathleen; Virnig, Beth A
Breast reconstruction after mastectomy offers clinical, cosmetic, and psychological benefits compared with mastectomy alone. Although reconstruction rates have increased, racial/ethnic disparities in breast reconstruction persist. Insurance coverage facilitates access to care, but few studies have examined whether health insurance ameliorates disparities. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2002 through 2006 to examine the relationships between health insurance coverage, race/ethnicity, and breast reconstruction rates among women who underwent mastectomy for breast cancer. We examined reconstruction rates as a function of the interaction of race and the primary payer (self-pay, private health insurance, government) while controlling for patient comorbidity, and we used generalized estimating equations to account for clustering and hospital characteristics. Minority women had lower breast reconstruction rates than White women (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.57 for African American; AOR, 0.70 for Hispanic; AOR, 0.45 for Asian; p women (AOR, 0.33) and those with public coverage were less likely to undergo reconstruction (AOR, 0.35; p women. Racial/ethnic disparities were less prominent within insurance types. Minority women, whether privately or publicly insured, had lower odds of undergoing reconstruction than White women. Among those without insurance, reconstruction rates did not differ by race/ethnicity. Insurance facilitates access to care, but does not eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in reconstruction rates. Our findings-which reveal persistent health care disparities not explained by patient health status-should prompt efforts to promote both access to and use of beneficial covered services for women with breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Inequality of income and wealth in the US has been growing rapidly since 1972. Evidence of socioeconomic effects on health is documented for many endpoints, and there is evidence that socioeconomic disparities in health are increasing. In Europe, equity in health and health care is a target of the World Health Organization, and has led to a variety of activities to reduce socioeconomic disparities in morbidity and mortality. In the US, activities in the public and private sectors have increased in recent years but attention, especially among the public-at-large in addition to elites, needs to be shifted to socioeconomic disparities. The paper suggests action strategies drawn from the European experience and other US efforts to place public health priorities on the policy agenda. A first step is to create a climate of unacceptability for socioeconomic disparities in health. Recommended activities include improvement and utilization of existing data; dissemination to broad audiences; building on existing initiatives; creating multi-sectoral alliances; formation of state and community task forces; attention to human capital as well as social justice issues; creative use of media; attraction of new funders; and implementation of quantitative targets.
Kon, Zeida R; Lackan, Nuha
We investigated ethnic disparities in obtaining medical care among the 4 major ethnic groups (Blacks, Whites, Coloreds [i.e., those of mixed race], and Asians) in post-apartheid South Africa. Data for the study came from the 2002 Afrobarometer: Round II Survey of South Africa. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine differences across racial and ethnic groups in how often respondents went without medical care. A total of 40.8% of Blacks and 22.9% of Coloreds reported going without medical care at some point in the past year, compared with 10.9% of Whites and 6.9% of Asians. Disparities were found not only in health but in education, income, and basic public health infrastructures. Sociodemographic characteristics and perceptions regarding democracy, markets, and civil society were similar for Blacks and Coloreds and for Whites and Asians. Fourteen years after the end of apartheid, Blacks and Coloreds in South Africa are still underserved and disadvantaged compared with their White and Asian counterparts, especially regarding health care.
Xia, Ruiping; Stone, John R; Hoffman, Julie E; Klappa, Susan G
In physical therapy, there is increasing focus on the need at the community level to promote health, eliminate disparities in health status, and ameliorate risk factors among underserved minorities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is the most promising paradigm for pursuing these goals. Community-based participatory research stresses equitable partnering of the community and investigators in light of local social, structural, and cultural elements. Throughout the research process, the CBPR model emphasizes coalition and team building that joins partners with diverse skills/expertise, knowledge, and sensitivities. This article presents core concepts and principles of CBPR and the rationale for its application in the management of health issues at the community level. Community-based participatory research is now commonly used to address public health issues. A literature review identified limited reports of its use in physical therapy research and services. A published study is used to illustrate features of CBPR for physical therapy. The purpose of this article is to promote an understanding of how physical therapists could use CBPR as a promising way to advance the profession's goals of community health and elimination of health care disparities, and social responsibility. Funding opportunities for the support of CBPR are noted. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.
... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special, Emphasis Panel, U24 Grant Review. Date: July 11-12, 2011. Time: 8 a.m..., National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda...
... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; R01 grant review (03). Date: March 7, 2011. Time: 8 a.m... Health Disparities, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD...
... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; R25 Grant Review. Date: May 23-24, 2011. Time: 8 a.m..., National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda...
... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel (R01). Date: December 15-16, 2010. Time: 7:45 a.m. to 3..., National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda...
... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel, NIMHD Conference Grant Application (R13) Review. Date... Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 451-9536...
... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel, Faith Based R21. Date: June 29-July 1, 2010. Time: 5 p..., Chief, Office of Scientific Review, National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707...
Chiao, Joan Y; Blizinsky, Katherine D
By 2050, nearly 1 in 5 Americans (19%) will be an immigrant, including Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians, compared to the 1 in 8 (12%) in 2005. They will vary in the extent to which they are at risk for mental health disorders. Given this increase in cultural diversity within the United States and costly population health disparities across cultural groups, it is essential to develop a more comprehensive understanding of how culture affects basic psychological and biological mechanisms. We examine these basic mechanisms that underlie population disparities in mental health through cultural neuroscience. We discuss the challenges to and opportunities for cultural neuroscience research to determine sociocultural and biological factors that confer risk for and resilience to mental health disorders across the globe.
Jørgensen, Marie B; Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Carneiro, Isabella G
hundred and fifty-one cleaners, consisting of 166 Danes (88% women) and 179 immigrants (74% women) (6 with unknown ethnicity), from 9 workplaces in Denmark participated in the study. Health and work ability were obtained by objective (e.g., BMI and blood pressure) and self-reported measures (e.g., work......PURPOSE: It is unknown whether immigrants working in the cleaning industry have a poorer health and work ability than cleaners from the native population. The main aim was to investigate differences in objective and self-reported health measures between immigrant and Danish cleaners. METHODS: Three...... ability, self-rated health, and musculoskeletal symptoms). In order to investigate differences between Danish and immigrant cleaners, logistic regression analyses and General Linear Models were performed. RESULTS: When controlling for age, sex, workplace, job seniority, and smoking, more Danish compared...
... income, social class, disability, geographic location, or sexual orientation. 1 According to CDC’s Office of Minority Health ... YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...
Gwede, Clement K; Ashley, Atalie A; McGinnis, Kara; Montiel-Ishino, F Alejandro; Standifer, Maisha; Baldwin, Julie; Williams, Coni; Sneed, Kevin B; Wathington, Deanna; Dash-Pitts, Lolita; Green, B Lee
Racial and ethnic minorities have disproportionately higher cancer incidence and mortality than their White counterparts. In response to this inequity in cancer prevention and care, community-based lay health advisors (LHAs) may be suited to deliver effective, culturally relevant, quality cancer education, prevention/screening, and early detection services for underserved populations. APPROACH AND STRATEGIES: Consistent with key tenets of community-based participatory research (CBPR), this project engaged community partners to develop and implement a unique LHA training curriculum to address cancer health disparities among medically underserved communities in a tricounty area. Seven phases of curriculum development went into designing a final seven-module LHA curriculum. In keeping with principles of CBPR and community engagement, academic-community partners and LHAs themselves were involved at all phases to ensure the needs of academic and community partners were mutually addressed in development and implementation of the LHA program. Community-based LHA programs for outreach, education, and promotion of cancer screening and early detection, are ideal for addressing cancer health disparities in access and quality care. When community-based LHAs are appropriately recruited, trained, and located in communities, they provide unique opportunities to link, bridge, and facilitate quality cancer education, services, and research.
Cheng, Tina L.; Emmanuel, Mickey; Levy, Daniel J.; Jenkins, Renee R.
Pediatric primary and specialty practice has changed with more to do, more regulation and more family needs. Similarly, the needs of patients have changed with more demographic diversity, family stress and continued health disparities by race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. How can clinicians continue their dedicated service to children and ensure health equity in the face of these changes? This paper outlines specific, practical, actionable and evidence-based activities for clinicians t...
Full Text Available St. Lucia is an island nation in the Eastern Caribbean, with a population of 179,000 people, where chronic health conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, are significant. The purpose of this pilot study is to create a model for community health education, tracking, and monitoring of these health conditions, research training, and policy interventions in St. Lucia, which may apply to other Caribbean populations, including those in the U.S. This paper reports on phase one of the study, which utilized a mixed method analytic approach. Adult clients at risk for, or diagnosed with, diabetes (n = 157, and health care providers/clinic administrators (n = 42, were recruited from five healthcare facilities in St. Lucia to assess their views on health status, health services, and improving health equity. Preliminary content analyses indicated that patients and providers acknowledge the relatively high prevalence of diabetes and other chronic illnesses, recognize the impact that socioeconomic status has on health outcomes, and desire improved access to healthcare and improvements to healthcare infrastructures. These findings could inform strategies, such as community education and workforce development, which may help improve health outcomes among St. Lucians with chronic health conditions, and inform similar efforts among other selected populations.
Holden, Kisha; Charles, Lisa; King, Stephen; McGregor, Brian; Satcher, David; Belton, Allyson
St. Lucia is an island nation in the Eastern Caribbean, with a population of 179,000 people, where chronic health conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, are significant. The purpose of this pilot study is to create a model for community health education, tracking, and monitoring of these health conditions, research training, and policy interventions in St. Lucia, which may apply to other Caribbean populations, including those in the U.S. This paper reports on phase one of the study, which utilized a mixed method analytic approach. Adult clients at risk for, or diagnosed with, diabetes (n = 157), and health care providers/clinic administrators (n = 42), were recruited from five healthcare facilities in St. Lucia to assess their views on health status, health services, and improving health equity. Preliminary content analyses indicated that patients and providers acknowledge the relatively high prevalence of diabetes and other chronic illnesses, recognize the impact that socioeconomic status has on health outcomes, and desire improved access to healthcare and improvements to healthcare infrastructures. These findings could inform strategies, such as community education and workforce development, which may help improve health outcomes among St. Lucians with chronic health conditions, and inform similar efforts among other selected populations.
Ramirez, Michelle; Chang, David C; Rogers, Selwyn O; Yu, Peter T; Easterlin, Molly; Coimbra, Raul; Kobayashi, Leslie
Health outcome disparities in racial minorities are well documented. However, it is unknown whether such disparities exist among elderly injured patients. We hypothesized that such disparities might be reduced in the elderly owing to insurance coverage under Medicare. We investigated this issue by comparing the trauma outcomes in young and elderly patients in California. A retrospective analysis of the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development hospital discharge database was performed for all publicly available years from 1995 to 2008. Trauma admissions were identified by International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, primary diagnosis codes from 800 to 959, with certain exclusions. Multivariate analysis examined the adjusted risk of in-hospital mortality in young (<65 y) and elderly (≥65 y) patients, controlling for age, gender, injury severity as measured by the survival risk ratio, Charlson comorbidity index, insurance status, calendar year, and teaching hospital status. A total of 1,577,323 trauma patients were identified. Among the young patients, the adjusted odds ratio of death relative to non-Hispanic whites for blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans/others was 1.2, 1.2, 0.90, and 0.78, respectively. The corresponding adjusted odds ratios of death for elderly patients were 0.78, 0.87, 0.92, and 0.61. Young black and Hispanic trauma patients had greater mortality risks relative to non-Hispanic white patients. Interestingly, elderly black and Hispanic patients had lower mortality risks compared with non-Hispanic whites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lake, Eileen T; Staiger, Douglas; Horbar, Jeffrey; Kenny, Michael J; Patrick, Thelma; Rogowski, Jeannette A
Objective To determine if hospital-level disparities in very low birth weight (VLBW) infant outcomes are explained by poorer hospital nursing characteristics. Data Sources Nurse survey and VLBW infant registry data. Study Design Retrospective study of 8,252 VLBW infants in 98 Vermont Oxford Network hospital neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) nationally. NICUs were classified into three groups based on their percent of infants of black race. Two nurse-sensitive perinatal quality standards were studied: nosocomial infection and breast milk. Data Collection Primary nurse survey (N = 5,773, 77 percent response rate). Principal Findings VLBW infants born in high-black concentration hospitals had higher rates of infection and discharge without breast milk than VLBW infants born in low-black concentration hospitals. Nurse understaffing was higher and practice environments were worse in high-black as compared to low-black hospitals. NICU nursing features accounted for one-third to one-half of the hospital-level health disparities. Conclusions Poorer nursing characteristics contribute to disparities in VLBW infant outcomes in two nurse-sensitive perinatal quality standards. Improvements in nursing have potential to improve the quality of care for seven out of ten black VLBW infants who are born in high-black hospitals in this country. PMID:25250882
Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Ortega, Alexander N
Using two nationally representative data sets, this study examined health care expenditure disparities between Caucasians and different Asian American subgroups. Multivariate analyses demonstrate that Asian Americans, as a group, have significantly lower total expenditures compared with Caucasians. Results also point to considerable heterogeneities in health care spending within Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest that language assistance programs would be effective in reducing disparities among Caucasians and Asian American subgroups with the exception of Indians and Filipinos, who tend to be more proficient in English. Results also indicate that citizenship and nativity were major factors associated with expenditure disparities. Socioeconomic status, however, could not explain expenditure disparities. Results also show that Asian Americans have lower physician and pharmaceutical costs but not emergency department or hospital expenditures. These findings suggest the need for culturally competent policies specific to Asian American subgroups and the necessity to encourage cost-effective treatments among Asian Americans.
Williams, David R; Kontos, Emily Z; Viswanath, K; Haas, Jennifer S; Lathan, Christopher S; MacConaill, Laura E; Chen, Jarvis; Ayanian, John Z
Objective To illustrate the complex patterns that emerge when race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and gender are considered simultaneously in health care disparities research and to outline the needed research to understand them by using disparities in lung cancer risks, treatment, and outcomes as an example. Principal Findings SES, gender, and race/ethnicity are social categories that are robust predictors of variations in health and health services utilization. These are usually considered separately, but intersectionality theory indicates that the impact of each depends on the others. Each reflects historically and culturally contingent variations in social, economic, and political status. Distinct patterns of risk and resilience emerge at the intersections of multiple social categories and shape the experience of health, health care access, utilization, quality, and outcomes where these categories intersect. Intersectional approaches call for greater attention to understand social processes at multiple levels of society and require the collection of relevant data and utilization of appropriate analytic approaches to understand how multiple risk factors and resources combine to affect the distribution of disease and its management. Conclusions Understanding how race/ethnicity, gender, and SES are interactive, interdependent, and social identities can provide new knowledge to enhance our efforts to effectively address health disparities. PMID:22568674
... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Revision Applications to Support Environmental Health Disparities Research P20. Date: August 29, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 12 p.m. Agenda: To review and...
... Disparities Subcommittee (HDS), Advisory Committee to the Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... through the ACD on strategic and other health disparities and health equity issues and provide guidance on... update including the CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report, U.S. 2011; the National Prevention...
... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel, NCMHD Social Determinants of Health (R01) Panel. Date... Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 594-8696, [email protected
Sabbah, Wael; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G
This study aimed to examine the socioeconomic disparities in health-related behaviors and to assess if behaviors eliminate socioeconomic disparities in oral health in a nationally representative sample of adult Americans. Data are from the US Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Behaviors were indicated by smoking, dental visits, frequency of eating fresh fruits and vegetables and extent of calculus, used as a marker for oral hygiene. Oral health outcomes were gingival bleeding, loss of periodontal attachment, tooth loss and perceived oral health. Education and income indicated socioeconomic position. Sex, age, ethnicity, dental insurance and diabetes were adjusted for in the regression analysis. Regression analysis was used to assess socioeconomic disparities in behaviors. Regression models adjusting and not adjusting for behaviors were compared to assess the change in socioeconomic disparities in oral health. The results showed clear socioeconomic disparities in all behaviors. After adjusting for behaviors, the association between oral health and socioeconomic indicators attenuated but did not disappear. These findings imply that improvement in health-related behaviors may lessen, but not eliminate socioeconomic disparities in oral health, and suggest the presence of more complex determinants of these disparities which should be addressed by oral health preventive policies.
Villatoro, Alice P.; Dixon, Elizabeth; Mays, Vickie M.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) is expected to increase access to mental healthcare through provisions aimed at increasing health coverage among the nation's uninsured, including 10.2 million eligible Latino non-elderly adults. The ACA will increase health coverage by expanding Medicaid eligibility to individuals living below 138% of the federal poverty level, subsidizing the purchase of private insurance among individuals not eligible for Medicaid, and requiring employers with 50 or more employees to offer health insurance. An anticipated result of this landmark legislation is improvement in the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of mental disorders in racial/ethnic minorities, particularly for Latinos, who traditionally have had less access to these services. However, these efforts alone may not sufficiently ameliorate mental healthcare disparities for Latinos. Faith-based organizations (FBOs) could play an integral role in the mental healthcare of Latinos by increasing help-seeking, providing religion-based mental health services, and delivering supportive services that address common access barriers among Latinos. Thus, in determining ways to eliminate Latino mental healthcare disparities under the ACA, examining pathways into care through the faith-based sector offers unique opportunities to address some of the cultural barriers confronted by this population. We examine how partnerships between FBOs and primary care patient-centered medical homes (PCMH) may help reduce the gap of unmet mental health needs among Latinos in this era of health reform. We also describe the challenges FBOs and PCMH providers need to overcome in order to be partners in integrated care efforts. PMID:26845492
Liechty, Janet M.
One-third of U. S. adults do not have adequate health literacy to manage their health care needs; and low health literacy is a major concern due to its association with poor health outcomes, high health care costs, and health communication problems. Low health literacy is a potential driver of health disparities, and its alleviation is central to…
Pan, Jay; Wang, Peng; Qin, Xuezheng; Zhang, Shufang
The huge regional disparity in government health expenditures (GHE) is a major policy concern in China. This paper addresses whether provincial GHE converges in China from 1997 to 2009 using the economic convergence framework based on neoclassical economic growth theory. Our empirical investigation provides compelling evidence of long-term convergence in provincial GHE within China, but not in short-term. Policy implications of these empirical results are discussed.
Full Text Available The huge regional disparity in government health expenditures (GHE is a major policy concern in China. This paper addresses whether provincial GHE converges in China from 1997 to 2009 using the economic convergence framework based on neoclassical economic growth theory. Our empirical investigation provides compelling evidence of long-term convergence in provincial GHE within China, but not in short-term. Policy implications of these empirical results are discussed.
Grandner, Michael A; Knutson, Kristen L; Troxel, Wendy; Hale, Lauren; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Miller, Kathleen E
The popularity of energy drinks has increased rapidly in the past decade. One of the main reasons people use energy drinks is to counteract effects of insufficient sleep or sleepiness. Risks associated with energy drink use, including those related to sleep loss, may be disproportionately borne by racial minorities and those of lower socioeconomic status. In this review, a brief introduction to the issue of health disparities is provided, population-level disparities and inequalities in sleep are described, and the social-ecological model of sleep and health is presented. Social and demographic patterns of energy drink use are then presented, followed by discussion of the potential ways in which energy drink use may contribute to health disparities, including the following: 1) effects of excessive caffeine in energy drinks, 2) effects of energy drinks as sugar-sweetened beverages, 3) association between energy drinks and risk-taking behaviors when mixed with alcohol, 4) association between energy drink use and short sleep duration, and 5) role of energy drinks in cardiometabolic disease. The review concludes with a research agenda of critical unanswered questions. PMID:25293540
Haeok Lee, PhD, RN, FAAN who is a Korean-American nurse scientist, received her doctor al degree from the Nursing Physiology Department, College of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), in 1993, and her post doctor al training from College of Medicine, UCSF. Dr. Lee worked at Case Western Reserve University and University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. She has worked at the UMass Boston since 2008. Dr. Lee has established a long-term commitment to minority health, especially Asian American Pacific Islanders, as a community leader, community health educator, and community researcher, and all these services have become a foundation for her community-based participatory research. Dr. Lee's research addresses current health problems framed in the context of social, political, and economic settings, and her studies have improved racial and ethnic data and developed national health policies to address health disparities in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and liver cancer among minorities. Dr. Lee's research, which is noteworthy for its theoretical base, is clearly filling the gap. Especially, Dr. Lee's research is beginning to have a favorable impact on national and international health policies and continuing education programs directed toward the global elimination of cervical and liver cancer-related health disparities in underserved and understudied populations.
... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel, ZMD1 RN (02) NIMHD Comprehensive Center of Excellence... Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 496-3996, [email protected
... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; 2011 LRP Panel 1. Date: March 18, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to... Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 451-9536, [email protected
... and Health Disparities Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; ZMD1 RN 01 NIMHD Exploratory Centers of Excellence (P20... Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 496-3996, [email protected
... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; 2011 LRP Panel 3. Date: April 13, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to... Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 451-9536, [email protected
Grassi, Luigi; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Odyio, Philip; Asuzu, Chioma; Ashley, Laura; Bultz, Barry; Travado, Luzia; Fielding, Richard
The aim of the study was to understand the characteristics of the International Federation of Psycho-oncology Societies (FPOS) and possible disparities in providing psychosocial care in countries where psycho-oncology societies exist. A survey was conducted among 29 leaders of 28 countries represented within the FPOS by using a questionnaire covering (i) characteristics of the society; (ii) characteristics of the national health care system; (iii) level of implementation of psycho-oncology; and (iv) main problems of psycho-oncology in the country. Twenty-six (90%) FPOS returned the questionnaires. One-third reported to have links with and support from their government, while almost all had links with other scientific societies. The FPOS varied in their composition of members' professions. Psychosocial care provision was covered by state-funded health services in a minority of countries. Disparities between countries arose from different causes and were problematic in some parts of the world (eg, Africa and SE Asia). Elsewhere (eg, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe), austerity policies were reportedly responsible for resource shortages with negative consequences on psychosocial cancer care. Half of FPOS rated themselves to be integrated into mainstream provision of care, although lack of funding was the most common complain. The development and implementation of psycho-oncology is fragmented and undeveloped, particularly in some parts of the world. More effort is needed at national level by strong coalitions with oncology societies, better national research initiatives, cancer plans, and patient advocacy, as well as by stronger partnership with international organizations (eg, World Health Organization and Union for International Cancer Control). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Niederdeppe, Jeff; Bu, Q Lisa; Borah, Porismita; Kindig, David A; Robert, Stephanie A
Raising public awareness of the importance of social determinants of health (SDH) and health disparities presents formidable communication challenges. This article reviews three message strategies that could be used to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities: message framing, narratives, and visual imagery. Although few studies have directly tested message strategies for raising awareness of SDH and health disparities, the accumulated evidence from other domains suggests that population health advocates should frame messages to acknowledge a role for individual decisions about behavior but emphasize SDH. These messages might use narratives to provide examples of individuals facing structural barriers (unsafe working conditions, neighborhood safety concerns, lack of civic opportunities) in efforts to avoid poverty, unemployment, racial discrimination, and other social determinants. Evocative visual images that invite generalizations, suggest causal interpretations, highlight contrasts, and create analogies could accompany these narratives. These narratives and images should not distract attention from SDH and population health disparities, activate negative stereotypes, or provoke counterproductive emotional responses directed at the source of the message. The field of communication science offers valuable insights into ways that population health advocates and researchers might develop better messages to shape public opinion and debate about the social conditions that shape the health and well-being of populations. The time has arrived to begin thinking systematically about issues in communicating about SDH and health disparities. This article offers a broad framework for these efforts and concludes with an agenda for future research to refine message strategies to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities.
Cromley Ellen K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in health outcomes across communities are a central concern in public health and epidemiology. Health disparities research often links differences in health outcomes to other social factors like income. Choropleth maps of health outcome rates show the geographical distribution of health outcomes. This paper illustrates the use of cumulative frequency map legends for visualizing how the health events are distributed in relation to social characteristics of community populations. The approach uses two graphs in the cumulative frequency legend to highlight the difference between the raw count of the health events and the raw count of the social characteristic like low income in the geographical areas of the map. The approach is applied to mapping publicly available data on low birth weight by town in Connecticut and Lyme disease incidence by town in Connecticut in relation to income. The steps involved in creating these legends are described in detail so that health analysts can adopt this approach. Results The different health problems, low birth weight and Lyme disease, have different cumulative frequency signatures. Graphing poverty population on the cumulative frequency legends revealed that the poverty population is distributed differently with respect to the two different health problems mapped here. Conclusion Cumulative frequency legends can be useful supplements for choropleth maps. These legends can be constructed using readily available software. They contain all of the information found in standard choropleth map legends, and they can be used with any choropleth map classification scheme. Cumulative frequency legends effectively communicate the proportion of areas, the proportion of health events, and/or the proportion of the denominator population in which the health events occurred that falls within each class interval. They illuminate the context of disease through graphing associations with other
Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Dadia, Annalyn Valdez; Yu, Mimi C; Surbone, Antonella
Little progress has been made over the last 40 years to eliminate the racial/ethnic differences in incidence, morbidity, avoidable suffering, and mortality from cancer that result from factors beyond genetic differences. More effective strategies to promote equity in access and quality care are urgently needed because the changing demographics of the United States portend that this disparity will not only persist but significantly increase. Such suffering is avoidable. The authors posit that culture is a prime factor in the persistence of health disparities. However, this concept of culture is still poorly understood, inconsistently defined, and ineffectively used in practice and research. The role of culture in the causal pathway of disparities and the potential impact of culturally competent cancer care on improving cancer outcomes in ethnic minorities has, thus, been underestimated. In this article, the authors provide a comprehensive definition of culture and demonstrate how it can be used at each stage of the cancer care continuum to help reduce the unequal burden of cancer. The authors conclude with suggestions for clinical practice to eliminate the disconnection between evidence-based, quality, cancer care and its delivery to diverse population groups.
James, Aisha; Berkowitz, Seth A; Ashburner, Jeffrey M; Chang, Yuchiao; Horn, Daniel M; O'Keefe, Sandra M; Atlas, Steven J
Healthcare systems use population health management programs to improve the quality of cardiovascular disease care. Adding a dedicated population health coordinator (PHC) who identifies and reaches out to patients not meeting cardiovascular care goals to these programs may help reduce disparities in cardiovascular care. To determine whether a program that used PHCs decreased racial/ethnic disparities in LDL cholesterol and blood pressure (BP) control. Retrospective difference-in-difference analysis. Twelve thousdand five hundred fifty-five primary care patients with cardiovascular disease (cohort for LDL analysis) and 41,183 with hypertension (cohort for BP analysis). From July 1, 2014-December 31, 2014, 18 practices used an information technology (IT) system to identify patients not meeting LDL and BP goals; 8 practices also received a PHC. We examined whether having the PHC plus IT system, compared with having the IT system alone, decreased racial/ethnic disparities, using difference-in-difference analysis of data collected before and after program implementation. Meeting guideline concordant LDL and BP goals. At baseline, there were racial/ethnic disparities in meeting LDL (p = 0.007) and BP (p = 0.0003) goals. Comparing practices with and without a PHC, and accounting for pre-intervention LDL control, non-Hispanic white patients in PHC practices had improved odds of LDL control (OR 1.20 95% CI 1.09-1.32) compared with those in non-PHC practices. Non-Hispanic black (OR 1.15 95% CI 0.80-1.65) and Hispanic (OR 1.29 95% CI 0.66-2.53) patients saw similar, but non-significant, improvements in LDL control. For BP control, non-Hispanic white patients in PHC practices (versus non-PHC) improved (OR 1.13 95% CI 1.05-1.22). Non-Hispanic black patients (OR 1.17 95% CI 0.94-1.45) saw similar, but non-statistically significant, improvements in BP control, but Hispanic (OR 0.90 95% CI 0.59-1.36) patients did not. Interaction testing confirmed that disparities did not
care policy which was intended to make health care which of the two alternative methods of health care available to individuals and families in the financing options of free health or DRF was community at very little or no cost at all. However, preferred by the community members within most health facilities would appear to ...
