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Sample records for hct116 human colon

  1. Rhein induces apoptosis of HCT-116 human colon cancer cells via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhein, a major compound in rhubarb, has been found to have anti-tumor properties in many human cancer cells. However, the details about rhein suppressing the growth of human colon cancer cells remained elusive. In this paper, we explored the potential of rhein as a chemotherapeutic agent on HCT- 116 cells and ...

  2. Secreted Human Adipose Leptin Decreases Mitochondrial Respiration in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells

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    Yehuda-Shnaidman, Einav; Nimri, Lili; Tarnovscki, Tanya; Kirshtein, Boris; Rudich, Assaf; Schwartz, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a key risk factor for the development of colon cancer; however, the endocrine/paracrine/metabolic networks mediating this connection are poorly understood. Here we hypothesize that obesity results in secreted products from adipose tissue that induce malignancy-related metabolic alterations in colon cancer cells. Human HCT116 colon cancer cells, were exposed to conditioned media from cultured human adipose tissue fragments of obese vs. non-obese subjects. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR, mostly mitochondrial respiration) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR, mostly lactate production via glycolysis) were examined vis-à-vis cell viability and expression of related genes and proteins. Our results show that conditioned media from obese (vs. non-obese) subjects decreased basal (40%, prespiration and function in HCT116 colon cancer cells, an effect that is at least partly mediated by leptin. These results highlight a putative novel mechanism for obesity-associated risk of gastrointestinal malignancies, and suggest potential new therapeutic avenues. PMID:24073224

  3. Combination of Quercetin and Kaempferol enhances in vitro Cytotoxicity on Human Colon Cancer (HCT-116 Cells

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    Sara Jaramillo-Carmona

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is one of the most common types of cancer malignancy. Although flavonoids naturally occur as mixtures, little information is available regarding the additive or synergistic biochemical interactions between flavonoids. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility of combining two major structurally related flavonoids, quercetin and kaempferol, to affect the cell viability, cell cycle, and proliferation of the human colon cancer HCT-116 cell line. The combination of quercetin and kaempferol exhibited a greater cytotoxic efficacy than did either quercetin or kaempferol alone. This effect was highest and acted in a synergistic fashion in a 2-fold quercetin and 1-fold kaempferol IC50 combination, which also arrested cell growth in the G2/M phase and suppressed proliferation. Our observations support a structure-activity relationship based on the presence of 3’–OH moiety and/or 4’–OH moiety on the B-ring of flavonoids.

  4. Sulforaphane Induces Cell Death Through G2/M Phase Arrest and Triggers Apoptosis in HCT 116 Human Colon Cancer Cells.

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    Liu, Kuo-Ching; Shih, Ting-Ying; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Ma, Yi-Shih; Yang, Jiun-Long; Wu, Ping-Ping; Huang, Yi-Ping; Lai, Kuang-Chi; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2016-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate, exists exclusively in cruciferous vegetables, and has been shown to possess potent antitumor and chemopreventive activity. However, there is no available information that shows SFN affecting human colon cancer HCT 116 cells. In the present study, we found that SFN induced cell morphological changes, which were photographed by contrast-phase microscopy, and decreased viability. SFN also induced G2/M phase arrest and cell apoptosis in HCT 116 cells, which were measured with flow cytometric assays. Western blotting indicated that SFN increased Cyclin A, cdk 2, Cyclin B and WEE1, but decreased Cdc 25C, cdk1 protein expressions that led to G2/M phase arrest. Apoptotic cell death was also confirmed by Annexin V/PI and DAPI staining and DNA gel electrophoresis in HCT 116 cells after exposure to SFN. The flow cytometric assay also showed that SFN induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca[Formula: see text] and decreased mitochondria membrane potential and increased caspase-8, -9 and -3 activities in HCT 116 cell. Western blotting also showed that SFN induced the release of cytochrome c, and AIF, which was confirmed by confocal microscopy examination. SFN induced ER stress-associated protein expression. Based on those observations, we suggest that SFN may be used as a novel anticancer agent for the treatment of human colon cancer in the future.

  5. Monoterpene bisindole alkaloids, from the African medicinal plant Tabernaemontana elegans, induce apoptosis in HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells.

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    Mansoor, Tayyab A; Borralho, Pedro M; Dewanjee, Saikat; Mulhovo, Silva; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Ferreira, Maria-José U

    2013-09-16

    Tabernaemontana elegans is a medicinal plant used in African traditional medicine to treat several ailments including cancer. The aims of the present study were to identify anti-cancer compounds, namely apoptosis inducers, from Tabernaemontana elegans, and hence to validate its usage in traditional medicine. Six alkaloids, including four monomeric indole (1-3, and 6) and two bisindole (4 and 5) alkaloids, were isolated from the methanolic extract of Tabernaemontana elegans roots. The structures of these compounds were characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. Compounds 1-6 along with compound 7, previously isolated from the leaves of the same species, were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity against HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells by the MTS metabolism assay. The cytotoxicity of the most promising compounds was corroborated by Guava-ViaCount flow cytometry assays. Selected compounds were next studied for apoptosis induction activity in HCT116 cells, by evaluation of nuclear morphology following Hoechst staining, and by caspase-3 like activity assays. Among the tested compounds (1-7), the bisindole alkaloids tabernaelegantine C (4) and tabernaelegantinine B (5) were found to be cytotoxic to HCT116 cells at 20 µM, with compound 5 being more cytotoxic than the positive control 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), at a similar dose. In fact, even at 0.5 µM, compound 5 was more potent than 5-FU. Compounds 4 and 5 induced characteristic patterns of apoptosis in HCT116 cancer cells including, cell shrinkage, condensation, fragmentation of the nucleus, blebbing of the plasma membrane and chromatin condensation. Further, general caspase-3-like activity was increased in cells exposed to compounds 4 and 5, corroborating the nuclear morphology evaluation assays. Bisindole alkaloids tabernaelegantine C (4) and tabernaelegantinine B (5) were characterized as potent apoptosis inducers in HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells and as possible lead/scaffolds for

  6. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation.

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    Zeng, Huawei; Claycombe, Kate J; Reindl, Katie M

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of a high-fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk, while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer-preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of DCA and butyrate (two major metabolites in colon lumen), we examined the effects of physiologically relevant doses of butyrate (0.5-2 mmol/l) and DCA (0.05-0.3 mmol/l) on colon cell proliferation. We hypothesize that butyrate and DCA each modulates the cell cycle and apoptosis via common and distinct cellular signaling targets. In this study, we demonstrated that both butyrate and DCA inhibited cell proliferation by up to 89% and 92% and increased cell apoptosis rate by up to 3.1- and 4.5-fold, respectively. Cell cycle analyses revealed that butyrate led to an increase in G1 and G2 fractions with a concomitant drop in the S-phase fraction, but DCA induced an increase in only G1 fraction with a concomitant drop in the S-phase fraction when compared with the untreated cells. The examination of early cellular signaling revealed that DCA but not butyrate increased intracellular reactive oxygen species, genomic DNA breakage, the activation of ERK1/2, caspase-3 and PARP. In contrast, DCA decreased activated Rb protein level, and butyrate but not DCA increased p21 expression. Collectively, although both butyrate and DCA inhibit colonic cell proliferation, butyrate increases tumor suppressor gene expression, whereas DCA decreases tumor suppressor activation in cell cycle and apoptosis pathways. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Chitosan oligosaccharides with degree of polymerization 2-6 induces apoptosis in human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells.

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    Zou, Pan; Yuan, Shoujun; Yang, Xin; Zhai, Xingchen; Wang, Jing

    2018-01-05

    Colon cancer is the third most common cancer, and yet there is a lack of effective therapeutic method with low side effects. Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) is derived from chitosan after chitin deacetylation, and attracts more interests due to smaller molecular weight and soluble property. Previously, COS, mainly absorbed through intestinal epithelia, has been reported to exhibit many bioactivities, especially its anti-tumor effect. Recent references pay little attention to molecular weight distribution which is crucial for understanding its biological behavior. Here, we studied reducing sugar content and degree of polymerization (DP) of COS. 86.73% reducing sugar exists in COS sample and the content of chitosan fractions with 2-6 is 85.8%. COS suppressed the growth of HCT116 cells in vitro and in vivo, and the inhibition rate of tumor weight in vivo was high up to 58.6%. Moreover, the morphology observation, flow cytometry analysis and mRNA expression were applied to study the apoptosis related mechanism. COS treatment promoted mitosis, late stage apoptosis and S cell cycle arrest in HCT116 cells, and enhanced the mRNA expression of BAK and reduce BCL-2 and BCL-x L . These findings may provide an important clue for clinical applications of COS as anti-tumor drug or pharmaceutic adjuvant in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Curcumin-Free Turmeric Exhibits Activity against Human HCT-116 Colon Tumor Xenograft: Comparison with Curcumin and Whole Turmeric

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    Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K.; Siddik, Zahid H.; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive research within last two decades has indicated that curcumin extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa), exhibits anticancer potential, in part through the modulation of inflammatory pathways. However, the residual antitumor activity of curcumin-free turmeric (CFT) relative to curcumin or turmeric is not well-understood. In the present study, therefore, we determined activities of these agents in both in vitro and in vivo models of human HCT-116 colorectal cancer (CRC). When examined in an in vitro antiproliferative, clonogenic or anti-inflammatory assay system, we found that curcumin was highly active whereas turmeric and CFT had relatively poor activity against CRC cells. However, when examined in vivo at an oral dose of either 100 or 500 mg/kg given to nude mice bearing CRC xenografts, all three preparations of curcumin, turmeric, and CFT similarly suppressed the growth of the xenograft. The effect of CFT on suppression of tumor growth was dose-dependent, with 500 mg/kg tending to be more effective than 100 mg/kg. Interestingly, 100 mg/kg curcumin or turmeric was found to be more effective than 500 mg/kg. When examined in vivo for the expression of biomarkers associated with cell survival (cIAP-1, Bcl-2, and survivin), proliferation (Ki-67 and cyclin D1) and metastasis (ICAM-1 and VEGF), all were down-modulated. These agents also suppressed inflammatory transcription factors (NF-κB and STAT3) in tumor cells. Overall, our results with CFT provide evidence that turmeric must contain additional bioactive compounds other than curcumin that, in contrast to curcumin, exhibit greater anticancer potential in vivo than in vitro against human CRC. Moreover, our study highlights the fact that the beneficial effects of turmeric and curcumin in humans may be more effectively realized at lower doses, whereas CFT could be given at higher doses without loss in favorable activity. PMID:29311914

  9. Curcumin-Free Turmeric Exhibits Activity against Human HCT-116 Colon Tumor Xenograft: Comparison with Curcumin and Whole Turmeric

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    Sahdeo Prasad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research within last two decades has indicated that curcumin extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa, exhibits anticancer potential, in part through the modulation of inflammatory pathways. However, the residual antitumor activity of curcumin-free turmeric (CFT relative to curcumin or turmeric is not well-understood. In the present study, therefore, we determined activities of these agents in both in vitro and in vivo models of human HCT-116 colorectal cancer (CRC. When examined in an in vitro antiproliferative, clonogenic or anti-inflammatory assay system, we found that curcumin was highly active whereas turmeric and CFT had relatively poor activity against CRC cells. However, when examined in vivo at an oral dose of either 100 or 500 mg/kg given to nude mice bearing CRC xenografts, all three preparations of curcumin, turmeric, and CFT similarly suppressed the growth of the xenograft. The effect of CFT on suppression of tumor growth was dose-dependent, with 500 mg/kg tending to be more effective than 100 mg/kg. Interestingly, 100 mg/kg curcumin or turmeric was found to be more effective than 500 mg/kg. When examined in vivo for the expression of biomarkers associated with cell survival (cIAP-1, Bcl-2, and survivin, proliferation (Ki-67 and cyclin D1 and metastasis (ICAM-1 and VEGF, all were down-modulated. These agents also suppressed inflammatory transcription factors (NF-κB and STAT3 in tumor cells. Overall, our results with CFT provide evidence that turmeric must contain additional bioactive compounds other than curcumin that, in contrast to curcumin, exhibit greater anticancer potential in vivo than in vitro against human CRC. Moreover, our study highlights the fact that the beneficial effects of turmeric and curcumin in humans may be more effectively realized at lower doses, whereas CFT could be given at higher doses without loss in favorable activity.

  10. Procaine Induces Epigenetic Changes in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells

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    Hussein Sabit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world, and it is the major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The present study aimed at treating colon cancer cell line (HCT116 with different chemotherapeutic drug/drug combinations (procaine, vorinostat “SAHA,” sodium phenylbutyrate, erlotinib, and carboplatin. Two different final concentrations were applied: 3 μM and 5 μM. Trypan blue test was performed to assess the viability of the cell before and after being treated with the drugs. The data obtained showed that there was a significant decrease in the viability of cells after applying the chemotherapeutic drugs/drug combinations. Also, DNA fragmentation assay was carried out to study the effect of these drugs on the activation of apoptosis-mediated DNA degradation process. The results indicated that all the drugs/drug combinations had a severe effect on inducing DNA fragmentation. Global DNA methylation quantification was performed to identify the role of these drugs individually or in combination in hypo- or hypermethylating the CpG dinucleotide all over the genome of the HCT116 colon cancer cell line. Data obtained indicated that different combinations had different effects in reducing or increasing the level of methylation, which might indicate the effectiveness of combining drugs in treating colon cancer cells.

  11. Effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α on Morphology and Mechanical Properties of HCT116 Human Colon Cancer Cells Investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy.

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    Liu, Huiqing; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Zhe; Wang, Hongda; Du, Jun; Tang, Jilin

    2017-01-01

    Chronic inflammation orchestrates the tumor microenvironment and is strongly associated with cancer. Tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF α ) is involved in tumor invasion and metastasis by inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). This process is defined by the loss of epithelial characteristics and gain of mesenchymal traits. The mechanisms of TNF α -induced EMT in cancer cells have been well studied. However, mechanical properties have not yet been probed. In this work, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied to investigate the morphology and mechanical properties of EMT in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. A remarkable morphological change from cobblestone shape to spindle-like morphology was observed. In parallel, AFM images showed that the cellular cytoskeleton was rearranged from a cortical to a stress-fiber pattern. Moreover, cell stiffness measurements indicated that Young's modulus of cells gradually reduced from 1 to 3 days with TNF α -treatment, but it has an apparent increase after 4 days of treatment compared with that for 3 days. Additionally, Young's modulus of the cells treated with TNF α for 4 days is slightly larger than that for 1 or 2 days, but still less than that of the untreated cells. Our work contributes to a better understanding of colorectal cancer metastasis induced by inflammation.

  12. Effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α on Morphology and Mechanical Properties of HCT116 Human Colon Cancer Cells Investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy

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    Huiqing Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation orchestrates the tumor microenvironment and is strongly associated with cancer. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα is involved in tumor invasion and metastasis by inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT. This process is defined by the loss of epithelial characteristics and gain of mesenchymal traits. The mechanisms of TNFα-induced EMT in cancer cells have been well studied. However, mechanical properties have not yet been probed. In this work, atomic force microscopy (AFM was applied to investigate the morphology and mechanical properties of EMT in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. A remarkable morphological change from cobblestone shape to spindle-like morphology was observed. In parallel, AFM images showed that the cellular cytoskeleton was rearranged from a cortical to a stress-fiber pattern. Moreover, cell stiffness measurements indicated that Young’s modulus of cells gradually reduced from 1 to 3 days with TNFα-treatment, but it has an apparent increase after 4 days of treatment compared with that for 3 days. Additionally, Young’s modulus of the cells treated with TNFα for 4 days is slightly larger than that for 1 or 2 days, but still less than that of the untreated cells. Our work contributes to a better understanding of colorectal cancer metastasis induced by inflammation.

  13. Effect of hydroxyapatite particle size, morphology and crystallinity on proliferation of colon cancer HCT116 cells

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    Dey, Sangeeta; Das, Mitun, E-mail: mitun@cgcri.res.in; Balla, Vamsi Krishna

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work is to chemically and physically characterize the synthesized Hydroxyapatite (HAp) micro and nanoparticles and to explore the inhibitory effect of nano-HAps on the in vitro growth of human colon cancerous cells HCT116. HAp powder was synthesized using three different routes to achieve micro and nanosized powders, with different morphologies and crystallinity. The synthesized powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the average crystallite size of HAp powder varies from 11 nm to 177 nm and respective crystallinity of powder found to be in the range of 0.12 and 0.92. The effect of these physico-chemical properties of HAp powders on human colon cancer HCT116 cells inhibition was determined in vitro. It was found that decreasing the HAp powder crystallite size between 11 nm and 22 nm significantly increases the HCT116 cell inhibition. Our results demonstrate that apart from HAp powder size their crystallinity and morphology also play an important role in cellular inhibition of human colon cancer cells. - Highlights: • Chemically synthesized hydroxyapatite micro and nano-particles with different morphologies and crystallinity. • In vitro cell–material interaction showed that hydroxyapatite nano-particles inhibit colon cancer cells. • Human colon cancer cell inhibition also depends on crystallinity and morphology of HAp powder.

  14. Butyrate Inhibits Cancerous HCT116 Colon Cell Proliferation but to a Lesser Extent in Noncancerous NCM460 Colon Cells.

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    Zeng, Huawei; Taussig, David P; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Johnson, LuAnn K; Hakkak, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, exhibits chemoprevention effects on colon cancer development. However, the mechanistic action of butyrate remains to be determined. We hypothesize that butyrate inhibits cancerous cell proliferation but to a lesser extent in noncancerous cells through regulating apoptosis and cellular-signaling pathways. We tested this hypothesis by exposing cancerous HCT116 or non-cancerous NCM460 colon cells to physiologically relevant doses of butyrate. Cellular responses to butyrate were characterized by Western analysis, fluorescent microscopy, acetylation, and DNA fragmentation analyses. Butyrate inhibited cell proliferation, and led to an induction of apoptosis, genomic DNA fragmentation in HCT116 cells, but to a lesser extent in NCM460 cells. Although butyrate increased H3 histone deacetylation and p21 tumor suppressor expression in both cell types, p21 protein level was greater with intense expression around the nuclei in HCT116 cells when compared with that in NCM460 cells. Furthermore, butyrate treatment increased the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2), a survival signal, in NCM460 cells while it decreased p-ERK1/2 in HCT116 cells. Taken together, the activation of survival signaling in NCM460 cells and apoptotic potential in HCT116 cells may confer the increased sensitivity of cancerous colon cells to butyrate in comparison with noncancerous colon cells.

  15. Apoptosis inducing activity of benzophenanthridine-type alkaloids and 2-arylbenzofuran neolignans in HCT116 colon carcinoma cells.

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    Mansoor, Tayyab A; Borralho, Pedro M; Luo, Xuan; Mulhovo, Silva; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Ferreira, Maria-José U

    2013-07-15

    Thirteen compounds belonging to different classes of alkaloids (1-9) and lignans (10-13), isolated from the methanol extract of roots of the African medicinal plant Zanthoxylum capense, were assayed for their ability as apoptosis inducers in HCT116 colon carcinoma cells. The cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated in HCT116 colon carcinoma cells by the MTS assay. Out of the tested compounds, three benzophenanthridine alkaloids (1, 4, and 7), a dibenzyl butyrolactone lignan (10), and two 2-arylbenzofuran neolignans (12 and 13) displayed significant cytotoxicity to HCT116 cells, confirmed by the Guava ViaCount viability assay. The selected compounds (1, 4, 7, 10, 12, and 13) were further tested for apoptosis induction activity in HCT116 cells, by evaluation of nuclear morphology following Hoechst staining, and by caspase-3 like activity assays. Morphologic evaluation of HCT116 nuclei following Hoechst staining and fluorescence microscopy revealed that compounds 1, 4, 7, 10, 12, and 13 induced apoptosis in HCT116 colon carcinoma cells, producing similar, or higher, apoptosis levels when compared with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), the cornerstone cytotoxic used in colon cancer treatment for several decades. In fact, HCT116 cells developed morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis, including chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation and formation of apoptotic bodies. Importantly, compounds 4 and 13 at 20 μM were the most promising in this study, inducing respectively ∼11- and 7-fold increases in apoptotic cells as compared to vehicle control, whereas 5-FU increased apoptosis by ∼2-fold. Apoptosis induction for compounds 4 and 13 was further confirmed by caspase-3-like activity assays, which showed respectively ∼2- and 1.5-fold increases in caspase-3-like activity compared to vehicle control. These results suggested that specific benzophenanthridine alkaloids and 2-arylbenzofuran neolignans isolated from Zanthoxylum capense show strong anticancer

  16. Aspirin acetylates multiple cellular proteins in HCT-116 colon cancer cells: Identification of novel targets.

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    Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Chivukula, Raghavender S V; Alfonso, Lloyd F; Moridani, Majid; Hagen, Fred K; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2011-11-01

    Epidemiological and clinical observations provide consistent evidence that regular intake of aspirin may effectively inhibit the occurrence of epithelial tumors; however, the molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. In the present study, we determined the ability of aspirin to acetylate and post-translationally modify cellular proteins in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells to understand the potential mechanisms by which it may exerts anti-cancer effects. Using anti-acetyl lysine antibodies, here we demonstrate that aspirin causes the acetylation of multiple proteins whose molecular weight ranged from 20 to 200 kDa. The identity of these proteins was determined, using immuno-affinity purification, mass spectrometry and immuno-blotting. A total of 33 cellular proteins were potential targets of aspirin-mediated acetylation, while 16 were identified as common to both the control and aspirin-treated samples. These include enzymes of glycolytic pathway, cytoskeleton proteins, histones, ribosomal and mitochondrial proteins. The glycolytic enzymes which were identified include aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, enolase, pyruvate kinase M2, and lactate dehydrogenase A and B chains. Immunoblotting experiment showed that aspirin also acetylated glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and transketolase, both enzymes of pentose phosphate pathway involved in ribonucleotide biosynthesis. In vitro assays of these enzymes revealed that aspirin did not affect pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity; however, it decreased glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase activity. Similar results were also observed in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Selective inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase may represent an important mechanism by which aspirin may exert its anti-cancer effects through inhibition of ribonucleotide synthesis.

