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Sample records for head lice pediculus

  1. Effectiveness of isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 solution of removing cuticular hydrocarbons from human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnett Eric

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the treatment of human head lice infestation, healthcare providers are increasingly concerned about lice becoming resistant to existing pesticide treatments. Traditional pesticides, used to control these pests, have a neurological mechanism of action. This publication describes a topical solution with a non-traditional mechanism of action, based on physical disruption of the wax layer that covers the cuticle of the louse exoskeleton. This topical solution has been shown clinically to cure 82% of patients with only a 10-minute treatment time, repeated once after 7 days. All insects, including human head lice, have a wax-covered exoskeleton. This wax, composed of hydrocarbons, provides the insect with protection against water loss and is therefore critical to its survival. When the protective wax is disrupted, water loss becomes uncontrollable and irreversible, leading to dehydration and death. A specific pattern of hydrocarbons has been found in all of the head louse cuticular wax studied. Iso-octane effectively removes these hydrocarbons from human head lice’s cuticular wax. Methods A method of head louse cuticle wax extraction and analysis by gas chromatography was developed. Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis were collected from infested patients and subjected to any of three extraction solvents comprising either the test product or one of two solvents introduced as controls. A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID was used to determine the presence of hydrocarbons in the three head lice extracts. Results In the study reported herein, the test product isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 (IPM/D5 was shown to perform comparably with iso-octane, effectively extracting the target hydrocarbons from the cuticular wax that coats the human head louse exoskeleton. Conclusions Disruption of the integrity of the insect cuticle by removal of specific hydrocarbons found in the cuticular wax

  2. Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nits. You should also use hot water to wash any bed linens, towels, and clothing recently worn by the person who had head lice. Vacuum anything that can’t be washed, such as the couch, carpets, your child’s car seat, and any stuffed animals. Because head lice ...

  3. Efficacy of herbal shampoo base on native plant against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, Pediculidae: Phthiraptera) in vitro and in vivo in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonwera, Mayura

    2014-09-01

    Head lice infestation (or pediculosis) is an important public health problem in Thailand, especially in children between the ages 5 and 11 years. Head lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy, and, therefore, alternative pediculicides such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat head lice infestation. Thus, the present study investigated the efficacy of three herbal shampoos based on native plants in Thailand (Acorus calamus Linn., Phyllanthus emblica Linn., and Zanthoxylum limonella Alston) against head lice and compared them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo, 0.6% w/v carbaryl), malathion shampoo (A-Lice shampoo, 1.0% w/v malathion), and commercial shampoos (Babi Mild Natural' N Mild and Johnson's baby shampoo) in order to assess their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. For in vitro study, doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm(2) of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, then 10 head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice were recorded at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. The results revealed that all herbal shampoo were more effective on pediculicidal activity than chemical and commercial shampoos with 100% mortality at 15 min; LT₅₀ values ranged from 0.25 to 1.90 min. Meanwhile, chemical shampoos caused 20-80% mortality, and LT₅₀ values ranged from 6.50 to 85.43 min. On the other side, commercial shampoos showed 4.0% mortality. The most effective pediculicide was Z. limonella shampoo, followed by A. calamus shampoo, P. emblica shampoo, carbaryl shampoo, malathion shampoo, and commercial shampoo, respectively. In vivo results showed that all herbal shampoos were also more effective for head lice treatment than chemical and commercial shampoos with 94.67-97.68% of cure rate after the first treatment; the second treatment, 7 days later, revealed that the cure rate was 100%. Meanwhile, chemical shampoo showed 71.67-93.0% of cure rate and, unfortunately, commercial shampoos were nontoxic to

  4. Nuclear genetic diversity in human lice (Pediculus humanus reveals continental differences and high inbreeding among worldwide populations.

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    Marina S Ascunce

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolution of parasites is important to both basic and applied evolutionary biology. Knowledge of the genetic structure of parasite populations is critical for our ability to predict how an infection can spread through a host population and for the design of effective control methods. However, very little is known about the genetic structure of most human parasites, including the human louse (Pediculus humanus. This species is composed of two ecotypes: the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, and the clothing (body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus. Hundreds of millions of head louse infestations affect children every year, and this number is on the rise, in part because of increased resistance to insecticides. Clothing lice affect mostly homeless and refugee-camp populations and although they are less prevalent than head lice, the medical consequences are more severe because they vector deadly bacterial pathogens. In this study we present the first assessment of the genetic structure of human louse populations by analyzing the nuclear genetic variation at 15 newly developed microsatellite loci in 93 human lice from 11 sites in four world regions. Both ecotypes showed heterozygote deficits relative to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and high inbreeding values, an expected pattern given their parasitic life history. Bayesian clustering analyses assigned lice to four distinct genetic clusters that were geographically structured. The low levels of gene flow among louse populations suggested that the evolution of insecticide resistance in lice would most likely be affected by local selection pressures, underscoring the importance of tailoring control strategies to population-specific genetic makeup and evolutionary history. Our panel of microsatellite markers provides powerful data to investigate not only ecological and evolutionary processes in lice, but also those in their human hosts because of the long

  5. Genotyping of human lice suggests multiple emergencies of body lice from local head louse populations.

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    Wenjun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic analyses of human lice have shown that the current taxonomic classification of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis and body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus does not reflect their phylogenetic organization. Three phylotypes of head lice A, B and C exist but body lice have been observed only in phylotype A. Head and body lice have different behaviours and only the latter have been involved in outbreaks of infectious diseases including epidemic typhus, trench fever and louse borne recurrent fever. Recent studies suggest that body lice arose several times from head louse populations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: By introducing a new genotyping technique, sequencing variable intergenic spacers which were selected from louse genomic sequence, we were able to evaluate the genotypic distribution of 207 human lice. Sequence variation of two intergenic spacers, S2 and S5, discriminated the 207 lice into 148 genotypes and sequence variation of another two intergenic spacers, PM1 and PM2, discriminated 174 lice into 77 genotypes. Concatenation of the four intergenic spacers discriminated a panel of 97 lice into 96 genotypes. These intergenic spacer sequence types were relatively specific geographically, and enabled us to identify two clusters in France, one cluster in Central Africa (where a large body louse outbreak has been observed and one cluster in Russia. Interestingly, head and body lice were not genetically differentiated. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a hypothesis for the emergence of body lice, and suggest that humans with both low hygiene and head louse infestations provide an opportunity for head louse variants, able to ingest a larger blood meal (a required characteristic of body lice, to colonize clothing. If this hypothesis is ultimately supported, it would help to explain why poor human hygiene often coincides with outbreaks of body lice. Additionally, if head lice act as a reservoir for body lice, and that any social degradation in

  6. High Ancient Genetic Diversity of Human Lice, Pediculus humanus, from Israel Reveals New Insights into the Origin of Clade B Lice.

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    Amanzougaghene, Nadia; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Fenollar, Florence; Alfi, Shir; Yesilyurt, Gonca; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is subdivided into several significantly divergent mitochondrial haplogroups, each with particular geographical distributions. Historically, they are among the oldest human parasites, representing an excellent marker for tracking older events in human evolutionary history. In this study, ancient DNA analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), combined with conventional PCR, was applied to the remains of twenty-four ancient head lice and their eggs from the Roman period which were recovered from Israel. The lice and eggs were found in three combs, one of which was recovered from archaeological excavations in the Hatzeva area of the Judean desert, and two of which found in Moa, in the Arava region, close to the Dead Sea. Results show that the head lice remains dating approximately to 2,000 years old have a cytb haplogroup A, which is worldwide in distribution, and haplogroup B, which has thus far only been found in contemporary lice from America, Europe, Australia and, most recently, Africa. More specifically, this haplogroup B has a B36 haplotype, the most common among B haplogroups, and has been present in America for at least 4,000 years. The present findings confirm that clade B lice existed, at least in the Middle East, prior to contacts between Native Americans and Europeans. These results support a Middle Eastern origin for clade B followed by its introduction into the New World with the early peoples. Lastly, the presence of Acinetobacter baumannii DNA was demonstrated by qPCR and sequencing in four head lice remains belonging to clade A.

  7. Head Lice: Prevention and Control

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    ... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Prevention & Control Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of head lice: Avoid head-to- ...

  8. Evidence that head and body lice on homeless persons have the same genotype.

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    Aurélie Veracx

    Full Text Available Human head lice and body lice are morphologically and biologically similar but have distinct ecologies. They were shown to have almost the same basic genetic content (one gene is absent in head lice, but differentially express certain genes, presumably responsible for the vector competence. They are now believed to be ecotypes of the same species (Pediculus humanus and based on mitochondrial studies, body lice have been included with head lice in one of three clades of human head lice (Clade A. Here, we tested whether head and body lice collected from the same host belong to the same population by examining highly polymorphic intergenic spacers. This study was performed on lice collected from five homeless persons living in the same shelter in which Clade A lice are prevalent. Lice were individually genotyped at four spacer loci. The genetic identity and diversity of lice from head and body populations were compared for each homeless person. Population genetic structure was tested between lice from the two body regions and between the lice from different host individuals.We found two pairs of head and body lice on the same homeless person with identical multi locus genotypes. No difference in genetic diversity was found between head and body louse populations and no evidence of significant structure between the louse populations was found, even after controlling for a possible effect of the host individual. More surprisingly, no structure was obvious between lice of different homeless persons.We believe that the head and body lice collected from our five subjects belong to the same population and are shared between people living in the same shelter. These findings confirm that head and body lice are two ecotypes of the same species and show the importance of implementing measures to prevent lice transmission between homeless people in shelters.

  9. In vitro pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on Thai local plants against head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer).

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    Rassami, Watcharawit; Soonwera, Mayura

    2013-04-01

    Head lice infestation, a worldwide head infestation caused Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, is an important public health problem in Thailand. Several chemical pediculicides have lost in efficacy due to increasing resistance of lice against insecticide. Therefore, non-toxic alternative products, such as natural products from plants, e.g. plant extract pediculicides, are needed for head lice control. The aims of this study were to evaluate the potential of pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on three species of Thai local plants (Accacia concinna (Willd.) DC, Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. and Tamarindus indica Linn.) against head lice and to compare them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo®; 0.6% w/v carbaryl) and non-treatment control in order to assess their in vitro. Doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm2 of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, and ten head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice on the filter paper were recorded at 1, 5, 10, 30 and 60 min by sterio-microscope. All herbal shampoos at 0.25 ml/cm2 were more effective pediculicide than carbaryl shampoo with 100% mortality at 5 min. The median lethal time (LT50) of all herbal shampoos at 0.25 ml/cm2 showed no significant differences over at 0.12 ml/cm2 (Pshampoo, followed by Av. bilimbi extract shampoo and Ac. concinna extract shampoo, with LT50 valuesshampoos have high potential of pediculicide to head lice treatments for schoolchildren.

  10. Head Lice: Malathion Frequently Asked Questions

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    ... be checked for signs of infestation. Does malathion kill head lice eggs? Yes. The malathion lotion (Ovide*) ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  11. Efficacy of a grapefruit extract on head lice: a clinical trial.

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    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Twenty children aging 2-9 years old--four boys with short hair and 16 girls with long hair--were included in a clinical test on the efficacy of a product against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis). Their hair were exposed to Licatack, which is a recently developed new anti-louse medicinal product containing extracts of grapefruits besides high quality shampoo components. Prior to this field trial, the product Licatack was tested dermatologically to be skin safe receiving the grade "very good". The children's mothers combed the kids prior to the start of the test in order to confirm that they were all lice-infested. The obtained lice were used for in vitro tests. All children were heavily infested. After combing and preservation of the living lice, the hair was wet with tap water. Then, 50 ml of the Licatack shampoo was placed onto the top of each child's head. Then, the mothers distributed the rather fluid product all over the hair thoroughly from their base at the skin until the free end. During this process, a type of massage, the product became foamy and it was easily recognized where the product covered the hair, thus, avoiding untreated spots. The hair of half of the treated children were washed with tap water after 10 min of exposition; while in the other half of the children, the exposition period was prolonged to 20 min before washing. When combing the kids with a metal louse comb after the washing, the lice were found immobile and they did not recover during the following observation period of 4 h. Only two lice from the group with an exposition time of only 10 min showed some slight leg movements after they had been combed off, but they died within the next 2 h. Thus, this new anti-louse medicinal product has a very quick and efficient activity besides its advantages of being non-inflammable, skin safe, and nice smelling. None of the kids claimed any burning at the skin or other side effects, although the skin showed, prior to treatment, lots of scars

  12. Talk About Nitpicking! Back-to-School and Head Lice

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-30

    Head lice are a fairly common problem, especially in preschool and elementary school children. This podcast will help you understand how people get head lice, and how to get rid of them!  Created: 5/30/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED), Division of Parasitic Diseases (DPD).   Date Released: 8/4/2008.

  13. Talk About Nitpicking! Summer Camp and Head Lice

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-30

    Head lice are a fairly common problem, especially in preschool and elementary school children. This podcast will help you understand how people get head lice, and how to get rid of them!  Created: 5/30/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED), Division of Parasitic Diseases (DPD).   Date Released: 6/4/2008.

  14. Why infest the loved ones--inherent human behaviour indicates former mutualism with head lice.

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    Rózsa, Lajos; Apari, Péter

    2012-05-01

    Head lice transmit to new hosts when people lean their heads together. Humans frequently touch their heads to express friendship or love, while this behaviour is absent in apes. We hypothesize that this behaviour was adaptive because it enabled people to acquire head lice infestations as early as possible to provoke an immune response effective against both head lice and body lice throughout the subsequent periods of their life. This cross-immunity could provide some defence against the body-louse-borne lethal diseases like epidemic typhus, trench fever, relapsing fever and the classical plague. Thus the human 'touching heads' behaviour probably acts as an inherent and unconscious 'vaccination' against body lice to reduce the threat exposed by the pathogens they may transmit. Recently, the eradication of body-louse-borne diseases rendered the transmission of head lice a maladaptive, though still widespread, behaviour in developed societies.

  15. Survey of Permethrin and Malathion Resistance in Human Head Lice Populations from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Knorr, Mette; Rasmussen, Anne-Marie

    2006-01-01

    was selected, 2 ng of permethrin and 100 ng of malathion per head louse, respectively. Head lice were collected from heads of infested children in Denmark at 33 primary schools, one kindergarten, and seven boarding schools. The lice were collected by combing of dry hair, with a fine-toothed antilouse comb...

  16. Effect of Environmental Conditions and Toxic Compounds on the Locomotor Activity of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

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    Ortega-Insaurralde, I; Toloza, A C; Gonzalez-Audino, P; Mougabure-Cueto, G A; Alvarez-Costa, A; Roca-Acevedo, G; Picollo, M I

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we evaluated the effect of environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and light on the locomotor activity of Pediculus humanus capitis. In addition, we used selected conditions of temperature, humidity, and light to study the effects of cypermethrin and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) on the locomotor activity of head lice. Head lice increased their locomotor activity in an arena at 30°C compared with activity at 20°C. When we tested the influence of the humidity level, the locomotor activity of head lice showed no significant differences related to humidity level, both at 30°C and 20°C. Concerning light influence, we observed that the higher the intensity of light, the slower the movement of head lice. We also demonstrated that sublethal doses of toxics may alter locomotor activity in adults of head lice. Sublethal doses of cypermethrin induced hyperactivated responses in adult head lice. Sublethal doses of DEET evocated hypoactivated responses in head lice. The observation of stereotyped behavior in head lice elicited by toxic compounds proved that measuring locomotor activity in an experimental set-up where environmental conditions are controlled would be appropriate to evaluate compounds of biological importance, such as molecules involved in the host-parasite interaction and intraspecific relationships. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Head Lice Infestation (Pediculosis and Associated Factors among Primary School Girls in Sirik County, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Head lice infestation (pediculosis is a serious health problem that can cause a high level of anxiety and psychological frustration, especially in developing countries.Socio-demographic factors are important determinants of the occurrence of head lice infestation. This study aimed to determine the head lice infestations and the factors affecting the rate of infestationin primary school girls.   Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 358 school girls from two urban and three rural primary school girls in Sirik County, Southern Iran, were randomly selected. For the diagnosis of head lice infestation, students were examined carefully by visual inspection of the scalp and hair for the presence of lice. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and associated factors of head lice infestation. SPSS version 21.0 was used to analyze the data. Results The prevalence of head lice infestation among primary school girls was 56.15%. There were significant associations between head lice infestation and age (p

  18. First Detection of the Kdr Mutation T929I in Head Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) in Schoolchildren of the Metropolitan Area of Nuevo Leon and Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Villanueva-Segura, Karina; Trujillo-Rodriguez, Gerardo; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P; Lopez-Monroy, Beatriz; Flores, Adriana E

    2017-07-01

    The head louse Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer) is a hematophagous ectoparasite that inhabits the human scalp. Infestations by this insect are commonly known as pediculosis, which is more common in younger groups. These infestations are asymptomatic; however, skin irritation from scratching occasionally may cause secondary bacterial infections. In recent years, the prevalence of pediculosis has increased in children; this increase has been attributed to louse resistance to the insecticides used as a control measure for infestation. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence and frequency of the knockdown resistance mutation (kdr) T929I in 468 head lice collected from 32 elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Nuevo Leon (24) and Yucatan (8), Mexico. This is the first report of a knockdown resistance (kdr) mechanism in head lice from Mexico. The T929I mutation was present in all of the sampled schools, with variability observed in its allelic and genotypic frequencies. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Clinical response and safety of malathion shampoo for treatment of head lice in a primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wananukul, Siriwan; Chatproedprai, Susheera; Tempark, Therdpong; Wananukul, Winai

    2011-04-01

    Help eradicate or at least alleviating head lice in a primary school with malathion shampoo and to study clinical response and safety of malathion shampoo. All students were examined by using a fine-toothed lice comb to help detect live lice. Direct visual examination and the collection of nits for microscopic examination were performed to differentiate viable nits from empty nits. Diagnosis of head lice was made by the presence of lice. All students that had lice and/or nits were treated with malathion shampoo. Malathion shampoo was also provided for all family members. Pediculocidal efficacy was by the presence or absence of live lice. Blood for red blood cell cholinesterase activity was drawn in 32 volunteers before treatment and after the second treatment. At the first visit, 629 students were examined and 48 students had live head lice. The infestation rate was 13% in girls and 1.3% in boys. The cure rate was 93% after the first treatment. The reported side effects were nausea, a burning sensation, and irritation that was found in five (4%), 10 (7%) and three (2%) students respectively. The mean of RBC cholinesterase activity before and after two applications showed significant changes (p = 0.03). It was -7.5 +/- 4.1% reduction from the initial, but all were in the normal range. There was no report of clinical manifestation of malathion toxicity. Malathion shampoo is safe and effective in the treatment of head lice. There is significant skin absorption so a scalp examination for head lice should be done before subsequent application to avoid unnecessary exposure.

  20. [Physicians' knowledge in Israel on the biology and control of head lice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Mumcuoglu, Michael; Danilevich, Maria; Gilead, Leon

    2008-10-01

    Health providers such as physicians, nurses and pharmacists should be knowledgeable about the biology of head lice and the ways to control them effectively, in order to reduce the proportion of children infested with head lice. To evaluate the knowledge of physicians in Israel on the biology and epidemiology of lice, as well as their experience with infested individuals and their preferences for diagnosis, prophylaxis and control. An anonymous questionnaire with 37 questions was used. The first 20 questions addressed the general knowledge of physicians on lice biology and control, while the remaining 17 questions were related to their personal experience with lice and louse treatment. Out of 273 physicians interviewed 66.8% had good knowledge of lice, while the remaining 33.2% had some knowledge on lice. The difference between the groups of physicians with medium and good knowledge on lice was borderline significant (P=0.0722), with the dermatologists borderline significantly less knowledgeable than the rest (P=0.0765). Significant differences were found between those physicians with 4-6 or 11-20 years of professional experience and the remaining groups (twice Pbiology and control was higher than male physicians (39.4% and 29.4%, respectively), the differences were borderline significant (P=0.09). Pediatricians and dermatologists examined significantly more children than family physicians and general practitioners (P control of head louse infestations.

  1. Understanding and Managing Head Lice | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to share hats, combs, or brushes with others. Policies regarding school attendance for children with head lice vary. Sources: National Library of Medicine, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ...

  2. Management and Treatment of Human Lice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Karim Sangaré

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the three lice (head, body, and pubic louse that infest humans, the body louse is the species involved in epidemics of louse-borne typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever, but all the three cause pediculosis. Their infestations occur today in many countries despite great efforts to maintain high standards of public health. In this review, literature searches were performed through PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and EBSCOhost, with key search words of “Pediculus humanus”, “lice infestation”, “pediculosis”, and “treatment”; and controlled clinical trials were viewed with great interest. Removing lice by hand or with a lice comb, heating infested clothing, and shaving the scalp were some of the oldest methods of controlling human lice. Despite the introduction of other resources including cresol, naphthalene, sulfur, mercury, vinegar, petroleum, and insecticides, the numbers of lice infestation cases and resistance have increased. To date, viable alternative treatments to replace insecticides have been developed experimentally in vitro. Today, the development of new treatment strategies such as symbiotic treatment and synergistic treatment (antibiotics + ivermectin in vitro has proved effective and is promising. Here, we present an overview on managing and treating human lice and highlight new strategies to more effectively fight pediculosis and prevent resistance.

  3. Incidence and prevalence of head lice in a district health authority area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J; Crawshaw, J G; Millership, S

    2003-09-01

    There are very few recent studies of the incidence and prevalence of head lice in the UK. A population-based questionnaire survey was carried out in a district health authority area. Two hundred and four of 235 primary schools (87%) agreed to participate. A total of 21,556 of 43,889 (49%) questionnaires were returned by parents. Overall 438 children had head lice at the time of the survey, giving a prevalence of 2.03%; 8,059 had had lice at some time in the last year giving an annual incidence of 37.4%.

  4. New Thai herbal shampoos as pediculicides for killing head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera

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    Sirawut Sittichok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Thai herbal shampoos [Cartoxylum formosum (C. formosum + eucalyptus essential oil (EO, C. formosum + citrus EO, Solanum trilobatum + eucalyptus EO, Solanum trilobatum + citrus EO, Moringa oleifera + eucalyptus EO and Moringa oleifera + citrus EO] for killing all stages of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera. Methods: A filter paper contact method was applied with three concentrations (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mL/cm2 of each Thai herbal shampoo as well as permethrin pediculicide (positive control and drinking water (negative control against eggs, nymphs and adults of Pediculus humanus capitis. Mortality rates of the eggs were recorded after 7 days of incubation while those of nymphs and adults were recorded after 5 minutes of contact. Results: All herbal shampoos at the high concentration were highly effective against nymphs and adults, but not effective against the eggs. C. formosum + eucalyptus EO and C. formosum + citrus EO shampoos at all concentrations exhibited the highest efficacy against nymphs and adults with 100% mortality rate at 5 min and LC50 values of 0.004 and 0.005 mL/cm2, respectively. All formulation of Solanum trilobatum and Moringa oleifera shampoos added with eucalyptus EO showed mortality rates against nymphs at 92.0%-100.0% and 76.0%-100.0% and against adults at 84.0%-100.0% and 20.0%-32.0%, respectively. Permethrin pediculicide was not effective against the eggs, but showed 68.0%-92.0% and 28.0%-60.0% mortality rates against nymphs and adults. Conclusions: These results indicate that C. formosum + eucalyptus EO shampoo can be used as an effective nymphicide and adulticide against Pediculus humanus capitis.

  5. prevalence of head lice infestation in primary school children in port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-01

    Aug 1, 2013 ... Excoriation and secondary pyoderma, following trauma due to scratching, may result in matting together of the hair, cervical and occipital lymphadenopathy. Severe cases may result in group A Streptococcal impetigo with the risk of developing rheumatic heart disease and glomerulonephritis (14). Head lice.

  6. Evidence of Sympatry of Clade A and Clade B Head Lice in a Pre-Columbian Chilean Mummy from Camarones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutellis, Amina; Drali, Rezak; Rivera, Mario A.; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Raoult, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Three different lineages of head lice are known to parasitize humans. Clade A, which is currently worldwide in distribution, was previously demonstrated to be present in the Americas before the time of Columbus. The two other types of head lice are geographically restricted to America and Australia for clade B and to Africa and Asia for clade C. In this study, we tested two operculated nits from a 4,000-year-old Chilean mummy of Camarones for the presence of the partial Cytb mitochondrial gene (270 bp). Our finding shows that clade B head lice were present in America before the arrival of the European colonists. PMID:24204678

  7. Sequencing of a new target genome: the Pediculus humanus humanus (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) genome project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittendrigh, B R; Clark, J M; Johnston, J S; Lee, S H; Romero-Severson, J; Dasch, G A

    2006-11-01

    The human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus (L.), and the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, belong to the hemimetabolous order Phthiraptera. The body louse is the primary vector that transmits the bacterial agents of louse-borne relapsing fever, trench fever, and epidemic typhus. The genomes of the bacterial causative agents of several of these aforementioned diseases have been sequenced. Thus, determining the body louse genome will enhance studies of host-vector-pathogen interactions. Although not important as a major disease vector, head lice are of major social concern. Resistance to traditional pesticides used to control head and body lice have developed. It is imperative that new molecular targets be discovered for the development of novel compounds to control these insects. No complete genome sequence exists for a hemimetabolous insect species primarily because hemimetabolous insects often have large (2000 Mb) to very large (up to 16,300 Mb) genomes. Fortuitously, we determined that the human body louse has one of the smallest genome sizes known in insects, suggesting it may be a suitable choice as a minimal hemimetabolous genome in which many genes have been eliminated during its adaptation to human parasitism. Because many louse species infest birds and mammals, the body louse genome-sequencing project will facilitate studies of their comparative genomics. A 6-8X coverage of the body louse genome, plus sequenced expressed sequence tags, should provide the entomological, evolutionary biology, medical, and public health communities with useful genetic information.

  8. Hemocytes from Pediculus humanus humanus are hosts for human bacterial pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eGhigo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediculus humanus humanus is an human ectoparasite which represents a serious public health threat because it is vector for pathogenic bacteria. It is important to understand and identify where bacteria reside in human body lice to define new strategies to counterstroke the capacity of vectorization of the bacterial pathogens by body lice. It is known that phagocytes from vertebrates can be hosts or reservoirs for several microbes. Therefore, we wondered if Pediculus humanus humanus phagocytes could hide pathogens. In this study, we characterized the phagocytes from Pediculus humanus humanus and evaluated their contribution as hosts for human pathogens such as Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana and Acinetobacter baumannii.

  9. Embryonic development of human lice: rearing conditions and susceptibility to spinosad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Mougabure Cueto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The embryonic development of human lice was evaluated according to the changes in the morphology of the embryo observed through the transparent chorion. Based on ocular and appendage development, three stages of embryogenesis were established: early, medium, and late. Influence of temperature and relative humidity (RH on the laboratory rearing of Pediculus humanus capitis eggs was assessed. The optimal ranges for temperature and RH were 27-31°C and 45-75%. The susceptibility of human louse eggs to insecticide spinosad (a macrocyclic lactone was assessed by immersion method. The results showed similar susceptibility to spinosad in early, medium, and late stages of head lice eggs. In addition, this study showed similar susceptibility of head and body lice eggs to spinosad, an insecticide that has not been used as pediculicide in Argentina (lethal concentration 50: 0.01%.

  10. The prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis and the coexistence of intestinal parasites in young children in boarding schools in Sivas, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Değerli, Serpil; Malatyali, Erdoğan; Çeliksöz, Ali; Özçelik, Semra; Mumcuoğlu, Kosta Y

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis and the coexistence of intestinal parasites in boarding primary schools in Sivas, Turkey. Seven hundred seventy-two students (350 [45.3%] girls, 422 [54.7%] boys) were evaluated with combing for the presence of head lice, collection of fecal samples, and examination of the perianal region for intestinal parasites using the cellophane tape method. The overall infestation rate for head lice was 6% (n=46). Nine children had evidence of nits only (1.2%), whereas living lice and nits or eggs were found in 37 children (4.8%). Girls were significantly more commonly infested (12.9%) than boys (0.2%). Of the parameters evaluated, socioeconomic level, number of rooms per family, and size and weight of the children were statistically significantly different between the children with and without lice. Although the infestation rate of children with intestinal parasites was higher in the head louse-infested group (23.9%) than in the group of children without lice (17.6%), the differences were not statistically significant. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Randomized, investigator-blinded, controlled clinical study with lice shampoo (Licener®) versus dimethicone (Jacutin® Pedicul Fluid) for the treatment of infestations with head lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmler, Margit; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Gestmann, Falk; Abdel-Aty, Mohammed; Rizk, Ibrahim; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Lehmacher, Walter; Hoff, Norman-Philipp

    2017-07-01

    The present clinical trial was conducted to obtain additional data for the safety and efficacy of a head lice shampoo that is free of silicone compared with an anti-head lice product containing dimethicone. Both products act by a physical mode of action. This randomized, investigator-blinded, controlled clinical study was conducted between July and November 2016 in households of two villages (Abou Rawash and Shandalat) in Egypt. Children older than 2 years with an active head lice infestation were treated with either a shampoo-based head lice treatment containing neem extract (Licener®) or dimethicone (Jacutin® Pedicul Fluid) on day 1 and additionally on day 9. Assessment for living lice by combing was conducted before and 1-2 h after treatment and on days 5 and 13. The main objective was to demonstrate a cure rate of the test product of at least 85% after a single application (day 5 and 9). Secondary objectives were to scrutinize patient safety and satisfaction as well as cure rates on day 13 after two treatments and the evaluation of ovicidal and licicidal efficacies of the products. Sixty-one children in the test-group (Licener®) and 58 children in the reference group (Jacutin® Pedicul Fluid) were included in this study. The test product and the reference product were very well tolerated. Both products exceeded the objective of cure rates of over 85% after single treatment (test group 60/60 = 100%; 95% CI = 94.04-100.00%; reference group 54/57 = 94.74%; 95% CI = 85.38-98.90%; p = 0.112; CI by Clopper-Pearson) and after two treatments (test group 58/58 = 100%; 95% CI = 93.84-100.00%; reference group 52/54 = 96.30%; 95% CI = 87.25-99.55%; p = 0.230) with higher cure rates and non-inferiority for the test product. The combined success rate shows significant superiority of the test product against the reference product (test group 58/58 = 100%; 95% CI = 93.84-100.00%; reference group 49/54 = 90.7%; 95% CI = 79.70-96.92%; p = 0

  12. HEAD LICE IN HAIR SAMPLES FROM YOUTHS, ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY IN MANAUS, AMAZONAS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen Cristina Barbosa NUNES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease.

  13. HEAD LICE IN HAIR SAMPLES FROM YOUTHS, ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY IN MANAUS, AMAZONAS STATE, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Suellen Cristina Barbosa; Moroni, Raquel Borges; Mendes, Júlio; Justiniano, Sílvia Cássia Brandão; Moroni, Fábio Tonissi

    2015-01-01

    A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease.

  14. Control of head lice with a coconut-derived emulsion shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, M; Stafford, K A; Coles, G C; Kennedy, C T C; Downs, A M R

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate a novel coconut-derived emulsion (CDE) shampoo against head lice infestation in children. A school trial in which pupils were treated on days 0 and 7 and checked on days 8 and 15 and a family trial where product was applied by parents three times in 2 weeks or used as a cosmetic shampoo and checked on days 14 and days 70. UK schools in Bristol and Western-super-Mare and families in Northern Somerset. Numbers of children free from infestation after treatment. In the school trial, percentage cures at day 8 were 14% (permethrin, n=7) and 61% (CDE, n=37). In the family trial where all family members were treated, cure rate was 96% (n=28), and if the shampoo was subsequently used as a cosmetic shampoo, only 1 of 12 children became re-infested after 10 weeks. CDE shampoo is a novel effective method of controlling head lice and used after treatment as a cosmetic shampoo can aid in the reduction of re-infestation.

  15. Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  16. Prevalence of head lice infestation and pediculicidal effect of permethrine shampoo in primary school girls in a low-income area in southeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani-Ahmadi, Moussa; Jaberhashemi, Seyed Aghil; Zare, Mehdi; Sanei-Dehkordi, Alireza

    2017-07-24

    Head lice infestation is a common public health problem that is most prevalent in primary school children throughout the world, especially in developing countries including different parts of Iran. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with head lice infestation and pediculicidal effect of 1% permethrin shampoo in primary schools girls of Bashagard County, one of the low socioeconomic areas in southeast of Iran. In this interventional study six villages with similar demographical situations were selected and randomly assigned into intervention and control areas. In each area 150 girl students aged 7-12 years were selected randomly and screened for head lice infestation by visual scalp examination. In intervention area, treatment efficacy of 1% permethrin shampoo was evaluated via re-examination for infestation after one, two, and three weeks. Pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and associated factors of head lice infestation. The prevalence of head lice infestation was 67.3%. There was significant association between head lice infestation and school grade, family size, parents' literacy, bathing facilities, frequency of hair washing, and use of shared articles (p shampoo for head lice treatment was 29.2, 68.9, and 90.3% after the first, second, and third weeks, respectively. The head lice infestation is a health problem in primary school girls of Bashagard County. Improvement of socioeconomic status and providing appropriate educational programs about head lice risk factors and prevention can be effective for reduction of infestation in this area. This trial has been registered and approved by Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences ethical committee (Trial No.764). Trial registration date: March 17 2014.

  17. Lice work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benali, Amira; Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2018-01-01

    and Nepalese everyday life and show how these are deployed, contested and reconfigured onsite by volunteer tourism actors. By exploring patterns of absences and presences and using the concept of ontological choreography as an analytical resource, we show how the situated lice work of human and non...... at the orphanage. This post-human approach decenters the volunteer and destabilises the host and guest binary, while adding to our understanding of tourism practices as complex and materially distributed endeavours. We first analyse two configurations of head lice enacted through a Western morality of hygiene...

  18. Laboratory and clinical trials of cocamide diethanolamine lotion against head lice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian F. Burgess

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Context. During the late 1990s, insecticide resistance had rendered a number of treatment products ineffective; some companies saw this as an opportunity to develop alternative types of treatment. We investigated the possibility that a surfactant-based lotion containing 10% cocamide diethanolamine (cocamide DEA was effective to eliminate head louse infestation.Settings and Design. Initial in vitro testing of the lotion formulation versus laboratory reared body/clothing lice, followed by two randomised, controlled, community-based, assessor blinded, clinical studies.Materials and Methods. Preliminary laboratory tests were performed by exposing lice or louse eggs to the product using a method that mimicked the intended use. Clinical Study 1: Children and adults with confirmed head louse infestation were treated by investigators using a single application of aqueous 10% cocamide DEA lotion applied for 60 min followed by shampooing or a single 1% permethrin creme rinse treatment applied to pre-washed hair for 10 min. Clinical Study 2: Compared two treatment regimens using 10% cocamide DEA lotion that was concentrated by hair drying. A single application left on for 8 h/overnight was compared with two applications 7 days apart of 2 h duration, followed by a shampoo wash.Results. The initial laboratory tests showed a pediculicidal effect for a 60 min application but limited ovicidal effect. A longer application time of 8 h or overnight was found capable of killing all eggs but this differed between batches of test material. Clinical Study 1: Both treatments performed badly with only 3/23 (13% successful treatments using cocamide DEA and 5/25 (23.8% using permethrin. Clinical Study 2: The single overnight application of cocamide DEA concentrated by hair drying gave 10/56 (17.9% successes compared with 19/56 (33.9% for the 2 h application regimen repeated after 1 week. Intention to treat analysis showed no significant difference (p = 0.0523 between the

  19. Body Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    What are body lice? Body lice (also called clothes lice) are tiny insects which live and lay nits (lice eggs) on clothing. They are parasites, ... usually only move to the skin to feed. Body lice are one of the three types of ...

  20. In vitro efficacy of five essential oils against Pediculus humanus capitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, Kerdalidec; Nicolas, Patrick; Andriantsoanirina, Valérie; Izri, Arezki; Durand, Rémy

    2018-02-01

    Treatment of head lice has relied mainly on the use of topical insecticides. Today, conventional topical pediculicides have suffered considerable loss of activity worldwide. There is increasing interest in the use of natural products such as essential oils for head louse control, and many of them are now incorporated into various over-the-counter products presented as pediculicides, often without proper evaluation. The aim of the present study was to assess the in vitro efficacy of five essential oils against adults of Pediculus humanus capitis using a contact filter paper toxicity bioassay. The chemical composition of the essential oils from wild bergamot, clove, lavender, tea tree, and Yunnan verbena was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All treatments and controls were replicated three times on separate occasions over a period of 11 months. In all, 1239 living lice were collected from the scalp of 51 subjects, aged from 1 to 69 years. Clove oil, diluted either in coco oil or sunflower oil, demonstrated the best adulticidal activity, reaching > 90% mortality within 2 h in lice submitted to a 30-min contact. Yunnan verbena oil diluted in coco oil showed also a significant efficacy. Other essential oils showed a lower efficacy. The oil's major component(s) differed according to the tested oils and appeared chemically diverse. In the case of clove oil, the eugenol appeared as the main component. This study confirmed the potential interest of some of the essential oils tested, but not all, as products to include possibly in a pediculicidal formulation.

  1. Identification of Novel Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Mutations in Human Head and Body Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firooziyan, Samira; Sadaghianifar, Ali; Taghilou, Behrooz; Galavani, Hossein; Ghaffari, Eslam; Gholizadeh, Saber

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, the increase of head louse infestation in Iran (7.4%) and especially in West-Azerbaijan Province (248%) has raised the hypothesis of insecticide resistance development. There are different mechanisms of resistance to various groups of insecticides, and knockdown resistance (kdr) is a prominent mechanism of resistance to pyrethroids, an insecticide group which is used conventionally for pediculosis control. For detection of kdr-type well-known amino acid substitutions (M815I-T917I-L920F) and additional sodium channel mutations potentially associated with kdr resistance in head and body lice, louse populations were collected from West-Azerbaijan and Zanjan Provinces of Iran. Six novel mutations were found to be located in the IIS1-2 extracellular loop (H813P) and IIS5 (I927F, L928A, R929V, L930M, and L932M) of the α-subunit. Genotyping results showed that all specimens (100%) have at least one of these or the well-known mutations. Therefore, the presence of kdr-related and novel mutations in the sodium channel is likely to be the reason for the frequent use of pyrethroid insecticides due to treatment failure against lice. Further studies are now required to evaluate the prevalence of the kdr-like mutant allele for monitoring of insecticide resistance and the management of head and body lice in other provinces of the country. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Negligible Egg Positive Rate of Enterobius vermicularis and No Detection of Head Lice among Orphanage Children in Busan and Ulsan, Korea (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Son, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Sang Hwa; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Park, Sang Kyun; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jung Ha; Yu, Hak-Sun

    2015-08-01

    To determine whether pinworm infections and head lice infestations spread among children in orphanages, 117 children from 4 orphanages in Busan-si and Ulsan-si, Korea, were examined for enterobiasis and head lice infestation between January and February 2014. The overall rate of Enterobius vermicularis egg positivity was 0.85%, whereas none of the children had head lice infestations. The rate of pinworm infection was much lower among the orphanage children compared to the rates observed in previous studies among kindergarten and primary school students. Moreover, the risk factors for enterobiasis were less frequent among these subjects than previously reported. The personal hygiene and health of the orphanage children were supervised by a regular, employed nurse through a health education program. In conclusion, pinworm infection was efficiently controlled among the children in orphanages, and this might be related to good personal hygiene practices in Korea.

  3. Efficacy and Safety of a Mineral Oil-Based Head Lice Shampoo: A Randomized, Controlled, Investigator-Blinded, Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Luise; Eertmans, Frank; Wolf, Doerte; Rossel, Bart; Adriaens, Els

    2016-01-01

    Due to increased resistance and safety concerns with insecticide-based pediculicides, there is growing demand for head lice treatments with a physical mode of action. Certain mineral oils kill lice by blocking spiracles or by disrupting the epicuticular wax layer. The present study was performed to evaluate efficacy and safety of a mineral oil-based shampoo. This randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, monocentric study (EudraCT registration no. 2014-002918-23) was performed from October 2014-June 2015 in Germany. A mineral oil shampoo (Mosquito® Med Läuse Shampoo 10 in Germany, Paranix or Silcap shampoo elsewhere), registered as medical device, was compared to a conventional, locally reimbursed, pyrethroid-based pediculicide (Goldgeist® Forte solution). In total, 107 patients (>1 year) with confirmed head lice infestation were included (test arm: n = 53; control arm: n = 54). All subjects received two applications of either test or control product at day 0 and day 7, according to the instructions for use. Efficacy and safety was evaluated directly, 1h and 24h after first application, before and after second treatment, and at day 10. The main objective was demonstrating a cure rate for the test product, being superior to 70% at day 10. Cure rates at day 10 (corrected for re-infestation) for the test product (96.1%) and control (94%) significantly exceeded the pre-defined target (70%) (p shampoo) can be safe and effective alternatives for insecticide-based pediculicides, with less risk for development of resistance because of the physical mode of action. German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) DRKS00009753 and EudraCT database 2014-002918-23.

  4. Head lice infestation in school children of a low socio- economy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... In the old Gaza city and the rural village Jabalia within the Gaza Governorate the rate of infestation with lice was 14.1% in the primary school girls. (Al-Shawa, 2006). In a high socio-economy area in Izmir,. Turkey, 4.2% of the studied population of the secondary and elementary school children were infested ...

  5. Efficacy and Safety of a Mineral Oil-Based Head Lice Shampoo: A Randomized, Controlled, Investigator-Blinded, Comparative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Wolf

    Full Text Available Due to increased resistance and safety concerns with insecticide-based pediculicides, there is growing demand for head lice treatments with a physical mode of action. Certain mineral oils kill lice by blocking spiracles or by disrupting the epicuticular wax layer. The present study was performed to evaluate efficacy and safety of a mineral oil-based shampoo.This randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, monocentric study (EudraCT registration no. 2014-002918-23 was performed from October 2014-June 2015 in Germany. A mineral oil shampoo (Mosquito® Med Läuse Shampoo 10 in Germany, Paranix or Silcap shampoo elsewhere, registered as medical device, was compared to a conventional, locally reimbursed, pyrethroid-based pediculicide (Goldgeist® Forte solution. In total, 107 patients (>1 year with confirmed head lice infestation were included (test arm: n = 53; control arm: n = 54. All subjects received two applications of either test or control product at day 0 and day 7, according to the instructions for use. Efficacy and safety was evaluated directly, 1h and 24h after first application, before and after second treatment, and at day 10. The main objective was demonstrating a cure rate for the test product, being superior to 70% at day 10.Cure rates at day 10 (corrected for re-infestation for the test product (96.1% and control (94% significantly exceeded the pre-defined target (70% (p < 0.001, 2-sided, 1-sample, chi-square test with confirmed non-inferiority for the test product. Over all visits, cure rates were consistently higher for the test product, whereas more initially-cured subjects remained lice-free until end of study (78%; control: 60%. Both products were safe and well tolerated, offering good esthetical effects.This study showed that substance-based medical devices (including the tested mineral oil shampoo can be safe and effective alternatives for insecticide-based pediculicides, with less risk for development of resistance because

  6. A Prevalence Study Of Pediculus Humanus Capitis Infestation Among Children In A Slum Area Of Pune.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyamoorthy T.S

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross â€" sectional study among 512 children in age group 0-15 years was carried out in an urban slum of Pune during Aug.84 to Feb. 85. The prevalence rate of Pediculus humanus capitis among the study population was found to be 35.15 percent. The prevalence was found to increase with age. Girls were affected more than boys. Living in nuclear families, schooling and possession of long hair were found to have significant association with the prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis. The quality of personal hygiene per se did not alter the prevalence of head louse infestation.

  7. Head Lice: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before treatment using the hot water (130°F) laundry cycle and the high heat drying cycle. Clothing ... does not imply endorsement by the Public Health Service or by the U.S. Department of Health and ...

  8. Treating Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Protect Yourself Health Fraud Consumer Information by Audience For Seniors For Women ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  9. [The Distribution of Pediculus humanus capitis Among Primary School Pupils of the Turkish Chamber of Commerce and Stock Exchange Organisation in Van].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaslan, Selver; Yılmaz, Hasan

    2015-03-01

    This study was performed in order to study the prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis (P. h. capitis). The study was carried out on pupils between 5-15 years old in a school and kindergarden belonging to the Turkish Chamber of Commerce and Stock Exchange Organization in Van City between November-December 2007. The hair of 863 pupils (especially the neck and the back of head areas), 385 girls and 478 boys, were examined for eggs, nymphs and adults of P. h. capitis. A questionnaire was given to the pupils, which was collected the following day. Lice and their eggs/nits, which were removed from the head of children were transferred to a bottle containing 5% glycerin in 70% ethyl alcohol. Later they were sent to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Health Research and Training Hospital of Yüzüncü Yıl University. Eggs/nits were found in 164 (42.6%) of the girls and in 34 (7.1%) of the boys (overall 198 (22.9%) infested pupils). The prevalence of P. h. capitis was high, especially in girls. The infestation rates observed and the evaluation of the questionnaire showed that there is a statistically significant relationships between pediculosis capitis and sex, level of family income, education level of the mother, number of baths taken per weekly, number of family members living in the same home, room number per capita, and hair length (p0.05).