Akincigil, Ayse; Olfson, Mark; Siegel, Michele; Zurlo, Karen A; Walkup, James T; Crystal, Stephen
We investigated racial/ethnic disparities in the diagnosis and treatment of depression among community-dwelling elderly. We performed a secondary analysis of Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey data (n = 33,708) for 2001 through 2005. We estimated logistic regression models to assess the association of race/ethnicity with the probability of being diagnosed and treated for depression with either antidepressant medication or psychotherapy. Depression diagnosis rates were 6.4% for non-Hispanic Whites, 4.2% for African Americans, 7.2% for Hispanics, and 3.8% for others. After we adjusted for a range of covariates including a 2-item depression screener, we found that African Americans were significantly less likely to receive a depression diagnosis from a health care provider (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.41, 0.69) than were non-Hispanic Whites; those diagnosed were less likely to be treated for depression (AOR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.30, 0.66). Among elderly Medicare beneficiaries, significant racial/ethnic differences exist in the diagnosis and treatment of depression. Vigorous clinical and public health initiatives are needed to address this persisting disparity in care.
Worthman, Carol M.; Costello, E. Jane
Background Cultural factors and biomarkers are emerging emphases in social epidemiology that readily ally with human biology and anthropology. Persistent health challenges and disparities have established biocultural roots, and environment plays an integral role in physical development and function that form the bases of population health. Biomarkers have proven to be valuable tools for investigating biocultural bases of health disparities. Aims We apply recent insights from biology to consider how culture gets under the skin and evaluate the construct of embodiment. We analyze contrasting biomarker models and applications, and propose an integrated model for biomarkers. Three examples from the Great Smoky Mountains Study (GSMS) illustrate these points. Subjects and methods The longitudinal developmental epidemiological GSMS comprises a population-based sample of 1420 children with repeated measures including mental and physical health, life events, household conditions, and biomarkers for pubertal development and allostatic load. Results Analyses using biomarkers resolved competing explanations for links between puberty and depression, identified gender differences in stress at puberty, and revealed interactive effects of birthweight and postnatal adversity on risk for depression at puberty in girls. Conclusion An integrated biomarker model can both enrich epidemiology and illuminate biocultural pathways in population health. PMID:19381986
Adelani, Muyibat A; O'Connor, Mary I
Racial/ethnic disparities in healthcare, including orthopedics, have been extensively documented. However, the level of knowledge among orthopedic surgeons regarding racial/ethnic disparities is unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine the views of orthopedic surgeons on (1) the extent of racial/ethnic disparities in orthopedic care, (2) patient and system factors that may contribute, and (3) the potential role of orthopedic surgeons in the reduction of disparities. Three hundred five members of the American Orthopaedic Association completed a survey to assess their knowledge of racial/ethnic disparities and their perceptions about the underlying causes. Twelve percent of respondents believe that patients often receive different care based on race/ethnicity in healthcare in general, while 9 % believe that differences exist in orthopedic care in general, 3 % believe that differences exist within their hospitals/clinics, and 1 % reported differences in their own practices. Despite this, 68 % acknowledge that there is evidence of disparities in orthopedic care. Fifty-one percent believe that a lack of insurance significantly contributes to disparities. Thirty-five percent believe that diversification of the orthopedic workforce would be a "very effective" strategy in addressing disparities, while 25 % percent believe that research would be "very effective" and 24 % believe that surgeon education would be "very effective." Awareness regarding racial/ethnic disparities in musculoskeletal care is low among orthopedic surgeons. Additionally, respondents were more likely to acknowledge disparities within the practices of others than their own. Increased diversity, research, and education may help improve knowledge of this problem.
Bailey, Stacy C; O'Conor, Rachel; Bojarski, Elizabeth A; Mullen, Rebecca; Patzer, Rachel E; Vicencio, Daniel; Jacobson, Kara L; Parker, Ruth M; Wolf, Michael S
Age and race-related disparities in technology use have been well documented, but less is known about how health literacy influences technology access and use. To assess the association between patients' literacy skills and mobile phone ownership, use of text messaging, Internet access, and use of the Internet for health-related purposes. A secondary analysis utilizing data from 1077 primary care patients enrolled in two, multisite studies from 2011-2013. Patients were administered an in-person, structured interview. Patients with adequate health literacy were more likely to own a mobile phone or smartphone in comparison with patients having marginal or low literacy (mobile phone ownership: 96.8 vs. 95.2 vs. 90.1%, respectively, P Internet from their home (92.1 vs. 74.7 vs. 44.9%, P Internet for email (93.0 vs. 75.7 vs. 38.5%, P technology access and use are widespread, with lower literate patients being less likely to own smartphones or to access and use the Internet, particularly for health reasons. Future interventions should consider these disparities and ensure that health promotion activities do not further exacerbate disparities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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Liu, Hong; Rizzo, John A; Fang, Hai
Hukou is the household registration system in China that determines eligibility for various welfare benefits, such as health care, education, housing, and employment. The hukou system may lead to nutritional and health disparities in China. We aim at examining the role of the hukou system in affecting urban-rural disparities in child nutrition, and disentangling the institutional effect of hukou from the effect of urban/rural residence on child nutrition-related health outcomes. This study uses data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 1993-2009 with a sample of 9616 children under the age of 18. We compute height-for-age z-score and weight-for-age z-score for children. We use both descriptive statistics and multiple regression techniques to study the levels and significance of the association between child nutrition-related health outcomes and hukou type. Children with urban hukou have 0.25 (P system exacerbates urban-rural disparities in child nutrition-related health outcomes independent of the well-known disparity stemming from urban-rural residence. Fortunately, however, child health disparities due to hukou have been declining since 2000.
Truesdale, Beth C; Jencks, Christopher
Much research has investigated the association of income inequality with average life expectancy, usually finding negative correlations that are not very robust. A smaller body of work has investigated socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy, which have widened in many countries since 1980. These two lines of work should be seen as complementary because changes in average life expectancy are unlikely to affect all socioeconomic groups equally. Although most theories imply long and variable lags between changes in income inequality and changes in health, empirical evidence is confined largely to short-term effects. Rising income inequality can affect individuals in two ways. Direct effects change individuals' own income. Indirect effects change other people's income, which can then change a society's politics, customs, and ideals, altering the behavior even of those whose own income remains unchanged. Indirect effects can thus change both average health and the slope of the relationship between individual income and health.
Norwood, Connor W; Maxey, Hannah L; Randolph, Courtney; Gano, Laura; Kochhar, Komal
Inadequate access to preventive oral health services contributes to oral health disparities and is a major public health concern in the United States. Federally Qualified Health Centers play a critical role in improving access to care for populations affected by oral health disparities but face a number of administrative challenges associated with implementation of oral health integration models. We conducted a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis with health care executives to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of successful oral health integration in Federally Qualified Health Centers. Four themes were identified: (1) culture of health care organizations; (2) operations and administration; (3) finance; and (4) workforce.
Giddings, Lynne S
Nurses are well positioned to challenge institutionalized social injustices that lead to health disparities. The aim of this cross-cultural study was to collect stories of difference and fairness within nursing. The study used a life history methodology informed by feminist theory and critical social theory. Life story interviews were conducted with 26 women nurses of varying racial, cultural, sexual identity, and specialty backgrounds in the United States (n = 13) and Aotearoa New Zealand (n = 13). Participants reported having some understanding of social justice issues. They were asked to reflect on their experience of difference and fairness in their lives and specifically within nursing. Their stories were analyzed using a life history immersion method. Nursing remains attached to the ideological construction of the "White good nurse." Taken-for-granted ideals privilege those who fit in and marginalize those who do not. The nurses experienced discrimination and unfairness, survived by living in two worlds, learned to live in contradiction, and worked surreptitiously for social justice. For nurses to contribute to changing the systems and structures that maintain health disparities, the privilege of not seeing difference and the processes of mainstream violence that support the construction of the "White good nurse" must be challenged. Nurses need skills to deconstruct the marginalizing social processes that sustain inequalities in nursing and healthcare. These hidden realities--racism, sexism, heterosexism, and other forms of discrimination--will then be made visible and open to challenge.
Lee, Su Hyun; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Soojin; Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Cheol Min; Kwon, Hyuktae
Abstract Public health insurance coverage for preventive care in young adults is incomplete in Korea. Few studies have focused on young adults’ socioeconomic disparities in preventive care utilization. We aimed to explore household income disparities in the use of different types of health screening services among university students in Korea. This cross-sectional study used a web-based self-administered survey of students at a university in Korea from January to February 2013. To examine the associations between household income levels and health screening service use within the past 2 years, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression with adjustment for various covariables. Of 2479 participants, 45.5% reported using health screening services within 2 years (university-provided screening 32.9%, private sector screening 16.7%, and both 4.1%). Household income levels were not significantly associated with overall rates of health screening service use with a multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) in the lowest versus highest income group of 1.12 (0.87–1.45, Ptrend = 0.35). However, we found significantly different associations in specific types of utilized screening services by household income levels. The multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of university-provided health screening service use in the lowest versus highest income level was 1.74 (1.30–2.34; Ptrend income level was 0.45 (0.31–0.66; Ptrend income groups among university students in Korea, although overall rates of health screening service use were similar across income levels. Low-income students were more likely to use university-provided health screening services, and less likely to use private sector screening services. To ensure appropriate preventive care delivery for young adults and to address disparities in disadvantaged groups, the expansion of medical insurance coverage for preventive health care, establishment of a usual source of
Jha, Ayan; Dobe, Madhumita
Health inequities are disparities which can be avoided through rational actions on the part of policymakers. Such inequalities are unnecessary and unjust and may exist between and within nations, societies, and population groups. Social determinants such as wealth, income, occupation, education, gender, and racial/ethnic groups are the principal drivers of this inequality since they determine the health risks and preventive behaviors, access to, and affordability of health care. Within this framework, there is a debate on assigning a personal responsibility factor over and above societal responsibility to issues of ill health. One school of philosophy argues that when individuals are worse-off than others for no fault of their own, it is unjust, as opposed to health disparities that arise due to avoidable personal choices such as smoking and drug addiction for which there should (can) be a personal responsibility. Opposing thoughts have pointed out that the relative socioeconomic position of an individual dictates how his/her life may progress from education to working conditions and aging, susceptibility to diseases and infirmity, and the consequences thereof. The existence of a social gradient in health outcomes across populations throughout the world is a testimony to this truth. It has been emphasized that assuming personal responsibility for health in public policy-making can only have a peripheral place. Instead, the concept of individual responsibility should be promoted as a positive concept of enabling people to gain control over the determinants of health through conscious, informed, and healthy choices.
Carter, M.W.; Hans, Elias W.; Kolisch, R.
Health care operations management has become a major topic for health care service providers and society. Operations research already has and further will make considerable contributions for the effective and efficient delivery of health care services. This special issue collects seven carefully
Li, Yue; Ye, Zhiqiu; Glance, Laurent G; Temkin-Greener, Helena
Providing equitable and patient-centered care is critical to ensuring high quality of care. Although racial/ethnic disparities in quality are widely reported for nursing facilities, it is unknown whether disparities exist in consumer experiences with care and how public reporting of consumer experiences affects facility performance and potential racial disparities. We analyzed trends of consumer ratings publicly reported for Maryland nursing homes during 2007-2010, and determined whether racial/ethnic disparities in experiences with care changed during this period. Multivariate longitudinal regression models controlled for important facility and county characteristics and tested changes overall and by facility groups (defined based on concentrations of black residents). Consumer ratings were reported for: overall care; recommendation of the facility; staff performance; care provided; food and meals; physical environment; and autonomy and personal rights. Overall ratings on care experience remained relatively high (mean=8.3 on a 1-10 scale) during 2007-2010. Ninety percent of survey respondents each year would recommend the facility to someone who needs nursing home care. Ratings on individual domains of care improved among all nursing homes in Maryland (Pfood and meals (P=0.827 for trend). However, site-of-care disparities existed in each year for overall ratings, recommendation rate, and ratings on all domains of care (P0.2 for trends in disparities). Although Maryland nursing homes showed maintained or improved consumer ratings during the first 4 years of public reporting, gaps persisted between facilities with high versus low concentrations of minority residents.
Wenger, Lisa M; Rosenthal, Meagen; Sharpe, Jane Pearson; Waite, Nancy
An expanding body of literature is exploring the presence and impact of health and health care disparities among marginalized populations. This research challenges policy makers, health professionals, and scholars to examine how unjust and avoidable inequities are created at the societal, institutional, and individual level, and explore strategies for mitigating challenges. Recognizing the significance of this broader conversation, this scoping review provides an overview of pharmacy-specific research attentive to health-related disparities. Following Arksey and O'Malley's framework, a rigorous screening process yielded 93 peer-reviewed and 23 grey literature articles, each analyzed for core themes. Lending critical insight to how pharmacy practice researchers are conceptualizing and measuring health inequities, this review highlights three paths of inquiry evident across this literature, including research focused on what pharmacists know about marginalized groups, how pharmacists perceive these groups, and how they provide services. Striving to drive research and practice forward, this review details research gaps and opportunities, including a need to expand the scope of research and integrate knowledge. As pharmacists endeavor to provide equitable and impactful patient care, it is essential to understand challenges, and build strong evidence for meaningful action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: India, with a population of more than 1.21 billion, has the highest maternal mortality in the world (estimated to be 56000 in 2010; and adolescent (aged 15-19 mortality shares 9% of total maternal deaths. Addressing the maternity care needs of adolescents may have considerable ramifications for achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG-5. This paper assesses the socioeconomic differentials in accessing full antenatal care and professional attendance at delivery by adolescent mothers (aged 15-19 in India during 1990-2006. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data from three rounds of the National Family Health Survey of India conducted during 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2005-06 were analyzed. The Cochran-Armitage and Chi-squared test for linear and non-linear time trends were applied, respectively, to understand the trend in the proportion of adolescent mothers utilizing select maternity care services during 1990-2006. Using pooled multivariate logistic regression models, the probability of select maternal healthcare utilization among women by key socioeconomic characteristics was appraised. After adjusting for potential socio-demographic and economic characteristics, the likelihood of adolescents accessing full antenatal care increased by only 4% from 1990 to 2006. However, the probability of adolescent women availing themselves of professional attendance at delivery increased by 79% during the same period. The study also highlights the desolate disparities in maternity care services among adolescents across the most and the least favoured groups. CONCLUSION: Maternal care interventions in India need focused programs for rural, uneducated, poor adolescent women so that they can avail themselves of measures to delay child bearing, and for better antenatal consultation and delivery care in case of pregnancy. This study strongly advocates the promotion of a comprehensive 'adolescent scheme' along the lines of 'Continuum of Maternal, Newborn and Child
Goldade, Kate; Burgess, Diana; Olayinka, Abimbola; Whembolua, Guy Lucien S; Okuyemi, Kolawole S
Disparities in tobacco's harm persist. Declines in smoking among the general population have not been experienced to the same extent by vulnerable populations. Innovative strategies are required to diminish disparities in tobacco's harm. As novel tools, anthropological concepts and methods may be applied to improve the design and outcomes of tobacco cessation interventions. We reviewed over 60 articles published in peer-reviewed journals since 1995 for content on anthropology and smoking cessation. The specific questions framing the review were: (a) "How can lessons learned from anthropological studies of smoking improve the design and effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions?" (b) How can anthropology be applied to diminish disparities in smoking cessation? and (c) How can qualitative methods be used most effectively in smoking cessation intervention research? Three specific disciplinary tools were identified and examined: (a) culture, (b) reflexivity, and (c) qualitative methods. Examining culture as a dynamic influence and understanding the utilities of smoking in a particular group is a precursor to promoting cessation. Reflexivity enables a deeper understanding of how smokers perceive quitting and smoking beyond addiction and individual health consequences. Qualitative methods may be used to elicit in-depth perspectives on quitting, insights to inform existing community-based strategies for making behavior changes, and detailed preferences for cessation treatment or programs. Anthropological tools can be used to improve the effectiveness of intervention research studies targeting individuals from vulnerable groups. Synthesized applications of anthropological concepts can be used to facilitate translation of findings into clinical practice for providers addressing tobacco cessation in vulnerable populations.
Lan, Roy H; Kamath, Atul F
Understanding the socioeconomic factors that influence hospitalization and post-discharge metrics after joint replacement is important for identifying key areas of improvement in the delivery of orthopaedic care. An institutional administrative data set of 2869 patients from an academic arthroplasty referral center was analyzed to quantify the relationship between socioeconomic factors and post-acute rehabilitation care received, length of stay, and cost of care. The study used International Classification of Disease, ninth edition coding in order to identify cohorts of patients who received joint arthroplasty of the knee and hip between January 2007 and May 2015. The study found that females (odds ratio [OR], 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.74-2.46), minorities (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.78-2.51), and non-private insurance holders (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.26-1.94) were more likely to be assigned to institutional care after discharge. The study also found that minorities (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.24-1.70) and non-private insurance holders (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.16-1.77) are more likely to exhibit longer length of stay. Mean charges were higher for males when compared to females ($80,010 vs $74,855; P total costs ($19,910 vs $18,613; P = .001). Socioeconomic factors such as gender, race, and insurance status should be further explored with respect to healthcare policies seeking to influence quality of care and health outcomes.
Vazquez, Maribel; Marte, Otto; Barba, Joseph; Hubbard, Karen
Health disparities are preventable differences in the incidence, prevalence and burden of disease among communities targeted by gender, geographic location, ethnicity and/or socio-economic status. While biomedical research has identified partial origin(s) of divergent burden and impact of disease, the innovation needed to eradicate health disparities in the United States requires unique engagement from biomedical engineers. Increasing awareness of the prevalence and consequences of health disparities is particularly attractive to today's undergraduates, who have undauntedly challenged paradigms believed to foster inequality. Here, the Department of Biomedical Engineering at The City College of New York (CCNY) has leveraged its historical mission of access-and-excellence to integrate the study of health disparities into undergraduate BME curricula. This article describes our novel approach in a multiyear study that: (i) Integrated health disparities modules at all levels of the required undergraduate BME curriculum; (ii) Developed opportunities to include impacts of health disparities into undergraduate BME research projects and mentored High School summer STEM training; and (iii) Established health disparities-based challenges as BME capstone design and/or independent entrepreneurship projects. Results illustrate the rising awareness of health disparities among the youngest BMEs-to-be, as well as abundant undergraduate desire to integrate health disparities within BME education and training.
McPheeters, Melissa L; Kripalani, Sunil; Peterson, Neeraja B; Idowu, Rachel T; Jerome, Rebecca N; Potter, Shannon A; Andrews, Jeffrey C
This review evaluates the effectiveness of quality improvement (QI) strategies in reducing disparities in health and health care. We identified papers published in English between 1983 and 2011 from the MEDLINE® database, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science Social Science Index, and PsycINFO. All abstracts and full-text articles were dually reviewed. Studies were eligible if they reported data on effectiveness of QI interventions on processes or health outcomes in the United States such that the impact on a health disparity could be measured. The review focused on the following clinical conditions: breast cancer, colorectal cancer, diabetes, heart failure, hypertension, coronary artery disease, asthma, major depressive disorder, cystic fibrosis, pneumonia, pregnancy, and end-stage renal disease. It assessed health disparities associated with race or ethnicity, socioeconomic status, insurance status, sexual orientation, health literacy/numeracy, and language barrier. We evaluated the risk of bias of individual studies and the overall strength of the body of evidence based on risk of bias, consistency, directness, and precision. Nineteen papers, representing 14 primary research studies, met criteria for inclusion. All but one of the studies incorporated multiple components into their QI approach. Patient education was part of most interventions (12 of 14), although the specific approach differed substantially across the studies. Ten of the studies incorporated self-management; this would include, for example, teaching individuals with diabetes to check their blood sugar regularly. Most (8 of 14) included some sort of provider education, which may have focused on the clinical issue or on raising awareness about disparities affecting the target population. Studies evaluated the effect of these strategies on disparities in the prevention or treatment of breast or colorectal cancer, cardiovascular disease, depression, or
Full Text Available The rapid growth of diabetes in middle-income countries is generating disparities in global health. In this context we conducted a study to quantify the health disparities from the economic burden of diabetes in México. Evaluative research based on a longitudinal design, using cost methodology by instrumentation. For the estimation of epidemiological changes during the 2010-2012 period, several probabilistic models were developed using the Box-Jenkins technique. The financial requirements were obtained from expected case management costs by disease and the application of an econometric adjustment factor to control the effects of inflation. Comparing the economic impact in 2010 versus 2012 (p<0.05, there was a 33% increase in financial requirements. The total amount for diabetes in 2011 (US dollars was $7.7 billion. It includes $3.4 billion in direct costs and $4.3 in indirect costs. The total direct costs were $.4 billion to the Ministry of Health (SSA, serving the uninsured population; $1.2 to the institutions serving the insured population (Mexican Institute for Social Security-IMSS-, and Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers-ISSSTE-; $1.8 to users; and $.1 to Private Health Insurance (PHI. If the risk factors and the different health care models remain as they currently are in the analyzed institutions, health disparities in terms of financial implications will have the greatest impact on users' pockets. In middle-income countries, health disparities generated by the economic burden of diabetes is one of the main reasons for catastrophic health expenditure. Health disparities generated by the economic burden of diabetes suggests the need to design and review the current organization of health systems and the relevance of moving from biomedical models and curative health care to preventive and socio-medical models to meet expected challenges from diseases like diabetes in middle-income countries.
Bodie, Graham D; Dutta, Mohan Jyoti
Even despite policy efforts aimed at reducing health-related disparities, evidence mounts that population-level gaps in literacy and healthcare quality are increasing. This widening of disparities in American culture is likely to worsen over the coming years due, in part, to our increasing reliance on Internet-based technologies to disseminate health information and services. The purpose of the current article is to incorporate health literacy into an Integrative Model of eHealth Use. We argue for this theoretical understanding of eHealth literacy and propose that macro-level disparities in social structures are connected to health disparities through the micro-level conduits of eHealth literacy, motivation, and ability. In other words, structural inequities reinforce themselves and continue to contribute to healthcare disparities through the differential distribution of technologies that simultaneously enhance and impede literacy, motivation, and ability of different groups (and individuals) in the population. We conclude the article by suggesting pragmatic implications of our analysis.
Tavella, Rosanna; McBride, Katharine; Keech, Wendy; Kelly, Janet; Rischbieth, Amanda; Zeitz, Christopher; Beltrame, John F; Tideman, Philip A; Brown, Alex
To assess differences in the rates of angiography and subsequent revascularisation for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians who presented with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS); to explore the reasons for any observed differences. Analysis of administrative data with logistic regression modelling to assess the relationship between Aboriginal status and the decision to undertake diagnostic angiography. A detailed medical record review of Aboriginal admissions was subsequently undertaken. Emergency ACS admissions to SA cardiac catheterisation hospitals, 2007-2012. 13 701 admissions of patients with an ACS, including 274 Aboriginal patients (2.1%). Rates of coronary angiography and revascularisation; documentation of justification for non-invasive management. After adjustment for age, comorbidities and remoteness, Aboriginal patients presenting with an ACS were significantly less likely than non-Aboriginal patients to undergo angiography (odds ratio [OR], 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.5; P Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients who had undergone angiography. Reasons for Aboriginal patients not undergoing angiography included symptoms being deemed non-cardiac (16%), non-invasive test performed (8%), and discharge against medical advice (11%); the reasons were unclear for 36% of Aboriginal patients. After controlling for age and other factors, the rate of coronary angiography was lower among Aboriginal patients with an ACS in SA. The reasons for this disparity are complex, including patient-related factors and their preferences, as well as the appropriateness of the intervention. Improved consideration of the hospital experience of Aboriginal patients must be a priority for reducing health care disparities.
Thorlby, Ruth; Jorgensen, Selena; Siegel, Bruce; Ayanian, John Z
Context: Racial and ethnic disparities in the quality of health care are well documented in the U.S. health care system. Reducing these disparities requires action by health care organizations. Collecting accurate data from patients about their race and ethnicity is an essential first step for health care organizations to take such action, but these data are not systematically collected and used for quality improvement purposes in the United States. This study explores the challenges encountered by health care organizations that attempted to collect and use these data to reduce disparities. Methods: Purposive sampling was used to identify eight health care organizations that collected race and ethnicity data to measure and reduce disparities in the quality and outcomes of health care. Staff, including senior managers and data analysts, were interviewed at each site, using a semi-structured interview format about the following themes: the challenges of collecting and collating accurate data from patients, how organizations defined a disparity and analyzed data, and the impact and uses of their findings. Findings: To collect accurate self-reported data on race and ethnicity from patients, most organizations had upgraded or modified their IT systems to capture data and trained staff to collect and input these data from patients. By stratifying nationally validated indicators of quality for hospitals and ambulatory care by race and ethnicity, most organizations had then used these data to identify disparities in the quality of care. In this process, organizations were taking different approaches to defining and measuring disparities. Through these various methods, all organizations had found some disparities, and some had invested in interventions designed to address them, such as extra staff, extended hours, or services in new locations. Conclusion: If policymakers wish to hold health care organizations accountable for disparities in the quality of the care they
Durey, Angela; Thompson, Sandra C
Indigenous peoples have worse health than non-Indigenous, are over-represented amongst the poor and disadvantaged, have lower life expectancies, and success in improving disparities is limited. To address this, research usually focuses on disadvantaged and marginalised groups, offering only partial understanding of influences underpinning slow progress. Critical analysis is also required of those with the power to perpetuate or improve health inequities. In this paper, using Australia as a case example, we explore the effects of 'White', Anglo-Australian cultural dominance in health service delivery to Indigenous Australians. We address the issue using race as an organising principle, underpinned by relations of power. Interviews with non-Indigenous medical practitioners in Western Australia with extensive experience in Indigenous health encouraged reflection and articulation of their insights into factors promoting or impeding quality health care to Indigenous Australians. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. An inductive, exploratory analysis identified key themes that were reviewed and interrogated in light of existing literature on health care to Indigenous people, race and disadvantage. The researchers' past experience, knowledge and understanding of health care and Indigenous health assisted with data interpretation. Informal discussions were also held with colleagues working professionally in Indigenous policy, practice and community settings. Racism emerged as a key issue, leading us to more deeply interrogate the role 'Whiteness' plays in Indigenous health care. While Whiteness can refer to skin colour, it also represents a racialized social structure where Indigenous knowledge, beliefs and values are subjugated to the dominant western biomedical model in policy and practice. Racism towards Indigenous patients in health services was institutional and interpersonal. Internalised racism was manifest when Indigenous patients incorporated racist
Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous peoples have worse health than non-Indigenous, are over-represented amongst the poor and disadvantaged, have lower life expectancies, and success in improving disparities is limited. To address this, research usually focuses on disadvantaged and marginalised groups, offering only partial understanding of influences underpinning slow progress. Critical analysis is also required of those with the power to perpetuate or improve health inequities. In this paper, using Australia as a case example, we explore the effects of ‘White’, Anglo-Australian cultural dominance in health service delivery to Indigenous Australians. We address the issue using race as an organising principle, underpinned by relations of power. Methods Interviews with non-Indigenous medical practitioners in Western Australia with extensive experience in Indigenous health encouraged reflection and articulation of their insights into factors promoting or impeding quality health care to Indigenous Australians. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. An inductive, exploratory analysis identified key themes that were reviewed and interrogated in light of existing literature on health care to Indigenous people, race and disadvantage. The researchers’ past experience, knowledge and understanding of health care and Indigenous health assisted with data interpretation. Informal discussions were also held with colleagues working professionally in Indigenous policy, practice and community settings. Results Racism emerged as a key issue, leading us to more deeply interrogate the role ‘Whiteness’ plays in Indigenous health care. While Whiteness can refer to skin colour, it also represents a racialized social structure where Indigenous knowledge, beliefs and values are subjugated to the dominant western biomedical model in policy and practice. Racism towards Indigenous patients in health services was institutional and interpersonal. Internalised
Park, Hyejin; Cormier, Eileen; Gordon, Glenna; Baeg, Jung Hoon
The increasing amount of health information available on the Internet highlights the importance of eHealth literacy skills for health consumers. Low eHealth literacy results in disparities in health consumers' ability to access and use eHealth information. The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived eHealth literacy of a general health consumer population so that healthcare professionals can effectively address skills gaps in health consumers' ability to access and use high-quality online health information. Participants were recruited from three public library branches in a Northeast Florida community. The eHealth Literacy Scale was used. The majority of participants (n = 108) reported they knew how and where to find health information and how to use it to make health decisions; knowledge of what health resources were available and confidence in the ability to distinguish high- from low-quality information were considerably less. The findings suggest the need for eHealth education and support to health consumers from healthcare professionals, in particular, how to access and evaluate the quality of health information.