  17. Deoxycholic acid and selenium metabolite methylselenol exert common and distinct effects on cell cycle, apoptosis, and MAP kinase pathway in HCT116 human colon cancer cells.

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    Zeng, Huawei; Botnen, James H; Briske-Anderson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The cell growth inhibition induced by bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) may cause compensatory hyperproliferation of colonic epithelial cells and consequently increase colon cancer risk. On the other hand, there is increasing evidence for the efficacy of certain forms of selenium (Se) as anticancer nutrients. Methylselenol has been hypothesized to be a critical Se metabolite for anticancer activity in vivo. In this study, we demonstrated that both DCA (75-300 micromol/l) and submicromolar methylselenol inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation by up to 64% and 63%, respectively. In addition, DCA and methylselenol each increased colon cancer cell apoptosis rate by up to twofold. Cell cycle analyses revealed that DCA induced an increase in only the G1 fraction with a concomitant drop in G2 and S-phase; in contrast, methylselenol led to an increase in the G1 and G2 fractions with a concomitant drop only in the S-phase. Although both DCA and methylselenol significantly promoted apoptosis and inhibited cell growth, examination of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation showed that DCA, but not methylselenol, induced SAPK/JNK1/2, p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 activation. Thus, our data provide, for the first time, the molecular basis for opposite effects of methylselenol and DCA on colon tumorigenesis.

  18. Chlorogenic acid complex (CGA7, standardized extract from green coffee beans exerts anticancer effects against cultured human colon cancer HCT-116 cells

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    K. Gouthamchandra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is commonly consumed beverage in the world and it has been suggested to have beneficial effect. Chlorogenic acids (CGAs are main ingredient of coffee beans which has been extensively used in nutraceuticals and medicine. Recently, various therapeutic effects of chlorogenic acids have been investigated. However, there are limited studies to investigate its anticancer properties. In the present study, we have used chlorogenic acid complex (CGA7 a decaffeinated water soluble green coffee bean extract to evaluate its cytotoxic effect on human and mouse cancer cell lines by using different approaches. From our results we found CGA7 treatment induces cell death in a dose and time dependent manner in different cancer cell lines. Further, CGA7 induced apoptosis was characterized by DNA fragmentation, PARP-1 cleavage, caspase-9 activation, and down regulation of Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein and up regulation of pro-apoptotic protein BAX. Overall findings indicated that CGA7 complex a potent anticancer molecule found in green coffee beans could be a safe bioactive ingredient for prevention of cancer.

  19. Evodiamine Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Migration of HCT-116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

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    Lv-Cui Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Evodiamine (EVO exhibits strong anti-cancer effects. However, the effect of EVO on the human colorectal cancer cell line HCT-116 has not been explored in detail, and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In the present study, cell viability was assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8. Cell cycle and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry, and morphological changes in the nucleus were examined by fluorescence microscopy and Hoechst staining. Cell motility was detected by Transwell assay. ELISA was used to assess the protein levels of autocrine motility factor (AMF in the cell supernatant, and protein expression was determined by Western blotting. Our results showed that EVO inhibited the proliferation of HCT-116 cells, caused accumulation of cells in S and G2/M phases, and reduced the levels of the secreted form of AMF. The protein levels of tumor suppressor protein (p53, Bcl-2 Associated X protein (Bax, B cell CLL/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2, phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI, phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (p-STAT3 and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3 were altered in cells treated with EVO. Taken together, our results suggest that EVO modulates the activity of the p53 signaling pathway to induce apoptosis and downregulate MMP3 expression by inactivating the JAK2/STAT3 pathway through the downregulation of PGI to inhibit migration of HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells.

  20. Isoreserpine promotes {beta}-catenin degradation via Siah-1 up-regulation in HCT116 colon cancer cells

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    Gwak, Jungsug; Song, Taeyun [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jie-Young; Yun, Yeon-Sook [Laboratory of Radiation Cancer Science, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Il-Whan [Department of Microbiology, Center for Viral Disease Research, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yongsu [Department of Genetic Engineering, and Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jae-Gook [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sangtaek, E-mail: ohsa@inje.ac.kr [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-25

    Aberrant accumulation of intracellular {beta}-catenin in intestinal epithelial cells is a frequent early event during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that decrease the level of intracellular {beta}-catenin, we performed cell-based chemical screening using genetically engineered HEK293 reporter cells to detect compounds that inhibit TOPFlash reporter activity, which was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium. We found that isoreserpine promoted the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin by up-regulation of Siah-1 in HEK293 and HCT116 colon cancer cells. Moreover, isoreserpine repressed the expression of {beta}-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes, such as cyclin D1 and c-myc, resulting in the suppression of HCT116 cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that isoreserpine can potentially be used as a chemotherapeutic agent against colon cancer.

  1. A new tellurium-containing amphiphilic molecule induces apoptosis in HCT116 colon cancer cells.

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    Du, Peng; Saidu, Nathaniel Edward Bennett; Intemann, Johanna; Jacob, Claus; Montenarh, Mathias

    2014-06-01

    Chalcogen-based redox modulators over the years have attracted considerable attention as anti-cancer agents. New selenium- and tellurium-containing compounds with a polar head group and aryl-groups of various lengths have recently been reported as biologically active in several organisms. In the present study, we used the most active of the tellurium compound DP41, and its selenium counterpart DP31 to investigate their effects on the human cancer cell line HCT116. Cells were treated with DP41 or DP31 and the formation of superoxide radicals was determined using dihydroethidium. Cell cycle analysis and apoptosis was determined by cytofluorimetry. Proteins involved in ER signaling and apoptosis were determined by Western blot analysis and fluorescence microscopy. With 50μM of DP41, we observed an increase in O2(-) formation. There was, however, no such increase in O2(-) after treatment with the corresponding selenium compound under the same conditions. In the case of DP41, the production of O2(-) radicals was followed by an up-regulation of Nrf2, HO-1, phospho-eIF2α and ATF4. CHOP was also induced and cells entered apoptosis. Unlike the cancer cells, normal retinal epithelial ARPE-19 cells did not produce elevated levels of O2(-) radicals nor did they induce the ER signaling pathway or apoptosis. The tellurium-containing compound DP41, in contrast to the corresponding selenium compound, induces O2(-) radical formation and oxidative and ER stress responses, including CHOP activation and finally apoptosis. These results indicate that DP41 is a redox modulating agent with promising anti-cancer potentials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prolonged sulforaphane treatment activates survival signaling in nontumorigenic NCM460 colon cells but apoptotic signaling in tumorigenic HCT116 colon cells.

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    Zeng, Huawei; Trujillo, Olivia N; Moyer, Mary P; Botnen, James H

    2011-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring chemopreventive agent; the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis is a key mechanism by which SFN exerts its colon cancer prevention. However, little is known about the differential effects of SFN on colon cancer and normal cells. In this study, we demonstrated that SFN (15 μmol/L) exposure (72 h) inhibited cell proliferation by up to 95% in colon cancer cells (HCT116) and by 52% in normal colon mucosa-derived (NCM460) cells. Our data also showed that SFN exposure (5 and 10 μmol/L) led to the reduction of G1 phase cell distribution and an induction of apoptosis in HCT116 cells, but to a much lesser extent in NCM460 cells. Furthermore, the examination of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling status revealed that SFN upregulated the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in NCM460 cells but not in HCT116 cells. In contrast, SFN enhanced the phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and decreased cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene (c-Myc) expression in HCT116 cells but not NCM460 cells. Taken together, the activation of survival signaling in NCM460 cells and apoptotic signaling in HCT116 cells may play a critical role in SFN's stronger potential of inhibiting cell proliferation in colon cancer cells than in normal colon cells. Copyright © 2011, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  3. Methylselenol, a selenium metabolite, plays common and different roles in cancerous colon HCT116 cell and noncancerous NCM460 colon cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Briske-Anderson, Mary; Wu, Min; Moyer, Mary P

    2012-01-01

    Methylselenol is hypothesized to be a critical selenium metabolite for anticancer action, and differential chemopreventive effects of methylselenol on cancerous and noncancerous cells may play an important role. In this study, the submicromolar concentrations of methylselenol were generated by incubating methionase with seleno-L methionine, and colon-cancer-derived HCT-116 cells and noncancerous colon NCM460 cells were exposed to methylselenol. Methylselenol exposure inhibited cell growth and led to an increase in G1 and G2 fractions with a concomitant drop in S-phase and an induction of apoptosis in HCT116, but to a much lesser extent in NCM460 colon cells. Similarly, the examination of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene (c-Myc) signaling status revealed that methylselenol inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and the expression of c-Myc in HCT116 cells, but also to a lesser extent in NCM460 cells. The other finding is that methylselenol inhibits sarcoma kinase phosphorylation in HCT116 cells. In contrast, methylselenol upregulated the phosphorylation of sarcoma and focal adhesion kinase survival signals in the noncancerous NCM460 cells. Collectively, methylselenol's stronger potential of inhibiting cell proliferation/survival signals in the cancerous HCT116 cells when compared with that in noncancerous NCM460 cells may partly explain the potential of methylselenol's anticancer action.

  4. Suppression of microRNA-31 increases sensitivity to 5-FU at an early stage, and affects cell migration and invasion in HCT-116 colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiao-Feng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenously expressed noncoding RNAs with important biological and pathological functions. Although several studies have shown that microRNA-31 (miR-31 is obviously up-regulated in colorectal cancer (CRC, there is no study on the functional roles of miR-31 in CRC. Methods Anti-miR™ miRNA 31 inhibitor (anti-miR-31 is a sequence-specific and chemically modified oligonucleotide to specifically target and knockdown miR-31 molecule. The effect of anti-miR-31 transfection was investigated by real-time PCR. HCT-116p53+/+ and HCT-116p53-/-colon cancer cells were treated by anti-miR-31 with or without 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay; apoptosis was detected by DAPI staining; cell cycle was evaluated by flow cytometry; colony formation, migration and invasion assays were performed to investigate the effect of suppression of miR-31 on the cell lines. Results Real-time PCR results showed that anti-miR-31 was efficiently introduced into the cells and reduced miR-31 levels to 44.1% in HCT-116p53+/+ and 67.8% in HCT-116p53-/-cell line (p = 0.042 and 0.046. MTT results showed that anti-miR-31 alone had no effect on the proliferation of HCT-116p53+/+ or HCT-116p53-/-. However, when combined with 5-FU, anti-miR-31 inhibited the proliferation of the two cell lines as early as 24 h after exposure to 5-FU (p = 0.038 and 0.044. Suppression of miR-31 caused a reduction of the migratory cells by nearly 50% compared with the negative control in both HCT-116p53+/+ and HCT-116p53-/-(p = 0.040 and 0.001. The invasive ability of the cells were increased by 8-fold in HCT-116p53+/+ and 2-fold in HCT-116p53-/- (p = 0.045 and 0.009. Suppression of miR-31 had no effect on cell cycle and colony formation (p > 0.05. Conclusions Suppression of miR-31 increases sensitivity to 5-FU at an early stage, and affects cell migration and invasion in HCT-116 colon cancer cells.

  5. H2S-induced S-sulfhydration of lactate dehydrogenase a (LDHA) stimulates cellular bioenergetics in HCT116 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untereiner, Ashley A; Oláh, Gabor; Módis, Katalin; Hellmich, Mark R; Szabo, Csaba

    2017-07-15

    Cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) is upregulated and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) production is increased in colon cancer cells. The functional consequence of this response is stimulation of cellular bioenergetics and tumor growth and proliferation. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) is also upregulated in various colon cancer cells and has been previously implicated in tumor cell bioenergetics and proliferation. In the present study, we sought to determine the potential interaction between the H 2 S pathway and LDH activity in the control of bioenergetics and proliferation of colon cancer, using the colon cancer line HCT116. Low concentrations of GYY4137 (a slow-releasing H 2 S donor) enhanced mitochondrial function (oxygen consumption, ATP production, and spare respiratory capacity) and glycolysis in HCT116 cells. SiRNA-mediated transient silencing of LDHA attenuated the GYY4137-induced stimulation of mitochondrial respiration, but not of glycolysis. H 2 S induced the S-sulfhydration of Cys163 in recombinant LDHA, and stimulated LDHA activity. The H 2 S-induced stimulation of LDHA activity was absent in C163A LDHA. As shown in HCT116 cell whole extracts, in addition to LDHA activation, GYY4137 also stimulated LDHB activity, although to a smaller extent. Total cellular lactate and pyruvate measurements showed that in HCT116 cells LDHA catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. Total cellular lactate levels were increased by GYY4137 in wild-type cells (but not in cells with LDHA silencing). LDHA silencing sensitized HCT116 cells to glucose oxidase (GOx)-induced oxidative stress; this was further exacerbated with GYY4137 treatment. Treatment with low concentrations of GYY4137 (0.3mM) or GOx (0.01U/ml) significantly increased the proliferation rate of HCT116 cells; the effect of GOx, but not the effect of GYY4137 was attenuated by LDHA silencing. The current report points to the involvement of LDHA in the stimulatory effect of H 2 S on mitochondrial respiration in colon

  6. Gamma-tubulin-containing abnormal centrioles are induced by insufficient Plk4 in human HCT116 colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Ryoko; Bettencourt-Dias, Monica; Hoffmann, Ingrid; Arnold, Marc; Sandvig, Lisa

    2009-06-15

    Cancer cells frequently induce aberrant centrosomes, which have been implicated in cancer initiation and progression. Human colorectal cancer cells, HCT116, contain aberrant centrioles composed of disorganized cylindrical microtubules and displaced appendages. These cells also express unique centrosome-related structures associated with a subset of centrosomal components, including gamma-tubulin, centrin and PCM1. During hydroxyurea treatment, these abnormal structures become more abundant and undergo a change in shape from small dots to elongated fibers. Although gamma-tubulin seems to exist as a ring complex, the abnormal structures do not support microtubule nucleation. Several lines of evidence suggest that the fibers correspond to a disorganized form of centriolar microtubules. Plk4, a mammalian homolog of ZYG-1 essential for initiation of centriole biogenesis, is not associated with the gamma-tubulin-specific abnormal centrosomes. The amount of Plk4 at each centrosome was less in cells with abnormal centrosomes than cells without gamma-tubulin-specific abnormal centrosomes. In addition, the formation of abnormal structures was abolished by expression of exogenous Plk4, but not SAS6 and Cep135/Bld10p, which are downstream regulators required for the organization of nine-triplet microtubules. These results suggest that HCT116 cells fail to organize the ninefold symmetry of centrioles due to insufficient Plk4.

  7. Quercetin enhances hypoxia-mediated apoptosis via direct inhibition of AMPK activity in HCT116 colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Su; Wannatung, Tirawat; Lee, Sooho; Yang, Woo Kyeom; Chung, Sung Hyun; Lim, Jong-Seok; Choe, Wonchae; Kang, Insug; Kim, Sung-Soo; Ha, Joohun

    2012-09-01

    Tumor hypoxia is considered the best validated target in clinical oncology because of its significant contribution to chemotherapy failure and drug resistance. As an approach to target hypoxia, we assessed the potential of quercetin, a flavonoid widely distributed in plants, as a anticancer agent under hypoxic conditions and examined its pharmacological mechanisms by primarily focusing on the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Quercetin significantly attenuated tumor growth in an HCT116 cancer xenograft in vivo model with a substantial reduction of AMPK activity. In a cell culture system, quercetin more dramatically induced apoptosis of HCT116 cancer cells under hypoxic conditions than normoxic conditions, and this was tightly associated with inhibition of hypoxia-induced AMPK activity. An in vitro kinase assay demonstrated that quercetin directly inhibits AMPK activity. Inhibition of AMPK by expressing a dominant-negative form resulted in an increase of apoptosis under hypoxia, and a constitutively active form of AMPK effectively blocked quercetin-induced apoptosis under hypoxia. Collectively, our data suggest that quercetin directly inhibits hypoxia-induced AMPK, which plays a protective role against hypoxia. Quercetin also reduced the activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a major transcription factor for adaptive cellular response to hypoxia. Moreover, quercetin sensitized HCT116 cancer cells to the anticancer drugs cisplatin and etoposide under hypoxic conditions. Our findings suggest that AMPK may serve as a novel target for overcoming tumor hypoxia-associated negative aspects.

  8. (3'R)-hydroxytabernaelegantine C: A bisindole alkaloid with potent apoptosis inducing activity in colon (HCT116, SW620) and liver (HepG2) cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, Angela; Gomes, Sofia E; Borralho, Pedro M; Mulhovo, Silva; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Ferreira, Maria-José U

    2016-12-24

    Tabernaemontana elegans Stapf. (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used in African countries to treat cancer. To discover new apoptosis inducing lead compounds from T. elegans and provide scientific validation of the ethnopharmacological use of this plant. Through fractionation, (3'R)-hydroxytaberanelegantine C (1), a vobasinyl-iboga bisindole alkaloid, was isolated from a cytotoxic alkaloid fraction of the methanol extract of T. elegans roots. Its structure was identified by spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR experiments. Compound 1 was evaluated for its ability to induce apoptosis in HCT116 and SW620 colon and HepG2 liver carcinoma cells. The cell viability of compound 1 was evaluated by the MTS and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Induction of apoptosis was analyzed through Guava ViaCount assay, by flow cytometry, caspase-3/7 activity assays and evaluation of nuclear morphology by Hoechst staining. To determine the molecular pathways elicited by 1 exposure, immunoblot analysis was also performed. (3'R)-hydroxytaberanelegantine C (1) displayed strong apoptosis induction activity as compared to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), the most used anticancer agent in colorectal cancer treatment. In the MTS assay, compound 1 exhibited IC 50 values similar or lower than 5-FU in the three cell lines tested. The IC 50 value of 1 was also calculated in CCD18co normal human colon fibroblasts. The lactate dehydrogenase assay showed increased LDH release by compound 1, and the Guava ViaCount assay revealed that 1 significantly increased the incidence of apoptosis to a further extent than 5-FU. Moreover, the induction of apoptosis was corroborated by evaluation of nuclear morphology by Hoechst staining and caspase-3/7 activity assays of 1 treated cells. As expected, in immunoblot analysis, compound 1 treatment led to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. This was accompanied by decreased anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and XIAP steady state levels in all three cancer

  9. Piper betle leaf extract enhances the cytotoxicity effect of 5-fluorouracil in inhibiting the growth of HT29 and HCT116 colon cancer cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Pek Leng; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Then, Sue Mian; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Pin, Kar Yong; Looi, Mee Lee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The combination effect of Piper betle (PB) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in enhancing the cytotoxic potential of 5-FU in inhibiting the growth of colon cancer cells was investigated. Methods: HT29 and HCT116 cells were subjected to 5-FU or PB treatment. 5-FU and PB were then combined and their effects on both cell lines were observed after 24 h of treatment. PB-5-FU interaction was elucidated by isobologram analysis. Apoptosis features of the treated cells were revealed by annexin V/PI stain. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to exclude any possible chemical interaction between the compounds. Results: In the presence of PB extract, the cytotoxicity of 5-FU was observed at a lower dose (IC50 12.5 μmol/L) and a shorter time (24 h) in both cell lines. Both cell lines treated with 5-FU or PB alone induced a greater apoptosis effect compared with the combination treatment. Isobologram analysis indicated that PB and 5-FU interacted synergistically and antagonistically in inhibiting the growth of HT29 and HCT116 cells, respectively. Conclusions: In the presence of PB, a lower dosage of 5-FU is required to achieve the maximum drug effect in inhibiting the growth of HT29 cells. However, PB did not significantly reduce 5-FU dosage in HCT116 cells. Our result showed that this interaction may not solely contribute to the apoptosis pathway. PMID:25091987

  10. Piper betle leaf extract enhances the cytotoxicity effect of 5-fluorouracil in inhibiting the growth of HT29 and HCT116 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Pek Leng; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Then, Sue Mian; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Pin, Kar Yong; Looi, Mee Lee

    2014-08-01

    The combination effect of Piper betle (PB) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in enhancing the cytotoxic potential of 5-FU in inhibiting the growth of colon cancer cells was investigated. HT29 and HCT116 cells were subjected to 5-FU or PB treatment. 5-FU and PB were then combined and their effects on both cell lines were observed after 24 h of treatment. PB-5-FU interaction was elucidated by isobologram analysis. Apoptosis features of the treated cells were revealed by annexin V/PI stain. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to exclude any possible chemical interaction between the compounds. In the presence of PB extract, the cytotoxicity of 5-FU was observed at a lower dose (IC50 12.5 µmol/L) and a shorter time (24 h) in both cell lines. Both cell lines treated with 5-FU or PB alone induced a greater apoptosis effect compared with the combination treatment. Isobologram analysis indicated that PB and 5-FU interacted synergistically and antagonistically in inhibiting the growth of HT29 and HCT116 cells, respectively. In the presence of PB, a lower dosage of 5-FU is required to achieve the maximum drug effect in inhibiting the growth of HT29 cells. However, PB did not significantly reduce 5-FU dosage in HCT116 cells. Our result showed that this interaction may not solely contribute to the apoptosis pathway.