  10. The sex ratio distortion in the human head louse is conserved over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biliński Szczepan M

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the turn of the 19th century the first observations of a female-biased sex ratio in broods and populations of the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, had been reported. A study by Buxton in 1940 on the sex ratio of lice on prisoners in Ceylon is still today the subject of reanalyses. This sex ratio distortion had been detected in ten different countries. In the last sixty years no new data have been collected, especially on scalp infestations under economically and socially more developed conditions. Results Here we report a female bias of head lice in a survey of 480 school children in Argentina. This bias is independent of the intensity of the pediculosis, which makes local mate competition highly unlikely as the source of the aberrant sex ratio; however, other possible adaptive mechanisms cannot be discounted. These lice as well as lice from pupils in Britain were carrying several strains of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis, one of the most wide spread intracellular sex ratio distorters. Similar Wolbachia strains are also present in the pig louse, Haematopinus suis, suggesting that this endosymbiont might have a marked influence on the biology of the whole order. The presence of a related obligate nutritional bacterium in lice prevents the investigation of a causal link between sex ratio and endosymbionts. Conclusions Regardless of its origin, this sex ratio distortion in head lice that has been reported world wide, is stable over time and is a remarkable deviation from the stability of frequency-dependent selection of Fisher's sex ratio. A female bias first reported in 1898 is still present over a hundred years and a thousand generations later.

  11. Novel polymeric micelles for insect pest control: encapsulation of essential oil monoterpenes inside a triblock copolymer shell for head lice control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Lucia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Essential oil components (EOCs are molecules with interesting application in pest control, these have been evaluated against different insect pest from more than 100 years, but their practical use is rather limited. Thus, the enhancement of their bioavailability and manageability due to their dispersion in water can open new perspective for the preparation of formulations for the control of insect pest. In this work, we studied the encapsulation of different monoterpenes in a poloxamer shell in order to prepare aqueous formulations that can be used for the development of platforms used in pest control. Methods Micellar systems containing a 5 wt% of poloxamer 407 and 1.25 wt% of the different monoterpenes were prepared. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS experiments were carried out to characterize the dispersion of the EOCs in water. The pediculicidal activity of these micellar systems was tested on head lice using an ex vivo immersion test. Results The poloxamers allowed the dispersion of EOCs in water due to their encapsulation inside the hydrophobic core of the copolymer micelles. From this study, we concluded that it is possible to make stable micellar systems containing water (>90 wt%, 1.25 wt% of different monoterpenes and a highly safe polymer (5wt% Poloxamer 407. These formulations were effective against head lice with mortality ranging from 30 to 60%, being the most effective emulsions those containing linalool, 1,8-cineole, α-terpineol, thymol, eugenol, geraniol and nonyl alcohol which lead to mortalities above 50%. Discussion Since these systems showed good pediculicidal activity and high physicochemical stability, they could be a new route for the green fabrication of biocompatible and biosustainable insecticide formulations.

  12. Body Lice Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diagnosed? How are body lice treated? What are body lice? Body lice are parasitic insects that live ... to freshly laundered clothing and bedding. What do body lice look like? Body lice have three forms: ...

  13. Self-diagnosis of active head lice infestation by individuals from an impoverished community: high sensitivity and specificity Auto diagnóstico de pediculose por indivíduos de uma comunidade economicamente desfavorecida: alta sensibilidade e especificidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pilger

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available To compare sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of self-diagnosis for head lice infestation with visual inspection, we conducted a study in an urban slum in Brazil. Individuals were asked about active head lice infestation (self-diagnosis; we performed visual inspection and thereafter wet combing (gold standard. Of the 175 individuals included, 77 (44% had an active head lice infestation. For self-diagnosis, sensitivity (80.5%, specificity (91.8%, PPV (88.6% and NPV (85.7% were high. Sensitivity of visual inspection was 35.1%. Public health professionals can use self-diagnosis as a diagnostic tool, to estimate accurately prevalence of pediculosis in a community, and to monitor ongoing intervention strategies.Foi conduzido um estudo em uma favela urbana no Brasil com o objetivo de comparar a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo (VPP e valor preditivo negativo (VPN do auto-diagnóstico de pediculose com a inspeção visual. Dos 175 indivíduos incluídos, 77 (44% apresentavam pediculose. Para o auto-diagnóstico, a sensibilidade (80.5%, a especificidade (91.8%, o VPP (88.6% e o VPN (85.7% foram altos. A sensibilidade da inspeção visual foi 35.1%. Profissionais de saúde podem utilizar o auto-diagnóstico como uma ferramenta diagnóstica para estimar de forma acurada a prevalência de pediculose em uma comunidade, como também para monitorar estratégias de controle da doença.

  14. Genetic recombination events between sympatric Clade A and Clade C lice in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veracx, Aurélie; Boutellis, Amina; Raoult, Didier

    2013-09-01

    Human head and body lice have been classified into three phylogenetic clades (Clades A, B, and C) based on mitochondrial DNA. Based on nuclear markers (the 18S rRNA gene and the PM2 spacer), two genotypes of Clade A head and body lice, including one that is specifically African (Clade A2), have been described. In this study, we sequenced the PM2 spacer of Clade C head lice from Ethiopia and compared these sequences with sequences from previous works. Trees were drawn, and an analysis of genetic diversity based on the cytochrome b gene and the PM2 spacer was performed for African and non-African lice. In the tree drawn based on the PM2 spacer, the African and non-African lice formed separate clusters. However, Clade C lice from Ethiopia were placed within the African Clade A subcluster (Clade A2). This result suggests that recombination events have occurred between Clade A2 lice and Clade C lice, reflecting the sympatric nature of African lice. Finally, the PM2 spacer and cytochrome b gene sequences of human lice revealed a higher level of genetic diversity in Africa than in other regions.

  15. Pediculicidal effect of herbal shampoo against Pediculus humanus capitis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharawit, R; Soonwera, M

    2013-06-01

    Human head lice infestation is an important public health problem in Thailand. Lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy and thus alternative products such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat lice infestation. The present study investigated the efficacy of twenty nine herbal shampoos based on zinbiberaceae plants, piperaceae plants and native plants against human head lice and compared them with malathion shampoo (A-lices shampoo®: 1% w/v malathion) and commercial shampoo (BabiMild Natural'N Mild®) in order to assess their in vitro efficacy. All herbal shampoo were more effective than commercial shampoo with 100% mortality at 60 seconds and LT50 values ranged from 11.30 to 31.97 seconds, meanwhile, commercial shampoo caused 14.0-15.0% mortality and LT50 values ranged from 83.96 to 87.43 seconds. The nine herbal shampoos from Zingiber cassumunar, Piper betle, Piper ribesioides, Averrhoa bilimbi, Clitoria ternatea, Plectranthus amboincus, Myristica fragrans, Tacca chantrieri and Zanthoxylum limonella were more effective pediculicide than malathion shampoo with 100% mortality at 30 seconds and LT50 values ranged from 11.30-13.58 seconds, on the other hand malathion shampoo showed LT50 values ranging from 12.39 to 13.67 seconds. LT50 values indicated the order of pediculicidal activity in the herbal shampoos as Z. cassumunar shampoo > P. betle shampoo > Za. limonella shampoo > Av. bilimbi shampoo > P. ribesioides shampoo > My. fragrans shampoo > T. chantrieri shampoo > Pl. amboincus shampoo. Our data showed that eight of the twenty nine herbal shampoos in this study were of high potential pediculicide to human head lice treatments for Thai children.

  16. Body Lice Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Body lice ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of body lice: Bathe regularly and ...

  17. Apes, lice and prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Robin A

    2009-01-01

    Although most epidemic human infectious diseases are caused by recently introduced pathogens, cospeciation of parasite and host is commonplace for endemic infections. Occasional host infidelity, however, provides the endemic parasite with an opportunity to survive the potential extinction of its host. Such infidelity may account for the survival of certain types of human lice, and it is currently exemplified by viruses such as HIV.

  18. The prevalence of Pediculus capitis among School Children in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Neirami

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Pediculus capitis or head louse infestation affects millions of children worldwide, especially those in the 5-11 years age group. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of head pediculosis among school children in ur­ban and rural areas of Fars Province, southern Iran."nMethods: All school children of age 6-11 yr from both genders in all urban and rural areas of the province were screened for head louse infestation by examination of their hair and scalps. Parents of all infested children were also exam­ined. The study was repeated in different seasons in the same areas. Moreover, infested children were treated with 5% permethrin shampoo and re-examined one week later for any relapse."nResults: The general prevalence of head louse infestation in primary school students was 0.49% in autumn, 0.37% in win­ter and 0.20% in spring. In the mentioned seasons, the prevalence of P. capitis was higher among females and in ru­ral areas (P=0.001. Although treatment with permethrin shampoo failed in females, it was successful in all infected males from both regions in autumn and spring and in males from urban areas in winter."nConclusion: Head louse infestation is uncommon among Fars Province school children in rural and urban areas and should not be considered a public health priority. However, due to the higher prevalence of pediculosis in low socioeco­nomic group and rural area in our region, it seems that health promotion, particularly early detection and effec­tive management strategies should target this group in the province.

  19. September 1975 Lice, Turkey Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Eastern Turkey. A magnitude 6.7 earthquake that struck the Turkish district of Lice at 12:20 local time (09:20 UTC) on September 6, 1975, killing 2,311 people. The...

  20. Identification of repellent odorants to the body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis, in clove essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamatsu, Takuma; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Yoshioka, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2016-04-01

    The control of body lice is an important issue for human health and welfare because lice act as vectors of disease such as typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Body lice exhibit avoidance behavior to some essential oils, including clove essential oil. Therefore, odorants containing clove essential oil components may potentially be useful in the development of repellents to body lice. However, such odorants that induce avoidance behavior in body lice have not yet been identified from clove essential oil. Here, we established an analysis method to evaluate the avoidance behavior of body lice to specific odorants. The behavioral analysis of the body lice in response to clove essential oil and its constituents revealed that eugenol, a major component of clove essential oil, has strong repellent effect on body lice, whereas the other components failed to induce obvious avoidance behavior. A comparison of the repellent effects of eugenol with those of other structurally related odorants revealed possible moieties that are important for the avoidance effects to body lice. The repellent effect of eugenol to body lice was enhanced by combining it with the other major component of clove essential oil, β-caryophyllene. We conclude that a synthetic blend of eugenol and β-caryophyllene is the most effective repellent to body lice. This finding will be valuable as the potential use of eugenol as body lice repellent.

  1. Origin of clothing lice indicates early clothing use by anatomically modern humans in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toups, Melissa A; Kitchen, Andrew; Light, Jessica E; Reed, David L

    2011-01-01

    Clothing use is an important modern behavior that contributed to the successful expansion of humans into higher latitudes and cold climates. Previous research suggests that clothing use originated anywhere between 40,000 and 3 Ma, though there is little direct archaeological, fossil, or genetic evidence to support more specific estimates. Since clothing lice evolved from head louse ancestors once humans adopted clothing, dating the emergence of clothing lice may provide more specific estimates of the origin of clothing use. Here, we use a Bayesian coalescent modeling approach to estimate that clothing lice diverged from head louse ancestors at least by 83,000 and possibly as early as 170,000 years ago. Our analysis suggests that the use of clothing likely originated with anatomically modern humans in Africa and reinforces a broad trend of modern human developments in Africa during the Middle to Late Pleistocene.

  2. Lice Aren't So Nice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it's a good idea for an adult to wash all your bedding, hats, clothing, and stuffed animals in hot water. Or he or she can seal these things in airtight bags for 10 days. That also will kill the lice and their eggs. Vacuuming the carpets, upholstery, and car seats will take care of any lice that ...

  3. Detection of Bartonellaspp. and Rickettsiaspp. in fleas, ticks and lice collected in rural areas of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham G. Cáceres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bartonellosis and rickettsiosis are commonly reported in Peru. In order to detect Bartonella sp. and Rickettsiasp. in fleas, ticks and lice, specimens from five distinct locations in Peru (Marizagua, Cajaruro, Jamalca, Lonya Grande and El Milagro were collected and screened for the presence of these bacteria using PCR and later confirmation by DNA sequencing. The specimens collected were distributed in 102 pools (76 Ctenocephalides felis, 2 Ctenocephalides canis, 16 Pulex irritans, 5 Pediculus humanus, 2 Rhiphicephalus sanguineus, and 1 Boophilus spp., where Bartonellawas detected in 17 pools (6 of C. felis, 9 of P. irritans, 1 of C. canis, and 1 P. humanus. Also, Rickettsiawas detected in 76 pools (62 C. felis, 10 P. irritans, 2 P. humanus, and 2 C. canis. Bartonella clarridgeiaewas detected in C. felis, C. canisand P. irritanspools at 5.3%, 50% and 12.5%, respectively.Bartonella rochalimaewas detected in one C. felisand two P. irritanspools at 1.3% and 12.5%, respectively. Furthermore, B. henselaewas detected in one C. felispool and one P. humanuspool corresponding to 1.3% and 20%, respectively; and Bartonella spp.was also found in 5 pools of P. irritansat 31.3%. Additionally, R. feliswas detected in C. felis, C. canisand P. irritanspools at 76.3%, 100% and 37.5%, respectively; and Rickettsia spp. was detected in C. felis, P. irritansand P. humanuspools at 5.3%, 25% and 40%, respectively. These results demonstrate the circulation of these bacteria in Peru.

  4. Pubic "Crab" Lice Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Pubic ("crab") ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of pubic ("crab") lice: All sexual ...

  5. Primates, Lice and Bacteria: Speciation and Genome Evolution in the Symbionts of Hominid Lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Bret M; Allen, Julie M; Nguyen, Nam-Phuong; Vachaspati, Pranjal; Quicksall, Zachary S; Warnow, Tandy; Mugisha, Lawrence; Johnson, Kevin P; Reed, David L

    2017-07-01

    Insects with restricted diets rely on symbiotic bacteria to provide essential metabolites missing in their diet. The blood-sucking lice are obligate, host-specific parasites of mammals and are themselves host to symbiotic bacteria. In human lice, these bacterial symbionts supply the lice with B-vitamins. Here, we sequenced the genomes of symbiotic and heritable bacterial of human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and monkey lice and used phylogenomics to investigate their evolutionary relationships. We find that these symbionts have a phylogenetic history reflecting the louse phylogeny, a finding contrary to previous reports of symbiont replacement. Examination of the highly reduced symbiont genomes (0.53-0.57 Mb) reveals much of the genomes are dedicated to vitamin synthesis. This is unchanged in the smallest symbiont genome and one that appears to have been reorganized. Specifically, symbionts from human lice, chimpanzee lice, and gorilla lice carry a small plasmid that encodes synthesis of vitamin B5, a vitamin critical to the bacteria-louse symbiosis. This plasmid is absent in an old world monkey louse symbiont, where this pathway is on its primary chromosome. This suggests the unique genomic configuration brought about by the plasmid is not essential for symbiosis, but once obtained, it has persisted for up to 25 My. We also find evidence that human, chimpanzee, and gorilla louse endosymbionts have lost a pathway for synthesis of vitamin B1, whereas the monkey louse symbiont has retained this pathway. It is unclear whether these changes are adaptive, but they may point to evolutionary responses of louse symbionts to shifts in primate biology. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Identifying salmon lice transmission characteristics between Faroese salmon farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragesteen, Trondur J.; Simonsen, Knud; Visser, AW

    2018-01-01

    Sea lice infestations are an increasing challenge in the ever-growing salmon aquaculture sector and cause large economic losses. The high salmon production in a small area creates a perfect habitat for parasites. Knowledge of how salmon lice planktonic larvae disperse and spread the infection...... between farms is of vital importance in developing treatment management plans to combat salmon lice infestations. Using a particle tracking model forced by tidal currents, we show that Faroese aquaculture farms form a complex network. In some cases as high as 10% of infectious salmon lice released at one...... for the entire Faroese salmon industry...

  7. Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals.

  8. Fleas and lice of mammals in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulette L. Ford; Richard A. Fagerlund; Donald W. Duszynski; Paul J. Polechla

    2004-01-01

    All available records are compiled for three orders of ectoparasites of mammals in New Mexico: fleas (Siphonaptera), sucking lice (Anoplura), and chewing lice (Mallophaga). We have drawn from records at the University of New Mexico's Museum of Southwestern Biology, the Vector Control Program of the New Mexico Environment Department, the Environmental Health...

  9. Effects of salmon lice infection and salmon lice protection on fjord migrating Atlantic salmon and brown trout post-smolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsgard, Rolf; Thorstad, Eva B.; Okland, Finn

    2007-01-01

    Effects of artificial salmon lice infection and pharmaceutical salmon lice prophylaxis on survival and rate of progression of Atlantic salmon (n = 72) and brown trout post-smolts (n = 72) during their fjord migration, were studied by telemetry. The infected groups were artificially exposed...... to infective salmon lice larvae in the laboratory immediately before release in the inner part of the fjord to simulate a naturally high infection pressure. Groups of infected Atlantic salmon (n = 20) and brown trout (n = 12) were also retained in the hatchery to control the infection intensity and lice...... development during the study period. Neither salmon lice infection nor pharmaceutical prophylaxis had any effects on survival and rate of progression of fjord migrating Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to control fish. Atlantic salmon spent on average only 151.2 h (maximum 207.3 h) in passing the 80 km...

  10. Pediculosis pubis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Patricia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a male patient of 24 years old with itching at groin and pubis. Pubic hair test showed the presence of lices (fig.2-4.Pediculosis is an infestation of man and animals by insects Anoplura (Lice Vampire ectoparasites. It´s important poor hygiene, promiscuity, fomites, sexual transmission. Etiology: Pediculus humanus capitis, Human Pediculus corporis, Phthirus pubis or pubic lice. Clinically pediculosis can be classify in :head lice, body lice, pubic pediculosis. Phthirus pubis or crab lice is the agent of pediculus pubis, the sites affected are pubic region other sites as thighs, trunk, armpit, eyebrows, eyelashes, beard and scalp. Pruritus hematic crusts, excoriations, stains 0.5 cm -1 blue cerulean spots may be associated with other STD. The diagnosis is based in the clinical aspect and observes the parasite. Phthirus short pubis or pubic lice parasite, it´s size: 0.8-1.2 mm his first legs resemble those of a crab with sucking, slow walking 10 cm / min. Treatment is based on head lice or nits destruction benzyl benzoate 25% 8 to 12 hrs once, crotramiton 10% 1 / day x 8 days and ivermectin 200 micrograms / kg in a single dose.

  11. Salmon lice – impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

    2013-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

  12. Chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) associated with vertebrates in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SÁnchez-Montes, Sokani; Colunga-Salas, Pablo; Álvarez-Castillo, LucÍa; GuzmÁn-Cornejo, Carmen; Montiel-Parra, Griselda

    2018-01-15

    The chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera and Ischnocera) of Mexico have been little studied and many publications include isolated records. This paper summarizes current knowledge of chewing lice recorded from Mexico resulting from an exhaustive search of the literature published from 1866 to 2017. We found 342 louse species associated with 206 bird and 28 mammal species. As a result, we provide a checklist of the chewing lice recorded from Mexico, including a host-parasite list and their geographical distribution within the country.

  13. Distribution of chewing lice upon the polygynous peacock Pavo cristatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, I R; Clark, F; Petrie, M

    1996-04-01

    An opportunistic survey of louse distribution upon the peacock Pavo cristatus was undertaken following a cull of 23 birds from an English zoo. After complete skin and feather dissolution, 2 species of lice were retrieved, Goniodes pavonis and Amyrsidea minuta. The distribution of both louse species could be described by a negative binomial model. The significance of this is discussed in relation to transmission dynamics of lice in the atypical avian mating system found in the peacock, which involves no male parental care.

  14. Método fisicoquímico para el control de Pediculus humanus capitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Corredor

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available La pediculosis humana causada por el ectoparásito Pediculus humanus capitis, ha sido exitosamente controlada utilizando como insecticida los alcoholes presentes en las bebidas etílicas (aguardiente. La acción ietal de los alcoholes de bebida sobre el parásito es atribuida al efecto neurotóxico, así como a su acción desnaturalizante de biomoléculas celulares. El tratamiento se hace cubriendo el cabello y todas las áreas del cuero cabelludo con una bolsa plástica desechable, fijada con cinta adhesiva, previo remojo con 15-50 ml de alcohol de bebida, de todo el cabello. La atmósfera circundante del parásito queda saturada de vapores etílicos, de agua y CO2, por un período de 30-60 minutos, lo cual es letal para huevos, larvas y adultos del insecto parásito. Se dan normas cautelosas para garantizar la acción insecticida de los alcoholes de bebida en el control de la pediculosis.

  15. Effiacy of citronella and eucalyptus oils against Musca domestica, Cimex lectularius and Pediculus humanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehangir Khan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess potential impacts of two indigenous plant oils: the citronella (Cymbopogon nardus and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus for their insecticidal effect against Musca domestica (house fly, Cimex lectularius (bed bug and Pediculus humanus (louse. Methods: The oils of these two medicinal plants were applied separately at various concentrations (1, 2 and 3 mL/cup in cups lined with filter paper containing the target insects. Mortality was evaluated after fixed intervals (6, 12 and 24 h subsequent to the release of adult insects. Results: Results showed that both oils exhibited concentration and time dependent mortality against the tested insects. Data pertaining to present investigation clearly showed that percentage mortality owing to these botanicals against these medical pests was significantly high (98.33% at the rate of 3 mL for 24 h of exposure, followed by 2 and 1 mL concentrations with 12 and 6 h of exposure times. Conclusions: The results suggest that these plant oils possess good insecticidal properties against house fly, bed bug, and louse, and are safe to humans. Furthermore, the molecular (biochemical based study of these botanicals against diverse species of pests will be of much significance to control these pest insects.

  16. Use of scanning electron microscopy to confirm the identity of lice infesting communally grazed goat herds

    OpenAIRE

    P.J. Sebei; C.M.E. McCrindle; E.D. Green; M.L. Turner

    2004-01-01

    Lice have been described on goats in commercial farming systems in South Africa but not from flocks on communal grazing. During a longitudinal survey on the causes of goat kid mortality, conducted in Jericho district, North West Province, lice were collected from communally grazed indigenous goats. These lice were prepared for and viewed by scanning electron microscopy, and micromorphological taxonomic details are described. Three species of lice were found in the study area and identif...

  17. The Peacock versus the louse (pediculus humanus corporis): one soldier's contribution to combating trench fever in the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, A; Pearson, W

    2010-09-01

    Trench fever became a major worry for the Allied High Command during the First World War because of its debilitating effects on troop performance. The causes of the fever were not previously known, but entomological research identified the body louse (pediculus humanus corporis) as the carrier, and the Royal Army Medical Corps developed effective methods of control through disinfestation. These were markedly influenced by the researches of a young entomologist, Alexander David Peacock, which were conducted under campaign conditions. Peacock subsequently occupied a Chair of Zoology at St. Andrews University for 30 years.

  18. Acute prurigo simplex in humans caused by pigeon lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolf, Hamilton Ometto; Reis, Rejane d'Ávila; Espósito, Ana Cláudia Cavalcante; Haddad Júnior, Vidal

    2018-03-01

    Pigeon lice are insects that feed on feathers of these birds; their life cycle includes egg, nymph and adult and they may cause dermatoses in humans. Four persons of the same family, living in an urban area, presented with widespread intensely pruritic erythematous papules. A great number of lice were seen in their house, which moved from a nest of pigeons located on the condenser of the air-conditioning to the dormitory of one of the patients. Even in urban environments, dermatitis caused by parasites of birds is a possibility in cases of acute prurigo simplex. Pigeon lice are possible etiological agents of this kind of skin eruption, although they are often neglected, even by dermatologists.

  19. Use of scanning electron microscopy to confirm the identity of lice infesting communally grazed goat herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Sebei

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Lice have been described on goats in commercial farming systems in South Africa but not from flocks on communal grazing. During a longitudinal survey on the causes of goat kid mortality, conducted in Jericho district, North West Province, lice were collected from communally grazed indigenous goats. These lice were prepared for and viewed by scanning electron microscopy, and micromorphological taxonomic details are described. Three species of lice were found in the study area and identified as Bovicola caprae, Bovicola limbatus and Linognathus africanus. Sucking and biting lice were found in ten of the 12 herds of goats examined. Lice were found on both mature goats and kids. Bovicola caprae and L. africanus were the most common biting and sucking lice respectively in all herds examined. Scanning electron microscopy revealed additional features which aided in the identification of the louse species. Photomicrographs were more accurate aids to identification than the line drawings in the literature and facilitated identification using dissecting microscope.

  20. Use of scanning electron microscopy to confirm the identity of lice infesting communally grazed goat herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebei, P J; McCrindle, C M E; Green, E D; Turner, M L

    2004-06-01

    Lice have been described on goats in commercial farming systems in South Africa but not from flocks on communal grazing. During a longitudinal survey on the causes of goat kid mortality, conducted in Jericho district, North West Province, lice were collected from communally grazed indigenous goats. These lice were prepared for and viewed by scanning electron microscopy, and micro-morphological taxonomic details are described. Three species of lice were found in the study area and identified as Bovicola caprae, Bovicola limbatus and Linognathus africanus. Sucking and biting lice were found in ten of the 12 herds of goats examined. Lice were found on both mature goats and kids. Bovicola caprae and L. africanus were the most common biting and sucking lice respectively in all herds examined. Scanning electron microscopy revealed additional features which aided in the identification of the louse species. Photomicrographs were more accurate aids to identification than the line drawings in the literature and facilitated identification using dissecting microscope.

  1. Chewing lice from wild birds in northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Pedroso Couto Soares, José Bernardo; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kazantzidis, Savas; Literák, Ivan; Sychra, Oldřich

    2017-10-01

    Greece represents an important area for wild birds due to its geographical position and habitat diversity. Although the bird species in Greece are well recorded, the information about the chewing lice that infest them is practically non-existent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to record the species of lice infesting wild birds in northern Greece and furthermore, to associate the infestation prevalence with factors such as the age, sex, migration and social behaviour of the host as well as the time of the year. In total 729 birds, (belonging to 9 orders, 32 families and 68 species) were examined in 7 localities of northern Greece, during 9 ringing sessions from June 2013 until October 2015. Eighty (11%) of the birds were found to be infested with lice. In 31 different bird species, 560 specimens of lice, belonging to 33 species were recorded. Mixed infestations were recorded in 11 cases where birds were infested with 2-3 different lice species. Four new host-parasite associations were recorded i.e. Menacanthus curuccae from Acrocephalus melanopogon, Menacanthus agilis from Cettia cetti, Myrsidea sp. from Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, and Philopretus citrinellae from Spinus spinus. Moreover, Menacanthus sinuatus was detected on Poecile lugubris, rendering this report the first record of louse infestation in this bird species. The statistical analysis of the data collected showed no association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, mean and median intensity and mean abundance) in two different periods of the year (breeding vs post-breeding season). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of infestation between a) migrating and sedentary passerine birds (7.4% vs 13.2%), b) colonial and territorial birds (54.5% vs 9.6%), and c) female and male birds in breeding period (2.6% vs 15.6%). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The rhizome of Reclinomonas americana, Homo sapiens, Pediculus humanus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoult Didier

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondria are thought to have evolved from eubacteria-like endosymbionts; however, the origin of the mitochondrion remains a subject of debate. In this study, we investigated the phenomenon of chimerism in mitochondria to shed light on the origin of these organelles by determining which species played a role in their formation. We used the mitochondria of four distinct organisms, Reclinomonas americana, Homo sapiens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and multichromosome Pediculus humanus, and attempted to identify the origin of each mitochondrial gene. Results Our results suggest that the origin of mitochondrial genes is not limited to the Rickettsiales and that the creation of these genes did not occur in a single event, but through multiple successive events. Some of these events are very old and were followed by events that are more recent and occurred through the addition of elements originating from current species. The points in time that the elements were added and the parental species of each gene in the mitochondrial genome are different to the individual species. These data constitute strong evidence that mitochondria do not have a single common ancestor but likely have numerous ancestors, including proto-Rickettsiales, proto-Rhizobiales and proto-Alphaproteobacteria, as well as current alphaproteobacterial species. The analysis of the multichromosome P. humanus mitochondrion supports this mechanism. Conclusions The most plausible scenario of the origin of the mitochondrion is that ancestors of Rickettsiales and Rhizobiales merged in a proto-eukaryotic cell approximately one billion years ago. The fusion of the Rickettsiales and Rhizobiales cells was followed by gene loss, genomic rearrangements and the addition of alphaproteobacterial elements through ancient and more recent recombination events. Each gene of each of the four studied mitochondria has a different origin, while in some cases, multichromosomes may allow for

  3. Can neem oil help eliminate lice? Randomised controlled trial with and without louse combing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Brown

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neem oil and wet combing with conditioner are both claimed to facilitate elimination of head louse infestation. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether a 1% neem oil lotion showed activity itself and/or enhanced the effectiveness of combing in treating infestation. Methods: We treated 47 participants with 1% neem-based lotion on four occasions 3-4 days apart in a randomised, community based trial, analysed by intention to treat. The participants were randomly divided between two groups: One group used a grooming comb (placebo and the other a head louse detection and removal comb (wet combing with conditioner method to systematically comb the hair. Cure was defined as no lice on both Day 10 and Day 14. Results: The cure rates of 6/24 (25.0% for the placebo comb group and 8/23 (34.8% for the louse comb group were not significantly different. Conclusion: These results indicate that this formulation of neem oil was ineffective in the treatment of head louse infestations, even when accompanied by combing. Both combing methods were also ineffective, despite being implemented throughout by trained professionals.

  4. Chewing Lice of Swan Geese (Anser cygnoides): New Host-Parasite Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.

    2016-01-01

    Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) that parasitize the globally threatened swan goose Anser cygnoides have been long recognized since the early 19th century, but those records were probably biased towards sampling of captive or domestic geese due to the small population size and limited distribution...... of its wild hosts. To better understand the lice species parasitizing swan geese that are endemic to East Asia, we collected chewing lice from 14 wild geese caught at 3 lakes in northeastern Mongolia. The lice were morphologically identified as 16 Trinoton anserinum (Fabricius, 1805), 11 Ornithobius...

  5. Ecomorphology of parasite attachment: experiments with feather lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sarah E; Sohn, Edward; Clayton, Dale H

    2006-02-01

    The host specificity of some parasites can be reinforced by morphological specialization for attachment to mobile hosts. For example, ectoparasites with adaptations for attaching to hosts of a particular size might not be able to remain attached to larger or smaller hosts. This hypothesis is suggested by the positive correlation documented between the body sizes of many parasites and their hosts. We adopted an ecomorphological approach to test the attachment hypothesis. We tested the ability of host-specific feather lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) to attach to 6 novel species of pigeons and doves that vary in size by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. Surprisingly, Rock Pigeon lice (Columbicola columbae) remained attached equally well to all 6 novel host species. We tested the relative importance of 3 factors that could facilitate louse attachment: whole-body insertion, tarsal claw use, and mandible use. Insertion, per se, was not necessary for attachment. However, insertion on coarse feathers of large hosts allowed lice to access feather barbules with their mandibles. Mandible use was a key component of attachment regardless of feather size. Attachment constraints do not appear to reinforce host specificity in this system.

  6. Inventory of lice of mammals and farmyard chicken in North-eastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguini, Mohamed Nadir; Righi, Souad; Zeroual, Fayçal; Saidani, Khelaf; Benakhla, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    Lice are permanent ectoparasites, extremely specific to their hosts. Their great importance in veterinary medicine remain significant, they can cause their direct pathogenic actions like irritability, dermatitis, anemia, decreased weight gain, and milk production. The purpose of this work was to made the first time an inventory of mammalian lice in North-eastern Algeria. Our survey of lice infestation was conducted on several animal species from five provinces of North-eastern Algeria. A total of 57 cattle, 83 sheep, 77 goats, 111 wild boars, and 63 farmyard chickens were examined. The collection of lice was carried out much more in mammals and chickens during the winter period. Lice were collected either manually or using brushing and kept in flasks containing 70% ethanol. The identification of lice was achieved in the laboratory using a binocular loupe. Concerning cattle, 63% and 27% of those examined subjects from Souk-Ahras and Guelma study areas, respectively, were carriers of lice. Damalinia bovis was the louse most frequently found on cattle in these two regions. Three other species were identified in Souk-Ahras: Haematopinus eurysternus (25%), Linognathus vituli (10%), and Solenopotes capillatus (5%). Regarding sheep, 39% and 24% of examined animals in Souk-Ahras and Guelma, were carrying lice. Damalinia ovis was the most frequently encountered lice on sheep in both regions. Linognathus ovillus also was identified in Souk-Ahras, representing 0.3% of the collected lice. Concerning goats, 53% and 30% of examined animals in Souk-Ahras and Guelma, were parasitized of lice. Two species of lice were found: Damalinia caprae and Linognathus africanus . For farmyard chickens, 69% and 100% of the farmyard chicken in Souk-Ahras and Mila were parasitized by lice, respectively. Menopon gallinae was the most frequently encountered louse in farmyard chicken in both regions. Eight other species were identified in Mila and four other species only in Souk-Ahras. Finally, 25

  7. Development of eggs and the planktonic stages of salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) at low temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxaspen, Karin; Næss, Tore

    2000-01-01

    To verify if and to what extent egg and nauplii development of the salmon lice take place during winter, the development from egg to the copepodid stage at 2,3,4,5 and 10°C was examined. Newly extruded egg strings from a winter population of salmon lice were individually placed in 6 ml stagnant

  8. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF SUCKING LICE IN YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-guoGuo; Ti-junQian; Li-junGuo; JingWang; Wen-geDong; LiZhang; Zhi-minMa; andWeiLi

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of investigating 9 counties (towns) in Yunnan Province of China, the species diversity and community structure of sucking lice on the body surface of small mammal hosts are studied in the paper. Species richness (S) is used to stand for the species diversity. The calculation of community diversity index and evenness are based on Shannon-Wiener's method. 2745 small mammals captured from the investigated sites belong to 10 families, 25 genera and 41 species in 5 orders (Rodentia, Insectivora, Scandentia, Logomorpha and Carnivora) while 18165 individuals of sucking lice collected from the body surface of the small mammal hosts are identified into 4 families, 6 genera and 22 species. The species of sucking lice are much less than the species of their hosts. Most species of small mammals have their fixed sucking lice on their body surface. One species of small mammals usually have few species of sucking lice (1 to 4 species). The close species of the hosts in the taxonomy are found to have the same or similar dominant species of sucking lice on their body surface. The results reveal that the species diversity of sucking lice on small mammals is very low with a very simple community structure. The results also imply there may be a close co-evolution relationship between the lice and the hosts.

  9. Size as indicator of origin of salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordhagen, J.R.; Heuch, P.A.; Schram, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) from farmed Atlantic salmon have been implicated in the drastic sea trout and salmon stock declines found in Ireland and Norway. Can salmon lice from farmed and wild fish be distinguished? The hypothesis has been advanced that the treatment of

  10. La Triple Hélice de las TIC en Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Esperanza Ledesma Silva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC contribuyen al crecimiento económico global de un país. El uso de las TIC puede ser una oportunidad para modernizar tanto la gestión de la información como la administración del sistema en los tres sectores de la economía: Gobierno, Universidad y Empresa. El problema identificado es la ausencia de literatura sobre este tema. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo contribuir a resolver este problema y responder a la pregunta: ¿Cuáles son las interrelaciones entre el gobierno, las universidades y las empresas en el uso de las TIC en Ecuador? La metodología utilizada es el modelo de la Triple Hélice, con el fin de analizar las interacciones entre los tres sectores mencionados. Entre las principales conclusiones están: La primera hélice, Gobierno-Universidad, incluye la planificación pública en materia de TIC que se caracteriza por ser vertical, centralizada y excluyente, lo cual se puede observar por la falta de participación de los actores que intervienen en la formulación de proyectos y políticas relacionadas con las TIC y su aplicación.  En la segunda hélice, Gobierno-Empresa, existe la necesidad de invertir en las TIC, especialmente en el sector rural, con el fin de motivar la participación respectiva de la empresa privada y el gobierno. La tercera hélice, Empresa-Universidad, se expresa en la necesidad de conformar una comunidad 2.0 en las universidades que contribuya a la mejora del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje a través de la compartición e intercambio de información relevante entre los docentes, estudiantes y su entorno.

  11. Vertical transmission of feather lice between adult blackbirds Turdus merula and their nestlings: a lousy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, M de L

    2010-12-01

    There is limited information about the natural history of the transmission of feather lice (Phthiraptera) from parent birds to their young. This article therefore examines the transmission of 4 species of feather lice from parent blackbirds to their nestlings in an English population, and addresses questions formulated from the perspective of the lice. The lice that disperse onto the several young in the nest were mostly found on the larger chicks, those with higher survival prospects. The lice dispersing to chicks were overwhelmingly nymphs, which cannot be sexed morphologically, and so the prediction that the adult lice dispersing would be disproportionately female, potential founders of a new population, was only supported for the most numerous species, Brueelia merulensis. There was no evidence that louse dispersal to chicks was density dependent and more likely when the parents were more heavily infested. Finally, I predicted that lice might aggregate on female blackbirds, which undertake more brooding, to increase their chance of transmission to nestlings. For 1 louse species, B. merulensis, prevalence, but not louse intensity, was higher on female than male blackbirds. For 2 other louse species, Philopterus turdi and Menacanthus eurysternus, no differences between male and female blackbirds were detected.

  12. Synergistic activity of antibiotics combined with ivermectin to kill body lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaré, Abdoul Karim; Rolain, Jean Marc; Gaudart, Jean; Weber, Pascal; Raoult, Didier

    2016-03-01

    Ivermectin and doxycycline have been found to be independently effective in killing body lice. In this study, 450 body lice were artificially fed on a Parafilm™ membrane with human blood associated with antibiotics (doxycycline, erythromycin, rifampicin and azithromycin) alone and in combination with ivermectin. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation and spectral deconvolution were performed to evaluate bacterial transcriptional activity following antibiotic intake by the lice. In the first series, a lethal effect of antibiotics on lice was observed compared with the control group at 18 days (log-rank test, P≤10(-3)), with a significant difference between groups in the production of nits (P=0.019, Kruskal-Wallis test). A high lethal effect of ivermectin alone (50ng/mL) was observed compared with the control group (log-rank test, P≤10(-3)). Fluorescence of bacteriocytes in lice treated with 20μg/mL doxycycline was lower than in untreated lice (PKruskal-Wallis test). In the second series with antibiotic-ivermectin combinations, a synergistic lethal effect on treated lice (log-rank test, PKruskal-Wallis test). Additionally, survival of lice in the combination treatment groups compared with ivermectin alone was significant (log-rank test, P=0.0008). These data demonstrate that the synergistic effect of combinations of antibiotics and ivermectin could be used to achieve complete eradication of lice and to avoid selection of a resistant louse population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  13. Rates of genomic divergence in humans, chimpanzees and their lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin P; Allen, Julie M; Olds, Brett P; Mugisha, Lawrence; Reed, David L; Paige, Ken N; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2014-02-22

    The rate of DNA mutation and divergence is highly variable across the tree of life. However, the reasons underlying this variation are not well understood. Comparing the rates of genetic changes between hosts and parasite lineages that diverged at the same time is one way to begin to understand differences in genetic mutation and substitution rates. Such studies have indicated that the rate of genetic divergence in parasites is often faster than that of their hosts when comparing single genes. However, the variation in this relative rate of molecular evolution across different genes in the genome is unknown. We compared the rate of DNA sequence divergence between humans, chimpanzees and their ectoparasitic lice for 1534 protein-coding genes across their genomes. The rate of DNA substitution in these orthologous genes was on average 14 times faster for lice than for humans and chimpanzees. In addition, these rates were positively correlated across genes. Because this correlation only occurred for substitutions that changed the amino acid, this pattern is probably produced by similar functional constraints across the same genes in humans, chimpanzees and their ectoparasites.

  14. A field efficacy evaluation of emamectin benzoate for the control of sea lice on Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R; MacPhee, D; Katz, T; Endris, R

    2000-08-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of emamectin benzoate, 0.2% aquaculture premix, against sea lice on Atlantic salmon in eastern Canada. Salmon pens received either emamectin benzoate, orally, in feed at 50 micrograms/kg body weight/day for 7 consecutive days, or the same diet with no added medication. The site veterinarian had the option of administering a bath treatment with azamethiphos to any pen in the trial. The mean number of lice per fish was lower (P emamectin benzoate was palatable and highly effective for control of sea lice on salmon.

  15. Solanum trilobatum extract-mediated synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to control Pediculus humanus capitis, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Anopheles subpictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Elango, Gandhi; Arora, Pooja; Karthikeyan, Rajan; Manikandan, Sivan; Jose, Sujin

    2014-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in paints, printing ink, rubber, paper, cosmetics, sunscreens, car materials, cleaning air products, industrial photocatalytic processes, and decomposing organic matters in wastewater due to their unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. The present study was conducted to assess the antiparasitic efficacies of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Solanum trilobatum against the adult head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae); larvae of cattle tick Hyalomma anatolicum (a.) anatolicum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae), and fourth instar larvae of malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed that the particles were in the form of nanocrystals as evidenced by the major peaks at 2θ values of 27.52°, 36.21°, and 54.43° identified as 110, 101, and 211 reflections, respectively. FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,466 cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. SEM images displayed NPs that were spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates with an average size of 70 nm. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered a three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The pediculocidal and acaricidal activities of synthesized TiO2 NPs showed the percent mortality of 31, 42, 63, 82, 100; 36, 44, 67, 89, and 100 at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg/L, respectively, against P. h. capitis and H. a. anatolicum. The average larval percent mortality of synthesized TiO2 NPs was 38, 47, 66, 79, and 100 at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mg/L, respectively, against A. subpictus

  16. Bird Lice (Mallophaga, Philopteridae, Menoponidae of Domestic Pigeons on Specialized Pigeon Breeding Farms in Poltava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomak I. O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The species composition of pigeon lice parasitic on pigeons of ornamental breeds on the specialized closed-type farm (Poltava was studied. Five species of these ectoparasites were registered: Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758, Campanulotes compar Burmeister, 1838, (Philopteridae, Ischnocera, Bonomiella columbae Emerson, 1957, Hohorstiella lata Piaget, 1880 and Neocolpocephalus turbinatum (Denny, 1842 (Menoponidae, Amblycera. For each species, the data on infection prevalence, intensity and abundance were obtained. High prevalence of infection was registered for all pigeon lice species, while the intensity and, especially, the abundance were considerably different. C. columbae turned out to be the most abundant. B. columbae was rather common. The peculiarities of pigeon lice species localization on the host body were investigated. During the intensive infection of pigeons with lice, the complex of clinical signs is manifested, which testifies about considerable effect of these parasites on the host. The highest pathogenicity is characteristic for H. lata, which usually feeds on blood and lymph.

  17. A Study of Fish Lice (Argulus Sp.) Infection in Freshwater Food Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Aalberg K.; Koščová L.; Šmiga Ľ.; Košuth P.; Koščo J.; Oros M.; Barčák D.; Lazar P.

    2016-01-01

    Argulus sp., commonly referred to as fish lice, are crustacean ectoparasites of fishes. The hematophagous parasites attach to and feed off the integument of their hosts. Outbreaks of epizootics have been reported worldwide, causing mass mortalities and having serious economic implications for fish farms and culture efforts. Argulus fish lice may also serve as vectors of infectious diseases and as intermediate hosts of other parasites. Two native European species, A. foliaceus and A. coregoni,...

  18. New records and a new species of chewing lice (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera found on Columbidae (Columbiformes in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Naz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The chewing lice (Phthiraptera of Columbidae (Columbiformes from Pakistan are studied. Six species of chewing lice with new host records are recorded and one new species of the genus Colpocephalum is described from Columba livia in the Karachi region. All the columbid chewing lice from Pakistan are keyed out and the new species is illustrated and compared with the closest allied species.

  19. Predicting the effectiveness of depth-based technologies to prevent salmon lice infection using a dispersal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsing, Francisca; Johnsen, Ingrid; Stien, Lars Helge; Oppedal, Frode; Albretsen, Jon; Asplin, Lars; Dempster, Tim

    2016-07-01

    Salmon lice is one of the major parasitic problems affecting wild and farmed salmonid species. The planktonic larval stages of these marine parasites can survive for extended periods without a host and are transported long distances by water masses. Salmon lice larvae have limited swimming capacity, but can influence their horizontal transport by vertical positioning. Here, we adapted a coupled biological-physical model to calculate the distribution of farm-produced salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) during winter in the southwest coast of Norway. We tested 4 model simulations to see which best represented empirical data from two sources: (1) observed lice infection levels reported by farms; and (2) experimental data from a vertical exposure experiment where fish were forced to swim at different depths with a lice-barrier technology. Model simulations tested were different development time to the infective stage (35 or 50°-days), with or without the presence of temperature-controlled vertical behaviour of lice early planktonic stages (naupliar stages). The best model fit occurred with a 35°-day development time to the infective stage, and temperature-controlled vertical behaviour. We applied this model to predict the effectiveness of depth-based preventive lice-barrier technologies. Both simulated and experimental data revealed that hindering fish from swimming close to the surface efficiently reduced lice infection. Moreover, while our model simulation predicted that this preventive technology is widely applicable, its effectiveness will depend on environmental conditions. Low salinity surface waters reduce the effectiveness of this technology because salmon lice avoid these conditions, and can encounter the fish as they sink deeper in the water column. Correctly parameterized and validated salmon lice dispersal models can predict the impact of preventive approaches to control this parasite and become an essential tool in lice management strategies. Copyright

  20. The drivers of sea lice management policies and how best to integrate them into a risk management strategy: An ecosystem approach to sea lice management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D; Moberg, O; Stenevik Djupevåg, E M; Kane, F; Hareide, H

    2018-06-01

    The control of sea lice infestations on cultivated Atlantic salmon is a major issue in many regions of the world. The numerous drivers which shape the priorities and objectives of the control strategies vary for different regions/jurisdictions. These range from the animal welfare and economic priorities of the producers, to the mitigation of any potential impacts on wild stocks. Veterinary ethics, environmental impacts of therapeutants, and impacts for organic certification of the produce are, amongst others, additional sets of factors which should be considered. Current best practice in both EU and international environmental law advocates a holistic ecosystem approach to assessment of impacts and risks. The issues of biosecurity and ethics, including the impacts on the stocks of species used as cleaner fish, are areas for inclusion in such a holistic ecosystem assessment. The Drivers, Pressures, State, Impacts, Responses (DPSIR) process is examined as a decision-making framework and potential applications to sea lice management are outlined. It is argued that this is required to underpin any integrated sea lice management (ISLM) strategy to balance pressures and outcomes and ensure a holistic approach to managing the issue of sea lice infestations on farmed stock on a medium to long-term basis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Fish Diseases Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Chewing lice of swan geese (Anser cygnoides): New host-parasite associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Smith, Lacy M.; Ely, Craig R.; Fox, Anthony D.; Cao, Lei; Wang, Xin; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmayadag; Xiao, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) that parasitize the globally threatened swan goose Anser cygnoides have been long recognized since the early 19th century, but those records were probably biased towards sampling of captive or domestic geese due to the small population size and limited distribution of its wild hosts. To better understand the lice species parasitizing swan geese that are endemic to East Asia, we collected chewing lice from 14 wild geese caught at 3 lakes in northeastern Mongolia. The lice were morphologically identified as 16 Trinoton anserinum (Fabricius, 1805), 11 Ornithobius domesticus Arnold, 2005, and 1 Anaticola anseris (Linnaeus, 1758). These species are known from other geese and swans, but all of them were new to the swan goose. This result also indicates no overlap in lice species between older records and our findings from wild birds. Thus, ectoparasites collected from domestic or captive animals may provide biased information on the occurrence, prevalence, host selection, and host-ectoparasite interactions from those on wild hosts.