Consumer driven health care (CDHC) is a potential solution to two perplexing problems: (1) How to choose between health care and other uses of money, and (2) how to allocate resources in an industry where normal market forces have been systemically suppressed. In the consumer-driven model, consumers occupy the primary decision-making role regarding the health care that they receive. From an employee benefits perspective, consumer driven health care in the broadest sense may refer to limited e...
Dopelt, Keren; Davidovitch, Nadav; Yahav, Zehava; Urkin, Jacob; Bachner, Yaacov G
Medical education based on the principles of social medicine can contribute toward reducing health disparities through the "creation" of doctors who are more involved in community programs. This study compared the social medicine orientation of graduates from various medical schools in Israel. The authors conducted an online cross-sectional survey in May 2011 among physicians who are graduates of Israeli medical schools. The study included 1050 physicians practicing medicine in Israel: 36% who are graduates from the Hebrew University, 26% from Tel Aviv University, 22% from the Technion and 16% from Ben-Gurion University. A greater percentage of physicians who studied either at the Technion or Ben-Gurion are working or have worked in the periphery (∼50% vs. ∼30% at the Hebrew and Tel Aviv Universities). Among Ben-Gurion graduates, 47% are active in social medicine programs vs. 34-38% from other schools. Among physicians active in social medicine programs, 32% of Ben-Gurion alumni estimated that their medical education greatly influenced their social medicine involvement vs. 8-15% from other schools. Hebrew University alumni described their studies as more research-oriented. In contrast, Ben-Gurion graduates described their studies as more social medicine-oriented and they exhibited more positive attitudes about the role of physicians in reducing health disparities. Social medicine-oriented medical education induces a socialization process reinforcing human values regarding doctor-patient relationships and produces positive attitudes among future doctors about social involvement. Findings emphasize the need to develop educational programs with this orientation and to strengthen medical schools in the periphery.
... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR... Marriott Suites, 6711 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20817. Contact Person: Robert Nettey, M.D., Chief... of Health, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 496-3996, [email protected
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Health indices, regarding to their role in the development of society, are one of the most important indices at national level. Success of national development programs is largely dependent on the establishment of appropriate goals at the health sector, among which access to healthcare facilities is an essential requirement. The aim of this study was to examine the disparities in health services access across the Kerman province. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Study sample included the cities of Kerman province, ranked based on 15 health indices. Data was collected from statistical yearbook. The indices were weighted using Shannon entropy, then using the TOPSIS technique and the result were classified into three categories in terms of the level of development across towns. Results: The findings showed distinct regional disparities in health services across Kerman province and the significant difference was observed between the cities in terms of development. Shannon entropy introduced the number of pharmacologist per 10 thousand people as the most important indicator and the number of rural active health center per 1000 people as the less important indicator. According to TOPSIS, Kerman town (0.719 and Fahraj (0.1151 ranked the first and last in terms of access to health services respectively. Conclusion: There are significant differences between cities of Kerman province in terms of access to health care facilities and services. Therefore, it is recommended that officials and policy-makers determine resource allocation priorities according to the degree of development for a balanced and equitable distribution of health care facilities.
Sims, Mario; Rainge, Yolanda
This study examined neighborhood and infant health disparities between African-American and white mothers in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Census-block data were used for 1990 and Vital Statistics data were used for 1992 through 1994. African-American mothers lived in less desirable, more segregated neighborhoods than white mothers did in 1990. African-American infant and neonatal mortality rates were twice those of whites (2.3 and 2.0, respectively), while African-American postneonatal mortality rates were three times that of whites (3.0). African-American low and very low birth weight rates were more than twice those of whites (2.5 and 2.6, respectively). All African-American mothers were nearly eight times as likely as all white mothers to have inadequate prenatal care, whereas poor African-American mothers were three times as likely to have inadequate prenatal care as were poor white mothers. Public health experts and practitioners may want to consider the communities of minority patients to devise interventions suitable for addressing health disparities.
Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV causes about 1.6% of the roughly 1.6 million new cancer cases that are diagnosed in the United States each year. Despite the proven safety and efficacy of currently available vaccines, HPV remains the most common sexually transmitted infection. Underlying the high prevalence of HPV infection is the poor adherence to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC recommendation that all 11-12 year old males and females be vaccinated. In fact, only about 38% and 14% of eligible females and males respectively, receive the complete, three-dose immunization.Many factors are associated with missed HPV vaccination opportunities, including race, age, family income and patient education, resulting in widespread disparities in vaccination rates and related health outcomes. Beyond patient circumstance, however, research indicates that the rigor and consistency of recommendation by primary care providers also plays a significant role in uptake of HPV immunization. Health disparities data are of vital importance to HPV vaccination campaigns because they can provide insight into how to address current problems and allocate limited resources where they are most needed. Furthermore, even modest gains in populations with low vaccination rates may yield great benefits because HPV immunization has been shown to provide herd immunity, indirect protection for non-immunized individuals achieved by limiting the spread of an infectious agent through a population. HPV vaccination campaigns face the challenge of stagnant HPV immunization rates, which are increasing slowly overall but remain far below target levels. Furthermore, gains in immunization are not equal across all groups and vaccination rates are strikingly disparate across the federal poverty level. To achieve the greatest impact, public health campaigns should focus on improving vaccination coverage where it is weakest. In addition to demographics, socioeconomic factors and attitudes of
Kramer, Michael R; Schneider, Eric B; Kane, Jennifer B; Margerison-Zilko, Claire; Jones-Smith, Jessica; King, Katherine; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Grzywacz, Joseph G
Social class gradients in children's health and development are ubiquitous across time and geography. The authors develop a conceptual framework relating three actions of class-material allocation, salient group identity, and inter-group conflict-to the reproduction of class-based disparities in child health. A core proposition is that the actions of class stratification create variation in children's mesosystems and microsystems in distinct locations in the ecology of everyday life. Variation in mesosystems (e.g., health care, neighborhoods) and microsystems (e.g., family structure, housing) become manifest in a wide variety of specific experiences and environments that produce the behavioral and biological antecedents to health and disease among children. The framework is explored via a review of theoretical and empirical contributions from multiple disciplines and high-priority areas for future research are highlighted.
Full Text Available This article shows that the prevalence of four common child health conditions increases across generations (from first-generation immigrant children to second-generation U.S.-born children of immigrants to third-and-higher-generation children within each of four major U.S. racial/ethnic groups. In the third-plus generation, black and Hispanic children have higher rates of nearly all conditions. Health care, socioeconomic status, parents' health, social support, and neighborhood conditions influence child health and help explain third-and-higher-generation racial/ethnic disparities. However, these factors do not explain the generational pattern. The generational pattern may reflect cohort changes, selective ethnic attrition, unhealthy assimilation, or changing responses to survey questions among immigrant groups.
Yang, Yang; Lee, Linda C.
This study assesses changes in sex and race disparities in health over the life course and across cohorts by conducting growth curve analyses of nationally representative longitudinal data that spans 15 years. It finds that changes in disparities in depressive symptoms, disability and self-assessments of health across the life course are…
Reeder-Hayes, Katherine E; Troester, Melissa A; Meyer, Anne-Marie
Advances in a wide array of scientific technologies have brought data of unprecedented volume and complexity into the oncology research space. These novel big data resources are applied across a variety of contexts-from health services research using data from insurance claims, cancer registries, and electronic health records, to deeper and broader genomic characterizations of disease. Several forms of big data show promise for improving our understanding of racial disparities in breast cancer, and for powering more intelligent and far-reaching interventions to close the racial gap in breast cancer survival. In this article we introduce several major types of big data used in breast cancer disparities research, highlight important findings to date, and discuss how big data may transform breast cancer disparities research in ways that lead to meaningful, lifesaving changes in breast cancer screening and treatment. We also discuss key challenges that may hinder progress in using big data for cancer disparities research and quality improvement.
Adams, N; Tudehope, D; Gibbons, K S; Flenady, V
To examine whether disparities in stillbirth, and neonatal and perinatal mortality rates, between public and private hospitals are the result of differences in population characteristics and/or clinical practices. Retrospective cohort study. A metropolitan tertiary centre encompassing public and private hospitals. Women accessed care from either a private obstetrician or from public models of care - predominantly midwife-led care or care shared between midwives, general practitioners, and obstetricians. A total of 131 436 births during 1998-2013: 69 037 public and 62 399 private. Propensity score matching was used to select equal-sized public and private cohorts with similar characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was then used to explore the impact of public-private differences in the use of assisted reproductive technologies, plurality, major congenital anomalies, birth method, and gestational age. Stillbirth, and neonatal and perinatal mortality rates. After controlling for maternal and pregnancy factors, perinatal mortality rates were higher in the public than in the private cohort (adjusted odds ratio, aOR 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 1.29-1.80; stillbirth aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.26-1.94; neonatal death aOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.15-1.89). These disparities reduced by 15.7, 20.5, and 19.6%, respectively, after adjusting for major congenital anomalies, birth method, and gestational age. Perinatal mortality occurred more often among public than private births, and this disparity was not explained by population differences. Differences in clinical practices seem to be partly responsible. The impact of differences in clinical practices on maternal and neonatal morbidity was not examined. Further research is required. Private obstetrician-led care: more obstetric intervention and earlier births reduce perinatal mortality. Background Babies born in Australian public hospitals tend to die more often than those born in private hospitals. Our aim was to determine
Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. 26 (1) 12-20 .... large proportions of the population work in the poor people use health care services far less than. 19 ... hypertension, cancers and road traffic accidents) below 1 dollar ...
Chandler, Raeven Faye; Monnat, Shannon M.
Research demonstrates consistent racial/ethnic disparities in access to and use of health care services for a variety of chronic conditions. Yet we know little about whether these disparities exist for use of health care services for diabetes management. Racial/ethnic minorities disproportionately suffer from diabetes, complications from diabetes,…
Zelle, Andraya; Arms, Tamatha
The 1.5 million older adults who self-identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) are expected to double in number by 2030. Research suggests that health disparities are closely linked with societal stigma, discrimination, and denial of civil and human rights. More LGBT older adults struggle with depression, substance abuse, social isolation, and acceptance compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Despite individual preferences, most health care providers recognize the right of any individual to have access to basic medical services. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services requires that all hospitals receiving funds from Medicare and Medicaid respect visitation and medical decision-making rights to all individuals identifying as LGBT. The Joint Commission also requires a non-discrimination statement for accreditation. The current literature review examines LGBT health disparities and the consequential psychosocial impact on LGBT older adults as well as brings awareness to the needs of this underserved and underrepresented population. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
Koss, Catheryn S; Baker, Tamara A
Data from the Health and Retirement Study ( n = 6,946) were used to test whether differences in estate planning accounted for disparities in advance care planning between White and Black older adults. White participants were more likely to have advance directives after controlling for demographic, health, and financial variables. When estate planning was also controlled, the odds of having an advance directive were equal for White and Black participants. In contrast, Whites remained more likely to discuss end-of-life preferences after controlling for demographic, health, financial, and estate planning variables. White participants were almost four times as likely to have wills or trusts. Wealth, income, and home ownership were predictive of estate planning. Financial disparities contributed to lower rates of estate planning which in turn explained in large part why Black older adults were less likely to have advance directives but did not account for race disparities in advance care discussion.
In a rapidly changing world of health care information access and patients’ rights, there is limited conceptual infrastructure available to understand how people approach and engage in treatment of medical conditions. The construct of health care empowerment is defined as the process and state of being engaged, informed, collaborative, committed, and tolerant of uncertainty regarding health care. I present a model in which health care empowerment is influenced by an interplay of cultural, social, and environmental factors; personal resources; and intrapersonal factors. The model offers a framework to understand patient and provider roles in facilitating health care empowerment and presents opportunities for investigation into the role of health care empowerment in multiple outcomes across populations and settings, including inquiries into the sources and consequences of health disparities. PMID:21164096
Hosseini, Masoud; Jones, Josette; Faiola, Anthony; Vreeman, Daniel J; Wu, Huanmei; Dixon, Brian E
Due to the nature of information generation in health care, clinical documents contain duplicate and sometimes conflicting information. Recent implementation of Health Information Exchange (HIE) mechanisms in which clinical summary documents are exchanged among disparate health care organizations can proliferate duplicate and conflicting information. To reduce information overload, a system to automatically consolidate information across multiple clinical summary documents was developed for an HIE network. The system receives any number of Continuity of Care Documents (CCDs) and outputs a single, consolidated record. To test the system, a randomly sampled corpus of 522 CCDs representing 50 unique patients was extracted from a large HIE network. The automated methods were compared to manual consolidation of information for three key sections of the CCD: problems, allergies, and medications. Manual consolidation of 11,631 entries was completed in approximately 150h. The same data were automatically consolidated in 3.3min. The system successfully consolidated 99.1% of problems, 87.0% of allergies, and 91.7% of medications. Almost all of the inaccuracies were caused by issues involving the use of standardized terminologies within the documents to represent individual information entries. This study represents a novel, tested tool for de-duplication and consolidation of CDA documents, which is a major step toward improving information access and the interoperability among information systems. While more work is necessary, automated systems like the one evaluated in this study will be necessary to meet the informatics needs of providers and health systems in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Education and health care policies in Ghana since independence have been universalist in approach providing free universal health care and free basic and tertiary education until the early 1980s. Precipitated primarily by a severe drought, stagnant economic growth, mismanagement, and political instability, Ghana undertook major economic reforms with prodding from the World Bank and International Monetary Fund in a bid to salvage the economy. These economic measures included cost recovery and cutback spending in education and health sectors. However, in recent years, purposive targeted interventions have been pursued to address inequalities in education and health care. These new programs include the Education Capitation Grant, school feeding program, and the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS, which are propelling Ghana toward the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The prospects of these programs in addressing disparities in access to education and health care in the country and recommendations for improved delivery are discussed.
Hinnant, Amanda; Oh, Hyun Jee; Caburnay, Charlene A.; Kreuter, Matthew W.
News stories reporting race-specific health information commonly emphasize disparities between racial groups. But recent research suggests this focus on disparities has unintended effects on African American audiences, generating negative emotions and less interest in preventive behaviors (Nicholson RA, Kreuter MW, Lapka C et al. Unintended effects of emphasizing disparities in cancer communication to African-Americans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008; 17: 2946–52). They found that black adults are more interested in cancer screening after reading about the progress African Americans have made in fighting cancer than after reading stories emphasizing disparities between blacks and whites. This study builds on past findings by (i) examining how health journalists judge the newsworthiness of stories that report race-specific health information by emphasizing disparities versus progress and (ii) determining whether these judgments can be changed by informing journalists of audience reactions to disparity versus progress framing. In a double-blind-randomized experiment, 175 health journalists read either a disparity- or progress-framed story on colon cancer, preceded by either an inoculation about audience effects of such framing or an unrelated (i.e. control) information stimuli. Journalists rated the disparity-frame story more favorably than the progress-frame story in every category of news values. However, the inoculation significantly increased positive reactions to the progress-frame story. Informing journalists of audience reactions to race-specific health information could influence how health news stories are framed. PMID:21911844
Park, Hyejin; Cormier, Eileen; Glenna, Gordon
The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived eHealth literacy of a general health consumer population so that health care professionals can effectively address skills gaps in health consumers' ability to access and use high quality online health information. Participants were recruited from three public library branches in a Northeast Florida community. The eHealth literacy scale (eHEALS) was used. The majority of participants (n = 108) reported they knew how and where to find health information and how to use it to make health decisions; knowledge of what health resources were available and confidence in the ability to distinguish high from low quality information was considerably less. The findings suggest the need for eHealth education and support to health consumers from health care professionals, in particular, how to access and evaluate the quality of health information.
The article reviews emerging health care delivery options for handicapped children. Cost structures, quality of care, and future prospects are considered for Health Maintenance Organizations, Preferred Provider Organizations, Tax Supported Direct Service Programs, Hospital-Based Services, and Ambulatory Care Organizations. (Author/DB)
Belgrave, L L
Growing awareness of apparent gaps in health care received by women and men raises concern over possible discrimination. This literature review examines this issue for elderly women, whose health care is obtained in a system that also may be permeated with age discrimination. Physicians tend to spend more time with women and older patients, suggesting that discrimination may not be an issue in the physician-patient relationship or may work in favor of older women. However, this may simply reflect elderly women's poorer health. Gender and age disparities in medical treatments received provide a more compelling argument that the health care system is a source of discrimination against older women, who are less likely than others to receive available treatments for cardiac, renal, and other conditions. The history of medical treatment of menopause suggests that stereotypes of older women have been advantageous for segments of the health care system. Finally, in addition to discrimination that has its source within the health care system itself, societal-wide inequities, particularly economic, are extremely detrimental to older women's health care. As we respond to the health care crisis, we must be alert to the potential to rectify those structures and tendencies that can lead to discrimination against women and the aged. Health care reform presents a unique opportunity to ensure health care equity.
Susan P Fisher-Hoch
Full Text Available Globally half of all diabetes mellitus is undiagnosed. We sought to determine the extent and characteristics of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes in Mexican Americans residing in the United States. This disadvantaged population with 50% lifetime risk of diabetes is a microcosm of the current pandemic. We accessed baseline data between 2004 and 2014 from 2,838 adults recruited to our Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC; a two-stage randomly selected 'Framingham-like' cohort of Mexican Americans on the US Mexico border with severe health disparities. We examined prevalence, risk factors and metabolic health in diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes. Two thirds of this Mexican American population has diabetes or pre-diabetes. Diabetes prevalence was 28.0%, nearly half undiagnosed, and pre-diabetes 31.6%. Mean BMI among those with diabetes was 33.5 kg/m2 compared with 29.0 kg/m2 for those without diabetes. Significant risk factors were low income and educational levels. Most with diabetes had increased waist/hip ratio. Lack of insurance and access to health services played a decisive role in failure to have diabetes diagnosed. Participants with undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes had similar measures of poor metabolic health similar but generally not as severe as those with diagnosed diabetes. More than 50% of a minority Mexican American population in South Texas has diabetes or pre-diabetes and is metabolically unhealthy. Only a third of diabetes cases were diagnosed. Sustained efforts are imperative to identify, diagnose and treat individuals in underserved communities.
Misky, Gregory J; Carlson, Todd; Thompson, Elaina; Trujillo, Toby; Nordenholz, Kristen
Acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) is prevalent, expensive, and deadly. Published data at our institution identified significant VTE care variation based on payer source. We developed a VTE clinical pathway to standardize care, decrease hospital utilization, provide education, and mitigate disparities. Target population for our interdisciplinary pathway was acute medical VTE patients. The intervention included order sets, system-wide education, follow-up phone calls, and coordinated posthospital care. Study data (n = 241) were compared to historical data (n = 234), evaluating outcomes of hospital admission, length of stay (LOS), and reutilization, stratified by payer source. A total of 241 patients entered the VTE clinical care pathway: 107 with deep venous thrombosis (44.4%) and 134 with a pulmonary embolism (55.6%). Within the pathway, uninsured VTE patients were admitted at a lower rate than insured patients (65.9 vs 79.1%; P = 0.032). LOS decreased from 4.4 to 3.1 days (P historical patients (9.4%, P = 0.254). Individual cost of care decreased from $7610 to $5295 (P cost, particularly among uninsured patients. Results of this novel study demonstrate a model for improving transitional care coordination with local community health clinics and delivering care to vulnerable populations. Other disease populations may benefit from the development of a similar model. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Stevens, F.; Zee, J. van der
A health care delivery system is the organized response of a society to the health problems of its inhabitants. Societies choose from alternative health care delivery models and, in doing so, they organize and set goals and priorities in such a way that the actions of different actors are effective,
Hinnant, Amanda; Oh, Hyun Jee; Caburnay, Charlene A.; Kreuter, Matthew W.
News stories reporting race-specific health information commonly emphasize disparities between racial groups. But recent research suggests this focus on disparities has unintended effects on African American audiences, generating negative emotions and less interest in preventive behaviors (Nicholson RA, Kreuter MW, Lapka C "et al." Unintended…
The United States health care is presently challenged by a significant economic crisis. The purpose of this report is to introduce the readers of Medicinski Pregled to the root causes of this crisis and to explain the steps undertaken to reform health care in order to solve the crisis. It is hoped that the information contained in this report will be of value, if only in small measure, to the shaping of health care in Serbia.
Quarry industry has become a major means of livelihood in Ebonyi state, but insufficient data exists on their operations ... of Dust Mask among Crushers of Selected Quarry (Crushed ... Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care.
2Primary Health Care Department, Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, Benin City, ... selected from each of the ten wards in the LGA using multistage sampling technique. ..... Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Insurance Companies in Lagos State.
Fadich, Ana; Llamas, Ramon P; Giorgianni, Salvatore; Stephenson, Colin; Nwaiwu, Chimezie
This survey evaluated resources available to men and boys at the state level including state public health departments (SPHDs), other state agencies, and governor's offices. Most of the resources and programs are found in the SPHDs and these administer state-initiated and federally funded health programs to provide services and protection to a broad range of populations; however, many men's health advocates believe that SPHDs have failed to create equivalent services for men and boys, inadvertently creating a health disparity. Men's Health Network conducts a survey of state resources, including those found in SPHDs, every 2 years to identify resources available for men and women, determine the extent of any disparity, and establish a relationship with SPHD officials. Data were obtained from all 50 states and Washington, D.C. An analysis of the 2016 survey data indicates that there are few resources allocated and a lack of readily available information on health and preventive care created specifically for men and boys. The data observed that most health information intended for men and boys was scarce among states or oftentimes included on websites that primarily focused on women's health. A potential result of this is a loss of engagement with appropriate health-care providers due to a lack of information. This study continues to validate the disparity between health outcomes for women and men. It continues to highlight the need for better resource allocation, outreach, and health programs specifically tailored to men and boys in order to improve overall community well-being.
Background: The well-being of women and children is one of the major determinants ... The Sample for the study were women recruited from 11 primary health care ... respondents educational level and knowledge of preconception care (X =24.76, ... single adult or married couple) are in an optimal state .... The major site for.
Dulal, R K
Nepal has entered from its unitary system into a new "Federal Democratic Republic State". The current constitution presents basic health care services as a fundamental right. The Ministry for Health and Population has been providing resources to meet health demands, but managers are wrestling to meet these demands. Persistent disparities between rural and urban and across regions resulted inferior health outcomes, e.g., life expectancy in an urban district like Bhaktapur is 71 years, whereas in the rural district of Mugu it is 44 years. The poor health and poor access to health care in the past systems prompted people to seek a different model. Ultimately, all political parties except one have agreed on federalism. The exact number of federal states that are going to be created is unknown. In federalism, all federated states have to assume certain relationships between the locality, the region, and the nation that apply not only in politics but in health care too. Managing changes in health care organization during the transitional period and after restructuring the unitary Nepal into federal states should be carefully planned. In case, if new system also fails to deliver necessary health care services, the possibility of igniting of dissatisfaction, public unrest and even disintegration cannot be ignored. In order to outline a structure and give life to a health care system under federalism, health care professionals need to engage themselves seriously.
Wallington, Sherrie Flynt; Blake, Kelly D; Taylor-Clark, Kalahn; Viswanath, K
News coverage of health topics influences knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors at the individual level, and agendas and actions at the institutional and policy levels. Because disparities in health often are the result of social inequalities that require community-level or policy-level solutions, news stories employing a health disparities news frame may contribute to agenda-setting among opinion leaders and policymakers and lead to policy efforts aimed at reducing health disparities. This study objective was to conduct an exploratory analysis to qualitatively describe barriers that health journalists face when covering health disparities in local media. Between June and October 2007, 18 journalists from television, print, and radio in Boston, Lawrence, and Worcester, Massachusetts, were recruited using a purposive sampling technique. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted by telephone, and the crystallization/immersion method was used to conduct a qualitative analysis of interview transcripts. Our results revealed that journalists said that they consider several angles when developing health stories, including public impact and personal behavior change. Challenges to employing a health disparities frame included inability to translate how research findings may impact different socioeconomic groups, and difficulty understanding how findings may translate across racial/ethnic groups. Several journalists reported that disparities-focused stories are "less palatable" for some audiences. This exploratory study offers insights into the challenges that local news media face in using health disparities news frames in their routine coverage of health news. Public health practitioners may use these findings to inform communication efforts with local media in order to advance the public dialogue about health disparities.