  11. Crataegus azarolus Leaves Induce Antiproliferative Activity, Cell Cycle Arrest, and Apoptosis in Human HT-29 and HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Nadia; Pinon, Aline; Limami, Youness; Simon, Alain; Ghedira, Kamel; Hennebelle, Thierry; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2016-05-01

    Limited success has been achieved in extending the survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). There is a strong need for novel agents in the treatment and prevention of CRC. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic potential of Crataegus azarolus ethyl acetate extract in HCT-116 and HT-29 human colorectal cancer cell lines. Moreover, we attempted to investigate the signaling pathways that should be involved in its cytotoxic effect. The Crataegus azarolus ethyl acetate extract-induced growth inhibitory effect was associated with DNA fragmentation, sub-G1 peak, loss of mitochondrial potential, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. In addition, ethyl acetate extract of Crataegus azarolus induced the cleavage of caspase-8. It has no effect on steady-state levels of total Bcl-2 protein. Whereas Bax levels decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner in both tested cell lines. Taken together, these findings confirm the involvement of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. The apoptotic cell death induced by ethyl acetate extract of Crataegus azarolus was accompanied by an enhancement of the p21 expression but not through p53 activation in human colorectal cancer cells. The above-mentioned data provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of Crataegus azarolus ethyl acetate extract-induced apoptosis in CRC. Therefore, this compound should be a potential anticancer agent for the treatment of CRC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. In-vitro assessment of cytotoxicity of halloysite nanotubes against HepG2, HCT116 and human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Farrukh Rafiq; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris; Azhar, Mudassar; Um, Soong Ho; Yousuf, Rabia Ismail; Hashmi, Shahkamal; Dar, Ahsana

    2015-11-01

    Halloysite is a clay mineral with chemical similarity to kaolin, a pharmaceutical ingredient. It consists of mainly aluminosilicate nanotubular particles in the size range of ∼ 200-1000 nm. Many studies have tried to empirically explore this novel clay for its potential in drug delivery systems but no work has yet studied its cytotoxicity from the perspective of oral drug delivery system. In this study, the halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were subjected to size distribution analyses, which reveal more than 50% of nanotubes in the size range of 500 nm and rest mainly in the sub micrometer range. HNTs were then evaluated for in-vitro cytotoxicity against HCT116 (colorectal carcinoma) and HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) cells which represent the earliest entry point and the first accumulating organ, respectively, for nanoparticles en-route to systemic circulation after oral delivery. Moreover, HNTs were tested for their cytogenetic toxicity against human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Both these results collectively indicated that HNTs are generally safe at practical concentrations of excipients for oral dosage forms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Thymol Elicits HCT-116 Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Death Through Induction of Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Anil Kumar; Bahuguna, Ashutosh; Paul, Souren; Kang, Sun Chul

    2018-02-07

    Colon cancer is one of the most deadly and common carcinomas occurring worldwide and there have been many attempts to treat this cancer. The present work was designed in order to evaluate thymol as a potent drug against colon cancer. Cytotoxicity of thymol at different concentrations was evaluated against a human colon carcinoma cell line (HCT-116 cells). Fluorescent staining was carried out to evaluate the level of ROS as well as mitochondrial and DNA fragmentation and immunoblot analysis were performed to confirm apoptosis and mitoptosis. Results of the study demonstrated that thymol efficiently created an oxidative stress environment inside HCT-116 cells, a colorectal carcinoma cell line, through induction of ROS production along with intense damage to DNA and mitochondria, as observed through Hoechst and rhodamine 123 staining, respectively. Moreover, expression of PARP-1, p-JNK, cytochrome-C and caspase-3 proteins was up-regulated, suggesting HCT-116 cells underwent mitoptotic cell death. Therefore, thymol could be used as a potent drug against colon cancer due to its lower toxicity and prevalence in natural medicinal plants. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Activations of Both Extrinsic and Intrinsic Pathways in HCT 116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Contribute to Apoptosis through p53-Mediated ATM/Fas Signaling by Emilia sonchifolia Extract, a Folklore Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Lan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emilia sonchifolia (L. DC (Compositae, an herbaceous plant found in Taiwan and India, is used as folk medicine. The clinical applications include inflammation, rheumatism, cough, cuts fever, dysentery, analgesic, and antibacteria. The activities of Emilia sonchifolia extract (ESE on colorectal cancer cell death have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study explored the induction of apoptosis and its molecular mechanisms in ESE-treated HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cells in vitro. The methanolic ESE was characterized, and γ-humulene was formed as the major constituent (63.86%. ESE induced cell growth inhibition in a concentration- and time-dependent response by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells (DNA fragmentation, an apoptotic catachrestic were found after ESE treatment by TUNEL assay and DNA gel electrophoresis. Alternatively, ESE stimulated the activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and their specific caspase inhibitors protected against ESE-induced cytotoxicity. ESE promoted the mitochondria-dependent and death-receptor-associated protein levels. Also, ESE increased ROS production and upregulated the levels of ATM, p53, and Fas in HCT 116 cells. Strikingly, p53 siRNA reversed ESE-reduced viability involved in p53-mediated ATM/Fas signaling in HCT 116 cells. In summary, our result is the first report suggesting that ESE may be potentially efficacious in the treatment of colorectal cancer.

  15. Rhein induces apoptosis of HCT-116 human colon cancer cells via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-10

    3) Inhibiting migration and invasion. It was found that rhein inhibited the protein expression of activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and the gene expression of. MMP-9 by modulation of NF-κB activation pathway, and.

  16. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans, gomisins J and N inhibit the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway in HCT116 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyungsu; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Yoo, Ji-Hye; Lee, Hee Ju [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chul Young [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); College of Pharmacy, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Nho, Chu Won, E-mail: cwnho@kist.re.kr [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-16

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the possible molecular mechanism underlying the inhibition of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway and the induction of G0/G1-phase arrest by gomisins J and N, derived from the fruits of S. chinensis, in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gomisins J and N inhibited Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway in HCT116 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gomisins J and N disrupted the binding of {beta}-catenin to specific DNA sequences, TBE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gomisins J and N inhibited the HCT116 cell proliferation through G0/G1 phase arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gomisins J and N inhibited the expression of Cyc D1, a Wnt/{beta}-catenin target gene. -- Abstract: Here, we report that gomisin J and gomisin N, dibenzocyclooctadiene type lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis, inhibit Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in HCT116 cells. Gomisins J and N appear to inhibit Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling by disrupting the interaction between {beta}-catenin and its specific target DNA sequences (TCF binding elements, TBE) rather than by altering the expression of the {beta}-catenin protein. Gomisins J and N inhibit HCT116 cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. The G0/G1 phase arrest induced by gomisins J and N appears to be caused by a decrease in the expression of Cyclin D1, a representative target gene of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway, as well as Cdk2, Cdk4, and E2F-1. Therefore, gomisins J and N, the novel Wnt/{beta}-catenin inhibitors discovered in this study, may serve as potential agents for the prevention and treatment of human colorectal cancers.

  17. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans, gomisins J and N inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HCT116 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyungsu; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Yoo, Ji-Hye; Lee, Hee Ju; Kim, Chul Young; Nho, Chu Won

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the possible molecular mechanism underlying the inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and the induction of G0/G1-phase arrest by gomisins J and N, derived from the fruits of S. chinensis, in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Highlights: ► Gomisins J and N inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HCT116 cells. ► Gomisins J and N disrupted the binding of β-catenin to specific DNA sequences, TBE. ► Gomisins J and N inhibited the HCT116 cell proliferation through G0/G1 phase arrest. ► Gomisins J and N inhibited the expression of Cyc D1, a Wnt/β-catenin target gene. -- Abstract: Here, we report that gomisin J and gomisin N, dibenzocyclooctadiene type lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis, inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signaling in HCT116 cells. Gomisins J and N appear to inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signaling by disrupting the interaction between β-catenin and its specific target DNA sequences (TCF binding elements, TBE) rather than by altering the expression of the β-catenin protein. Gomisins J and N inhibit HCT116 cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. The G0/G1 phase arrest induced by gomisins J and N appears to be caused by a decrease in the expression of Cyclin D1, a representative target gene of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, as well as Cdk2, Cdk4, and E2F-1. Therefore, gomisins J and N, the novel Wnt/β-catenin inhibitors discovered in this study, may serve as potential agents for the prevention and treatment of human colorectal cancers.

  18. Xylopine Induces Oxidative Stress and Causes G2/M Phase Arrest, Triggering Caspase-Mediated Apoptosis by p53-Independent Pathway in HCT116 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de Souza Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xylopine is an aporphine alkaloid that has cytotoxic activity to cancer cells. In this study, the underlying mechanism of xylopine cytotoxicity was assessed in human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. Xylopine displayed potent cytotoxicity in different cancer cell lines in monolayer cultures and in a 3D model of cancer multicellular spheroids formed from HCT116 cells. Typical morphology of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, increased internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and increased phosphatidylserine externalization and caspase-3 activation were observed in xylopine-treated HCT116 cells. Moreover, pretreatment with a caspase-3 inhibitor (Z-DEVD-FMK, but not with a p53 inhibitor (cyclic pifithrin-α, reduced xylopine-induced apoptosis, indicating induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis by the p53-independent pathway. Treatment with xylopine also caused an increase in the production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS, including hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, but not superoxide anion, and reduced glutathione levels were decreased in xylopine-treated HCT116 cells. Application of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine reduced the ROS levels and xylopine-induced apoptosis, indicating activation of ROS-mediated apoptosis pathway. In conclusion, xylopine has potent cytotoxicity to different cancer cell lines and is able to induce oxidative stress and G2/M phase arrest, triggering caspase-mediated apoptosis by the p53-independent pathway in HCT116 cells.

  19. Proteomic profiling of human colon cancer cells treated with the histone deacetylase inhibitor belinostat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian; Petersen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Søren Jensby

    2010-01-01

    in the human colon cancer cell line HCT116. Protein extracts from untreated HCT116 cells, and cells grown for 24 h in the presence of 1 and 10 muM belinostat were analysed by 2-D gel electrophoresis. Proteins were visualized by colloidal Coomassie blue staining and quantitative analysis of gel images revealed...

  20. Novel piplartine-containing ruthenium complexes: synthesis, cell growth inhibition, apoptosis induction and ROS production on HCT116 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Sousa Costa, Cinara O; Araujo Neto, João H; Baliza, Ingrid R S; Dias, Rosane B; Valverde, Ludmila de F; Vidal, Manuela T A; Sales, Caroline B S; Rocha, Clarissa A G; Moreira, Diogo R M; Soares, Milena B P; Batista, Alzir A; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2017-11-28

    Piplartine (piperlongumine) is a plant-derived molecule that has been receiving intense interest due to its anticancer characteristics that target the oxidative stress. In the present paper, two novel piplartine-containing ruthenium complexes [Ru(piplartine)(dppf)(bipy)](PF 6 ) 2 (1) and [Ru(piplartine)(dppb)(bipy)](PF 6 ) 2 (2) were synthesized and investigated for their cellular and molecular responses on cancer cell lines. We found that both complexes are more potent than metal-free piplartine in a panel of cancer cell lines on monolayer cultures, as well in 3D model of cancer multicellular spheroids formed from human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. Mechanistic studies uncovered that the complexes reduced the cell growth and caused phosphatidylserine externalization, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation and loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential on HCT116 cells. Moreover, the pre-treatment with Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor, reduced the complexes-induced apoptosis, indicating cell death by apoptosis through caspase-dependent and mitochondrial intrinsic pathways. Treatment with the complexes also caused a marked increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and nitric oxide, and decreased reduced glutathione levels. Application of N-acetyl-cysteine, an antioxidant, reduced the ROS levels and apoptosis induced by the complexes, indicating activation of ROS-mediated apoptosis pathway. RNA transcripts of several genes, including gene related to the cell cycle, apoptosis and oxidative stress, were regulated under treatment. However, the complexes failed to induce DNA intercalation. In conclusion, the complexes are more potent than piplartine against different cancer cell lines and are able to induce caspase-dependent and mitochondrial intrinsic apoptosis on HCT116 cells by ROS-mediated pathway.

  1. In vitro activities of inulin fermentation products to HCT-116 cells enhanced by the cooperation between exogenous strains and adult faecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dan-Ting; Fu, Yu; Zhao, Xin-Huai

    2018-01-10

    Inulin was fermented by adult faecal microbiota and 10 exogenous strains for 24 or 48 h. The contents of acetate, propionate, butyrate and lactate were quantified in the fermented products, and the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects on a human colon cell line (HCT-116 cells) were assessed. Most of these strains increased contents of acetate, propionate and butyrate, and promoted lactate conversion. Correlation analysis suggested that butyrate and lactate in the fermentation products were positively and negatively correlated with the measured inhibition ratios (p inulin fermentation products with higher anti-colon cancer activity.

  2. Evaluation of 6-chloro-N-[3,4-disubstituted-1,3-thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene]-1,3-benzothiazol-2-amine Using Drug Design Concept for Their Targeted Activity Against Colon Cancer Cell Lines HCT-116, HCT15, and HT29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming-Li; Wang, Cui-Yue; Xu, Cheng-Mian; Bi, Wei-Ping; ZHou, Xiu-Ying

    2017-03-05

    BACKGROUND Colorectal adenocarcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. The stage of the disease is related to the survival of the patient, and in early phases surgery is the main modality of treatment. The main aim of modern medicinal chemistry is to synthesize small molecules via drug designing, especially by targeting tumor cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS A new series of 19 compounds containing benzothiazole and thiazole were designed. Molecular docking studies were performed on the designed series of molecules. Compounds showing good binding affinity towards the EGFR receptor were selected for synthetic studies. Characterization of the synthesized compounds was done by FTIR, 1HNMR, Mass and C, H, N, analysis. RESULTS The anticancer evaluation of the synthesized compounds was done at NIC, USA at a single dose against colon cancer cell lines HCT 116, HCT15, and HC 29. The active compounds were further evaluated for the 5-dose testing. Compounds were designed by using docking analysis. To ascertain the interaction of EGFR tyrosine kinase binding, energy calculation was used. CONCLUSIONS The results of the present study indicate that the designed compounds show good activity against colon cancer cell lines, which may be further studied to design new potential molecules.

  3. Tirapazamine causes vascular dysfunction in HCT-116 tumour xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huxham, Lynsey A.; Kyle, Alastair H.; Baker, Jennifer H.E.; McNicol, Krista L.; Minchinton, Andrew I.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tirapazamine is a hypoxic cytotoxin currently undergoing Phase II/III clinical evaluation in combination with radiation and chemotherapeutics for the treatment of non-hematological cancers. Tissue penetration studies using multicellular models have suggested that tirapazamine exposure may be limited to cells close to blood vessels. However, animal studies show tirapazamine enhances the anti-tumour activity of radiation and chemotherapy and clinical studies with tirapazamine, so far, are promising. To investigate this apparent paradox we examined the microregional effects of tirapazamine in vivo by mapping drug effects with respect to the position of blood vessels in tumour cryosections. Patients and methods: Tirapazamine was administered i.p. to mice bearing HCT-116 tumours, which were excised at various times after treatment. Images of multiple-stained cryosections were overlaid to provide microregional information on the relative position of proliferating cells, hypoxia, perfusion and vasculature. Results: We observed extensive and permanent vascular dysfunction in a large proportion of tumours from mice treated with tirapazamine. In the affected tumours, blood flow ceased in the centrally located tumour vessels, leaving a rim of functional vessels around the periphery of the tumour. This vascular dysfunction commenced within 24 h after tirapazamine administration and the areas affected appeared to be replaced by necrosis over the following 24-48 h. Conclusions: Because the majority of hypoxic cells are located in the center of tumours we propose that the activity of tirapazamine in vivo may be related to its effects on tumour vasculature and that its activity against hypoxic cells located distal to functional blood vessels may not be as important as previously believed

  4. Naphthalimides Induce G2 Arrest Through the ATM-Activated Chk2-Executed Pathway in HCT116 Cells

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    Hong Zhu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalimides, particularly amonafide and 2-(2-dimethylamino-6-thia-2-aza-benzo[def]chrysene-1,3-diones (R16, have been identified to possess anticancer activities and to induce G2-M arrest through inhibiting topoisomerase II accompanied by Chk1 degradation. The current study was designed to precisely dissect the signaling pathway(s responsible for the naphthalimide-induced cell cycle arrest in human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. Using phosphorylated histone H3 and mitotic protein monoclonal 2 as mitosis markers, we first specified the G2 arrest elicited by the R16 and amonafide. Then, R16 and amonafide were revealed to induce phosphorylation of the DNA damage sensor ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM responding to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. Inhibition of ATM by both the pharmacological inhibitor caffeine and the specific small interference RNA (siRNA rescued the G2 arrest elicited by R16, indicating its ATM-dependent characteristic. Furthermore, depletion of Chk2, but not Chk1 with their corresponding siRNA, statistically significantly reversed the R16- and amonafide-triggered G2 arrest. Moreover, the naphthalimides phosphorylated Chk2 in an ATM-dependent manner but induced Chk1 degradation. These data indicate that R16 and amonafide preferentially used Chk2 as evidenced by the differential ATM-executed phosphorylation of Chk1 and Chk2. Thus, a clear signaling pathway can be established, in which ATM relays the DNA DSBs signaling triggered by the naphthalimides to the checkpoint kinases, predominantly to Chk2,which finally elicits G2 arrest. The mechanistic elucidation not only favors the development of the naphthalimides as anticancer agents but also provides an alternative strategy of Chk2 inhibition to potentiate the anticancer activities of these agents.

  5. Combination of Albendazole and 2-Methoxyestradiol significantly improves the survival of HCT-116 tumor-bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehteda, Anahid; Galettis, Peter; Pillai, Krishna; Morris, David L

    2013-01-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a microtubule-targeting anthelmintic with a remarkable activity against a variety of human cancer cells. In this study, we examined if the antitumor activity of ABZ could be enhanced by its combination with other microtubule-binding agents. The interactions between ABZ and microtubule-binding agents, paclitaxel, vinblastine, colchicine, and 2-methoxyestradiol were characterized using median effect analysis method in HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells and DU145 prostate cancer cell line. The mechanism underlying the synergistic interaction related to tubulin polymerization and apoptosis was then investigated. Finally, the effect of the combination therapy on the survival of HCT-116 tumor-bearing nude mice was evaluated. Among the tested drugs, a synergistic anti-proliferative effect was observed with the combination of low concentrations of ABZ plus colchicine and ABZ plus 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME). Exploring the mechanism of the interaction between ABZ and 2ME revealed that the combination therapy synergistically activated the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Consistent with in vitro results, the combination of low concentration of ABZ with 2ME prolonged the survival of mice-bearing HCT-116 tumors. High concentration of ABZ in combination with 2ME, however, proved to be less effective than ABZ alone. The combination of low doses of ABZ and 2ME has shown promising results in our pre-clinical model. Additionally, the finding that the combination of two microtubule-binding agents that share the same binding site can act synergistically may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies in cancer treatment

  6. Food Additive Sodium Benzoate (NaB Activates NFκB and Induces Apoptosis in HCT116 Cells

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    Betul Yilmaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available NaB, the metabolite of cinnamon and sodium salt of benzoic acid is a commonly used food and beverage preservative. Various studies have investigated NaB for its effects on different cellular models. However, the effects of NaB on cancer cell viability signaling is substantially unknown. In this study, the effects of NaB on viability parameters and NFκB, one of the most important regulators in apoptosis, were examined in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Cell culture, light microscopy, spectrophotometry, flow cytometry, and western blot were used as methods to determine cell viability, caspase-3 activity, NFκB, Bcl-xl, Bim, and PARP proteins, respectively. NaB (6.25 mM–50 mM treatment inhibited cell viability by inducing apoptosis, which was evident with increased Annexin V-PE staining and caspase-3 activity. NFκB activation accompanied the induction of apoptosis in NaB treated cells. Inhibition of NFκB with BAY 11-7082 did not show a pronounced effect on cell viability but induced a more apoptotic profile, which was confirmed by increased PARP fragmentation and caspase-3 activity. This effect was mostly evident at 50 mM concentration of NaB. Bcl-xl levels were not affected by NaB or BAY 11-7082/NaB treatment; whereas, total Bim increased with NaB treatment. Inhibition of NFκB activity further increased Bim levels. Overall, these results suggest that NaB induces apoptosis and activates NFκB in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Activation of NFκB emerges as target in an attempt to protect cells against apoptosis.