  2. Heads Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connect with Us HEADS UP Apps Reshaping the Culture Around Concussion in Sports Get HEADS UP on Your Web Site Concussion ... HEADS UP on your web site! Create a culture of safety for young athletes Officials, learn how you can ... UP to Providers HEADS UP to Youth Sports HEADS UP to School Sports HEADS UP to ...

  3. A field efficacy evaluation of emamectin benzoate for the control of sea lice on Atlantic salmon.

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, R; MacPhee, D; Katz, T; Endris, R

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of emamectin benzoate, 0.2% aquaculture premix, against sea lice on Atlantic salmon in eastern Canada. Salmon pens received either emamectin benzoate, orally, in feed at 50 micrograms/kg body weight/day for 7 consecutive days, or the same diet with no added medication. The site veterinarian had the option of administering a bath treatment with azamethiphos to any pen in the trial. The mean number of lice per fish was lower (P < 0.05) in the experimental group...

  4. Evaluation of emamectin benzoate and substance EX against salmon lice in sea-ranched Atlantic salmon smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilbrei, Ove Tommy; Espedal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Garcia, Enrique Perez; Glover, Kevin A

    2015-04-08

    Experimental releases of Atlantic salmon smolts treated with emamectin benzoate (EB) against salmon lice have previously been used to estimate the significance of salmon lice on the survival of migrating smolts. In recent years, the salmon louse has developed reduced sensitivity to EB, which may influence the results of such release experiments. We therefore tested the use of 2 anti-lice drugs: EB was administered to salmon smolts in high doses by intra-peritoneal injection and the prophylactic substance EX (SubEX) was administered by bathing. A third, untreated control group was also established. Salmon were challenged with copepodids of 2 strains of salmon lice (1 EB-sensitive strain and 1 with reduced EB-sensitivity) in mixed-group experimental tanks. At 31 d post-challenge, the numbers of pre-adult lice on treated fish were around 20% compared with the control fish, with minor or no differences between the 2 treatments and lice strains. Both treatments therefore appeared to give the smolts a high degree of protection against infestation of copepodids of salmon lice. However, significantly lower growth of the EB-treatment group indicates that bathing the fish in SubEX is less stressful for smolts than intra-peritoneal injection of EB.

  5. A fixed-dose approach to conducting emamectin benzoate tolerance assessments on field-collected sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, S K; Westcott, J D; Elmoslemany, A; Hammell, K L; Revie, C W

    2013-03-01

    In New Brunswick, Canada, the sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, poses an on-going management challenge to the health and productivity of commercially cultured Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. While the in-feed medication, emamectin benzoate (SLICE® ; Merck), has been highly effective for many years, evidence of increased tolerance has been observed in the field since late 2008. Although bioassays on motile stages are a common tool to monitor sea lice sensitivity to emamectin benzoate in field-collected sea lice, they require the collection of large numbers of sea lice due to inherent natural variability in the gender and stage response to chemotherapeutants. In addition, sensitive instruments such as EC(50) analysis may be unnecessarily complex to characterize susceptibility subsequent to a significant observed decline in efficacy. This study proposes an adaptation of the traditional, dose-response format bioassay to a fixed-dose method. Analysis of 657 bioassays on preadult and adult stages of sea lice over the period 2008-2011 indicated a population of sea lice in New Brunswick with varying degrees of susceptibility to emamectin benzoate. A seasonal and spatial effect was observed in the robustness of genders and stages of sea lice, which suggest that mixing different genders and stages of lice within a single bioassay may result in pertinent information being overlooked. Poor survival of adult female lice in bioassays, particularly during May/June, indicates it may be prudent to consider excluding this stage from bioassays conducted at certain times of the year. This work demonstrates that fixed-dose bioassays can be a valuable technique in detecting reduced sensitivity in sea lice populations with varying degrees of susceptibility to emamectin benzoate treatments. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. The treatment and eradication of sheep lice and ked with cyhalothrin--a new synthetic pyrethroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J C; Forsyth, B A

    1984-12-01

    A new synthetic pyrethroid, cyhalothrin, has been evaluated as both a sheep dip and a jetting fluid for the control of body lice (Damalinia ovis), face lice (Linognathus ovillus), foot lice (Linognathus pedalis) and the sheep ked (Melophagus ovinus). A dip wash concentration of 1.25 ppm cyhalothrin eradicated D. ovis from sheep. A jetting fluid at a concentration of 20 ppm also eradicated D. ovis. In the field cyhalothrin was evaluated at 20 ppm as a dip wash and at 50 ppm as a jetting fluid. These field trials confirmed the ability of cyhalothrin to eradicate D. ovis from short and long-woolled sheep. The sucking lice, L. ovillus and L. pedalis, were also found to be very susceptible to cyhalothrin at a dip wash concentration of 20 ppm, but it was necessary to treat the predilection sites infested by these parasites twice within a 3-week period to achieve their eradication. Sheep ked (M. ovinus) were eradicated from an infected flock of sheep after plunge dipping in cyhalothrin at 20 ppm.

  7. El coeficiente de eficacia del humo de sílice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaejos Gutiérrez, M. Pilar

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Silica fume is a pozzolanic addition specially used to get high resistance concrete. Present Spanish standards on additives dictate that silica fumes have to comply with specific requirements when used as concrete addition. Once it has been proved they comply with those requirements, microsilicas of different characteristics can be used, which influence concrete properties in different ways. This paper discloses the experimental results obtained in the Central Laboratory of Structures and Materials of the CEDEX with three microsilicas from different sources. Through the results it has been observed that the coefficient of efficiency of silica fume can have very different values, although complying with the standards in force. The value of this coefficient of efficiency is compared to the one included in text of the future EHE.

    El humo de sílice es una adición de carácter puzolánico que se utiliza fundamentalmente para conseguir hormigones de alta resistencia. La normativa española actual de adiciones exige que el humo de sílice cumpla unos requisitos determinados para poder utilizarse como adición al hormigón. Cumpliendo estos requisitos, pueden utilizarse microsílices de características distintas que influyen de distinta manera en las propiedades del hormigón. La ponencia expone los resultados experimentales obtenidos en el Laboratorio Central de Estructuras y Materiales del CEDEX con tres microsílices de diferente procedencia. Los resultados han permitido determinar que el coeficiente de eficacia del humo de sílice puede tener valores muy diferentes, incluso con adiciones que cumplan la normativa vigente. Se compara el valor de este coeficiente de eficacia con el incluido en el texto de la futura EHE.

  8. Optimization and field use of a bioassay to monitor sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis sensitivity to emamectin benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Jillian D; Stryhn, Henrik; Burka, John F; Hammell, K Larry

    2008-04-01

    A bioassay for sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis sensitivity towards emamectin benzoate (EMB) was validated for field use. A probit regression model with natural responsiveness was used for the number of affected (moribund or dead) sea lice in bioassays involving different concentrations of EMB. Bioassay optimization included an evaluation of the inter-rater reliability of sea lice responsiveness to EMB and an evaluation of gender-related differences in susceptibility. Adoption of a set of bioassay response criteria improved the concordance (evaluated using the concordance correlation coefficient) between raters' assessments and the model estimation of EC50 values (the 'effective concentration' leading to a response of 50% of the lice not prone to natural response). An evaluation of gender-related differences in EMB susceptibility indicated that preadult stage female sea lice exhibited a significantly larger sensitivity towards EMB in 12 of 19 bioassays compared to preadult males. In order to evaluate sea lice sensitivity to EMB in eastern Canada, the intensive salmon farming area in the Bay of Fundy in southwestern New Brunswick was divided into 4 distinct regions based on industry health management practices and hydrographics. A total of 38 bioassays were completed from 2002 to 2005 using populations of preadult stage sea lice collected from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar farms within the 4 described regions. There was no significant overall effect of region or year on EC50 values; however, analysis of variance indicated a significant effect of time of year on EC50 values in 2002 and a potential effect in 2004 to 2005. Although the range of EC50 values obtained in this 3 yr study did not appear sufficient to affect current clinical success in the control of sea lice, the results suggest a seasonal- or temperature-associated variation in sensitivity to EMB. This will need to be considered if changes in EMB efficacy occur in the future.

  9. Strategické plánování rozvoje města Domažlice

    OpenAIRE

    JANSOVÁ, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the thesis "Strategic urban development planning of the town Domažlice" was to evaluate entire process of preparation, creation and implementation of the strategic plan of the municipality. The theoretical part reviews scientific literature focused on strategic planning and the characteristics of the strategic plan. Practical part contains analysis of Strategic Development Plan of the town Domažlice.

  10. The Use of GIS Methodology in Jumping Plant Lice (Hemiptera: Psylloidae Studies in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušanka Jerinić-Prodanović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomofaunistic studies contain a large number of data regarding the number ofcollected species, the number of individuals within species, time of collection, localities,species biology and morphology natural enemies and hosts. Besides thematic andtemporal components this kind of studies include spatial component which is crucialfor the use of GIS methodology and advanced possibilities of geospatial analysis. Duringour studies on jumping plant lice (Psylloidea fauna and their natural enemies on theterritory of Serbia which lasted for several years, a large number of spatially referenceddata related to this group of insects were collected. The process of collecting, archivingand classifying the data on each species was improved by applying the GIS methodologicalapproach after which the data were entered into database. The analysis of datausing thematic and spatial queries, as well as graphic, numeric and textual display of theresults from studies enabled simpler and more complete survey of horizontal and verticaldistribution of jumping plant lice, their biology and relationship with plants, predatorsand parasitoids.

  11. Effect of exposure on salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis population dynamics in Faroese salmon farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patursson, Esbern J.; Simonsen, Knud; Visser, Andre

    2017-01-01

    We assessed variations in salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis population dynamics in Faroese salmon farms in relationship to their physical exposure to local circulation patterns and flushing with adjacent waters. Factors used in this study to quantify physical exposure are estimates...... of the freshwater exchange rate, the tidal exchange rate and dispersion by tidal currents. Salmon farms were ranked according to the rate of increase in the average numbers of salmon lice per fish. In a multiple linear regression, physical exposure together with temperature were shown to have a significant effect...... threshold of salmon stocking numbers for outbreaks of infection. The study presents a simple method of characterizing salmon farming fjords in terms of their different exposure levels and how they relate to potential self-infection at these sites...

  12. Chewing lice Trichodectes pinguis pinguis in Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Fandos Esteruelas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In April 2014 and 2015, we noted localized alopecia (neck, forelimbs, and chest and hyperpigmentation on two adult brown bears (Ursus arctos captured in central-south Sweden for ecological studies under the Scandinavian Brown Bear Research Project. In spring 2015, a brown bear was shot because of human-wildlife conflict in the same region. This bear also had extensive alopecia and hyperpigmentation. Ectoparasites were collected from the affected skin areas in all three individuals and preserved in ethanol for identification. Based on morphological characteristics, the lice were identified as Trichodectes spp. and Trichodectes pinguis pinguis. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of chewing lice in free-ranging brown bears in Scandinavia.

  13. Informe higiénico de polvo de sílice y de amianto

    OpenAIRE

    Roca Ruiz, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Informe de una medición de amianto y de polvo de sílice, modelo de un plan de prevención de riesgos laborales. Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Tecnología del Medio Ambiente Máster en Gestión de la Prevención de Riesgos Laborales, Calidad y Medio Ambiente

  14. Two new records of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) on Leptotila megalura (Aves: Columbidae) from Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Guardia, Leonor

    2008-01-01

    Dos especies de piojos masticadores (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae), Physconelloides ceratoceps Ewing y Columbicola gracilicapitis Carriker, son registradas por primera vez sobre Leptotila megalura Sclater & Salvin ("yerutí yungueña") (Aves: Columbidae). Además, C. gracilicapitis es citada por primera vez para la Argentina.Two species of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae), Physconelloides ceratoceps Ewing and Columbicola gracilicapitis Carriker are recorded for t...

  15. Actividad antinflamatoria de extractos y fracciones obtenidas de cálices de Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Franco

    2007-03-01

    Conclusión. Este estudio confirma la actividad antinflamatoria atribuida a los cálices de Physalis peruviana y también valida su uso en la medicina popular. Se identificaron las principales fracciones responsables de la actividad antinflamatoria, las cuales parecen ser promisorias para el desarrollo de fitopreparados. Se requieren estudios posteriores para aislar e identificar los compuestos responsables de la actividad y también para investigar el mecanismo involucrado en el efecto antinflamatorio observado.

  16. Seasonal infestation of donkeys by lice: phenology, risk factors and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellse, L; Burden, F A; Wall, R

    2014-07-14

    A longitudinal study was undertaken over a 21 months period to examine the seasonal abundance of lice infesting donkeys, the risk factors which predispose donkeys to infestation and the effectiveness of louse management. All the lice seen were Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus. A strong seasonal pattern, which was correlated with mean monthly temperature, was observed with higher prevalence and intensity in the cooler, winter months (October-March). Overall infestation in these animals was over-dispersed, suggesting that some individuals are strongly predisposed to infestation. Donkey age and mean hair length were characteristics which affected louse prevalence: older and younger donkeys and donkeys with longer hair harboured the highest numbers of lice. However, the practice of coat-clipping, to reduce the infestation, resulted in a lower louse prevalence only in the summer, suggesting that clipping is not an effective form of louse control in cooler months. Higher louse burdens were associated with larger areas of visible excoriation and hair damage, suggesting that B. ocellatus does adversely impact animal welfare. However, the ability of animal carers to estimate louse presence or absence accurately on an individual donkey was not sufficiently high to allow targeted selective treatment of heavily infested animals to be employed effectively. As animals are housed in closed herds these findings suggest that clipping in the summer and treating all animals with insecticide in late autumn, prior to turn-in may be an effective louse management strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of permethrin-impregnated underwear on body lice in sheltered homeless persons: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkouiten, Samir; Drali, Rezak; Badiaga, Sékéné; Veracx, Aurélie; Giorgi, Roch; Raoult, Didier; Brouqui, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    The control of body lice in homeless persons remains a challenge. To determine whether the use of long-lasting insecticide-treated underwear provides effective long-term protection against body lice in homeless persons. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in February and December 2011 in 2 homeless shelters (Madrague Ville and Forbin) in Marseille, France. Of the 125 homeless persons screened for eligibility, 73 body lice-infested homeless persons, 18 years or older, were enrolled. Body lice-infested homeless persons were randomly assigned to receive 0.4% permethrin-impregnated underwear or an identical-appearing placebo for 45 days, in a 1:1 ratio, with a permuted block size of 10. Visits were scheduled at days 14 and 45. Data regarding the presence or absence of live body lice were collected. The primary and secondary end points were the proportions of homeless persons free of body lice on days 14 and 45, respectively. Mutations associated with permethrin resistance in the body lice were also identified. Significantly more homeless persons receiving permethrin-impregnated underwear than homeless persons receiving the placebo were free of body lice on day 14 in the intent-to-treat population (28% vs 9%; P = .04), with a between-group difference of 18.4 percentage points (95% CI, 1.4-35.4), and in the per-protocol population (34% vs 11%; P = .03), with a between-group difference of 23.7 percentage points (95% CI, 3.6-43.7). This difference was not sustained on day 45. At baseline, the prevalence of the permethrin-resistant haplotype was 51% in the permethrin group and 44% in the placebo group. On day 45, the permethrin-resistant haplotype was significantly more frequent in the permethrin group than in the placebo group (73% vs 45%, P < .001). Permethrin-impregnated underwear is more efficient than placebo at eliminating body louse infestations by day 14; however, this difference was not sustained on day 45. The use of permethrin

  18. Considerations in developing an integrated pest management programme for control of sea lice on farmed salmon in Pacific Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, K M

    2009-01-01

    In the development of integrated pest management (IPM) plans for the control of sea lice there are some components that are common to many areas. However, effective plans must be tailored to regionally varying environmental and biological factors affecting the severity of sea lice infections. This paper describes factors that would be involved in the development of an IPM plan for sea lice in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. Temperature, salinity and currents affect the production, dispersion and competence of larvae of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer), as they develop to the infective copepodid stage. This information can be coupled with oceanographic conditions in the Broughton Archipelago and emerging computer models to define zones of infection where infections of new hosts are most likely. Salinity and temperature depend, in part, on river discharge in estuarine systems. River discharge depends on precipitation, snow pack and ambient temperatures, which can be monitored to help forecast the intensity of sea lice infections associated with both farmed and wild hosts. One of the goals of IPM planning is to reduce reliance on pesticides to avoid development of resistance in targeted parasites and to minimize environmental residues. Recommendations for developing an IPM plan specific to the Broughton Archipelago are provided along with a discussion of the additional information needed to refine IPM plans in this and other areas.

  19. Transcriptomic responses to emamectin benzoate in Pacific and Atlantic Canada salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis with differing levels of drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Ben J G; Poley, Jordan D; Igboeli, Okechukwu O; Jantzen, Johanna R; Fast, Mark D; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-02-01

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis are an ecologically and economically important parasite of wild and farmed salmon. In Scotland, Norway, and Eastern Canada, L. salmonis have developed resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB), one of the few parasiticides available for salmon lice. Drug resistance mechanisms can be complex, potentially differing among populations and involving multiple genes with additive effects (i.e., polygenic resistance). Indicators of resistance development may enable early detection and countermeasures to avoid the spread of resistance. Here, we collect sensitive Pacific L. salmonis and sensitive and resistant Atlantic L. salmonis from salmon farms, propagate in laboratory (F1), expose to EMB in bioassays, and evaluate either baseline (Atlantic only) or induced transcriptomic differences between populations. In all populations, induced responses were minor and a cellular stress response was not identified. Pacific lice did not upregulate any genes in response to EMB, but downregulated degradative enzymes and transport proteins at 50 ppb EMB. Baseline differences between sensitive and now resistant Atlantic lice were much greater than responses to exposures. All resistant lice overexpressed degradative enzymes, and resistant males, the most resistant group, overexpressed collagenases to the greatest extent. These results indicate an accumulation of baseline expression differences related to resistance.

  20. Molecular detection of Acinetobacter species in lice and keds of domestic animals in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Parola, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the presence of Acinetobacter and Rickettsia species DNA in lice and Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) of animals from Oromia Regional State in Ethiopia. From September through November 2011, a total of 207 cattle, 85 sheep, 47 dogs and 16 cats were examined for ectoparasites. Results of morphological identification revealed several species of ectoparasites: Linognathus vituli (L. vituli), Bovicola bovis (B. bovis) and Solenopotes capillatus (S. capillatus) on cattle; B. ovis and Melophagus ovinus (M. ovinus) on sheep; and Heterodoxus spiniger (H. spiniger) on dogs. There was a significantly (p≤0.0001) higher prevalence of L. vituli observed in cattle than both S. capillatus and B. bovis. Molecular identification of lice using an 18S rRNA gene analysis confirms the identified lice species by morphological methods. We detected different Acinetobacter species among lice (11.1%) and keds (86.4%) including A. soli in L. vituli of cattle, A. lowffii in M. ovinus of sheep, A. pittii in H. spiniger of dogs, 1 new Acinetobacter spp. in M. ovinus and 2 new Acinetobacter spp. in H. spiniger of dogs using partial rpoB gene sequence analysis. There was a significantly higher prevalence of Acinetobacter spp. in keds than in lice (p≤0.00001). Higher percentage of Acinetobacter spp. DNA was detected in H. spiniger than in both B. ovis and L. vituli (p≤0.00001). Carbapenemase resistance encoding genes for blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-51 were not found in any lice and keds. These findings suggest that synanthropic animals and their ectoparasites might increase the risk of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens and could be a source for Acinetobacter spp. infections in humans. However, additional epidemiological data are required to determine whether ectoparasites of animals can act as environmental reservoirs and play a role in spreading these bacteria to both animal and human hosts.

  1. A Study of Fish Lice (Argulus Sp. Infection in Freshwater Food Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aalberg K.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Argulus sp., commonly referred to as fish lice, are crustacean ectoparasites of fishes. The hematophagous parasites attach to and feed off the integument of their hosts. Outbreaks of epizootics have been reported worldwide, causing mass mortalities and having serious economic implications for fish farms and culture efforts. Argulus fish lice may also serve as vectors of infectious diseases and as intermediate hosts of other parasites. Two native European species, A. foliaceus and A. coregoni, as well as the invasive Japanese fish louse A. japonicus, have previously been recorded in Slovakia. This study investigated samples collected at fish farms and culture sites of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., Pike-perch (Sander lucioperca L. and Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis M. in Eastern Slovakia, as well as samples collected from live fish imported to the Slovak Republic. A quantitative description of the of Argulus sp. was recorded from each locality. Samples from Common carp were identified as the invasive A. japonicus, and samples from Pike-perch and Brook trout were identified as A. foliaceus. Evidence of a mixed infection of Pike-perch with both A. foliaceus and A. japonicus was found in samples from Zemplínska Šírava, which was substantiated by electron microscopic examination. Morphometric characteristics were measured and averages and ranges produced for each species and sex.

  2. A screening of multiple classes of pharmaceutical compounds for effect on preadult salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaen, S M; Horsberg, T E

    2016-10-01

    The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer, is the major obstacle facing a sustainable future for farmers of salmonids in the North Atlantic Ocean. Medicinal compounds have been the most utilized tool to prevent salmon lice infestation; however, the active compounds have become less effective or considered environmentally unfriendly in the past years. Novel medicinal compounds are thus highly desired. In two experiment series, 26 medicinal compounds were screened for their efficacy against salmon lice, in a 30-min exposure and 24-h exposure, respectively. Pyriprole, imidacloprid, cartap and spinetoram were effective at 50 mg L(-1) in the short-time exposure. In the 24-h exposure, pyriprole, propoxur, cartap, imidacloprid, fenoxycarb, pyriproxyfen, nitenpyram, spinetoram, spiromesifen and diflubenzuron induced a high level of immobilization at 5 mg L(-1) . The EC50 values of the effective compounds were calculated in further titration studies for both exposure periods. Several physiological and biochemical pathways were discovered as possible targets for medicinal intervention against the salmon louse. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Evaluating bath treatment effectiveness in the control of sea lice burdens on Atlantic salmon in New Brunswick, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, R; Vanderstichel, R; Boerlage, A S; Revie, C W; Hammell, K L

    2017-07-01

    The use of medicinal bath treatment for sea lice is becoming more common, due to increasing resistance to in-feed treatments with emamectin benzoate. Common treatment modalities in New Brunswick, Canada, include Salmosan administered by tarpaulin or wellboat, and Paramove administered by wellboat. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of these treatment modalities in the field between 2010 and 2015 using a web-based sea lice data management system (Fish-iTrends © ). Effectiveness was evaluated for adult female (AF) and for pre-adult and adult male (PAAM) life stages separately. We also investigated the impact of variability in pretreatment lead and post-treatment lag time on effectiveness measures. There were 1185 treatment events at 57 farms that uniquely matched our pre- and post-treatment count criteria. The effectiveness of treatment modality was significantly influenced by season, pretreatment level of sea lice and by lead and lag times. In summer, Salmosan administered by tarpaulin had the greatest effectiveness on both AF and PAAM, when pretreatment levels were above 10 sea lice; whereas in autumn, the performance of treatment modalities varied significantly, depending on the pretreatment levels for the life stages. Ignoring the lead or lag time effect generally resulted in an underestimation of treatment effectiveness. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Commercial trials using emamectin benzoate to control sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis infestations in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J; Sutherland, I H; Sommerville, C; Richards, R H; Varma, K J

    2000-06-19

    Two trials were conducted at commercial salmon farms to evaluate the efficacy of emamectin benzoate (Slice, 0.2% aquaculture pre-mix, Schering-Plough Animal Health) as a treatment for sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer) and Caligus elongatus Nordmann infestations in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. Trials were carried out in 15 m2 commercial sea pens, at temperatures of 5.5 to 7.5 degrees C and 10.8 to 13.8 degrees C. Each pen was stocked with 14,000 to 17,500 fish with mean weights of 0.44 to 0.74 and 1.33 to 1.83 kg. Fish were naturally infested with sea lice at the start of each trial. At Day -1, samples of 10 or 15 fish were taken from each pen to determine pre-treatment numbers of lice. Emamectin benzoate was administered in feed, to 4 replicate pens, at a dose of 50 micrograms kg-1 biomass d-1 for 7 consecutive days (Days 0 to 6). Sea lice were counted again, between Days 7 and 77, and comparisons made with untreated control fish. Despite adverse weather conditions, wide variations in fish weights and exposure to new infestations, treatment was effective against chalimus and motile stages of L. salmonis. In the autumn trial, efficacy at Day 27 was 89%, and lice numbers remained lower on treated fish than on control fish 64 d from the start of treatment. In the winter trial, reductions in lice numbers at low temperatures were slower but good efficacy was achieved by Day 35. Although control fish had to be treated with hydrogen peroxide at Day 21, fish treated only with emamectin benzoate on Days 0 to 6 still had 89% fewer lice than control fish at Day 35. There were very few C. elongatus present, but at the end of both trials numbers were lower on treated fish. No adverse effects were associated with treatment of fish with emamectin benzoate.

  5. Mapping the social network: tracking lice in a wild primate (Microcebus rufus population to infer social contacts and vector potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohdy Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of host-parasite interactions have the potential to provide insights into the ecology of both organisms involved. We monitored the movement of sucking lice (Lemurpediculus verruculosus, parasites that require direct host-host contact to be transferred, in their host population of wild mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus. These lemurs live in the rainforests of Madagascar, are small (40 g, arboreal, nocturnal, solitary foraging primates for which data on population-wide interactions are difficult to obtain. We developed a simple, cost effective method exploiting the intimate relationship between louse and lemur, whereby individual lice were marked, without removal from their host, with an individualized code, and tracked throughout the lemur population. We then tested the hypotheses that 1 the frequency of louse transfers, and thus interactions, would decrease with increasing distance between paired individual lemurs; 2 due to host polygynandry, social interactions and hence louse transfers would increase during the onset of the breeding season; and 3 individual mouse lemurs would vary in their contributions to the spread of lice. Results We show that louse transfers involved 43.75% of the studied lemur population, exclusively males. Louse transfers peaked during the breeding season, perhaps due to increased social interactions between lemurs. Although trap-based individual lemur ranging patterns are restricted, louse transfer rate does not correlate with the distance between lemur trapping locales, indicating wider host ranging behavior and a greater risk of rapid population-wide pathogen transmission than predicted by standard trapping data alone. Furthermore, relatively few lemur individuals contributed disproportionately to the rapid spread of lice throughout the population. Conclusions Using a simple method, we were able to visualize exchanges of lice in a population of cryptic wild primates. This method not only

  6. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a severe blow to the head can still knock the brain into the side of the skull ... following certain precautions and taking a break from sports and other activities that make symptoms worse. Playing ...

  7. Determinación de sílice libre en materias primas para la industria del cemento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calleja, J.

    1965-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availableLa existencia de sílice libre en las materias primas y, por lo tanto, en los crudos empleados en la fabricación de cemento Portland es desventajosa por la escasa reactividad de esta sílice, sobre todo si no posee una finura suficiente. La determinación de sílice cuarzosa en tales materiales es decisiva para la buena marcha de la clinkerización en fábricas cuyas materias primas adolecen de la desventaja de contenerla. Los métodos propugnados suelen ser poco reproducibles y precisos, y dan resultados bastante erráticos. En el presente trabajo, y después de haber ensayado diversos métodos citados en la bibliografía, se describe y recomienda un procedimiento, basado en el ataque del material por ácido pirofosfórico. Las variables que juegan en el proceso descrito son el tamaño de grano de la muestra, en particular el de la sílice libre, la temperatura y el tiempo de ataque. En las condiciones que se especifican se consigue una disolución prácticamente total de los silicatos, sin que apenas se· disuelvan las partículas más finas de cuarzo. Con ello se consigue una exactitud y una precisión tal como pone de manifiesto el análisis estadístico de los resultados obtenidos al determinar sílice libre en diversas materias primas y crudos para cemento.

  8. High level efficacy of lufenuron against sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) linked to rapid impact on moulting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, Jordan D; Braden, Laura M; Messmer, Amber M; Igboeli, Okechukwu O; Whyte, Shona K; Macdonald, Alicia; Rodriguez, Jose; Gameiro, Marta; Rufener, Lucien; Bouvier, Jacques; Wadowska, Dorota W; Koop, Ben F; Hosking, Barry C; Fast, Mark D

    2018-03-13

    Drug resistance in the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis is a global issue for Atlantic salmon aquaculture. Multiple resistance has been described across most available compound classes with the exception of the benzoylureas. To target this gap in effective management of L. salmonis and other species of sea lice (e.g. Caligus spp.), Elanco Animal Health is developing an in-feed treatment containing lufenuron (a benzoylurea) to be administered prior to seawater transfer of salmon smolts and to provide long-term protection of salmon against sea lice infestations. Benzoylureas disrupt chitin synthesis, formation, and deposition during all moulting events. However, the mechanism(s) of action are not yet fully understood and most research completed to date has focused on insects. We exposed the first parasitic stage of L. salmonis to 700 ppb lufenuron for three hours and observed over 90% reduction in survival to the chalimus II life stage on the host, as compared to vehicle controls. This agrees with a follow up in vivo administration study on the host, which showed >95% reduction by the chalimus I stage. Transcriptomic responses of salmon lice exposed to lufenuron included genes related to moulting, epithelial differentiation, solute transport, and general developmental processes. Global metabolite profiles also suggest that membrane stability and fluidity is impacted in treated lice. These molecular signals are likely the underpinnings of an abnormal moulting process and cuticle formation observed ultrastructurally using transmission electron microscopy. Treated nauplii-staged lice exhibited multiple abnormalities in the integument, suggesting that the coordinated assembly of the epi- and procuticle is impaired. In all cases, treatment with lufenuron had rapid impacts on L. salmonis development. We describe multiple experiments to characterize the efficacy of lufenuron on eggs, larvae, and parasitic stages of L. salmonis, and provide the most comprehensive

  9. Cristalización de vidrios ricos en sílice preparados mediante sol-gel en el sistema alúmina-circona-sílice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa, M.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization of ZrSiO4 and its evolution with temperature from chemically homogeneous alumina-silica-zirconia powders prepared by sol-gel method from alcoxide mixtures was studied in the silica-rich region. A glass with the same composition was obtained by quenching in water from the melt. The gel-glasses evolution and microstructure were studied by means of XRD, IR and SEM/EDX, in the range of temperatures up to 1650oC. The materials consisted mainly of amorphous phase up to 1200oC, at which partial crystallization of cristobalite was observed. IR spectroscopy analysis showed zircon bands after thermal treatment at 1200oC. The crystallization of zircon and zirconia particles at 1550oC was confirmed by SEM/EDX analysis. At 1650oC the only stable crystalline phase observed after 40 h of thermal treatment was zircon.

    La cristalización de ZrSiO4 y su evolución con la temperatura se ha estudiado en la región rica en sílice, a partir de polvos amorfos y químicamente homogéneos de alumina-sílice-circona, preparados mediante método sol-gel usando mezclas de alcóxidos. Se obtuvo un vidrio con idéntica composición mediante enfriamiento rápido por inmersión en agua del material fundido. La evolución y la microestructura de los vidrios obtenidos se estudió mediante difracción de rayos X, infrarrojos, microscopía electrónica de barrido y análisis químico, en el rango de temperaturas hasta 1650oC. Los materiales están formados principalmente por fase amorfa hasta 1200oC, temperatura a la cual se observa la cristalización parcial de cristobalita. El análisis por espectroscopía de infrarrojos muestra bandas de circón en muestras tratadas térmicamente por encima de 1200oC. Las observaciones mediante microscopía electrónica confirman la cristalización de partículas de circón y circona a 1550oC. A 1650oC la cristobalita ha fundido y la única fase cristalina estable detectada mediante XRD tras 40 h a esta temperatura

  10. Propiedades mecánicas de aerogeles híbridos de sílice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piñero, M.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrids silica aerogels have been obtained by means the high power ultrasounds application in the precursor liquid and the drying of the wet gel under the supercritical condition of ethanol. The organic chains don’t degrade thermally and accelerate the network shrinkage process by thermal activation. The ultrasounds induce an organic chain crosslinking bonding to the porous silica clusters and avoid its cyclidation. The failure tests by uniaxial compression show an increase of the rupture modulus, passing from 8 MPa for a pure silica aerogel to 24 MPa for an aerogel with a 50 weight % of polymer content. It is also noted a continuous decrease of the Young’s modulus with the polymer content (from 100 to 56 MPa. These hybrid aerogels behave as elastomers with up to a 50% strain, showing a decrease in the relaxation viscoelastic modulus.

    Se han obtenido aerogeles híbridos de sílice orgánico-inorgánico por aplicación de ultrasonidos de alta potencia en los precursores líquidos y posterior secado del gel húmedo en condiciones supercríticas en etanol. Las cadenas orgánicas no se degradan térmicamente y aceleran el proceso de contracción de la red por activación térmica. Los ultrasonidos inducen un entrecruzamiento de cadenas orgánicas que unen los cúmulos de sílice porosa y evitan su ciclidación. Los ensayos de ruptura en compresión uniaxial indicaron un aumento del módulo de ruptura, pasando de 8 MPa para el aerogel de sílice pura hasta 24 MPa para un aerogel de 50% en peso de contenido de polímero. Se observa asimismo una disminución continua en el módulo de Young con el contenido de polímero (de 100 a 56 MPa. Estos aerogeles híbridos se comportan como elastómeros con deformaciones de hasta el 50%, mostrando una disminución del módulo de relajación viscoelástica.

  11. Variation in mitochondrial minichromosome composition between blood-sucking lice of the genus Haematopinus that infest horses and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Simon D; Barker, Stephen C; Shao, Renfu

    2014-03-31

    The genus Haematopinus contains 21 species of blood-sucking lice, parasitizing both even-toed ungulates (pigs, cattle, buffalo, antelopes, camels and deer) and odd-toed ungulates (horses, donkeys and zebras). The mitochondrial genomes of the domestic pig louse, Haematopinus suis, and the wild pig louse, Haematopinus apri, have been sequenced recently; both lice have fragmented mitochondrial genomes with 37 genes on nine minichromosomes. To understand whether the composition of mitochondrial minichromosomes and the gene content and gene arrangement of each minichromosome are stable within the genus, we sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the horse louse, Haematopinus asini. We used a PCR-based strategy to amplify four mitochondrial minichromosomes in near full-length, and then amplify the entire coding regions of all of the nine mitochondrial minichromosomes of the horse louse. These amplicons were sequenced with an Illumina Hiseq platform. We identified all of the 37 mitochondrial genes typical of bilateral animals in the horse louse, Haematopinus asini; these genes are on nine circular minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5-5.0 kb in size and consists of a coding region and a non-coding region except R-nad4L-rrnS-C minichromosome, which contains two coding regions and two non-coding regions. Six of the nine minichromosomes of the horse louse have their counterparts in the pig lice with the same gene content and gene arrangement. However, the gene content and arrangement of the other three minichromosomes of the horse louse, including R-nad4L-rrnS-C, are different from that of the other three minichromosomes of the pig lice. Comparison between the horse louse and the pig lice revealed variation in the composition of mitochondrial minichromosomes within the genus Haematopinus, which can be accounted for by gene translocation events between minichromosomes. The current study indicates that inter-minichromosome recombination plays a major role in generating the

  12. Molecular detection of Acinetobacter species in lice and keds of domestic animals in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bersissa Kumsa

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the presence of Acinetobacter and Rickettsia species DNA in lice and Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked of animals from Oromia Regional State in Ethiopia. From September through November 2011, a total of 207 cattle, 85 sheep, 47 dogs and 16 cats were examined for ectoparasites. Results of morphological identification revealed several species of ectoparasites: Linognathus vituli (L. vituli, Bovicola bovis (B. bovis and Solenopotes capillatus (S. capillatus on cattle; B. ovis and Melophagus ovinus (M. ovinus on sheep; and Heterodoxus spiniger (H. spiniger on dogs. There was a significantly (p≤0.0001 higher prevalence of L. vituli observed in cattle than both S. capillatus and B. bovis. Molecular identification of lice using an 18S rRNA gene analysis confirms the identified lice species by morphological methods. We detected different Acinetobacter species among lice (11.1% and keds (86.4% including A. soli in L. vituli of cattle, A. lowffii in M. ovinus of sheep, A. pittii in H. spiniger of dogs, 1 new Acinetobacter spp. in M. ovinus and 2 new Acinetobacter spp. in H. spiniger of dogs using partial rpoB gene sequence analysis. There was a significantly higher prevalence of Acinetobacter spp. in keds than in lice (p≤0.00001. Higher percentage of Acinetobacter spp. DNA was detected in H. spiniger than in both B. ovis and L. vituli (p≤0.00001. Carbapenemase resistance encoding genes for blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-51 were not found in any lice and keds. These findings suggest that synanthropic animals and their ectoparasites might increase the risk of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens and could be a source for Acinetobacter spp. infections in humans. However, additional epidemiological data are required to determine whether ectoparasites of animals can act as environmental reservoirs and play a role in spreading these bacteria to both animal and human hosts.

  13. Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)

  14. Body Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to live in crowded, unclean conditions. They include: War refugees Homeless people Victims of natural disasters Dogs, ... logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. © 1998-2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical ...

  15. Lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) From species of the families Furnariidae, Tyrannidae, Turdidae and icteridae (Aves: Passeriformes) from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    González-Acuña, Daniel; Vergara, Francisco; Moreno, Lucila; Barrientos, Carlos; Ardiles, Karen; Cicchino, Armando

    2006-01-01

    A total of 185 birds (nine captured alive and 176 preserved in a museum), belonging to the families Furnariidae (n=14), Tyrannidae (n=4), Turdidae (n=24) and Icteridae (n=143) (Aves: Passeriformes) were searched for lice (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae, Menoponidae). The species collected and identified were: Furnaricola titicacae Carriker 1949 from Phleocryptes melanops (Vieillot 1817), and Picicola cuniculariae Cicchino 1981 from Geositta rufipennis fasciata (Burmeister 1860) (Furnariidae); Pi...

  16. The Effect of Eradication of Lice on the Occurrence of the Grain Defect Light Flecks and Spots on Cattle Hides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafstad, O; Grønstøl, H

    2001-01-01

    The influence of an eradication programme for lice on the prevalence of light flecks and spots on cattle hides was studied in 33 dairy cattle herds during a period of two and a half years. Lice were eradicated from the main group of herds after 9 to 12 months and the quality of the hides before and after treatment was compared. Hides from slaughtered animals were collected during the study period, tanned and examined with special emphasis on the occurrence of the grain damage light flecks and spots. The prevalence of hides without light flecks and spots increased from 24.2% before treatment to 61.6% after treatment. The prevalence of hides free from the damage increased significantly in all examined anatomical regions. The improvement in hide quality was most marked in the shoulders and neck region which corresponded to the major predilection site of cattle lice. The prevalence of hides with light flecks and spots started to decrease in the first period (2–40 days) after eradication. The changes after treatment suggested that most healing process took place over a period of about 4 months. The eradication programme eliminated the seasonal variation in the prevalence of light flecks and spots which was present before treatment. PMID:11455906

  17. The Effect of Eradication of Lice on the Occurrence of the Grain Defect Light Flecks and Spots on Cattle Hides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grønstøl H

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of an eradication programme for lice on the prevalence of light flecks and spots on cattle hides was studied in 33 dairy cattle herds during a period of two and a half years. Lice were eradicated from the main group of herds after 9 to 12 months and the quality of the hides before and after treatment was compared. Hides from slaughtered animals were collected during the study period, tanned and examined with special emphasis on the occurrence of the grain damage light flecks and spots. The prevalence of hides without light flecks and spots increased from 24.2% before treatment to 61.6% after treatment. The prevalence of hides free from the damage increased significantly in all examined anatomical regions. The improvement in hide quality was most marked in the shoulders and neck region which corresponded to the major predilection site of cattle lice. The prevalence of hides with light flecks and spots started to decrease in the first period (2–40 days after eradication. The changes after treatment suggested that most healing process took place over a period of about 4 months. The eradication programme eliminated the seasonal variation in the prevalence of light flecks and spots which was present before treatment.

  18. Flued head replacement alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetters, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses flued head replacement options. Section 2 discusses complete flued head replacement with a design that eliminates the inaccessible welds. Section 3 discusses alternate flued head support designs that can drastically reduce flued head installation costs. Section 4 describes partial flued head replacement designs. Finally, Section 5 discusses flued head analysis methods. (orig./GL)

  19. Goniometer head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhazairov-Kakhramanov, V.; Berger, V.D.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Zarifov, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The goniometer head is an electromechanical instrument that performs the independent transfer of a testing sample on three coordinate axes (X, Y, Z) within limits of ±8 mm and independent rotation relative of these directions. The instrument comprises a sample holder, bellows component and three electrometer drives. The sample holder rotates around the axes X and Y, and is installed on the central arm which rotates around axis Z. One characteristic of this instrument is its independence which allows its use in any camera for researches in the field of radiation physics. 2 figs

  20. Variation in pre-treatment count lead time and its effect on baseline estimates of cage-level sea lice abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, R; Boerlage, A S; Vanderstichel, R; Revie, C W; Hammell, K L

    2016-11-01

    Treatment efficacy studies typically use pre-treatment sea lice abundance as the baseline. However, the pre-treatment counting window often varies from the day of treatment to several days before treatment. We assessed the effect of lead time on baseline estimates, using historical data (2010-14) from a sea lice data management programme (Fish-iTrends). Data were aggregated at the cage level for three life stages: (i) chalimus, (ii) pre-adult and adult male and (iii) adult female. Sea lice counts were log-transformed, and mean counts by lead time relative to treatment day were computed and compared separately for each life stage, using linear mixed models. There were 1,658 observations (treatment events) from 56 sites in 5 Bay Management Areas. Our study showed that lead time had a significant effect on the estimated sea lice abundance, which was moderated by season. During the late summer and autumn periods, counting on the day of treatment gave significantly higher values than other days and would be a more appropriate baseline estimate, while during spring and early summer abundance estimates were comparable among counts within 5 days of treatment. A season-based lead time window may be most appropriate when estimating baseline sea lice levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Sea lice population and sex differences in P-glycoprotein expression and emamectin benzoate resistance on salmon farms in the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igboeli, Okechukwu O; Burka, John F; Fast, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Parasitic sea lice are a major challenge for salmon aquaculture. This is especially due to the recent development of resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB) in the parasite. We investigated: (1) whether EMB treatment success in Grand Manan, Bay of Fundy, NB, Canada can be explained through EMB bioassay and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mRNA expression studies; (2) if other populations of sea lice not under EMB selective pressure possess similar EMB sensitivity as Grand Manan sea lice populations; and (3) the heritability of EMB resistance in Lepeophtheirus salmonis. EMB bioassay results indicated population, species, sex and temporal differences in EMB EC50 values. RT-qPCR analyses revealed population and sex differences in P-gp mRNA levels, correlating with the bioassay results. Laboratory-reared sea lice maintained their EMB sensitivity status up to the F3 generation. Caligus elongatus, collected from Grand Manan showed more than twofold lower EMB EC50 values compared with L. salmonis collected from the same site. Concurrent exposure to EMB and verapamil yielded no increase in C. elongatus sensitivity to the parasiticide. Sea lice bioassay and P-gp mRNA studies can be used to track EMB resistance and sex differences in EMB sensitivity and P-gp mRNA levels exist in the parasite. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Efectos aerodinámicos de hélices pusher sobre la configuración aerodinámica de un flap en condiciones de bajo Reynolds

    OpenAIRE

    Savloff, Nehuen; Trochez Segura, Juan M.; Algozino, Santiago; Marañón Di Leo, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Las hélices del tipo pusher se han transformado en una opción viable en el diseño de aeronaves a partir de la década del ´90. Una gran variedad de diseños se han propuesto y construido considerando la posición de la hélice detrás del ala, detrás de fuselajes, o de empenajes de cola. En muchos casos la hélice pusher resulta tener mejor eficiencia aerodinámica que la hélice tractora, debido a la menor velocidad del flujo entrante sobre la hélice por influencia del cuerpo corriente arriba. Ademá...