Asdaghi, Negar; Romano, Jose G.; Wang, Kefeng; Ciliberti-Vargas, Maria A.; Koch, Sebastian; Gardener, Hannah; Dong, Chuanhui; Rose, David Z.; Waddy, Salina P.; Robichaux, Mary; Garcia, Enid J.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Juan A.; Burgin, W. Scott; Sacco, Ralph L.; Rundek, Tatjana
Background and Purpose Sex-specific disparities in stroke care including thrombolytic therapy and early hospital admission is reported. In a large registry of Florida and Puerto Rico hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines – Stroke (GWTG-S) program, we sought to determine sex-specific differences in ischemic stroke performance metrics and overall thrombolytic treatment. Methods 51,317 (49% women) patients were included from 73 sites from 2010–2014. Multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations evaluated sex-specific differences in the pre-specified GWTG-S metrics for defect free care (DFC) in ischemic stroke, adjusting for age, race-ethnicity, insurance status, hospital characteristics, individual risk factors and the presenting stroke severity. Results As compared to men, women were older (73±15 vs. 69±14 years; p<0.0001), more hypertensive (67% vs. 63%, P<0.0001) and had more atrial fibrillation (19% vs. 16%; p<0.0001). DFC was slightly lower in women than men (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93–1.00). Temporal trends in DFC improved substantially and similarly for men and women, with a 29% absolute improvement in women (p for trend <0.0001) and 28% in men (p for trend <0.0001), p value for time-by-sex interaction of 0.13. Women were less likely to receive thrombolysis (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.86–0.99, P=0.02) and less likely to have a door to needle time (DTN) <1 hour (OR 0.83, 95%CI, 0.71–0.97, p=0.02) as compared to men Conclusion Women received comparable stroke care to men in this registry as measured by pre-specified GWTG metrics. However, women less likely received thrombolysis and had DTN <1 hour, an observation that calls for implementation of interventions to reduce sex-disparity in these measures. PMID:27553032
Harstad, Elizabeth; Huntington, Noelle; Bacic, Janine; Barbaresi, William
Although children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are eligible to receive special education services via an individualized education program (IEP), approximately 12% to 20% do not. Our objective was to determine which clinical and demographic characteristics are associated with IEP receipt among a nationally representative sample of children with ASD. Using data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, we determined which clinical and demographic covariates are associated with IEP receipt for children ages 6 to 17 years with a current, parent-reported ASD diagnosis (n = 759). Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of covariates with IEP receipt. Application of weighting techniques made the findings representative of the noninstitutionalized population of US children 6 to 17 years old. In the weighted model, 90% of children with ASD receive an IEP. Maternal education level above high school (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.08, P = .01) and presence of perceived need for coordination of care (aOR 3.62, P = .02) were associated with IEP receipt, while Hispanic children were less likely to receive an IEP compared with white children (aOR 0.12, P = .001). The following factors were not associated with IEP receipt: severity of ASD, speech, and behavior problems. For children with ASD in the United States, socioeconomic factors, not disability severity, are associated with IEP receipt. Future research should address methods to overcome this disparity in care. Health care providers may help to advocate for appropriate educational services for patients with ASD. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Juarez, Paul D.; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Hood, Darryl B.; Im, Wansoo; Levine, Robert S.; Kilbourne, Barbara J.; Langston, Michael A.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William L.; Estes, Maurice G.; Estes, Sue M.; Agboto, Vincent K.; Robinson, Paul; Wilson, Sacoby; Lichtveld, Maureen Y.
The lack of progress in reducing health disparities suggests that new approaches are needed if we are to achieve meaningful, equitable, and lasting reductions. Current scientific paradigms do not adequately capture the complexity of the relationships between environment, personal health and population level disparities. The public health exposome is presented as a universal exposure tracking framework for integrating complex relationships between exogenous and endogenous exposures across the lifespan from conception to death. It uses a social-ecological framework that builds on the exposome paradigm for conceptualizing how exogenous exposures “get under the skin”. The public health exposome approach has led our team to develop a taxonomy and bioinformatics infrastructure to integrate health outcomes data with thousands of sources of exogenous exposure, organized in four broad domains: natural, built, social, and policy environments. With the input of a transdisciplinary team, we have borrowed and applied the methods, tools and terms from various disciplines to measure the effects of environmental exposures on personal and population health outcomes and disparities, many of which may not manifest until many years later. As is customary with a paradigm shift, this approach has far reaching implications for research methods and design, analytics, community engagement strategies, and research training. PMID:25514145
Paul D. Juarez
Full Text Available The lack of progress in reducing health disparities suggests that new approaches are needed if we are to achieve meaningful, equitable, and lasting reductions. Current scientific paradigms do not adequately capture the complexity of the relationships between environment, personal health and population level disparities. The public health exposome is presented as a universal exposure tracking framework for integrating complex relationships between exogenous and endogenous exposures across the lifespan from conception to death. It uses a social-ecological framework that builds on the exposome paradigm for conceptualizing how exogenous exposures “get under the skin”. The public health exposome approach has led our team to develop a taxonomy and bioinformatics infrastructure to integrate health outcomes data with thousands of sources of exogenous exposure, organized in four broad domains: natural, built, social, and policy environments. With the input of a transdisciplinary team, we have borrowed and applied the methods, tools and terms from various disciplines to measure the effects of environmental exposures on personal and population health outcomes and disparities, many of which may not manifest until many years later. As is customary with a paradigm shift, this approach has far reaching implications for research methods and design, analytics, community engagement strategies, and research training.
Horton, Sarah; Barker, Judith C
Severe early childhood caries (ECC) can leave lasting effects on children's physical development, including malformed oral arches and crooked permanent dentition. This article examines the way that the ECC of Mexican American farmworker children in the United States sets them up for lasting dental problems and social stigma as young adults. We examine the role of dietary and environmental factors in contributing to what we call "stigmatized biologies," and that of market-based dental public health insurance systems in cementing their enduring effects. We adapt Margaret Lock's term, local biology, to illustrate the way that biology differs not only because of culture, diet, and environment but also because of disparities in insurance coverage. By showing the long-term effects of ECC and disparate dental treatment on farmworker adults, we show how the interaction of immigrant caregiving practices and underinsurance can having lasting social effects. An examination of the long-term effects of farmworker children's ECC illustrates the ways that market-based health care systems can create embodied differences that in turn reproduce a system of social inequality.
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the need to address territorial inequalities in American healthcare services. It shows how much the situation has become critical in the United States. It discusses to what extent telemedicine is a sustainable option to reduce the negative consequences of the economic, professional and physical barriers to care in rural areas. As far as healthcare is concerned, rural and urban environments in the United States do not have to face the same barriers and challenges. The article first details what specific health issues have to be dealt with in rural areas. The case of emergency care in Vermont is then developed to illustrate what could be the benefits of using ICTs to improve access to care.
Williams, Katie; Wargowski, David; Eickhoff, Jens; Wald, Ellen
Increasing evidence suggests children with Down syndrome do not receive recommended health care services. We retrospectively assessed adherence to the 2001 American Academy of Pediatrics health supervision guidelines for 124 children with Down syndrome. Cervical spine radiographs were completed for 94% of children, often preoperatively. Adherence to complete blood count recommendations was 55% (95% CI 44% to 66%); lower for males ( P = .01) and children with private medical insurance ( P = .04). Adherence to thyroid function recommendations was 61% (95% CI 54% to 67%); higher for children seen by a pediatrician ( P = .002) and with known thyroid disease ( P < .0001). Adherence to audiology and ophthalmology recommendations was 33% (95% CI 27% to 40%) and 43% (95% CI 37% to 50%), respectively. Adherence rates were higher for children referred to an otolaryngologist ( P = .0002) and with known eye disease ( P < .0001). Future efforts should identify barriers to care and improve adherence to recommended screening.
enrol in an insurance scheme feeling that they need more information on health insurance and the willingness to enrol in a ... and utilize the benefits of different types of health insurance services. Conclusion: The findings ..... improvements in access and quality of care, and the ... the 'rising tide' of and information technology.
Podlekareva, Daria; Reekie, Joanne; Mocroft, Amanda
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: State-of-the-art care involving the utilisation of multiple health care interventions is the basis for an optimal long-term clinical prognosis for HIV-patients. We evaluated health care for HIV-patients based on four key indicators. METHODS: Four indicators of health care we...... document pronounced regional differences in adherence to guidelines and can help to identify gaps and direct target interventions. It may serve as a tool for assessment and benchmarking the clinical management of HIV-patients in any setting worldwide....
Full Text Available A large body of research has documented disparities in health and access to care for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB people in the United States. Less research has examined how the level of legal protection afforded to LGB people (the state policy environment affects health disparities for sexual minorities. This study used data on 14,687 sexual minority adults and 490,071 heterosexual adults from the 2014–2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to document differences in health. Unadjusted state-specific prevalence estimates and multivariable logistic regression models were used to compare poor/fair self-rated health by gender, sexual minority status, and state policy environments (comprehensive versus limited protections for LGB people. We found disparities in self-rated health between sexual minority adults and heterosexual adults in most states. On average, sexual minority men in states with limited protections and sexual minority women in states with either comprehensive or limited protections were more likely to report poor/fair self-rated health compared to their heterosexual counterparts. This study adds new findings on the association between state policy environments and self-rated health for sexual minorities and suggests differences in this relationship by gender. The associations and impacts of state-specific policies affecting LGB populations may vary by gender, as well as other intersectional identities.
Mendes, Eugênio Vilaça
The demographic and epidemiologic transition resulting from aging and the increase of life expectation means an increment related to chronic conditions. The healthcare systems contemporary crisis is characterized by the organization of the focus on fragmented systems turned to the acute conditions care, in spite of the chronic conditions prevalence, and by the hierarchical structure without communication flow among the different health care levels. Brazil health care situation profile is now presenting a triple burden of diseases, due to the concomitant presence of infectious diseases, external causes and chronic diseases. The solution is to restore the consistence between the triple burden of diseases on the health situation and the current system of healthcare practice, with the implantation of health care networks. The conclusion is that there are evidences in the international literature on health care networks that these networks may improve the clinical quality, the sanitation results and the user's satisfaction and the reduction of healthcare systems costs.
Dodd, Virginia J.; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D.; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank
Background: An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural…
Nguyen, Duy H; Shimasaki, Suzuho; Stafford, Helen Shi; Sadler, Georgia Robins
The USA seeks to eliminate health disparities by stimulating the rapid uptake of health-promoting behaviors within disadvantaged communities. A health journalism internship incorporates social marketing strategies to increase communities' access to cancer information, while helping the interns who are recruited from underrepresented communities gain admission to top graduate schools. Interns are taught basic health journalism skills that enable them to create immediate streams of cancer-related press releases for submission to community newspapers. Interns are charged with the social responsibility of continuing this dissemination process throughout their careers. Intermediate outcomes are measured as mediators of distal behavioral change goals.
Full Text Available Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal carcinoma (CRC are higher in African Americans (AAs than in Caucasian Americans (CAs. Deficient micronutrient intake due to dietary restrictions in racial/ethnic populations can alter genetic and molecular profiles leading to dysregulated methylation patterns and the inheritance of somatic to germline mutations.Total DNA and RNA samples of paired tumor and adjacent normal colon tissues were prepared from AA and CA CRC specimens. Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS and RNA sequencing were employed to evaluate total genome methylation of 5'-regulatory regions and dysregulation of gene expression, respectively. Robust analysis was conducted using a trimming-and-retrieving scheme for RRBS library mapping in conjunction with the BStool toolkit.DNA from the tumor of AA CRC patients, compared to adjacent normal tissues, contained 1,588 hypermethylated and 100 hypomethylated differentially methylated regions (DMRs. Whereas, 109 hypermethylated and 4 hypomethylated DMRs were observed in DNA from the tumor of CA CRC patients; representing a 14.6-fold and 25-fold change, respectively. Specifically; CHL1, 4 anti-inflammatory genes (i.e., NELL1, GDF1, ARHGEF4, and ITGA4, and 7 miRNAs (of which miR-9-3p and miR-124-3p have been implicated in CRC were hypermethylated in DNA samples from AA patients with CRC. From the same sample set, RNAseq analysis revealed 108 downregulated genes (including 14 ribosomal proteins and 34 upregulated genes (including POLR2B and CYP1B1 [targets of miR-124-3p] in AA patients with CRC versus CA patients.DNA methylation profile and/or products of its downstream targets could serve as biomarker(s addressing racial health disparity.
Full Text Available Health disparities occur when adverse health conditions are unequal across populations due in part to gaps in wealth. These disparities continue to plague global health. Decades of research suggests that the natural environment can play a key role in sustaining the health of the public. However, the influence of the natural environment on health disparities is not well-articulated. Green spaces provide ecosystem services that are vital to public health. This paper discusses the link between green spaces and some of the nation’s leading health issues such as obesity, cardiovascular health, heat-related illness, and psychological health. These associations are discussed in terms of key demographic variables—race, ethnicity, and income. The authors also identify research gaps and recommendations for future research.
Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J; Carranza, Miguel A; Martinez, Miriam M
To summarize, ethnic and social class disparities are evident across a spectrum of markers of psychological, behavioral, and physical health. Furthermore, the pattern is often complex such that disparities are sometimes found within ethnic/racial groups as well as across those groups. Indeed, it is likely that the causes of health disparities may be different across specific subgroups. Moreover, theoretical models are needed that examine biological, contextual, and person-level variables (including culture-specific variables) to account for health disparities. The scholars in the present volume provide exemplary research that moves us towards more comprehensive and integrative models of health disparities. A brief glance at the work summarized by these scholars yields some common elements of focus for future researchers regarding risk (e.g., poverty, lack of contextual diversity) and protective (e.g., family support, cultural identity) factors yet they also identify aspects (e.g., genetic vulnerabilities) that may be unique to specific ethnic/racial groups. In addition to employing more integrative and culturally sensitive models of health disparities, future research studies could expand the scope of investigation to include transnational studies of health disparities and the processes contributing to them. They might also consider culture-specific health problems and syndromes such as "nervios" in Latino cultures. Within nations, further attention might be directed to the community contexts in which ethnic minority and low SES families reside, not only urban areas but the much less studied rural areas. Finally, efforts to assess health disparities and the factors contributing to them across cultural and ethnic groups need to attend closely to the issue of measurement equivalence in order to ensure valid cross-group comparisons. We would add that future research on health disparities will need to examine markers of positive health outcomes and well being (e
Okoro, Olihe N; Odedina, Folakemi T; Reams, Romonia R; Smith, W Thomas
To evaluate the level of competency and knowledge about health disparities among third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students at 2 Florida public colleges of pharmacy and to explore the demographic correlates of these variables. A cross-sectional survey study design was used to collect data from participants. The students had low health-disparities knowledge and moderate skills in dealing with sociocultural issues and cross-cultural encounters. Speaking a language(s) other than English and having exposure to cultural-competency instruction were the demographic variables found to be most significantly associated with clinical cultural competency and/or knowledge of health disparities. Clinical cultural competency and health-disparities instruction may not be adequately incorporated into the pharmacy school curricula in the institutions studied. Relevant education and training are necessary to enhance cultural competency among pharmacy students.
Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo; Gaydos, Megan; Monforton, Celeste; Slatin, Craig; Borkowski, Liz; Dooley, Peter; Liebman, Amy; Rosenberg, Erica; Shor, Glenn; Keifer, Matthew
Background This article introduces some key labor, economic, and social policies that historically and currently impact occupational health disparities in the United States. Methods We conducted a broad review of the peer-reviewed and gray literature on the effects of social, economic, and labor policies on occupational health disparities. Results Many populations such as tipped workers, public employees, immigrant workers, and misclassified workers are not protected by current laws and policies, including worker’s compensation or Occupational Safety and Health Administration enforcement of standards. Local and state initiatives, such as living wage laws and community benefit agreements, as well as multiagency law enforcement contribute to reducing occupational health disparities. Conclusions There is a need to build coalitions and collaborations to command the resources necessary to identify, and then reduce and eliminate occupational disparities by establishing healthy, safe, and just work for all. PMID:23606055
Azuine, Romuladus E; Singh, Gopal K; Ghandour, Reem M; Kogan, Michael D
This study examined geographic, racial/ethnic, and sociodemographic disparities in parental reporting of receipt of family-centered care (FCC) and its components among US children aged 0-17 years. We used the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health to estimate the prevalence and odds of not receiving FCC by covariates. Based on parent report, 33.4% of US children did not receive FCC. Children in Arizona, Mississippi, Nevada, California, New Jersey, Virginia, Florida, and New York had at least 1.51 times higher adjusted odds of not receiving FCC than children in Vermont. Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic children had 2.11 and 1.58 times higher odds, respectively, of not receiving FCC than non-Hispanic White children. Children from non-English-speaking households had 2.23 and 2.35 times higher adjusted odds of not receiving FCC overall and their doctors not spending enough time in their care than children from English-speaking households, respectively. Children from low-education and low-income households had a higher likelihood of not receiving FCC. The clustering of children who did not receive FCC and its components in several Southern and Western US states, as well as children from poor, uninsured, and publicly insured and of minority background, is a cause for concern in the face of federal policies to reduce health care disparities.
Narine, Lutchmie; Shobe, Marcia A
Despite the recent recession and accompanying housing crisis, important gains have occurred in U.S. homeownership over the past several decades; however, wide inequalities among minority and immigrant populations remain. Understanding the role of several under-studied factors on housing outcomes, including health status and disability, and differences in financial capital, such as savings, investments, and other assets, remains a major policy initiative. Although past research has examined African American-White housing disparities, it is also important to explore disparities among Hispanics, Asians, and immigrants. This article reviews health and financial capital disparities in homeownership and home values between Whites and minority populations and offers suggestions for future policy research.
John F. Emerson
Full Text Available Advances in technology are likely to provide new approaches to address healthcare disparities for high-risk populations. This study explores the feasibility of a new approach to health disparities research using a multidisciplinary intervention and advanced communication technology to improve patient access to care and chronic disease management. A high-risk cohort of uninsured, poorly-controlled diabetic patients was identified then randomized pre-consent with stratification by geographic region to receive either the intervention or usual care. Prior to enrollment, participants were screened for readiness to make a behavioral change. The primary outcome was the feasibility of protocol implementation, and secondary outcomes included the use of patient-centered medical home (PCMH services and markers of chronic disease control. The intervention included a standardized needs assessment, individualized care plan, intensive management by a multidisciplinary team, including health coach-facilitated virtual visits, and the use of a cloud-based glucose monitoring system. One-hundred twenty-seven high-risk, potentially eligible participants were randomized. Sixty-one met eligibility criteria after an in-depth review. Due to limited resources and time for the pilot, we only attempted to contact 36 participants. Of these, we successfully reached 20 (32% by phone and conducted a readiness to change screen. Ten participants screened in as ready to change and were enrolled, while the remaining 10 were not ready to change. Eight enrolled participants completed the final three-month follow-up. Intervention feasibility was demonstrated through successful implementation of 13 out of 14 health coach-facilitated virtual visits, and 100% of participants indicated that they would recommend the intervention to a friend. Protocol feasibility was demonstrated as eight of 10 participants completed the entire study protocol. At the end of the three-month intervention
Maxey, Hannah L.; Randolph, Courtney; Gano, Laura; Kochhar, Komal
Inadequate access to preventive oral health services contributes to oral health disparities and is a major public health concern in the United States. Federally Qualified Health Centers play a critical role in improving access to care for populations affected by oral health disparities but face a number of administrative challenges associated with implementation of oral health integration models. We conducted a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis with health care executives to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of successful oral health integration in Federally Qualified Health Centers. Four themes were identified: (1) culture of health care organizations; (2) operations and administration; (3) finance; and (4) workforce. PMID:27218701
Lyerly, Michael J; Wu, Tzu-Ching; Mullen, Michael T; Albright, Karen C; Wolff, Catherine; Boehme, Amelia K; Branas, Charles C; Grotta, James C; Savitz, Sean I; Carr, Brendan G
Racial and ethnic disparities have been previously reported in acute stroke care. We sought to determine the effect of telemedicine (TM) on access to acute stroke care for racial and ethnic minorities in the state of Texas. Data were collected from the US Census Bureau, The Joint Commission and the American Hospital Association. Access for racial and ethnic minorities was determined by summing the population that could reach a primary stroke centre (PSC) or telemedicine spoke within specified time intervals using validated models. TM extended access to stroke expertise by 1.5 million residents. The odds of providing 60-minute access via TM were similar in Blacks and Whites (prevalence odds ratios (POR) 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000), even after adjustment for urbanization (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.001). The odds of providing access via TM were also similar for Hispanics and non-Hispanics (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000), even after adjustment for urbanization (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000). We found that telemedicine increased access to acute stroke care for 1.5 million Texans. While racial and ethnic disparities exist in other components of stroke care, we did not find evidence of disparities in access to the acute stroke expertise afforded by telemedicine. © The Author(s) 2015.
to organize rural health care is more regulatory and distanced in its emphasis on nudging patients and doctors towards the right decisions through economic incentives. This bureaucratic approach to organizing health individually offers a sharp contrast to the religious collectivities that form around health...
Williams, Jerome D; Crockett, David; Harrison, Robert L; Thomas, Kevin D
Marketing activities have attracted increased attention from scholars interested in racial disparities in obesity prevalence, as well as the prevalence of other preventable conditions. Although reducing the marketing of nutritionally poor foods to racial/ethnic communities would represent a significant step forward in eliminating racial disparities in health, we focus instead on a critical-related question. What is the relationship between marketing activities, food culture, and health disparities? This commentary posits that food culture shapes the demand for food and the meaning attached to particular foods, preparation styles, and eating practices, while marketing activities shape the overall environment in which food choices are made. We build on prior research that explores the socio-cultural context in which marketing efforts are perceived and interpreted. We discuss each element of the marketing mix to highlight the complex relationship between food culture, marketing activities, and health disparities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hong, Y Alicia; Zhou, Zi; Fang, Ya; Shi, Leiyu
The digital divide persists despite broad accessibility of mobile tools. The relationship between the digital divide and health disparities reflects social status in terms of access to resources and health outcomes; however, data on this relationship are limited from developing countries such as China. The aim of this study was to examine the current rates of access to mobile tools (Internet use and mobile phone ownership) among older Chinese individuals (aged ≥45 years), the predictors of access at individual and community levels, and the relationship between access to mobile tools and health outcomes. We drew cross-sectional data from a national representative survey, the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), which focused on the older population (aged ≥45 years). We used two-level mixed logistic regression models, controlling for unobserved heterogeneity at the community and individual levels for data analysis. In addition to individual-level socioeconomic status (SES), we included community-level resources such as neighborhood amenities, health care facilities, and community organizations. Health outcomes were measured by self-reported health and absence of disability based on validated scales. Among the 18,215 participants, 6.51% had used the Internet in the past month, and 83% owned a mobile phone. In the multivariate models, Internet use was strongly associated with SES, rural or urban residence, neighborhood amenities, community resources, and geographic region. Mobile phone ownership was strongly associated with SES and rural/urban residence but not so much with neighborhood amenities and community resources. Internet use was a significant predictor of self-reported health status, and mobile phone ownership was significantly associated with having disability even after controlling for potential confounders at the individual and community levels. This study is one of the first to examine digital divide and its relationship with health
Farmer, J; Peressini, S; Lawrence, H P
Reducing oral health disparities has been an ongoing challenge in Canada with the largest burden of oral disease exhibited in vulnerable populations, including Aboriginal people, the elderly, rural and remote residents, and newcomers. Dental hygienists are a unique set of professionals who work with and within communities, who have the potential to act as key change agents for improving the oral health of these populations. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore, from the dental hygiene perspective, the role of dental hygienists in reducing oral health disparities in Canada. Dental hygienists and key informants in dental hygiene were recruited, using purposeful and theoretical sampling, to participate in a non-directed, semi-structured one-on-one in-depth telephone interview using Skype and Call Recorder software. Corbin and Strauss's grounded theory methodology was employed with open, axial, and selective coding analysed on N-Vivo Qualitative software. The resulting theoretical framework outlines strategies proposed by participants to address oral health disparities; these included alternate delivery models, interprofessional collaboration, and increased scope of practice. Participants identified variation in dental care across Canada, public perceptions of oral health and dental hygiene practice, and lack of applied research on effective oral health interventions as challenges to implementing these strategies. The research confirmed the important role played by dental hygienists in reducing oral health disparities in Canada. However, due to the fragmentation of dental hygiene practice across Canada, a unified voice and cohesive action plan is needed in order for the profession to fully embrace their role. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Objectives: Health disparities and inequalities in access to care among different socioeconomic, ethnic, and racial groups have been well documented in the U.S. healthcare system. In this review, we aimed to provide an overview of barriers to care contributing to health disparities in gynecological oncology management and to describe site-specific disparities in gynecologic care for endometrial, ovarian, and cervical cancer. Methods: We performed a literature review of peer-reviewed academic and governmental publications focusing on disparities in gynecological care in the United States by searching PubMed and Google Scholar electronic databases. Results: There are multiple important underlying issues that may contribute to the disparities in gynecological oncology management in the United States, namely geographic access and hospital based-discrepancies, research-based discrepancies, influence of socioeconomic and health insurance status, and finally the influence of race and biological factors. Despite the reduction in overall cancer-related deaths since the 1990s, the 5-year survival for Black women is significantly lower than for White women for each gynecologic cancer type and each stage of diagnosis. For ovarian and endometrial cancer, black patients are less likely to receive treatment consistent with evidence-based guidelines and have worse survival outcomes even after accounting for stage and comorbidities. For cervical and endometrial cancer, the mortality rate for black women remains twice that of White women. Conclusions: Health care disparities in the incidence and outcome of gynecologic cancers are complex and involve biologic factors as well as racial, socioeconomic and geographic barriers that influence treatment and survival. These barriers must be addressed to provide optimal care to women in the U.S. with gynecologic cancer.
... MO - St. Louis, Qualifications Required: Bachelor’s degree in business, marketing, health care administration or a related field Current ... Work for AHCA/NCAL News Provider Daily Publications Social Media News Releases LTC Leader Blog Research and Data ...
Hollnagel, E.; Braithwaite, J.; Wears, R. L.
Health care is everywhere under tremendous pressure with regard to efficiency, safety, and economic viability - to say nothing of having to meet various political agendas - and has responded by eagerly adopting techniques that have been useful in other industries, such as quality management, lean...... production, and high reliability. This has on the whole been met with limited success because health care as a non-trivial and multifaceted system differs significantly from most traditional industries. In order to allow health care systems to perform as expected and required, it is necessary to have...... engineering's unique approach emphasises the usefulness of performance variability, and that successes and failures have the same aetiology. This book contains contributions from acknowledged international experts in health care, organisational studies and patient safety, as well as resilience engineering...
... CAN CHANGE Looking for coverage for a small business? Learn more Need to submit documents? SEE HOW ... Find Local Help Visit the HealthCare.gov blog Facebook Twitter YouTube Google+ All Topics | Glossary | Contact Us | ...
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one strategy that could be conducted anywhere, if the health care workers are trained and positively disposed ... places; regulate advertising, manufacturing. 13 .... Gender. Male. 52 (46.0). 61 (54.0). 0.0001. Significant. Female. 82 (73.2).
about teething the world over and especially ... children`s out-patients, dental and the ear, nose and throat clinics of a tertiary hospital in south-west Nigeria. ... parents, health care workers and personal experiences were the sources of beliefs ... None (0%) of the respondents had prior knowledge of proven causes of ear.
VPDs, this represents 17% of global total. 1 ... Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Childhood Immunization ... Department of Community Health & Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, P.M.B. 12003, ... include access to services, parental (maternal) ... Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine Oral Polio.