  7. Specific Reagent for Cr(III): Imaging Cellular Uptake of Cr(III) in Hct116 Cells and Theoretical Rationalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Firoj; Saha, Sukdeb; Maity, Arunava; Taye, Nandaraj; Si, Mrinal Kanti; Suresh, E; Ganguly, Bishwajit; Chattopadhyay, Samit; Das, Amitava

    2015-10-15

    A new rhodamine-based reagent (L1), trapped inside the micellar structure of biologically benign Triton-X 100, could be used for specific recognition of Cr(III) in aqueous buffer medium having physiological pH. This visible light excitable reagent on selective binding to Cr(III) resulted in a strong fluorescence turn-on response with a maximum at ∼583 nm and tail of that luminescence band extended until 650 nm, an optical response that is desired for avoiding the cellular autofluorescence. Interference studies confirm that other metal ions do not interfere with the detection process of Cr(III) in aqueous buffer medium having pH 7.2. To examine the nature of binding of Cr(III) to L1, various spectroscopic studies are performed with the model reagent L2, which tend to support Cr(III)-η(2)-olefin π-interactions involving two olefin bonds in molecular probe L1. Computational studies are also performed with another model reagent LM to examine the possibility of such Cr(III)-η(2)-olefin π-interactions. Presumably, polar functional groups of the model reagent LM upon coordination to the Cr(III) center effectively reduce the formal charge on the metal ion and this is further substantiated by results of the theoretical studies. This assembly is found to be cell membrane permeable and shows insignificant toxicity toward live colon cancer cells (Hct116). Confocal laser scanning microscopic studies further revealed that the reagent L1 could be used as an imaging reagent for detection of cellular uptake of Cr(III) in pure aqueous buffer medium by Hct116 cells. Examples of a specific reagent for paramagnetic Cr(III) with luminescence ON response are scanty in the contemporary literature. This ligand design helped us in achieving the turn on response by utilizing the conversion from spirolactam to an acyclic xanthene form on coordination to Cr(III).

  8. p53 is important for the anti-proliferative effect of ibuprofen in colon carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Astrid; Schiffmann, Susanne; Birod, Kerstin; Maier, Thorsten J.; Wobst, Ivonne; Geisslinger, Gerd; Groesch, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    S-ibuprofen which inhibits the cyclooxygenase-1/-2 and R-ibuprofen which shows no COX-inhibition at therapeutic concentrations have anti-carcinogenic effects in human colon cancer cells; however, the molecular mechanisms for these effects are still unknown. Using HCT-116 colon carcinoma cell lines, expressing either the wild-type form of p53 (HCT-116 p53 wt ) or being p(HCT-116 p53 -/- ), we demonstrated that both induction of a cell cycle block and apoptosis after S- and R-ibuprofen treatment is in part dependent on p53. Also in the in vivo nude mice model HCT-116 p53 -/- xenografts were less sensitive for S- and R-ibuprofen treatment than HCT-116 p53 wt cells. Furthermore, results indicate that induction of apoptosis in HCT-116 p53 wt cells after ibuprofen treatment is in part dependent on a signalling pathway including the neutrophin receptor p75 NTR , p53 and Bax

  9. Strawberry-Tree Honey Induces Growth Inhibition of Human Colon Cancer Cells and Increases ROS Generation: A Comparison with Manuka Honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrin, Sadia; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Bompadre, Stefano; Quiles, José L; Sanna, Gavino; Spano, Nadia; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio

    2017-03-11

    Honey is a natural product known to modulate several biological activities including cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the phytochemical content and the antioxidant activity of Strawberry tree ( Arbutus unedo ) honey (STH) and its cytotoxic properties against human colon adenocarcinoma (HCT-116) and metastatic (LoVo) cell lines in comparison with Manuka ( Leptospermum scoparium ) honey (MH). Several unifloral STH and MH were analyzed for their phenolic, flavonoid, amino acid and protein contents, as well as their radical scavenging activities. STH from the Berchidda area showed the highest amount of phenolic, flavonoid, amino acid and protein content, and antioxidant capacity compared to MH. Both STH and MH induced cytotoxicity and cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HCT-116 and LoVo cells, with less toxicity on non-cancer cells. Compared to MH, STH showed more effect at lower concentrations on HCT-116 and LoVo cells. In addition, both honeys increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In HCT-116 cells, STH and MH induced similar ROS production but in LoVo cells STH induced a higher percentage of ROS compared to MH. Our results indicate that STH and MH can induce cell growth inhibition and ROS generation in colon adenocarcinoma and metastatic cells, which could be due to the presence of phytochemicals with antioxidant properties. These preliminary results are interesting and suggest a potential chemopreventive action which could be useful for further studies in order to develop chemopreventive agents for colon cancer.

  10. MSH3-deficiency initiates EMAST without oncogenic transformation of human colon epithelial cells.

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    Christoph Campregher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Elevated microsatellite instability at selected tetranucleotide repeats (EMAST is a genetic signature in certain cases of sporadic colorectal cancer and has been linked to MSH3-deficiency. It is currently controversial whether EMAST is associated with oncogenic properties in humans, specifically as cancer development in Msh3-deficient mice is not enhanced. However, a mutator phenotype is different between species as the genetic positions of repetitive sequences are not conserved. Here we studied the molecular effects of human MSH3-deficiency. METHODS: HCT116 and HCT116+chr3 (both MSH3-deficient and primary human colon epithelial cells (HCEC, MSH3-wildtype were stably transfected with an EGFP-based reporter plasmid for the detection of frameshift mutations within an [AAAG]17 repeat. MSH3 was silenced by shRNA and changes in protein expression were analyzed by shotgun proteomics. Colony forming assay was used to determine oncogenic transformation and double strand breaks (DSBs were assessed by Comet assay. RESULTS: Despite differential MLH1 expression, both HCT116 and HCT116+chr3 cells displayed comparable high mutation rates (about 4×10(-4 at [AAAG]17 repeats. Silencing of MSH3 in HCECs leads to a remarkable increased frameshift mutations in [AAAG]17 repeats whereas [CA]13 repeats were less affected. Upon MSH3-silencing, significant changes in the expression of 202 proteins were detected. Pathway analysis revealed overexpression of proteins involved in double strand break repair (MRE11 and RAD50, apoptosis, L1 recycling, and repression of proteins involved in metabolism, tRNA aminoacylation, and gene expression. MSH3-silencing did not induce oncogenic transformation and DSBs increased 2-fold. CONCLUSIONS: MSH3-deficiency in human colon epithelial cells results in EMAST, formation of DSBs and significant changes of the proteome but lacks oncogenic transformation. Thus, MSH3-deficiency alone is unlikely to drive human colon

  11. Characterization of the N-methoxyindole-3-carbinol (NI3C)–Induced Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neave, Antje S.; Sarup, Sussi; Seidelin, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Recent results have shown that indole-3-carbinol (I3C) inhibits the cellular growth of human cancer cell lines. In some cruciferous vegetables, another indole, N-methoxyindole-3-carbinol (NI3C), is found beside I3C. Knowledge about the biological effects of NI3C is limited. The aim of the present...... study was to show the effect of NI3C on cell growth of two human colon cancer cell lines, DLD-1 and HCT-116. For the first time it is shown that NI3C inhibits cellular growth of DLD-1 and HCT-116 and that NI3C is a more potent inhibitor of cell proliferation than I3C. In addition to the inhibition...... of cellular proliferation, NI3C caused an accumulation of HCT-116 cells in the G2/M phase, in contrast to I3C, which led to an accumulation of the colon cells in G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, NI3C delays the G1-S phase transition of synchronized HCT-116 cells. The indole-mediated cell-cycle arrest may be related...

  12. Transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGFBR2 changes sialylation in the microsatellite unstable (MSI Colorectal cancer cell line HCT116.

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    Jennifer Lee

    Full Text Available Aberrant glycosylation is a common feature of many malignancies including colorectal cancers (CRCs. About 15% of CRC show the microsatellite instability (MSI phenotype that is associated with a high frequency of biallelic frameshift mutations in the A10 coding mononucleotide microsatellite of the transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGFBR2 gene. If and how impaired TGFBR2 signaling in MSI CRC cells affects cell surface glycan pattern is largely unexplored. Here, we used the TGFBR2-deficient MSI colon carcinoma cell line HCT116 as a model system. Stable clones conferring doxycycline (dox-inducible expression of a single copy wildtype TGFBR2 transgene were generated by recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE. In two independent clones, dox-inducible expression of wildtype TGFBR2 protein and reconstitution of its signaling function was shown. Metabolic labeling experiments using the tritiated sialic acid precursor N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc revealed a significant decline (∼30% of its incorporation into newly synthesized sialoglycoproteins in a TGFBR2-dependent manner. In particular, we detected a significant decrease of sialylated ß1-integrin upon reconstituted TGFBR2 signaling which did not influence ß1-integrin protein turnover. Notably, TGFBR2 reconstitution did not affect the transcript levels of any of the known human sialyltransferases when examined by real-time RT- PCR analysis. These results suggest that reconstituted TGFBR2 signaling in an isogenic MSI cell line model system can modulate sialylation of cell surface proteins like ß1-integrin. Moreover, our model system will be suitable to uncover the underlying molecular mechanisms of altered MSI tumor glycobiology.

  13. Differential cellular responses to prolonged LDR-IR in MLH1-proficient and MLH1-deficient colorectal cancer HCT116 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tao; Seo, Yuji; Kinsella, Timothy J

    2009-11-15

    MLH1 is a key DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein involved in maintaining genomic stability by participating in the repair of endogenous and exogenous mispairs in the daughter strands during S phase. Exogenous mispairs can result following treatment with several classes of chemotherapeutic drugs, as well as with ionizing radiation. In this study, we investigated the role of the MLH1 protein in determining the cellular and molecular responses to prolonged low-dose rate ionizing radiation (LDR-IR), which is similar to the clinical use of cancer brachytherapy. An isogenic pair of MMR(+) (MLH1(+)) and MMR(-) (MLH1(-)) human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells was exposed to prolonged LDR-IR (1.3-17 cGy/h x 24-96 h). The clonogenic survival and gene mutation rates were examined. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed with flow cytometry. Changes in selected DNA damage repair proteins, DNA damage response proteins, and cell death marker proteins were examined with Western blotting. MLH1(+) HCT116 cells showed greater radiosensitivity with enhanced expression of apoptotic and autophagic markers, a reduced HPRT gene mutation rate, and more pronounced cell cycle alterations (increased late-S population and a G(2)/M arrest) following LDR-IR compared with MLH1(-) HCT116 cells. Importantly, a progressive increase in MLH1 protein levels was found in MLH1(+) cells during prolonged LDR-IR, which was temporally correlated with a progressive decrease in Rad51 protein (involved in homologous recombination) levels. MLH1 status significantly affects cellular responses to prolonged LDR-IR. MLH1 may enhance cell radiosensitivity to prolonged LDR-IR through inhibition of homologous recombination (through inhibition of Rad51).

  14. Natural products from Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. with antiproliferation activities in HCT116 colorectal cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Bilal, Aishah; Ali, Muhammad Shaiq; Fatima, Itrat; Faisal, Amir; Sherkheli, Muhammad Azhar; Asghar, Adnan

    2017-03-01

    Parasitic Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. possesses many medicinal properties and is a rich source of a variety of biologically relevant natural products. Natural products are the prime source of leads, drugs, and drug templates, and many of the anticancer and antiviral drugs are either based on natural product or derived from them. Cancer is a devastating disease and one of the leading causes of death worldwide despite improvements in patient survival during the past 50 years; new and improved treatments for cancer are therefore actively sought. Colorectal cancer is the fourth most prevalent cancer worldwide and is responsible for nearly 9% of all cancer deaths. Our search for anticancer natural products from C. reflexa has yielded four natural products: Scoparone (1), p-coumaric acid (2), stigmasta-3,5-diene (3) and 1-O-p-hydroxycinnamoylglucose (4) and among them 1-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyldlucose (4) showed promising antiproliferative activities in HCT116 colorectal cell lines, whereas compounds 1-3 showed moderate activities.

  15. Iron depletion in HCT116 cells diminishes the upregulatory effect of phenethyl isothiocyanate on heme oxygenase-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolloskis, Michael P.; Carvalho, Fabiana P.; Loo, George

    2016-01-01

    Some of the health-promoting properties of cruciferous vegetables are thought to be partly attributed to isothiocyanates. These phytochemicals can upregulate the expression of certain cytoprotective stress genes, but it is unknown if a particular nutrient is involved. Herein, the objective was to ascertain if adequate iron is needed for enabling HCT116 cells to optimally express heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) when induced by phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC). PEITC increased HO-1 expression and also nuclear translocation of Nrf2, which is a transcription factor known to activate the HO-1 gene. However, in HCT116 cells that were made iron-deficient by depleting intracellular iron with deferoxamine (DFO), PEITC was less able to increase HO-1 expression and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. These suppressive effects of DFO were overcome by replenishing the iron-deficient cells with the missing iron. To elucidate these findings, it was found that PEITC-induced HO-1 upregulation can be inhibited with thiol antioxidants (glutathione and N-acetylcysteine). Furthermore, NADPH oxidase inhibitors (diphenyleneiodonium and apocynin) and a superoxide scavenger (Tiron) each inhibited PEITC-induced HO-1 upregulation. In doing so, diphenyleneiodonium was the most potent and also inhibited nuclear translocation of redox-sensitive Nrf2. Collectively, the results imply that the HO-1 upregulation by PEITC involves an iron-dependent, oxidant signaling pathway. Therefore, it is concluded that ample iron is required to enable PEITC to fully upregulate HO-1 expression in HCT116 cells. As such, it is conceivable that iron-deficient individuals may not reap the full health benefits of eating PEITC-containing cruciferous vegetables that via HO-1 may help protect against multiple chronic diseases. - Highlights: • PEITC increased HO-1 expression in HCT116 cells. • PEITC-induced HO-1 upregulation was impaired in iron-depleted HCT116 cells. • Impairment of PEITC-induced HO-1 upregulation was

  16. Strawberry-Tree Honey Induces Growth Inhibition of Human Colon Cancer Cells and Increases ROS Generation: A Comparison with Manuka Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Afrin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Honey is a natural product known to modulate several biological activities including cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the phytochemical content and the antioxidant activity of Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo honey (STH and its cytotoxic properties against human colon adenocarcinoma (HCT-116 and metastatic (LoVo cell lines in comparison with Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium honey (MH. Several unifloral STH and MH were analyzed for their phenolic, flavonoid, amino acid and protein contents, as well as their radical scavenging activities. STH from the Berchidda area showed the highest amount of phenolic, flavonoid, amino acid and protein content, and antioxidant capacity compared to MH. Both STH and MH induced cytotoxicity and cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HCT-116 and LoVo cells, with less toxicity on non-cancer cells. Compared to MH, STH showed more effect at lower concentrations on HCT-116 and LoVo cells. In addition, both honeys increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. In HCT-116 cells, STH and MH induced similar ROS production but in LoVo cells STH induced a higher percentage of ROS compared to MH. Our results indicate that STH and MH can induce cell growth inhibition and ROS generation in colon adenocarcinoma and metastatic cells, which could be due to the presence of phytochemicals with antioxidant properties. These preliminary results are interesting and suggest a potential chemopreventive action which could be useful for further studies in order to develop chemopreventive agents for colon cancer.

  17. Human colon cancer targeted pro-apoptotic, anti-metastatic and cytostatic effects of binuclear Silver(I)-N-Heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Iqbal, Muhammad Adnan; Hussein, Mouayed A; Oon, Chern Ein; Haque, Rosenani A; Khadeer Ahamed, Mohamed B; Abdul Majid, Aman Shah; Abdul Majid, Amin Malik Shah

    2016-01-27

    The current mechanistic study was conducted to explore the effects of increased lipophilicity of binuclear silver(I)-NHC complexes on cytotoxicity. Two new silver(I)-N-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC) complexes (3 and 4), having lypophilic terminal alkyl chains (Octyl and Decyl), were derived from meta-xylyl linked bis-benzimidazolium salts (1 and 2). Each of the synthesized compounds was characterized by microanalysis and spectroscopic techniques. The complexes were tested for their cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer c as well normal cell lines using MTT assay. Based on MTT assay results, complex 4 was found to be selectively toxic towards human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT 116). Complex 4 was further studied in detail to explore the mechanism of cell death and findings of the study revealed that complex 4 has promising pro-apoptotic and anti-metastatic activities against HCT 116 cells. Furthermore, it showed pronounced cytostatic effects in HCT 116 multicellular spheroid model. Hence, binuclear silver(I)-NHC complexes with longer terminal aliphatic chains have worth to be further studied against human colon cancer for the purpose of drug development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. TSA-induced DNMT1 down-regulation represses hTERT expression via recruiting CTCF into demethylated core promoter region of hTERT in HCT116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jee-Hye; Min, Na Young; Park, Jina; Kim, Jin Hong; Park, Soo Hyun; Ko, Young Jong; Kang, Yoonsung; Moon, Young Joon; Rhee, Sangmyung; Ham, Seung Wook; Park, Ae Ja; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, is a well-known antitumor agent that effectively and selectively induces tumor growth arrest and apoptosis. Recently, it was reported that hTERT is one of the primary targets for TSA-induced apoptosis in cancer cells but the mechanism of which has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, to better understand the epigenetic regulation mechanism responsible for the repression of hTERT by TSA, we examined expression of hTERT in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line after treatment with TSA and performed site-specific CpG methylation analysis of the hTERT promoter. We found that TSA-induced the demethylation of site-specific CpGs on the promoter of hTERT, which was caused by down-regulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). Among the demethylated region, the 31st-33rd CpGs contained a binding site for CTCF, an inhibitor of hTERT transcription. ChIP analysis revealed that TSA-induced demethylation of the 31st-33rd CpGs promoted CTCF binding on hTERT promoter, leading to repression of hTERT. Taken together, down-regulation of DNMT1 by TSA caused demethylation of a CTCF binding site on the hTERT promoter, the result of which was repression of hTERT via recruitment of CTCF to the promoter. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. GEN-27, a Newly Synthetic Isoflavonoid, Inhibits the Proliferation of Colon Cancer Cells in Inflammation Microenvironment by Suppressing NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonresolving inflammation is one of the consistent features of the tumor microenvironment in the intestine and plays a critical role in the initiation and development of colon cancer. Here we reported the inhibitory effects of GEN-27, a new derivative of genistein, on the inflammation-related colon cancer cell proliferation and delineated the mechanism of its action. The results indicated that GEN-27 inhibited the proliferation of human colon tumor HCT116 cells stimulated by culture supernatants of LPS-induced human monocytes THP-1 cells and significantly decreased LPS-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β in THP-1 cells. The HCT116 cell proliferation elicited by THP-1-conditioned medium could be blocked by the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA. Further mechanistic study revealed that GEN-27 remarkably inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and phosphorylation of IκB and IKKα/β in both HCT116 and THP-1 cells. In addition, GEN-27 markedly suppressed the HCT116 cell proliferation stimulated by IL-1β treatment, which was dependent on the inhibition of NF-κB/p65 nuclear localization, as verified by p65 overexpression and BAY 11-7082, an NF-κB inhibitor. Taken together, our findings established that GEN-27 modulated NF-κB signaling pathway involved in inflammation-induced cancer cells proliferation and therefore could be a potential chemopreventive agent against inflammation-associated colon cancer.