  3. Field trials in Norway with SLICE (0.2% emamectin benzoate) for the oral treatment of sea lice infestation in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstad, A; Colquhoun, D J; Nordmo, R; Sutherland, I H; Simmons, R

    2002-06-21

    Four commercial salmon farms on the West coast of Norway were recruited to a programme of field trials in which the efficacy of SLICE (0.2% emamectin benzoate; Schering-Plough Animal Health) was compared with a commercially available product, EKTOBANN (teflubenzuron 2 g kg(-1); Skretting A/S) in treating natural sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis infections in Atlantic salmon Salmo salmar L. At each test site, 3 fish pens were treated with each product. In total, nearly 1.2 million first-year-class fish were included in the trial, of which approximately 561,000 received emamectin benzoate at a dosage of 50 microg kg(-1) body wt d(-1), while approximately 610,000 received teflubenzuron at a dosage of 10 mg kg(-1) body wt d(-1). Medicated feed was provided at 0.5% body wt d(-1) over 7 consecutive days. Feed containing emamectin benzoate was generally well accepted by the fish and no problems were encountered in feeding the medicated diet at the desired dose. Lice numbers were counted 2 d before and 1, 7, 14 and 21 d after commencement of treatment. While treatment with both substances rapidly reduced lice numbers, pens treated with emamectin benzoate were found to harbour significantly fewer lice 14 and 21 d post-treatment. Twenty-one days following treatment with emamectin benzoate the lice abundance was reduced on average by 94%. Limited sampling outside the main study period indicated that emamectin benzoate protects against sea-lice infestation over longer periods.

  4. Salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) showing varying emamectin benzoate susceptibilities differ in neuronal acetylcholine receptor and GABA-gated chloride channel mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen N; Bron, James E; Taggart, John B; Ireland, Jacqueline H; Bekaert, Michaël; Burgess, Stewart Tg; Skuce, Philip J; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Gharbi, Karim; Sturm, Armin

    2013-06-18

    Caligid copepods, also called sea lice, are fish ectoparasites, some species of which cause significant problems in the mariculture of salmon, where the annual cost of infection is in excess of €300 million globally. At present, caligid control on farms is mainly achieved using medicinal treatments. However, the continued use of a restricted number of medicine actives potentially favours the development of drug resistance. Here, we report transcriptional changes in a laboratory strain of the caligid Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) that is moderately (~7-fold) resistant to the avermectin compound emamectin benzoate (EMB), a component of the anti-salmon louse agent SLICE® (Merck Animal Health). Suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) was used to enrich transcripts differentially expressed between EMB-resistant (PT) and drug-susceptible (S) laboratory strains of L. salmonis. SSH libraries were subjected to 454 sequencing. Further L. salmonis transcript sequences were available as expressed sequence tags (EST) from GenBank. Contiguous sequences were generated from both SSH and EST sequences and annotated. Transcriptional responses in PT and S salmon lice were investigated using custom 15 K oligonucleotide microarrays designed using the above sequence resources. In the absence of EMB exposure, 359 targets differed in transcript abundance between the two strains, these genes being enriched for functions such as calcium ion binding, chitin metabolism and muscle structure. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel (GABA-Cl) and neuronal acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits showed significantly lower transcript levels in PT lice compared to S lice. Using RT-qPCR, the decrease in mRNA levels was estimated at ~1.4-fold for GABA-Cl and ~2.8-fold for nAChR. Salmon lice from the PT strain showed few transcriptional responses following acute exposure (1 or 3 h) to 200 μg L-1 of EMB, a drug concentration tolerated by PT lice, but toxic for S lice

  5. Is HEADS in our heads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Hertz, Pernille Grarup; Blix, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    contraception], Safety, Self-harm) interview is a feasible way of exploring health risk behaviors and resilience. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how often HEADS topics were addressed according to young patients and staff in pediatric and adult outpatient clinics. METHODS: We conducted...... care professionals participated. We found only small reported differences between staff and young patients regarding whether home, education, and activity were addressed. However, staff reported twice the rate of addressing smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception compared to young...... patients. Young patients reported that smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception were addressed significantly more at adult clinics in comparison to pediatric clinics. After controlling for age, gender and duration of illness, according to young patients, adjusted odds ratios...

  6. New records of chewing lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera from Brazilian birds (Aves collected by Helmut Sick (1910-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila M.D. Kuabara

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We list the genera and species of chewing lice collected from birds by Helmut Sick, mainly from central Brazil, and particularly during the Roncador-Xingu Expedition, between 1943 and 1949. From the 123 samples studied, a wide variety of chewing louse genera and species were found, including 34 species as new records for Brazil, 37 species recorded from new Brazilian localities and 23 new host records. All material is deposited in the ectoparasite collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo.

  7. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera et Ischnocera) from wrens (Passeriformes: Troglodytidae), with description of a new species of Myrsidea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sychra, O.; Kounek, F.; Papoušek, I.; Čapek, Miroslav; Cárdenas-Callirgos, J. M.; Franco, S.; Literák, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-28 ISSN 0374-1036 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Amblycera * Ischnocera * chewing lice * bird parasites * prevalence * mean intensity * geographic distribution * mitochondrial COI * phylogeny * taxonomy * Troglodytes * wrens * Neotropical Region * Palaearctic Region * new species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.659, year: 2014 http://www.aemnp.eu/PDF/54_1/54_1_1.pdf

  8. OBTENCIÓN DE echinococcus GRANULOSUS EN CANINOS INFECTADOS EXPERIMENTALMENTE CON PROTOESCÓLICES DE QUISTES HIDATÍDICOS.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosales G., Sofía; Gavidia C., César; Lopera B., Luis; Barrón G., Eduardo; Ninaquispe B., Berenice; Calderón S., Carmen; Gonzáles Z., Armando

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio tuvo por objetivo reproducir experimentalmente el ciclo biológico del Echinococcus granulosus en perros. Se utilizó 12 perros (4-50 meses de edad) que fueron infectados experimentalmente con 80,000 a 308,000 protoescólices de quistes hidatídicos de pulmón e hígado de ovinos procedentes de Junín y Ayacucho. Los perros se sacrificaron 28 a 39 días post infección (p.i). El intestino delgado se dividió en tres porciones iguales (anterior, media y posterior). Los parásitos fuer...

  9. Reactividad álcali-sílice y álcali-silicato en pizarras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos, P.L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is studied the reactivity of the slates with alkali hydroxides released by the cements in concretes and mortars. For this purpose several essays were performed under different conditions to a selection of slates of different origins and composition. It has been shown that all the tested slates are susceptible to alkali-silica and alkali-silicate reactivity with the alkalis of the cement and that not all the tests routinely performed to detect such reactions are reliable. Verified the reactivity of these rocks, the causes of observed behaviours and the possibilities to minimize or eliminate this reactivity are studied so that the slates could be in use in contact with cement in composite materials. The use of pozzolanic cements turns out to be effective for the elimination of this type of reactions.

    En este trabajo se ha estudiado la reactividad de las pizarras con los hidróxidos alcalinos liberados por los cementos en hormigones y morteros. Para ello se han realizado diferentes ensayos en distintas condiciones, a una selección de pizarras de distinto origen y composición. Se ha constatado que todas las pizarras ensayadas son susceptibles de sufrir reactividad álcali-sílice álcali-silicato con los álcalis de los cementos y que no todos los ensayos que se realizan de forma rutinaria para detectar este tipo de reacciones en los áridos son igual de fiables. Comprobada la reactividad de estas rocas se estudian las causas de los comportamientos observados y las posibilidades de minimizar o eliminar estas reactividades de tal manera que se puedan utilizar las pizarras en contacto con los cementos en materiales compuestos. El uso de cementos puzolánicos se revela como eficaz a la hora de eliminar este tipo de reacciones.

  10. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  11. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  12. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) on manakins (Passeriformes: Pipridae) from Costa Rica, with description of a new species of the genus Tyranniphilopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sychra, O.; Najer, T.; Kounek, F.; Čapek, Miroslav; Literák, I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 4 (2010), s. 925-931 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Chewing lice * manakins * Costa Rica Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.812, year: 2010

  13. Head Trauma: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Head trauma: First aid Head trauma: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most head trauma involves injuries that are minor and don't require ... 21, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-head-trauma/basics/ART-20056626 . Mayo ...

  14. Head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Combined Surgical Resection and Irradiation for Head and Neck Cancers; Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Head and Neck Database: Identification of Prognostic Factors and the Re-evaluation of American Joint Committee Stages; Combined Modality Approach to Head and Neck Cancer; Induction Combination Chemotherapy of Regionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer; and Outcome after Complete Remission to Induction Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer

  15. Effects of the vertically transmitted microsporidian Facilispora margolisi and the parasiticide emamectin benzoate on salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, Jordan D; Sutherland, Ben J G; Fast, Mark D; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2017-08-17

    Microsporidia are highly specialized, parasitic fungi that infect a wide range of eukaryotic hosts from all major taxa. Infections cause a variety of damaging effects on host physiology from increased stress to death. The microsporidian Facilispora margolisi infects the Pacific salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis oncorhynchi), an economically and ecologically important ectoparasitic copepod that can impact wild and cultured salmonids. Vertical transmission of F. margolisi was demonstrated by using PCR and in situ hybridization to identify and localize microsporidia in female L. salmonis and their offspring. Spores and developmental structures of F. margolisi were identified in 77% of F 1 generation copepods derived from infected females while offspring from uninfected females all tested negative for the microsporidia. The transcriptomic response of the salmon louse to F. margolisi was profiled at both the copepodid larval stage and the pre-adult stage using microarray technology. Infected copepodids differentially expressed 577 transcripts related to stress, ATP generation and structural components of muscle and cuticle. The infection also impacted the response of the copepodid to the parasiticide emamectin benzoate (EMB) at a low dose of 1.0 ppb for 24 h. A set of 48 transcripts putatively involved in feeding and host immunomodulation were up to 8-fold underexpressed in the F. margolisi infected copepodids treated with EMB compared with controls or either stressor alone. Additionally, these infected lice treated with EMB also overexpressed 101 transcripts involved in stress resistance and signalling compared to the other groups. In contrast, infected pre-adult lice did not display a stress response, suggesting a decrease in microsporidian virulence associated with lice maturity. Furthermore, copepodid infectivity and moulting was not affected by the microsporidian infection. This study demonstrated that F. margolisi is transmitted vertically between salmon

  16. Associations between chewing lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera and albatrosses and petrels (Aves, Procellariiformes collected in Brazil Associações entre malófagos (Insecta, Phthiraptera e albatrozes e petréis (Aves, Procellariiformes capturados no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel P. Valim

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chewing lice were searched on 197 skins of 28 species of procellariiform birds collected in Brazil. A total of 38 species of lice were found on 112 skins belonging to 22 bird species. The lice were slide-mounted and identified. A list of lice species found and their host species is given and some host-louse associations are discussed under an evolutionary perspective.Malófagos foram procurados em 197 peles de 28 espécies de aves Procellariiformes capturadas no Brasil. Um total de 38 espécies de piolhos foram encontradas em 112 peles pertencentes a 22 espécies de aves. Os piolhos foram montados em lâminas e identificados. Uma lista com as espécies de piolhos encontradas e seus hospedeiros é dada, além de algumas associações entre os piolhos e as aves serem discutidas sob uma perspectiva evolutiva.

  17. La búsqueda incansable en Los cálices vacíos de Delmira Agustini / The incessant search in Los cálices vacíos by Delmira Agustini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sales Delgado

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En Los cálices vacíos Delmira Agustini subvierte los roles de género impuestos sobre la mujer en su época, reivindicando su deseo sexual como algo natural también para la mujer frente a la concepción del deseo sexual femenino como el producto subconsciente e incomprensible de su propia psique. Asimismo, se desprende de rol ocupado por la mujer en la poesía como sujeto pasivo para ejercer un rol activo que es capaz de crear y a su vez, es capaz de sentir deseo sexual. Agustini, además, hace uso de un lenguaje erótico y sexual en el que la búsqueda de la satisfacción sexual sería una metáfora de la búsqueda incansable de la perfección poética.ABSTRACT: In Los cálices vacíos, Delmira Agustini subverts the gender roles imposed on women in her time and reclaims their sexual desire as something natural, in opposition to the conception of female sexual desire as the unconscious and incomprehensible product of their own psyche. Likewise, she eschews the traditional passive role as object of desire and admiration occupied by women in poetry and assumes a new active role as creator. Agustini makes use of an erotic and sexual language in which the search for sexual satisfaction would be a metaphor for the unceasing search for poetic perfection.

  18. Menopon gaillinae lice in the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos and Marsh harear (Circus aeruginosus in Najaf province, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Fatlawi M. A. A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study considered as the first work on ectoparasites of the Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos and Marsh harear (Circus aeruginosus in Iraq. Overall, we examined 17 eagles for the period from 01\\Nov\\2016 until 25\\Feb\\2017, out of which 4were found infected (23.5%. All infected birds were female. Aquila was hunted from Najaf sea area. Under the wing and between feathers of Aquila grossly examined for detect any parasites. Lice of genus Menopon gaillinae isolated from 4 eagles, from under the wing area. Infected eagles suffering from skin redness. 38 parasites isolated from infected eagle, we prepared a slide from these louse for spp. classification. This study was on the first hand record of shaft louse (M. gallinae in Golden eagle and Marsh harear in Iraq

  19. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other ... aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Videos related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  5. Nuevo método gravimétrico, esencialmente modificado, para la determinación de sílice en silicatos atacables por ácido, basado en los nuevos conocimientos descubiertos en el estudio del comportamiento de los geles de sílice deshidratados en soluciones ácid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goma, F.

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availableSe investigan, en primer lugar, las causas de error en la determinación de sílice que provienen de las condiciones externas al método en s% como son: la homogeneización, el estado de la muestra en el momento de la pesada para el análisis, y la influencia que tiene el contenido de los álcalis, parcialmente volátiles, sobre la determinación de la cantidad de materia fija después de la calcinación. Se establecen las condiciones previas del tratamiento de la muestra, según su naturaleza, para obtener siempre resultados reproducibles. Un estudio sistemático del comportamiento de los geles de sílice, obtenidos en las mismas condiciones que los que se producen en el análisis, ha permitido explicar, por primera vez, las causas que producen las llamadas "segundas sílices" y permite ver que el paso de sílice a la solución es debido a una disolución verdadera y no a un fenómeno coloidal. La aplicación al procedimiento clásico, de todos estos hechos experimentales hallados en estas investigaciones, ha permitido establecer un método simplificado y esencialmente modificado, que se describe. Se compara su alcance con los actuales métodos de mayor autoridad y se concluye que, con una sola extracción, se consigue: una recuperación prácticamente total de sílice y conocer la cantidad ''mínima y constante" de sílice que pasa al filtrado, con lo que se ha conseguido, además de la simplificación del método, un mayor grado de exactitud y un margen de reproducibilidad que es más estrecho en cualquier caso y cuando la sílice es componente mayoritario, como en los clínkeres y cementos portland, se estima es ± 0,05.

  6. Comportamiento del gel de sílice como filtro deshumidificador en sistemas de acondicionamiento de aire por compresión de vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Bula Silvera

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de determinar la tasa de adsorción de humedad por un filtro a base de gel de sílice, se han llevado a cabo una serie de experimentos en los cuales se ha variado la densidad de gel de sílice por unidad de área y la velocidad con que el aire se acerca al filtro. Los resultados mostraron que al disminuir la velocidad del aire y al aumentar la masa de desecante por unidad de área, se consigue mayor nivel de adsorción por parte del filtro. Sin embargo, al adimensionar la cantidad de agua retenida por unidad de masa de desecante, se observa que el filtro con menor densidad presenta mayor efectividad en el proceso de remoción de humedad. Los resultados se presentan en función del tiempo en un lapso de 50 minutos de muestreo.

  7. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  8. High performance liquid chromatography-validated analytical method for 1 % permethrin quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarinas Reyes, Alicia; Tapanes Peraza, Rolando D; Fernandez Range, Ditter

    2011-01-01

    In Cuba, as well as in other countries, Pediculus capitis infestation has increased since the 70's; this is the reason why a program aimed at controlling and preventing this infestation was designed. This program includes quality control studies of the active synthetic pyrethroid Permethrin and its activity at 1 % on lice and 5 % on scabies. Due to its low toxicity and positive risk/benefit ratio, Permethrin is a pediculicide of choice to decrease Pediculus capitis infestation

  9. TRÍPLICE HÉLICE: A RELAÇÃO UNIVERSIDADE-EMPRESA EM BUSCA DA INOVAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myller Augusto Santos Gomes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a relação universidade-empresa buscando evidências teóricas que evidenciem os benefícios e as barreiras relacionadas ao modelo Tríplice Hélice. Para este artigo a terceira hélice, governo, é reconhecida como participante do processo, mas é entendido como hélice mediadora da relação Universidade-Empresa e responsável pela melhora do desempenho entre U-E. Para alcançar o objetivo proposto, levantou-se o histórico do modelo Tríplice Hélice, empreendedorismo e inovação tecnológica. Como resultado da pesquisa identificou-se as barreiras que geram conflitos e conduzem um processo de baixa produtividade, destacando-se: falta de administração dos projetos; a falta de administração dos projetos de forma profissional nas universidades; os altos custos envolvidos; indefinições na elaboração de clara política institucional de relacionamento com o ambiente externo aumentam as incertezas; existência de dúvida sobre o valor da cooperação; e complexidade dos contratos a serem negociados. No tocante aos facilitadores, identificou-se que o conflito ideológico entre a universidade e o setor empresarial tende a ser superado, possibilitando um incremento na confiança mutua e que a inovação é entendida como uma chave do processo de mudança, direcionando o papel da universidade, eximindo-a da função de protagonista no campo econômico e direcionando-a para a responsabilidade social.

  10. Identification key for chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) infesting the Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) with one new country record and new host record for Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    NASSER, Mohamed; AL-AHMED, Azzam; SHOBRAK, Mohammed; ALDRYHIM, Yousif

    2015-01-01

    The amblyceran and ischnoceran lice removed from the Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus L.) collected at the Riyadh bird market, and other specimens available in the King Saud University Museum of Arthropods, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were identified. Amyrsidea minuta Emerson, a new country record, and Goniodes dissimilis Denny were found infesting the Indian Peafowl in Saudi Arabia. Goniodes dissimilis is recorded for the first time from this bird species, along with Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzs...

  11. Evidence for changes in the transcription levels of two putative P-glycoprotein genes in sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) in response to emamectin benzoate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, Nicholas D; Burka, John F; Kibenge, Frederick S B

    2007-05-01

    Overexpression of P-glycoproteins (Pgps) is assumed to be a principal mechanism of resistance of nematodes and arthropods to macrocyclic lactones. Quantitative RT-PCR (Q-RT-PCR) was used to demonstrate changes in transcription levels of two putative P-glycoprotein genes, designated here as SL0525 and SL-Pgp1, in sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) following exposure to emamectin benzoate (EMB). Pre-adult L. salmonis were challenged in an EMB bioassay for 24h and gene expression was studied from lice surviving EMB concentrations of 0, 10, and 30ppb. Gene expression was measured using Q-RT-PCR with elongation factor 1 (eEF1alpha) as an internal reference gene. The results show that both target genes, SL0525 and SL-Pgp1, had significantly increased levels of expression with exposure to 10ppb EMB (p=0.11 and p=0.17, respectively) whereas the group exposed to 30ppb was on the verge of being significant (p=0.053) only in the expression of SL-Pgp1. Gene expression for SL0525 and SL-Pgp1 were increased over five-fold at 10ppb EMB. Therefore, the upregulation of these target genes may offer protection by increasing Pgp expression when lice are exposed to EMB. Our optimized Q-RT-PCR can be used to determine if over-expression of these genes could be the basis for development of resistance in sea lice and thus allow suitable alternative chemotherapeutic options to be assessed.

  12. Nanosílice como carga en la RTV SR usada para cubrir aisladores; Nanosilica as filler in the Room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber used to coat insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Pérez Almirall

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio sobre la influencia que tiene agregar como carga nanosílice a la goma de silicona vulcanizada a temperatura ambiente (RTV SR, por sus siglas en inglés que es empleada para cubrir aisladores de vidrio o de porcelana. Con este objetivo se observó la dispersión de la nanosílice en la RTV SR por medio de microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEV, por sus siglas en inglés, se midió la permitividad de la RTV SR con y sin nanosílice para varias frecuencias y se evaluó la influencia que tiene la nanosílice en la resistencia a la erosión. Además fueron medidas las corrientes de fuga durante ensayos de niebla salina a aisladores de vidrio pintados con estos recubrimientos, analizando también la pérdida de hidrofobicidad que ocurre durante el ensayo y su recuperación una vez finalizado el mismo.  The present research work carries out a study on the influence of nanosilica on room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber (RTV SR used to coat insulators. Considering this objective, the dispersion of nanosilica was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (MEV, the permittivity of the room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber was measured with and without nanosilica for different frequencies and the influence of nanosilica in erosion resistance. Leakage currents were also measured during salt spray tests to glass insulators covered with these coatings; the loss of hidrophobicity during the test was also measured and its recovery was analyzed the test was finished.

  13. Nanosílice como carga en la RTV SR usada para cubrir aisladores/ Nanosilica as filler in the Room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber used to coat insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Pérez Almirall

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio sobre la influencia que tiene agregar como carga nanosílice a la goma de silicona vulcanizada a temperatura ambiente (RTV SR, por sus siglas en inglés que es empleada para cubrir aisladores de vidrio o de porcelana. Con este objetivo se observó la dispersión de la nanosílice en la RTV SR por medio de microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEV, por sus siglas en inglés, se midió la permitividad de la RTV SR con y sin nanosílice para varias frecuencias y se evaluó la influencia que tiene la nanosílice en la resistencia a la erosión. Además fueron medidas las corrientes de fuga durante ensayos de niebla salina a aisladores de vidrio pintados con estos recubrimientos, analizando también la pérdida de hidrofobicidad que ocurre durante el ensayo y su recuperación una vez finalizado el mismo.The present research work carries out a study on the influence of nanosilica on room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber (RTV SR used to coat insulators. Considering this objective, the dispersion of nanosilica was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (MEV, the permittivity of the room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber was measured with and without nanosilica for different frequencies and the influence of nanosilica in erosion resistance. Leakage currents were also measured during salt spray tests to glass insulators covered with these coatings; the loss of hidrophobicity during the test was also measured and its recovery was analyzed the test was finished.

  14. A checklist of sucking lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura) associated with Mexican wild mammals, including geographical records and a host-parasite list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Montes, Sokani; Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen; León-Paniagua, Livia; Rivas, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    A checklist of 44 species of sucking lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura) recorded in Mexico, belonging to nine genera in six families is given, together with a list of the 63 species of Mexican wild mammal hosts with which they are associated. Summaries of the known geographical records and host relationships for each louse species are presented for each Mexican state. Data were compiled from published and original records, including three new locality records from the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero.

  15. Chewing lice of the genus Myrsidea (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from New World warblers (Passeriformes: Parulidae) from Costa Rica, with descriptions of four new species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kounek, F.; Sychra, O.; Čapek, Miroslav; Literák, I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 3137, - (2011), s. 56-63 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : lice * new species * Costa Rica * new host-louse associations * Menoponidae * Myrsidea * Amblycera * Parulidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.927, year: 2011 http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2011/f/zt03137p063.pdf

  16. Detection of emamectin benzoate tolerance emergence in different life stages of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P G; Hammell, K L; Gettinby, G; Revie, C W

    2013-03-01

    Emamectin benzoate has been used to treat sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Recent evidence suggests a reduction in effectiveness in some locations. A major challenge in the detection of tolerance emergence can be the typically low proportion of resistant individuals in a population during the early phases. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for determining differences in temporal development of tolerance between sea lice life stages and to explore how these differences might be used to improve the monitoring of treatment effectiveness in a clinical setting. This study examined two data sets based on records of sea lice abundance following emamectin benzoate treatments from the west coast of Scotland (2002-2006) and from New Brunswick, Canada (2004-2008). Life stages were categorized into two groups (adult females and the remaining mobile stages) to examine the trends in mean abundance and treatment effectiveness. Differences in emamectin benzoate effectiveness were found between the two groups by year and location, suggesting that an important part of monitoring drug resistance development in aquatic ectoparasites may be the need to focus on key life stages. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Efficacy of emamectin benzoate against sea lice infestations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.: evaluation in the absence of an untreated contemporary control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, L; Ellis, S; Robinson, T; Marenghi, F; Endris, R

    2006-10-01

    The efficacy of emamectin benzoate (SLICE) against sea lice infestations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., is typically assessed using untreated fish, or fish treated with alternative therapeutants, as controls. The State of Maine, USA, is currently under active management for the OIE-notifiable pathogen, infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV); consequently, neither control group is feasible in this region. Untreated salmon risk extensive damage from the ectoparasites, and threaten to increase vector-borne exposure or susceptibility of farms to ISAV; and the only treatment presently available in Maine is SLICE. However, because sea lice infestations are unlikely to resolve spontaneously, and response to treatment occurs within weeks, use of a pretreatment baseline is a reasonable alternative for confirmatory studies. We evaluated SLICE efficacy on Atlantic salmon farms in Cobscook Bay 2002-2005, in the absence of untreated controls, using pretreatment lice loads as a reference for calculation. Maximum efficacy ranged from 68% to 100% reduction from initial levels. Time-to-maximum efficacy ranged from 1 to 8 weeks after treatment initiation. Efficacy duration, measured between first reduction and first progressive rise in counts, ranged from 4 to 16 weeks.

  18. Using observed load distributions with a simple model to analyse the epidemiology of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on sea trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Alexander G

    2002-06-01

    Sea lice are ectoparasites of salmonids that have been associated with the recent decline in sea trout numbers in north-west Europe. Observed patterns of louse load distribution between sea trout in the seas surrounding the UK, Ireland and Norway and a simple model have been used to analyse the epidemiology of lice. Loads are aggregated and deviate strongly from the Poisson distribution, although less than is observed with many other parasites. The louse numbers on fish from offshore sites are slightly less variable than for fish from coastal sites with comparable mean loads. Analysis of louse development stages and sexes shows that selection between hosts by sea lice plays a limited role. If host selection is absent, then associated poor condition would be caused by, not the cause of, high louse burdens; however the absence of such selection is not proved. Scenarios with infection that is patchy in space and time best generate the aggregated load patterns observed; these patches accord with observed swarms of copepodids. Prevalence patterns may indicate the movement of trout between environments. Control of copepodids in infection 'hot spots', either directly or through control of louse egg production in their catchment, may reduce louse loads on wild sea trout and, in particular, extreme and damaging loads.

  19. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... head size in children Changes in thinking or behavior Fainting Headache, when you have certain other signs ...

  20. Bottom head assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs

  1. Biomineralizaciones de sílice en Celtis tala¹ (Celtidaceae Silica biomineralizations in Celtis tala (Celtidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fernández Honaine

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la asociación fitolítica de Celtis tala Planchon, su composición química y variabilidad morfológica, analizándose por separado los morfotipos presentes en hoja, tallo y fruto. La asociación fitolítica de Celtis tala está compuesta principalmente por cistolitos, fitolitos poliédricos articulados con paredes y/o lumen celular silicificados, y fitolitos de contorno irregular, superficie rugosa y lumen celular silicificado. Los análisis de EDAX y las observaciones al microscopio permitieron corroborar la presencia de biomineralizaciones de sílice y calcio en hoja, tallo y fruto. Además se detectaron otros elementos, como Mg, Al, K, P, Fe y S en algunos fitolitos. En particular, este trabajo revela la presencia de sílice como un componente fundamental en la estructura de los cistolitos en esta especie, apoyando los resultados obtenidos por otros autores para cistolitos en otras especies relacionadas. La presencia de un elemento mucho menos lábil que el carbonato de calcio, permite que estas estructuras luego de la descomposición de la materia orgánica, puedan permanecer durante más tiempo sin alterarse en el suelo, constituyendo importantes elementos indicadores de la presencia de Celtis tala en el registro fósil.The phytolith assemblage of Celtis tala, its chemical composition and variability were studied. Leave, stem and fruit phytolith morphologies were analyzed with the purpose of establishing the contribution of each organ. The results showed that cystolith types, articulated poliedric (with wall and lumen silicified and irregular, rugose poliedric phytoliths were the main morphologies present in Celtis tala phytolith assemblage. Silicon and calcium biomineralizations were detected by EDAX analysis and microscope observations in leave, stem and fruit. Other elements, such as Mg, Al, K, P, Fe and S, were also detected by EDAX analysis in some phytoliths. The presence of silicon as an important structural cystolith

  2. Head lice infestation (Pediculosis and its associated factors in the rural school students of Kalaleh, in the academic year 1392-93

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed Noori

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Pediculosis is still a public health problem in communities with poor life and health facilities. High prevalence of this issue among school students may be linked to factors such as lack of health educators in school and lack of adequate attention to personal hygiene.

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment ... story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  5. Determinación volumétrica de la sílice en el cemento Portland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calleja, J.

    1966-09-01

    Full Text Available Not availableSe describe un método volumétrico para la determinación cuantitativa de la sílice en el cemento portland, basado en la precipitación de la misma como fluorosilicato potásico, hidrólisis de esta sal insoluble en las condiciones de ensayo y valoración del ácido fluorhídrico liberado, con una disolución de hidróxido sódico. El método da valores reproducibles con muy escasa dispersión. La diferencia entre los valores más dispares de series de diez determinaciones hechas en una misma muestra por el mismo operador, son del orden de la tolerada por las normas A.S.T.M. (método gravimétrico para valores de un mismo operador obtenidos sobre una muestra. La diferencia entre cualesquiera otros dos valores de las series, o entre uno cualquiera de ellos y la media correspondiente a dicha serie, es muy inferior al margen de tolerancia de la A.S.T.M. Finalmente, entre el valor gravimétrico según el método de las normas A.S.T.M. y los valores volumétricos obtenidos por el método descrito, a la media de ellos, existe una concordancia aceptable.

  6. Short-Term Effects of the Anti-sea Lice Therapeutant Emamectin Benzoate on Clam Worms (Nereis virens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBriarty, G J; Kidd, K A; Burridge, L E

    2018-05-01

    The polychaete Nereis virens occurs commonly in marine sediments, is widely distributed, and is a popular bait species, as well as a potential replacement for wild-caught fish in commercial fish feed preparations. It is being considered as a potential co-extractive species for culture in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture operations. However, it is not known whether pesticides or drugs used to treat sea lice on farmed salmon, such as emamectin benzoate (EB), would adversely affect cultured or wild worms, because these compounds may persist in the environment. To determine the potential effects of EB to N. virens, bioassays were performed wherein worms were exposed in sand for 30 days to a concentration of 400 µg/kg dw (nominal). While no treatment-related mortality occurred, significant decreases in worm mass and marked behavioral changes (lack of burrowing) were observed in EB-treated sand compared with controls. These lab-based observations suggest a potential hazard to worms at sites where EB treatments have occurred.

  7. A Personal View of How Paleomicrobiology Aids Our Understanding of the Role of Lice in Plague Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoult, Didier

    2016-08-01

    We have been involved in the field of paleomicrobiology since 1998, when we used dental pulp to identify Yersinia pestis as the causative agent of the great plague of Marseille (1720). We recently designed a specific technique, "suicide PCR," that can prevent contamination. A controversy arose between two teams, with one claiming that DNA must be altered to amplify it and the other group claiming that demographic data did not support the role of Y. pestis in the Black Death (i.e., the great plague of the Middle Ages). These controversies led us to evaluate other epidemiological models and to propose the body louse as the vector of this pandemic. This proposal was substantiated by experimental models, the recovery of Y. pestis from lice in the Congo, and the identification of epidemics involving both Y. pestis and Bartonella quintana (the agent of trench fever, transmitted by the body louse) in ancient corpses from mass graves. Paleomicrobiology has led to a re-evaluation of plague pandemics.

  8. Reactor head shielding apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schukei, G.E.; Roebelen, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor head shielding apparatus for mounting on spaced reactor head lifting members radially inwardly of the head bolts. It comprises a frame of sections for mounting on the lifting members and extending around the top central area of the head, mounting means for so mounting the frame sections, including downwardly projecting members on the frame sections and complementary upwardly open recessed members for fastening to the lifting members for receiving the downwardly projecting members when the frame sections are lowered thereto with lead shielding supported thereby on means for hanging lead shielding on the frame to minimize radiation exposure or personnel working with the head bolts or in the vicinity thereof

  9. Femoral head avascular necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysikopoulos, H.; Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.L.; Ashburn, W.; Pretorius, T.

    1988-01-01

    MR imaging has been shown to be more sensitive and specific than planar scintigraphy for avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. However, experience with single photon emission CT (SPECT) is limited. The authors retrospectively compared 1.5-T MR imaging with SPECT in 14 patients with suspected femoral head AVN. Agreement between MR imaging and SPECT was present in 24 femurs, 14 normal and ten with AVN. MR imaging showed changes of AVN in the remaining four femoral heads. Of these, one was normal and the other three inconclusive for AVN by SPECT. The authors conclude that MR imaging is superior to SPECT for the evaluation of AVN of the hip

  10. Protective head of sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, K.; Anton, P.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery concerns the protective heads of diagnostic assemblies of nuclear power plants for conductors of the sensors from the fuel and control parts of the said assemblies. A detailed description is presented of the design of the protective head which, as compared with the previous design, allows quick and simple assembly with reduced risk of damaging the sensors. The protective head may be used for diagnostic assemblies both in power and in research reactors and it will be used for WWER reactor assemblies. (A.K.). 3 figs

  11. Recuperación de sílice residual de columnas de cromatografía en la síntesis sol-gel de pigmentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grañana, M. C.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of a silica waste of support chromatography process as raw material in the synthesis of ceramic pigments based in zircon network (yellow of praseodymium, turkish blue of vanadium and pink koral of iron, is analized in this study. The synthesis has been carried out by ceramic method and also by colloidal sol-gel and coprecipitation routes. Silica waste becomes an effective precursor in the zircon ceramic stains. Likewise, the high temperature and long soaking time used in the synthesis ensure the whole combustion of adsorbed organics on the waste.

    En este trabajo se caracteriza una sílice residual de procesos de cromatografía de columna y se analiza su utilización como precursor en la síntesis de los tres pigmentos triaxiales del circón (amarillo de praseodimio, turquesa de vanadio y coral de hierro utilizando tanto la vía sol-gel coloidal, la coprecipitación y el método cerámico. La sílice residual se muestra como un precursor muy efectivo en la obtención de los colores del circón tanto vía cerámica como a partir de geles. La alta temperatura así como los relativamente largos periodos de retención utilizados en la síntesis de los pigmentos cerámicos, permite una total combustión de los orgánicos adsorbidos sobre la sílice.

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to ...

  13. Exploding head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, Brian A

    2014-12-01

    Exploding head syndrome is characterized by the perception of abrupt, loud noises when going to sleep or waking up. They are usually painless, but associated with fear and distress. In spite of the fact that its characteristic symptomatology was first described approximately 150 y ago, exploding head syndrome has received relatively little empirical and clinical attention. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature using Medline, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and PubMed was undertaken. After first discussing the history, prevalence, and associated features, the available polysomnography data and five main etiological theories for exploding head syndrome are summarized. None of these theories has yet reached dominance in the field. Next, the various methods used to assess and treat exploding head syndrome are discussed, as well as the limited outcome data. Finally, recommendations for future measure construction, treatment options, and differential diagnosis are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medically necessary because of potential risk to the baby. This risk is, however, minimal with head CT ... intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 hours after contrast medium is ...

  15. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for ... Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic ... white on the x-ray; soft tissue, such as organs like the heart or liver, shows up ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... head CT scanning. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  1. Head Start Impact Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stroke Brain Tumors Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  3. TCGA head Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and skull or to plan radiation therapy for brain cancer. ... typically used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused ...

  5. Disolución de sílice biogénica en sedimentos de lagos utilizados como bioindicadores de calidad del agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes U. Ramírez S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar que la disoluci n de s lice amorfa de origen biog nico (diatomeas y fitolitos es un bioindicador de calidad del agua de lagos, valid ndose con la determinaci n de par metros f sico-qu micos. La determinaci n de diatomeas y fitolitos se realiz sobre n cleos de sedimentos del Lago Chapala, M xico. Las diatomeas y fitolitos fueron separados, depositados en laminillas y observados con microscop a de luz polarizada y electr nica de barrido. En forma paralela se analiz la calidad del agua del lago durante la d cada de 1990-2000 monitoreando 38 par metros f sicoqu micos en 25 estaciones. El estudio de diatomeas evidenci que la mayor a de ellos presentan fr stulas no preservadas, alto grado de disoluci n, fitolitos fragmentados y/o disueltos y una importante cantidad de debris de s lice. La determinaci n de fitolitos fue deficiente, con m s diatomeas en estado de disoluci n y debris de s lice opalino que fitolitos. Los resultados del an lisis f sico-qu mico del agua muestran valores de pH de 7,20-9,45, altas concentraciones de: nitr geno org nico (1,57 mg/l, nitr geno amoniacal (0,48 mg/l, nitratos (0,18 mg/l, f sforo org nico (0,16 mg/l, ortofosfatos (0,40 mg/l, f sforo total (0,57 mg/l y conductividad (867,53 S/cm lo que refleja altas concentraciones de sales, sobresaturaci n de CaCO3 con dureza total y c lcica de 221,35 y 142,67 mg/l respectivamente; alcalinidad total y c lcica de 307,29 y 29,90 mg/l respectivamente; todos factores que influyen en la disoluci n de diatomeas y fitolitos en los lechos del lago. Los resultados del estudio micropaleontol gico del Lago de Chapala han evidenciado disoluci n de diatomeas, fitolitos y la presencia de gran cantidad de debris de s lice amorfo y baja calidad de sus aguas, lo cual ha sido verificado con los par metros fisicoqu micos de la ultima d cada. Los fen menos de disoluci n de diatomeas y fitolitos por el momento son asociados a valores de pH>9, a condiciones eutr

  6. Riesgo de exposición al sílice y prevención de la silicosis en la industria

    OpenAIRE

    Camasi Pariona, Oswaldo

    2015-01-01

    La Sílice es un material que se encuentra en los minerales. Es el componente principal de la arena y se presenta principalmente en las formas: cristalina (cuarzo, cristobalita, tridimita), amorfa (tierra de diatomea, ópalo). Esta sustancia se utiliza en las actividades de minería, tratamiento de minerales, limpieza por arenado, industria del cemento, fabricación de asfalto, cerámica, limpieza abrasiva, demolición, industria del vidrio, molienda de cuarzo, moldes de fundición, pulido de superf...

  7. The exploding head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M W

    2001-06-01

    This article reviews the features of an uncommon malady termed "the exploding head syndrome." Sufferers describe terrorizing attacks of a painless explosion within their head. Attacks tend to occur at the onset of sleep. The etiology of attacks is unknown, although they are considered to be benign. Treatment with clomipramine has been suggested, although most sufferers require only reassurance that the spells are benign in nature.

  8. GPK heading machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krmasek, J.; Novosad, K.

    1981-01-01

    This article evaluates performance tests of the Soviet made GPK heading machine carried out in 4 coal mines in Czechoslovakia (Ostrava-Karvina region and Kladno mines). GPK works in coal seams and rocks with compression strength of 40 to 50 MPa. Dimensions of the tunnel are height 1.8 to 3.8 m and width 2.6 to 4.7 m, tunnel gradient plus to minus 10 degrees. GPK weighs 16 t, its conical shaped cutting head equipped with RKS-1 cutting tools is driven by an electric motor with 55 kW capacity. Undercarriage of the GPK, gathering-arm loader, hydraulic system, electric system and dust supression system (water spraying or pneumatic section) are characterized. Specifications of GPK heading machines are compared with PK-3r and F8 heading machines. Reliability, number of failures, dust level, noise, productivity depending on compression strength of rocks, heading rate in coal and in rocks, energy consumption, performance in inclined tunnels, and cutting tool wear are evaluated. Tests show that GPK can be used to drive tunnels in coal with rock constituting up to 50% of the tunnel crosscut, as long as rock compression strength does not exceed 50 MPa. In rocks characterized by higher compression strength cutting tool wear sharply increases. GPK is characterized by higher productivity than that of the PK-3r heading machine. Among the weak points of the GPK are: unsatisfactory reliability and excessive wear of its elements. (4 refs.) (In Czech)

  9. Pharmacokinetics and transcriptional effects of the anti-salmon lice drug emamectin benzoate in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsvik, Pål A; Lie, Kai K; Mykkeltvedt, Eva; Samuelsen, Ole B; Petersen, Kjell; Stavrum, Anne-Kristin; Lunestad, Bjørn T

    2008-09-11

    Emamectin benzoate (EB) is a dominating pharmaceutical drug used for the treatment and control of infections by sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Fish with an initial mean weight of 132 g were experimentally medicated by a standard seven-day EB treatment, and the concentrations of drug in liver, muscle and skin were examined. To investigate how EB affects Atlantic salmon transcription in liver, tissues were assessed by microarray and qPCR at 7, 14 and 35 days after the initiation of medication. The pharmacokinetic examination revealed highest EB concentrations in all three tissues at day 14, seven days after the end of the medication period. Only modest effects were seen on the transcriptional levels in liver, with small fold-change alterations in transcription throughout the experimental period. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) indicated that EB treatment induced oxidative stress at day 7 and inflammation at day 14. The qPCR examinations showed that medication by EB significantly increased the transcription of both HSP70 and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in liver during a period of 35 days, compared to un-treated fish, possibly via activation of enzymes involved in phase II conjugation of metabolism in the liver. This study has shown that a standard seven-day EB treatment has only a modest effect on the transcription of genes in liver of Atlantic salmon. Based on GSEA, the medication seems to have produced a temporary oxidative stress response that might have affected protein stability and folding, followed by a secondary inflammatory response.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  12. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  13. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  14. A Relação Universidade-Empresa no Brasil e o “Argumento da Hélice Tripla”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Dagnino

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Analizando la evolución de las interpretaciones sobre la relación Universidad-Empresa en América Latina, se muestra cómo el argumento de la triple hélice contribuyó para que la interpretación que hasta el final de los años 80 era dominante perdiese influencia y cómo el de bate en curso entre esas dos actuales posiciones parece encaminarse. Para ofrecer un cuadro para el análisis crítico de las transformaciones en los modelos explicativo y normativo-institucional de la política científica y tecnológica en países avanzados y periféricos, el argumento de la triple hélice puede aportar nuevas interpretaciones, más coherentes con el escenario de democratización ahora en construcción en el país.

  15. Head first Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Rebecca M

    2008-01-01

    Ajax is no longer an experimental approach to website development, but the key to building browser-based applications that form the cornerstone of Web 2.0. Head First Ajax gives you an up-to-date perspective that lets you see exactly what you can do -- and has been done -- with Ajax. With it, you get a highly practical, in-depth, and mature view of what is now a mature development approach. Using the unique and highly effective visual format that has turned Head First titles into runaway bestsellers, this book offers a big picture overview to introduce Ajax, and then explores the use of ind

  16. Head First Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics

  17. La interacción de materiales del sistema sílice-alúmina con productos fluorados aluminosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdeja, L. F.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to get a first approximation of the systematic study of the corrosion mechanisms of the silica-alumina, alumina and rich-alumina refractory by fluoride compounds and molten aluminum. The thermodynamic results support the main role of the chemical attack and the erosive mechanisms in the wear of the silica-alumina materials. The influence of the composition of the crystalline phases in the degree of the ceramic lining attack is also studied. The results suggest not to use either oxide or nitride high-value materials for the lining of furnaces and transport recipients containing molten aluminum, because of the chemical corrosion by compounds such as cryolite or aluminum fluoride and also, because of the avidity of aluminum towards oxygen. The study of corundum-based materials like the best refractory used in order to react with fluoride compounds and molten aluminum is an alternative to be considered. The study of the crusts adhesion like a protection mechanism of the refractory lining is also a possible approach.

    Este trabajo pretende contribuir al estudio sistemático de los mecanismos de corrosión que experimentan los refractarios sílico-aluminosos, aluminosos y de alta alúmina con productos fluorados y aluminio en estado líquido. Se aportan datos termodinámicos que confirman el papel preponderante del ataque químico y de los mecanismos erosivos en el desgaste de materiales del sistema sílice-alúmina. Se discute, asimismo, la influencia de la composición de las fases cristalinas encontradas en el grado de agresión a los revestimientos cerámicos. Se propone, ante la agresividad de agentes químicamente activos, como la criolita o el fluoruro de aluminio, y la gran afinidad del aluminio por el oxígeno, no aconsejar la utilización de materiales oxídicos y nitrurados de alto valor para el revestimiento de hornos y bolsas de transporte de aluminio. Se propone, como línea de trabajo a seguir, la

  18. Silva as the Head

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2015-01-01

    The head of the performance design programme is substituted by a sister's academy delegate. this performance situation formed part of a week of semesterstart where the students and professors visited Sister's Academy, Malmø. I participated in the Sister's Academy as visiting researcher and here i...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are present in the paranasal sinuses. plan radiation therapy for cancer of the brain or other tissues. guide the ... RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Blood Clots CT Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography ( ...