May 1, 2012 ... with the quality of care in a tertiary health facility in Delta State, Nigeria ... includes contributions from families, charges have been .... employees at 23.5%, self employed 19.1% of showed that most of the respondents (41.3%).
Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa
Some past work indicates that sexual minorities may experience impairments in social health, or the perceived and actual availability and quality of one's social relationships, relative to heterosexuals; however, research has been limited in many ways. Furthermore, it is important to investigate etiological factors that may be associated with these disparities, such as self-reported discrimination. The current work tested whether sexual minority adults in the United States reported less positive social health (i.e., loneliness, friendship strain, familial strain, and social capital) relative to heterosexuals and whether self-reported discrimination accounted for these disparities. Participants for the current study (N = 579) were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk, including 365 self-identified heterosexuals (105 women) and 214 sexual minorities (103 women). Consistent with hypotheses, sexual minorities reported impaired social health relative to heterosexuals, with divergent patterns emerging by sexual orientation subgroup (which were generally consistent across sexes). Additionally, self-reported discrimination accounted for disparities across three of four indicators of social health. These findings suggest that sexual minorities may face obstacles related to prejudice and discrimination that impair the functioning of their relationships and overall social health. Moreover, because social health is closely related to psychological and physical health, remediating disparities in social relationships may be necessary to address other health disparities based upon sexual orientation. Expanding upon these results, implications for efforts to build resilience among sexual minorities are discussed.
“Restricted Access: Aboriginal Women and Health Care in Canada” addresses the barriers faced by indigenous women when accessing health care services in Canada. Using the distinction of practical (or needs-based) and strategic (or equity-based) barriers, it highlights the impact of physical isolation, cultural differences, and socio-economic disparities when using health services. However, the emphasis is placed on strategic challenges and more specifically on the impact of marginalization fro...
Padela, Aasim I; Curlin, Farr A
Both theory and data suggest that religions shape the way individuals interpret and seek help for their illnesses. Yet, health disparities research has rarely examined the influence of a shared religion on the health of individuals from distinct minority communities. In this paper, we focus on Islam and American Muslims to outline the ways in which a shared religion may impact the health of a racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse minority community. We use Kleinman's "cultural construction of clinical reality" as a theoretical framework to interpret the extant literature on American Muslim health. We then propose a research agenda that would extend current disparities research to include measures of religiosity, particularly among populations that share a minority religious affiliation. The research we propose would provide a fuller understanding of the relationships between religion and health among Muslim Americans and other minority communities and would thereby undergird efforts to reduce unwarranted health disparities.
Eckstrand, Kristen L; Lunn, Mitchell R; Yehia, Baligh R
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations face numerous barriers when accessing and receiving healthcare, which amplify specific LGBT health disparities. An effective strategic approach is necessary for academic health centers to meet the growing needs of LGBT populations. Although effective organizational change models have been proposed for other minority populations, the authors are not aware of any organizational change models that specifically promote LGBT inclusion and mitigate access barriers to reduce LGBT health disparities. With decades of combined experience, we identify elements and processes necessary to accelerate LGBT organizational change and reduce LGBT health disparities. This framework may assist health organizations in initiating and sustaining meaningful organizational change to improve the health and healthcare of the LGBT communities.
Charles, Shana Alex; Ponce, Ninez; Ritley, Dominique; Guendelman, Sylvia; Kempster, Jennifer; Lewis, John; Melnikow, Joy
Addressing racial/ethnic group disparities in health insurance benefits through legislative mandates requires attention to the different proportions of racial/ethnic groups among insurance markets. This necessary baseline data, however, has proven difficult to measure. We applied racial/ethnic data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to the 2012 California Health Benefits Review Program Cost and Coverage Model to determine the racial/ethnic composition of ten health insurance market segments. We found disproportional representation of racial/ethnic groups by segment, thus affecting the health insurance impacts of benefit mandates. California's Medicaid program is disproportionately Latino (60 % in Medi-Cal, compared to 39 % for the entire population), and the individual insurance market is disproportionately non-Latino white. Gender differences also exist. Mandates could unintentionally increase insurance coverage racial/ethnic disparities. Policymakers should consider the distribution of existing racial/ethnic disparities as criteria for legislative action on benefit mandates across health insurance markets.
Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care Services Juvenile Justice , 2017 Warning - A phone number that was once used for the Denali KidCare program is now being used to ask people for their credit card number in order to win a prize. The phone number related to this
Jarzembski, W B
Today, health care engineering management is merely a concept of dreamers, with most engineering decisions in health care being made by nonengineers. It is the purpose of this paper to present a rationale for an integrated hospital engineering group, and to acquaint the clinical engineer with some of the salient features of management concepts. Included are general management concepts, organization, personnel management, and hospital engineering systems.
Solomon, Barry S.
Life Course Theory (LCT) is a framework that explains health and disease across populations and over time and in a powerful way, conceptualizes health and health disparities to guide improvements. It suggests a need to change priorities and paradigms in our healthcare delivery system. In “Rethinking Maternal and Child Health: The Life Course Model as an Organizing Framework,” Fine and Kotelchuck identify three areas of rethinking that have relevance to clinical care: (1) recognition of context and the “whole-person, whole-family, whole-community systems approach;” (2) longitudinal approach with “greater emphasis on early (“upstream”) determinants of health”; and (3) need for integration and “developing integrated, multi-sector service systems that become lifelong “pipelines” for healthy development”. This paper discusses promising clinical practice innovations in these three areas: addressing social influences on health in clinical practice, longitudinal and vertical integration of clinical services and horizontal integration with community services and resources. In addition, barriers and facilitators to implementation are reviewed. PMID:23677685
Cahill, Sean; Makadon, Harvey
The Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) 2011 report on the health of LGBT people pointed out that there are limited health data on these populations and that we need more research. It also described what we do know about LGBT health disparities, including lower rates of cervical cancer screening among lesbians, and mental health issues related to minority stress. Patient disclosure of LGBT identity enables provider-patient conversations about risk factors and can help us reduce and better understand disparities. It is essential to the success of Healthy People 2020's goal of eliminating LGBT health disparities. This is why the IOM's report recommended data collection in clinical settings and on electronic health records (EHRs). The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the Office of the National Coordinator of Health Information Technology rejected including sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) questions in meaningful use guidelines for EHRs in 2012 but are considering this issue again in 2013. There is overwhelming community support for the routine collection of SOGI data in clinical settings, as evidenced by comments jointly submitted by 145 leading LGBT and HIV/AIDS organizations in January 2013. Gathering SOGI data in EHRs is supported by the 2011 IOM's report on LGBT health, Healthy People 2020, the Affordable Care Act, and the Joint Commission. Data collection has long been central to the quality assurance process. Preventive health care from providers knowledgeable of their patients' SOGI can lead to improved access, quality of care, and outcomes. Medical and nursing schools should expand their attention to LGBT health issues so that all clinicians can appropriately care for LGBT patients.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out the gender disparities in Ghana national health insurance claims. In this work, data was collected from the policyholders of the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme with the help of the National Health Insurance database and the patients’ attendance register of the Koforidua Regional Hospital, from 1st January to 31st December 2011. The generalized linear regression (GLR models and the SPSS version 17.0 were used for the analysis. Among men, the younger people prefer attending hospital for treatment as compared to their adult counterparts. In contrast to women, younger women favor attending hospital for treatment as compared to their adult counterparts. Among men, various levels of income impact greatly on their propensity to make an insurance claim, whereas among women only the highest income level did as compared to lowest income level.Men, who completed senior high school education, were less likely to make an insurance claim as compared to their counterparts with basic or no education. However it was women who had basic education that preferred using the hospital as compared to their more educated counterparts. It is suggested that the government should consider building more health centers, clinics and cheap-compounds in at least every community, to help reduce the travel time in accessing health care. The ministry of health and the Ghana health service should engage older citizens by encouraging them to use hospitals when they are sick instead of other alternative care providers.
Full Text Available Background: Rapid urbanization in low- and middle-income countries reinforces risk and epidemiological transition in urban societies, which are characterized by high socioeconomic gradients. Limited availability of disaggregated morbidity data in these settings impedes research on epidemiological profiles of different population subgroups. Objective: The study aimed to analyze the epidemiological transition in the emerging megacity of Pune with respect to changing morbidity and mortality patterns, also taking into consideration health disparities among different socioeconomic groups. Design: A mixed-methods approach was used, comprising secondary analysis of mortality data, a survey among 900 households in six neighborhoods with different socioeconomic profiles, 46 in-depth interviews with laypeople, and expert interviews with 37 health care providers and 22 other health care workers. Results: The mortality data account for an epidemiological transition with an increasing number of deaths due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs in Pune. The share of deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases remained nearly constant, though the cause of deaths changed considerably within this group. The survey data and expert interviews indicated a slightly higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension among higher socioeconomic groups, but a higher incidence and more frequent complications and comorbidities in lower socioeconomic groups. Although the self-reported morbidity for malaria, gastroenteritis, and tuberculosis did not show a socioeconomic pattern, experts estimated the prevalence in lower socioeconomic groups to be higher, though all groups in Pune would be affected. Conclusions: The rising burden of NCDs among all socioeconomic groups and the concurrent persistence of communicable diseases pose a major challenge for public health. Improvement of urban health requires a stronger focus on health promotion and disease prevention for all
Luis Arturo Valdez
Full Text Available Background: Mental health issues are a rapidly increasing problem in the United States. Little is known about mental health and healthcare among Arizona’s Hispanic population.Methods: We assess differences in mental health service need, mental health diagnoses and illicit drug use among 7,578 White and Hispanic participants in the 2010 Arizona Health Survey. Results: Prevalence of mild, moderate, or severe psychological distress was negatively associated with SES among both Whites and Hispanics. Overall, Hispanics were less likely than Whites to have been diagnosed with a mental health condition; however, diagnosis rates were negatively associated with SES among both populations. Hispanics had considerably lower levels of lifetime illicit drug use than their White counterparts. Illicit drug use increased with SES among Hispanics but decreased with SES among Whites. After adjustment for relevant socio-demographic characteristics, multivariable linear regression suggested that Hispanics have significantly lower Kessler scores than Whites. These differences were largely explained by lower Kessler scores among non-English proficient Hispanics relative to English-speaking populations. Moreover, logistic regression suggests that Hispanics, the foreign born, and the non-English language proficient have lower odds of lifetime illicit drug use than Whites, the US born, and the English-language proficient, respectively. Conclusions: The unique social and political context in Arizona may have important but understudied effects on the physical and mental health of Hispanics. Our findings suggest mental health disparities between Arizona Whites and Hispanics, which should be addressed via culturally- and linguistically-tailored mental health care. More observational and intervention research is necessary to better understand the relationship between race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, healthcare, and mental health in Arizona.
Mitchell, Jamie Ann
The purpose of this article is to propose an elective social work course as a means of better preparing social workers entering practice in healthcare to meet the challenges of promoting health and reducing health disparities in minority and underserved communities. Course offerings specifically targeting health or medical social work training…
In support of this year’s National Minority Health Month theme “Prevention is Power: Taking Action for Health Equity!”, CRCHD is highlighting the role of obesity in cancer health disparities among diverse population groups in the U.S.
Breathett, Khadijah; Filley, Jessica; Pandey, Madhaba; Rai, Nayanjot; Peterson, Pamela N
Women with pre-existing diabetes are at high maternal risk for comorbidities and death, particularly when early prenatal care is not received. Low income is a known barrier to early prenatal care. It is unknown whether recent policies to expand access to prenatal care have reduced income disparities. We hypothesized that income disparities would be minimized and that the odds of receipt of first trimester prenatal care among women with pre-existing diabetes would become similar across income strata over time. Using the Colorado birth certificate registry from 2007 to 2014, receipt of prenatal care was assessed retrospectively in 2,497 women with pre-existing diabetes. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between high (>$50,000), medium ($25,000-50,000), and low (prenatal care by birth year, adjusted for demographics. High, medium, and low income represented 29.5%, 19.0%, and 51.5% of the cohort, respectively. Women with high income were more likely to receive first trimester care than women with low income from 2007 [adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 2.16 (1.18, 3.96)] through 2013 [1.66 (1.01, 2.73)], but significant differences were no longer observed in 2014 [1.59 (0.89, 2.84)]. The likelihood of receiving first trimester prenatal care was not significantly different between medium- and low-income strata from 2007 [1.07 (0.66, 1.74)] through 2014 [0.77 (0.48, 1.23)]. From 2007 to 2013, women in Colorado with diabetes were more likely to receive early prenatal care if they were in the highest income stratum than in the lowest stratum. In 2014, receipt of first trimester care became equitable across all income strata. Future work should examine national patterns of income with receipt of prenatal care and outcomes among women with pre-existing diabetes.
Ruben, Mollie A; Shipherd, Jillian C; Topor, David; AhnAllen, Christopher G; Sloan, Colleen A; Walton, Heather M; Matza, Alexis R; Trezza, Glenn R
Culturally competent health care is especially important among sexual and gender minority patients because poor cultural competence contributes to health disparities. There is a need to understand how to improve health care quality and delivery for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) veterans in particular, because they have unique physical and mental health needs as both LGBT individuals and veterans. The following article is a case study that focuses on the policy and clinical care practices related to LGBT clinical competency, professional training, and ethical provision of care for veteran patients in the VA Boston Healthcare System. We apply Betancourt et al.'s (2003) cultural competence framework to outline the steps that VA Boston Healthcare System took to increase cultural competency at the organizational, structural, and clinical level. By sharing our experiences, we aim to provide a model and steps for other health care systems and programs, including other VA health care systems, large academic health care systems, community health care systems, and mental health care systems, interested in developing LGBT health initiatives.
Cherla, Deepa V; Poulose, Benjamin; Prabhu, Ajita S
More research is needed with regards to gender, race, and socioeconomic status on ventral hernia presentation, management, and outcomes. The role of culture and geography in hernia-related health care remains unknown. Currently existing nationwide registries have thus far yielded at best a modest overview of disparities in hernia care. The significant variation in care relative to gender, race, and socioeconomic status suggests that there is room for improvement in providing consistent care for patients with hernias. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Valdiserri, Ronald O; Holtgrave, David R; Poteat, Tonia C; Beyrer, Chris
LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) populations experience disparities in health outcomes, both physical and mental, compared to their heterosexual and cisgender peers. This commentary confronts the view held by some researchers that the disparate rates of mental health problems reported among LGBT populations are the consequences of pursuing a particular life trajectory, rather than resulting from the corrosive and persistent impact of stigma. Suggesting that mental health disparities among LGBT populations arise internally, de novo, when individuals express non-heterosexual and non-conforming gender identities ignores the vast body of evidence documenting the destructive impact of socially mediated stigma and systemic discrimination on health outcomes for a number of minorities, including sexual and gender minorities. Furthermore, such thinking is antithetical to widely accepted standards of health and wellbeing because it implies that LGBT persons should adopt and live out identities that contradict or deny their innermost feelings of self.
This article examines issues on health care costs and describes measures taken by public districts to reduce spending. As in most companies in America, health plan designs in public districts are being changed to reflect higher out-of-pocket costs, such as higher deductibles on visits to providers, hospital stays, and prescription drugs. District…
Soto, Graciela J; Martin, Greg S; Gong, Michelle Ng
To summarize the current literature on racial and gender disparities in critical care and the mechanisms underlying these disparities in the course of acute critical illness. MEDLINE search on the published literature addressing racial, ethnic, or gender disparities in acute critical illness, such as sepsis, acute lung injury, pneumonia, venous thromboembolism, and cardiac arrest. Clinical studies that evaluated general critically ill patient populations in the United States as well as specific critical care conditions were reviewed with a focus on studies evaluating factors and contributors to health disparities. Study findings are presented according to their association with the prevalence, clinical presentation, management, and outcomes in acute critical illness. This review presents potential contributors for racial and gender disparities related to genetic susceptibility, comorbidities, preventive health services, socioeconomic factors, cultural differences, and access to care. The data are organized along the course of acute critical illness. The literature to date shows that disparities in critical care are most likely multifactorial involving individual, community, and hospital-level factors at several points in the continuum of acute critical illness. The data presented identify potential targets as interventions to reduce disparities in critical care and future avenues for research.
Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Avni, Shlomit; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra
Health disparities are a persistent problem in many high-income countries. Health policymakers recognize the need to develop systematic methods for documenting and tracking these disparities in order to reduce them. The experience of the U.S., which has a well-established health disparities monitoring infrastructure, provides useful insights for other countries. This article provides an in-depth review of health disparities monitoring in the U.S. Lessons of potential relevance for other countries include: 1) the integration of health disparities monitoring in population health surveillance, 2) the role of political commitment, 3) use of monitoring as a feedback loop to inform future directions, 4) use of monitoring to identify data gaps, 5) development of extensive cross-departmental cooperation, and 6) exploitation of digital tools for monitoring and reporting. Using Israel as a case in point, we provide a brief overview of the healthcare and health disparities landscape in Israel, and examine how the lessons from the U.S. experience might be applied in the Israeli context. The U.S. model of health disparities monitoring provides useful lessons for other countries with respect to documentation of health disparities and tracking of progress made towards their elimination. Given the persistence of health disparities both in the U.S. and Israel, there is a need for monitoring systems to expand beyond individual- and healthcare system-level factors, to incorporate social and environmental determinants of health as health indicators/outcomes.
Bergmark, Regan W; Sedaghat, Ahmad R
Social determinants of health include social and demographic factors such as poverty, education status, race and ethnicity, gender, insurance status, and other factors that influence (1) development of illness, (2) ability to obtain and utilize healthcare, and (3) health and healthcare outcomes. In otolaryngology, as in other subspecialty surgical fields, we are constantly confronted by patients' social and demographic circumstances including poverty, language barriers, and lack of health insurance and yet there is limited research on how these factors impact health equity in our field, or how attention to these patient characteristics may improve health equity. This review provides the reader with a framework to understand the social determinants of health including how socioeconomic status, insurance status, race, gender, and other factors impact health. Foundational papers on the social determinants of health are reviewed, as well as otolaryngology publications focused on health and healthcare disparities. The social determinants of health have a major impact on patient health as well as healthcare utilization, but there is a relative lack of data on these factors and how they can be addressed within otolaryngology. Incorporating tools to measure social and demographic characteristics and actually report on these measures is a first simple step to increase the data on the social determinants of health as they pertain to otolaryngology. More research is needed on the social determinants of health, and how they impact otolaryngic disease. Medicare's Accountable Care Organization models will increasingly change the way in which physicians are reimbursed, making the social determinants of health central not only to our moral conscience but also the bottom line. 4.
Objectives. We provide a detailed analysis of how the dynamics of health insurance coverage (HIC) at older ages differs among Latino, Asian, and European immigrants in the United States. Method. Using Survey of Income and Program Participation data from the 2004 and 2008 panels, we estimate discrete-time event history models to examine first and second transitions into and out of HIC, highlighting substantial differences in hazard rates among immigrants aged 50–64 from Asia, Latin America, and Europe. Results. We find that the likelihood of having HIC at first observation and the rates of gaining and losing coverage within a relatively short time frame are least favorable for older Latino immigrants, although immigrants from all three regions are at a disadvantage relative to native-born non-Hispanic Whites. This disparity among immigrant groups persists even when lower rates of citizenship, greater difficulty with English, and low-skill job placements are taken into account. Discussion. Factors that have contributed to the lower rates and shorter durations of HIC among older immigrants, particularly those from Latin America, may not be easily resolved by the Affordable Care Act. The importance of region of origin and assimilation characteristics for the risk of being uninsured in later life argues that immigration and health care policy should be jointly addressed. PMID:25637934
Reilly, Rachel; Micklem, Jasmine; Yerrell, Paul; Banham, David; Morey, Kim; Stajic, Janet; Eckert, Marion; Lawrence, Monica; Stewart, Harold B; Brown, Alex
Aboriginal people with cancer experience worse outcomes than other Australians for a range of complex and interrelated reasons. A younger age at diagnosis, higher likelihood of more advanced cancer or cancer type with poorer prognosis, geographic isolation and cultural and language diversity mean that patient pathways are potentially more complex for Aboriginal people with cancer. In addition, variation in the quality and acceptability of care may influence cancer outcomes. This study sought to understand how care coordination influences Aboriginal people's experiences of cancer treatment. Interviews with 29 Aboriginal patients or cancer survivors, 11 carers and 22 service providers were carried out. Interviews were semi-structured and sought to elicit experiences of cancer and the health-care system. The manifest content of the cancer narratives was entered onto a cancer pathway mapping tool and underlying themes were identified inductively. The practice of cancer care coordination was found to address the needs of Aboriginal patients and their families/carers in 4 main areas: "navigating the health system"; "information and communication"; "things to manage at home"; and "cultural safety". The CanDAD findings indicate that, when the need for cancer care coordination is met, it facilitated continuity of care in a range of ways that may potentially improve cancer outcomes. However, the need remains unmet for many. Findings support the importance of dedicated care coordination to enable Aboriginal people to receive adequate and appropriate patient-centred care, so that the unacceptable disparity in cancer outcomes between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people can be addressed. © 2018 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Simoni, Jane M.; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Lehavot, Keren; Walters, Karina L.; Yang, Joyce; Hoy-Ellis, Charles P.
National health initiatives emphasize the importance of eliminating health disparities among historically disadvantaged populations. Yet, few studies have examined the range of health outcomes among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. To stimulate more inclusive research in the area, we present the Health Equity Promotion Model—a framework oriented toward LGBT people reaching their full mental and physical health potential that considers both positive and adverse health-related circumstances. The model highlights (a) heterogeneity and intersectionality within LGBT communities; (b) the influence of structural and environmental context; and (c) both health-promoting and adverse pathways that encompass behavioral, social, psychological, and biological processes. It also expands upon earlier conceptualizations of sexual minority health by integrating a life course development perspective within the health-promotion model. By explicating the important role of agency and resilience as well as the deleterious effect of social structures on health outcomes, it supports policy and social justice to advance health and well-being in these communities. Important directions for future research as well as implications for health-promotion interventions and policies are offered. PMID:25545433
Felson, Jacob; Adamczyk, Amy
Gay and lesbian individuals have higher rates of psychological distress than do heterosexual individuals. The minority stress hypothesis attributes this disparity to adversity-related stress experienced by sexual minorities. In support of this idea, research in the U.S. has generally found that mental health disparities between sexual minorities and others are narrower in places where tolerance is relatively high. However, few studies have examined disparities between sexual minorities and others in neighborhoods where sexual minorities are most highly concentrated. Likewise, little research attention has been given to disparities for people who move to more tolerant places from less tolerant states and countries. Using data from the New York City Community Health Survey, we found some evidence that disparities between sexual minorities and others were lower in areas with higher concentrations of sexual minorities. However, disparities did not vary by the tolerance level of the state of birth among those born in the U.S. and were actually lower among those born in the least tolerant nations. These results complicate the idea that there is a dose-response relationship between tolerance and psychological distress among sexual minorities.
As technological advances in the United States continue to improve the effectiveness of medical interventions, expectations among Americans of both improved health and extended life expectancy have also increased. At the same time, many of the population continue to lack the insurance necessary to access even the most basic healthcare services (Institute of Medicine, 2004; Tunzi, 2004; Saha & Bindman, 2001). With approximately 18,000 avoidable deaths attributed annually to inadequate medical coverage and 43.6 million individuals currently without insurance benefits, the need to address the disparity in access to treatment and a means of social justice in the distribution of health care is all too clear (Crispen & Whalen, 2004). As a nation relying on market mechanisms to regulate the costs and quality of available health resources (Baldor, 2003; Saha&Bindman, 2001), the welfare of society as a whole may soon be threatened by the provision of marginal services to a select minority as increasing numbers of the uninsured continue to experience less favorable clinical outcomes and higher mortality rates (Tunzi, 2004; Litaker & Cebul, 2003; Jackson, 2001; Sox, Burstin, Edwards, O'Neil et al., 1998). The author will first examine the consequences of being among the growing number of uninsured individuals in the United States. Attention will then be given to exploring the social justice issues inherent in this critical problem and evaluating these issues through the perspective of both libertarian and feminist theory. Using these theories, innovative strategies for attaining distributive justice in the provision of health care will be offered with recommendations for utilizing these alternative approaches to develop and implement future health policy.
Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Serritzlew, Søren
An important task in governing health services is to control costs. The literatures on both costcontainment and supplier induced demand focus on the effects of economic incentives on health care costs, but insights from these literatures have never been integrated. This paper asks how economic cost...... containment measures affect the utilization of health services, and how these measures interact with the number of patients per provider. Based on very valid register data, this is investigated for 9.556 Danish physiotherapists between 2001 and 2008. We find that higher (relative) fees for a given service...... make health professionals provide more of this service to each patient, but that lower user payment (unexpectedly) does not necessarily mean higher total cost or a stronger association between the number of patients per supplier and the health care utilization. This implies that incentives...
Weel, C. van; Schers, H.J.; Timmermans, A.
This article analyzes Dutch experiences of health care reform--in particular in primary care--with emphasis on lessons for current United States health care reforms. Recent major innovations were the introduction of private insurance based on the principles of primary care-led health care and
Baptist, Alan P; Islam, Nishat; Joseph, Christine L M
Asthma is a condition that has consistently demonstrated significant health outcome inequalities for minority populations. One approach used for care of patients with asthma is the incorporation of technology for behavioral modification, symptom monitoring, education, and/or treatment decision making. Whether such technological interventions can improve the care of black and inner-city patients is unknown. We reviewed all randomized controlled trial technological interventions from 2000 to 2015 performed in minority populations. A total of 16 articles met inclusion and exclusion criteria; all but 1 was performed in a childhood or adolescent age group. The interventions used MPEG audio layer-3 players, text messaging, computer/Web-based systems, video games, and interactive voice response. Many used tailored content and/or a specific behavior theory. Although the interventions were based on technology, most required additional special staffing. Subject user satisfaction was positive, and improvements were noted in asthma knowledge, medication adherence, asthma symptoms, and quality of life. Unfortunately, health care utilization (emergency department visits and/or hospitalizations) was typically not improved by the interventions. Although no single intervention modality was vastly superior, the computer-based interventions appeared to have the most positive results. In summary, technology-based interventions have a high level of user satisfaction among minority and urban/low-income individuals with asthma, and can improve asthma outcomes. Further large-scale studies are needed to assess whether such interventions can decrease health disparities in asthma. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Higgins, Stephen T
This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 2nd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries that are trying to more effectively manage chronic health conditions. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behavior patterns such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. As such behavior change needs to be a key component of improving population health. There is also broad agreement that while these problems extend across socioeconomic strata, they are overrepresented among more economically disadvantaged populations and contribute directly to the growing problem of health disparities. Hence, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing that unsettling problem as well. In this 2nd Special Issue, we devote considerable space to the current U.S. prescription opioid addiction epidemic, a crisis that was not addressed in the prior Special Issue. We also continue to devote attention to the two largest contributors to preventable disease and premature death, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity as well as risks of co-occurrence of these unhealthy behavior patterns. Across each of these topics we included contributions from highly accomplished policy makers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges to effectively managing these important chronic health problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marušič, Dorjan; Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina
In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.
Full Text Available In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.