  20. GEN-27, a Newly Synthetic Isoflavonoid, Inhibits the Proliferation of Colon Cancer Cells in Inflammation Microenvironment by Suppressing NF-κB Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajing; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Weifeng; Du, Qianming; Tang, Jingjing; Wang, Hong; Lu, Jinrong; Hu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Nonresolving inflammation is one of the consistent features of the tumor microenvironment in the intestine and plays a critical role in the initiation and development of colon cancer. Here we reported the inhibitory effects of GEN-27, a new derivative of genistein, on the inflammation-related colon cancer cell proliferation and delineated the mechanism of its action. The results indicated that GEN-27 inhibited the proliferation of human colon tumor HCT116 cells stimulated by culture supernatants of LPS-induced human monocytes THP-1 cells and significantly decreased LPS-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β in THP-1 cells. The HCT116 cell proliferation elicited by THP-1-conditioned medium could be blocked by the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). Further mechanistic study revealed that GEN-27 remarkably inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and phosphorylation of IκB and IKKα/β in both HCT116 and THP-1 cells. In addition, GEN-27 markedly suppressed the HCT116 cell proliferation stimulated by IL-1β treatment, which was dependent on the inhibition of NF-κB/p65 nuclear localization, as verified by p65 overexpression and BAY 11-7082, an NF-κB inhibitor. Taken together, our findings established that GEN-27 modulated NF-κB signaling pathway involved in inflammation-induced cancer cells proliferation and therefore could be a potential chemopreventive agent against inflammation-associated colon cancer.

  1. Genistein induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via ATM/p53-dependent pathway in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Du, Guang-Jian; Qi, Lian-Wen; Calway, Tyler; He, Tong-Chuan; Du, Wei; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2013-07-01

    Soybean isoflavones have been used as a potential preventive agent in anticancer research for many years. Genistein is one of the most active flavonoids in soybeans. Accumulating evidence suggests that genistein alters a variety of biological processes in estrogen-related malignancies, such as breast and prostate cancers. However, the molecular mechanism of genistein in the prevention of human colon cancer remains unclear. Here we attempted to elucidate the anticarcinogenic mechanism of genistein in human colon cancer cells. First we evaluated the growth inhibitory effect of genistein and two other isoflavones, daidzein and biochanin A, on HCT-116 and SW-480 human colon cancer cells. In addition, flow cyto-metry was performed to observe the morphological changes in HCT-116/SW-480 cells undergoing apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, which had been visualized using Annexin V-FITC and/or propidium iodide staining. Real-time PCR and western blot analyses were also employed to study the changes in expression of several important genes associated with cell cycle regulation. Our data showed that genistein, daidzein and biochanin A exhibited growth inhibitory effects on HCT-116/SW-480 colon cancer cells and promoted apoptosis. Genistein showed a significantly greater effect than the other two compounds, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, genistein caused cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, which was accompanied by activation of ATM/p53, p21waf1/cip1 and GADD45α as well as downregulation of cdc2 and cdc25A demonstrated by q-PCR and immunoblotting assay. Interestingly, genistein induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in a p53-dependent manner. These findings exemplify that isoflavones, especially genistein, could promote colon cancer cell growth inhibition and facilitate apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The ATM/p53-p21 cross-regulatory network may play a crucial role in mediating the anticarcinogenic activities of genistein in colon cancer.

  2. Imaging Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Dynamics in Primary and Metastatic Colon Cancer in Nude Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kosuke; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Nakamura, Miki; Matsumoto, Takuro; Aoki, Hitomi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Bouvet, Michael; Shimizu, Masahito; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-05-01

    Colon cancer frequently results in metastasis to the liver, where it becomes the main cause of death. However, the cell cycle in primary tumors and metastases is poorly understood. We developed a mouse model of liver metastasis using the human colon cancer cell line HCT-116, which expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the nucleus and red fluorescent protein (RFP) in the cytoplasm (HCT-116-GFP-RFP). HCT-116 GFP-RFP cells were injected into the spleen of nu/nu nude mice. HCT-116-GFP-RFP cells subsequently formed primary tumors in the spleen, as well as metastatic colonies in the liver and retroperitoneum by 28 days after cell transplantation. Using an Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope, it was possible to clearly image mitosis of the dual-colored colon cancer cells in the primary tumor as well as liver and other metastases. Multi-nucleate cancer cells, in addition to mono-nucleate cancer cells and their mitosis, were observed in the primary tumor and metastasis. Multi-nucleate HCT-116-GFP-RFP cells were also observed after culture of the primary and metastatic tumors. A similar ratio of mono-nucleate, multi-nucleate, and mitotic cells grew from the primary and metastatic tumors in culture, suggesting similarity of the nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics of primary and metastatic cancer cells, further emphasizing the stochastic nature of metastasis. Our results demonstrate a similar heterogeneity of nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics within primary tumors and metastases, which may be an important factor in the stochastic nature of metastasis. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Inactivation of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Reduces Bile Acid/Farnesoid X Receptor Expression through Fxr gene CpG Methylation in Mouse Colon Tumors and Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmin, Ornella I; Fang, Changming; Lyon, Adam M; Doetschman, Tom C; Thompson, Patricia A; Martinez, Jesse D; Smith, Jeffrey W; Lance, Peter M; Romagnolo, Donato F

    2016-02-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates bile acid (BA) metabolism and possesses tumor suppressor functions. FXR expression is reduced in colorectal tumors of subjects carrying inactivated adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Identifying the mechanisms responsible for this reduction may offer new molecular targets for colon cancer prevention. We investigated how APC inactivation influences the regulation of FXR expression in colonic mucosal cells. We hypothesized that APC inactivation would epigenetically repress nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (FXR gene name) expression through increased CpG methylation. Normal proximal colonic mucosa and normal-appearing adjacent colonic mucosa and colon tumors were collected from wild-type C57BL/6J and Apc-deficient (Apc(Min) (/+)) male mice, respectively. The expression of Fxr, ileal bile acid-binding protein (Ibabp), small heterodimer partner (Shp), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In both normal and adjacent colonic mucosa and colon tumors, we measured CpG methylation of Fxr in bisulfonated genomic DNA. In vitro, we measured the impact of APC inactivation and deoxycholic acid (DCA) treatment on FXR expression in human colon cancer HCT-116 cells transfected with silencing RNA for APC and HT-29 cells carrying inactivated APC. In Apc(Min) (/+) mice, constitutive CpG methylation of the Fxrα3/4 promoter was linked to reduced (60-90%) baseline Fxr, Ibabp, and Shp and increased Cox-2 expression in apparently normal adjacent mucosa and colon tumors. Apc knockdown in HCT-116 cells increased cellular myelocytomatosis (c-MYC) and lowered (∼50%) FXR expression, which was further reduced (∼80%) by DCA. In human HCT-116 but not HT-29 colon cancer cells, DCA induced FXR expression and lowered CpG methylation of FXR. We conclude that the loss of APC function favors the silencing of FXR expression through CpG hypermethylation in mouse colonic mucosa and human colon cells

  4. Reduction of Orc6 expression sensitizes human colon cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine J Gavin

    Full Text Available Previous studies from our group have shown that the expression levels of Orc6 were highly elevated in colorectal cancer patient specimens and the induction of Orc6 was associated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU treatment. The goal of this study was to investigate the molecular and cellular impact of Orc6 in colon cancer. In this study, we use HCT116 (wt-p53 and HCT116 (null-p53 colon cancer cell lines as a model system to investigate the impact of Orc6 on cell proliferation, chemosensitivity and pathways involved with Orc6. We demonstrated that the down regulation of Orc6 sensitizes colon cancer cells to both 5-FU and cisplatin (cis-pt treatment. Decreased Orc6 expression in HCT-116 (wt-p53 cells by RNA interference triggered cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Prolonged inhibition of Orc6 expression resulted in multinucleated cells in HCT-116 (wt-p53 cell line. Western immunoblot analysis showed that down regulation of Orc6 induced p21 expression in HCT-116 (wt-p53 cells. The induction of p21 was mediated by increased level of phosphorylated p53 at ser-15. By contrast, there is no elevated expression of p21 in HCT-116 (null-p53 cells. Orc6 down regulation also increased the expression of DNA damaging repair protein GADD45beta and reduced the expression level of JNK1. Orc6 may be a potential novel target for future anti cancer therapeutic development in colon cancer.

  5. Essential oil of Pinus koraiensis inhibits cell proliferation and migration via inhibition of p21-activated kinase 1 pathway in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Ok; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Hyo-Jeong

    2014-07-30

    The essential oil of Pinus koraiensis (EOPK) is biologically active compound obtained from the leaves of P. koraiensis. The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer mechanism of EOPK in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. HCT116 cell proliferation was assessed by conducting crystal violet and BrdU assays. To assess the effects of EOPK on cell migration, we performed a wound-healing assay. Further, the contribution of PAK1 to EOPK-induced AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) suppression was assessed by siRNA-mediated PAK1 knockdown. Changes to the expression and phosphorylation of PAK1 and its effectors were determined by western blotting, and changes to the actin cytoskeleton were determined by performing an immunofluorescence assay. EOPK significantly decreased HCT116 cell proliferation and migration, and induced G1 arrest without affecting normal cells. Additionally, EOPK suppressed the expression of PAK1, and decreased ERK and AKT phosphorylation in HCT116 cells. Finally, EOPK suppressed β-catenin, cyclin D1, and CDK4/6 expression. Our studies indicate that EOPK significantly reduced proliferation and migration of colorectal cancer cells. Furthermore, EOPK suppressed PAK1 expression in a dose-dependent manner, and this suppression of PAK1 led to inhibition of ERK, AKT, and β-catenin activities. Our findings suggest that EOPK exerts its anticancer activity via the inhibition of PAK1 expression, suggesting it may be a potent chemotherapeutic agent for colorectal cancer.

  6. Fem1b, a proapoptotic protein, mediates proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis of human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subauste, M Cecilia; Sansom, Owen J; Porecha, Nehal; Raich, Natacha; Du, Liqin; Maher, Joseph F

    2010-02-01

    In the treatment of colon cancer, the development of resistance to apoptosis is a major factor in resistance to therapy. New molecular approaches to overcome apoptosis resistance, such as selectively upregulating proapoptotic proteins, are needed in colon cancer therapy. In a mouse model with inactivation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) tumor suppressor gene, reflecting the pathogenesis of most human colon cancers, the gene encoding feminization-1 homolog b (Fem1b) is upregulated in intestinal epithelium following Apc inactivation. Fem1b is a proapoptotic protein that interacts with apoptosis-inducing proteins Fas, tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1), and apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1). Increasing Fem1b expression induces apoptosis of cancer cells, but effects on colon cancer cells have not been reported. Fem1b is a homolog of feminization-1 (FEM-1), a protein in Caenorhabditis elegans that is regulated by proteasomal degradation, but whether Fem1b is likewise regulated by proteasomal degradation is unknown. Herein, we found that Fem1b protein is expressed in primary human colon cancer specimens, and in malignant SW620, HCT-116, and DLD-1 colon cancer cells. Increasing Fem1b expression, by transfection of a Fem1b expression construct, induced apoptosis of these cells. We found that proteasome inhibitor treatment of SW620, HCT-116, and DLD-1 cells caused upregulation of Fem1b protein levels, associated with induction of apoptosis. Blockade of Fem1b upregulation with morpholino antisense oligonucleotide suppressed the proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis of these cells. In conclusion, the proapoptotic protein Fem1b is downregulated by the proteasome in malignant colon cancer cells and mediates proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis of these cells. Therefore, Fem1b could represent a novel molecular target to overcome apoptosis resistance in therapy of colon cancer.

  7. Platinum(IV) complex LA-12 induces cell cycle phase specific apoptosis in colon carcinoma cell line HCT-116

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondálová Blanářová, Olga; Jelínková, Iva; Jendželovský, R.; Souček, Karel; Hofmanová, Jiřina; Sova, P.; Kozubík, Alois

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 276, č. 1 (2009), s. 256-257 ISSN 1742-464X. [34th FEBS Congress. 04.07.2009-09.07.2009, Prague] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/1557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : platinum drugs * cell cycle apoptosis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  8. Synergistic inhibition of the APC/C by the removal of APC15 in HCT116 cells lacking UBE2C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvanska, Dimitriya H; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Nilsson, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    that has been shown to depend on the APC/C E2 enzymes, UBE2C and UBE2S. Here we investigate the in vivo role of the APC/C E2 enzymes in SAC silencing using CRISPR/Cas9 genetically engineered HCT116 UBE2C or UBE2S null cell lines. Using live cell assays, we show that UBE2C and UBE2S make a minor...... contribution to SAC silencing in HCT116 cells. Strikingly in cells specifically lacking UBE2C, we observe a strong synergistic inhibition of mitotic progression when we stabilize the MCC on the APC/C by depleting APC15, potentially reflecting increased competition between the MCC and the remaining initiating E...

  9. The apoptotic response in HCT116BAX-/- cancer cells becomes rapidly saturated with increasing expression of a GFP-BAX fusion protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semaan, Sheila J; Nickells, Robert W

    2010-01-01

    Many chemotherapeutic agents promote tumor cell death by activating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Intrinsic apoptosis involves permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane and the release of cytochrome c, a process that is controlled by proteins of the BCL2 gene family. Chemoresistance is often associated with abnormalities in concentrations of BCL2 family proteins. Although stoichiometirc interactions between anti-apoptotic and BH3-only BCL2 family proteins have been well documented as affecting cell death, the association between changes in BAX concentration and intrinsic apoptosis are poorly understood. Exogenous GFP-murine Bax fusion constructs were transfected into BAX-deficient HCT116 cells. To titrate the expression of the fusion protein, GFP-BAX was cloned into a tetracycline sensitive expression cassette and cotransfected with a plasmid expressing the rtTA transcription factor into HCT116 BAX-/- cells. Linear expression of the fusion gene was induced with doxycycline and monitored by quantitative PCR and immunoblotting. Cell death was assayed by DAPI staining cells after exposure to indomethacin, and scoring nuclei for condensed chromatin and fragmented nuclei. HCT116 BAX-/- cells were resistant to indomethacin, but susceptibility could be recovered in cells expressing a GFP-BAX fusion protein. Titration of GFP-BAX expression revealed that the concentration of BAX required to induce a saturating apoptosis response from baseline, was rapidly achieved. Increased levels of GFP-BAX were unable to stimulate higher levels of cell death. Examination of GFP-BAX distribution before and after indomethacin treatment indicated that BAX protein did not form aggregates when present at sub-lethal concentrations. Within the limitations of this experimental system, BAX-dependent apoptosis in HCT116 cells exhibits an all-or-none response depending on the level of BAX protein present. The lack of BAX aggregation at sub-saturation levels suggests that the

  10. The apoptotic response in HCT116BAX-/- cancer cells becomes rapidly saturated with increasing expression of a GFP-BAX fusion protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semaan Sheila J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many chemotherapeutic agents promote tumor cell death by activating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Intrinsic apoptosis involves permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane and the release of cytochrome c, a process that is controlled by proteins of the BCL2 gene family. Chemoresistance is often associated with abnormalities in concentrations of BCL2 family proteins. Although stoichiometirc interactions between anti-apoptotic and BH3-only BCL2 family proteins have been well documented as affecting cell death, the association between changes in BAX concentration and intrinsic apoptosis are poorly understood. Methods Exogenous GFP-murine Bax fusion constructs were transfected into BAX-deficient HCT116 cells. To titrate the expression of the fusion protein, GFP-BAX was cloned into a tetracycline sensitive expression cassette and cotransfected with a plasmid expressing the rtTA transcription factor into HCT116BAX-/- cells. Linear expression of the fusion gene was induced with doxycycline and monitored by quantitative PCR and immunoblotting. Cell death was assayed by DAPI staining cells after exposure to indomethacin, and scoring nuclei for condensed chromatin and fragmented nuclei. Results HCT116BAX-/- cells were resistant to indomethacin, but susceptibility could be recovered in cells expressing a GFP-BAX fusion protein. Titration of GFP-BAX expression revealed that the concentration of BAX required to induce a saturating apoptosis response from baseline, was rapidly achieved. Increased levels of GFP-BAX were unable to stimulate higher levels of cell death. Examination of GFP-BAX distribution before and after indomethacin treatment indicated that BAX protein did not form aggregates when present at sub-lethal concentrations. Conclusion Within the limitations of this experimental system, BAX-dependent apoptosis in HCT116 cells exhibits an all-or-none response depending on the level of BAX protein present. The lack of

  11. The Indolic Diet-Derivative, 3,3′-Diindolylmethane, Induced Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cells through Upregulation of NDRG1

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    A. Lerner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 participates in carcinogenesis, angiogenesis, metastases, and anticancer drug resistance. In the present study, we analyzed the expression pattern of N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 following treatment of human colonic cancer cell lines; HCT-116 (well differentiated with wild-type p53 gene and Colo-320 (poorly differentiated with mutant p53 gene, with 3,3′-diindolylmethane, a well-established proapoptotic agent product derived from indole-3-carbinol. Treatment of Colo-320 and HCT-116 with 3,3′-diindolylmethane disclosed inhibition of cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, mediated through apoptosis induction. The increased expression of N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 was detected only in poorly differentiated colon cancer cells, Colo-320 cell line. Our results suggest that N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 expression is enhanced by 3,3′-diindolylmethane in poorly differentiated cells and followed by induction of apoptosis. 3,3′-diindolylmethane induced apoptosis may represent a new regulator of N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 in poorly differentiated colonic cancer cells.

  12. Synsepalum dulcificum extracts exhibit cytotoxic activity on human colorectal cancer cells and upregulate c-fos and c-jun early apoptotic gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichang Seong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore cytotoxicity of Synsepalum dulcificum (S. dulcificum Daniell (Sapotaceae on human colon cancer (HCT-116 and HT-29, human monocytic leukemia (THP-1 and normal (HDFn cell lines, and its effect on the expression of early apoptotic genes, c-fos and c-jun. Methods: Leaf, stem and berry of S. dulcificum were separately extracted by using 2 solvents, 10% ethanol (EtOH and 80% methanol (MeOH. PrestoBlue® cell viability assay and qRT-PCR assay were conducted to examine the above objectives respectively. Results: Stem MeOH, stem EtOH, and berry EtOH extracts of S. dulcificum were cytotoxic to HCT-116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cells. For HCT-116, IC50 values of these 3 extracts were not significantly different (P>0.05 from that of the positive control bleomycin (IC50 of 33.57 μg/mL, while for HT-29, IC50 values of these 3 extracts were significantly lower (P<0.05 than that of bleomycin (IC50 of 25.24 μg/mL. None of the extracts were cytotoxic to the THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells and HDFn normal human dermal fibroblasts. For both HCT-116 and HT-29, these extracts significantly up-regulated (P<0.05 the expression of c-fos and c-jun compared to the untreated negative control. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that cytotoxicity of stem MeOH, stem EtOH, and berry EtOH extracts of S. dulcificum on HCT-116 and HT-29 colon cancer cells is due to the induced apoptosis which is caused by the up-regulation of the expression of early apoptotic genes, c-fos and c-jun.

  13. Targeted inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase impairs cell proliferation, survival, and invasion in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Gao, Jun-Yi; Chen, Hua; Du, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Xue-Qun; Gao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in the world, and its metastasis and drug resistance are challenging for its effective treatment. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the targeting of PI3K in colon cancer cells HT-29 and HCT-116 in vitro. In HT-29 and HCT-116 cells, BEZ235, a dual inhibitor of PI3K/mTOR, and shRNAtarget to PI3KCA were used to inhibit PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The inhibition efficiency of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8, Transwell, and flow cytometry assays. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins (cleavage caspase 3, Bcl-2, Bax, and Bim) were also detected. We found that in HT-29 and HCT-116 cells, the treatment of BEZ235 (1 μM) and PI3KCA knockdown inhibited the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and significantly suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of HT-29 and HCT-116 cells. In addition, we confirmed that knockdown of BEZ235 and PI3KCA induced cell apoptosis through the upregulated levels of cleavage caspase 3 and Bax and downregulated expression of Bcl-2 and Bim. Our results indicated that targeted inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway impaired cell proliferation, survival, and invasion in human colon cancer.