  2. The Twente humanoid head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Visser, L.C.; Bennik, J.; Carloni, Raffaella; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    This video shows the results of the project on the mechatronic development of the Twente humanoid head. The mechanical structure consists of a neck with four degrees of freedom (DOFs) and two eyes (a stereo pair system) which tilt on a common axis and rotate sideways freely providing a three more

  3. Head injury in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Makoto; Mori, Nobuhiko; Yokosuka, Reiko; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Imanaga, Hirohisa

    1981-01-01

    Findings of computerized tomography (CT) in 183 cases of head injury in children were investigated with special reference to CT findings of mild head injury. As was expected, CT findings of mild head injury fell within the normal range, in almost all cases. However, abnormal findings were noticed in 4 out of 34 cases (12%) in acute stage and 7 out of 76 cases (9%) in chronic stage. They were 3 cases of localized low density area in acute stage and 6 cases of mild cerebral atrophy in chronic stage, etc. There were some cases of mild head injury in which CT findings were normal while EEG examination revealed abnormality. Also in some cases, x-ray study demonstrated linear skull fracture which CT failed to show. These conventional techniques could be still remained as useful adjunct aid in diagnosis of head injury. CT findings of cases of cerebral contusion in their acute stage were divided as follows; normal, low density, small ventricle and ventricular and/or cisternal hemorrhage, frequency of incidence being 38, 17, 22, 11% respectively. These findings were invariably converted to cerebral atrophy from 10 days to 2 months after the impacts. In the cases with intracranial hematoma revealed by CT, only 32% of them showed clinical signs of Araki's type IV in their acute stage and 63% of them showed no neurological defects, that is Araki's type I and II. A case of extreme diffuse cerebral atrophy which followed acute subdural hematoma caused by tear of bridging veins without cortical contusion was presented. (author)

  4. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What are my ... and neck cancer. For updated information on new cancer treatments that are available, you should discuss these issues ...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging ( ... brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR ...

  7. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ...

  8. MRI in head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Kyo [Shin Wha Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    In the diagnosis of head injury, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), like CT, is an effective method of distinguishing between intracerebral and extracerebral lesions. In our experience of MRI, early hematomas are almost isointense by Saturation Recovery (SR) method, so these must be performed with Spin Echo (SE) method for better visualization of hematomas. Isodense subdural hematomas, which is a diagnostic dilemma on CT images, are clearly seen on MRI. Delayed hematomas or residual parenchymal lesions are better demonstrated on MRI than on CT. Direct cornal, sagittal images and multiplanar facility of MRI provides excellent visualization of the the location and shape of extracerebral collection of hematoma. For the screening of head traumas, SE method is a technique of choice because of its excellent sensitivity within limited time.

  9. Where is Russia heading?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Pliskevič

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the proceedings from the collection Where is Russia Heading? (= Куда идёт Россия?, published between 1994 and 1998 in connection with the international symposium held under this name each year in Moscow. The symposia and their proceeding, involving leading Russian and foreign experts, were significant in that they encompassed a wide range of themes – social, economic, political, legislative, cultural and other transformations that have been occurring in Russia during the past decades. The author, however, limits her review to contributions dealing with ethno-political and socio-cultural transformations in Russia. She concludes that the question – “Where is Russia heading?” – still remains open to answers.

  10. MRI in head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jin Kyo

    1986-01-01

    In the diagnosis of head injury, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), like CT, is an effective method of distinguishing between intracerebral and extracerebral lesions. In our experience of MRI, early hematomas are almost isointense by Saturation Recovery (SR) method, so these must be performed with Spin Echo (SE) method for better visualization of hematomas. Isodense subdural hematomas, which is a diagnostic dilemma on CT images, are clearly seen on MRI. Delayed hematomas or residual parenchymal lesions are better demonstrated on MRI than on CT. Direct cornal, sagittal images and multiplanar facility of MRI provides excellent visualization of the the location and shape of extracerebral collection of hematoma. For the screening of head traumas, SE method is a technique of choice because of its excellent sensitivity within limited time.

  11. "Head versus heart"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Most American respondents give ``irrational,'' magical responses in a variety of situations that exemplify the sympathetic magical laws of similarity and contagion. In most of these cases, respondents are aware that their responses (usually rejections, as of fudge crafted to look like dog feces, or a food touched by a sterilized, dead cockroach are not ``scientifically'' justified, but they are willing to avow them. We interpret this, in some sense, as ``heart over head.'' We report in this study that American adults and undergraduates are substantially less likely to acknowledge magical effects when the judgments involve money (amount willing to pay to avoid an ``unpleasant'' magical contact than they are when using preference or rating measures. We conclude that in ``head-heart'' conflicts of this type, money tips the balance towards the former, or, in other words, that money makes the mind less magical.

  12. [The exploding head syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, K M; ter Bruggen, J P; Franke, C L

    1991-04-06

    The case is reported of a 47-year old female suffering from the exploding head syndrome. This syndrome consists of a sudden awakening due to a loud noise shortly after falling asleep, sometimes accompanied by a flash of light. The patient is anxious and experiences palpitations and excessive sweating. Most patients are more than fifty years of age. Further investigations do not reveal any abnormality. The pathogenesis is unknown, and no therapy other than reassurance is necessary.

  13. Where are we heading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noto, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper deals with different aspects connected to the global petroleum industry by discussing the way of heading. The aspects cover themes like new frontiers, new relationships, sanctions, global climate change, new alliances and new technology. New frontiers and relationships concern domestic policy affecting the industry, and sanctions are discussed in connection with trade. The author discusses the industry's participation in the global environmental policy and new alliances to provide greater opportunity for developing new technology

  14. "Head versus heart"

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Rozin; Heidi Grant; Stephanie Weinberg; Scott Parker

    2007-01-01

    Most American respondents give ``irrational,'' magical responses in a variety of situations that exemplify the sympathetic magical laws of similarity and contagion. In most of these cases, respondents are aware that their responses (usually rejections, as of fudge crafted to look like dog feces, or a food touched by a sterilized, dead cockroach) are not ``scientifically'' justified, but they are willing to avow them. We interpret this, in some sense, as ``heart over head.'' We report in this ...

  15. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Her...

  16. Método da hélice de Busch e a determinação da componente horizontal do campo magnético terrestre

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcante,Marisa Almeida; Dias,Eliane Fernanda

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta uma proposta experimental no estudo dos aspectos fenomenológicos envolvidos na trajetória de um feixe de elétrons sob a ação de campos elétricos e magnéticos. Os resultados deste trabalho estão sendo usados na disciplina de Estrutura da Matéria com o objetivo que os alunos possam compreender os princípios básicos envolvidos na construção de microscópios eletrônicos tais como a convergência de um feixe divergente de elétrons e a conseqüente formação da hélice cilíndrica...

  17. Repeated sublethal exposures to the sea lice pesticide Salmosan® (azamethiphos) on adult male lobsters (Homarus americanus) causes neuromuscular dysfunction, hypoxia, metabolic disturbances and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dounia, Daoud; Andrea, Battison; Lefort, Natalie; Van Geest, Jordana Lynne

    2016-12-01

    In Atlantic Canada and other salmon-growing regions, treatment of sea lice infestations in salmon aquaculture is necessary to protect fish health. The product Salmosan®, which contains the organophosphate azamethiphos as the active ingredient, is a pesticide presently used for treatment against sea lice. It is applied as a bath treatment and then released into the surrounding seawater. The potential for lethality to non-target species following acute and chronic exposures to Salmosan® has been studied over the past decade, however, the potential for sublethal effects on lobsters remains a concern. Adult male lobsters were exposed to 0.06, 0.5, and 5µgL -1 azamethiphos for one hour, repeated five times, over 48h. Lobsters were assessed immediately after exposure and over six days of recovery. Inhibition of muscle cholinesterase activity was detected in lobsters exposed to 0.5 and 5µgL -1 azamethiphos. The 5µgL -1 dose was considered lethal (93% cumulative mortality). Significant changes in hemolymph plasma biochemistry were most apparent in the 5µgL -1 exposure group in the immediate post-exposure samples. Citrate synthase activity was significantly lower in muscles of the 0.5µgL -1 exposure group compared to control lobsters. Mean electron transport system and standard metabolic rates tended to be lower in muscle tissue of the 0.5µgL -1 exposure group than control group lobsters. These results suggest that sublethal effects on lobster energetics may occur under laboratory exposure conditions (i.e., concentrations and duration) considered environmentally relevant, which could result in impairment under natural conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Parques científicos-tecnológicos y modelo triple-hélice. Situación del Caribe colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Herrera-Márquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los Parques de Ciencia y Tecnología se han constituido en un fenómeno mundial debido al desarrollo económico y social que han logrado los países al implementar este sistema. El objetivo del presente artículo es describir el origen y evolución de los Parques de Ciencia y Tecnología más representativos del mundo, el papel del modelo Triple Hélice en su desarrollo y la viabilidad de estas iniciativas en Co - lombia. Para allegar esta información se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en artículos y libros publicados entre los años 2000 y 2015, en conjunto con información de instituciones gubernamentales nacionales e internacionales y datos propios obtenidos a partir de encuestas. Se propone una definición de Parque de Ciencia y Tecnología como una institución que cuenta con espacio inmobiliario con beneficios tributarios, donde se instalan universidades y empresas que, haciendo uso de políticas gubernamentales de ciencia y tecnología, presta servicios especializados y desarrolla procesos de innovación. Dada la necesaria interacción entre la universidad, la industria y el gobierno, los Parques de Ciencia y Tecnología son un escenario óptimo para la aplicación del modelo Triple Hélice. En la Región Caribe colombiana se dan condiciones propicias para poner en marcha proyectos de parques porque existen necesidades en la empresa, capacidades en las universidades y políticas de ciencia, tecnología e innovación apropiadas; sin embargo, se requieren grandes esfuerzos por parte de todos los actores para lograr implementar modelos de operación sustentables.

  19. Malófagos (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera em aves cativas no sudeste do Brasil Chewing lice (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera on captive birds in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Oliveira da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram identificadas 12 espécies de malófagos no Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros, Sorocaba e Fundação Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro. Ciconiphilus pectiniventris em Cygnus atratus (Anseriformes, Anatidae; Kurodaia sp. em Buteo albicaudatus (Falconiformes, Accipitridae; Degeeriella sp. em Falco sparverius (Falconiformes, Falconidae; Colpocephalum sp. e Goniocotes parviceps em Pavo cristatus (Galliformes, Phasianidae; Goniodes pavonis em Rhea americana (Rheiformes, Rheidae; Colpocephalum cristatae e Heptapsogaster sp. em Cariama cristata (Gruiformes, Cariamidae; Austrophilopterus cancellosus em Ramphastos dicolorus (Piciformes, Ramphastidae; Strigiphilus crucigerus em Otus choliba (Strigiformes, Strigidae; Kurodaia sp. em Rhinoptynx clamator (Strigiformes, Strigidae e Colpocephalum pectinatum em Speotyto cunicularia (Strigiformes, Strigidae. As relações parasito hospedeiros em Strigiformes são novas no Brasil.Twelve chewing lice species were identified in Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros, Sorocaba and Fundação Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro. The parasites found were: Ciconiphilus pectiniventris in Cygnus atratus (Anseriformes, Anatidae; Kurodaia sp. in Buteo albicaudatus (Falconiformes, Accipitridae; Degeeriella sp. in Falco sparverius (Falconiformes, Falconidae; Colpocephalum sp. and Goniocotes parviceps in Pavo cristatus (Galliformes, Phasianidae; Goniodes pavonis in Rhea americana (Rheiformes, Rheidae; Colpocephalum cristatae and Heptapsogaster sp. in Cariama cristata (Gruiformes, Cariamidae; Austrophilopterus cancellosus in Ramphastos dicolorus (Piciformes, Ramphastidae; Strigiphilus crucigerus in Otus choliba (Strigiformes, Strigidae; Kurodaia sp. in Rhinoptynx clamator (Strigiformes, Strigidae and Colpocephalum pectinatum in Speotyto cunicularia (Strigiformes, Strigidae. The host-lice relationships are new in Strigiformes in Brazil.

  20. Experimentos de combustión con cascarilla de arroz en lecho fluidizado para la producción de ceniza rica en sílice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Daniel Martínez Ángel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A fin de contribuir con la valorización de residuos agrícolas que presentan dificultades de disposición, la utilización de energéticos renovables y la obtención de formas de energía más limpias y amigables con el medio ambiente, se investigó la combustión de cascarilla de arroz en un reactor de lecho fluidizado burbujeante y atmosférico. La metodología consistió en evaluar la influencia de altos excesos de aire, en la obtención de gases calientes y ceniza con altos contenidos de sílice en estado amorfo. Excesos de aire en el rango de 40% al 125%, mostraron que los valores cercanos al límite inferior establecido (40% favorecieron temperaturas superiores a 700ºC en el interior del reactor, dando origen a mayores eficiencias de conversión de la cascarilla, pero disminuyendo el potencial amorfo de la sílice contenida en la ceniza. Comportamiento contrario fue evidenciado en el límite superior del exceso de aire. Las concentraciones de los gases del proceso mostraron relativa variabilidad para cada condición de operación. Para el caso del CO, se reportaron emisiones promedio de 200 ppm (en una base seca del 11% de O2, para los excesos de aire comprendidos entre 40% y 82,5%.

  1. A Relação Universidade-Empresa no Brasil e o "Argumento da Hélice Tripla"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Dagnino

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A relação universidade-empresa (relação U-E é abordada tendo como guia o “argumento da Hélice Tripla” (argumento HT, entendido como combinação de duas correntes de pensamento elaboradas nos países avançados — a “Segunda Revolução Acadêmica” e a que ressalta a importância das relações com o entorno na competitividade das empresas — e de uma proposição de Política Científica e Tecnológica (PCT — os Pólos e Parques Tecnológicos — delas decorrente. Analisando a evolução das interpretações sobre a relação U-E na América Latina — os marcos de referência utilizados, as posturas analíticas ou disciplinares, sua influência junto à comunidade de pesquisa e na elaboração de PCT — mostra-se como o argumento HT contribuiu para que a interpretação que até o final dos anos 1980 era dominante perdesse influência e como o debate em curso entre essas duas atuais posições parece encaminhar-se. Por oferecer um padrão para análise crítica das mudanças nos modelos explicativo e normativo-institucional da PCT em países avançados e periféricos, o argumento HT pode informar novas interpretações, mais aderentes ao cenário de democratização ora em construção no País.The university-firm relationship (UFR is approached having as a guide the “Triple Helix statement” (TH, undestood as a combination of two currents of thought produced in advanced countries — the “Second Academic Revolution” and the one that stresses the relations between firms and their context as competitiveness factors — and an associated measure of Science and Technology Policy (STP — the Technological Parks. Analysing the evolution of UFR interpretations in Latin America — the frameworks used, the analytic or disciplinary postures, their influence on the research community and in the STP — the paper shows how TH debilitated the interpretation that had been dominant until the end of the 1980s, and how the debate

  2. Kinematics of the AM-50 heading machine cutting head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Bak, K; Klich, R [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Mechanizacji Gornictwa

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes motion of the cutter head of the AM-50 heading machine. Two types of head motion are comparatively evaluated: planar motion and spatial motion. The spatial motion consists of the head rotational motion and horizontal or vertical feed motion, while planar motion consists of rotational motion and vertical feed motion. Equations that describe head motion under conditions of cutter vertical or horizontal feed motion are derived. The angle between the cutting speed direction and working speed direction is defined. On the basis of these formulae variations of cutting speed depending on the cutting tool position on a cutter head are calculated. Calculations made for 2 extreme cutting tools show that the cutting speed ranges from 1,205 m/s to 3,512 m/s. 4 refs.

  3. Head First Web Design

    CERN Document Server

    Watrall, Ethan

    2008-01-01

    Want to know how to make your pages look beautiful, communicate your message effectively, guide visitors through your website with ease, and get everything approved by the accessibility and usability police at the same time? Head First Web Design is your ticket to mastering all of these complex topics, and understanding what's really going on in the world of web design. Whether you're building a personal blog or a corporate website, there's a lot more to web design than div's and CSS selectors, but what do you really need to know? With this book, you'll learn the secrets of designing effecti

  4. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Head First C# is a complete learning experience for object-oriented programming, C#, and the Visual Studio IDE. Built for your brain, this book covers C# 3.0 and Visual Studio 2008, and teaches everything from language fundamentals to advanced topics including garbage collection, extension methods, and double-buffered animation. You'll also master C#'s hottest and newest syntax, LINQ, for querying SQL databases, .NET collections, and XML documents. By the time you're through, you'll be a proficient C# programmer, designing and coding large-scale applications. Every few chapters you will come

  5. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    You want to learn C# programming, but you're not sure you want to suffer through another tedious technical book. You're in luck: Head First C# introduces this language in a fun, visual way. You'll quickly learn everything from creating your first program to learning sophisticated coding skills with C# 4.0, Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4, while avoiding common errors that frustrate many students. The second edition offers several hands-on labs along the way to help you build and test programs using skills you've learned up to that point. In the final lab, you'll put everything together. From o

  6. Head First Python

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Ever wished you could learn Python from a book? Head First Python is a complete learning experience for Python that helps you learn the language through a unique method that goes beyond syntax and how-to manuals, helping you understand how to be a great Python programmer. You'll quickly learn the language's fundamentals, then move onto persistence, exception handling, web development, SQLite, data wrangling, and Google App Engine. You'll also learn how to write mobile apps for Android, all thanks to the power that Python gives you. We think your time is too valuable to waste struggling with

  7. Head First Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Despite the huge number of mobile devices and apps in use today, your business still needs a website. You just need it to be mobile. Head First Mobile Web walks you through the process of making a conventional website work on a variety smartphones and tablets. Put your JavaScript, CSS media query, and HTML5 skills to work-then optimize your site to perform its best in the demanding mobile market. Along the way, you'll discover how to adapt your business strategy to target specific devices. Navigate the increasingly complex mobile landscapeTake both technical and strategic approaches to mobile

  8. Reactor vessel head permanent shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankinson, M.F.; Leduc, R.J.; Richard, J.W.; Malandra, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising: a nuclear reactor pressure vessel closure head; control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) disposed within the closure head so as to project vertically above the closure head; cooling air baffle means surrounding the control rod drive mechanisms for defining cooling air paths relative to the control rod drive mechanisms; means defined within the periphery of the closure head for accommodating fastening means for securing the closure head to its associated pressure vessel; lifting lugs fixedly secured to the closure head for facilitating lifting and lowering movements of the closure head relative to the pressure vessel; lift rods respectively operatively associated with the plurality of lifting lugs for transmitting load forces, developed during the lifting and lowering movements of the closure head, to the lifting lugs; upstanding radiation shield means interposed between the cooling air baffle means and the periphery of the enclosure head of shielding maintenance personnel operatively working upon the closure head fastening means from the effects of radiation which may emanate from the control rod drive mechanisms and the cooling air baffle means; and connecting systems respectively associated with each one of the lifting lugs and each one of the lifting rods for connecting each one of the lifting rods to a respective one of each one of the lifting lugs, and for simultaneously connecting a lower end portion of the upstanding radiation shield means to each one of the respective lifting lugs

  9. Chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from estrildid finches (Aves: Passeriformes: Estrildidae) and louse-flies (Insecta: Diptera: Hippoboscidae) from birds in Senegal, with descriptions of three new species of the genus Brueelia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sychra, O.; Literák, I.; Najer, T.; Čapek, Miroslav; Koubek, Petr; Procházka, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2714, - (2010), s. 59-68 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404; GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : chewing lice * louse-flies * Passeriformes * Senegal Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.853, year: 2010 http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2010/f/zt02714p068.pdf

  10. Piezoelectric properties enhanced of Sr0.6(BiNa)0.2Bi2Nb2O9 ceramic by (LiCe) modification with charge neutrality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Pinyang; Xi, Zengzhe; Long, Wei; Li, Xiaojuan; Li, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The oxygen vacancies were confirmed by the left figure. The role of oxygen vacancy on piezoelectric activities was obtained by comparing to the varieties of oxygen vacancy concentration and piezoelectric coefficient with (LiCe) modification. -- Highlights: • The Sr 0.6 (BiNa) 0.2 Bi 2 Nb 2 O 9 ceramic by (LiCe) modification with the charge neutrality was synthesized by the solid state reaction method. • The Curie temperature and piezoelectric coefficient were found to be T c ∼590 °C and d 33 ∼32 pC/N, respectively. • The mechanism of piezoelectric activities improved by (LiCe) modification was discussed. -- Abstract: Aurivillius-type ceramics, Sr 0.6−x (LiCe) x/2.5 (BiNa) 0.2 Bi 2 Nb 2 O 9 (SLCBNBNO) with the charge neutrality, were synthesized by using conventional solid-state processing. Phase analysis was performed by X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Microstructural morphology was assessed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Structural, dielectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and electromechanical properties of the SLCBNBNO ceramics were investigated. Piezoelectric properties were significantly enhanced compared to Sr 0.6 (BiNa) 0.2 Bi 2 Nb 2 O 9 (SBNBN) ceramic and the maximum of piezoelectric coefficient d 33 of the SBNBN-LC6 ceramic was 32 pC/N with higher Curie temperature (T c ∼590 °C). In addition, mechanisms for the piezoelectric properties enhanced of the SBNBN-based ceramics were discussed

  11. Representation of heading direction in far and near head space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poljac, E.; Berg, A.V. van den

    2003-01-01

    Manipulation of objects around the head requires an accurate and stable internal representation of their locations in space, also during movements such as that of the eye or head. For far space, the representation of visual stimuli for goal-directed arm movements relies on retinal updating, if eye

  12. Head trauma and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Kanji; Yoshii, Nobuo; Tobari, Chitoshi

    1979-01-01

    In our cases of acute and subacute subdural hematoma, the use of CT was evaluated. In our department of surgery, acute subdural hematoma was found in 46 of 388 patients of head trauma who underwent CT. Acute subdural hematoma, like epidural hematoma was usually visualized as a high-density area along the cranial inner table, and this was easily differenciated from epidural hematoma because of difference in shape from the other. The picture of acute subdural hematoma was occasionally confused with that of intracerebral hematoma or cerebral contusion. Single use of CT does not differenciate subacute subdural hematoma from chronic subdural hematoma. However, CT usually visualized acute hematoma as a high-density area, showing the extent of hematoma. Comparison of the thickness of hematoma with the axis deviation of the median part such as the 3rd cerebral ventricle suggested severity of cerebral edema. CT also revealed bilateral or multiple lesions of cerebral contusion or intracerebral hematoma. (Ueda, J.)

  13. Chryse 'Alien Head'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    26 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an impact crater in Chryse Planitia, not too far from the Viking 1 lander site, that to seems to resemble a bug-eyed head. The two odd depressions at the north end of the crater (the 'eyes') may have formed by wind or water erosion. This region has been modified by both processes, with water action occurring in the distant past via floods that poured across western Chryse Planitia from Maja Valles, and wind action common occurrence in more recent history. This crater is located near 22.5oN, 47.9oW. The 150 meter scale bar is about 164 yards long. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/lower left.

  14. Lower head failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.L.; Thinnes, G.L.; Allison, C.M.; Cronenberg, A.W.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a lower vessel head research program to investigate plausible modes of reactor vessel failure in order to determine (a) which modes have the greatest likelihood of occurrence during a severe accident and (b) the range of core debris and accident conditions that lead to these failures. This paper presents the methodology and preliminary results of an investigation of reactor designs and thermodynamic conditions using analytic closed-form approximations to assess the important governing parameters in non-dimensional form. Preliminary results illustrate the importance of vessel and tube geometrical parameters, material properties, and external boundary conditions on predicting vessel failure. Thermal analyses indicate that steady-state temperature distributions will occur in the vessel within several hours, although the exact time is dependent upon vessel thickness. In-vessel tube failure is governed by the tube-to-debris mass ratio within the lower head, where most penetrations are predicted to fail if surrounded by molten debris. Melt penetration distance is dependent upon the effective flow diameter of the tube. Molten debris is predicted to penetrate through tubes with a larger effective flow diameter, such as a boiling water reactor (BWR) drain nozzle. Ex-vessel tube failure for depressurized reactor vessels is predicted to be more likely for a BWR drain nozzle penetration because of its larger effective diameter. At high pressures (between ∼0.1 MPa and ∼12 MPa) ex-vessel tube rupture becomes a dominant failure mechanism, although tube ejection dominates control rod guide tube failure at lower temperatures. However, tube ejection and tube rupture predictions are sensitive to the vessel and tube radial gap size and material coefficients of thermal expansion

  15. Soya oil-based shampoo superior to 0.5% permethrin lotion for head louse infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazma A Burgess

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ian F Burgess1, Katrina Kay1,2, Nazma A Burgess1, Elizabeth R Brunton11Medical Entomology Centre, Insect Research and Development Limited, Cambridge, 2Leeds Primary Care Trust, Leeds, UKBackground: This was a randomized, assessor-blind, controlled comparison of a soya oil-based medical device shampoo with a medicinal permethrin lotion in an alcohol vehicle for treatment of head louse infestation to generate data suitable for a regulatory submission to achieve reimbursable status for the shampoo product.Methods: We treated 91 children and adults, divided between two sites, on two occasions 9 days apart. Participants washed their hair and towel-dried it before treatment. The shampoo was used twice for 30 minutes each time. The lotion was used for 30 minutes followed by rinsing. Assessments were made by dry detection combing on days 2, 9, 11, and 14 after the first treatment. According to present knowledge, this combing technique does not influence the overall head louse populations or outcome of treatment.Results: The soya oil shampoo was significantly (P < 0.01 more effective than the lotion for both intention to treat (62.2% versus 34.8% successful treatment and per-protocol (74.3% versus 36.8% success groups. Post-treatment assessments showed the necessity for repeat treatment, but that a 9-day interval was too long because if eggs hatched after the first treatment, the lice could grow old enough to lay eggs before the second treatment.Conclusion: The soya oil-based shampoo was more effective than the permethrin lotion, more cosmetically acceptable, and less irritant.Keywords: pediculosis, medical device, medicinal product, insecticide, vegetable oil

  16. The head-mounted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Infections Unlikely to be Spread Through Swimming Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Home Infections Unlikely to be Spread Through Swimming Pools Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... included below. Infections Unlikely to be Spread by Swimming Pools Head Lice Head lice are unlikely to ...

  18. El modelo de Triple Hélice de relaciones universidad, industria y gobierno: un análisis crítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González de la Fe, Teresa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I attend to the Triple Helix Model of rela tions among university, industry and government, broadly used in innovation studies. The model was proposed by Henry Etzkowitz and Löet Leyersdorf and it has been very succesful as a heuristic for analysis of innovation process and as a normative guide for innovation policies. Moreover, its theoretical foundations are suited with perspectives from evolutive and institutionalist theories of economic science, at the same time that it takes in account sociological variables usually unattended in economic theory. By other hand, the accumulative knowledge about diverse experiences of triple helix more than one decade ago has shown that the Triple Helix model is adequated as a impeller for innovations not only directed to market but also to various social problems. In spite of it, the model has originated critics pointing to its supporting functions and its weaknesses for adecuated descriptions and explanations of complex processes of innovation.Se revisará el modelo de Triple Hélice de relaciones entre universidad, industria y gobierno, ampliamente usado en los estudios de la innovación. Impulsado por Etzkowitz y Leyersdorf, el modelo ha resultado fructífero como heurística para el análisis de los procesos de innovación y como esquema normativo para políticas de innovación. Además, los fundamentos teóricos del modelo casan bien con los enfoques de las teorías evolucionista e institucionalista en economía, al tiempo que toman en cuenta variables sociológicas tradicionalmente descuidadas por la teoría económica. Por otro lado, la acumulación de conocimiento en torno a experiencias de triples hélices durante más de una década ha mostrado que el modelo sirve como impulsor de innovaciones no sólo destinadas al mercado sino también a diferentes problemas sociales. Pese a ello, ha suscitado críticas que señalan sus funciones legitimadoras y sus debilidades para la descripci

  19. Modular reactor head shielding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, E. B.

    1985-01-01

    An improved modular reactor head shielding system is provided that includes a frame which is removably assembled on a reactor head such that no structural or mechanical alteration of the head is required. The shielding system also includes hanging assemblies to mount flexible shielding pads on trolleys which can be moved along the frame. The assemblies allow individual pivoting movement of the pads. The pivoting movement along with the movement allowed by the trolleys provides ease of access to any point on the reactor head. The assemblies also facilitate safe and efficient mounting of the pads directly to and from storage containers such that workers have additional shielding throughout virtually the entire installation and removal process. The flexible shielding pads are designed to interleave with one another when assembled around the reactor head for substantially improved containment of radiation leakage

  20. Planting time for maximization of yield of vinegar plant calyx (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Época de plantio para maximização daprodução de cálices de vinagreira (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilmar Eduardo Arbex de Castro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield of calyxes of Hibiscus sabdariffa L, a medicinal plant, at four planting times in Lavras - MG. The treatments were four planting times (October 18th, November 15th, December 18th 2001 and January 15th 2002 and a harvest was proceeded when practically there were no developing calyxes, almost at the end of the plant cycle. The numbers of calyxes per plant, the fresh and dry biomasses of calyxes and quality were taken into account. It follows that planting time influenced yield per plant and the fresh and dry biomasses of calyxes, differing from each other by Tukey test at 5%. In October planting, there was a higher yield (2,522kg/ha with a yield 5.24 as high relative to the planting of the month of January (481 kg/ha. The planting s in the month of November to December showed yields of 1,695 and 1,093 kg/ha of dry calyxes, respectively and in relation to the same months of January, yield was of 3.52 to 2.27 times more. Harvest must be done as soon as the calyxes are ripe in order to preserve quality.Objetivou-se avaliar a produtividade de cálices de Hibiscus sabdariffa L., planta medicinal, em quatro épocas de plantio em Lavras - M.G. Os tratamentos foram quatro épocas de plantio (18 de outubro; 15 de novembro; 18 de dezembro de 2001 e 15 de janeiro de 2002 e realizada uma colheita quando praticamente não existiam cálices em desenvolvimento, quase no final do ciclo da planta. Foram considerados os números de cálices por planta, as fitomassas frescas e secas dos cálices e a qualidade. Concluiu-se que a época de plantio influenciou o rendimento por planta e as fitomassas frescas e secas dos cálices, diferindo entre si pelo teste de Tukey a 5%. No plantio de outubro, houve maior rendimento (2.522 kg/ha, com produção de 5,24 vezes a mais em relação ao plantio do mês de janeiro (481 kg/ha. Os plantios nos meses de novembro e dezembro tiveram produções de 1.695 e 1.093 kg.ha-1 de cálices

  1. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-18

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Cancer; Head and Neck Sarcoma; Paraganglioma of Head and Neck; Chordoma of Head and Neck; Chondrosarcoma of Head and Neck; Angiofibroma of Head and Neck

  2. Prevention of head louse infestation: a randomised, double-blind, cross-over study of a novel concept product, 1% 1,2-octanediol spray versus placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ian F; Brunton, Elizabeth R; French, Rebecca; Burgess, Nazma A; Lee, Peter N

    2014-05-30

    To determine whether regular use of a spray containing 1,2-octanediol 1%, which has been shown to inhibit survival of head lice, is able to work as a preventive against establishment of new infestations. Randomised, double-blind, cross-over, community study in Cambridgeshire, UK. 63 male and female schoolchildren aged 4-16 years judged to have a high risk of recurrent infestation. Only the youngest member of a household attending school participated. Participants were treated to eliminate lice, randomised between 1% octanediol or placebo sprays for 6 weeks then crossed-over to the other spray for 6 weeks. Parents applied the sprays at least twice weekly or more frequently if the hair was washed. Investigators monitored weekly for infestation and replenished supplies of spray. The primary endpoint was the time taken until the first infestation event occurred. The secondary measure was safety of the product in regular use. Intention-to-treat analysis found a total of 32 confirmed infestations in 20 participants, with 9 of them infested while using both products. In these nine participants the time to first infestation showed a significant advantage to 1% octanediol (p=0.0129). Per-protocol analysis showed only trends because the population included was not large enough to demonstrate significance. There were no serious adverse events and only two adverse events possibly related to treatment, one was a case of transient erythema and another of a rash that resolved after 5 days. Routine use of 1% octanediol spray provided a significant level of protection from infestation. It was concluded that this product is effective if applied regularly and thoroughly. ISRCTN09524995. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Turbidity Current Head Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo

    2010-05-01

    A laboratory experimental set - up for studying the behaviour of sediment in presence of a turbulent field with zero mean flow is compared with the behaviour of turbidity currents [1] . Particular interest is shown on the initiation of sediment motion and in the sediment lift - off. The behaviour of the turbidity current in a flat ground is compared with the zero mean flow oscilating grid generated turbulence as when wave flow lifts off suspended sediments [2,3]. Some examples of the results obtained with this set-up relating the height of the head of the turbidity current to the equilibrium level of stirred lutoclines are shown. A turbulent velocity u' lower than that estimated by the Shield diagram is required to start sediment motion. The minimum u' required to start sediment lift - off, is a function of sediment size, cohesivity and resting time. The lutocline height depends on u', and the vorticity at the lutocline seems constant for a fixed sediment size [1,3]. Combining grid stirring and turbidty current head shapes analyzed by means of advanced image analysis, sediment vertical fluxes and settling speeds can be measured [4,5]. [1] D. Hernandez Turbulent structure of turbidity currents and sediment transport Ms Thesis ETSECCPB, UPC. Barcelona 2009. [2] A. Sánchez-Arcilla; A. Rodríguez; J.C. Santás; J.M. Redondo; V. Gracia; R. K'Osyan; S. Kuznetsov; C. Mösso. Delta'96 Surf-zone and nearshore measurements at the Ebro Delta. A: International Conference on Coastal Research through large Scale Experiments (Coastal Dynamics '97). University of Plymouth, 1997, p. 186-187. [3] P. Medina, M. A. Sánchez and J. M. Redondo. Grid stirred turbulence: applications to the initiation of sediment motion and lift-off studies Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere. 26, Issue 4, 2001, Pages 299-304 [4] M.O. Bezerra, M. Diez, C. Medeiros, A. Rodriguez, E. Bahia., A. Sanchez-Arcilla and J.M. Redondo. Study on the influence of waves on

  4. Femoral head necrosis; Hueftkopfnekrose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, J.; Scheurecker, G.; Scheurecker, A.; Stoeger, A.; Huber, A. [Roentgeninstitut am Schillerpark, Linz (Austria); Hofmann, S. [Orthopaedisches Landeskrankenhaus Stolzalpe (Austria)

    2009-05-15

    The epidemiology and pathohistogenesis of avascular femoral head necrosis has still not been clarified in detail. Because the course of the disease runs in stages and over a long time period nearly always culminates in the necessity for a total hip prosthesis, an exact radiological evaluation is of paramount importance for the treatment. There is a need for a common staging system to enable comparison of different therapy concepts and especially their long-term results. In this article the ARCO staging system is described in full detail, which includes all radiological modalities as well as histopathological alterations. (orig.) [German] Bei der avaskulaeren Femurkopfnekrose handelt es sich um ein Krankheitsbild, dessen Ursachen noch immer nicht vollstaendig geklaert sind. Da die Erkrankung stadienhaft verlaeuft und ueber einen laengeren Zeitraum betrachtet nahezu immer in einem prothetischen Hueftersatz muendet, ist eine genaue radiologische Abklaerung fuer die Behandlung von enormer Bedeutung. Um Langzeiterfolge verschiedener Therapiekonzepte vergleichen zu koennen, sind eine exakte Beschreibung und darauf basierend die Verwendung einer einheitlichen Stadieneinteilung wuenschenswert. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird die ARCO-Stadieneinteilung im Detail beschrieben, die alle bildgebenden Methoden beruecksichtigt und histopathologische Veraenderungen mit einbezieht. (orig.)

  5. Head trauma and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Kanji; Yoshii, Nobuo; Tobari, Chitoshi

    1979-01-01

    It has been said that chronic subdural hematoma cannot be diagnosed by CT. In our cases, CT was used, and the results were described. According to the density of the picture, CT findings of chronic subdural hematoma could be classified into 3 types, those of higher density than that of the cerebral paranchyma, those of isodensity, and those of lower density than that of the cerebral parenchyma. The difference among them appeared to be due to variation in the fluid in hematoma, especially that in hemoglobin concentration. Chronic subdural hematoma was found in 27 of 388 cases of head trauma in which CT was undertaken in our department of surgery for last 2 years. It is difficult to differenciate this disease from subdural edema or subarachnoideal retention of the cerebrospinal fluid. In many cases, use of contrast medium added no change to the CT picture. Cerebral angiography is necessary for definite diagnosis of the disease. Chronic subdural hematoma gives more varieties of findings than other intracranial hematomas. However, if the film is very carefully read, CT is still useful for diagnosing this disease in spite of initially remarked difficulties. (Ueda, J.)

  6. A new genus and twenty new species of Australian jumping plant-lice (Psylloidea: Triozidae) from Eremophila and Myoporum (Scrophulariaceae: Myoporeae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gary S; Fagan-Jeffries, Erinn P; Austin, Andy D

    2016-02-05

    The Triozidae is a diverse, cosmopolitan family of jumping plant-lice (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) from an exceptionally diverse range of plant families, but with few described Australian species. As a direct outcome of the Australian Biological Resources Study Bush Blitz species discovery program, many new Psylloidea from novel host plants in remote localities have been revealed. In this study a new genus Myotrioza Taylor gen. nov. and 20 new species are described from southern and central Australia which also establishes the first host plant records from Eremophila and Myoporum (Scrophulariaceae: Myoporeae). New species, delineated using a combination of morphological and mitochondrial COI sequence data, are: Myotrioza clementsiana sp. nov., M. darwinensis sp. nov., M. desertorum sp. nov., M. eremi sp. nov., M. eremophili sp. nov., M. flindersiana sp.nov., M. gawlerensis sp. nov., M. insularis sp. nov., M. interioris sp. nov., M. interstantis sp. nov., M. longifoliae sp. nov., M. markmitchelli sp. nov., M. myopori sp. nov., M. oppositifoliae sp. nov., M. pantonii sp. nov., M. platycarpi sp. nov., M. remota sp. nov., M. scopariae sp. nov., M. serrulatae sp. nov., and M. telowiensis sp. nov. Genetic divergence data, host associations, biogeographic data, diagnoses and a key to species are presented. Myotrioza appears to be particularly diverse in ephemeral southern Australia, especially in inland Western Australia and South Australia, matching regions of high diversity of the host genera; some species are likely to be short range endemics.

  7. Anaphylaxis Due to Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruner, Heather C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:435–437.

  8. Anaphylaxis due to head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Heather C; Bruner, David I

    2015-05-01

    Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury.

  9. Boxing-related head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, Mayur; Chin, Lawrence S; Cantu, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Fatalities in boxing are most often due to traumatic brain injury that occurs in the ring. In the past 30 years, significant improvements in ringside and medical equipment, safety, and regulations have resulted in a dramatic reduction in the fatality rate. Nonetheless, the rate of boxing-related head injuries, particularly concussions, remains unknown, due in large part to its variability in clinical presentation. Furthermore, the significance of repeat concussions sustained when boxing is just now being understood. In this article, we identify the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and management of boxing-related head injuries, and discuss preventive strategies to reduce head injuries sustained by boxers.

  10. Head-positioning scintillation camera and head holder therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    A holder for immobilizing the head of a patient undergoing a vertex brain scan by a Gamma Scintillation Camera is described. The holder has a uniquely designed shape capable of comfortably supporting the head. In addition, this holder can be both adjustably and removably utilized in combination with the scintillation camera so as to enable the brain scan operation to take place while the patient is in the seated position

  11. Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Toshiki; Imanishi, Yorihisa

    2008-01-01

    The limitation of concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) in head and neck cancer (HNC) as the primary treatment is described based on recent findings. Limits in the application/indication involve factors of age, performance status (PS) and renal function. The first is that, as deaths in >71 years old patients are derived from other causes (41%) than HNC, CCRT is only useful for younger population; the second, patients with PS 0-1 or Karnofsky performance score >60-70 can be indicated; and third, contraindicated are those with creatinine clearance (CCr) <60 mL/min as the key drug cisplatin in CCRT has a high renal toxicity. It should be recognized that completion rates of chemotherapy and RT are as low as 66-85% and 84-92%, respectively, in CCRT. CCRT has such limiting adverse events as mucitis, dry mouth, dysohagia, weight loss, neutropenia, sepsis, etc., which are most important in CCRT application. CCRT is recommended for the primary cancers of larynx and hypopharynx because they are significantly better conserved than middle pharyngeal, oral and upper jaw cancers. Evidence of CCRT is poor for cancers in paranasal sinuses. Planned neck dissection (PND) is for the cervical metastatic lymph nodes and conducted 6-12 weeks after CCRT regardless to its outcome. In fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) negative cases, PND can be omitted. Necessity of PND is possibly inversely proportional to CCRT intensity performed. For control of remote metastasis, CCRT has obvious limits and inductive chemotherapy before it is currently considered. Salvage surgery post CCRT does not always yield a relief because of complication. Patients with advanced laryngeal cancer can be selected either to surgery or CCRT depending on results of the inductive chemotherapy. To predict the sensitivity to CCRT, some biomarkers like HPV, EGFR and VEGF have been suggested to be useful by retrospective studies. Understanding the limitation is as important as knowing the usefulness in

  12. Sports-related Head Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and head gear come in many sizes and styles for many sports and must properly fit to ... to play or practice." The "Concussion Diagnosis and Management" section details circumstances in which an athlete should ...

  13. Heater head for stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John A.

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should ... a digital cloud server. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the ...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and may add approximately 15 minutes to the total exam time. top of page What will I ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses ... gadolinium contrast material except when absolutely necessary for medical treatment. See the MRI Safety page for more ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no ... Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose medical conditions. ...

  18. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Surgeries Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Injury / Trauma Surgery Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for ... Imaging (MRI) - Head Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  20. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Oral, Head ...

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses ... may follow your regular daily routine and take food and medications as usual. Some MRI examinations may ...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... gadolinium contrast, it may still be possible to use it after appropriate pre-medication. Patient consent will ...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or headphones during the exam. MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  5. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... research and insights. Comments This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. This iframe ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... for immediate assistance. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI) of the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed ... there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some ...

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by the interpreting radiologist. Frequently, the differentiation of abnormal (diseased) tissue from normal tissues is better with ... Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic ...

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medically necessary. MRI may not always distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically ... Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a computer to produce detailed pictures of the brain and other cranial structures that are clearer and ... sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What ...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  13. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... teeth or become infected. It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out ... and surgically treating cancer of the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to ...

  14. Eye-based head gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbegi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Pederson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...... mobile phone screens. The user study shows that the method detects a set of defined gestures reliably.......A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...

  15. Topiramate Responsive Exploding Head Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Palikh, Gaurang M.; Vaughn, Bradley V.

    2010-01-01

    Exploding head syndrome is a rare phenomenon but can be a significant disruption to quality of life. We describe a 39-year-old female with symptoms of a loud bang and buzz at sleep onset for 3 years. EEG monitoring confirmed these events occurred in transition from stage 1 sleep. This patient reported improvement in intensity of events with topiramate medication. Based on these results, topiramate may be an alternative method to reduce the intensity of events in exploding head syndrome.

  16. Topiramate responsive exploding head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palikh, Gaurang M; Vaughn, Bradley V

    2010-08-15

    Exploding head syndrome is a rare phenomenon but can be a significant disruption to quality of life. We describe a 39-year-old female with symptoms of a loud bang and buzz at sleep onset for 3 years. EEG monitoring confirmed these events occurred in transition from stage 1 sleep. This patient reported improvement in intensity of events with topiramate medication. Based on these results, topiramate may be an alternative method to reduce the intensity of events in exploding head syndrome.

  17. Ghost Head Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a colorful holiday card, a new image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals a vibrant green and red nebula far from Earth. The image of NGC 2080, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is available online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . Images like this help astronomers investigate star formation in nebulas. NGC 2080, nicknamed 'The Ghost Head Nebula,' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud. 30 Doradus is the largest star-forming complex in the local group of galaxies. This 'enhanced color' picture is composed of three narrow-band-filter images obtained by Hubble on March 28, 2000. The red and blue light come from regions of hydrogen gas heated by nearby stars. The green light on the left comes from glowing oxygen. The energy to illuminate the green light is supplied by a powerful stellar wind, a stream of high-speed particles coming from a massive star just outside the image. The central white region is a combination of all three emissions and indicates a core of hot, massive stars in this star-formation region. Intense emission from these stars has carved a bowl-shaped cavity in surrounding gas. In the white region, the two bright areas (the 'eyes of the ghost') - named A1 (left) and A2 (right) -- are very hot, glowing 'blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen. The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from one massive star. A2 contains more dust and several hidden, massive stars. The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10,000 years, since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newborn stars. The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The

  18. Piezoelectric properties enhanced of Sr{sub 0.6}(BiNa){sub 0.2}Bi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} ceramic by (LiCe) modification with charge neutrality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Pinyang, E-mail: fpy_2000@163.com [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Functional Materials and Devices, School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Xi, Zengzhe; Long, Wei; Li, Xiaojuan [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Functional Materials and Devices, School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Li, Jin [Northwest Institute For Non-ferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: The oxygen vacancies were confirmed by the left figure. The role of oxygen vacancy on piezoelectric activities was obtained by comparing to the varieties of oxygen vacancy concentration and piezoelectric coefficient with (LiCe) modification. -- Highlights: • The Sr{sub 0.6}(BiNa){sub 0.2}Bi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} ceramic by (LiCe) modification with the charge neutrality was synthesized by the solid state reaction method. • The Curie temperature and piezoelectric coefficient were found to be T{sub c} ∼590 °C and d{sub 33} ∼32 pC/N, respectively. • The mechanism of piezoelectric activities improved by (LiCe) modification was discussed. -- Abstract: Aurivillius-type ceramics, Sr{sub 0.6−x}(LiCe){sub x/2.5}(BiNa){sub 0.2}Bi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}(SLCBNBNO) with the charge neutrality, were synthesized by using conventional solid-state processing. Phase analysis was performed by X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Microstructural morphology was assessed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Structural, dielectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and electromechanical properties of the SLCBNBNO ceramics were investigated. Piezoelectric properties were significantly enhanced compared to Sr{sub 0.6}(BiNa){sub 0.2}Bi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBNBN) ceramic and the maximum of piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33} of the SBNBN-LC6 ceramic was 32 pC/N with higher Curie temperature (T{sub c} ∼590 °C). In addition, mechanisms for the piezoelectric properties enhanced of the SBNBN-based ceramics were discussed.