Hasman, Andreas; Hope, Tony; Østerdal, Lars Peter
The argument that scarce health care resources should be distributed so that patients in 'need' are given priority for treatment is rarely contested. In this paper, we argue that if need is to play a significant role in distributive decisions it is crucial that what is meant by need can be precis......The argument that scarce health care resources should be distributed so that patients in 'need' are given priority for treatment is rarely contested. In this paper, we argue that if need is to play a significant role in distributive decisions it is crucial that what is meant by need can...... be precisely articulated. Following a discussion of the general features of health care need, we propose three principal interpretations of need, each of which focuses on separate intuitions. Although this account may not be a completely exhaustive reflection of what people mean when they refer to need...
Droomers, M.; Lindert, H. van; Westert, G.
This chapter addresses the results of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2) with regard to differences in health and lifestyle according to age, socio-economic status, and working status in recent years. First, disparities in health and lifestyle will be presented,
Okombo, Florence A.
Racial/ethnic minority groups experience a higher mortality rate, a lower life expectancy, and worse mental health outcomes than non-Hispanic in the United States. There is a scarcity of qualitative studies on racial/ethnic health disparities. The purpose of this hermeneutic phenomenological study was to explore the personal experiences,…
Price, James H.; McKinney, Molly A.; Braun, Robert E.
Too many racial/ethnic minorities do not reach their full potential for a healthy and rewarding life. This paper addresses the social determinants that impact, either directly or indirectly, child and adolescent health disparities. Understanding the role social determinants play in the life course of health status can help guide educational…
Focusing on Hawaii, a state with 21.3% of the population being multi-racial according to the 2010 U.S. Census, this study aims to examine the existence and nature of health disparities between mono- and multi-ethnic Asian Americans and the importance of Relational Well-Being in affecting the health of Asian Americans. A series of ordinary least…
Pandey, Shanta; Kagotho, Njeri
This study examined health insurance disparities among recent immigrants. The authors analyzed all working-age adult immigrants between the ages of 18 and 64 using the New Immigrant Survey data collected in 2003. This survey is a cross-sectional interview of recent legal permanent residents on their social, economic, and health status. Respondents…
Lantz, Paula M.; House, James S.; Mero, Richard P.; Williams, David R.
It has been hypothesized that exposure to stress and negative life events is related to poor health outcomes, and that differential exposure to stress plays a role in socioeconomic disparities in health. Data from three waves of the Americans' Changing Lives study (n = 3,617) were analyzed to investigate prospectively the relationship among…
Guthrie, Barbara J; Low, Lisa Kane
Health disparities in adults have received significant attention and research, yet the healthcare experiences of adolescents of color have been ignored. The purpose of this paper is to identify the shortcomings of our state of knowledge regarding adolescent health disparities and argue for the use of an inter-sectional, contextually embedded understanding of healthcare experiences. To understand health disparities, deficit-based models should be replaced with the framework proposed in this paper. Using the proposed model in practice will aid in identifying and preventing the health disparities experienced by adolescents of color.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in health status among ethnic groups favor the Caucasian population in the United States on almost all major indicators. Disparities in exposure to health-related mass media messages may be among the environmental factors contributing to the racial and ethnic imbalance in health outcomes. This study evaluated whether variations exist in health-related advertisements and health promotion cues among lay magazines catering to Hispanic, African American and Caucasian women. Methods Relative and absolute assessments of all health-related advertising in 12 women's magazines over a three-month period were compared. The four highest circulating, general interest magazines oriented to Black women and to Hispanic women were compared to the four highest-circulating magazines aimed at a mainstream, predominantly White readership. Data were collected and analyzed in 2002 and 2003. Results Compared to readers of mainstream magazines, readers of African American and Hispanic magazines were exposed to proportionally fewer health-promoting advertisements and more health-diminishing advertisements. Photographs of African American role models were more often used to advertise products with negative health impact than positive health impact, while the reverse was true of Caucasian role models in the mainstream magazines. Conclusion To the extent that individual levels of health education and awareness can be influenced by advertising, variations in the quantity and content of health-related information among magazines read by different ethnic groups may contribute to racial disparities in health behaviors and health status.
Rajesh, G; Seemanthini, Simi; Naik, Dilip; Pai, Keshava; Rao, Ashwini
Oral health inequalities imply unequal distribution of health and disease across socioeconomic gradients. Oral health related behaviour and its psychosocial antecedents can have a major impact on oral disease pathways in communities. To ascertain disparities in oral health behaviour and its psychosocial antecedents among young adults in Mangalore, Karnataka, India. Present study was carried out among 341 degree students at three randomly chosen institutions belonging to government, aided and private colleges in Mangalore. Oral health behaviour was assessed by a structured, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire. Information about oral hygiene habits, tobacco use, sugar consumption, dental attendance patterns were collected. Respondent's self-reported gingivitis, perceived general and oral health, perceived need for care and locus of control were assessed. Information about demographic details was collected. Correlation analysis employed Pearson's correlation coefficient and binary logistic regression analysis was employed with snacking as dependent variable. Twice daily brushing was significantly associated with gender (r=0.142, p=0.009), type of college (r=-0.164, p=0.003) and father's occupation (r=0.107, p=0.049), while tobacco use was significantly associated with gender (r=0.284, p=0.000), religion (r=-0.234, p=0.000), type of college (r=0.312, p=0.000), father's education (r=0.130, p=0.017) and occupation (r=0.120, p=0.027). Self-perceived oral health was significantly associated with snacking (r=0.173, p=0.001) and tobacco use (r=-0.261, p=0.000), while locus of control was associated with snacking (r=0.140, p=0.009). Regression analysis revealed that father's education (OR=0.399, p=0.014), self-perceived need for care (OR=0.354, p=0.009), and locus of control (OR=0.166, p=0.003) emerged as significant predictors of snacking behaviour. Psychosocial antecedents were significantly associated with oral health behaviour among the respondents. Policy and
Castillo, Richard J; Guo, Kristina L
Increased racial and ethnic diversity in the United States brings challenges and opportunities for health care organizations to provide culturally competent services that effectively meet the needs of diverse populations. The need to provide more culturally competent care is essential to reducing and eliminating health disparities among minorities. By removing barriers to cultural competence and placing a stronger emphasis on culture in health care, health care organizations will be better able to address the unique health care needs of minorities. Organizations should assess cultural differences, gain greater cultural knowledge, and provide cultural competence training to deliver high-quality services. This article develops a framework to guide health care organizations as they focus on establishing culturally competent strategies and implementing best practices aimed to improve quality of care and achieve better outcomes for minority populations.
Garrett, Bridgette E; Dube, Shanta R; Babb, Stephen; McAfee, Tim
Comprehensive tobacco prevention and control efforts that include implementing smoke-free air laws, increasing tobacco prices, conducting hard-hitting mass media campaigns, and making evidence-based cessation treatments available are effective in reducing tobacco use in the general population. However, if these interventions are not implemented in an equitable manner, certain population groups may be left out causing or exacerbating disparities in tobacco use. Disparities in tobacco use have, in part, stemmed from inequities in the way tobacco control policies and programs have been adopted and implemented to reach and impact the most vulnerable segments of the population that have the highest rates of smokings (e.g., those with lower education and incomes). Education and income are the 2 main social determinants of health that negatively impact health. However, there are other social determinants of health that must be considered for tobacco control policies to be effective in reducing tobacco-related disparities. This article will provide an overview of how tobacco control policies and programs can address key social determinants of health in order to achieve equity and eliminate disparities in tobacco prevention and control. Tobacco control policy interventions can be effective in addressing the social determinants of health in tobacco prevention and control to achieve equity and eliminate tobacco-related disparities when they are implemented consistently and equitably across all population groups. Taking a social determinants of health approach in tobacco prevention and control will be necessary to achieve equity and eliminate tobacco-related disparities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Mitrani, Victoria Behar; O'Day, Joanne E; Norris, Timothy B; Adebayo, Oluwamuyiwa Winifred
This report describes the development and dissemination of a library of English measures, with Spanish translations, on constructs relevant to social determinants of health and behavioral health outcomes. The El Centro Measures Library is a product of the Center of Excellence for Health Disparities Research: El Centro, a program funded by the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities of the U.S. National Institutes of Health. The library is aimed at enhancing capacity for minority health and health disparities research, particularly for Hispanics living in the United States and abroad. The open-access library of measures (available through www.miami.edu/sonhs/measureslibrary) contains brief descriptions of each measure, scoring information (where available), links to related peer-reviewed articles, and measure items in both languages. Links to measure websites where commercially available measures can be purchased are included, as is contact information for measures that require author permission. Links to several other measures libraries are hosted on the library website. Other researchers may contribute to the library. El Centro investigators began the library by electing to use a common set of measures across studies to assess demographic information, culture-related variables, proximal outcomes of interest, and major outcomes. The collection was expanded to include other health disparity research studies. In 2012, a formal process was developed to organize, expand, and centralize the library in preparation for a gradual process of dissemination to the national and international community of researchers. The library currently contains 61 measures encompassing 12 categories of constructs. Thus far, the library has been accessed 8,883 times (unique page views as generated by Google Analytics), and responses from constituencies of users and measure authors have been favorable. With the paucity of availability and accessibility of translated
Mitchell, Jamie A; Thompson, Hayley S; Watkins, Daphne C; Shires, Deirdre; Modlin, Charles S
Given the benefits of health-related Internet use, we examined whether sociodemographic, medical, and access-related factors predicted this outcome among African American men, a population burdened with health disparities. African American men (n = 329) completed an anonymous survey at a community health fair in 2010; logistic regression was used to identify predictors. Only education (having attended some college or more) predicted health-related Internet use (P Internet use.
Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig
Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig
Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer’s premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers’ compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage. PMID:25995374
Mollborn, Stefanie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Fomby, Paula
This study examines the puzzle of disparities experienced by U.S. teen parents’ young children, whose health and development increasingly lag behind those of peers while their parents are simultaneously experiencing socioeconomic improvements. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001–2007; N ≈ 8,600), we assess four dynamic patterns in socioeconomic resources that might account for these growing developmental and health disparities throughout early childhood and then test them in multilevel growth curve models. Persistently low socioeconomic resources constituted the strongest explanation, given that consistently low income, maternal education, and assets fully or partially account for growth in cognitive, behavioral, and health disparities experienced by teen parents’ children from infancy through kindergarten. That is, although teen parents gained socioeconomic resources over time, those resources remained relatively low, and the duration of exposure to limited resources explains observed growing disparities. Results suggest that policy interventions addressing the time dynamics of low socioeconomic resources in a household, in terms of both duration and developmental timing, are promising for reducing disparities experienced by teen parents’ children. PMID:24802282
Krieger, Nancy; Austin, S. Bryn; Haneuse, Sebastien; Gottlieb, Barbara R.
We investigated sexual orientation disparities in Papanicolaou screening among US women aged 21 to 44 years (n = 9581) in the 2006 to 2010 National Survey of Family Growth. The odds ratios for lesbian versus heterosexual women and women with no versus only male sexual partners were 0.40 and 0.32, respectively, and were attenuated after adjustment for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care indicators. Administering Papanicolaou tests through mechanisms other than SRH services would promote cervical cancer screening among all women. PMID:24328650
Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Schafer, Peter; Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Clark-Kauffman, Elizabeth; Raju, Tonse N. K.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.
Health disparities are large and persistent gaps in the rates of disease and death between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status subgroups in the population. Stress is a major pathway hypothesized to explain such disparities. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development formed a community/research collaborative—the Community Child Health Network—to investigate disparities in maternal and child health in five high-risk communities. Using community participation methods, we enrolled a large cohort of African American/Black, Latino/Hispanic, and non-Hispanic/White mothers and fathers of newborns at the time of birth and followed them over 2 years. A majority had household incomes near or below the federal poverty level. Home interviews yielded detailed information regarding multiple types of stress such as major life events and many forms of chronic stress including racism. Several forms of stress varied markedly by racial/ethnic group and income, with decreasing stress as income increased among Caucasians but not among African Americans; other forms of stress varied by race/ethnicity or poverty alone. We conclude that greater sophistication in studying the many forms of stress and community partnership is necessary to uncover the mechanisms underlying health disparities in poor and ethnic-minority families and to implement community health interventions. PMID:26173227
Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Schafer, Peter; Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Clark-Kauffman, Elizabeth; Raju, Tonse N K; Hillemeier, Marianne M
Health disparities are large and persistent gaps in the rates of disease and death between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status subgroups in the population. Stress is a major pathway hypothesized to explain such disparities. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development formed a community/research collaborative-the Community Child Health Network-to investigate disparities in maternal and child health in five high-risk communities. Using community participation methods, we enrolled a large cohort of African American/Black, Latino/Hispanic, and non-Hispanic/White mothers and fathers of newborns at the time of birth and followed them over 2 years. A majority had household incomes near or below the federal poverty level. Home interviews yielded detailed information regarding multiple types of stress such as major life events and many forms of chronic stress including racism. Several forms of stress varied markedly by racial/ethnic group and income, with decreasing stress as income increased among Caucasians but not among African Americans; other forms of stress varied by race/ethnicity or poverty alone. We conclude that greater sophistication in studying the many forms of stress and community partnership is necessary to uncover the mechanisms underlying health disparities in poor and ethnic-minority families and to implement community health interventions. © The Author(s) 2013.
Ren, Yan; Qian, Ping; Duan, Zhanqi; Zhao, Ziling; Pan, Jay; Yang, Min
The maternal mortality rate (MMR) markedly decreased in China, but there has been a significant imbalance among different geographic regions (east, central and west regions), and the mortality in the western region remains high. This study aims to examine how much disparity in the health system and MMR between ethnic minority and non-minority counties exists in Sichuan province of western China and measures conceivable commitments of the health system determinants of the disparity in MMR. The MMR and health system data of 67 minority and 116 non-minority counties were taken from Sichuan provincial official sources. The 2-level Poisson regression model was used to identify health system determinants. A series of nested models with different health system factors were fitted to decide contribution of each factor to the disparity in MMR. The MMR decreased over the last decade, with the fastest declining rate from 2006 to 2010. The minority counties experienced higher raw MMR in 2002 than non-minority counties (94.4 VS. 58.2), which still remained higher in 2014 (35.7 VS. 14.3), but the disparity of raw MMR between minority and non-minority counties decreased from 36.2 to 21.4. The better socio-economic condition, more health human resources and higher maternal health care services rate were associated with lower MMR. Hospital delivery rate alone explained 74.5% of the difference in MMR between minority and non-minority counties. All health system indicators together explained 97.6% of the ethnic difference in MMR, 59.8% in the change trend, and 66.3% county level variation respectively. Hospital delivery rate mainly determined disparity in MMR between minority and non-minority counties in Sichuan province. Increasing hospital birth rates among ethnic minority counties may narrow the disparity in MMR by more than two-thirds of the current level.
Ridgeway, Jennifer L; Wang, Zhen; Finney Rutten, Lila J; van Ryn, Michelle; Griffin, Joan M; Murad, M Hassan; Asiedu, Gladys B; Egginton, Jason S; Beebe, Timothy J
There exists a paucity of work in the development and testing of theoretical models specific to childhood health disparities even though they have been linked to the prevalence of adult health disparities including high rates of chronic disease. We conducted a systematic review and thematic analysis of existing models of health disparities specific to children to inform development of a unified conceptual framework. We systematically reviewed articles reporting theoretical or explanatory models of disparities on a range of outcomes related to child health. We searched Ovid Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus (database inception to 9 July 2015). A metanarrative approach guided the analysis process. A total of 48 studies presenting 48 models were included. This systematic review found multiple models but no consensus on one approach. However, we did discover a fair amount of overlap, such that the 48 models reviewed converged into the unified conceptual framework. The majority of models included factors in three domains: individual characteristics and behaviours (88%), healthcare providers and systems (63%), and environment/community (56%), . Only 38% of models included factors in the health and public policies domain. A disease-agnostic unified conceptual framework may inform integration of existing knowledge of child health disparities and guide future research. This multilevel framework can focus attention among clinical, basic and social science research on the relationships between policy, social factors, health systems and the physical environment that impact children's health outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Mitchell, Stephanie J; Bilderback, Andrew L; Okelo, Sande O
To elucidate whether there may be a higher morbidity threshold for African American versus white children to be referred to or seek asthma specialist care. Secondary analysis of registry data captured from children presenting for an initial routine outpatient asthma consultation. Parents completed standard survey instruments, and spirometry was conducted when deemed appropriate by the provider. Wilcoxon rank sum tests revealed that African American patients had been hospitalized twice as often and admitted to the intensive care unit or intubated significantly more than 1½ times more frequently than their white patient counterparts. t tests indicated African American patients' forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) percentage predicted was significantly worse than that of whites, but there was no significant difference for FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio. t tests suggested that African American patients had statistically worse asthma control than did white patients at the time of initial presentation to the pulmonologist, but there was no difference in the distribution of asthma severity categories. Multivariate regression models indicated that racial differences in parent education did not explain the disparities in asthma morbidity. African American patients had significantly worse asthma morbidity than their white counterparts, including higher rates of hospitalization and intensive care unit admission and poorer lung functioning. Given that receipt of asthma specialist care can improve those outcomes that are disparately experienced by African American children, methods of increasing their access to and use of asthma specialist care need to be developed. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.
Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…
Miller, Candace Marie; Gruskin, Sofia; Subramanian, S V; Heymann, Jody
Botswana has the second highest HIV prevalence rate and highest rate of orphanhood in the world. Although child mortality rates have doubled in 15 years, the extent to which health disparities are connected to orphan status remains unclear. We conducted an analysis of the 2000 Botswana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey to examine whether orphan-based health disparities exist. We measured health inequalities using anthropometric data among 2723 under-five year olds, nested in 1854 households, and 208 communities. We calculated multilevel logistic regression models to estimate the child, household, and regional determinants of growth failure. We found that orphaned children aged 0-4 are 49% more likely to be underweight than nonorphans (ppoverty and other factors; and orphans disproportionately live in the poorest households. Throughout sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Botswana is a leader in responding to the AIDS epidemic, in particular as one of the first countries to offer universal antiretroviral treatment. However, orphan-based health disparities confirm that the orphan response is still insufficient. Better data are needed to fully understand the mechanisms that lead to these disparities, and the public sector needs an increased capacity to fully implement the policies and programs designed to meet the needs of orphans. Findings from this study have important implications for countries throughout SSA, and Southern Africa in particular, where the number of orphans has doubled to tripled over the past 15 years.
Altpeter, Mary; Mitchell, James F.; Pennell, Joan
This study provides the basis for customizing culturally responsive social work health promotion programs aimed at eliminating breast cancer screening and mortality disparities between white and African American women. Survey data collected from a random sample of 853 women in rural North Carolina were used to explore the impact of psychosocial…
Okechukwu, Cassandra A.; Souza, Kerry; Davis, Kelly D.; de Castro, A. Butch
This paper synthesizes research on the contribution of workplace injustices – discrimination, harassment, abuse and bullying – to occupational health disparities. A conceptual framework is presented to illustrate the pathways through which injustices at the interpersonal and institutional level lead to differential risk of vulnerable workers to adverse occupational health outcomes. Members of demographic minority groups are more likely to be victims of workplace injustice and suffer more adverse outcomes when exposed to workplace injustice compared to demographic majority groups. A growing body of research links workplace injustice to poor psychological and physical health, and a smaller body of evidence links workplace injustice to unhealthy behaviors. Although not as well studied, studies also show that workplace injustice can influence workers’ health through effects on workers’ family life and job-related outcomes. Lastly, this paper discusses methodological limitations in research linking injustices and occupational health disparities and makes recommendations to improve the state of research. PMID:23813664
Jennings, Larissa; Omoni, Adetayo; Akerele, Akunle; Ibrahim, Yisa; Ekanem, Ekpenyong
Mobile communication technologies may reduce maternal health disparities related to cost, distance, and infrastructure. However, the ability of mHealth initiatives to accelerate maternal health goals requires in part that women with the greatest health needs have access to mobile phones. This study examined if women with limited mobile phone access have differential odds of maternal knowledge and health service utilization as compared to female mobile phone users who are currently eligible to participate in maternal mHealth programs. Using household survey data from Nigeria, multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the odds of maternal knowledge and service utilization by mobile phone strata. Findings showed that in settings with unequal access to mobile phones, mHealth interventions may not reach women who have the poorest maternal knowledge and care-seeking as these women often lacked mobile connectivity. As compared to mobile users, women without mobile phone access had significantly lower odds of antenatal care utilization (OR=0.48, 95%CI: 0.36-0.64), skilled delivery (OR=0.56, 95%CI: 0.45-0.70), and modern contraceptive use (OR=0.50, 95%CI: 0.33-0.76) after adjusting for demographic characteristics. They also had significantly lower knowledge of maternal danger signs (OR=0.69, 95%CI: 0.53-0.90) and knowledge of antenatal (OR=0.46, 95%CI: 0.36-0.59) and skilled delivery care benefits (OR=0.62, 95%CI: 0.47-0.82). No differences were observed by mobile phone strata in uptake of emergency obstetric care, postnatal services, or breastfeeding. As maternal mHealth strategies are increasingly utilized, more efforts are needed to improve women's access to mobile phones and minimize potential health inequities brought on by health systems and technological barriers in access to care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Transgender individuals face harassment, discrimination, and rejection within our society. Lack of awareness, knowledge, and sensitivity in health care communities eventually leads to inadequate access to, underutilization of, and disparities within the health care system for this population. Although the care for these patients is often managed by a specialty team, obstetrician–gynecologists should be prepared to assist or refer transgender individuals with routine treatment and screening as well as hormonal and surgical therapies. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists opposes discrimination on the basis of gender identity and urges public and private health insurance plans to cover the treatment of gender identity disorder.
press conference with President Toledo of Peru on March 23, 2002, President Bush proclaimed, “education, jobs, and health care are the greatest...allow patients with chronic illnesses such as diabetes and high blood pressure to “visit” their doctors “on-line” while in the comfort and privacy of...to maintain a healthy lifestyle. As a result, non-communicable disease such as 10 heart disease, stroke, diabetes , and cancer are prevalent throughout
Jalali, Arash; Olabode, Olusegun A; Bell, Christopher M
As the use of certified electronic health record technology (CEHRT) has continued to gain prominence in hospitals and physician practices, public health agencies and health professionals have the ability to access health data through health information exchanges (HIE). With such knowledge health providers are well positioned to positively affect population health, and enhance health status or quality-of-life outcomes in at-risk populations. Through big data analytics, predictive analytics and cloud computing, public health agencies have the opportunity to observe emerging public health threats in real-time and provide more effective interventions addressing health disparities in our communities. The Smarter Public Health Prevention System (SPHPS) provides real-time reporting of potential public health threats to public health leaders through the use of a simple and efficient dashboard and links people with needed personal health services through mobile platforms for smartphones and tablets to promote and encourage healthy behaviors in our communities. The purpose of this working paper is to evaluate how a secure virtual private cloud (VPC) solution could facilitate the implementation of the SPHPS in order to address public health disparities.
Swift, Elaine K
The Agency for Healthcare Research Quality commissioned the Institute of Medicine establish a committee to provide guidance on the National Healthcare Disparities Report is of access to health care...
Javier, Joyce R; Supan, Jocelyn; Lansang, Anjelica; Beyer, William; Kubicek, Katrina; Palinkas, Lawrence A
Filipino Americans are the second largest immigrant population and second largest Asian ethnic group in the U.S. Disparities in youth behavioral health problems and the receipt of mental health services among Filipino youth have been documented previously. However, few studies have elicited perspectives from community stakeholders regarding how to prevent mental health disparities among Filipino youth. The purpose of the current study is to identify intervention strategies for implementing mental health prevention programs among Filipino youth. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n=33) with adolescents, caregivers, advocates, and providers and focus groups (n=18) with adolescents and caregivers. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using a methodology of "coding consensus, co-occurrence, and comparison" and was rooted in grounded theory. Four recommendations were identified when developing mental health prevention strategies among Filipino populations: address the intergenerational gap between Filipino parents and children, provide evidence-based parenting programs, collaborate with churches in order to overcome stigma associated with mental health, and address mental health needs of parents. Findings highlight the implementation of evidence-based preventive parenting programs in faith settings as a community-identified and culturally appropriate strategy to prevent Filipino youth behavioral health disparities.
Full Text Available Since 1972 CDC has sponsored the annual National Health Interview Survey (NHIS. The survey collects data from a large sample of US households, a sample of adults in each household, and a sample of children in each household. But unfortunately county level data on health status are not available as readily and consistently as compared to the national level. This paper describes a telephone-based survey of health on one county to overcome the gaps in the national samples. It is concluded that phone surveys are a cost-effective way to provide for local information on the health status the population. Sample questions are included in the article.
Butler, James; Fryer, Craig S; Ward, Earlise; Westaby, Katelyn; Adams, Alexandra; Esmond, Sarah L; Garza, Mary A; Hogle, Janice A; Scholl, Linda M; Quinn, Sandra C; Thomas, Stephen B; Sorkness, Christine A
Efforts to address health disparities and achieve health equity are critically dependent on the development of a diverse research workforce. However, many researchers from underrepresented backgrounds face challenges in advancing their careers, securing independent funding, and finding the mentorship needed to expand their research. Faculty from the University of Maryland at College Park and the University of Wisconsin-Madison developed and evaluated an intensive week-long research and career-development institute-the Health Equity Leadership Institute (HELI)-with the goal of increasing the number of underrepresented scholars who can sustain their ongoing commitment to health equity research. In 2010-2016, HELI brought 145 diverse scholars (78% from an underrepresented background; 81% female) together to engage with each other and learn from supportive faculty. Overall, scholar feedback was highly positive on all survey items, with average agreement ratings of 4.45-4.84 based on a 5-point Likert scale. Eighty-five percent of scholars remain in academic positions. In the first three cohorts, 73% of HELI participants have been promoted and 23% have secured independent federal funding. HELI includes an evidence-based curriculum to develop a diverse workforce for health equity research. For those institutions interested in implementing such an institute to develop and support underrepresented early stage investigators, a resource toolbox is provided.