  14. BG-4, a novel anticancer peptide from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), promotes apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Vermont P; Krishnan, Hari B

    2016-09-15

    Momordica charantia is a perennial plant with reported health benefits. BG-4, a novel peptide from Momordica charantia, was isolated, purified and characterized. The trypsin inhibitory activity of BG-4 is 8.6 times higher than purified soybean trypsin inhibitor. The high trypsin inhibitory activity of BG-4 may be responsible for its capability to cause cytotoxicity to HCT-116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cells with ED50 values of 134.4 and 217.0 μg/mL after 48 h of treatment, respectively. The mechanism involved in the cytotoxic effect may be associated with induction of apoptosis as evidenced by increased percentage of HCT-116 and HT-29 colon cancer cells undergoing apoptosis from 5.4% (untreated) to 24.8% (BG-4 treated, 125 μg/mL for 16 h) and 8.5% (untreated) to 31.9% (BG-4 treated, 125 μg/mL for 16 h), respectively. The molecular mechanistic explanation in the apoptosis inducing property of BG-4 is due to reduced expression of Bcl-2 and increased expression of Bax leading to increased expression of caspase-3 and affecting the expression of cell cycle proteins p21 and CDK2. This is the first report on the anti-cancer potential of a novel bioactive peptide isolated from Momordica charantia in vitro supporting the potential therapeutic property of BG-4 against colon cancer that must be addressed using in vivo models of colon carcinogenesis.

  15. The novel anthraquinone derivative IMP1338 induces death of human cancer cells by p53-independent S and G2/M cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Kyung; Ryu, Hwani; Son, A-Rang; Seo, Bitna; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Song, Jie-Young; Ahn, Jiyeon

    2016-04-01

    To identify novel small molecules that induce selective cancer cell death, we screened a chemical library containing 1040 compounds in HT29 colon cancer and CCD18-Co normal colon cells, using a phenotypic cell-based viability assay system with the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). We discovered a novel anthraquinone derivative, N-(4-[{(9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydro-1-anthracenyl)sulfonyl}amino]phenyl)-N-methylacetamide (IMP1338), which was cytotoxic against the human colon cancer cells tested. The MTT cell viability assay showed that treatment with IMP1338 selectively inhibited HCT116, HCT116 p53(-/-), HT29, and A549 cancer cell proliferation compared to that of Beas2B normal epithelial cells. To elucidate the cellular mechanism underlying the cytotoxicity of IMP1338, we examined the effect of IMP1338 on the cell cycle distribution and death of cancer cells. IMP1338 treatment significantly arrested the cell cycle at S and G2/M phases by DNA damage and led to apoptotic cell death, which was determined using FACS analysis with Annexin V/PI double staining. Furthermore, IMP1338 increased caspase-3 cleavage in wild-type p53, p53 knockout HCT116, and HT29 cells as determined using immunoblotting. In addition, IMP1338 markedly induced the phosphorylation of histone H2AX and Chk1 in both cell lines while the combination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and radiation inhibited the viability of HCT116, HCT116 p53(-/-), and HT29 cells compared to 5-FU or radiation alone. Our findings indicated that IMP1338 induced p53-independent cell death through S and G2/M phase arrest as well as DNA damage. These results provide a basis for future investigations assessing the promising anticancer properties of IMP1338. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Quilamine HQ1-44, an iron chelator vectorized toward tumor cells by the polyamine transport system, inhibits HCT116 tumor growth without adverse effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Stéphanie; Corcé, Vincent; Cannie, Isabelle; Ropert, Martine; Lepage, Sylvie; Loréal, Olivier; Deniaud, David; Gaboriau, François

    2015-08-01

    Tumor cell growth requires large iron quantities and the deprivation of this metal induced by synthetic metal chelators is therefore an attractive method for limiting the cancer cell proliferation. The antiproliferative effect of the Quilamine HQ1-44, a new iron chelator vectorized toward tumor cells by a polyamine chain, is related to its high selectivity for the Polyamine Transport System (PTS), allowing its preferential uptake by tumoral cells. The difference in PTS activation between healthy cells and tumor cells enables tumor cells to be targeted, whereas the strong dependence of these cells on iron ensures a secondary targeting. Here, we demonstrated in vitro that HQ1-44 inhibits DNA synthesis and cell proliferation of HCT116 cells by modulating the intracellular metabolism of both iron and polyamines. Moreover, in vivo, in xenografted athymic nude mice, we found that HQ1-44 was as effective as cis-platin in reducing HCT116 tumor growth, without its side effects. Furthermore, as suggested by in vitro data, the depletion in exogenous or endogenous polyamines, known to activate the PTS, dramatically enhanced the antitumor efficiency of HQ1-44. These data support the need for further studies to assess the value of HQ1-44 as an adjuvant treatment in cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of anti-HER2 scFv-conjugated PLGA–PEG nanoparticles on 3D tumor spheroids of BT474 and HCT116 cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Thi Thuy Duong; Pham, Thu Hong; Ngo, Thi Hong Giang; Le, Quang Huan; Nguyen, Trong Nghia; Hoang, Thi My Nhung

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional culture cells (spheroids) are one of the multicellular culture models that can be applied to anticancer chemotherapeutic development. Multicellular spheroids more closely mimic in vivo tumor-like patterns of physiologic environment and morphology. In previous research, we designed docetaxel-loaded pegylated poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles conjugated with anti-HER2 single chain antibodies (scFv–Doc–PLGA–PEG) and evaluated them in 2D cell culture. In this study, we continuously evaluate the cellular uptake and cytotoxic effect of scFv–Doc–PLGA–PEG on a 3D tumor spheroid model of BT474 (HER2-overexpressing) and HCT116 (HER2-underexpressing) cancer cells. The results showed that the nanoparticle formulation conjugated with scFv had a significant internalization effect on the spheroids of HER2-overexpressing cancer cells as compared to the spheroids of HER2-underexpressing cancer cells. Therefore, cytotoxic effects of targeted nanoparticles decreased the size and increased necrotic score of HER2-overexpressing tumor spheroids. Thus, these scFv–Doc–PLGA–PEG nanoparticles have potential for active targeting for HER2-overexpressing cancer therapy. In addition, BT474 and HCT116 spheroids can be used as a tumor model for evaluation of targeting therapies. (paper)

  18. Chikusetsusaponin IVa methyl ester induces cell cycle arrest by the inhibition of nuclear translocation of β-catenin in HCT116 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung-Mi [Natural Products Research Institute, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Ji Ho [Natural Products Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung, 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Hwa [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Gyun [Natural Products Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung, 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Kun Ho [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of); Nho, Chu Won, E-mail: cwnho@kist.re.kr [Natural Products Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung, 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeong Shik, E-mail: kims@snu.ac.kr [Natural Products Research Institute, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-17

    We demonstrate that chikusetsusaponin IVa methyl ester (CME), a triterpenoid saponin from the root of Achyranthes japonica, has an anticancer activity. We investigate its molecular mechanism in depth in HCT116 cells. CME reduces the amount of β-catenin in nucleus and inhibits the binding of β-catenin to specific DNA sequences (TCF binding elements, TBE) in target gene promoters. Thus, CME appears to decrease the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins such as Cyclin D1, as a representative target for β-catenin, as well as CDK2 and CDK4. As a result of the decrease of the cell cycle regulatory proteins, CME inhibits cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. Therefore, we suggest that CME as a novel Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor can be a putative agent for the treatment of colorectal cancers. - Highlights: • CME inhibits cell proliferation in HCT116 cells. • CME increases cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. • CME attenuates cyclin D1 and regulates cell cycle regulatory proteins. • CME inhibits β-catenin translocation to nucleus.

  19. Chikusetsusaponin IVa methyl ester induces cell cycle arrest by the inhibition of nuclear translocation of β-catenin in HCT116 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung-Mi; Yun, Ji Ho; Lee, Dong Hwa; Park, Young Gyun; Son, Kun Ho; Nho, Chu Won; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that chikusetsusaponin IVa methyl ester (CME), a triterpenoid saponin from the root of Achyranthes japonica, has an anticancer activity. We investigate its molecular mechanism in depth in HCT116 cells. CME reduces the amount of β-catenin in nucleus and inhibits the binding of β-catenin to specific DNA sequences (TCF binding elements, TBE) in target gene promoters. Thus, CME appears to decrease the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins such as Cyclin D1, as a representative target for β-catenin, as well as CDK2 and CDK4. As a result of the decrease of the cell cycle regulatory proteins, CME inhibits cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. Therefore, we suggest that CME as a novel Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor can be a putative agent for the treatment of colorectal cancers. - Highlights: • CME inhibits cell proliferation in HCT116 cells. • CME increases cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. • CME attenuates cyclin D1 and regulates cell cycle regulatory proteins. • CME inhibits β-catenin translocation to nucleus

  20. Synergistic inhibition of the APC/C by the removal of APC15 in HCT116 cells lacking UBE2C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvanska, Dimitriya H; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Nilsson, Jakob

    2016-10-15

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) in response to unattached kinetochores by generating a diffusible inhibitor termed the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). At metaphase, rapid activation of the APC/C requires removal of the MCC, a process that has been shown to depend on the APC/C E2 enzymes, UBE2C and UBE2S. Here we investigate the in vivo role of the APC/C E2 enzymes in SAC silencing using CRISPR/Cas9 genetically engineered HCT116 UBE2C or UBE2S null cell lines. Using live cell assays, we show that UBE2C and UBE2S make a minor contribution to SAC silencing in HCT116 cells. Strikingly, in cells specifically lacking UBE2C, we observe a strong synergistic inhibition of mitotic progression when we stabilize the MCC on the APC/C by depleting APC15, potentially reflecting increased competition between the MCC and the remaining initiating E2 enzyme UBE2D. In conclusion, we provide in vivo insight into the APC/C E2 module and its interplay with SAC silencing components. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Lebein, a snake venom disintegrin, suppresses human colon cancer cells proliferation and tumor-induced angiogenesis through cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction and inhibition of VEGF expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakraoui, Ons; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Aloui, Zohra; Othman, Houcemeddine; Grépin, Renaud; Haoues, Meriam; Essafi, Makram; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Gasmi, Ammar; Karoui, Habib; Pagès, Gilles; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija

    2017-01-01

    Lebein, is an heterodimeric disintegrin isolated from Macrovipera lebetina snake venom that was previously characterized as an inhibitor of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. In this study, we investigated the effect of Lebein on the p53-dependent growth of human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. We found that Lebein significantly inhibited LS174 (p53wt), HCT116 (p53wt), and HT29 (p53mut) colon cancer cell viability by inducing cell cycle arrest through the modulation of expression levels of the tumor suppression factor p53, cell cycle regulating proteins cyclin D1, CDK2, CDK4, retinoblastoma (Rb), CDK1, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. Interestingly, Lebein-induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells was dependent on their p53 status. Thus, in LS174 cells, cell death was associated with PARP cleavage and the activation of caspases 3 and 8 while in HCT116 cells, Lebein induced caspase-independent apoptosis through increased expression of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). In LS174 cells, Lebein triggers the activation of the MAPK ERK1/2 pathway through induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It also decreased cell adhesion and migration to fibronectin through down regulation of α5β1 integrin. Moreover, Lebein significantly reduced the expression of two angiogenesis stimulators, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Neuropilin 1 (NRP1). It inhibited the VEGF-induced neovascularization process in the quail embryonic CAM system and blocked the development of human colon adenocarcinoma in nude mice. Overall, our work indicates that Lebein may be useful to design a new therapy against colon cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Colon cancer proliferating desulfosinigrin in wasabi (Wasabia japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Marvin J; Zhang, Yanjun; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2004-01-01

    A reduced incidence of different types of cancer has been linked to consumption of Brassica vegetables, and there is evidence that glucosinolates (GSLs) and their hydrolysis products play a role in reducing cancer risk. Wasabi (Wasabia japonica) and horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), both Brassica vegetables, are widely used condiments both in Japanese cuisine and in the United States. Desulfosinigrin (DSS) (1) was isolated from a commercially available wasabi powder and from fresh wasabi roots. Sinigrin (2) was isolated from horseradish roots. DSS and sinigrin were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzymes, on lipid peroxidation, and on the proliferation of human colon (HCT-116), breast (MCF-7), lung (NCIH460), and central nervous system (CNS, SF-268) cancer cell lines. DSS did not inhibit COX enzymes or lipid peroxidation at 250 microg/ml. Sinigrin inhibited lipid peroxidation by 71% at 250 microg/ml. However, DSS promoted the growth of HCT-116 (colon) and NCI H460 (lung) human cancer cells as determined by the MTT assay in a concentration-dependent manner. At 3.72 microg/ml, a 27% increase in the number of viable human HCT-116 colon cancer cells was observed; the corresponding increases at 7.50 and 15 microg/ml were 42 and 69%, respectively. At 60 microg/ml, DSS doubled the number of HCT-16 colon cancer cells. For NCI H460 human lung cancer cells, DSS at 60 microg/ml increased the cell number by 20%. Sinigrin showed no proliferating effect on the tumor cells tested. This is the first report of the tumor cell-proliferating activity by a desulfoglucosinolate, the biosynthetic precursor of GSLs found in Brassica spp.

  3. Sulfamic and succinic acid derivatives of 25-OH-PPD and their activities to MCF-7, A-549, HCT-116, and BGC-823 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wu-Xi; Cao, Jia-Qing; Wang, Xu-De; Guo, Jun-Hui; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2017-02-15

    In the search for new anti-tumor agents with higher potency than our previously identified compound 1 (25-OH-PPD, 25-hydroxyprotopanaxadiol), 12 novel sulfamic and succinic acid derivatives that could improve water solubility and contribute to good drug potency and pharmacokinetic profiles were designed and synthesized. Their in vitro anti-tumor activities in MCF-7, A-549, HCT-116, and BGC-823 cell lines and one normal cell line were tested by standard MTT assay. Results showed that compared with compound 1, compounds 2, 3, and 7 exhibited higher cytotoxic activity on A-549 and BGC-823 cell lines, together with lower toxicity in the normal cell. In particular, compound 2 exhibited the best anti-tumor activity in the in vitro assays, which may provide valuable data for the research and development of new anti-tumor agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Size- and dose-dependent toxicity of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on human fibroblasts and colon adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Zahid; Ahmed, Farrukh R; Shin, Seung Won; Kim, Young-Kee; Um, Soong Ho

    2014-07-01

    A controlled preparation of cellulose nanocrystals of different sizes and shapes has been carried out by acid hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose. The size- and concentration-dependent toxicity effects of the resulting cellulose nanocrystals were evaluated against two different cell lines, NIH3T3 murine embryo fibroblasts and HCT116 colon adenocarcinoma. It could serve as a therapeutic platform for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Targeting the PI3K signaling pathway in KRAS mutant colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Suntaek; Kim, SoYoung; Kim, Hye Youn; Kang, Myunghee; Jang, Ho Hee; Lee, Won-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations are resistant to monoclonal antibody that targets the epidermal growth factor receptor such as cetuximab. BKM120 targets phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PIK3CA), but it is unknown whether BKM120 can reverse cetuximab resistance in KRAS mutant CRC. Human CRC cell lines with KRAS mutations (DLD-1, HCT116, and LoVo) were used to test the effect of cetuximab, BKM120, and cetuximab plus BKM120 on cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. BKM120 reduced cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner in the LoVo (PI3KCA wild type) as well as the HCT116 and DLD1 cells (that carry a PI3KCA mutation). BKM120 only inhibited ERK phosphorylation in LoVo cells (PIK3CA wild type), but not in DLD1 or HCT116 cells at a concentration of 1 μmol/L. Treatment with cetuximab and BKM120 significantly reduced the growth of xenograft tumors originating from KRAS mutant cells compared with cetuximab alone (P = 0.034). BKM120 may overcome cetuximab resistance in colon cancer cells with KRAS mutation

  6. Neurotensin-induced Erk1/2 phosphorylation and growth of human colonic cancer cells are independent from growth factors receptors activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massa, Fabienne; Tormo, Aurelie; Beraud-Dufour, Sophie; Coppola, Thierry [Institut de Pharmacologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS UMR 6097, 660 route des Lucioles, 06560 Valbonne (France); Mazella, Jean, E-mail: mazella@ipmc.cnrs.fr [Institut de Pharmacologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS UMR 6097, 660 route des Lucioles, 06560 Valbonne (France)

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} We compare intracellular pathways of NT and EGF in HT29 cells. {yields} NT does not transactivate EGFR. {yields} Transactivation of EGFR is not a general rule in cancer cell growth. -- Abstract: Neurotensin (NT) promotes the proliferation of human colonic cancer cells by undefined mechanisms. We already demonstrated that, in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29, the effects of NT were mediated by a complex formed between the NT receptor-1 (NTSR1) and-3 (NTSR3). Here we examined cellular mechanisms that led to NT-induced MAP kinase phosphorylation and growth factors receptors transactivation in colonic cancer cells and proliferation in HT29 cells. With the aim to identify upstream signaling involved in NT-elicited MAP kinase activation, we found that the stimulatory effects of the peptide were totally independent from the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) both in the HT29 and the HCT116 cells. NT was unable to promote phosphorylation of EGFR and to compete with EGF for its binding to the receptor. Pharmacological approaches allowed us to differentiate EGF and NT signaling in HT29 cells since only NT activation of Erk1/2 was shown to be sensitive to PKC inhibitors and since only NT increased the intracellular level of calcium. We also observed that NT was not able to transactivate Insulin-like growth factor receptor. Our findings indicate that, in the HT29 and HCT116 cell lines, NT stimulates MAP kinase phosphorylation and cell growth by a pathway which does not involve EGF system but rather NT receptors which transduce their own intracellular effectors. These results indicate that depending on the cell line used, blocking EGFR is not the general rule to inhibit NT-induced cancer cell proliferation.

  7. MicroRNA-340 inhibits the proliferation and promotes the apoptosis of colon cancer cells by modulating REV3L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivazhagan, Roshini; Lee, Jaesuk; Bayarsaikhan, Delger; Kwak, Peter; Son, Myeongjoo; Byun, Kyunghee; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Lee, Bonghee

    2018-01-01

    DNA Directed Polymerase Zeta Catalytic Subunit (REV3L) has recently emerged as an important oncogene. Although the expressions of REV3L are similar in normal and cancer cells, several mutations in REV3L have been shown to play important roles in cancer. These mutations cause proteins misfolding and mislocalization, which in turn alters their interactions and biological functions. miRNAs play important regulatory roles during the progression and metastasis of several human cancers. This study was undertaken to determine how changes in the location and interactions of REV3L regulate colon cancer progression. REV3L protein mislocalization confirmed from the immunostaining results and the known interactions of REV3L was found to be broken as seen from the PLA assay results. The mislocalized REV3L might interact with new proteins partners in the cytoplasm which in turn may play role in regulating colon cancer progression. hsa-miR-340 (miR-340), a microRNA down-regulated in colon cancer, was used to bind to and downregulate REV3L, and found to control the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of colon cancer cells (HCT-116 and DLD-1) via the MAPK pathway. Furthermore, this down-regulation of REV3L also diminished colon cancer cell migration, and down-regulated MMP-2 and MMP-9. Combined treatment of colon cancer cells with miR-340 and 5-FU enhanced the inhibitory effects of 5-FU. In addition, in vivo experiments conducted on nude mice revealed tumor sizes were smaller in a HCT-116-miR-340 injected group than in a HCT-116-pCMV injected group. Our findings suggest mutations in REV3L causes protein mislocalization to the cytoplasm, breaking its interaction and is believed to form new protein interactions in cytoplasm contributing to colon cancer progression. Accordingly, microRNA-340 appears to be a good candidate for colon cancer therapy. PMID:29435169

  8. CysLT(1)R antagonists inhibit tumor growth in a xenograft model of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savari, Sayeh; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Yuan; Sime, Wondossen; Sjölander, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The expression of the inflammatory G-protein coupled receptor CysLT1R has been shown to be upregulated in colon cancer patients and associated with poor prognosis. The present study investigated the correlation between CysLT1R and colon cancer development in vivo using CysLT1R antagonists (ZM198,615 or Montelukast) and the nude mouse xenograft model. Two drug administration regimens were established. The first regimen was established to investigate the importance of CysLT1R in tumor initiation. Nude mice were inoculated with 50 µM CysLT1R antagonist-pretreated HCT-116 colon cancer cells and received continued treatment (5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally). The second regimen aimed to address the role of CysLT1R in tumor progression. Nude mice were inoculated with non-pretreated HCT-116 cells and did not receive CysLT1R antagonist treatment until recordable tumor appearance. Both regimens resulted in significantly reduced tumor size, attributed to changes in proliferation and apoptosis as determined by reduced Ki-67 levels and increased levels of p21(WAF/Cip1) (Pcolon cancer cell line HCT-116 and CysLT1R antagonists. In addition to significant reductions in cell proliferation, adhesion and colony formation, we observed induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. The ability of Montelukast to inhibit growth of human colon cancer xenograft was further validated by using two additional colon cancer cell lines, SW-480 and HT-29. Our results demonstrate that CysLT1R antagonists inhibit growth of colon cancer xenografts primarily by reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis of the tumor cells.