  19. Dos nuevos registros de piojos masticadores (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae sobre Leptotila megalura (Aves: Columbidae en la Argentina Two new records of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae on Leptotila megalura (Aves: Columbidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Guardia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dos especies de piojos masticadores (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae, Physconelloides ceratoceps Ewing y Columbicola gracilicapitis Carriker, son registradas por primera vez sobre Leptotila megalura Sclater & Salvin ("yerutí yungueña" (Aves: Columbidae. Además, C. gracilicapitis es citada por primera vez para la Argentina.Two species of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae, Physconelloides ceratoceps Ewing and Columbicola gracilicapitis Carriker are recorded for the first time on Leptotila megalura Sclater & Salvin ("Large-tailed dove" (Aves: Columbidae. In addition, C. gracilicapitis is recorded for the first time in Argentina.

  20. Heading for a fall? Management of head injury in infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Williamson, M

    2010-09-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest reasons for infants (< 1 year) to attend the Emergency Department (ED). Clinical management varies considerably and concern about non accidental injury results in a high admission rate in some hospitals. Information was obtained on 103 children under one year of age presenting to the ED with head injury in a prospective study. The average age was 6.7 months and 57% of patients were male. Twenty eight babies had skull x rays with 1 skull fracture diagnosed. None required CT brain scan. Ninety eight (94%) were discharged home from the ED. There were no unplanned returns, readmissions or adverse events. The incidence of traumatic brain injury in children under one year of age presenting with head injury is low and the majority can be safely discharged home.

  1. Desarrollo de revestimientos de sílice para el proceso de microfundición de joyería con pre-engaste de esmeraldas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlina Londoño Montes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se evaluó la posibilidad de aplicar esmeraldas naturales a la técnica de pre-engaste para la fabricación de joyería, empleando dos revestimientos base sílice, uno comercial y otro desarrollado con arena silícea natural, estabilizados térmicamente a 350 °C. Las materias primas y los revestimientos se caracterizaron con ayuda de las técnicas de difracción de rayos X, microscopia electrónica de barrido y análisis calorimétrico diferencial y termogravimétrico, así como a través de pruebas de resistencia a la compresión, permeabilidad y resistencia al choque térmico. Se seleccionó la mezcla con relación arena/yeso 68/32 y adición del 50% en peso de agua como la más adecuada para la obtención del nuevo revestimiento, así como el 38% de agua para la mezcla comercial. Finalmente, se realizaron ensayos de microfundición con una aleación preciosa de bajo punto de fusión (398 °C y de simulación del proceso, con los softwares Solidcast® y Flowcast®, observándose total colabilidad de la aleación dentro de los moldes, así como mínima afectación cromática de las esmeraldas. Abstract: The possibility of implementing natural emeralds to the stone in place technique in the manufacture of jewelry was evaluated using two silica samples, one commercial and other developed with natural silica sand, both thermally stabilized at 350 °C. Raw materials and blend performances were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry and thermo-gravimetry, as well as through compression strength, permeability and thermal shock resistance tests. The sand/gypsum mixture with 68/32 ratio and the addition of 50 wt% of water was selected as the most suitable to obtain the new investment, as well as 38% water for commercial investment. Finally, microcasting tests were carried out with a low melting point gold alloy (398 °C and simulation tests of this process were performed

  2. Posicionamento estratégico de MPE'S com base na inovação através do modelo Hélice Tríplice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Schreiber

    Full Text Available A globalização dos mercados, os avanços da ciência e da tecnologia, estimulou o surgimento de novos nichos de mercado, com consumidores mais exigentes, e, também, o aumento da competitividade entre empresas (ORTIZ, 2003. Nesse panorama, destacam-se as micro e pequenas empresas - MPE's, que se responsabilizam por parcela relevante de geração de oportunidades de emprego e de renda no país. No entanto,estudos apontam para a fragilidade técnica e produtiva das MPE'sque se reflete em índices mais elevados de encerramento de operações e de inadimplência de obrigações sociais e tributárias (SEBRAE, 2009. Esses agentes econômicos, por vezes menos preparados para competir, mas essenciais para o sistema econômico e social dos países, foram contemplados com políticas públicas, voltadas para o estímulo ao empreendedorismo, priorizando a capacitação em gestão e métodos de produção (CASSIOLATO & LASTRES, 2001. Dentre elas destacam-se a constituição de redes colaborativas de MPE's, a capacitação de seus gestores e equipes operacionais, além da disponibilização de acesso ao conhecimento técnico, com vistas a subsidiar a atividade de inovação de produtos e processos (MATTOS et al., 2009. Com o objetivo de otimizar a alocação de recursos públicos para o referido fim, os agentes governamentais optam pela adoção do modelo de Hélice Tríplice, por meio do qual o governo media a interação entre a academia e as empresas e fomenta o compartilhamento da infra-estrutura universitária, dos conhecimentos, métodos e técnicas, desde a gestão até a operação. O objetivo deste trabalho visa evidenciar as características do posicionamento estratégico de empresas de pequeno porte, que participam de duas redes de cooperação, atuantes na região sul do país, com destaque para o processo de concepção de estratégias individuais e coletivas construídas com base em programas de capacitação em inovação, de produtos e

  3. Modificación superficial de aleaciones de base aluminio (anodizadas y no anodizadas mediante recubrimientos de sílice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Heras, M.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Transparent and colourless silica coatings were deposited on anodising and non-anodising substrates of aluminium-base alloys (series 6063. Coatings were prepared by soLgel (dipping method from a silica alkoxide and a mixture of both silica alkoxide and silica alkylalkoxide. Preparations were optimised from viscosity, density, surface tension, and contact angle measurements. Densification was carried out at 60 and 120 °C. Reflectance attenuation of coated samples was analysed by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy. The results indicated that -10 % of attenuation is reached. Durability and resistance against degradation tests of the metal/coating system were undertaken by immersion into aqueous solutions. Electrochemical impedance measurements and potential corrosion of the metallic substrate for variable times were performed.

    Se han depositado recubrimientos transparentes e incoloros de sílice sobre sustratos anodizados y no anodizados de aleaciones de base aluminio (serie 6063. Los recubrimientos se prepararon por sol-gel (inmersión-extracción a partir de un alcóxido de silicio y de una mezcla de alcóxido y alquilalcóxido de silicio. La optimización de las fonnulaciones se basó en medidas de viscosidad, densidad, tensión superficial y ángulo de contacto. La densificación se llevó a cabo a 60 y 120 °C. La atenuación de la reflectancia luminosa de las muestras recubiertas se analizó por espectroscopia UV-VIS-IRP. Los resultados indicaron que se alcanza casi un 10 % de atenuación. Los ensayos de durabilidad y resistencia a la degradación del sistema metal/recubrimiento se realizaron por inmersión en disoluciones acuosas, aplicando medidas de impedancia electroquímica y del potencial de corrosión del sustrato metálico, para tiempos variables.

  4. Wheelchair control by head motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajkanović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric wheelchairs are designed to aid paraplegics. Unfortunately, these can not be used by persons with higher degree of impairment, such as quadriplegics, i.e. persons that, due to age or illness, can not move any of the body parts, except of the head. Medical devices designed to help them are very complicated, rare and expensive. In this paper a microcontroller system that enables standard electric wheelchair control by head motion is presented. The system comprises electronic and mechanic components. A novel head motion recognition technique based on accelerometer data processing is designed. The wheelchair joystick is controlled by the system’s mechanical actuator. The system can be used with several different types of standard electric wheelchairs. It is tested and verified through an experiment performed within this paper.

  5. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF HEAD INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanukollu Venkata Madusudana Rao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This prospective study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ocular manifestations in head injury and their correlation with the intracranial lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 108 consecutive cases of closed head injury admitted in the neurosurgical ward of a tertiary teaching hospital underwent a thorough ophthalmic assessment. Clinical examination, radiological imaging and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS were applied to grade the severity of injury. RESULTS Total number of 108 patients of head injury were examined of which 38 patients had ocular manifestations (35.18%. Of these, 85.18% were males, 84% of injuries were due to road traffic accidents and 16% were due to fall from a height. The ocular manifestations were as follows- Orbital complications were seen in 6 patients (15.8%. Anterior segment manifestations included black eyes seen in 10 patients (26.3%, subconjunctival haemorrhage in 10.5% of patients (4 patients, corneal involvement in 21% of patients (8 patients and pupillary involvement in 50% of patients (19 patients. Posterior segment manifestations were seen in 26.3% of patients (10 patients and were as follows- Purtscher’s retinopathy in 2 patients and optic atrophy in 5 patients. Cranial nerve palsies were seen in 15 patients (39.47% and supranuclear movement disorders were seen in 3 patients (8%. CONCLUSION Even though, neurosurgeons perform comprehensive clinical examination including eye examination, the main purpose is limited to aid topical diagnosis of neurological lesions. This study emphasises the importance of a detailed eye examination by an ophthalmologist to prevent irreversible visual loss in addition to aiding in the neurological diagnosis. Pupillary involvement, papilloedema and ocular motor paresis pointed to a more severe head injury. This observational prospective study helped us to correlate the severity of head injuries in association with ocular findings in patients admitted in neurosurgical ward

  6. Head First 2D Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fallow), Stray

    2009-01-01

    Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and

  7. Ophthalmic manifestations of head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, L

    1992-02-01

    Head injuries are frequently associated with ophthalmic problems. The commonest problems seen in this series of 161 patients with head injury were problems with poor accommodation (16% of patients; 58% of these persisted), convergence (14% of patients; 35% of these persisted), pseudomyopia (19%; 55% persisted) and optic atrophy (26% of the patients; 78% of these were mild and easily missed on routine testing, and 22% were severe). Motility disorders were common, especially cranial nerve palsies. Other less frequent motility disturbances included apparent inferior oblique palsy, comitant esotropia, and exotropia which was often of the convergence insufficiency type.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... examination poses almost no risk to the average patient when appropriate safety guidelines are followed. If sedation is used, there ... have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images ... Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related ...

  9. Womanhood in Bessie Head's fiction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rain Cloud~· Gather ( 1969), Maru ( 1972) and A Question of Power ( 1974 ),. Head addresses and ... Yet as is the case in most literature by black women from Africa and the. Caribbean .... womanhood comes into play in the principal's decision to get rid of her: "she ... which tl}e principal intends to use to his advantage.

  10. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cancer of the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to 42,000 Americans ... diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Oral cancer’s mortality is particularly high, not because it is ...

  11. Blunt Head Trauma and Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Chelse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from New York Presbyterian Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital examined whether having an isolated headache following minor blunt head trauma was suggestive of traumatic brain injury (TBI among a large cohort of children 2-18 years of age.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... very early stage by mapping the motion of water molecules in the tissue. This water motion, known as diffusion, is impaired by most ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... structures of the brain and can also provide functional information (fMRI) in selected cases. MR images of ... Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain ...

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of which shows a thin slice of the body. The images can then be studied from different angles by ... information please consult the ACR Manual on Contrast Media and its references. top of page What are the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able to ...

  15. Return of the talking heads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinecke Hansen, Kenneth; Bro, Peter; Andersson, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    . In order to analyze the latest development entering the third wave, we propose a theoretically based dramaturgical model for the television news item. The analysis concludes that, with the current ‘return’ of the talking heads format, the pre-produced and pre-packaged bulletin program about past events...

  16. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ... more. TMJ and Facial Pain TMJ and Facial ... Teeth Management Wisdom Teeth Management An impacted wisdom tooth can ...

  17. Head Start Center Design Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    This guide contains suggested criteria for planning, designing, and renovating Head Start centers so that they are safe, child-oriented, developmentally appropriate, beautiful, environmentally sensitive, and functional. The content is based on the U.S. General Services Administration's Child Care Center Design Guide, PBS-P140, which was intended…

  18. Analytical modelling of soccer heading

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... game is that the players are permitted to use their head to direct the ball during ... method in assessing the cognitive functions that can be applied not only to ... It is attached to a spring (stiffness, k1) and a dashpot (damping coefficient, c1).

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the brain and other cranial structures that are clearer and more detailed than other imaging methods. This exam does not use ionizing radiation and may require an injection of a ...

  20. De la théorie au modèle : les hélices comme sculptures calculées, le cas des Fonderies de l’Atlantique à Nantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Kerouanton

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available La découverte, l’étude et la sauvegarde partielle des bâtiments des anciennes « Fonderies de l’Atlantique » à Nantes en 2001-2002 ont permis également de révéler puis de conserver une extraordinaire collection d’objets de fonderie au sable correspondant à la fabrication des hélices et des pales d’hélice pour les plus gros navires commerciaux et militaires. La technologie de fonderie d’alliage de cuivre pour les hélices avait été adoptée en 1937 dans l’entreprise. L’ensemble des modèles en bois de pales d’hélice est d’abord apparu comme une accumulation de sculptures monumentales particulièrement épurées. L’étude technologique plus fine montre cependant que cette « beauté » réelle ne correspond nullement à la volonté d’un artiste mais relève uniquement des calculs liés pour chaque production à un projet de navire. Et c’est seulement le calcul qui permet d’expliquer les réalisations d’hélices monoblocs par troussage, sans modèle aucun ; il ne reste alors de traces que les outils du troussage. Il s’agit bien dès lors d’un patrimoine scientifique - la transposition matérielle d’un calcul mathématique - tout autant que d’un patrimoine technique et industriel. C’est cette particularité qui fait la grande originalité de l’ensemble conservé par la communauté urbaine, en attendant, nous l’espérons, une valorisation future.In 2001 and 2002, the study and partial preservation of the buildings of the former Fonderies de l’Atlantic in Nantes also allowed for the preservation of a remarkable collection of objects related to the sand foundry casting carried out by this firm, specialised in propellers for major commercial and military vessels. The firm began to employ copper alloys in its foundry techniques from 1937. The collection of wooden models prepared for the casting of propellers appears, at first sight, as a remarkable accumulation of rather abstract monumental

  1. Preschool Facilities - MDC_HeadStart

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A label (point) feature class of Head Start / Early Head Start/ Delegate Agencies/ Child Care Partnership & Family Day Care Homes Programs location in Miami-Dade...

  2. Heads Up to High School Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... submit" value="Submit" /> HEADS UP to School Sports Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir To help ... organizations, developed the HEADS UP: Concussion in School Sports initiative and materials. Specific Concussion Information for... Coaches ...

  3. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with HEADS UP & CDC's Injury Center HEADS UP Resources File Formats Help: How do I view different ... 6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  4. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Submit Button Connect with HEADS UP & CDC's Injury Center HEADS UP Resources File Formats Help: How do ... Page last updated: April 24, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , National Center for ...

  5. Head and Neck Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx (voice box), throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Start here to find information on head and neck cancer treatment in adults and children, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  6. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Training course: This page has moved Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This training course has been ... with HEADS UP & CDC's Injury Center HEADS UP Resources ... HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  7. Head stabilization in whooping cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinloch, M.R.; Cronin, T.W.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Chavez-Ramirez, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    The whooping crane (Grus americana) is the tallest bird in North America, yet not much is known about its visual ecology. How these birds overcome their unusual height to identify, locate, track, and capture prey items is not well understood. There have been many studies on head and eye stabilization in large wading birds (herons and egrets), but the pattern of head movement and stabilization during foraging is unclear. Patterns of head movement and stabilization during walking were examined in whooping cranes at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland USA. Four whooping cranes (1 male and 3 females) were videotaped for this study. All birds were already acclimated to the presence of people and to food rewards. Whooping cranes were videotaped using both digital and Hi-8 Sony video cameras (Sony Corporation, 7-35 Kitashinagawa, 6-Chome, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan), placed on a tripod and set at bird height in the cranes' home pens. The cranes were videotaped repeatedly, at different locations in the pens and while walking (or running) at different speeds. Rewards (meal worms, smelt, crickets and corn) were used to entice the cranes to walk across the camera's view plane. The resulting videotape was analyzed at the University of Maryland at Baltimore County. Briefly, we used a computerized reduced graphic model of a crane superimposed over each frame of analyzed tape segments by means of a custom written program (T. W. Cronin, using C++) with the ability to combine video and computer graphic input. The speed of the birds in analyzed segments ranged from 0.30 m/s to 2.64 m/s, and the proportion of time the head was stabilized ranged from 79% to 0%, respectively. The speed at which the proportion reached 0% was 1.83 m/s. The analyses suggest that the proportion of time the head is stable decreases as speed of the bird increases. In all cases, birds were able to reach their target prey with little difficulty. Thus when cranes are walking searching for food

  8. 29 CFR 1918.103 - Head protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1918.103 Section 1918.103 Labor... must ensure that head protection complies with any of the following consensus standards: (i) ANSI Z89.1... as head protection devices that are constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus...

  9. 29 CFR 1915.155 - Head protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1915.155 Section 1915.155 Labor... helmets. (1) Head protection must comply with any of the following consensus standards: (i) ANSI Z89.1... as head protection devices that are constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.135 - Head protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1910.135 Section 1910.135 Labor... head protection. (1) Head protection must comply with any of the following consensus standards: (i... consensus standards will be deemed to be in compliance with the requirements of this section. [59 FR 16362...

  11. Small head size after atomic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.; Mulvihill, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    A study of children exposed to nuclear explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki showed small head size and mental retardation when exposure occurred less than 18 weeks of gestational age. Increased frequency of small head size occurred when maternal exposure was 10 to 19 rad. Tables and graphs are presented to show relationships between dose, gestational age, and frequency of small head size

  12. Health Coordination Manual. Head Start Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    Part 1 of this manual on coordinating health care services for Head Start children provides an overview of what Head Start health staff should do to meet the medical, mental health, nutritional, and/or dental needs of Head Start children, staff, and family members. Offering examples, lists, action steps, and charts for clarification, part 2…

  13. 21 CFR 868.1930 - Stethoscope head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stethoscope head. 868.1930 Section 868.1930 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1930 Stethoscope head. (a) Identification. A stethoscope head is a weighted chest piece used during anesthesia to listen to a patient's heart, breath, and...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.100 - Head protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1926.100 Section 1926.100 Labor... § 1926.100 Head protection. (a) Employees working in areas where there is a possible danger of head... protected by protective helmets. (b) Helmets for the protection of employees against impact and penetration...

  15. Fuel rod pellet loading head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, T.E.

    1975-01-01

    An assembly for loading nuclear fuel pellets into a fuel rod comprising a loading head for feeding pellets into the open end of the rod is described. The pellets rest in a perforated substantially V-shaped seat through which air may be drawn for removal of chips and dust. The rod is held in place in an adjustable notched locator which permits alignment with the pellets

  16. Bottom head failure program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier this year the NRC staff presented a Revised Severe Accident Research Program Plan (SECY-89-123) to the Commission and initiated work on that plan. Two of the near-term issues in that plan involve failure of the bottom head of the reactor pressure vessel. These two issues are (1) depressurization and DCH and (2) BWR Mark I Containment Shell Meltthrough. ORNL has developed models for several competing failure mechanisms for BWRs. INEL has performed analytical and experimental work directly related to bottom head failure in connection with several programs. SNL has conducted a number of analyses and experimental activities to examine the failure of LWR vessels. In addition to the government-sponsored work mentioned above, EPRI and FAI performed studies on vessel failure for the Industry Degraded Core Rulemaking Program (IDCOR). EPRI examined the failure of a PWR vessel bottom head without penetrations, as found in some Combustion Engineering reactors. To give more attention to this subject as called for by the revised Severe Accident Research Plan, two things are being done. First, work previously done is being reviewed carefully to develop an overall picture and to determine the reliability of assumptions used in those studies. Second, new work is being planned for FY90 to try to complete a reasonable understanding of the failure process. The review and planning are being done in close cooperation with the ACRS. Results of this exercise will be presented in this paper

  17. Is Heading in Youth Soccer Dangerous Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, John W

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is among the most popular youth sports with over 3 million youth players registered in the U.S. Soccer is unique in that players intentionally use their head to strike the ball, leading to concerns that heading could cause acute or chronic brain injury, especially in the immature brains of children. Pub Med search without date restriction was conducted in November 2014 and August 2015 using the terms soccer and concussion, heading and concussion, and youth soccer and concussion. 310 articles were identified and reviewed for applicable content specifically relating to youth athletes, heading, and/or acute or chronic brain injury from soccer. Soccer is a low-risk sport for catastrophic head injury, but concussions are relatively common and heading often plays a role. At all levels of play, concussions are more likely to occur in the act of heading than with other facets of the game. While concussion from heading the ball without other contact to the head appears rare in adult players, some data suggests children are more susceptible to concussion from heading primarily in game situations. Contributing factors include biomechanical forces, less developed technique, and the immature brain's susceptibility to injury. There is no evidence that heading in youth soccer causes any permanent brain injury and there is limited evidence that heading in youth soccer can cause concussion. A reasonable approach based on U.S. Youth Soccer recommendations is to teach heading after age 10 in controlled settings, and heading in games should be delayed until skill acquisition and physical maturity allow the youth player to head correctly with confidence.

  18. First Class Call Stacks: Exploring Head Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Johnson-Freyd

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weak-head normalization is inconsistent with functional extensionality in the call-by-name λ-calculus. We explore this problem from a new angle via the conflict between extensionality and effects. Leveraging ideas from work on the λ-calculus with control, we derive and justify alternative operational semantics and a sequence of abstract machines for performing head reduction. Head reduction avoids the problems with weak-head reduction and extensionality, while our operational semantics and associated abstract machines show us how to retain weak-head reduction's ease of implementation.

  19. Porcine head response to blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Jay K; Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Capehart, Bruce P; Nyein, Michelle K; Radovitzky, Raul A; Bass, Cameron R 'dale'

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G's and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R(2) = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  20. Head position modulates optokinetic nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Ferraresi, A; Botti, F M; Panichi, R; Barmack, N H

    2011-08-01

    Orientation and movement relies on both visual and vestibular information mapped in separate coordinate systems. Here, we examine how coordinate systems interact to guide eye movements of rabbits. We exposed rabbits to continuous horizontal optokinetic stimulation (HOKS) at 5°/s to evoke horizontal eye movements, while they were statically or dynamically roll-tilted about the longitudinal axis. During monocular or binocular HOKS, when the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the posterior → anterior (P → A) direction, slow phase eye velocity (SPEV) increased by 3.5-5°/s. When the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the A → P direction, SPEV decreased to ~2.5°/s. We also tested the effect of roll-tilt after prolonged optokinetic stimulation had induced a negative optokinetic afternystagmus (OKAN II). In this condition, the SPEV occurred in the dark, "open loop." Modulation of SPEV of OKAN II depended on the direction of the nystagmus and was consistent with that observed during "closed loop" HOKS. Dynamic roll-tilt influenced SPEV evoked by HOKS in a similar way. The amplitude and the phase of SPEV depended on the frequency of vestibular oscillation and on HOKS velocity. We conclude that the change in the linear acceleration of the gravity vector with respect to the head during roll-tilt modulates the gain of SPEV depending on its direction. This modulation improves gaze stability at different image retinal slip velocities caused by head roll-tilt during centric or eccentric head movement.

  1. Essential radiology for head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, D.W.H.; Kreel, L.

    1988-01-01

    The book covers the guidelines established by the Royal College of Radiologists for the radiographic evaluation of head injuries. It presents a chapter reviewing the normal radiologic anatomy of the skull in six different projections. The advantages and limitations of each projection are addressed. The third chapter, contains 43 radiographs dedicated to the calcified pineal gland and other intracranial calcifications. The book reports on specific types of fractures: linear fractures of the vault, depressed fractures of the vault, fractures in children, fractures of the base of the skull, and fractures of the facial bones

  2. Head First jQuery

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetti, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Want to add more interactivity and polish to your websites? Discover how jQuery can help you build complex scripting functionality in just a few lines of code. With Head First jQuery, you'll quickly get up to speed on this amazing JavaScript library by learning how to navigate HTML documents while handling events, effects, callbacks, and animations. By the time you've completed the book, you'll be incorporating Ajax apps, working seamlessly with HTML and CSS, and handling data with PHP, MySQL and JSON. If you want to learn-and understand-how to create interactive web pages, unobtrusive scrip

  3. Caída de presión de un flujo turbulento en un espacio anular con hélices insertadas//The pressure drop of turbulent flow in an annular space with wire coil inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Imbert González

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo presentado evaluó el comportamiento experimental de la caída de presión en un espacio anular con alambres enrollados insertados para números de Reynolds entre 1500 y 5000. La zona de prueba se seleccionó alejada de la influencia de los efectos de entrada. Anteriormente se realizaron pruebas de visualización del flujo para verificar la presencia de un flujo turbulento en esta gama del número de Reynolds. A partir de los datos experimentales se obtuvieron ecuaciones de correlación del factor de fricción para el flujo turbulento. Las ecuaciones obtenidas se compararon con los datos experimentales. Los resultados indican hasta qué punto las hélices inducen la aparición de turbulencias en un espacio anularPalabras claves: caída de presión, flujo anular, análisis hidrodinámico, visualización de flujo, hélices insertadas.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe work presented evaluates the experimental behavior of the pressure drop in an annular space with coiled wires inserted forReynolds numbers between 1500 and 5000. The test zone was selected away from the influence of entrance effects. Previously flow visualization tests were performed to verify the presence of a turbulent flow in this range of Reynolds number. From the experimental data were obtained correlation equations of the friction factor for turbulent flow. The equations obtained were compared with experimental data. The results indicate to what extent the helices induce the occurrence of turbulence in an annular space.Key words: drop pressure, annular flow, hydrodynamic analysis, visualization flow, wire coil inserts.

  4. HEAD MOVEMENT DURING WALKING IN THE CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZUBAIR, HUMZA N.; BELOOZEROVA, IRINA N.; SUN, HAI; MARLINSKI, VLADIMIR

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20–90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40–90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ~1.5 cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ~3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ~1 cm and 1.5–3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10–30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5–1 m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ~0.05 and ~0.1 m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ~0.05 m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20–50 °/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3–0.5 cm taller and held their head 0.5–2 cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25–100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ~20 °/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role. PMID:27339731

  5. 45 CFR 1308.21 - Parent participation and transition of children into Head Start and from Head Start to public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... into Head Start and from Head Start to public school. 1308.21 Section 1308.21 Public Welfare... AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START... Standards § 1308.21 Parent participation and transition of children into Head Start and from Head Start to...

  6. A pre-Hispanic head.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Bianucci

    Full Text Available This report on a male head revealed biologic rhythms, as gleaned from hydrogen isotope ratios in hair, consistent with a South-American origin and Atomic Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon dating (AMS compatible with the last pre-Hispanic period (1418-1491 AD, 95.4% probability. Biopsies showed exceptionally well-preserved tissues. The hair contained high levels of toxic elements (lead, arsenic and mercury incompatible with life. There was no evidence for lead deposition in bone consistent with post-mortem accumulation of this toxic element in the hair. We propose that the high content of metals in hair was the result of metabolic activity of bacteria leading to metal complexation in extra cellular polymeric substances (EPS. This is a recognized protective mechanism for bacteria that thrive in toxic environments. This mechanism may account for the tissues preservation and gives a hint at soil composition where the head was presumably buried. Our results have implications for forensic toxicology which has, hitherto, relied on hair analyses as one means to reconstruct pre-mortem metabolism and for detecting toxic elements accumulated during life. Our finding also has implications for other archaeological specimens where similar circumstances may distort the results of toxicological studies.

  7. A pre-Hispanic head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Jeziorska, Maria; Lallo, Rudy; Mattutino, Grazia; Massimelli, Massimo; Phillips, Genevieve; Appenzeller, Otto

    2008-04-30

    This report on a male head revealed biologic rhythms, as gleaned from hydrogen isotope ratios in hair, consistent with a South-American origin and Atomic Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon dating (AMS) compatible with the last pre-Hispanic period (1418-1491 AD, 95.4% probability). Biopsies showed exceptionally well-preserved tissues. The hair contained high levels of toxic elements (lead, arsenic and mercury) incompatible with life. There was no evidence for lead deposition in bone consistent with post-mortem accumulation of this toxic element in the hair. We propose that the high content of metals in hair was the result of metabolic activity of bacteria leading to metal complexation in extra cellular polymeric substances (EPS). This is a recognized protective mechanism for bacteria that thrive in toxic environments. This mechanism may account for the tissues preservation and gives a hint at soil composition where the head was presumably buried. Our results have implications for forensic toxicology which has, hitherto, relied on hair analyses as one means to reconstruct pre-mortem metabolism and for detecting toxic elements accumulated during life. Our finding also has implications for other archaeological specimens where similar circumstances may distort the results of toxicological studies.

  8. Anatomy of the infant head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosma, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ

  9. Intention tremor after head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwadate, Yasuo; Saeki, Naokatsu; Namba, Hiroki; Odaki, Masaru; Oka, Nobuo.

    1989-01-01

    Eight cases of intention tremor as a late complication of head injury were investigated. The patients ranged in age from 3 to 24 years. All received severe head injuries and lapsed into coma immediately afterward (Glasgow Coma Scale scores ≤8). Six patients exhibited decerebration or decortication. Hemiparesis was present in six cases and oculomotor nerve palsy in four. In the chronic stage, all patients displayed some degree of impairment of higher cortical function and five had dysarthria and/or ataxia. Initial computed tomography (CT) scans within 3 hours after the injury were obtained in five cases, of which four showed a hemorrhagic lesion in the midbrain or its surroundings. Other CT findings were diffuse cerebral swelling (four cases), intraventricular hemorrhage (three), and multiple hemorrhagic lesions (two). In the chronic stage, generalized cortical atrophy or ventricular enlargement was noted in five cases. These clinical features and CT findings indicate diffuse brain damage as well as midbrain damage and may reflect shearing injury. (author)

  10. Computing camera heading: A study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, John Jiaxiang

    2000-08-01

    An accurate estimate of the motion of a camera is a crucial first step for the 3D reconstruction of sites, objects, and buildings from video. Solutions to the camera heading problem can be readily applied to many areas, such as robotic navigation, surgical operation, video special effects, multimedia, and lately even in internet commerce. From image sequences of a real world scene, the problem is to calculate the directions of the camera translations. The presence of rotations makes this problem very hard. This is because rotations and translations can have similar effects on the images, and are thus hard to tell apart. However, the visual angles between the projection rays of point pairs are unaffected by rotations, and their changes over time contain sufficient information to determine the direction of camera translation. We developed a new formulation of the visual angle disparity approach, first introduced by Tomasi, to the camera heading problem. Our new derivation makes theoretical analysis possible. Most notably, a theorem is obtained that locates all possible singularities of the residual function for the underlying optimization problem. This allows identifying all computation trouble spots beforehand, and to design reliable and accurate computational optimization methods. A bootstrap-jackknife resampling method simultaneously reduces complexity and tolerates outliers well. Experiments with image sequences show accurate results when compared with the true camera motion as measured with mechanical devices.

  11. Head and neck position sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Bridget; McNair, Peter; Taylor, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic minor cervical strains are common place in high-impact sports (e.g. tackling) and premature degenerative changes have been documented in sports people exposed to recurrent impact trauma (e.g. scrummaging in rugby) or repetitive forces (e.g. Formula 1 racing drivers, jockeys). While proprioceptive exercises have been an integral part of rehabilitation of injuries in the lower limb, they have not featured as prominently in the treatment of cervical injuries. However, head and neck position sense (HNPS) testing and re-training may have relevance in the management of minor sports-related neck injuries, and play a role in reducing the incidence of ongoing pain and problems with function. For efficacious programmes to be developed and tested, fundamental principles associated with proprioception in the cervical spine should be considered. Hence, this article highlights the importance of anatomical structures in the cervical spine responsible for position sense, and how their interaction with the CNS affects our ability to plan and execute effective purposeful movements. This article includes a review of studies examining position sense in subjects with and without pathology and describes the effects of rehabilitation programmes that have sought to improve position sense. In respect to the receptors providing proprioceptive information for the CNS, the high densities and complex arrays of spindles found in cervical muscles suggest that these receptors play a key role. There is some evidence suggesting that ensemble encoding of discharge patterns from muscle spindles is relayed to the CNS and that a pattern recognition system is used to establish joint position and movement. Sensory information from neck proprioceptive receptors is processed in tandem with information from the vestibular system. There are extensive anatomical connections between neck proprioceptive inputs and vestibular inputs. If positional information from the vestibular system is inaccurate or

  12. Ulnar nerve entrapment complicating radial head excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Parfait Bienvenu Bouhelo-Pam

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several mechanisms are involved in ischemia or mechanical compression of ulnar nerve at the elbow. Presentation of case: We hereby present the case of a road accident victim, who received a radial head excision for an isolated fracture of the radial head and complicated by onset of cubital tunnel syndrome. This outcome could be the consequence of an iatrogenic valgus of the elbow due to excision of the radial head. Hitherto the surgical treatment of choice it is gradually been abandoned due to development of radial head implant arthroplasty. However, this management option is still being performed in some rural centers with low resources. Discussion: The radial head plays an important role in the stability of the elbow and his iatrogenic deformity can be complicated by cubital tunnel syndrome. Conclusion: An ulnar nerve release was performed with favorable outcome. Keywords: Cubital tunnel syndrome, Peripheral nerve palsy, Radial head excision, Elbow valgus

  13. A customized head and neck support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentel, Gunilla C.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Sherouse, George W.; Spencer, David P.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a customized head and neck immobilization system for patients receiving radiotherapy including a head support that conforms to the posterior contour of the head and neck. Methods: The system includes a customized headrest to support the posterior head and neck. This is fixed to a thermoplastic face mask that molds to the anterior head/face contours. The shape of these customized head and neck supports were compared to 'standard' supports. Results: This system is comfortable for the patients and appears to be effective in reproducing the setup of the treatment. Conclusions: The variability in the size and shape of the customized posterior supports exceeded that of 'standard' headrests. It is our clinical impression that the customized supports improve reproducibility and are now a standard part of our immobilization system. The quantitative analysis of the customized headrests and some commonly used 'standard' headrests suggests that the customized supports are better able to address variabilities in patient shape

  14. Tridimensional pose estimation of a person head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Berenguer, Elisa; Soria, Carlos; Nasisi, Oscar; Mut, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we present a method for estimating 3-D motion parameters; this method provides an alternative way for 3D head pose estimation from image sequence in the current computer vision literature. This method is robust over extended sequences and large head motions and accurately extracts the orientation angles of head from a single view. Experimental results show that this tracking system works well for development a human-computer interface for people that possess severe motor incapacity

  15. Remediation of attention deficits in head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Nag S; Rao S

    1999-01-01

    Head injury is associated with psychological sequelae which impair the patient′s psychosocial functioning. Information processing, attention and memory deficits are seen in head injuries of all severity. We attempted to improve deficits of focused, sustained and divided attention. The principle of overlapping sources of attention resource pools was utilised in devising the remediation programme. Tasks used simple inexpensive materials. Four head injured young adult males with post conc...

  16. AHP 47: YELLOW-HEAD HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangs rgyas bkra shis སངས་རྒྱས་བཀྲ་ཤིས།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available My family had a stallion we called Rta mgo ser 'Yellow-Head Horse'. Father and two of his brothers occasionally rode it. Father said that Yellow-Head was very wild when it was taken to join local horseraces. I didn't believe that because Yellow-Head was very gentle when Mother rode it to the local monastery and also when I rode it.

  17. Posture of the head and pharyngeal swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.

    1986-01-01

    Closure of the laryngeal vestibule during swallowing is important for protection of the airways. The present investigation included 53 patients with dysphagia examined cineradiographically with the head held in resting posture, flexion and extension. The ability to protect the airways by the downward movement of the epiglottis and by obliteration of the laryngeal vestibule was studied in different postures of the head. Of 35 patients with normal laryngeal obliteration with the head in resting position 10 showed a defective closure at swallowing in extension. In 18 patients with defective closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position 9 were improved on flexion and two on extension of the head. In one patient with defectie closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position swallowing in flexion showed an aggravated dysfunction. In our other patients the defective closure became more marked on extension. Four patients had less effective downward movement of the epiglottis with the head in extension. Of 10 patients with defective epiglottic movement with the head in resting position two were improved on tilting the head forwards. The results show that the position of the head influences the closure of the airways during swallowing. Patients with defective protection of the laryngeal vestibule should be instructed to swallow with the head tilted forwards. (orig.)

  18. Multi-head Watson-Crick automata

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Kingshuk; Ray, Kumar Sankar

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by multi-head finite automata and Watson-Crick automata in this paper, we introduce new structure namely multi-head Watson-Crick automata where we replace the single tape of multi-head finite automaton by a DNA double strand. The content of the second tape is determined using a complementarity relation similar to Watson-Crick complementarity relation. We establish the superiority of our model over multi-head finite automata and also show that both the deterministic and non-determinis...

  19. Radial head button holing: a cause of irreducible anterior radial head dislocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Su-Mi; Chai, Jee Won; You, Ja Yeon; Park, Jina [Seoul National University Seoul Metropolitan Government Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Kee Jeong [Seoul National University Seoul Metropolitan Government Boramae Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    ''Buttonholing'' of the radial head through the anterior joint capsule is a known cause of irreducible anterior radial head dislocation associated with Monteggia injuries in pediatric patients. To the best of our knowledge, no report has described an injury consisting of buttonholing of the radial head through the annular ligament and a simultaneous radial head fracture in an adolescent. In the present case, the radiographic findings were a radial head fracture with anterior dislocation and lack of the anterior fat pad sign. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) clearly demonstrated anterior dislocation of the fractured radial head through the torn annular ligament. The anterior joint capsule and proximal portion of the annular ligament were interposed between the radial head and capitellum, preventing closed reduction of the radial head. Familiarity with this condition and imaging findings will aid clinicians to make a proper diagnosis and fast decision to perform an open reduction. (orig.)

  20. Aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos sobre pediculosis capitis en arenales, Estado Falcón, Venezuela Clinical and epidemiological aspects on pediculosis capitis in, Falcon State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cazorla PerfettI

    2012-03-01

    ón fueron: jugar en piso de tierra (OR = 2,20; p = 0,012 y lavarse el cabello ≥2 /semana (OR = 1,01; p = 0,002. A la luz de los resultados obtenidos, es recomendable mejorar las condiciones socio-sanitarias del sector y mantener campañas de promoción y educación para la salud.The human pediculosis capitis is a scalp and hair infestation caused by head lice Pediculus humanus capitis, which may result in bacterial secondary infections by intense scratching as well as anemia, anxiety and embarassment which are increased by children' exclusion from school under "no-nit" policy. From March to July 2011, a cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence and clinical and epidemiological profiles of head lice infestation among 199 (79 males and 120 females inhabitants of all age groups (0-75 years; ± D.S= 21.28 ± 17 of a rural and small town Arenales, from the semiarid region of Falcon state, north-western Venezuela.The diagnosis of head lice infestation was made by clinical naked eye inspection of scalp and hair for the presence of adult lice, nymphal stage, or eggs (nit by line-toothed head lice comb. Lice was cleared and mounted in Hoyer’s medium for microscopic observation. All individuals were evaluated by physical examinationand a detailed, structured questionnaire. The overall prevalence of head lice infestation was 10.10% (20/199. The prevalence of infestation was significantly higher in girls (90% than in boys (10% [Odds Ratio (OR = 3.04; p = 0.01] and school-aged children (OR= 1.02;p=0,015; with hair length >3cm (OR = 2,44; p = 0.004 and lissotrichic type (OR = 2.25; p = 0.02, (OR= 2.25; 0.98 - 5.18, however, these were not significantly different among races or hair colours (P > 0.05. 65% of the individuals had only nits with 1 up to 64 per individuals, found between 0.1 and 9 cm from scalp on all anatomical regions of the head, and having school-aged children the higher ectoparasitic loads. Among clinical signs and symptoms, head pruritus (6

  1. Head First WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Siarto, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Whether you're promoting your business or writing about your travel adventures, Head First WordPress will teach you not only how to make your blog look unique and attention-grabbing, but also how to dig into the more complex features of WordPress 3.0 to make your website work well, too. You'll learn how to move beyond the standard WordPress look and feel by customizing your blog with your own URL, templates, plugin functionality, and more. As you learn, you'll be working with real WordPress files: The book's website provides pre-fab WordPress themes to download and work with as you follow al

  2. CT of the neonatal head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, S.; Rogan, E.A.; Batty, R.; Raghavan, A.; Whitby, E.H.; Hart, A.R.; Connolly, D.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is used less often than other techniques on neonatal units. However, in the acute setting, CT can be invaluable in diagnosing or excluding potentially life-threatening conditions and guiding initial management in neonates. Common indications for scanning include trauma, suspected non-accidental injury, infection, or an acute hypoxic or metabolic event. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the normal neonatal head at CT and compare this to the common pathological abnormalities. Several key features of each condition will be highlighted. It is important to note that some pathological conditions can have overlapping features at CT and, therefore, the clinical history and additional investigations are also of key importance in determining the diagnosis

  3. Low-head hydro power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemer, E. J.

    1980-11-01

    With a view toward increasing the U.S. electric output, the Army Corps of Engineers has estimated that 55 GW can be obtained immediately from new capacity at existing dams and 40 GW more over the long term. Given the long lead times needed to build new dams, most interest has centered on the existing dams. The Corps of Engineers has established that 21 GW can be obtained from hydroelectric and 34 GW from nonpower dams. Existing hydroelectric sites are being expanded by the utilities, but exploitation of the nonpower dams will require governmental encouragement, because the vast majority are low-head sites (dams less than 40 m high). In the present paper, the question of economics and national policy is examined. The advantages which would accrue from substituting axial turbines for the Kaplan turbine are noted.

  4. Natural head position: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiyappan, N; Tamizharasi, S; Senthilkumar, K P; Janardhanan, K

    2015-08-01

    Cephalometrics has given us a different perspective of interpreting various skeletal problems in the dentofacial complex. Natural head position (NHP) is a reproducible, physiologically determined aspect of function. To determine NHP, a horizontal or vertical reference line outside the crania was used, but preference was given generally to the horizontal. Various intra and extracranial cephalometric horizontal reference planes have been used to formulate diagnosis and plan individualized treatment for an integrated correction of the malocclusion cephalometrics is constantly undergoing refinements in its techniques and analyses to improve the clinical applications. Even though various methods for establishing NHP have been proposed, still it remains a challenge to the clinicians to implement the concept of NHP thoroughly in all the stages of treatment because of practical difficulties in the clinical scenario.

  5. Head trauma and CT with special reference to diagnosis of complications of head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Kanji; Yoshii, Nobuo; Tobari, Chitose

    1979-01-01

    Cases in which CT was useful for the diagnosis of complications of head trauma were reported. First, complications of head trauma were given an outline, and then, cases of protrusion of the brain, traumatic pneumocephalus, and cerebro-vascular disorders caused by head trauma were mentioned. (Tsunoda, M.)

  6. Head impact in a snowboarding accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, N; Llari, M; Donnadieu, T; Masson, C; Arnoux, P J

    2017-09-01

    To effectively prevent sport traumatic brain injury (TBI), means of protection need to be designed and tested in relation to the reality of head impact. This study quantifies head impacts during a typical snowboarding accident to evaluate helmet standards. A snowboarder numerical model was proposed, validated against experimental data, and used to quantify the influence of accident conditions (speed, snow stiffness, morphology, and position) on head impacts (locations, velocities, and accelerations) and injury risk during snowboarding backward falls. Three hundred twenty-four scenarios were simulated: 70% presented a high risk of mild TBI (head peak acceleration >80 g) and 15% presented a high risk of severe TBI (head injury criterion >1000). Snow stiffness, speed, and snowboarder morphology were the main factors influencing head impact metrics. Mean normal head impact speed (28 ± 6 km/h) was higher than equivalent impact speed used in American standard helmet test (ASTM F2040), and mean tangential impact speed, not included in standard tests, was 13.8 (±7 km/h). In 97% of simulated impacts, the peak head acceleration was below 300 g, which is the pass/fail criteria used in standard tests. Results suggest that initial speed, impacted surface, and pass/fail criteria used in helmet standard performance tests do not fully reflect magnitude and variability of snowboarding backward-fall impacts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 49 CFR 214.113 - Head protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head protection. 214.113 Section 214.113 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... conform to the national consensus standards for industrial head protection (American National Standards...

  8. Systematic biases in human heading estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi F Cuturi

    Full Text Available Heading estimation is vital to everyday navigation and locomotion. Despite extensive behavioral and physiological research on both visual and vestibular heading estimation over more than two decades, the accuracy of heading estimation has not yet been systematically evaluated. Therefore human visual and vestibular heading estimation was assessed in the horizontal plane using a motion platform and stereo visual display. Heading angle was overestimated during forward movements and underestimated during backward movements in response to both visual and vestibular stimuli, indicating an overall multimodal bias toward lateral directions. Lateral biases are consistent with the overrepresentation of lateral preferred directions observed in neural populations that carry visual and vestibular heading information, including MSTd and otolith afferent populations. Due to this overrepresentation, population vector decoding yields patterns of bias remarkably similar to those observed behaviorally. Lateral biases are inconsistent with standard bayesian accounts which predict that estimates should be biased toward the most common straight forward heading direction. Nevertheless, lateral biases may be functionally relevant. They effectively constitute a perceptual scale expansion around straight ahead which could allow for more precise estimation and provide a high gain feedback signal to facilitate maintenance of straight-forward heading during everyday navigation and locomotion.

  9. Clinical features of the exploding head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M

    1989-07-01

    Fifty patients suffering from the "exploding head syndrome" are described. This hitherto unreported syndrome is characterised by a sense of an explosive noise in the head usually in the twilight stage of sleep. The associated symptoms are varied, but the benign nature of the condition is emphasised and neither extensive investigation nor treatment are indicated.

  10. Clinical features of the exploding head syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, J M

    1989-01-01

    Fifty patients suffering from the "exploding head syndrome" are described. This hitherto unreported syndrome is characterised by a sense of an explosive noise in the head usually in the twilight stage of sleep. The associated symptoms are varied, but the benign nature of the condition is emphasised and neither extensive investigation nor treatment are indicated.