Kagawa Singer, Marjorie
Culture is often cited as an underlying cause of the undue burden of disease borne by communities of color along the entire life cycle. However, culture is rarely defined or appropriately measured. Scientifically, culture is a complex, integrated, and dynamic conceptual framework that is incongruent with the way it is operationalized in health behavior theories: as a unidimensional, static, and immutable character element of a homogeneous population group. This paper lays out this contradiction and proposes a more scientifically grounded approach to the use of culture. The premise is that if the concept of culture were better operationalized, results from studies of diverse population groups would produce findings that are more scientifically valid and relevant to the community. Practitioners could then use these findings to develop more effective strategies to reduce health disparities and improve the health of all population groups. Six steps are proposed to increase our ability to achieve greater clarity on what culture is and to identify how it impacts health behavior and ultimately health outcomes, enabling researchers to build a stronger science of cultural diversity. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Gaber, Amal; Galarneau, Chantal; Feine, Jocelyne S; Emami, Elham
The objective of this population-based cross-sectional study was to estimate rural-urban disparity in the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of the Quebec adult population. A 2-stage sampling design was used to collect data from the 1788 parents/caregivers of schoolchildren living in the 8 regions of the province of Quebec in Canada. Andersen's behavioural model for health services utilization was used as a conceptual framework. Place of residency was defined according to the Statistics Canada Census Metropolitan Area and Census Agglomeration Influenced Zone classification. The outcome of interest was OHRQoL measured using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP)-14 validated questionnaire. Data weighting was applied, and the prevalence, extent and severity of negative oral health impacts were calculated. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and binary logistic regression. The prevalence of poor oral health-related quality life (OHRQoL) was statistically higher in rural areas than in urban zones (P = .02). Rural residents reported a significantly higher prevalence of negative daily-life impacts in pain, psychological discomfort and social disability OHIP domains (P < .05). Additionally, the rural population showed a greater number of negative oral health impacts (P = .03). There was no significant rural-urban difference in the severity of poor oral health. Logistic regression indicated that the prevalence of poor OHRQoL was significantly related to place of residency (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1-2.5; P = .022), perceived oral health (OR = 9.4; 95% CI = 5.7-15.5; P < .001), dental treatment needs factors (perceived need for dental treatment, pain, dental care seeking) (OR = 8.7; 95% CI = 4.8-15.6; P < .001) and education (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.8-3.9; P < .001). The results of this study suggest a potential difference in OHRQoL of Quebec rural and urban populations, and a need to develop strategies to promote oral health outcomes
Client Satisfaction with Antenatal Care Services in Primary Health Care. Centres in Sabon ... important information about how well clinicians and the population of women within child bearing. 8 ..... model. Health and Quality of Life outcomes.
Zhang, Zhenyu; Wang, Jianbing; Jin, Mingjuan; Li, Mei; Zhou, Litao; Jing, Fangyuan; Chen, Kun
Background The People’s Republic of China’s population is aging rapidly, partly because of the impact of the one-child policy and improvements in the health care system. Caring for bedridden seniors can be a challenge for many families in the People’s Republic of China. Objective To identify the inequality of income among different age groups and social statuses, and evaluate the medical burden and health insurance compensation in the People’s Republic of China. Methods We measured income inequality and insurance compensation levels among bedridden patients in Zhejiang province, People’s Republic of China. Factor analysis and Gini coefficients were used to evaluate degree of income inequality and insurance compensation level. Results We found distinct regional disparities in Zhejiang province, including the aspects of income, expenses, and time. Gini coefficients of older adults with long-term care needs in urban and rural areas were 0.335 and 0.602, respectively. In all age groups, Gini coefficients increased after adjustment for medical expenditures, and the inequality persisted after insurance reimbursement was taken into consideration. Conclusion A significant income disparity between rural and urban areas was observed. Inequality increased with age, and medical expenditure is a huge burden for older people with long-term care needs. Health insurance does not play an important role in reducing inequalities among patients who need long-term care services. PMID:24855346
Zhang, Zhenyu; Wang, Jianbing; Jin, Mingjuan; Li, Mei; Zhou, Litao; Jing, Fangyuan; Chen, Kun
The People's Republic of China's population is aging rapidly, partly because of the impact of the one-child policy and improvements in the health care system. Caring for bedridden seniors can be a challenge for many families in the People's Republic of China. To identify the inequality of income among different age groups and social statuses, and evaluate the medical burden and health insurance compensation in the People's Republic of China. We measured income inequality and insurance compensation levels among bedridden patients in Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China. Factor analysis and Gini coefficients were used to evaluate degree of income inequality and insurance compensation level. We found distinct regional disparities in Zhejiang province, including the aspects of income, expenses, and time. Gini coefficients of older adults with long-term care needs in urban and rural areas were 0.335 and 0.602, respectively. In all age groups, Gini coefficients increased after adjustment for medical expenditures, and the inequality persisted after insurance reimbursement was taken into consideration. A significant income disparity between rural and urban areas was observed. Inequality increased with age, and medical expenditure is a huge burden for older people with long-term care needs. Health insurance does not play an important role in reducing inequalities among patients who need long-term care services.
Wells, Kristen J; Lima, Diana S; Meade, Cathy D; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Scarinci, Isabel; McGuire, Allison; Gwede, Clement K; Pledger, W Jack; Partridge, Edward; Lipscomb, Joseph; Matthews, Roland; Matta, Jaime; Flores, Idhaliz; Weiner, Roy; Turner, Timothy; Miele, Lucio; Wiese, Thomas E; Fouad, Mona; Moreno, Carlos S; Lacey, Michelle; Christie, Debra W; Price-Haywood, Eboni G; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Coppola, Domenico; Sodeke, Stephen O; Green, B Lee; Lichtveld, Maureen Y
Significant cancer health disparities exist in the United States and Puerto Rico. While numerous initiatives have been implemented to reduce cancer disparities, regional coordination of these efforts between institutions is often limited. To address cancer health disparities nation-wide, a series of regional transdisciplinary networks through the Geographic Management Program (GMaP) and the Minority Biospecimen/Biobanking Geographic Management Program (BMaP) were established in six regions across the country. This paper describes the development of the Region 3 GMaP/BMaP network composed of over 100 investigators from nine institutions in five Southeastern states and Puerto Rico to develop a state-of-the-art network for cancer health disparities research and training. We describe a series of partnership activities that led to the formation of the infrastructure for this network, recount the participatory processes utilized to develop and implement a needs and assets assessment and implementation plan, and describe our approach to data collection. Completion, by all nine institutions, of the needs and assets assessment resulted in several beneficial outcomes for Region 3 GMaP/BMaP. This network entails ongoing commitment from the institutions and institutional leaders, continuous participatory and engagement activities, and effective coordination and communication centered on team science goals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wells, Kristen J.; Lima, Diana S.; Meade, Cathy D.; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Scarinci, Isabel; McGuire, Allison; Gwede, Clement K.; Pledger, W. Jack; Partridge, Edward; Lipscomb, Joseph; Matthews, Roland; Matta, Jaime; Flores, Idhaliz; Weiner, Roy; Turner, Timothy; Miele, Lucio; Wiese, Thomas E.; Fouad, Mona; Moreno, Carlos S.; Lacey, Michelle; Christie, Debra W.; Price-Haywood, Eboni G.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Coppola, Domenico; Sodeke, Stephen O.; Green, B. Lee; Lichtveld, Maureen Y.
Significant cancer health disparities exist in the United States and Puerto Rico. While numerous initiatives have been implemented to reduce cancer disparities, regional coordination of these efforts between institutions is often limited. To address cancer health disparities nationwide, a series of regional transdisciplinary networks through the Geographic Management Program (GMaP) and the Minority Biospecimen/Biobanking Geographic Management Program (BMaP) were established in six regions across the country. This paper describes the development of the Region 3 GMaP/BMaP network composed of over 100 investigators from nine institutions in five Southeastern states and Puerto Rico to develop a state-of-the-art network for cancer health disparities research and training. We describe a series of partnership activities that led to the formation of the infrastructure for this network, recount the participatory processes utilized to develop and implement a needs and assets assessment and implementation plan, and describe our approach to data collection. Completion, by all nine institutions, of the needs and assets assessment resulted in several beneficial outcomes for Region 3 GMaP/BMaP. This network entails ongoing commitment from the institutions and institutional leaders, continuous participatory and engagement activities, and effective coordination and communication centered on team science goals. PMID:24486917
Schutt, Russell K; Mejía, Camila
Differences in health care satisfaction can alter patterns of health care utilization and so affect health outcomes, but little is known about variation in satisfaction in relation to immigration status. Health care satisfaction is analyzed with survey data from state public health program patients. Overall health care satisfaction is higher for first generation Hispanic immigrants and lower among those in the second generation compared to white Americans-consistent with the pattern termed the "healthy migrant effect." This pattern is more pronounced for Portuguese-speaking immigrants and is not explained by self-reported health, communication ability or acculturation. Satisfaction with specific aspects of health care follows different patterns that may be explained by differences in experiences and culture. As anticipated by segmented assimilation theory, we find variation in cross-generational patterns of health care satisfaction both within and between ethnic groups. This variation indicates the importance of distinguishing Portuguese-speakers from Spanish-speakers and of taking into account differences in the ways they are able to communicate with health care providers as well as differences in their orientations toward health care. Our disparate findings with other immigrant groups also reinforce limiting expectations of a "healthy migrant effect" to Latinos. Finally, the variable influences on different satisfaction measures indicate the importance of considering the relative influence of culturally-based orientations and health care experiences on the specific outcomes measured, with particular sensitivity to acceptance of individualized standards of care.
Subica, Andrew M; Agarwal, Neha; Sullivan, J Greer; Link, Bruce G
This study examined the state of obesity, diabetes, and associated health disparities among understudied multiracial, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI), and American Indian and Alaskan Native (AIAN) adults. Aggregated data for 184,617 adults from the California Health Interview Survey (2005 to 2011) were analyzed to determine obesity, diabetes, poor/fair health, and physical disability prevalence by racial group. Logistic regressions controlling for age, gender, and key social determinants (education, marital status, poverty, health insurance) generated multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults' odds ratios (ORs) for our targeted health conditions versus non-Hispanic white adults. Obesity, diabetes, and other targeted health conditions were highly prevalent among multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults, who displayed significantly greater adjusted odds than non-Hispanic white adults for obesity (ORs = 1.2-1.9), diabetes (ORs = 1.6-2.4), poor/fair health (ORs = 1.4-1.7), and, with the exception of NHOPI adults, physical disability (ORs = 1.5-1.6). Multiracial and AIAN adults with obesity also had significantly higher adjusted odds of diabetes (OR = 1.5-2.6) than non-Hispanic white adults with obesity. Multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults experience striking obesity-related disparities versus non-Hispanic white adults, urging further disparities research with these vulnerable minority populations. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Komaie, Goldie; Ekenga, Christine C; Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Goodman, Melody S
The Community Research Fellows Training program is designed to enhance capacity for community-based participatory research; program participants completed a 15-week, Master of Public Health curriculum. We conducted qualitative, semistructured interviews with 81 participants from two cohorts to evaluate the learning environment and how the program improved participants' knowledge of public health research. Key areas that provided a conducive learning environment included the once-a-week schedule, faculty and participant diversity, and community-focused homework assignments. Participants discussed how the program enhanced their understanding of the research process and raised awareness of public health-related issues for application in their personal lives, professional occupations, and in their communities. These findings highlight key programmatic elements of a successful public health training program for community residents.
Stotts, Angela L; Evans, Patricia W; Green, Charles E; Northrup, Thomas F; Dodrill, Carrie L; Fox, Jeffery M; Tyson, Jon E; Hovell, Melbourne F
Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) threatens fragile infants discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Smoking practices were examined in families with a high respiratory risk infant (born at very low birth weight; ventilated > 12 hr) in a Houston, Texas, NICU. Socioeconomic status, race, and mental health status were hypothesized to be related to SHSe and household smoking bans. Data were collected as part of The Baby's Breath Project, a hospital-based SHSe intervention trial targeting parents with a high-risk infant in the NICU who reported a smoker in the household (N = 99). Measures of sociodemographics, smoking, home and car smoking bans, and depression were collected. Overall, 26% of all families with a high-risk infant in the NICU reported a household smoker. Almost half of the families with a smoker reported an annual income of less than $25,000. 46.2% of families reported having a total smoking ban in place in both their homes and cars. Only 27.8% families earning less than $25,000 reported having a total smoking ban in place relative to almost 60% of families earning more (p < .01). African American and Caucasian families were less likely to have a smoking ban compared with Hispanics (p < .05). Mothers who reported no smoking ban were more depressed than those who had a household smoking ban (p < .02). The most disadvantaged families were least likely to have protective health behaviors in place to reduce SHSe and, consequently, are most at-risk for tobacco exposure and subsequent tobacco-related health disparities. Innovative SHSe interventions for this vulnerable population are sorely needed.
Horner-Johnson, Willi; Dobbertin, Konrad; Lee, Jae Chul; Andresen, Elena M
Prior research has established health disparities between people with and without disabilities. However, disparities within the disability population, such as those related to type of disability, have been much less studied. To examine differences in chronic conditions and health status between subgroups of people with different types of disability. We analyzed Medical Expenditure Panel Survey annual data files from 2002 to 2008. Logistic regression analyses considered disparity from three perspectives: 1) basic differences, unadjusted for other factors; 2) controlling for key demographic and health covariates; and 3) controlling for a larger set of demographic variables and socioeconomic status as well as health and access to healthcare. Individuals with vision, physical, cognitive, or multiple disability types fared worse than people with hearing impairment on most health outcomes. This was most consistently true for people with multiple disabilities. Even when all covariates were accounted for, people with multiple types of disability were significantly more likely (p disability types were reduced when controlling for other factors, some differences remained significant. This argues for a more individualized approach to understanding and preventing chronic conditions and poor health in specific disability groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shaw, Susan J; Armin, Julie
Diverse advocacy groups have pushed for the recognition of cultural differences in health care as a means to redress inequalities in the U.S., elaborating a form of biocitizenship that draws on evidence of racial and ethnic health disparities to make claims on both the state and health care providers. These efforts led to federal regulations developed by the U.S. Office of Minority Health requiring health care organizations to provide Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services. Based on ethnographic research at workshops and conferences, in-depth interviews with cultural competence trainers, and an analysis of postings to a moderated listserv with 2,000 members, we explore cultural competence trainings as a new type of social technology in which health care providers and institutions are urged to engage in ethical self-fashioning to eliminate prejudice and embody the values of cultural relativism. Health care providers are called on to re-orient their practice (such as habits of gaze, touch, and decision-making) and to act on their own subjectivities to develop an orientation toward Others that is "culturally competent." We explore the diverse methods that cultural competence trainings use to foster a health care provider's ability to be self-reflexive, including face-to-face workshops and classes and self-guided on-line modules. We argue that the hybrid formation of culturally appropriate health care is becoming detached from its social justice origins as it becomes rationalized by and more firmly embedded in the operations of the health care marketplace.
Aronson, Joshua; Burgess, Diana; Phelan, Sean M; Juarez, Lindsay
Stereotype threat is the unpleasant psychological experience of confronting negative stereotypes about race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or social status. Hundreds of published studies show how the experience of stereotype threat can impair intellectual functioning and interfere with test and school performance. Numerous published interventions derived from this research have improved the performance and motivation of individuals targeted by low-ability stereotypes. Stereotype threat theory and research provide a useful lens for understanding and reducing the negative health consequences of interracial interactions for African Americans and members of similarly stigmatized minority groups. Here we summarize the educational outcomes of stereotype threat and examine the implications of stereotype threat for health and health-related behaviors.
Gonzales, Gilbert; Blewett, Lynn A
We examined national and state-specific disparities in health insurance coverage, specifically employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) coverage, for adults in same-sex relationships. We used data from the American Community Survey to identify adults (aged 25-64 years) in same-sex relationships (n = 31,947), married opposite-sex relationships (n = 3,060,711), and unmarried opposite-sex relationships (n = 259,147). We estimated multinomial logistic regression models and state-specific relative differences in ESI coverage with predictive margins. Men and women in same-sex relationships were less likely to have ESI than were their married counterparts in opposite-sex relationships. We found ESI disparities among adults in same-sex relationships in every region, but we found the largest ESI gaps for men in the South and for women in the Midwest. ESI disparities were narrower in states that had extended legal same-sex marriage, civil unions, and broad domestic partnerships. Men and women in same-sex relationships experience disparities in health insurance coverage across the country, but residing in a state that recognizes legal same-sex marriage, civil unions, or broad domestic partnerships may improve access to ESI for same-sex spouses and domestic partners.
Kim, Minseop; Garcia, Antonio R; Yang, Shuyan; Jung, Nahri
Relying on data from a nationally representative sample of youth involved in the child welfare system (CWS) in 1999-2000 (the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, Cohort 1) and 2008-2009 (Cohort 2), this study implemented a diverse set of disparity indicators to estimate area-socioeconomic disparities in mental health (MH) services use and changes in area-socioeconomic disparities between the two cohorts. Our study found that there are area-socioeconomic disparities in MH service use, indicating that the rates of MH service use among youth referred to the CWS differ by area-socioeconomic positions defined by county-level poverty rates. We also found that area-socioeconomic disparities increased over time. However, the magnitude of the increase varied widely across disparity measures, suggesting that there are different conclusions about the trend and magnitude of area-socioeconomic disparities, depending upon which disparity measures are implemented. A greater understanding of the methodological differences among disparity measures is warranted, which will in turn impact how interventions are designed to reduce socioeconomic disparities among children in the CWS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Okihiro, May; Pillen, Michelle; Ancog, Cristeta; Inda, Christy; Sehgal, Vija
Obesity, the most common chronic disease of childhood, is prevalent among economically disadvantaged children. The Chronic Care and Obesity Care Models are comprehensive health care strategies to improve outcomes by linking primary care best practices and community-based programs. Pediatric providers and community health centers are well positioned to design and implement coordinated and synergistic programs to address childhood health disparities. This article describes a comprehensive proje...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Minority Health has designed an interactive map, the Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool, to identify areas of disparities between subgroups of...
Simianu, Vlad V.; Morris, Arden M.; Varghese, Thomas K.; Porter, Michael P.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Flum, David R.; Javid, Sara H.
Background American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) patients with cancer have the lowest survival rates of all racial and ethnic groups, possibly because they are less likely to receive “best practice” surgical care than patients of other races. Methods Prospective cohort study comparing adherence to generic and cancer-specific guidelines on processes of surgical care between AI/AN and non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients in Washington State (2010–2014). Results 156 AI/AN and 6,030 NHW patients underwent operations for 10 different cancers, and had similar mean adherence to generic surgical guidelines (91.5% vs 91.9%, p=0.57). AI/AN patients with breast cancer less frequently received preoperative diagnostic core-needle biopsy (81% versus 94%, p=0.004). AI/AN patients also less frequently received care adherent to prostate cancer-specific guidelines (74% versus 92%,p=0.001). Conclusions While AI/ANs undergoing cancer operations in Washington receive similar overall best practice surgical cancer care to NHW patients, there remain important, modifiable disparities that may contribute to their lower survival. PMID:26846176
Paul, T; Wong, J
A number of striking parallels between recent developments in health care marketing and changes in the retailing industry exist. The authors have compared retailing paradigms to the area on health care marketing so strategists in hospitals and other health care institutions can gain insight from these parallels. Many of the same economic, demographic, technological and lifestyle forces may be at work in both the health care and retail markets. While the services or products offered in health care are radically different from those of conventional retail markets, the manner in which the products and services are positioned, priced or distributed is surprisingly similar.
Part II of Health Care Engineering begins with statistics on the occurrence of medical errors and adverse events, and includes some technological solutions. A chapter on electronic medical records follows. The knowledge management process divided into four steps is described; this includes a discussion on data acquisition, storage, and retrieval. The next two chapters discuss the other three steps of the knowledge management process (knowledge discovery, knowledge translation, knowledge integration and sharing). The last chapter briefly discusses usability studies and clinical trials.This two-
Henderson, M D
Health care operations encompass the totality of those health care functions that allow those who practice health care delivery to do so. As the health care industry undergoes dramatic reform, so will the jobs of those who manage health care delivery systems. Although health care operations managers play one of the most vital and substantial roles in the new delivery system, the criteria for their success (or failure) are being defined now. Yet, the new and vital role of the operations manager has been stunted in its development, which is primarily because of old and outdated antipathy between hospital administrators and physicians. This article defines the skills and characteristics of today's health care operations managers.
Lewis, Johnnye; Hoover, Joseph; MacKenzie, Debra
More than a century of hard rock mining has left a legacy of >160,000 abandoned mines in the Western USA that are home to the majority of Native American lands. This article describes how abrogation of treaty rights, ineffective policies, lack of infrastructure, and a lack of research in Native communities converge to create chronic exposure, ill-defined risks, and tribal health concerns. Recent results show that Native Americans living near abandoned uranium mines have an increased likelihood for kidney disease and hypertension, and an increased likelihood of developing multiple chronic diseases linked to their proximity to the mine waste and activities bringing them in contact with the waste. Biomonitoring confirms higher than expected exposure to uranium and associated metals in the waste in adults, neonates, and children in these communities. These sites will not be cleaned up for many generations making it critical to understand and prioritize exposure-toxicity relationships in Native populations to appropriately allocate limited resources to protect health. Recent initiatives, in partnership with Native communities, recognize these needs and support development of tribal research capacity to ensure that research respectful of tribal culture and policies can address concerns in the future. In addition, recognition of the risks posed by these abandoned sites should inform policy change to protect community health in the future.
Isong, Inyang; Dantas, Laila; Gerard, Macda; Kuhlthau, Karen
Significant disparities exist in children's receipt of preventive dental care (PDC) in the United States. Many of the children at greatest risk of dental disease do not receive timely PDC; when they do receive dental care, it is often more for relief of dental pain. Chelsea is a low-income, diverse Massachusetts community with high rates of untreated childhood caries. There are various dental resources available in Chelsea, yet many children do not access dental care at levels equivalent to their needs. Using Chelsea as a case-study, to explore factors contributing to forgone PDC (including the age 1 dental visit) in an in-depth way. We used a qualitative study design that included semi-structured interviews with parents of preschool children residing in Chelsea, and Chelsea-based providers including pediatricians, dentists, a dental hygienist and early childhood care providers. We examined: a) parents' dental attitudes and oral health cultural beliefs; b) parents' and providers' perspectives on facilitators and barriers to PDC, reasons for unmet needs, and proposed solutions to address the problem. We recorded, transcribed and independently coded all interviews. Using rigorous, iterative qualitative data analyses procedures, we identified emergent themes. Factors perceived to facilitate receipt of PDC included Head-Start oral health policies, strong pediatric primary care/dental linkages, community outreach and advertising, and parents' own oral health experiences. Most parents and providers perceived there to be an adequate number of accessible dental services and resources in Chelsea, including for Medicaid enrollees. However, several barriers impeded children from receiving timely PDC, the most frequently cited being insurance related problems for children and adults. Other barriers included limited dental services for children strategic oral health policies, community outreach and improved care coordination between physicians, dentists and early childhood care
Spitzer, William J; Davidson, Kay W
Major economic, political, demographic, social, and operational system factors are prompting evolutionary changes in health care delivery. Of particular significance, the "graying of America" promises new challenges and opportunities for health care social work. At the same time, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, evolution of Accountable Care Organizations, and an emphasis on integrated, transdisciplinary, person-centered care represent fundamental shifts in service delivery with implications for social work practice and education. This article identifies the aging shift in American demography, its impact on health policy legislation, factors influencing fundamentally new service delivery paradigms, and opportunities of the profession to address the health disparities and care needs of an aging population. It underscores the importance of social work inclusion in integrated health care delivery and offers recommendations for practice education.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a public health challenge in developed countries and an emerging public health problem in developing ... and public health challenges in their immigrant countries. More so ..... The nutrition transition in Brazil. 46.
Chung, Bowen; Jones, Loretta; Terry, Chrystene; Jones, Andrea; Forge, Nell; Norris, Keith C.
Just as scientific articles are used as a way of sharing knowledge in scientific communities, stories are used as a way of transferring knowledge within African American communities. This article uses the story and metaphor of Stone Soup to illustrate the Healthy African American Families' (HAAF) Community Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) method of engaging diverse partners to address health issues, such as preterm birth, depression, diabetes, and kidney disease, and to create community-wide change through education, capacity building, resource sharing, and intervention development. PMID:20629241
Full Text Available Consuming a balanced diet, such as the food groups represented on MyPlate, is key to improving health disparities. Despite the best of intentions, however, the dietary guidelines can be culturally challenging, particularly when it comes to dairy consumption. Many African and Hispanic Americans avoid milk and dairy products—key contributors of three shortfall nutrients (calcium, potassium and vitamin D—because many people in these populations believe they are lactose intolerant. However, avoiding dairy can have significant health effects. An emerging body of evidence suggests that yogurt and other dairy products may help support reduced risk of heart disease, hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes—conditions that disproportionately impact people of color. For this reason, the National Medical Association and the National Hispanic Medical Association issued a joint consensus statement recommending African Americans consume three to four servings of low-fat dairy every day. Cultured dairy products could play an important role in addressing these recommendations. Because of the presence of lactase-producing cultures, yogurt is often a more easily digestible alternative to milk, and thus more palatable to people who experience symptoms of lactose intolerance. This was a key factor cited in the final rule to include yogurt in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.
Khubchandani, Jasmine A; Shen, Connie; Ayturk, Didem; Kiefe, Catarina I; Santry, Heena P
As fewer surgeons take emergency general surgery call and hospitals decrease emergency services, a crisis in access looms in the United States. We examined national emergency general surgery capacity and county-level determinants of access to emergency general surgery care with special attention to disparities. To identify potential emergency general surgery hospitals, we queried the database of the American Hospital Association for "acute care general hospital," with "surgical services," and "emergency department," and ≥1 "operating room." Internet search and direct contact confirmed emergency general surgery services that covered the emergency room 7 days a week, 24 hours a day. Geographic and population-level emergency general surgery access was derived from Geographic Information Systems and US Census. Of the 6,356 hospitals in the 2013 American Hospital Association database, only 2,811 were emergency general surgery hospitals. Counties with greater percentages of black, Hispanic, uninsured, and low-education individuals and rural counties disproportionately lacked access to emergency general surgery care. For example, counties above the 75th percentile of African American population (10.2%) had >80% odds of not having an emergency general surgery hospital compared with counties below the 25th percentile of African American population (0.6%). Gaps in access to emergency general surgery services exist across the United States, disproportionately affecting underserved, rural communities. Policy initiatives need to increase emergency general surgery capacity nationwide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Petrochuk, M A; Javalgi, R G
Health care reform has become the dominant domestic policy issue in the United States. President Clinton, and the Democratic leaders in the House and Senate have all proposed legislation to reform the system. Regardless of the plan which is ultimately enacted, health care delivery will be radically changed. Health care marketers, given their perspective, have a unique opportunity to ensure their own institutions' success. Organizational, managerial, and marketing strategies can be employed to deal with the changes which will occur. Marketers can utilize personal strategies to remain proactive and successful during an era of health care reform. As outlined in this article, responding to the health care reform changes requires strategic urgency and action. However, the strategies proposed are practical regardless of the version of health care reform legislation which is ultimately enacted.