  9. CD133 expression is not selective for tumor initiating or radioresistant cell populations in the CRC line HCT-116

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Claudia; Dietrich, Antje; Wondrak, Marit; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A.; Grade, Marian; Ried, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis of certain subpopulations of cancer cells with stem-cell like characteristics that might be responsible for treatment resistance and recurrence of disease is still challenging and under quite controversial discussion. In most studies, surrogate cell surface antigens such as the 92-110 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein CD133 (human Prominin-1) were labeled to isolate particular small cancer cell populations for studying their tumorigenic potential. In colorectal carcinomas (CRC) for example, a small CD133 positive (CD133 + ) cell population has recently been described to be enriched for tumor-initiating/cancer stem cells (TIC/CSC) as compared to the CD133 negative (CD133) population. Furthermore, it was documented that the CD133 + subpopulation could exclusively be maintained in culture as spheres under serum-free conditions. Addition of serum resulted in cell differentiation, growth in 2-D and downregulation of CD133 expression. This would imply that established colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines that have been grown under adherent, serum-supplemented conditions for years should be devoid of CD133 + cells and TIC/CSC, respectively, which seems contradictory to the finding that many CRC lines produce tumors in nude mice models. In order to gain insight into this paradox, we studied the expression of CD133 in numerous established CRC lines under standard culture conditions and chose one particular cell line based on its expression pattern to study the behavior of CD133 + / CD133 - subpopulations

  10. miR-320 enhances the sensitivity of human colon cancer cells to chemoradiotherapy in vitro by targeting FOXM1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Lu-Ying; Deng, Jun; Xiang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ling; Yu, Feng; Chen, Jun; Sun, Zhe; Feng, Miao; Xiong, Jian-Ping, E-mail: jpxiong@medmail.com.cn

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • miR-320 plays a significant role in chemoresistance. • This role might be attribute to targeting FOXM1. • The Wnt/β-catenin pathway also involves in this chemotherapy sensitivity. - Abstract: miR-320 expression level is found to be down-regulated in human colon cancer. To date, however, its underlying mechanisms in the chemo-resistance remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of miR-320 led to inhibit HCT-116 cell proliferation, invasion and hypersensitivity to 5-Fu and Oxaliplatin. Also, knockdown of miR-320 reversed these effects in HT-29 cells. Furthermore, we identified an oncogene, FOXM1, as a direct target of miR-320. In addition, miR-320 could inactive the activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Finally, we found that miR-320 and FOXM1 protein had a negative correlation in colon cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues. These findings implied that miR-320–FOXM1 axis may overcome chemo-resistance of colon cancer cells and provide a new therapeutic target for the treatment of colon cancer.

  11. Differential control of growth, apoptotic activity and gene expression in human colon cancer cells by extracts derived from medicinal herbs, Rhazya stricta and Zingiber officinale and their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkady, Ayman I; Hussein, Rania Abd El Hamid; Abu-Zinadah, Osama A

    2014-11-07

    To investigate the effects of extracts from Rhazya stricta (R. stricta) and Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale) on human colorectal cancer cells. Human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116) were subjected to increasing doses of crude alkaloid extracts from R. stricta (CAERS) and crude flavonoid extracts from Z. officinale (CFEZO). Cells were then harvested after 24, 48 or 72 h and cell viability was examined by trypan blue exclusion dye test; clonogenicity and soft agar colony-forming assays were also carried out. Nuclear stain (Hoechst 33342), acridine orange/ethidium bromide double staining, agarose gel electrophoresis and comet assays were performed to assess pro-apoptotic potentiality of the extracts. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), using gene-specific primers and Western blot analyses were performed to assess the impact of CAERS and CFEZO on the expression levels of key regulatory proteins in HCT116 cells. Treatment with a combination of CAERS and CFEZO synergistically suppressed the proliferation, colony formation and anchorage-independent growth of HCT116 cells. Calculated IC50, after 24, 48 and 72 h, were 70, 90 and 130 μg/mL for CAERS, 65, 85 and 120 μg/mL for CFEZO and 20, 25 and 45 μg/mL for both agents, respectively. CAERS- and CFEZO-treated cells exhibited morphologic and biochemical features of apoptotic cell death. The induction of apoptosis was associated with the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activation of caspases 3 and 9 and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase. CAERS and CFEZO treatments downregulated expression levels of anti-apoptotic proteins including Bcl-2, Bcl-X, Mcl-1, survivin and XIAP, and upregulated expression levels of proapoptotic proteins such as Bad and Noxa. CAERS and CFEZO treatments elevated expression levels of the oncosuppressor proteins, p53, p21 and p27, and reduced levels of the oncoproteins, cyclin D1, cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase-4 and

  12. Prolonged exposure of colon cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil nanoparticles improves its anticancer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Tawfik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to improve the anticancer effect of 5-FU on human colon cancer cell lines by incorporating in poly(d,l lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles (NPs. The 5-FU-PLGA NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation technique. Prepared NPs were moderately dispersed with an average diameter of 133 ± 25.19 nm. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM images revealed spherical structures with subtle surface irregularity. Free 5-FU dose–response curves were constructed (12.5–2000 μM using MTT assay on HCT 116 and HT-29 cell lines for 1, 3, and 5 days. The calculated IC50 on HCT 116 were 185 μM after 1 day, 11.3 μM after 3 days, and 1.48 μM after 5 days. On HT-29, IC50 was only reached after 5 days of 5-FU treatment (11.25 μM. The HCT 116 viability following treatment with 100 μM 5-FU in free or NPs forms for 3 days was 38.8% and 18.6%, respectively. Similarly, when 250 μM was applied, HCT 116 viability was 17.03% and 14.6% after treatment with free and NPs forms of 5-FU, respectively. Moreover, HT-29 cell viability after 250 μM 5-FU treatment in free or NPs forms was 55.45% and 34.01%, respectively. We also noticed that HCT 116 cells were more sensitive to 5-FU-PLGA NPs as compared to HT-29 cells. Overall, our data indicate that 5-FU activity is time dependent and the prolonged effects created by PLGA NPs may contribute, at least in part, to the noticed enhancement of the anticancer activity of 5-FU drug.

  13. Thymoquinone chemosensitizes colon cancer cells through inhibition of NF-κB

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lida; Bai, Yangqiu; Yang, Yuxiu

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the effects and molecular mechanisms of thymoquinone (TQ) on colon cancer cells were investigated. Cell viability was determined using a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, and the results revealed that treatment with TQ significantly decreased cell viability in COLO205 and HCT116 cells in a dose-dependent manner. TQ treatment additionally sensitized COLO205 and HCT116 cells to cisplatin therapy in a concentration-dependent manner. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of TQ ac...

  14. Targeted inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase impairs cell proliferation, survival, and invasion in colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang F

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fei Yang,1,* Jun-Yi Gao,2,* Hua Chen,1 Zhen-Hua Du,1 Xue-Qun Zhang,3 Wei Gao4 1Department of Pathology, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Weifang Medical College, Weifang, 3Graduate School, Taishan Medical University, Xintai, 4Department of Oncology, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in the world, and its metastasis and drug resistance are challenging for its effective treatment. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the targeting of PI3K in colon cancer cells HT-29 and HCT-116 in vitro. Methods: In HT-29 and HCT-116 cells, BEZ235, a dual inhibitor of PI3K/mTOR, and shRNAtarget to PI3KCA were used to inhibit PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The inhibition efficiency of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8, Transwell, and flow cytometry assays. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins (cleavage caspase 3, Bcl-2, Bax, and Bim were also detected. Results: We found that in HT-29 and HCT-116 cells, the treatment of BEZ235 (1 µM and PI3KCA knockdown inhibited the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and significantly suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of HT-29 and HCT-116 cells. In addition, we confirmed that knockdown of BEZ235 and PI3KCA induced cell apoptosis through the upregulated levels of cleavage caspase 3 and Bax and downregulated expression of Bcl-2 and Bim. Conclusion: Our results indicated that targeted inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway impaired cell proliferation, survival, and invasion in human colon cancer. Keywords: human colon cancer, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, BEZ235, PI3KCA knockdown

  15. The cardiac glycoside oleandrin induces apoptosis in human colon cancer cells via the mitochondrial pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li; Zhang, Yuming; Zhao, Wanlu; Zhou, Xia; Wang, Chunxia; Deng, Fan

    2017-07-01

    Evidence indicates that the cardiac glycoside oleandrin exhibits cytotoxic activity against several different types of cancer. However, the specific mechanisms underlying oleandrin-induced anti-tumor effects remain largely unknown. The present study examined the anti-cancer effect and underlying mechanism of oleandrin on human colon cancer cells. The cytotoxicity and IC50 of five small molecule compounds (oleandrin, neriifolin, strophanthidin, gitoxigenin, and convallatoxin) in human colon cancer cell line SW480 cells and normal human colon cell line NCM460 cells were determined by cell counting and MTT assays, respectively. Apoptosis was determined by staining cells with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide, followed by flow cytometry. Intracellular Ca 2+ was determined using Fluo-3 AM,glutathione (GSH) levels were measured using a GSH detection kit,and the activity of caspase-3, -9 was measured using a peptide substrate. BAX, pro-caspase-3, -9, cytochrome C and BCL-2 expression were determined by Western blotting. Oleandrin significantly decreased cell viabilities in SW480, HCT116 and RKO cells. The IC50 for SW480 cells was 0.02 µM, whereas for NCM460 cells 0.56 µM. More interestingly, the results of flow cytometry showed that oleandrin potently induced apoptosis in SW480 and RKO cells. Oleandrin downregulated protein expression of pro-caspase-3, -9, but enhanced caspase-3, -9 activities. These effects were accompanied by upregulation of protein expression of cytochrome C and BAX, and downregulation of BCL-2 protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, oleandrin increased intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, but decreased GSH concentration in the cells. The present results suggest that oleandrin induces apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells via the mitochondrial pathway. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism of anti-cancer property of oleandrin.

  16. Phenolic extract from oleaster (Olea europaea var. Sylvestris) leaves reduces colon cancer growth and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in colon cancer cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeriouh, Wafa; Nani, Abdelhafid; Belarbi, Meriem; Dumont, Adélie; de Rosny, Charlotte; Aboura, Ikram; Ghanemi, Fatima Zahra; Murtaza, Babar; Patoli, Danish; Thomas, Charles; Apetoh, Lionel; Rébé, Cédric; Delmas, Dominique; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Ghiringhelli, François; Rialland, Mickael; Hichami, Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols, derived from natural products, have received a great interest for their chemopreventive properties against cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of phenolic extract of the oleaster leaves (PEOL) on tumor growth in mouse model and on cell death in colon cancer cell lines. We assessed the effect of oleaster leaf infusion on HCT116 (human colon cancer cell line) xenograft growth in athymic nude mice. We observed that oleaster leaf polyphenol-rich infusion limited HCT116 tumor growth in vivo. Investigations of PEOL on two human CRC cell lines showed that PEOL induced apoptosis in HCT116 and HCT8 cells. We demonstrated an activation of caspase-3, -7 and -9 by PEOL and that pre-treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-fmk), prevented PEOL-induced cell death. We observed an involvement of the mitochondrial pathway in PEOL-induced apoptosis evidenced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, a decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release. Increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration induced by PEOL represents the early event involved in mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis induced by PEOL, as ruthenium red, an inhibitor of mitochondrial calcium uptake inhibited apoptotic effect of PEOL, BAPTA/AM inhibited PEOL-induced ROS generation and finally, N-acetyl-L-cysteine reversed ER stress and apoptotic effect of PEOL. These results demonstrate that polyphenols from oleaster leaves might have a strong potential as chemopreventive agent in colorectal cancer.

  17. Curcumin Conjugated with PLGA Potentiates Sustainability, Anti-Proliferative Activity and Apoptosis in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghela, Bhargav N.; Sharma, Anupama; Dhumale, Suhashini; Pandey, Shashibahl M.; Pathak, Chandramani

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, an ingredient of turmeric, exhibits a variety of biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-proliferative, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-metastatic. It is a highly pleiotropic molecule that inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Despite its imperative biological activities, chemical instability, photo-instability and poor bioavailability limits its utilization as an effective therapeutic agent. Therefore, enhancing the bioavailability of curcumin may improve its therapeutic index for clinical setting. In the present study, we have conjugated curcumin with a biodegradable polymer Poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) and evaluated its apoptotic potential in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT 116). The results show that curcumin-PLGA conjugate efficiently inhibits cell proliferation and cell survival in human colon carcinoma cells as compared to native curcumin. Additionally, curcumin conjugated with PLGA shows improved cellular uptake and exhibits controlled release at physiological pH as compared to native curcumin. The curcumin-PLGA conjugate efficiently activates the cascade of caspases and promotes intrinsic apoptotic signaling. Thus, the results suggest that conjugation potentiates the sustainability, anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity of curcumin. This approach could be a promising strategy to improve the therapeutic index of cancer therapy. PMID:25692854

  18. The Effect of Sulfated (1→3-α-l-Fucan from the Brown Alga Saccharina cichorioides Miyabe on Resveratrol-Induced Apoptosis in Colon Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia S. Vishchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating data clearly indicate that the induction of apoptosis by nontoxic natural compounds is a potent defense against the development and progression of many malignancies, including colon cancer. Resveratrol and the fucoidans have been shown to possess potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the combination of a fucoidan from the brown alga Saccharina cichorioides Miyabe and resveratrol would be an effective preventive and/or therapeutic strategy against colon cancer. Based on NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF analysis, the fucoidan isolated and purified from Saccharina cichorioides Miyabe was (1→3-α-l-fucan with sulfate groups at C2 and C4 of the α-l-fucopyranose residues. The fucoidan enhanced the antiproliferative activity of resveratrol at nontoxic doses and facilitated resveratrol-induced apoptosis in the HCT 116 human colon cancer cell line. Apoptosis was realized by the activation of initiator caspase-9 and effector caspase-7 and -3, followed by the cleavage of PARP. Furthermore, significant inhibition of HCT 116 colony formation was associated with the sensitization of cells to resveratrol by the fucoidan. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the combination of the algal fucoidan with resveratrol may provide a potential therapy against human colon cancer.

  19. Methylselenol, a selenium metabolite, modulates p53 pathway and inhibits the growth of colon cancer xenografts in Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Johnson, Luann K

    2013-05-01

    It is has been hypothesized that methylselenol is a critical selenium metabolite for anticancer activity in vivo. In this study, we used a protein array which contained 112 different antibodies known to be involved in the p53 pathway to investigate the molecular targets of methylselenol in human HCT116 colon cancer cells. The array analysis indicated that methylselenol exposure changed the expression of 11 protein targets related to the regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis. Subsequently, we confirmed these proteins with the Western blotting approach, and found that methylselenol increased the expression of GADD 153 and p21 but reduced the level of c-Myc, E2F1 and Phos p38 MAP kinase. Similar to our previous report on human HCT116 colon cancer cells, methylselenol also inhibited cell growth and led to an increase in G1 and G2 fractions with a concomitant drop in S-phase in mouse colon cancer MC26 cells. When the MC26 cells were transplanted to their immune-competent Balb/c mice, methylselenol-treated MC26 cells had significantly less tumor growth potential than that of untreated MC26 cells. Taken together, our data suggest that methylselenol modulates the expression of key genes related to cell cycle and apoptosis and inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. ZEB1 Promotes Oxaliplatin Resistance through the Induction of Epithelial - Mesenchymal Transition in Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cao; Ma, Junli; Deng, Ganlu; Qu, Yanlin; Yin, Ling; Li, Yiyi; Han, Ying; Cai, Changjing; Shen, Hong; Zeng, Shan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oxaliplatin (OXA) chemotherapy is widely used in the clinical treatment of colon cancer. However, chemo-resistance is still a barrier to effective chemotherapy in cases of colon cancer. Accumulated evidence suggests that the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) may be a critical factor in chemo-sensitivity. The present study investigated the effects of Zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) on OXA-sensitivity in colon cancer cells. Method: ZEB1expression and its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed using tumor tissue from an independent cohort consisting of 118 colon cancer (CC) patients who receiving OXA-based chemotherapy. ZEB1 modulation of OXA-sensitivity in colon cancer cells was investigated in a OXA-resistant subline of HCT116/OXA cells and the parental colon cancer cell line: HCT116. A CCK8 assay was carried out to determine OXA-sensitivity. qRT-PCR, Western blot, Scratch wound healing and transwell assays were used to determine EMT phenotype of colon cells. ZEB1 knockdown using small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to determine the ZEB1 contribution to OXA-sensitivity in vitro and in vivo (in a nude mice xenograft model). Result: ZEB1 expression was significantly increased in colon tumor tissue, and was correlated with lymph node metastasis and the depth of invasion. Compared with the parental colon cancer cells (HCT116), HCT116/OXA cells exhibited an EMT phenotype characterized by up-regulated expression of ZEB1, Vimentin, MMP2 and MMP9, but down-regulated expression of E-cadherin. Transfection of Si-ZEB1 into HCT116/OXA cells significantly reversed the EMT phenotype and enhanced OXA-sensitivity in vitro and in vivo . Conclusion: HCT116/OXA cells acquired an EMT phenotype. ZEB1 knockdown effectively restored OXA-sensitivity by reversing EMT. ZEB1 is a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of OXA-resistance in colon cancer.

  1. Prophylactic effects of triptolide on colon cancer development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate effects of triptolide on colon cancer cell growth and its capacity to prevent tumor development in an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model of colon cancer. Methods: HCT116 cell viability and migration potential were assessed. Control and AOM/DSS-treated mice (with and ...

  2. Role of protein kinase C and epidermal growth factor receptor signalling in growth stimulation by neurotensin in colon carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajani Olav

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotensin has been found to promote colon carcinogenesis in rats and mice, and proliferation of human colon carcinoma cell lines, but the mechanisms involved are not clear. We have examined signalling pathways activated by neurotensin in colorectal and pancreatic carcinoma cells. Methods Colon carcinoma cell lines HCT116 and HT29 and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Panc-1 were cultured and stimulated with neurotensin or epidermal growth factor (EGF. DNA synthesis was determined by incorporation of radiolabelled thymidine into DNA. Levels and phosphorylation of proteins in signalling pathways were assessed by Western blotting. Results Neurotensin stimulated the phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and Akt in all three cell lines, but apparently did so through different pathways. In Panc-1 cells, neurotensin-induced phosphorylation of ERK, but not Akt, was dependent on protein kinase C (PKC, whereas an inhibitor of the β-isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, TGX221, abolished neurotensin-induced Akt phosphorylation in these cells, and there was no evidence of EGF receptor (EGFR transactivation. In HT29 cells, in contrast, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib blocked neurotensin-stimulated phosphorylation of both ERK and Akt, indicating transactivation of EGFR, independently of PKC. In HCT116 cells, neurotensin induced both a PKC-dependent phosphorylation of ERK and a metalloproteinase-mediated transactivation of EGFR that was associated with a gefitinib-sensitive phosphorylation of the downstream adaptor protein Shc. The activation of Akt was also inhibited by gefitinib, but only partly, suggesting a mechanism in addition to EGFR transactivation. Inhibition of PKC blocked neurotensin-induced DNA synthesis in HCT116 cells. Conclusions While acting predominantly through PKC in Panc-1 cells and via EGFR transactivation in HT29 cells, neurotensin used both these pathways in HCT116

  3. Role of protein kinase C and epidermal growth factor receptor signalling in growth stimulation by neurotensin in colon carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Kristin M; Tveteraas, Ingun H; Aasrum, Monica; Ødegård, John; Dawood, Mona; Dajani, Olav; Christoffersen, Thoralf; Sandnes, Dagny L

    2011-01-01

    Neurotensin has been found to promote colon carcinogenesis in rats and mice, and proliferation of human colon carcinoma cell lines, but the mechanisms involved are not clear. We have examined signalling pathways activated by neurotensin in colorectal and pancreatic carcinoma cells. Colon carcinoma cell lines HCT116 and HT29 and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Panc-1 were cultured and stimulated with neurotensin or epidermal growth factor (EGF). DNA synthesis was determined by incorporation of radiolabelled thymidine into DNA. Levels and phosphorylation of proteins in signalling pathways were assessed by Western blotting. Neurotensin stimulated the phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt in all three cell lines, but apparently did so through different pathways. In Panc-1 cells, neurotensin-induced phosphorylation of ERK, but not Akt, was dependent on protein kinase C (PKC), whereas an inhibitor of the β-isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), TGX221, abolished neurotensin-induced Akt phosphorylation in these cells, and there was no evidence of EGF receptor (EGFR) transactivation. In HT29 cells, in contrast, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib blocked neurotensin-stimulated phosphorylation of both ERK and Akt, indicating transactivation of EGFR, independently of PKC. In HCT116 cells, neurotensin induced both a PKC-dependent phosphorylation of ERK and a metalloproteinase-mediated transactivation of EGFR that was associated with a gefitinib-sensitive phosphorylation of the downstream adaptor protein Shc. The activation of Akt was also inhibited by gefitinib, but only partly, suggesting a mechanism in addition to EGFR transactivation. Inhibition of PKC blocked neurotensin-induced DNA synthesis in HCT116 cells. While acting predominantly through PKC in Panc-1 cells and via EGFR transactivation in HT29 cells, neurotensin used both these pathways in HCT116 cells. In these cells, neurotensin-induced activation of ERK

  4. Effects of maple (Acer) plant part extracts on proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of human tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic colon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Li, Liya; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-07-01

    Phenolic-enriched extracts of maple sap and syrup, obtained from the sugar and red maple species (Acer saccharum Marsh, A. rubrum L., respectively), are reported to show anticancer effects. Despite traditional medicinal uses of various other parts of these plants by Native Americans, they have not been investigated for anticancer activity. Here leaves, stems/twigs, barks and sapwoods of both maple species were evaluated for antiproliferative effects against human colon tumorigenic (HCT-116, HT-29, Caco-2) and non-tumorigenic (CCD-18Co) cells. Extracts were standardized to total phenolic and ginnalin-A (isolated in our laboratory) levels. Overall, the extracts inhibited the growth of the colon cancer more than normal cells (over two-fold), their activities increased with their ginnalin-A levels, with red > sugar maple extracts. The red maple leaf extract, which contained the highest ginnalin-A content, was the most active extract (IC₅₀  = 35 and 16 µg/mL for extract and ginnalin-A, respectively). The extracts were not cytotoxic nor did they induce apoptosis of the colon cancer cells. However, cell cycle analyses revealed that the antiproliferative effects of the extracts were mediated through cell cycle arrest in the S-phase. The results from the current study suggest that these maple plant part extracts may have potential anticolon cancer effects. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Prehistoric human colonization of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2. Earliest human colonization of south Asia. The early human colonization of south Asia is represented largely by an abundance of stone tool assemblages. The oldest known tools ..... component among finished tools is conspicuous in the hinterland riverine ...... sativum), green gram (Vigna radiata), gram/chicken pea.