  11. The Role of the Primary School Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Lester

    1987-01-01

    This study uses Henry Mintzberg's structural observation method to examine British primary school head teachers' work patterns and determine the nature of their role. Head teachers' days were characterized by brevity, variety, and fragmentation similar to those discussed in findings of other empirical managerial studies. Leadership roles stressed…

  12. Elastic plastic buckling of elliptical vessel heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alix, M.; Roche, R.L.

    1981-08-01

    The risks of buckling of dished vessel head increase when the vessel is thin walled. This paper gives the last results on experimental tests of 3 elliptical heads and compares all the results with some empirical formula dealing with elastic and plastic buckling

  13. Head Start Impact Study. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Cook, Ronna; Heid, Camilla; Shapiro, Gary; Broene, Pam; Jenkins, Frank; Fletcher, Philip; Quinn, Liz; Friedman, Janet; Ciarico, Janet; Rohacek, Monica; Adams, Gina; Spier, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This Technical Report is designed to provide technical detail to support the analysis and findings presented in the "Head Start Impact Study Final Report" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, January 2010). Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Head Start Impact Study and its findings. Chapter 2 provides technical information on the…

  14. Humeral head size in shoulder arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaesel, M T; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1998-01-01

    Changes in kinematics after hemiarthroplasty of the glenohumeral joint were investigated in nine cadaveric specimens. During experiments the influence of the humeral head size on glenohumeral kinematics was evaluated. A modular prosthesis with five different head sizes and press-fit stems was use...

  15. Motion control of the Twente humanoid head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L.C.; Carloni, Raffaella; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we present the design and the realization of the motion control algorithm implemented in the Twente hu- manoid head, a seven degrees of freedom (dof) robotic sys- tem. The aim of the project is to have a humanoid head that can serve as a research platform for human-machine interac-

  16. 76 FR 70009 - Head Start Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... importance of the early years of a child's growth and development. On December 12, 2007, the Improving Head... education, serving nearly one million of our nation's most vulnerable young children and their families. It... Administration for Children and Families 45 CFR Part 1307 Head Start Program; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register...

  17. Visual perception of axes of head rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldussen, D. M.; Goossens, J.; van den Berg, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Registration of ego-motion is important to accurately navigate through space. Movements of the head and eye relative to space are registered through the vestibular system and optical flow, respectively. Here, we address three questions concerning the visual registration of self-rotation. (1) Eye-in-head movements provide a link between the motion signals received by sensors in the moving eye and sensors in the moving head. How are these signals combined into an ego-rotation percept? We combined optic flow of simulated forward and rotational motion of the eye with different levels of eye-in-head rotation for a stationary head. We dissociated simulated gaze rotation and head rotation by different levels of eye-in-head pursuit. We found that perceived rotation matches simulated head- not gaze-rotation. This rejects a model for perceived self-rotation that relies on the rotation of the gaze line. Rather, eye-in-head signals serve to transform the optic flow's rotation information, that specifies rotation of the scene relative to the eye, into a rotation relative to the head. This suggests that transformed visual self-rotation signals may combine with vestibular signals. (2) Do transformed visual self-rotation signals reflect the arrangement of the semi-circular canals (SCC)? Previously, we found sub-regions within MST and V6+ that respond to the speed of the simulated head rotation. Here, we re-analyzed those Blood oxygenated level-dependent (BOLD) signals for the presence of a spatial dissociation related to the axes of visually simulated head rotation, such as have been found in sub-cortical regions of various animals. Contrary, we found a rather uniform BOLD response to simulated rotation along the three SCC axes. (3) We investigated if subject's sensitivity to the direction of the head rotation axis shows SCC axes specifcity. We found that sensitivity to head rotation is rather uniformly distributed, suggesting that in human cortex, visuo-vestibular integration is

  18. Visual perception of axes of head rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mattijs Arnoldussen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Registration of ego-motion is important to accurately navigate through space. Movements of the head and eye relative to space are registered through the vestibular system and optical flow, respectively. Here, we address three questions concerning the visual registration of self-rotation. 1. Eye-in-head movements provide a link between the motion signals received by sensors in the moving eye and sensors in the moving head. How are these signals combined into an ego-rotation percept? We combined optic flow of simulated forward and rotational motion of the eye with different levels of eye-in-head rotation for a stationary head. We dissociated simulated gaze rotation and head rotation by different levels of eye-in-head pursuit.We found that perceived rotation matches simulated head- not gaze-rotation. This rejects a model for perceived self-rotation that relies on the rotation of the gaze line. Rather, eye-in-head signals serve to transform the optic flow’s rotation information, that specifies rotation of the scene relative to the eye, into a rotation relative to the head. This suggests that transformed visual self-rotation signals may combine with vestibular signals.2. Do transformed visual self-rotation signals reflect the arrangement of the semicircular canals (SCC? Previously, we found sub-regions within MST and V6+ that respond to the speed of the simulated head rotation. Here, we re-analyzed those BOLD signals for the presence of a spatial dissociation related to the axes of visually simulated head rotation, such as have been found in sub-cortical regions of various animals. Contrary, we found a rather uniform BOLD response to simulated rotation along the three SCC axes.3. We investigated if subject’s sensitivity to the direction of the head rotation axis shows SCC axes specifcity. We found that sensitivity to head rotation is rather uniformly distributed, suggesting that in human cortex, visuo-vestibular integration is not arranged into

  19. Public knowledge of head and neck cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T E

    2010-04-01

    Studies show 60% of patients with newly diagnosed Head & Neck Squamous Cell Cancer in Ireland, present with advanced disease. A poor level of knowledge and awareness among the public of Head & Neck Cancer, is an important consideration in the often delayed presentation for medical attention in many of these cases. Our study surveyed 200 members of the public to assess their knowledge and awareness of Head & Neck Cancer. One hundred and forty (70%) of respondents had never encountered the term "Head & Neck Cancer". One hundred and forty six (73%) failed to identify excessive alcohol consumption as a risk factor. Less than 100 (50%) would have concern about persisting hoarseness or a prolonged oral ulcer. An urgent need exists to raise awareness of Head & Neck Cancer among the public in Ireland.

  20. Head orientation prediction: delta quaternions versus quaternions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himberg, Henry; Motai, Yuichi

    2009-12-01

    Display lag in simulation environments with helmet-mounted displays causes a loss of immersion that degrades the value of virtual/augmented reality training simulators. Simulators use predictive tracking to compensate for display lag, preparing display updates based on the anticipated head motion. This paper proposes a new method for predicting head orientation using a delta quaternion (DQ)-based extended Kalman filter (EKF) and compares the performance to a quaternion EKF. The proposed framework operates on the change in quaternion between consecutive data frames (the DQ), which avoids the heavy computational burden of the quaternion motion equation. Head velocity is estimated from the DQ by an EKF and then used to predict future head orientation. We have tested the new framework with captured head motion data and compared it with the computationally expensive quaternion filter. Experimental results indicate that the proposed DQ method provides the accuracy of the quaternion method without the heavy computational burden.

  1. NJP VOLUME 41 NO 3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2014-02-11

    Feb 11, 2014 ... lice infestation.3-5 Good hygienic practices like avoiding sand on hair, social ... prevalence of lice.6,7 Hair hygiene promotes growth of hair, and prevents loss ... Pruritus is the most common symptom of head lice in- festation.12 ... as fatigue, sleepiness in the classroom, and poor learning performance and ...

  2. Gender differences in head-neck segment dynamic stabilization during head acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Ryan T; Sitler, Michael R; Swanik, C Buz; Swanik, Kathleen A; Higgins, Michael; Torg, Joseph

    2005-02-01

    Recent epidemiological research has revealed that gender differences exist in concussion incidence but no study has investigated why females may be at greater risk of concussion. Our purpose was to determine whether gender differences existed in head-neck segment kinematic and neuromuscular control variables responses to an external force application with and without neck muscle preactivation. Forty (20 females and 20 males) physically active volunteers participated in the study. The independent variables were gender, force application (known vs unknown), and force direction (forced flexion vs forced extension). The dependent variables were kinematic and EMG variables, head-neck segment stiffness, and head-neck segment flexor and extensor isometric strength. Statistical analyses consisted of multiple multivariate and univariate analyses of variance, follow-up univariate analyses of variance, and t-tests (P Gender differences existed in head-neck segment dynamic stabilization during head angular acceleration. Females exhibited significantly greater head-neck segment peak angular acceleration (50%) and displacement (39%) than males despite initiating muscle activity significantly earlier (SCM only) and using a greater percentage of their maximum head-neck segment muscle activity (79% peak activity and 117% muscle activity area). The head-neck segment angular acceleration differences may be because females exhibited significantly less isometric strength (49%), neck girth (30%), and head mass (43%), resulting in lower levels of head-neck segment stiffness (29%). For our subject demographic, the results revealed gender differences in head-neck segment dynamic stabilization during head acceleration in response to an external force application. Females exhibited significantly greater head-neck segment peak angular acceleration and displacement than males despite initiating muscle activity earlier (SCM only) and using a greater percentage of their maximum head-neck segment

  3. [Case of exploding head syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Mutsumi; Taniguchi, Mitsutaka; Muraki, Hisae; Sugita, Hideko; Ohi, Motoharu

    2010-01-01

    Exploding head syndrome (EHS) attacks are characterized by the sensation of sudden loud banging noises, and are occasionally accompanied by the sensation of a flash light. Although these attacks in themselves are usually not painful, it is reported that EHS attacks may precede migraines and may be perceived as auras. A 53-year-old woman, with a 40-year history of fulgurating migraines, experienced 2 different types of EHS attacks. During most of the attacks, which were not painful, she heard sounds like someone yelling or cars passing by. Only 1 episode was accompanied with the sensation of a flash light and of sounds similar to those of an electrical short circuit. On the video-polysomnography, video-polysomnography showed 11 EHS attacks occurred during stage N1 and stage N2; these attacks were preceded by soft snoring. She also had moderate obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (Apnea Hypopnea Index: 16.7) for which an oral appliance was prescribed; the EHS attacks did not recur after this treatment. The pathophysiology of EHS is still unclear. A detailed analysis of PSG data may help in understanding the pathophysiology of this syndrome and also in the selection of therapeutic strategies.

  4. "Stuttering" after minor head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasberg, Stephen; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Parry, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as impairment in brain function as a result of mechanical force. It is classified based on clinical findings using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Mild TBI is defined as GCS 14-15; moderate, 9-13; and severe, 3-8. Patients with the same TBI classification may have very different underlying pathology. In moderate to severe TBI, the primary pathology may include contusions, hemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury, direct cellular damage, "tearing and shearing of the tissues, loss of the blood-brain barrier, disruption of the neurochemical homeostasis and loss of the electrochemical function". Although the primary pathology associated with mild TBI may be milder versions of the same pathology associated with moderate and severe TBI, it is generally a metabolic injury. However, it is reported that 15% of patients with mild TBI and a GCS score of 14 or 15 will have an intracranial lesion; less than 1% of these require neurosurgical intervention. Although patients with mild TBI may have intracranial lesions, it is rare that the presenting and only physical examination finding is an isolated neurologic finding. Here we present a case of isolated head trauma with a single physical examination finding--expressive aphasia.

  5. [Head and neck adaptive radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P; Huger, S; Kirby, N; Pouliot, J

    2013-10-01

    Onboard volumetric imaging systems can provide accurate data of the patient's anatomy during a course of head and neck radiotherapy making it possible to assess the actual delivered dose and to evaluate the dosimetric impact of complex daily positioning variations and gradual anatomic changes such as geometric variations of tumors and normal tissues or shrinkage of external contours. Adaptive radiotherapy is defined as the correction of a patient's treatment planning to adapt for individual variations observed during treatment. Strategies are developed to selectively identify patients that require replanning because of an intolerable dosimetric drift. Automated tools are designed to limit time consumption. Deformable image registration algorithms are the cornerstones of these strategies, but a better understanding of their limits of validity is required before adaptive radiotherapy can be safely introduced to daily practice. Moreover, strict evaluation of the clinical benefits is yet to be proven. Copyright © 2013 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Head circumference in Iranian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.

  7. Optimised intake stroke analysis for flat and dome head pistons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimised intake stroke analysis for flat and dome head pistons. ... in understanding the performance characteristics optioned between flat head and dome head pistons in engine design. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  8. Unilateral otolith centrifugation by head tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Stephanie M; Bos, Jelte E; Klis, Sjaak F L

    2014-01-01

    To test for otolith asymmetries, several studies described horizontal translation of the body and head en bloc during fast vertical axis rotation. This stimulus causes one otolithic organ to rotate on-axis, and the other to experience centripetal acceleration. To test a new, more simple method of unilateral stimulation with head tilt and the body remaining on axis. During stationary and during 360 deg/s rotation, 12 healthy blindfolded subjects had their heads tilted 30 degrees sideways, positioning one otolithic organ on the axis of rotation after the other. The haptic subjective vertical (SV) was recorded several times by means of a manually adjustable rod. It was found that during stationary the SV tilted about 4 degrees on average in the direction of the head. During rotation, the SV tilted about 9 degrees on average. We therefore estimate the effect of eccentric otolith rotation to be 5 degrees on average. Tilt of the subjective vertical induced by head tilt during on-axis body rotation can provide a relatively uncomplicated alternative to test unilateral otolithic function as compared to body and head translation during rotation. Moreover, unlike eccentric rotation of the entire body, somatosensory cues are minimized by keeping the body fixed on axis and by subtracting the effect of head tilt per se.

  9. Multi-headed comparatives in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Marques

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at offering a global picture of the subtype of comparative constructions known as ‘multi-headed comparatives’ (from the fact that they exhibit more than one comparative operator in semantic interdependence. As a prerequisite to the fulfilment of his goal, an attempt will be made to clarify the scope of the notion ‘comparative construction’ and to draw a general typology of such constructions. The boundaries of the notion ‘comparative construction’ are defined by contrasting a “genuine” class of comparative constructions with others that hold some syntactic or semantic resemblance to them. Different typologies will be taken into consideration. As for multi-headed comparatives, even though different examples of these constructions have been identified in the scarce literature on the matter, the discussion on their syntactic patterns and meaning is still embryonic. This paper suggests that the expressive power of these comparatives, which seem to provide a particular strategy of information compression, is higher than has been assumed. Four sub-kinds of multi-headed comparatives are identified, based on meaning differences, namely: multi-headed comparatives with a distributive reading, multi-headed comparatives with a cumulative reading, multi-headed comparatives with a comparison of ‘ratios’ reading, and multi-headed comparatives with a comparison of differences reading. While resorting to some classic English examples, the object language will predominantly be Portuguese.

  10. Subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, M.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. [Department of Radiology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital, Oswestry, SY10 7AG, Shropshire (United Kingdom); Darby, A.J. [Department of Pathology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital, Oswestry, SY10 7AG, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to increase awareness of, and to show the variable clinical and radiological features of, subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head. The clinical and radiological findings in 7 patients with subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head were reviewed retrospectively. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically in 4 patients. Radiographs were performed in all patients, MRI in 5 and scintigraphy in 4 patients. Radiographs showed varying degrees of femoral head collapse in 4 patients. In the remaining 3 patients radiographs showed a normal femoral head, regional osteoporosis and focal sclerosis, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a low-signal band on T1- and T2-weighted images in the subchondral bone adjacent or parallel to the articular surface associated with bone marrow oedema. Scintigraphy showed increased uptake in the femoral head. Insufficiency fractures of the femoral head are easily overlooked or confused with avascular necrosis and, when there is significant joint destruction, osteoarthritis. Unsuspected insufficiency fracture of the femoral head can lead to significant and rapid loss of bone stock in osteoporotic patients waiting for arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. Increased awareness of this condition will hopefully lead to earlier diagnosis and a successful outcome of conservative treatment. (orig.)

  11. Head flexion angle while using a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sojeong; Kang, Hwayeong; Shin, Gwanseob

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive or prolonged head flexion posture while using a smartphone is known as one of risk factors for pain symptoms in the neck. To quantitatively assess the amount and range of head flexion of smartphone users, head forward flexion angle was measured from 18 participants when they were conducing three common smartphone tasks (text messaging, web browsing, video watching) while sitting and standing in a laboratory setting. It was found that participants maintained head flexion of 33-45° (50th percentile angle) from vertical when using the smartphone. The head flexion angle was significantly larger (p smartphone, could be a main contributing factor to the occurrence of neck pain of heavy smartphone users. Practitioner Summary: In this laboratory study, the severity of head flexion of smartphone users was quantitatively evaluated when conducting text messaging, web browsing and video watching while sitting and standing. Study results indicate that text messaging while sitting caused the largest head flexion than that of other task conditions.

  12. [Natural head position's reproducibility on photographs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddo, Marie-Line; El Hayeck, Émilie; Hoyeck, Maha; Khoury, Élie; Ghoubril, Joseph

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reproducibility of natural head position with time on profile photographs. Our sample is composed of 96 students (20-30 years old) at the department of dentistry of Saint Joseph University in Beirut. Two profile photographs were taken in natural head position about a week apart. No significant differences were found between T0 and T1 (E = 1.065°). Many studies confirmed this reproducibility with time. Natural head position can be adopted as an orientation for profile photographs in orthodontics. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.

  13. TMI-2 reactor vessel head removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengel, P.R.; Smith, M.D.; Estabrook, G.A.

    1984-12-01

    This report describes the safe removal and storage of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor vessel head. The head was removed in July 1984 to permit the removal of the plenum and the reactor core, which were damaged during the 1979 accident. From July 1982, plans and preparations were made using a standard head removal procedure modified by the necessary precautions and changes to account for conditions caused by the accident. After data acquisition, equipment and structure modifications, and training the head was safely removed and stored and the internals indexing fixture and a work platform were installed on top of the vessel. Dose rates during and after the operation were lower than expected; lessons were learned from the operation which will be applied to the continuing fuel removal operations activities

  14. Engineering science and mechanics department head named

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2004-01-01

    Ishwar K. Puri, professor of mechanical engineering and executive associate dean of engineering at the University of Illinois at Chicago, will become the head of Virginia Tech•À_ó»s Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics Aug. 1.

  15. "Head õhtut ja õnn kaasa" / Triin Thalheim

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thalheim, Triin, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    George Clooney mängufilm "Head õhtut ja õnn kaasa" ("Good Night, and Good Luck") teleajakirjanik Edward R. Murrow võitlusest senaator Joseph McCarthy vastu. Lisatud "Filmi ajaloolised võtmetegelased"

  16. Drugs Approved for Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for head and neck cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  17. Heidbreder to head Office of Legal Counsel

    OpenAIRE

    Hincker, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Kay Heidbreder of Blacksburg, has been appointed University Counsel by the Virginia Attorney General and will head the university's legal office. Heidbreder, who holds the position of assistant attorney general, has been associate general counsel at Virginia Tech since 1985.

  18. TMI-2 reactor vessel head removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengel, P.R.; Smith, M.D.; Estabrook, G.A.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the safe removal and storage of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel head. The head was removed in July 1984 to permit the removal of the plenum and the reactor core, which were damaged during the 1979 accident. From July 1982, plans and preparations were made using a standard head removal procedure modified by the necessary precautions and changes to account for conditions caused by the accident. After data acquisition, equipment and structure modifications, and training, the head was safely removed and stored; and the internals indexing fixture and a work platform were installed on top of the vessel. Dose rates during and after the operation were lower than expected; lessons were learned from the operation which will be applied to the continuing fuel removal operations activities

  19. Achieving Consensus Through Professionalized Head Nods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae

    2014-01-01

    of nodding in a particular professional-client setting, namely, hair salon interactions. My interest specifically lies in the frequent occurrence of synchronized head nods during the “service-assessment sequence,” where both service provider and customer inspect and determine whether the completed work...... is adequate. I pursue mechanisms of synchronized head nods by revealing exactly how participants collaborate in producing a nod, and how their verbal actions may at times be designed accordingly. In doing so, the study provides insight into what consensus may look like at service encounters in Japan......While the interactional functions of head nodding in everyday Japanese conversation have been frequently studied, a discourse on head nodding as a professional communicative practice has yet to be explored. With the method of multimodal conversation analysis, the current study examines the role...

  20. Transfer Pricing; Charging of head office costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    The key issues discussed in this presentation are (1) What are head office costs?, (2) Why is the charging an area of concern for international companies?, (3) Which part of head office costs should be charged?, (4) OECD guidelines on charging. Head office costs are classified as Shareholder costs, Stewardship costs, Costs related to a specific subsidiary or group of subsidiaries (on call), and Costs related to operational activities in the parent company. The OECD reports of 1984 and 1996 are discussed. In Norsk Hydro's experience, the practising of the OECD guidelines by national authorities are confusing and not consistent over time or across borders. To get a better understanding of how charging of corporate head office costs are dealt with on an international level, Norsk Hydro asked Deloitte and Touche in London to carry out a study on international companies' behaviour. Their conclusions are included.

  1. Unusual Cancers of the Head and Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more information). Unusual Cancers of the Head and Neck Nasopharyngeal Cancer See the PDQ summary on Childhood ... of PDQ documents can be used freely as text. It cannot be identified as an NCI PDQ ...

  2. SEX DETERMINATION FROM FEMORAL HEAD DIAMETERS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-03-01

    Mar 1, 2000 ... In medico-legal cases where sophisticated methods of sex determination is lacking, these ... scientific methods(3). Using the visual method ... between the sexes and the values of the right and left femoral head diameters.

  3. Exploding Head Syndrome: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ganguly, Gautam; Mridha, Banshari; Khan, Asif; Rison, Richard Alan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Exploding head syndrome (EHS) is a rare parasomnia in which affected individuals awaken from sleep with the sensation of a loud bang. The etiology is unknown, but other conditions including primary and secondary headache disorders and nocturnal seizures need to be excluded. Case Presentation: A 57-year-old Indian male presented with four separate episodes of awakening from sleep at night after hearing a flashing sound on the right side of his head over the last 2 years. These ev...

  4. Radiographic examination of the equine head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Radiographic examinations of the equine head can be performed with portable x-ray machines. The views comprising the examination depend on the area of the head being examined. With a knowledge of radiographic anatomy and radiographic signs of disease, valuable diagnostic information can be obtained from the radiographic examination. In addition, the radiographic information can also be used to develop a prognosis and determine the most appropriate therapy

  5. Head Impact Biomechanics in Women's College Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynall, Robert C; Clark, Michael D; Grand, Erin E; Stucker, Jaclyn C; Littleton, Ashley C; Aguilar, Alain J; Petschauer, Meredith A; Teel, Elizabeth F; Mihalik, Jason P

    2016-09-01

    There are limited nonlaboratory soccer head impact biomechanics data. This is surprising given soccer's global popularity. Epidemiological data suggest that female college soccer players are at a greater concussion injury risk than their male counterparts. Therefore, the purposes of our study were to quantify head impact frequency and magnitude during women's soccer practices and games in the National Collegiate Athletic Association and to characterize these data across event type, playing position, year on the team, and segment of game (first and second halves). Head impact biomechanics were collected from female college soccer players (n = 22; mean ± SD age = 19.1 ± 0.1 yr, height = 168.0 ± 3.5 cm, mass = 63.7 ± 6.0 kg). We employed a helmetless head impact measurement device (X2 Biosystems xPatch) before each competition and practice across a single season. Peak linear and rotational accelerations were categorized based on impact magnitude and subsequently analyzed using appropriate nonparametric analyses. Overall, women's college soccer players experience approximately seven impacts per 90 min of game play. The overwhelming majority (~90%) of all head impacts were categorized into our mildest linear acceleration impact classification (10g-20g). Interestingly, a higher percentage of practice impacts in the 20g-40g range compared with games (11% vs 7%) was observed. Head impact biomechanics studies have provided valuable insights into understanding collision sports and for informing evidence-based rule and policy changes. These have included changing the football kickoff, ice hockey body checking ages, and head-to-head hits in both sports. Given soccer's global popularity, and the growing public concern for the potential long-term neurological implications of collision and contact sports, studying soccer has the potential to impact many athletes and the sports medicine professionals caring for them.

  6. Schwannomas of the head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Kanatas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign encapsulated nerve sheath tumors composed of Schwann cells. Malignant change in head and neck schwannomas is rare, with the incidence varying between 8 and 13.9%. In this review, we discuss the presentation and the management of head and neck schwannomas. The issues and difficulties based on our own experience as well as the experience of published reports from the literature are presented.

  7. CAD for cutting head exchange of roadheader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Z.; Wu, Z.; Qian, P. [China Coal Research Institute (China). Shanghai Branch

    1999-08-01

    Improving the cutting method according to the actual operating conditions is an effective way to raise production efficiency. A cutting head designed by means of computer and CAD software is characterized by short design cycle but high design quality. Taking the AM-50 road header as an example, this paper shows that it is feasible to design an interchangeable cutting head for the machine without interfering with the main technical parameters. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Head trauma in female professional wrestlers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, Jun; Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Nemoto, Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    The clinical characteristics of head trauma were evaluated in 18 wrestlers belonging to a female professional wrestling organization, 13 regular members and five trainees aged 15-34 years. Medical examinations for head trauma were performed in all wrestlers, and wrestlers treated at our emergency outpatient department were clinically evaluated. In addition, the relationships of head trauma with duration of the wrestling career of 1-16 years (mean 8 years) in the regular members, and less than 1 year in the five trainees, and body mass index (BMI) of 21.0-32.0 in the 16 subjects, excluding two trainees, was evaluated. Chronic symptoms were noted in four of the 18 wrestlers with long wrestling careers (16 years in 1, 13 years in 1, and 5 years in 2). Three wrestlers with symptoms immediately after head trauma showed recurrent retrograde amnesia and had low BMI (21.6, 21.6, and 23.1). Five wrestlers were treated at our emergency outpatient clinic, three required hospitalization and two showed intracranial traumatic changes on computed tomography (acute subdural hematoma in 1 and diffuse brain swelling in 1). Head trauma in female professional wrestlers is associated with longer wrestling career and low BMI. Periodic medical examinations are recommended to monitor for signs of head trauma. (author)

  9. Non-invasive head fixation for external irradiation of tumors of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bale, R.J.; Sweeney, R.; Nevinny, M.; Auer, T.; Bluhm, A.; Lukas, P.; Vogele, M.; Thumfart, W.F.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To fully utilize the technical capabilities of radiation diagnostics and planning, a precise and reproducible method of head fixation is a prerequisite. Method: We have adapted the Vogele-Bale-Hohner (VBH) head holder (Wellhoefer Dosimetrie, Schwarzenbruck, Germany), originally designed for frameless stereotactic operations, to the requirements of external beam radiotherapy. A precise and reproducible head fixation is attained by an individualized vacuum upper-dental cast which is connected over 2 hydraulic arms to an adjustable head- and rigid base-plate. Radiation field and patient alignment lasers are marked on a relocatable clear PVC localization box. Results: The possibility of craniocaudal adjustment of the head plate on the base plate allows the system to adapt to the actucal position of the patient on the raditherapy couch granting tensionless repositioning. The VBH head holder has proven itself to be a precise yet practicable method of head fixation. Duration of mouthpiece production and daily repositioning is comparable to that of the thermoplastic mask. Conclusion: The new head holder is in routine use at our hospital and quite suitable for external beam radiation of patients with tumors of the head and neck. (orig.) [de

  10. What are Head Cavities? - A History of Studies on Vertebrate Head Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Adachi, Noritaka

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by the discovery of segmental epithelial coeloms, or "head cavities," in elasmobranch embryos toward the end of the 19th century, the debate over the presence of mesodermal segments in the vertebrate head became a central problem in comparative embryology. The classical segmental view assumed only one type of metamerism in the vertebrate head, in which each metamere was thought to contain one head somite and one pharyngeal arch, innervated by a set of cranial nerves serially homologous to dorsal and ventral roots of spinal nerves. The non-segmental view, on the other hand, rejected the somite-like properties of head cavities. A series of small mesodermal cysts in early Torpedo embryos, which were thought to represent true somite homologs, provided a third possible view on the nature of the vertebrate head. Recent molecular developmental data have shed new light on the vertebrate head problem, explaining that head mesoderm evolved, not by the modification of rostral somites of an amphioxus-like ancestor, but through the polarization of unspecified paraxial mesoderm into head mesoderm anteriorly and trunk somites posteriorly.

  11. Estudio cualitativo sobre fisuración debida a la reacción álcali -sílice en el forjado de la represa hidráulica de Jaguari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Zoilo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las estructuras de hormigón de la represa Hidráulica de Jaguari (PH presentan una imagen de agrietamiento debido a la aparición de la Reacción Álcali-Sílice (RAS. En el presente trabajo se realizó un análisis cualitativo de las grietas que se producen en la losa por la entrada de agua con un studio visual in situ, y los resultados de análisis por ordenador usando el método de elementos finitos. Para el estudio de las grietas se utilizó la técnica de registro con bolígrafos de plástico con tinta. El análisis computacional se realizó con el programa comercial de dos dimensiones de tipo elástico CSQ - Constant Strain Quad. Una comparación entre los resultados obtenidos con ambas técnicas mostró que el agrietamiento más intenso observado en ciertas regiones de la losa coincide con la aparición de los picos de tensión cuando se simula un taco de expansión en las paredes en contacto con el agua, lo que puede explicar el origen de fisuración observada en la losa.

  12. Heading-vector navigation based on head-direction cells and path integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubie, John L; Fenton, André A

    2009-05-01

    Insect navigation is guided by heading vectors that are computed by path integration. Mammalian navigation models, on the other hand, are typically based on map-like place representations provided by hippocampal place cells. Such models compute optimal routes as a continuous series of locations that connect the current location to a goal. We propose a "heading-vector" model in which head-direction cells or their derivatives serve both as key elements in constructing the optimal route and as the straight-line guidance during route execution. The model is based on a memory structure termed the "shortcut matrix," which is constructed during the initial exploration of an environment when a set of shortcut vectors between sequential pairs of visited waypoint locations is stored. A mechanism is proposed for calculating and storing these vectors that relies on a hypothesized cell type termed an "accumulating head-direction cell." Following exploration, shortcut vectors connecting all pairs of waypoint locations are computed by vector arithmetic and stored in the shortcut matrix. On re-entry, when local view or place representations query the shortcut matrix with a current waypoint and goal, a shortcut trajectory is retrieved. Since the trajectory direction is in head-direction compass coordinates, navigation is accomplished by tracking the firing of head-direction cells that are tuned to the heading angle. Section 1 of the manuscript describes the properties of accumulating head-direction cells. It then shows how accumulating head-direction cells can store local vectors and perform vector arithmetic to perform path-integration-based homing. Section 2 describes the construction and use of the shortcut matrix for computing direct paths between any pair of locations that have been registered in the shortcut matrix. In the discussion, we analyze the advantages of heading-based navigation over map-based navigation. Finally, we survey behavioral evidence that nonhippocampal

  13. Kinematics of a Head-Neck Model Simulating Whiplash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Zollman, Dean; Wiesner, Hartmut; Sen, Ahmet Ilhan

    2008-01-01

    A whiplash event is a relative motion between the head and torso that occurs in rear-end automobile collisions. In particular, the large inertia of the head results in a horizontal translation relative to the thorax. This paper describes a simulation of the motion of the head and neck during a rear-end (whiplash) collision. A head-neck model that…

  14. 29 CFR 1620.21 - Head of household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head of household. 1620.21 Section 1620.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.21 Head of household. Since a “head of household” or “head of family” status bears no relationship to the...

  15. Pocket Proteins Suppress Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myeong-Kyun; Pitot, Henry C.; Lambert, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) is a common cancer in humans long known to be caused by tobacco and alcohol use, but now an increasing percentage of HNSCC is recognized to be caused by the same human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that cause cervical and other anogenital cancers. HPV-positive HNSCCs differ remarkably from HPV-negative HNSCCs in their clinical response and molecular properties. From studies in mice, we know that E7 is the dominant HPV oncoprotein in head and neck cancer. E7 is best known for its ability to inactivate pRb, the product of the retinoblastoma tumor susceptibility gene. However loss of pRb function does not fully account for E7’s potency in causing head and neck cancer. In this study, we characterized the cancer susceptibility of mice deficient in the expression of pRb and either of two related “pocket” proteins, p107 and p130, that are also inactivated by E7. pRb/p107 deficient mice developed head and neck cancer as frequently as do HPV16 E7 transgenic mice. The head and neck epithelia of the pRb/p107 deficient mice also displayed the same acute phenotypes and biomarker readouts as observed in the epithelia of E7 transgenic mice. Mice deficient for pRb and p130 in their head and neck epithelia showed intermediate acute and tumor phenotypes. We conclude that pRb and p107 act together to efficiently suppress head and neck cancer, and are therefore highly relevant targets of HPV16 E7 in its contribution to HPV-positive HNSCC. PMID:22237625

  16. Facial preservation following extreme mummification: Shrunken heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlton, Tobias M R; Wilkinson, Caroline

    2018-05-01

    Shrunken heads are a mummification phenomenon unique to South America. Ceremonial tsantsa are ritually reduced heads from enemy victims of the Shuar, Achuar, Awajún (Aguaruna), Wampís (Huambisa), and Candoshi-Shapra cultures. Commercial shrunken heads are comparatively modern and fraudulently produced for the curio-market, often using stolen bodies from hospital mortuaries and graves. To achieve shrinkage and desiccation, heads undergo skinning, simmering (in water) and drying. Considering the intensive treatments applied, this research aims to identify how the facial structure can alter and impact identification using post-mortem depiction. Sixty-five human shrunken heads were assessed: 6 ceremonial, 36 commercial, and 23 ambiguous. Investigations included manual inspection, multi-detector computerised tomography, infrared reflectography, ultraviolet fluorescence and microscopic hair analysis. The mummification process disfigures the outer face, cheeks, nasal root and bridge form, including brow ridge, eyes, ears, mouth, and nose projection. Melanin depletion, epidermal degeneration, and any applied staining changes the natural skin complexion. Papillary and reticular dermis separation is possible. Normal hair structure (cuticle, cortex, medulla) is retained. Hair appears longer (unless cut) and more profuse following shrinkage. Significant features retained include skin defects, facial creases, hairlines and earlobe form. Hair conditions that only affect living scalps are preserved (e.g. nits, hair casts). Ear and nose cartilage helps to retain some morphological information. Commercial heads appear less distorted than ceremonial tsantsa, often presenting a definable eyebrow shape, vermillion lip shape, lip thickness (if mouth is open), philtrum form, and palpebral slit angle. Facial identification capabilities are considered limited, and only perceived possible for commercial heads. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An ex vivo, assessor blind, randomised, parallel group, comparative efficacy trial of the ovicidal activity of three pediculicides after a single application - melaleuca oil and lavender oil, eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil, and a "suffocation" pediculicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altman Phillip M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are two components to the clinical efficacy of pediculicides: (i efficacy against the crawling-stages (lousicidal efficacy; and (ii efficacy against the eggs (ovicidal efficacy. Lousicidal efficacy and ovicidal efficacy are confounded in clinical trials. Here we report on a trial that was specially designed to rank the clinical ovicidal efficacy of pediculicides. Eggs were collected, pre-treatment and post-treatment, from subjects with different types of hair, different coloured hair and hair of different length. Method Subjects with at least 20 live eggs of Pediculus capitis (head lice were randomised to one of three treatment-groups: a melaleuca oil (commonly called tea tree oil and lavender oil pediculicide (TTO/LO; a eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (EO/LTTO; or a "suffocation" pediculicide. Pre-treatment: 10 to 22 live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the live egg attached, before the treatment (total of 1,062 eggs. Treatment: The subjects then received a single treatment of one of the three pediculicides, according to the manufacturers' instructions. Post-treatment: 10 to 41 treated live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the egg attached (total of 1,183 eggs. Eggs were incubated for 14 days. The proportion of eggs that had hatched after 14 days in the pre-treatment group was compared with the proportion of eggs that hatched in the post-treatment group. The primary outcome measure was % ovicidal efficacy for each of the three pediculicides. Results 722 subjects were examined for the presence of eggs of head lice. 92 of these subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to: the "suffocation" pediculicide (n = 31; the melaleuca oil and lavender oil pediculicide (n = 31; and the eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (n = 30 subjects. The group treated with eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil had an ovicidal efficacy of 3.3% (SD

  18. The Head to Head That Had to Happen: A Case Study of Television Sport and Entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whannel, Garry

    The race between Mary Decker and Zola Budd, a head to head confrontation in the 1985 Olympic Games, is examined within the broader context of the transformation taking place in sports as a result of the combined efforts of television and the economic forces of sponsorship. Athletics is going through this process of transformation both economically…

  19. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  20. Heat exchanger, head and shell acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, P.S.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1992-09-01

    Instability of postulated flaws in the head component of the heat exchanger could not produce a large break, equivalent to a DEGB in the PWS piping, due to the configuration of the head and restraint provided by the staybolts. Rather, leakage from throughwall flaws in the head would increase with flaw length with finite leakage areas that are bounded by a post-instability flaw configuration. Postulated flaws at instability in the shell of the heat exchanger or in the cooling water nozzles could produce a large break in the Cooling Water System (CWS) pressure boundary. An initial analysis of flaw stability for postulated flaws in the heat exchanger head was performed in January 1992. This present report updates that analysis and, additionally, provides acceptable flaw configurations to maintain defined structural or safety margins against flaw instability of the external pressure boundary components of the heat exchanger, namely the head, shell, and cooling water nozzles. Structural and flaw stability analyses of the heat exchanger tubes, the internal pressure boundary of the heat exchangers or interface boundary between the PWS and CWS, were previously completed in February 1992 as part of the heat exchanger restart evaluation and are not covered in this report

  1. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubo, Takeshi; Takatori, Yoshio; Kamogawa, Morihide; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Ninomiya, Setsuo; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Itai, Yuji; Iio, Masahiro; Mitamura, Tadayuki

    1990-01-01

    T1-weighted MR images of thirty-six hips in 25 patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head were obtained two to five times during the course of 2 to 26 months. We investigated these MR images in the light of the chronological change and compared them with plain radiographs. MR images changes in 16 femoral head; in general, the abnormal low intensity area in the femoral head reduced in extent and the internal high intensity area became smaller of disappeared. Thirteen femoral heads among them became more flattened on plain radiographs in the same period. It is noted that four different zones are defined in the femoral head after bone necrosis takes place: the dead bone marrow, the dead marrow which still contains fat, the reactive interface and the hyperemic bone marrow. In T1-weighted MR images, the dead bone marrow, the reactive interface and the hyperemic bone marrow are demonstrated as low intensity area, while the dead marrow containing fat may remain high in intensity. On the basis of this knowledge of histopathology and MR images of this disease, we suggest that reduction of the abnormal low intensity area and disappearance of the internal high intensity area on MR images can be regarded as diminution of hyperemia in the living bone marrow and loss of fat in the dead bone marrow, respectively. (author)

  2. Uncertainties in effective dose estimates of adult CT head scans: The effect of head size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Kent J.; Bibbo, Giovanni; Pattison, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study is an extension of a previous study where the uncertainties in effective dose estimates from adult CT head scans were calculated using four CT effective dose estimation methods, three of which were computer programs (CT-EXPO, CTDOSIMETRY, and IMPACTDOSE) and one that involved the dose length product (DLP). However, that study did not include the uncertainty contribution due to variations in head sizes. Methods: The uncertainties due to head size variations were estimated by first using the computer program data to calculate doses to small and large heads. These doses were then compared with doses calculated for the phantom heads used by the computer programs. An uncertainty was then assigned based on the difference between the small and large head doses and the doses of the phantom heads. Results: The uncertainties due to head size variations alone were found to be between 4% and 26% depending on the method used and the patient gender. When these uncertainties were included with the results of the previous study, the overall uncertainties in effective dose estimates (stated at the 95% confidence interval) were 20%-31% (CT-EXPO), 15%-30% (CTDOSIMETRY), 20%-36% (IMPACTDOSE), and 31%-40% (DLP). Conclusions: For the computer programs, the lower overall uncertainties were still achieved when measured values of CT dose index were used rather than tabulated values. For DLP dose estimates, head size variations made the largest (for males) and second largest (for females) contributions to effective dose uncertainty. An improvement in the uncertainty of the DLP method dose estimates will be achieved if head size variation can be taken into account.

  3. Uncertainties in effective dose estimates of adult CT head scans: The effect of head size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Kent J.; Bibbo, Giovanni; Pattison, John E. [Department of Medical Physics, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia 5000 (Australia) and School of Electrical and Information Engineering (Applied Physics), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Division of Medical Imaging, Women' s and Children' s Hospital, North Adelaide, South Australia 5006 (Australia) and School of Electrical and Information Engineering (Applied Physics), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia); School of Electrical and Information Engineering (Applied Physics), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia)

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: This study is an extension of a previous study where the uncertainties in effective dose estimates from adult CT head scans were calculated using four CT effective dose estimation methods, three of which were computer programs (CT-EXPO, CTDOSIMETRY, and IMPACTDOSE) and one that involved the dose length product (DLP). However, that study did not include the uncertainty contribution due to variations in head sizes. Methods: The uncertainties due to head size variations were estimated by first using the computer program data to calculate doses to small and large heads. These doses were then compared with doses calculated for the phantom heads used by the computer programs. An uncertainty was then assigned based on the difference between the small and large head doses and the doses of the phantom heads. Results: The uncertainties due to head size variations alone were found to be between 4% and 26% depending on the method used and the patient gender. When these uncertainties were included with the results of the previous study, the overall uncertainties in effective dose estimates (stated at the 95% confidence interval) were 20%-31% (CT-EXPO), 15%-30% (CTDOSIMETRY), 20%-36% (IMPACTDOSE), and 31%-40% (DLP). Conclusions: For the computer programs, the lower overall uncertainties were still achieved when measured values of CT dose index were used rather than tabulated values. For DLP dose estimates, head size variations made the largest (for males) and second largest (for females) contributions to effective dose uncertainty. An improvement in the uncertainty of the DLP method dose estimates will be achieved if head size variation can be taken into account.

  4. Head injury: audit of a clinical guideline to justify head CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydon, Nicholas B.

    2013-01-01

    Head injury causes significant morbidity and mortality, and there is contention about which patients to scan. The UK National Health Service Clinical Guideline (CG) 56 provides criteria for selecting patients with clinically important brain injury who may benefit from a head CT scan, while minimising the radiation and economic burden of scanning patients without significant injury. This study aims to audit the documentation of the use of these guidelines in a busy UK trauma hospital and discusses the comparison with an Australian (New South Wales (NSW) ) head injury guideline. A retrospective cohort study of 480 patients presenting with head injury to the emergency department over 2 months was performed. The patient notes were assessed for documentation of each aspect of the clinical guidelines. Criteria were established to assess the utilisation of the CG 56. A database of clinical data was amalgamated with the head CT scan results for each patient. For the UK CG 56, 73% of the criteria were documented, with the least documented being 'signs of basal skull fracture' and 'amnesia of events'. Thirty-two per cent of patients received head CT and of these, 24% (37 patients) were reported to have pathology. Twenty-four patients underwent head CT without clinical justification being documented, none of which had reported pathology on CT. The study shows that the head injury guidelines are not being fully utilised at a major UK trauma hospital, resulting in 5% of patients being exposed to ionising radiation without apparent documented clinical justification. The NSW guideline has distinct differences to the CG 56, with a more complex algorithm and an absence of specific time frames for head CT completion. The results suggest a need for further education and awareness of head injury clinical guidelines.

  5. Corrado Pettenati acting head of ETT

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following the departure of Juan Antonio Rubio, Corrado Pettenati has been appointed as the acting head of the ETT unit with effect from 1 August. He joined CERN in 1995 as head librarian, reorganizing and modernizing the library before becoming deputy leader of ETT from June 2000 to April 2004. Previously, he worked at the European University Institute in Florence from 1976, developing automated library systems and becoming head of the computer centre in 1985. He has also been a software analyst and a telecommunications specialist. In 2003 he was appointed as member of the steering committee of the Cellule de Coordination Documentaire Nationale pour les Mathématiques de Grenoble, and in 2004 became a member of the EULER - European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences - Scientific Advisory Board, based in Germany. He was born in 1946 and graduated with a degree in Electrical Engineering from the Polytechnic in Milan in 1969.

  6. [Diagnostic and organizational error in head injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaba, Czesław; Zaba, Zbigniew; Swiderski, Paweł; Lorkiewicz-Muszyíska, Dorota

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed at presenting a case of a diagnostic and organizational error involving lack of detection of foreign body presence in the soft tissues of the head. Head radiograms in two projections clearly demonstrated foreign bodies that resembled in shape flattened bullets, which could not have been missed upon evaluation of the X-rays. On the other hand, description of the radiograms entered by the attending physicians to the patient's medical record indicated an absence of traumatic injuries or foreign bodies. In the opinion of the authors, the case in question involved a diagnostic error: the doctors failed to detect the presence of foreign bodies in the head. The organizational error involved the failure of radiogram evaluation performed by a radiologist.

  7. Exploding head syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Gautam; Mridha, Banshari; Khan, Asif; Rison, Richard Alan

    2013-01-01

    Exploding head syndrome (EHS) is a rare parasomnia in which affected individuals awaken from sleep with the sensation of a loud bang. The etiology is unknown, but other conditions including primary and secondary headache disorders and nocturnal seizures need to be excluded. A 57-year-old Indian male presented with four separate episodes of awakening from sleep at night after hearing a flashing sound on the right side of his head over the last 2 years. These events were described 'as if there are explosions in my head'. A neurologic examination, imaging studies, and a polysomnogram ensued, and the results led to the diagnosis of EHS. EHS is a benign, uncommon, predominately nocturnal disorder that is self-limited. No treatment is generally required. Reassurance to the patient is often all that is needed.