Full Text Available Zhenyu Zhang,1 Jianbing Wang,1 Mingjuan Jin,1 Mei Li,1 Litao Zhou,2 Fangyuan Jing,1 Kun Chen1 1Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 2Quality Control Department, Zhejiang Hospital, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Background: The People’s Republic of China’s population is aging rapidly, partly because of the impact of the one-child policy and improvements in the health care system. Caring for bedridden seniors can be a challenge for many families in the People’s Republic of China.Objective: To identify the inequality of income among different age groups and social statuses, and evaluate the medical burden and health insurance compensation in the People’s Republic of China.Methods: We measured income inequality and insurance compensation levels among bedridden patients in Zhejiang province, People’s Republic of China. Factor analysis and Gini coefficients were used to evaluate degree of income inequality and insurance compensation level.Results: We found distinct regional disparities in Zhejiang province, including the aspects of income, expenses, and time. Gini coefficients of older adults with long-term care needs in urban and rural areas were 0.335 and 0.602, respectively. In all age groups, Gini coefficients increased after adjustment for medical expenditures, and the inequality persisted after insurance reimbursement was taken into consideration.Conclusion: A significant income disparity between rural and urban areas was observed. Inequality increased with age, and medical expenditure is a huge burden for older people with long-term care needs. Health insurance does not play an important role in reducing inequalities among patients who need long-term care services. Keywords: Gini coefficient, bedridden, long-term care, insurance
Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated factors driving health care costs of patients with a diagnosis of acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Standard costs identified in insurance claims data obtained from the Wisconsin Health Information Organization were used in a sample of 837 acute leukemia patients from April 2009 to June 2011. The Andersen behavioral model of health care utilization guided selection of patient and community factors expected to influence health care costs. A generalized linear model fitting gamma-distributed data with log-link technique was used to analyze cost. Results: Type of treatment received and disease severity represented significant cost drivers, and patients receiving at least some of their treatment from academic medical centers experienced higher costs. Inpatient care and pharmacy costs of patients who received treatment from providers located in areas of higher poverty experienced lower costs, raising questions of potential treatment and medical practice disparities between provider locations. Directions of study findings were not consistent between different types of services received and underscore the complexity of investigating health care cost. Conclusions: While prevalence of acute leukemia in the United States is low compared to other diseases, its extreme high cost of treatment is not well understood and potentially influences treatment decisions. Acute leukemia health care costs may not follow expected patterns; further exploration of the relationship between cost and the treatment decision, and potential treatment disparities between providers in different socioeconomic locations, is needed.
Keuroghlian, Alex S; Ard, Kevin L; Makadon, Harvey J
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people face pervasive health disparities and barriers to high-quality care. Adequate LGBT sexual health education for emerging health professionals is currently lacking. Clinical training programs and healthcare organisations are well poised to start addressing these disparities and affirming LGBT patients through curricula designed to cultivate core competencies in LBGT health as well as health care environments that welcome, include and protect LGBT patients, students and staff. Health education programs can emphasise mastery of basic LGBT concepts and terminology, as well as openness towards and acceptance of LGBT people. Core concepts, language and positive attitudes can be instilled alongside clinical skill in delivering inclusive sexual health care, through novel educational strategies and paradigms for clinical implementation. Caring for the health needs of LGBT patients also involves the creation of health care settings that affirm LGBT communities in a manner that is responsive to culturally specific needs, sensitivities and challenges that vary across the globe.
Anderson, Emily E.; Hoskins, Kent
Research suggests that individual breast cancer risk assessment may improve adherence to recommended screening and prevention guidelines, thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. Further research on the use of risk assessment models in underserved minority populations is critical to informing national public health efforts to eliminate breast cancer disparities. However, implementing individual breast cancer risk assessment in underserved patient populations raises particular ethical issues that require further examination. After reviewing these issues, we will discuss how empirical bioethics research can be integrated with health disparities research to inform the translation of research findings. Our in-progress National Cancer Institute (NCI) funded study, How Do Underserved Minority Women Think About Breast Cancer?, conducted in the context of a larger study on individual breast cancer risk assessment, is presented as a model. PMID:23124498
King, Michael W
Despite the U.S. substantially outspending peer high income nations with almost 18% of GDP dedicated to health care, on any number of statistical measurements from life expectancy to birth rates to chronic disease, 1 the U.S. achieves inferior health outcomes. In short, Americans receive a very disappointing return on investment on their health care dollars, causing economic and social strain. 2 Accordingly, the debates rage on: what is the top driver of health care spending? Among the culprits: poor communication and coordination among disparate providers, paperwork required by payors and regulations, well-intentioned physicians overprescribing treatments, drugs and devices, outright fraud and abuse, and medical malpractice litigation. Fundamentally, what is the best way to reduce U.S. health care spending, while improving the patient experience of care in terms of quality and satisfaction, and driving better patient health outcomes? Mergers, partnerships, and consolidation in the health care industry, new care delivery models like Accountable Care Organizations and integrated care systems, bundled payments, information technology, innovation through new drugs and new medical devices, or some combination of the foregoing? More importantly, recent ambitious reform efforts fall short of a cohesive approach, leaving fundamental internal inconsistencies across divergent arms of the federal government, raising the issue of whether the U.S. health care system can drive sufficient efficiencies within the current health care and antitrust regulatory environments. While debate rages on Capitol Hill over "repeal and replace," only limited attention has been directed toward reforming the current "fee-for-service" model pursuant to which providers are paid for volume of care rather than quality or outcomes. Indeed, both the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act ("ACA") 3 and proposals for its replacement focus primarily on the reach and cost of providing coverage for
SooHoo, S. L.; Aabedi, F.; Wagenet, R. C.; Dorst, M.; Stempson, M.
The presence of separate, independent systems for patient results is a common problem in many institutions. The Single Logon Application (SLA) was developed to mitigate the problems presented by these disparate systems, and its use was a key component in a Patient-Focused Care (PFC) implementation. PMID:8563263
Babamoto, Kenneth S.; Sey, Kwa A.; Camilleri, Angela J.; Karlan, Vicki J.; Catalasan, Joana; Morisky, Donald E.
The increasing prevalence of diabetes and obesity, growing health disparities, and shortage of bilingual and culturally trained health care professionals underscore the role of trained community health workers (CHWs) to provide economically sustainable and culturally relevant services. This prospective randomized design evaluated the relative…
dearth of information on patient satisfaction with HIV/AIDS care. This study sought ... with the doctor. Satisfaction rates were: 94.9% technical quality, ... of the delivery of care into several dimensions of contributed by studies carried out in Western. 14 ... efficiency of services as an index of patient needs of its clients. Secondly ...
Engaging men in health care involves a multifaceted approach that has as its main principle the recognition that men consume health care differently to women. This article identifies barriers to engaging men in health care and offers potential and existing solutions to overcome these barriers in a range of health care settings. The concept of multiple masculinities recognises that not all men can be engaged via a particular technique or strategy. The perception that men are disinterested in their health is challenged and a range of approaches discussed, both in the community and in health care facilities. In the general practice setting opportunities exist for the engagement of men at the reception desk and waiting room, as well as during the consultation. Use of the workplace in engaging men is discussed. Future activities to build the capacity of health care providers to better engage men are identified and the role of policy and program development is addressed.
Budnick, Hailey C; Tyroch, Alan H; Milan, Stacey A
Functional outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be significantly improved by discharge to posthospitalization care facilities. Many variables influence the discharge disposition of the TBI patient, including insurance status, patient condition, and patient prognosis. The literature has demonstrated an ethnic disparity in posthospitalization care referral, with Hispanics being discharged to rehabilitation and nursing facilities less often than non-Hispanics. However, this relationship has not been studied in a Hispanic-majority population, and thus, this study seeks to determine if differences in neurorehabilitation referrals exist among ethnic groups in a predominately Hispanic region. This study is a retrospective cohort that includes 1128 TBI patients who presented to University Medical Center El Paso, Texas, between the years 2005 and 2015. The patients' age, sex, race, residence, admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), GCS motor, Injury Severity Score (ISS), hospital and intensive care unit length of stay (LOS), mechanism of injury, and discharge disposition were analyzed in univariate and multivariate models. Our study population had an insurance rate of 55.5%. Insurance status and markers of injury severity (hospital LOS, intensive care unit LOS, ISS, GCS, and GCS motor) were predictive of discharge disposition to rehabilitation facilities. The study population was 70% Hispanic, yet Hispanics were discharged to rehabilitation facilities (relative risk: 0.56, P: 0.001) and to long-term acute care/nursing facilities (relative risk: 0.35, P < 0.0001) less than non-Hispanics even after LOS, ISS, ethnicity, insurance status, and residence were adjusted for in multivariate analysis. This study suggests that patients of different ethnicities but comparable traumatic severity and insurance status receive different discharge dispositions post-TBI even in regions in which Hispanics are the demographic majority. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights
Vrangbæk, Karsten; Byrkjeflot, Haldor
The debate on accountability within the public sector has been lively in the past decade. Significant progress has been made in developing conceptual frameworks and typologies for characterizing different features and functions of accountability. However, there is a lack of sector specific...... adjustment of such frameworks. In this article we present a framework for analyzing accountability within health care. The paper makes use of the concept of "accountability regime" to signify the combination of different accountability forms, directions and functions at any given point in time. We show...... that reforms can introduce new forms of accountability, change existing accountability relations or change the relative importance of different accountability forms. They may also change the dominant direction and shift the balance between different functions of accountability. We further suggest...
G. Alan Tarr
Full Text Available President Barack Obama proposed a major overhaul of the American healthsystem, and in 2010 the U.S. Congress enacted his proposal, the PatientProtection and Affordable Care Act. Opponents of the Act challenged itsconstitutionality in federal court, claiming that it exceeds the powers grantedto the federal government under the Commerce Clause and the NecessaryProper Clause of the federal Constitution. Some courts have upheldthe law, but others have agreed with the critics, in particular ruling thatthe provision requiring citizens to buy health insurance is unconstitutional.Eventually the U.S. Supreme Court will rule on the issue. This article tracesthe controversy, surveys the interpretation of pertinent constitutional provisionsin past cases, analyzes the constitutional arguments presented byproponents and opponents of the Act, and concludes that the Act is constitutional.
Health care workers are exposed to many job hazards. These can include Infections Needle injuries Back injuries ... prevention practices. They can reduce your risk of health problems. Use protective equipment, follow infection control guidelines, ...
2Department of Community Health, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. ... Mental morbidity is a public health problem that can lead to a great burden of disability in the community. ..... community study in Sao Paulo, Brazil where.
Lau, Josephine S.; Adams, Sally H.; Boscardin, W. John; Irwin, Charles E.
Purpose Examine young adults' health care utilization and expenditures prior to the ACA. Methods We used 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) to 1) compare young adults' health care utilization and expenditures of a full-spectrum of health services to children and adolescents and 2) identify disparities in young adults' utilization and expenditures, based on access (insurance and usual source of care) and other socio-demographic factors, including race/ethnicity and income. Results Young adults had: 1) significantly lower rates of overall utilization (72%) than other age groups (83-88%, Pyoung adults had high out-of-pocket expenses. Compared to the young adults with private insurance, the uninsured spent less than half on health care ($1,040 vs. $2,150/ person, Pyoung adults, we identified significant disparities in utilization and expenditures based on the presence/absence of a usual source of care, race/ethnicity, home language and sex. Conclusions Young adults may not be utilizing the health care system optimally by having low rates of office-based visits and high rates of ER visits. The ACA provision of insurance for those previously uninsured or under-insured will likely increase their utilization and expenditures and lower their out-of-pocket expenses. Further effort is needed to address non-insurance barriers and ensure equal access to health services. PMID:24702839
Ezell, Jerel M; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Havstad, Suzanne; Joseph, Christine L M; Wegienka, Ganesa; Jones, Kyra; Ownby, Dennis R; Johnson, Christine Cole
There is consistent evidence demonstrating that pet-keeping, particularly of dogs, is beneficial to human health. We explored relationships between maternal race and prenatal dog-keeping, accounting for measures of socioeconomic status that could affect the choice of owning a pet, in a demographically diverse, unselected birth cohort. Self-reported data on mothers' race, socioeconomic characteristics and dog-keeping practices were obtained during prenatal interviews and analyzed cross-sectionally. Robust methods of covariate balancing via propensity score analysis were utilized to examine if race (Black vs White), independent of other participant traits, influenced prenatal dog-keeping. A birth cohort study conducted in a health care system in metropolitan Detroit, Michigan between September 2003 and November 2007. 1065 pregnant women (n=775 or 72.8% Black), between ages 21 and 45, receiving prenatal care. Participant's self-report of race/ethnicity and prenatal dog-keeping, which was defined as her owning or caring for > or =1 dog for more than 1 week at her home since learning of her pregnancy, regardless of whether the dog was kept inside or outside of her home. In total, 294 women (27.6%) reported prenatal dog-keeping. Prenatal dog-keeping was significantly lower among Black women as compared to White women (20.9% vs 45.5%, Pdog-keeping not fully explained by measures of socioeconomic status. Racial differences in prenatal dog-keeping may contribute to childhood health disparities.
McElfish, Pearl Anna; Moore, Ramey; Buron, Bill; Hudson, Jonell; Long, Christopher R; Purvis, Rachel S; Schulz, Thomas K; Rowland, Brett; Warmack, T Scott
Many U.S. medical schools have accreditation requirements for interprofessional education and training in cultural competency, yet few programs have developed programs to meet both of these requirements simultaneously. Furthermore, most training programs to address these requirements are broad in nature and do not focus on addressing health disparities. The lack of integration may reduce the students' ability to apply the knowledge learned. Innovative programs that combine these two learning objectives and focus on disenfranchised communities are needed to train the next generation of health professionals. A unique interprofessional education program was developed at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Northwest. The program includes experiential learning, cultural exposure, and competence-building activities for interprofessional teams of medicine, nursing, and pharmacy students. The activities include (a) educational seminars, (b) clinical experiential learning in a student-led clinic, and (c) community-based service-learning through health assessments and survey research events. The program focuses on interprofessional collaboration to address the health disparities experienced by the Marshallese community in northwest Arkansas. The Marshallese are Pacific Islanders who suffer from significant health disparities related to chronic and infectious diseases. Comparison tests revealed statistically significant changes in participants' retrospectively reported pre/posttest scores for Subscales 1 and 2 of the Readiness for Interpersonal Learning Scale and for the Caffrey Cultural Competence in Healthcare Scale. However, no significant change was found for Subscale 3 of the Readiness for Interpersonal Learning Scale. Qualitative findings demonstrated a change in students' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior toward working with other professions and the underserved population. The program had to be flexible enough to meet the educational requirements and
Kawczynski , Lukasz; Taisch , Marco
International audience; In every society there is a need for an efficient health care system. This paper aims to propose a value definition and a value chain model within the health care. In order to define value patients and experts were surveyed. The proposed definition offers a complex way of looking at the value within the health care sector. The proposal of the value chain model is anticipated with a value stream mapping activities and experts interviews. Proposed model offers consistent...
Tracy, Jane; McDonald, Rachael
Background: Despite awareness of the health inequalities experienced by people with intellectual disability, their health status remains poor. Inequalities in health outcomes are manifest in higher morbidity and rates of premature death. Contributing factors include the barriers encountered in accessing and receiving high-quality health care.…
and pre/ post partum care during delivery. America should select measures that reflect the health-care goals of the nation. As an example, the Healthy...accidents (8) More than 50% of patients with diabetes, hypertension, tobacco addiction, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart failure, asthma, depression ...reflect the cumulative efforts of different types of individual care. For example, infant mortality is a reflection of pre-natal care, post - natal care
Carling, Philip C
This article presents a review and perspectives on aspects of optimizing health care environmental hygiene. The topics covered include the epidemiology of environmental surface contamination, a discussion of cleaning health care patient area surfaces, an overview of disinfecting health care surfaces, an overview of challenges in monitoring cleaning versus cleanliness, a description of an integrated approach to environmental hygiene and hand hygiene as interrelated disciplines, and an overview of the research opportunities and challenges related to health care environmental hygiene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Valiente, Jonathan E; Espinosa, Gloria; Yepes, Claudia; Padilla, Cesar; Puffer, Maryjane; Slavkin, Harold C; Chung, Paul J
Although dental decay is preventable, it remains the most common pediatric chronic disease. We describe a public health approach to implementing a scalable and sustainable school-based oral health program for low-income urban children. The Los Angeles Trust for Children's Health, a nonprofit affiliated with the Los Angeles Unified School District, applied a public health model and developed a broad-based community-coalition to a) establish a District Oral Health Nurse position to coordinate oral health services, and b) implement a universal school-based oral health screening and fluoride varnishing program, with referral to a dental home. Key informant interviews and focus groups informed program development. Parent surveys assessed preventative oral health behaviors and access to oral health services. Results from screening exams, program costs and rates of reimbursement were recorded. From 2012 to 2015, six elementary schools and three dental provider groups participated. Four hundred ninety-one parents received oral health education and 89 served as community oral health volunteers; 3,399 screenings and fluoride applications were performed on 2,776 children. Sixty-six percent of children had active dental disease, 27 percent had visible tooth decay, and 6 percent required emergent care. Of the 623 students who participated for two consecutive years, 56 percent had fewer or no visible caries at follow-up, while only 17 percent had additional disease. Annual program cost was $69.57 per child. Using a broad based, oral health coalition, a school-based universal screening and fluoride varnishing program can improve the oral health of children with a high burden of untreated dental diseases. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
DeRouen, Mindy C; Parsons, Helen M; Kent, Erin E; Pollock, Brad H; Keegan, Theresa H M
To investigate associations of sociodemographic factors-race/ethnicity, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), and health insurance-with survival for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with invasive cancer. Data on 80,855 AYAs with invasive cancer diagnosed in California 2001-2011 were obtained from the California Cancer Registry. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate overall survival. Associations of public or no insurance with greater risk of death were observed for 11 of 12 AYA cancers examined. Compared to Whites, Blacks experienced greater risk of death, regardless of age or insurance, while greater risk of death among Hispanics and Asians was more apparent for younger AYAs and for those with private/military insurance. More pronounced neighborhood SES disparities in survival were observed among AYAs with private/military insurance, especially among younger AYAs. Lacking or having public insurance was consistently associated with shorter survival, while disparities according to race/ethnicity and neighborhood SES were greater among AYAs with private/military insurance. While health insurance coverage associates with survival, remaining racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities among AYAs with cancer suggest additional social factors also need consideration in intervention and policy development.
Speaker | "Reducing Cancer Health Disparities through Community Engagement: Working with Faith-Based Organizations (Project CHURCH)" will be presented by Lorna H. McNeill, PhD, MPH, Chair of the Department of Health Disparities at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX. Date: 2/20/2018; Time: 11:00am - 12:00pm; Location: NCI Shady Grove Campus,
Charonis, Antonios; Kyriopoulos, Ilias-Ioannis; Spanakis, Manos; Zavras, Dimitris; Athanasakis, Kostas; Pavi, Elpida; Kyriopoulos, John
Several studies suggest that socioeconomic status affects (SES) affects self-rated health (SRH), both in Greece and internationally. However, prior research mainly uses objective measures of SES, instead of subjective evaluations of individuals' social status. Based on this, this paper aims to examine (a) the impact of the economic dowturn on SRH in Greece and (b) the relationship between subjective social status (SSS), social network and SRH. The descriptive analysis is based on four cross-sectional surveys conducted by the National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece (2002, 2006, 2011, 2015), while the data for the empirical investigation were derived from the 2015 survey (Health + Welfare Survey GR). The empirical strategy is based on an ordinal logistic regression model, aiming to examine how several variables affect SRH. Size of social network and SSS are among the independent variables employed for the empirical analysis RESULTS: According to our findings, average SRH has deteriorated, and the percentage of the population that reports very good/good SRH has also decreased. Moreover, our empirical analysis suggests that age, existence of a chronic disease, size of social network and SSS affect SRH in Greece. Our findings are consistent with the existing literature and confirm a social gradient in health. According to our analysis, health disparities can be largely attributed to socioeconomic inequalities. The adverse economic climate has impact on socioeconomic differences which in turn affect health disparities. Based on these, policy initiatives are necessasy in order to mitigate the negative impact on health and the disparities caused by economic dowturn and the occuring socioeconomic inequalities.
Strutz, Kelly L; Richardson, Liana J; Hussey, Jon M
This analysis explored the effect of timing, sequencing, and change in preconception health across adolescence and young adulthood on racial/ethnic disparities in birth weight in a diverse national cohort of young adult women. Data came from Waves I (1994-1995), III (2001-2002), and IV (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Eligibility was restricted to all singleton live births to female non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican-origin Latina, or Asian/Pacific Islander participants (n = 3,014) occurring between the Wave III (ages 18-26 years) and IV (ages 24-32 years) interviews. Birth weight was categorized into low (4,000 g). Preconception health indicators were cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, overweight or obesity, and inadequate physical activity, measured in adolescence (Wave I, ages 11-19 years) and early adulthood (Wave III) and combined into four-category variables to capture the timing and sequencing of exposure. Measures of preconception health did not explain the Black-White disparity in low birth weight, which increased after adjustment for confounders (odds ratio [OR], 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-3.53) and effect modification by overweight/obesity (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.65-7.78). A positive association between adult-onset overweight/obesity and macrosomia was modified by race (OR, 3.83; 95% CI, 1.02-14.36 for Black women). This longitudinal analysis provides new evidence on preconception health and racial/ethnic disparities in birth weight. Specifically, it indicates that interventions focused on prevention of overweight/obesity and maintenance of healthy weight during the transition to adulthood, especially among Black females, may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Blog posts on cancer health disparities research—including factors that influence disparities, disparities-related research efforts, and diversity in the cancer research workforce—from NCI Cancer Currents.
.... Ambulances, Rural Health Centers (RHC) or other remote health location, Ships navigating in wide seas and Airplanes in flight are common examples of possible emergency sites, while critical care telemetry, and telemedicine home follow-ups...
Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Cheng, Sabrina; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Objective To examine physical and mental health functioning among Asian-American children of US-born and immigrant parents. Study design We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 base-year public data file. The sample was restricted to 7726 Asian and US-born white children. Asian subgroups were created based on parents’ country of birth. Child physical and mental health was assessed based on multiple sources of data and measures. Analyses included multivariate linear and logistic regression. Results After adjusting for demographic and contextual differences, disparities were found for physical and mental health indicators. Children of foreign-born Asian families (from east, southeast, and south Asia) were at greater risk for poor physical health, internalizing problems, and inadequate interpersonal relationships compared with children of US-born white families. Conclusion There is little support for the “model minority” myth with regard to physical and mental health. Evidence of physical and mental health disparities among young Asian-American children and differing risk based on region of origin of immigrant parents suggests the need for culturally informed prevention efforts during early childhood. PMID:21907351
Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Cheng, Sabrina; Brotman, Laurie Miller
To examine physical and mental health functioning among Asian-American children of US-born and immigrant parents. We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 base-year public data file. The sample was restricted to 7726 Asian and US-born white children. Asian subgroups were created based on parents' country of birth. Child physical and mental health was assessed based on multiple sources of data and measures. Analyses included multivariate linear and logistic regression. After adjusting for demographic and contextual differences, disparities were found for physical and mental health indicators. Children of foreign-born Asian families (from east, southeast, and south Asia) were at greater risk for poor physical health, internalizing problems, and inadequate interpersonal relationships compared with children of US-born white families. There is little support for the "model minority" myth with regard to physical and mental health. Evidence of physical and mental health disparities among young Asian-American children and differing risk based on region of origin of immigrant parents suggests the need for culturally informed prevention efforts during early childhood. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Mitra, Monika; Smith, Lauren D; Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Long-Bellil, Linda M; Sammet Moring, Nechama; Iezzoni, Lisa I
Women with physical disabilities are known to experience disparities in maternity care access and quality, and communication gaps with maternity care providers, however there is little research exploring the maternity care experiences of women with physical disabilities from the perspective of their health care practitioners. This study explored health care practitioners' experiences and needs around providing perinatal care to women with physical disabilities in order to identify potential drivers of these disparities. We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 14 health care practitioners in the United States who provide maternity care to women with physical disabilities, as identified by affiliation with disability-related organizations, publications and snowball sampling. Descriptive coding and content analysis techniques were used to develop an iterative code book related to barriers to caring for this population. Public health theory regarding levels of barriers was applied to generate broad barrier categories, which were then analyzed using content analysis. Participant-reported barriers to providing optimal maternity care to women with physical disabilities were grouped into four levels: practitioner level (e.g., unwillingness to provide care), clinical practice level (e.g., accessible office equipment like adjustable exam tables), system level (e.g., time limits, reimbursement policies), and barriers relating to lack of scientific evidence (e.g., lack of disability-specific clinical data). Participants endorsed barriers to providing optimal maternity care to women with physical disabilities. Our findings highlight the needs for maternity care practice guidelines for women with physical disabilities, and for training and education regarding the maternity care needs of this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jackson, Fatimah L C
Resolving cancer health disparities continues to befuddle simplistic racial models. The racial groups alluded to in biomedicine, public health, and epidemiology are often profoundly substructured. EL and PSNA are computational assisted techniques that focus on microethnic group (MEG) substructure. Geographical variations in cancer may be due to differences in MEG ancestry or similar environmental exposures to a recognized carcinogen. Examples include breast and prostate cancers in the Chesapeake Bay region and Bight of Biafra biological ancestry, hypertension and stroke in the Carolina Coast region and Central African biological ancestry, and pancreatic cancer in the Mississippi Delta region and dietary/medicinal exposure to safrol from Sassafras albidum.
Tomar Scott L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive research has shown that ethnic health disparities are prevalent and many psychological and social factors influence health disparities. Understanding what factors influence health disparities and how to eliminate health disparities has become a major research objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of coping style, stress, socioeconomic status (SES, and discrimination on health disparities in a large urban multi-ethnic sample. Methods Data from 894 participants were collected via telephone interviews. Independent variables included: coping style, SES, sex, perceived stress, and perceived discrimination. Dependent variables included self-rated general and oral health status. Data analysis included multiple linear regression modeling. Results Coping style was related to oral health for Blacks (B = .23, p Conclusion Our results indicate that perceived stress is a critical component in understanding health outcomes for all ethnoracial groups. While SES related significantly to general health for Whites and Hispanics, this relationship was mediated by perceived stress. Active coping was associated only with oral health.
Gonzales, Gilbert; Blewett, Lynn A
The objectives of this study were to examine disparities in health insurance coverage for children with same-sex parents and to investigate how statewide policies such as same-sex marriage and second-parent adoptions affect children's private insurance coverage. We used data from the 2008-2010 American Community Survey to identify children (aged 0-17 years) with same-sex parents (n = 5081), married opposite-sex parents (n = 1369789), and unmarried opposite-sex parents (n = 101678). We conducted multinomial logistic regression models to estimate the relationship between family type and type of health insurance coverage for all children and then stratified by each child's state policy environment. Although 77.5% of children with married opposite-sex parents had private health insurance, only 63.3% of children with dual fathers and 67.5% with dual mothers were covered by private health plans. Children with same-sex parents had fewer odds of private insurance after controlling for demographic characteristics but not to the extent of children with unmarried opposite-sex parents. Differences in private insurance diminished for children with dual mothers after stratifying children in states with legal same-sex marriage or civil unions. Living in a state that allowed second-parent adoptions also predicted narrower disparities in private insurance coverage for children with dual fathers or dual mothers. Disparities in private health insurance for children with same-sex parents diminish when they live in states that secure their legal relationship to both parents. This study provides supporting evidence in favor of recent policy statements by the American Academy of Pediatricians endorsing same-sex marriage and second-parent adoptions.
Beer, G.; Slovak, K.
In Slovakia a strange approach to the purchase of health care equipment has not been limited to ophthalmology. Suspicious procurements are symptomatic. This applies also to specialisation where the correct spending of money can make the difference between life and death and can greatly effect the quality of life. More than a year ago, the Ministry of Health started the procurement of linear accelerators for oncology units in three hospitals. This plan placed on the market a potential order worth more than 11 million EUR without VAT. Three co