  8. Femoral head fracture without hip dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Aditya K

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Femoral head fractures without dislocation or subluxation are extremely rare injuries. We report a neglected case of isolated comminuted fracture of femoral head without hip dislocation or subluxation of one year duration in a 36-year-old patient who sustained a high en- ergy trauma due to road traffic accident. He presented with painful right hip and inability to bear full weight on right lower limb with Harris hip score of 39. He received cementless total hip replacement. At latest follow-up of 2.3 years, functional outcome was excellent with Harris hip score of 95. Such isolated injuries have been described only once in the literature and have not been classified till now. The purpose of this report is to highlight the extreme rarity, possible mechanism involved and a novel classification system to classify such injuries. Key words: Femur head; Hip dislocation; Classification; Arthroplasty, replacement, hip

  9. The Danish Head and Neck Cancer database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Jens; Jovanovic, Aleksandar; Godballe, Christian

    2016-01-01

    of continuous clinical trials and subsequent implementation in national guidelines. The database has furthermore been used to describe the effect of reduced waiting time, changed epidemiology, and influence of comorbidity and socioeconomic parameters. CONCLUSION: Half a century of registration of head and neck......AIM OF THE DATABASE: The Danish Head and Neck Cancer database is a nationwide clinical quality database that contains prospective data collected since the early 1960s. The overall aim of this study was to describe the outcome of the national strategy for multidisciplinary treatment of head and neck......) of cancer in the nasal sinuses, salivary glands, or thyroid gland (corresponding to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision, classifications C.01-C.11, C.30-C.32, C.73, and C.80). MAIN VARIABLES: The main variables used in the study were symptoms and the duration of the symptoms...

  10. Radiologic head CT interpretation errors in pediatric abusive and non-abusive head trauma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralik, Stephen F.; Finke, Whitney; Wu, Isaac C.; Ho, Chang Y.; Hibbard, Roberta A.; Hicks, Ralph A.

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric head trauma, including abusive head trauma, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this research was to identify and evaluate radiologic interpretation errors of head CTs performed on abusive and non-abusive pediatric head trauma patients from a community setting referred for a secondary interpretation at a tertiary pediatric hospital. A retrospective search identified 184 patients <5 years of age with head CT for known or potential head trauma who had a primary interpretation performed at a referring community hospital by a board-certified radiologist. Two board-certified fellowship-trained neuroradiologists at an academic pediatric hospital independently interpreted the head CTs, compared their interpretations to determine inter-reader discrepancy rates, and resolved discrepancies to establish a consensus second interpretation. The primary interpretation was compared to the consensus second interpretation using the RADPEER trademark scoring system to determine the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates. MRI and/or surgical findings were used to validate the primary interpretation or second interpretation when possible. The diagnosis of abusive head trauma was made using clinical and imaging data by a child abuse specialist to separate patients into abusive head trauma and non-abusive head trauma groups. Discrepancy rates were compared for both groups. Lastly, primary interpretations and second interpretations were evaluated for discussion of imaging findings concerning for abusive head trauma. There were statistically significant differences between primary interpretation-second interpretation versus inter-reader overall and major discrepancy rates (28% vs. 6%, P=0.0001; 16% vs. 1%, P=0.0001). There were significant differences in the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates for abusive head trauma patients compared to non-abusive head trauma

  11. Radiologic head CT interpretation errors in pediatric abusive and non-abusive head trauma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kralik, Stephen F.; Finke, Whitney; Wu, Isaac C.; Ho, Chang Y. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Hibbard, Roberta A.; Hicks, Ralph A. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Child Protection Programs, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Pediatric head trauma, including abusive head trauma, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this research was to identify and evaluate radiologic interpretation errors of head CTs performed on abusive and non-abusive pediatric head trauma patients from a community setting referred for a secondary interpretation at a tertiary pediatric hospital. A retrospective search identified 184 patients <5 years of age with head CT for known or potential head trauma who had a primary interpretation performed at a referring community hospital by a board-certified radiologist. Two board-certified fellowship-trained neuroradiologists at an academic pediatric hospital independently interpreted the head CTs, compared their interpretations to determine inter-reader discrepancy rates, and resolved discrepancies to establish a consensus second interpretation. The primary interpretation was compared to the consensus second interpretation using the RADPEER trademark scoring system to determine the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates. MRI and/or surgical findings were used to validate the primary interpretation or second interpretation when possible. The diagnosis of abusive head trauma was made using clinical and imaging data by a child abuse specialist to separate patients into abusive head trauma and non-abusive head trauma groups. Discrepancy rates were compared for both groups. Lastly, primary interpretations and second interpretations were evaluated for discussion of imaging findings concerning for abusive head trauma. There were statistically significant differences between primary interpretation-second interpretation versus inter-reader overall and major discrepancy rates (28% vs. 6%, P=0.0001; 16% vs. 1%, P=0.0001). There were significant differences in the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates for abusive head trauma patients compared to non-abusive head trauma

  12. Head movements and postures as pain behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Walter, Steffen; Traue, Harald C.

    2018-01-01

    Pain assessment can benefit from observation of pain behaviors, such as guarding or facial expression, and observational pain scales are widely used in clinical practice with nonverbal patients. However, little is known about head movements and postures in the context of pain. In this regard, we analyze videos of three publically available datasets. The BioVid dataset was recorded with healthy participants subjected to painful heat stimuli. In the BP4D dataset, healthy participants performed a cold-pressor test and several other tasks (meant to elicit emotion). The UNBC dataset videos show shoulder pain patients during range-of-motion tests to their affected and unaffected limbs. In all videos, participants were sitting in an upright position. We studied head movements and postures that occurred during the painful and control trials by measuring head orientation from video over time, followed by analyzing posture and movement summary statistics and occurrence frequencies of typical postures and movements. We found significant differences between pain and control trials with analyses of variance and binomial tests. In BioVid and BP4D, pain was accompanied by head movements and postures that tend to be oriented downwards or towards the pain site. We also found differences in movement range and speed in all three datasets. The results suggest that head movements and postures should be considered for pain assessment and research. As additional pain indicators, they possibly might improve pain management whenever behavior is assessed, especially in nonverbal individuals such as infants or patients with dementia. However, in advance more research is needed to identify specific head movements and postures in pain patients. PMID:29444153

  13. Reactor vessel closure head replacements in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Framatome-Jeumont Industrie consortium have completed in 1997 28 reactor vessel (RV) closure head replacements, including five on 1300 MWe class PWR units. Framatome manages the operations and handles removal and reinstallation of equipment (not including the control rod drive mechanisms (CRDM)) and the requalification tests, while JI, which manufactures the CRDMs, is involved in the CRDM cutting, re-machining and welding operations, using tools of original design, in order to optimize the RV closure head operation in terms of costs, schedule and dosage

  14. Hyperparathyroidism following head and neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.D.; Frame, B.; Miller, M.J.; Kleerskoper, M.; Block, M.A.; Parfitt, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    A history of head and neck irradiation in childhood or adolescence was found in 22 of 130 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism compared with only 12 of 400 control patients. Among 200 patients with a known history of childhood irradiation, biochemical or surgical evidence of hyperparathyroidism was found in ten, a prevalence of 5%. This is at least 30 times the prevalence of hyperparathyroidism in the general population. The data indicate that head and neck irradiation should be regarded as an important risk factor in the subsequent development of hyperparathyroidism

  15. Design verification for reactor head replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedy, K.K.; Whitt, M.S.; Lee, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the challenges of design verification for reactor head replacement for PWR plants and the program for qualification from the prospective of the utility design engineering group. This paper is based on the experience with the design confirmation of four reactor head replacements for two plants, and their interfacing components, parts, appurtenances, and support structures. The reactor head replacement falls under the jurisdiction of the applicable edition of the ASME Section XI code, with particular reference to repair/replacement activities. Under any repair/replacement activities, demands may be encountered in the development of program and plan for replacement due to the vintage of the original design/construction Code and the design reports governing the component qualifications. Because of the obvious importance of the reactor vessel, these challenges take on an added significance. Additional complexities are introduced to the project, when the replacement components are fabricated by vendors different from the original vendor. Specific attention is needed with respect to compatibility with the original design and construction of the part and interfacing components. The program for reactor head replacement requires evaluation of welding procedures, applicable examination, test, and acceptance criteria for material, welds, and the components. Also, the design needs to take into consideration the life of the replacement components with respect to the extended period of operation of the plant after license renewal and other plant improvements. Thus, the verification of acceptability of reactor head replacement provides challenges for development and maintenance of a program and plan, design specification, design report, manufacturer's data report and material certification, and a report of reconciliation. The technical need may also be compounded by other challenges such as widely scattered global activities and organizational barriers, which

  16. Head first PHP and MySQL

    CERN Document Server

    Beighley, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    If you're ready to create web pages more complex than those you can build with HTML and CSS, Head First PHP & MySQL is the ultimate learning guide to building dynamic, database-driven websites using PHP and MySQL. Packed with real-world examples, this book teaches you all the essentials of server-side programming, from the fundamentals of PHP and MySQL coding to advanced topics such as form validation, session IDs, cookies, database queries and joins, file I/O operations, content management, and more. Head First PHP & MySQL offers the same visually rich format that's turned every title in th

  17. MR of head and neck hemangiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilaniuk, L.T.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Gusnard, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper defines the MR characteristics of head and neck hemangiomas and to evaluate the role of MR in their diagnosis and management. Eighteen pediatric and young adult patients with head and neck hemangiomas (six neck, six face, three eyelid, two scalp, and one parotid) underwent high-field-strength 1.5-T MR imaging. Conventional spin-echo sequences with T1 and T2 weighting were performed. In addition, one-third of patients underwent MR angiography and gadolinium enhancement. The hemangiomas were isointense to muscle on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on proton-density and T2-weighted images

  18. Hyperparathyroidism following head and neck irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, S.D.; Frame, B.; Miller, M.J.; Kleerskoper, M.; Block, M.A.; Parfitt, A.M.

    1980-02-01

    A history of head and neck irradiation in childhood or adolescence was found in 22 of 130 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism compared with only 12 of 400 control patients. Among 200 patients with a known history of childhood irradiation, biochemical or surgical evidence of hyperparathyroidism was found in ten, a prevalence of 5%. This is at least 30 times the prevalence of hyperparathyroidism in the general population. The data indicate that head and neck irradiation should be regarded as an important risk factor in the subsequent development of hyperparathyroidism.

  19. Head Trauma in Mixed Martial Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Michael G; Lawrence, David W; Cusimano, Michael D; Schweizer, Tom A

    2014-06-01

    Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full combative sport with a recent global increase in popularity despite significant scrutiny from medical associations. To date, the empirical research of the risk of head injuries associated with this sport is limited. Youth and amateur participation is growing, warranting investigation into the burden and mechanism of injuries associated with this sport. (1) To determine the incidence, risk factors, and characteristics of knockouts (KOs) and technical knockouts (TKOs) from repetitive strikes in professional MMA; and (2) to identify the mechanisms of head trauma and the situational factors that lead to KOs and TKOs secondary to repetitive strikes through video analysis. Descriptive epidemiology study. Competition data and video records for all KOs and TKOs from numbered Ultimate Fighting Championship MMA events (n = 844) between 2006 to 2012. Analyses included (1) multivariate logistic regression to investigate factors associated with an increased risk of sustaining a KO or TKO secondary to repetitive strikes and (2) video analysis of all KOs and TKOs secondary to repetitive strikes with descriptive statistics. During the study period, the KO rate was 6.4 per 100 athlete-exposures (AEs) (12.7% of matches), and the rate of TKOs secondary to repetitive strikes was 9.5 per 100 AEs (19.1% of matches), for a combined incidence of match-ending head trauma of 15.9 per 100 AEs (31.9% of matches). Logistic regression identified that weight class, earlier time in a round, earlier round in a match, and older age were risk factors for both KOs and TKOs secondary to repetitive strikes. Match significance and previously sustained KOs or TKOs were also risk factors for KOs. Video analysis identified that all KOs were the result of direct impact to the head, most frequently a strike to the mandibular region (53.9%). The average time between the KO-strike and match stoppage was 3.5 seconds (range, 0-20 seconds), with losers sustaining an average of 2

  20. Neuroimaging differential diagnoses to abusive head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Nadine; Brunel, Herve; Dory-Lautrec, Philippe; Chabrol, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Trauma is the most common cause of death in childhood, and abusive head trauma is the most common cause of traumatic death and morbidity in infants younger than 1 year. The main differential diagnosis of abusive head trauma is accidental traumatic brain injury, which is usually witnessed. This paper also discusses more uncommon diagnoses such as congenital and acquired disorders of hemostasis, cerebral arteriovenous malformations and metabolic diseases, all of which are extremely rare. Diagnostic imaging including CT and MRI is very important for the distinction of non-accidental from accidental traumatic injury. (orig.)

  1. Neuroimaging differential diagnoses to abusive head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine [AP-HM Timone 2, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille cedex 05 (France); Aix Marseille University, UMR CNRS 7339, Marseille (France); Brunel, Herve; Dory-Lautrec, Philippe [AP-HM Timone 2, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille cedex 05 (France); Chabrol, Brigitte [AP-HM Timone, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Marseille (France)

    2016-05-15

    Trauma is the most common cause of death in childhood, and abusive head trauma is the most common cause of traumatic death and morbidity in infants younger than 1 year. The main differential diagnosis of abusive head trauma is accidental traumatic brain injury, which is usually witnessed. This paper also discusses more uncommon diagnoses such as congenital and acquired disorders of hemostasis, cerebral arteriovenous malformations and metabolic diseases, all of which are extremely rare. Diagnostic imaging including CT and MRI is very important for the distinction of non-accidental from accidental traumatic injury. (orig.)

  2. Head injury and risk for Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenborg, Line; Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Lee, Pei-Chen

    2015-01-01

    in medical records. Patients were matched to 1,785 controls randomly selected from the Danish Central Population Register on sex and year of birth. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: We observed no association between any head......OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between head injuries throughout life and the risk for Parkinson disease (PD) in an interview-based case-control study. METHODS: We identified 1,705 patients diagnosed with PD at 10 neurologic centers in Denmark in 1996-2009 and verified their diagnoses...

  3. Características físico-químicas de physalis em diferentes colorações do cálice e sistemas de condução Chemical characteristics of cape-gooseberry fruits in different sepal colors and training systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Simone Madruga Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma espécie que está sendo incorporada no cultivo de pequenas frutas é a physalis. Esta Solanaceae é considerada uma planta rústica que tem dificuldade de manter suas hastes eretas, seus frutos estão dentro de um cálice que os protege contra insetos, pássaros e condições adversas. o objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar as características físico-químicas dos frutos de Physalis peruviana em função das diferentes colorações de cálice e dos sistemas de condução utilizados. A colheita dos frutos foi realizada levando em consideração cinco diferentes classificações quanto à coloração de cálice: 1 (verde; 2 (verde-amarelada; 3 (amarelo-esverdeada; 4 (amarela, e 5 (amarelo-amarronzada, provenientes dos sistemas de condução "v" invertido e triangular. o delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com esquema fatorial 5x2 (colorações do cálice x sistemas de condução. A unidade experimental foi composta de dez frutos, sendo cada tratamento repetido três vezes. os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA, aplicando o teste de Tukey, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade de erro, para comparação das médias. As variáveis avaliadas foram: massa fresca do fruto, do cálice e total, diâmetro, firmeza, coloração da epiderme, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, razão SST/ATT e pH. o sistema de condução triangular, combinado às colorações de fruto amarela e amarelo-amarronzada resultou, respectivamente, em frutos com maior conteúdo de SST e razão SST/ATT. os maiores valores para massa e diâmetro de fruto foram alcançados quando os cálices se apresentavam amarelo-amarronzados, enquanto a maior massa total foi atingida quando os cálices tinham coloração amarela. Já para a massa do cálice, as maiores respostas foram obtidas nos de coloração verde. Conclui-se que physalis colhidos a partir da terceira fase (3 (cálice amarelo-esverdeado apresentam o melhor

  4. Hydro-thermal power flow scheduling accounting for head variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hawary, M.E.; Ravindranath, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the authors treat the problem of optimal economic operation of hydrothermal electric power systems with variable head hydro plants employing the power flow equations to represent the network. Newton's method is used to solve the problem for a number of test systems. A comparison with solutions with fixed head is presented. In general the optimal schedule requires higher slack bus and thermal power generation and cost in the case of variable head hydro plant than that required by the fixed head hydro plant in all demand periods. Correspondingly, the hydro generation is less in the case of variable head hydro plant compared to fixed head hydro plant. A negligible difference in voltage magnitudes in all the time intervals, but it is observed that slightly higher voltages occur in the case of the fixed head hydro plant. Higher power and energy losses occur in the case of variable head hydro plants compared to the fixed head hydro plants

  5. Effect of head restraint backset on head-neck kinematics in whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2006-03-01

    Although head restraints were introduced in the 1960s as a countermeasure for whiplash, their limited effectiveness has been attributed to incorrect positioning. The effect of backset on cervical segmental angulations, which were previously correlated with spinal injury, has not been delineated. Therefore, the practical restraint position to minimize injury remains unclear. A parametric study of increasing head restraint backset between 0 and 140mm was conducted using a comprehensively validated computational model. Head retraction values increased with increasing backset, reaching a maximum value of 53.5mm for backsets greater than 60mm. Segmental angulation magnitudes, greatest at levels C5-C6 and C6-C7, reached maximum values during the retraction phase and increased with increasing backset. Results were compared to a previously published head restraint rating system, wherein lower cervical extension magnitudes from this study exceeded mean physiologic limits for restraint positions rated good, acceptable, marginal, and poor. As head restraint contact was the limiting factor in head retraction and segmental angulations, the present study indicates that minimizing whiplash injury may be accomplished by limiting head restraint backset to less than 60mm either passively or actively after impact.

  6. Data For: Heading Through A Crowd

    OpenAIRE

    Riddell, Hugh; Lappe, Markus

    2018-01-01

    Data and analysis scripts to accompany the article "Heading Through A Crowd" by Dr. Hugh Riddell and Prof. Dr. Markus Lappe. All analysis scripts are in SPSS format. Data has been provided in SPSS and .txt formats. Any correspondence should be addressed to Prof. Dr. Markus Lappe.

  7. Speaker Prediction based on Head Orientations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienks, R.J.; Poppe, Ronald Walter; van Otterlo, M.; Poel, Mannes; Poel, M.; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2005-01-01

    To gain insight into gaze behavior in meetings, this paper compares the results from a Naive Bayes classifier, Neural Networks and humans on speaker prediction in four-person meetings given solely the azimuth head angles. The Naive Bayes classifier scored 69.4% correctly, Neural Networks 62.3% and

  8. Management of common head and neck masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Thomas F; Muratore, Christopher S

    2007-02-01

    Head and neck masses are a common clinical concern in infants, children, and adolescents. The differential diagnosis for a head or neck mass includes congenital, inflammatory, and neoplastic lesions. An orderly and thorough examination of the head and neck with an appropriate directed workup will facilitate the diagnosis. The most common entities occur repeatedly within the various age groups and can be differentiated with a clear understanding of embryology and anatomy of the region, and an understanding of the natural history of a specific lesion. Congenital lesions most commonly found in the pediatric population include the thyroglossal duct cyst and the branchial cleft and arch anomalies. The inflammatory masses are secondary to local or systemic infections. The most common etiology for cervical adenopathy in children is reactive lymphadenopathy following a viral or bacterial illness. Persistent adenopathy raises more concerns, especially enlarged lymph nodes within the posterior triangle or supraclavicular space, nodes that are painless, firm, and not mobile, or a single dominant node that persists for more than 6 weeks should all heighten concern for malignancy. In this review, we discuss the current principles of surgical management of the most common head and neck masses that present to pediatricians and pediatric surgeons.

  9. Creating Gaze Annotations in Head Mounted Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Qvarfordt, Pernilla

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate distributed communication in mobile settings, we developed GazeNote for creating and sharing gaze annotations in head mounted displays (HMDs). With gaze annotations it possible to point out objects of interest within an image and add a verbal description. To create an annota- tion...

  10. 29 CFR 1917.93 - Head protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1917.93 Section 1917.93 Labor Regulations... of the following consensus standards: (i) ANSI Z89.1-2003, “American National Standard for Industrial... constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus standards will be deemed to be in compliance with...

  11. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  12. Neurosurgery for management of severe head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, K.; Richter, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Neurosurgery as a treatment of severe head injuries is not restricted to invasive surgery but also includes peri-operative intensive care medicine. Thanks to the technological progress and advanced diagnostic tools, especially drug treatments and their efficiency as well as risks can be far better monitored and analysed today. (orig./CB) [de

  13. Unilateral otolith centrifugation by head tilt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, S.M.; Bos, J.E.; Klis, S.F.L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To test for otolith asymmetries, several studies described horizontal translation of the body and head en bloc during fast vertical axis rotation. This stimulus causes one otolithic organ to rotate on-axis, and the other to experience centripetal acceleration. OBJECTIVE: To test a new,

  14. Otolith function in patients with head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Dae; Park, Moo Kyun; Lee, Byung Don; Park, Ji Yun; Lee, Tae Kyung; Sung, Ki-Bum

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluates the otolith function of patients with head trauma, postulating that otolith dysfunction is a cause of nonspecific dizziness after head trauma. We prospectively enrolled 28 patients referred within 3 months after head trauma between March 2007 and December 2009. Pure tone audiometry, caloric testing and otolith function tests, including cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) and subjective visual vertical (SVV) tests, were performed on all patients. The relationship between otolith function and otologic symptoms was analyzed. Of the 28 patients with head trauma, 18 complained of dizziness and 12 experienced hearing loss, including 6 patients who complained of both. On defining otolith dysfunction as an abnormal cVEMP or abnormal SVV, a significant difference in otolith dysfunction existed between the groups with and without dizziness [72 (13/18) vs. 20% (2/10)]. In contrast, no significant difference in otolith dysfunction was detected between the abnormal and normal hearing groups. A significant number of the patients who complained of nonspecific dizziness after trauma had abnormal otolith function. After trauma, when patients complain of dizziness, vestibular function tests, including otolith function tests, should be considered.

  15. Multicystic encephalopathy in abusive head trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubat, Bela; Bilo, Rob A. C.; van Rijn, Rick R.

    2014-01-01

    The proof of abusive head trauma (AHT) in infants is difficult, especially in cases with a long posttraumatic survival period. In the acute phase, injury to the cranio-cervical junction causes disturbances in respiratory and cardiac control, leading to apnea and bradycardia. Infants who survive the

  16. Femoral head vitality after intracapsular hip fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroemqvist, B.

    1983-01-01

    Femoral head vitality before, during and at various intervals from the operation was determined by tetracycline labeling and/or 99 sp (m)Tc-MDP scintimetry. In a three-year follow-up, healing prognosis could be determined by scintimetry 3 weeks from operation; deficient femoral head vitality predicting healing complications and retained vitality predicting uncomplicated healing. A comparison between pre- and postoperative scintimetry indicated that further impairment of the femoral head vitality could be caused by the operative procedure, and as tetracycline labeling prior to and after fracture reduction in 370 fractures proved equivalent, it was concluded that the procedure of osteosynthesis probably was responsible for capsular vessel injury, using a four-flanged nail. The four-flanged nail was compared with a low-traumatic method of osteosynthesis, two hook-pins, in a prospective randomized 14 month study, and the postoperative femoral head vitality was significantly better in the hook-pin group. This was also clearly demonstrated in a one-year follow-up for the fractures included in the study. Parallel to these investigations, the reliability of the methods of vitality determination was found satisfactory in methodologic studies. For clinical purpose, primary atraumatic osteosynthesis, postoperative prognostic scintimetry and early secondary arthroplasty when indicated, was concluded to be the appropriate approach to femoral neck fracture treatment. (Author)

  17. Nutrition in Patients with Head Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Totur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need of energy increases by 40% in patients with a head trauma, when compared to people who are living a normal life. This ratio reaches to 200% in some cases. It is important to give a nutrition support which can satisfy the energy need resulted from the hypermetabolic and hypercatabolic states and that is enough to help to fix the immunologic state and achieve a better result in healing the injury. When oral nutrition is not possible in the patient with a head trauma, their energy need is satisfied through enteral and parenteral nutrition. Though parenteral nutrition had held an important role in feeding patients with head trauma, enteral nutrition is applied much more widely today. Enteral and parenteral nutrition both has their own advantages and disadvantages. In the clinical and laboratory studies that had been held, it was found that enteral nutrition improved the systemic immunity, decreased the incidence of the major infectious complications, decreased the metabolic response to trauma, protected the intestinal mucosa, and protected the ecologic balance of the microflora. In this article, it is investigated through the importance of the feeding in patients with a head trauma and reasons to chose enteral nutrition

  18. An Overview of Head Start Program Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Jeanne Morris

    2017-01-01

    Johnson's "War on Poverty" administrative team campaigned for committee members to join the War on Poverty efforts to create and develop programs for children born into poverty (Zigler, 2003). Poverty based programs, such as the Head Start program, continue to put into place proactive measures to increase preschooler's cognitive…

  19. Department-Head Leadership for School Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithwood, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This review of research was prompted by the widespread belief that at least in a significant number of secondary schools, department heads are an underutilized, if not untapped, source of instructional leadership, the type of leadership critical to secondary-school improvement initiatives. Forty-two methodologically diverse empirical studies were…

  20. Kiirlaenud kohe vastuolus heade kommetega / Anne Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Anne, 1970-

    2008-01-01

    Seaduseelnõust, mis kuulutab heade kommetega vastuolus olevaiks ning tühiseiks laenutehingud, kus laenuvõtja suudab hiljem tõendada oma erakorralisi vajadusi, sõltuvussuhet, kogenematust või muid selliseid asjaolusid ning väidab, et talle tehti laenu andes liiga

  1. Head And Neck Rhabdomyosacroma In Childhood: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rhabdomyosarcoma may be histologically indistinguishable from other undifferentiated childhood tumours occurring in the head and neck region on routine heamatoxylin and eosin staining. Aim: aimed at assessing the usefulness of employing immunohistochemistry, as an adjunct to routine H&E staining, ...

  2. Target definition in prostate, head, and neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasch, Coen; Steenbakkers, Roel; van Herk, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    Target definition is a major source of errors in both prostate and head and neck external-beam radiation treatment. Delineation errors remain constant during the course of radiation and therefore have a large impact on the dose to the tumor. Major sources of delineation variation are visibility of

  3. 33 CFR 142.30 - Head protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 142.30 Section 142.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER... protection. (a) Personnel in areas where there is a hazard of falling objects or of contact with electrical...

  4. Adaptive algorithm of magnetic heading detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gong-Xu; Shi, Ling-Feng

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic data obtained from a magnetic sensor usually fluctuate in a certain range, which makes it difficult to estimate the magnetic heading accurately. In fact, magnetic heading information is usually submerged in noise because of all kinds of electromagnetic interference and the diversity of the pedestrian’s motion states. In order to solve this problem, a new adaptive algorithm based on the (typically) right-angled corridors of a building or residential buildings is put forward to process heading information. First, a 3D indoor localization platform is set up based on MPU9250. Then, several groups of data are measured by changing the experimental environment and pedestrian’s motion pace. The raw data from the attached inertial measurement unit are calibrated and arranged into a time-stamped array and written to a data file. Later, the data file is imported into MATLAB for processing and analysis using the proposed adaptive algorithm. Finally, the algorithm is verified by comparison with the existing algorithm. The experimental results show that the algorithm has strong robustness and good fault tolerance, which can detect the heading information accurately and in real-time.

  5. Aseptic necrosis of femoral head complicating thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzincolo, C.; Castaldi, G.; Scutellary, P.N.; Bariani, L.; Pinca, A.

    1986-01-01

    Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head is described in 4 patients, selected from 280 patients with homozygous β-thalassemia (Cooley anemia). The incidence of the complication appears to be very high (14.5per mille) in thalassemia, compared to the general population. The possible mechanism are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Rule customization in head-up games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toering, E.B.; Soute, I.A.C.; Markopoulos, P.

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the feasibility of rule customization for a genre of pervasive games for children called Head-Up Games [11], which are intended to be played outdoors by children and to encourage physical activity and social interaction. An interface to allow customization of game rules was

  7. 3-Dimensional Reproducibility of Natural Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    the “Six Elements to Orofacial Harmony”. He advocated using his Element II Analysis with natural head orientation for treatment planning, since “it...temporomandibular disorders, neck pain , headache, dentofacial structures, mandibular length, mandibular position, mandibular divergency and overjet (Cuccia, 2009

  8. The Great Irish Head Shop Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryall, Graham; Butler, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This research describes and analyses recent policy developments in Ireland in relation to the practice of selling psychoactive substances which, while not themselves illegal, mimic the effects of commonly used illegal drugs. These so-called "legal highs" had been sold in Ireland through an increasing number of "head shops"…

  9. Driving with head-slaved camera system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oving, A.B.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2001-01-01

    In a field experiment, we tested the effectiveness of a head-slaved camera system for driving an armoured vehicle under armour. This system consists of a helmet-mounted display (HMD), a headtracker, and a motion platform with two cameras. Subjects performed several driving tasks on paved and in

  10. Mechatronic design of the Twente humanoid head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Visser, L.C.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Carloni, Raffaella; Stramigioli, Stefano

    This paper describes the mechatronic design of the Twente humanoid head, which has been realized in the purpose of having a research platform for human-machine interaction. The design features a fast, four degree of freedom neck, with long range of motion, and a vision system with three degrees of

  11. Oral sequelae of head and neck radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissink, A; Jansma, J; Spijkervet, FKL; Burlage, FR; Coppes, RP

    In addition to anti-tumor effects, ionizing radiation causes damage in normal tissues located in the radiation portals. Oral complications of radiotherapy in the head and neck region are the result of the deleterious effects of radiation on, e. g., salivary glands, oral mucosa, bone, dentition,

  12. Catalogue of tooth brush head designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Marsha A; Bayne, Stephen C; Liu, Ying; Walker, Mary P

    2013-06-01

    Manual toothbrushes (MTBs) and power toothbrushes (PTBs) are effective oral physiotherapy aids for plaque removal. End-rounded bristles are safer and reduce damage to oral tissues. Nylon bristles are more effective in plaque removal because the bristle is stiffer than natural bristles. In the last 10 years the number of options for MTBs and PTBs has expanded significantly and there is very little information providing a reference frame for the design characteristics of the heads. The present in vitro study characterized a variety of MTB and PTB heads to provide a reference library for other research comparisons which might be made. Various commercial MTB and PTB heads were used to characterize the following: bristle size, shape, diameter, number of tufts, number of bristles per tuft and surface characteristics. Photographs were collected from the side, at 45 degrees and the top of each toothbrush (TB) head using a scanning electron microscope and digital camera. Images were analyzed (Soft Imaging System) for bristle features and designs. One-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05) was performed to detect differences among TB types within MTB and PTB groups and between pooled values for MTB and PTB groups. There were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in toothbrush bristle diameter and bristle shape. In contrast, there were no significant differences between PTB vs. MTB in regards to bristle diameter, bristle count and tuft count. The results suggest that although there are wide variations in toothbrush head designs, significant differences were found only in relation to bristle diameter and shape.

  13. The immunologic considerations in human head transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Mark A; Furr, Allen; Barret, Juan P; Barker, John H

    2017-05-01

    The idea of head transplantation appears at first as unrealistic, unethical, and futile. Here we discuss immunological considerations in human head transplantation. In a separate accompanying article we discuss surgical, ethical, and psychosocial issues concerned in body-to-head transplantation (BHT) [1]. The success of such an unusual allograft, where the donor and the recipient can reject each other, depends on prevention of complex immunologic reactions, especially rejection of the head by the body (graft-vs-host) or probably less likely, the possibility of the head rejecting the total body allograft (host-vs-graft). The technical and immunologic difficulties are enormous, especially since rapid nerve and cord connections and regeneration have not yet been possible to achieve. In this article we begin by briefly reviewing neuro-immunologic issues that may favor BHT such as the blood brain barrier (BBB) and point out its shortcomings. And we touch on the cellular and humoral elements in the brain proper that differ in some respects from those in other organs and in the periphery. Based on recent successes in vascular composite allografts (VCAs), we will elaborate on potential specific advantages and difficulties in BHT of various available immunosuppressive medications already utilized in VCAs. The risk/benefit ratio of these drugs will be emphasized in relation to direct brain toxicity such as seizure disorders, interference, or promotion of nerve regeneration, and potentiation of cerebral viral infections. The final portion of this article will focus on pre-transplant immunologic manipulation of the deceased donor body along with pretreatment of the recipient. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Kinematics of the human mandible for different head postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, C M; Huddleston Slater, J J; Lobbezoo, F; Naeije, M

    2000-04-01

    The influence of head posture on movement paths of the incisal point (IP) and of the mandibular condyles during free open-close movements was studied. Ten persons, without craniomandibular or cervical spine disorders, participated in the study. Open close mandibular movements were recorded with the head in five postures, viz., natural head posture, forward head posture, military posture, and lateroflexion to the right and to the left side, using the Oral Kinesiologic Analysis System (OKAS-3D). This study showed that in a military head posture, the opening movement path of the incisal point is shifted anteriorly relative to the path in a natural head posture. In a forward head posture, the movement path is shifted posteriorly whereas during lateroflexion, it deviates to the side the head has moved to. Moreover, the intra-articular distance in the temporomandibular joint during closing is smaller with the head in military posture and greater in forward head posture, as compared to the natural head posture. During lateroflexion, the intra-articular distance on the ipsilateral side is smaller. The influence of head posture upon the kinematics of the mandible is probably a manifestation of differences in mandibular loading in the different head postures.

  15. Handling and carrying head for nuclear fuel assemblies and installation including this head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, R.; Cransac, J.P.; Jogand, P.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention proposes a handling and carrying head ensuring efficiently the cooling of the nuclear fuel asemblies it transports so that any storage in liquid metal in a drum within or adjacent the reactor vessel is suppressed. The invention claims also a nuclear fuel handling installation including the head; it allows a longer time between loading and unloading campaigns and the space surrounding the reactor vessel keeps free without occupying a storage zone within the vessel [fr

  16. Genetics Home Reference: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and neck squamous cell carcinoma Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... Consumer Version: Overview of Mouth, Nose, and Throat Cancers Orphanet: Squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck University of Michigan ...

  17. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. A radiographic head holder is a device intended to position the patient's head during a... device is also exempt from the current good manufacturing practice requirements of the quality system...

  18. Allocation of Attention with Head-Up Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wickens, C

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of display location (head up vs. head down) and image intensity/clutter on flight path performance and mid-air target detection in a general aviation cruise flight environment...

  19. Head and Neck Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head and neck cancers include hypopharyngeal, laryngeal, lip and oral cavity, metastatic squamous neck, nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, paranasal sinus, and salivary gland cancers. Find evidence-based information on head and neck cancer treatment, causes and prevention, research, screening, and statistics.

  20. Heading Frequency Is More Strongly Related to Cognitive Performance Than Unintentional Head Impacts in Amateur Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter F. Stewart

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveCompared to heading, unintentional head impacts (e.g., elbow to head, head to head, head to goalpost in soccer are more strongly related to risk of moderate to very severe Central Nervous System (CNS symptoms. But, most head impacts associated with CNS symptoms that occur in soccer are mild and are more strongly related to heading. We tested for a differential relation of heading and unintentional head impacts with neuropsychological (NP test performance.MethodActive adult amateur soccer players were recruited in New York City and the surrounding areas for this repeated measures longitudinal study of individuals who were enrolled if they had 5+ years of soccer play and were active playing soccer 6+ months/year. All participants completed a baseline validated questionnaire (“HeadCount-2w”, reporting 2-week recall of soccer activity, heading and unintentional head impacts. In addition, participants also completed NP tests of verbal learning, verbal memory, psychomotor speed, attention, and working memory. Most participants also completed one or more identical follow-up protocols (i.e., HeadCount-2w and NP tests at 3- to 6-month intervals over a 2-year period. Repeated measures General Estimating Equations (GEE linear models were used to determine if variation in NP tests at each visit was related to variation in either heading or unintentional head impacts in the 2-week period before testing.Results308 players (78% male completed 741 HeadCount-2w. Mean (median heading/2-weeks was 50 (17 for men and 26 (7 for women. Heading was significantly associated with poorer performance on psychomotor speed (p < 0.001 and attention (p = 0.02 tasks and was borderline significant with poorer performance on the working memory (p = 0.06 task. Unintentional head impacts were not significantly associated with any NP test. Results did not differ after excluding 22 HeadCount-2w with reported concussive or borderline concussive symptoms

  1. Multigenerational Head Start Participation: An Unexpected Marker of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, Elise

    2018-01-01

    One-quarter of the Head Start population has a mother who participated in the program as a child. This study uses experimental Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) data on 3- and 4-year-olds (N = 2,849) to describe multigenerational Head Start families and their program experiences. In sharp contrast to full-sample HSIS findings, Head Start has large,…

  2. Head Start Participants, Programs, Families and Staff in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Head Start programs provide poor children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Each year, programs are required to submit a Program Information Report (PIR) to the Office of Head Start on participating children, pregnant women, and families, as well as the staff serving the Head Start population. In 2013, the…

  3. The Role of Classroom Quality in Explaining Head Start Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Maia C.; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.; Morris, Pamela A.; Page, Lindsay C.; Feller, Avi

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to answer the following question: Are impacts on Head Start classroom quality associated with impacts of Head Start on children's learning and development? This study employs a variety of descriptive and quasi-experimental methods to explore the role of classroom quality as a mediator or mechanism of Head Start impacts. This…

  4. Do Head Start Impacts Vary by Neighborhood Context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Pamela A.; Connors, Maia C.; McCoy, Dana Charles; Gomez, Celia J.; Yoshikawa, Hiro; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    This paper capitalizes on the addition of geocodes for Head Start centers in which children were randomly assigned to address questions about the role of neighborhood characteristics in moderating impacts of assignment to the Head Start program. Researchers explore the extent to which impacts of assignment to Head Start on outcomes for children…

  5. Head Start Instructional Professionals' Inclusion Perceptions and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muccio, Leah S.; Kidd, Julie K.; White, C. Stephen; Burns, M. Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study considered the facilitators and barriers of successful inclusion in Head Start classrooms by examining the perspectives and practices of instructional professionals. A cross-sectional survey design was combined with direct observation in inclusive Head Start classrooms. Survey data were collected from 71 Head Start instructional…

  6. Enhancing Early Childhood Outcomes: Connecting Child Welfare and Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Julie S.; Brown, Samantha M.; Yang, Jessica; Groneman, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Head Start is a preschool program for families with low incomes and nearly 85% of child welfare-involved families are low-income, yet little is known about Head Start and child welfare collaboration. This study uses data from 28 Head Start directors to describe collaboration facilitators and barriers, and collaborative mechanisms in place. The…

  7. Computerised tomographic patterns in patients with head injury at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-15

    Apr 15, 2011 ... The clinical severity of head injury is classified based on ... head injury include road traffic accidents (RTA), assaults, ... information in the management of patients with head ... Materials and Methods ... The right cerebral hemisphere was involved in 13 cases .... Nerve palsies – 3rd, 5th, 6th cranial nerves. 3.

  8. Topographic Pattern Distribution of Head And Neck Squamous Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINEPRINT

    value of 71% of SCC in Turkey. Nevertheless a similar report documented a relatively lower value especially in. Yemen where head and neck SCC constituted only 8% of all head and neck cancers. Reports from Yemen revealed that oral cavity SCC was the most common topographic site of all head and. 3 neck cancers.

  9. PRACTICAL MANAGEMENT OF HEAD INJURY | Shehu | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For an effective practical management of head injury, a clear knowledge of the various causes and mechanism of head injury is essential. The concept of the brain in a rigid cranial cavity makes the pathophysiological mechanism of head trauma unique. Most problems occur due to poor handling of patients at the site of ...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5560 - Gas mask head strap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas mask head strap. 868.5560 Section 868.5560...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5560 Gas mask head strap. (a) Identification. A gas mask head strap is a device used to hold an anesthetic gas mask in position on a patient's...

  11. Antipredatory function of head shape for vipers and their mimics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne K Valkonen

    Full Text Available Most research into the adaptive significance of warning signals has focused on the colouration and patterns of prey animals. However, behaviour, odour and body shape can also have signal functions and thereby reduce predators' willingness to attack defended prey. European vipers all have a distinctive triangular head shape; and they are all venomous. Several non-venomous snakes, including the subfamily Natricinae, commonly flatten their heads (also known as head triangulation when disturbed. The adaptive significance of this potential behavioural mimicry has never been investigated.We experimentally tested if the triangular head shape typical of vipers offers protection against predation. We compared the predation pressure of free-ranging predators on artificial snakes with triangular-shaped heads against the pressure on replicas with narrow heads. Snakes of both head types had either zigzag patterned bodies, typical of European vipers, or plain (patternless bodies. Plain snakes with narrower Colubrid-like heads suffered significantly higher predation by raptors than snakes with triangular-shaped heads. Head shape did not, however, have an additive effect on survival in zigzag-patterned snakes, suggesting that species which differ from vipers in colouration and pattern would benefit most from behavioural mimicry. Our results demonstrate that the triangular head shape typical of vipers can act as a warning signal to predators. We suggest that head-shape mimicry may be a more common phenomenon among more diverse taxa than is currently recognised.

  12. 49 CFR 572.142 - Head assembly and test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... acceleration versus time history curve shall be unimodal, and the oscillations occurring after the main pulse... for testing. (3) Suspend the head assembly with its midsagittal plane in vertical orientation as shown... head in transverse alignment with the CG, shall be used to ensure that the head transverse plane is...

  13. SmoothMoves : Smooth pursuits head movements for augmented reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteves, Augusto; Verweij, David; Suraiya, Liza; Islam, Rasel; Lee, Youryang; Oakley, Ian

    2017-01-01

    SmoothMoves is an interaction technique for augmented reality (AR) based on smooth pursuits head movements. It works by computing correlations between the movements of on-screen targets and the user's head while tracking those targets. The paper presents three studies. The first suggests that head

  14. 21 CFR 882.4460 - Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp). 882.4460... holder (skull clamp). (a) Identification. A neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp) is a device used to clamp the patient's skull to hold head and neck in a particular position during surgical procedures. (b...

  15. Pattern of head and neck cancers among patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lack of baseline data in Tanzania concerning head and ... that there is a synergistic effect of alcohol consumption and tobacco use in causing head and neck cancers ... risk factors, while radiation around the head and neck is associated with ...

  16. Maccoby's Head/Heart Traits: Marketing versus Accounting Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochunny, C. M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Nineteen head/heart traits derived from Maccoby's business ethics work were rated on importance to future careers by 148 marketing and 178 accounting students. Both groups rated head traits as most important. Marketing majors are not as "games" oriented as social stereotypes would indicate. The apparent imbalance between head and heart traits…

  17. Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Yuen, W.W.; Angelini, S.; Freeman, K.; Chen, X.; Salmassi, T. [Center for Risk Studies and Safety, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Sienicki, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads in an AP600-like reactor design is considered. The assessment is the second part of an evaluation of the in-vessel retention idea as a severe accident management concept, the first part (DOE/ID-10460) dealing with thermal loads. The assessment is conducted in terms of the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), and includes the comprehensive evaluation of all relevant severe accident scenarios, melt conditions and timing of release from the core region, fully 3D mixing and explosion wave dynamics, and lower head fragility under local, dynamic loading. All of these factors and brought together in a ROAAM Probabilistic Framework to evaluate failure likelihood. The conclusion is that failure is `physically unreasonable`. (author)

  18. Optical fiber head for providing lateral viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Billy W.; James, Dale L.; Brown, Steve; Da Silva, Luiz

    2002-01-01

    The head of an optical fiber comprising the sensing probe of an optical heterodyne sensing device includes a planar surface that intersects the perpendicular to axial centerline of the fiber at a polishing angle .theta.. The planar surface is coated with a reflective material so that light traveling axially through the fiber is reflected transverse to the fiber's axial centerline, and is emitted laterally through the side of the fiber. Alternatively, the planar surface can be left uncoated. The polishing angle .theta. must be no greater than 39.degree. or must be at least 51.degree.. The emitted light is reflected from adjacent biological tissue, collected by the head, and then processed to provide real-time images of the tissue. The method for forming the planar surface includes shearing the end of the optical fiber and applying the reflective material before removing the buffer that circumscribes the cladding and the core.

  19. Small and low head pumped storage projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarechian, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to focus attention on small and low head pumped storage projects. These projects may be defined as having a capacity of less than 200-300 MW and down to about 20 MW, with heads of 1200 ft to about 300 ft or less. Many advantages of these smaller pumped storage projects include more flexibility in siting of a project, considerably shorter licensing and construction period, adaptability to closed system design concept to reduce adverse environmental impacts, considerably reduced risks of delays and substantial cost over-runs, better suited to meeting peaking capacity requirements for individual utilities, and much less transmission inter-connection requirements. An overall licensing and construction schedule of about 3 to 3 1/2 years is realistic for many smaller pumped storage projects, and competitive costs in terms of dollars per kW installed can be achieved

  20. Exploding Head Syndrome:A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Ganguly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exploding head syndrome (EHS is a rare parasomnia in which affected individuals awaken from sleep with the sensation of a loud bang. The etiology is unknown, but other conditions including primary and secondary headache disorders and nocturnal seizures need to be excluded. Case Presentation: A 57-year-old Indian male presented with four separate episodes of awakening from sleep at night after hearing a flashing sound on the right side of his head over the last 2 years. These events were described ‘as if there are explosions in my head’. A neurologic examination, imaging studies, and a polysomnogram ensued, and the results led to the diagnosis of EHS. Conclusion: EHS is a benign, uncommon, predominately nocturnal disorder that is self-limited. No treatment is generally required. Reassurance to the patient is often all that is needed.