  6. Morpholino-Mediated Isoform Modulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR2) Reduces Colon Cancer Xenograft Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stagg, Brian C., E-mail: briancstagg@gmail.com; Uehara, Hironori; Lambert, Nathan; Rai, Ruju; Gupta, Isha; Radmall, Bryce; Bates, Taylor; Ambati, Balamurali K. [John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84132 (United States)

    2014-11-26

    Angiogenesis plays a key role in tumor growth. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a pro-angiogenic that is involved in tumor angiogenesis. When VEGF binds to membrane-bound vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (mVEGFR2), it promotes angiogenesis. Through alternative polyadenylation, VEGFR2 is also expressed in a soluble form (sVEGFR2). sVEGFR2 sequesters VEGF and is therefore anti-angiogenic. The aim of this study was to show that treatment with a previously developed and reported antisense morpholino oligomer that shifts expression from mVEGFR2 to sVEGFR2 would lead to reduced tumor vascularization and growth in a murine colon cancer xenograft model. Xenografts were generated by implanting human HCT-116 colon cancer cells into the flanks of NMRI nu/nu mice. Treatment with the therapeutic morpholino reduced both tumor growth and tumor vascularization. Because the HCT-116 cells used for the experiments did not express VEGFR2 and because the treatment morpholino targeted mouse rather than human VEGFR2, it is likely that treatment morpholino was acting on the mouse endothelial cells rather than directly on the tumor cells.

  7. Influence of MLH1 on colon cancer sensitivity to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor combined with irinotecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentori, Lucio; Leonetti, Carlo; Muzi, Alessia; Dorio, Annalisa Susanna; Porru, Manuela; Dolci, Susanna; Campolo, Federica; Vernole, Patrizia; Lacal, Pedro Miguel; Praz, Françoise; Graziani, Grazia

    2013-07-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) are currently evaluated in clinical trials in combination with topoisomerase I (Top1) inhibitors against a variety of cancers, including colon carcinoma. Since the mismatch repair component MLH1 is defective in 10-15% of colorectal cancers we have investigated whether MLH1 affects response to the Top1 inhibitor irinotecan, alone or in combination with PARPi. To this end, the colon cancer cell lines HCT116, carrying MLH1 mutations on chromosome 3 and HCT116 in which the wild-type MLH1 gene was replaced via chromosomal transfer (HCT116+3) or by transfection of the corresponding MLH1 cDNA (HCT116 1-2) were used. HCT116 cells or HCT116+3 cells stably silenced for PARP-1 expression were also analysed. The results of in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that MLH1, together with low levels of Top1, contributed to colon cancer resistance to irinotecan. In the MLH1-proficient cells SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan, induced lower levels of DNA damage than in MLH1-deficient cells, as shown by the weaker induction of γ-H2AX and p53 phosphorylation. The presence of MLH1 contributed to induce of prompt Chk1 phosphorylation, restoring G2/M cell cycle checkpoint and repair of DNA damage. On the contrary, in the absence of MLH1, HCT116 cells showed minor Chk1 phosphorylation and underwent apoptosis. Remarkably, inhibition of PARP function by PARPi or by PARP-1 gene silencing always increased the antitumor activity of irinotecan, even in the presence of low PARP-1 expression.

  8. Data showing the circumvention of oxaliplatin resistance by vatalanib in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Kenneth K W; Poon, Daniel C; Wei, Yuming; Wang, Fang; Lin, Ge; Fu, Li-Wu

    2016-06-01

    We have recently reported that vatalanib, an orally active small molecule multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (Hess-Stumpp et al., 2005 [1]), can sensitize multidrug resistant (MDR) colon cancer cells to chemotherapy under hypoxia by inhibiting two MDR transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 (To et al., 2015 [2]). This data article describes the possible circumvention of resistance to specifically platinum (Pt)-based anticancer drugs by vatalanib via inhibition of two other efflux transporters ABCC2 and ATP7A. Data from the flow cytometric transporter efflux assay showed specific inhibition of ABCC2 activity by vatalanib in stable transfected cells and ABCC2-overexpressing oxaliplatin-resistant colon cancer cells HCT116/Oxa. We also performed the transporter ABCC2 ATPase assay and showed an increase in ATP hydrolysis by ABCC2 in the presence of vatalanib. ATP7A mRNA expression was also shown to be upregulated in HCT116/Oxa cells. Vatalanib was shown to suppress this upregulated ATP7A expression. Data from the cellular Pt accumulation assay showed a lower Pt accumulation in HCT116/Oxa cells than the parental sensitive HCT116 cells. Vatalanib was shown to increase cellular Pt accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Combination of oxaliplatin and vatalanib was shown to restore the suppressed apoptosis in HCT116/Oxa cells.

  9. Data showing the circumvention of oxaliplatin resistance by vatalanib in colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth K.W. To

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We have recently reported that vatalanib, an orally active small molecule multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (Hess-Stumpp et al., 2005 [1], can sensitize multidrug resistant (MDR colon cancer cells to chemotherapy under hypoxia by inhibiting two MDR transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 (To et al., 2015 [2]. This data article describes the possible circumvention of resistance to specifically platinum (Pt-based anticancer drugs by vatalanib via inhibition of two other efflux transporters ABCC2 and ATP7A. Data from the flow cytometric transporter efflux assay showed specific inhibition of ABCC2 activity by vatalanib in stable transfected cells and ABCC2-overexpressing oxaliplatin-resistant colon cancer cells HCT116/Oxa. We also performed the transporter ABCC2 ATPase assay and showed an increase in ATP hydrolysis by ABCC2 in the presence of vatalanib. ATP7A mRNA expression was also shown to be upregulated in HCT116/Oxa cells. Vatalanib was shown to suppress this upregulated ATP7A expression. Data from the cellular Pt accumulation assay showed a lower Pt accumulation in HCT116/Oxa cells than the parental sensitive HCT116 cells. Vatalanib was shown to increase cellular Pt accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Combination of oxaliplatin and vatalanib was shown to restore the suppressed apoptosis in HCT116/Oxa cells.

  10. Activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) functions as a tumor suppressor in colon cancer and is up-regulated upon heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackl, Christina; Stoeltzing, Oliver; Lang, Sven A; Moser, Christian; Mori, Akira; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Hellerbrand, Claus; Dietmeier, Wolfgang; Schlitt, Hans J; Geissler, Edward K

    2010-01-01

    Activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) is involved in the complex process of cellular stress response. However, its exact role in cancer is discussed controversially because both tumor suppressive and oncogenic effects have been described. Here we followed-up on our previous observation that inhibition of Hsp90 may increase ATF3 expression and sought to determine the role of ATF3 in colon cancer. Regulation of ATF3 was determined in cancer cells using signaling inhibitors and a heat-shock protein-90 (Hsp90) antagonist. Human HCT116 cancer cells were stably transfected with an ATF3-shRNA or a luciferase-shRNA expression plasmid and alterations in cell motility were assessed in migration assays. The impact of ATF3 down-regulation on cancer growth and metastasis were investigated in a subcutaneous tumor model, a model of hepatic tumor growth and in a model of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Human colon cancer tissues were analyzed for ATF3 expression. The results show that therapeutic Hsp90 inhibition substantially up-regulates the expression of ATF3 in various cancer cells, including colon, gastric and pancreatic cancer. This effect was evident both in vitro and in vivo. RNAi mediated knock-down of ATF3 in HCT116 colon cancer cells significantly increased cancer cell migration in vitro. Moreover, in xenogenic mouse models, ATF3 knock-down promoted subcutaneous tumor growth and hepatic metastasis, as well as peritoneal carcinomatosis. Importantly, ATF3 expression was lower in human colon cancer specimens, as compared to corresponding normal surrounding tissues, suggesting that ATF3 may represent a down-regulated tumor suppressor in colon cancer. In conclusion, ATF3 down-regulation in colon cancer promotes tumor growth and metastasis. Considering that blocking Hsp90 induces ATF3 expression, Hsp90 inhibition may represent a valid strategy to treat metastatic colon cancer by up-regulating this anti-metastatic transcription factor

  11. Prehistoric human colonization of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    J. Biosci. | Vol. 26 | No. 4 | Suppl. | November 2001. V N Misra. 492 ... humans differ from the other apes in their upright posture, ... characterized by Levallois flakes and blades and by the ... and the coastal region running parallel to them, northeast ..... November 2001. Prehistoric human colonization of India. 497. Figure 1.

  12. p53 is involved in clearance of ionizing radiation-induced RAD51 foci in a human colon cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orre, Lukas M.; Stenerloew, Bo; Dhar, Sumeer; Larsson, Rolf; Lewensohn, Rolf; Lehtioe, Janne

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated p53-related differences in cellular response to DNA damaging agents, focusing on p53s effects on RAD51 protein level and sub-cellular localization post exposure to ionizing radiation. In a human colon cancer cell line, HCT116 and its isogenic p53-/- subcell line we show here p53-independent RAD51 foci formation but interestingly the resolution of RAD51 foci showed clear p53 dependence. In p53 wt cells, but not in p53-/- cells, RAD51 protein level decreased 48 h post irradiation and fluorescence immunostaining showed resolution of RAD51 foci and relocalization of RAD51 to nucleoli at time points corresponding to the decrease in RAD51 protein level. Both cell lines rejoined DNA double strand breaks efficiently with similar kinetics and p53 status did not influence sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. We suggest that p53 has a role in RAD51 clearance post DSB repair and that nucleoli might be sites of RAD51 protein degradation

  13. Impact of MLH1 expression on tumor evolution after curative surgical tumor resection in a murine orthotopic xenograft model for human MSI colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Katy; Ferron, Marianne; Calmel, Claire; Fléjou, Jean-François; Pocard, Marc; Praz, Françoise

    2017-09-01

    Colorectal cancers (CRCs) displaying microsatellite instability (MSI) most often result from MLH1 deficiency. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of MLH1 expression per se on tumor evolution after curative surgical resection using a xenograft tumor model. Transplantable tumors established with the human MLH1-deficient HCT116 cell line and its MLH1-complemented isogenic clone, mlh1-3, were implanted onto the caecum of NOD/SCID mice. Curative surgical resection was performed at day 10 in half of the animals. The HCT116-derived tumors were more voluminous compared to the mlh1-3 ones (P = .001). Lymph node metastases and peritoneal carcinomatosis occurred significantly more often in the group of mice grafted with HCT116 (P = .007 and P = .035, respectively). Mlh1-3-grafted mice did not develop peritoneal carcinomatosis or liver metastasis. After surgical resection, lymph node metastases only arose in the group of mice implanted with HCT116 and the rate of cure was significantly lower than in the mlh1-3 group (P = .047). The murine orthotopic xenograft model based on isogenic human CRC cell lines allowed us to reveal the impact of MLH1 expression on tumor evolution in mice who underwent curative surgical resection and in mice whose tumor was left in situ. Our data indicate that the behavior of MLH1-deficient CRC is not only governed by mutations arising in genes harboring microsatellite repeated sequences but also from their defect in MLH1 as such. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. DNA microarray profiling of genes differentially regulated by the histone deacetylase inhibitors vorinostat and LBH589 in colon cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenz Heinz-Josef

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the significant progress made in colon cancer chemotherapy, advanced disease remains largely incurable and novel efficacious chemotherapies are urgently needed. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi represent a novel class of agents which have demonstrated promising preclinical activity and are undergoing clinical evaluation in colon cancer. The goal of this study was to identify genes in colon cancer cells that are differentially regulated by two clinically advanced hydroxamic acid HDACi, vorinostat and LBH589 to provide rationale for novel drug combination partners and identify a core set of HDACi-regulated genes. Methods HCT116 and HT29 colon cancer cells were treated with LBH589 or vorinostat and growth inhibition, acetylation status and apoptosis were analyzed in response to treatment using MTS, Western blotting and flow cytometric analyses. In addition, gene expression was analyzed using the Illumina Human-6 V2 BeadChip array and Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis. Results Treatment with either vorinostat or LBH589 rapidly induced histone acetylation, cell cycle arrest and inhibited the growth of both HCT116 and HT29 cells. Bioinformatic analysis of the microarray profiling revealed significant similarity in the genes altered in expression following treatment with the two HDACi tested within each cell line. However, analysis of genes that were altered in expression in the HCT116 and HT29 cells revealed cell-line-specific responses to HDACi treatment. In addition a core cassette of 11 genes modulated by both vorinostat and LBH589 were identified in both colon cancer cell lines analyzed. Conclusion This study identified HDACi-induced alterations in critical genes involved in nucleotide metabolism, angiogenesis, mitosis and cell survival which may represent potential intervention points for novel therapeutic combinations in colon cancer. This information will assist in the identification of novel pathways and targets

  15. Calreticulin is a fine tuning molecule in epibrassinolide-induced apoptosis through activating endoplasmic reticulum stress in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obakan-Yerlikaya, Pinar; Arisan, Elif Damla; Coker-Gurkan, Ajda; Adacan, Kaan; Ozbey, Utku; Somuncu, Berna; Baran, Didem; Palavan-Unsal, Narcin

    2017-06-01

    Epibrassinolide (EBR), a member of brassinostreoids plant hormones with cell proliferation promoting role in plants, is a natural polyhydroxysteroid with structural similarity to steroid hormones of vertebrates. EBR has antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effect in various cancer cells. Although EBR has been shown to affect survival and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathways in a p53-independent manner, the exact molecular targets of EBR are still under investigation. Our recent SILAC (Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture) data showed that the most significantly altered protein after EBR treatment was calreticulin (CALR). CALR, a chaperone localized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen, plays role in protein folding and buffering Ca 2+ ions. The alteration of CALR may cause ER stress and unfolded protein response correspondingly the induction of apoptosis. Unfolded proteins are conducted to 26S proteasomal degradation following ubiquitination. Our study revealed that EBR treatment caused ER stress and UPR by altering CALR expression causing caspase-dependent apoptosis in HCT 116, HT29, DLD-1, and SW480 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, 48 h EBR treatment did not caused UPR in Fetal Human Colon cells (FHC) and Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast cells (MEF). In addition our findings showed that HCT 116 colon cancer cells lacking Bax and Puma expression still undergo UPR and related apoptosis. CALR silencing and rapamycin co-treatment prevented EBR-induced UPR and apoptosis, whereas 26S proteasome inhibition further increased the effect of EBR in colon cancer cells. All these findings showed that EBR is an ER stress and apoptotic inducer in colon cancer cells without affecting non-malignant cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Neurotensin Phosphorylates GSK-3α/β through the Activation of PKC in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingding Wang

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurotensin (NT, a gastrointestinal hormone, binds its receptor [neurotensin receptor (NTR] to regulate the growth of normal and neoplastic intestinal cells; molecular mechanisms remain largely undefined. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 regulates diverse cellular processes, including cell growth and apoptosis. Here, we show that NT induces the phosphorylation of GSK-3α/β in the human colon cancer cell line HT29, HCT116, or SW480, which possesses high-affinity NTR. The effect of NT was blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC, but not by inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK1 or phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, suggesting a predominant role for PKC in GSK-3β phosphorylation by NT. Pretreatment with Gö6976 (which inhibits PKCα and PKCβ1 or downregulation of endogenous PKCα or PKCβ1 blocked NT-mediated GSK-3β (but not GSK-3α phosphorylation. Moreover, a selective PKCβ inhibitor, LY379196, reduced NT-mediated GSK-3β (but not GSK-3α phosphorylation, suggesting a role for PKCbβ in the NT-mediated phosphorylation of GSK-3β and an undefined kinase in the NT-mediated phosphorylation of GSK-3α. Treatment with NT or the GSK-3 inhibitor SB216763 increased the expression of cyclin D1, a downstream effector protein of GSK-3 and a critical protein for the proliferation of various cells. Our results indicate that NT uses PKC-dependent pathways to modulate GSK-3, which may play a role in the NT regulation of intestinal cell growth.

  17. Inhibitory activities of Perilla frutescens britton leaf extract against the growth, migration, and adhesion of human cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Youngeun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Perilla frutescens Britton leaves are a commonly consumed vegetable in different Asian countries including Korea. Cancer is a major cause of human death worldwide. The aim of the current study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of ethanol extract of perilla leaf (PLE) against important characteristics of cancer cells, including unrestricted growth, resisted apoptosis, and activated metastasis, using human cancer cells. MATERIALS/METHODS Two human cancer cell lines were used in this study, HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells and H1299 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. Assays using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide were performed for measurement of cell growth. Soft agar and wound healing assays were performed to determine colony formation and cell migration, respectively. Nuclear staining and cell cycle analysis were performed for assessment of apoptosis. Fibronectin-coated plates were used to determine cell adhesion. RESULTS Treatment of HCT116 and H1299 cells with PLE resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of growth by 52-92% (at the concentrations of 87.5, 175, and 350 µg/ml) and completely abolished the colony formation in soft agar (at the concentration of 350 µg/ml). Treatment with PLE at the 350 µg/ml concentration resulted in change of the nucleus morphology and significantly increased sub-G1 cell population in both cells, indicating its apoptosis-inducing activity. PLE at the concentration range of 87.5 to 350 µg/ml was also effective in inhibiting the migration of H1299 cells (by 52-58%) and adhesion of both HCT116 and H1299 cells (by 25-46%). CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that PLE exerts anti-cancer activities against colon and lung cancers in vitro. Further studies are needed in order to determine whether similar effects are reproduced in vivo. PMID:25671062

  18. Evidence for Two Modes of Synergistic Induction of Apoptosis by Mapatumumab and Oxaliplatin in Combination with Hyperthermia in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinxin; Kim, Seog-Young; Lee, Yong J.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world-- the main cause of death from colorectal cancer is hepatic metastases, which can be treated with isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP). Searching for the most clinically relevant approaches for treating colorectal metastatic disease by isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP), we developed the application of oxaliplatin concomitantly with hyperthermia and humanized death receptor 4 (DR4) antibody mapatumumab (Mapa), and investigated the molecular mechanisms of this multimodality treatment in human colon cancer cell lines CX-1 and HCT116 as well as human colon cancer stem cells Tu-12, Tu-21 and Tu-22. We showed here, in this study, that the synergistic effect of the multimodality treatment-induced apoptosis was caspase dependent and activated death signaling via both the extrinsic apoptotic pathway and the intrinsic pathway. Death signaling was activated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling which led to Bcl-xL phosphorylation at serine 62, decreasing the anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-xL, which contributed to the intrinsic pathway. The downregulation of cellular FLICE inhibitory protein long isoform (c-FLIPL) in the extrinsic pathway was accomplished through ubiquitination at lysine residue (K) 195 and protein synthesis inhibition. Overexpression of c-FLIPL mutant (K195R) and Bcl-xL mutant (S62A) completely abrogated the synergistic effect. The successful outcome of this study supports the application of multimodality strategy to patients with colorectal hepatic metastases who fail to respond to standard chemoradiotherapy that predominantly targets the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:24013390

  19. IND-2, a pyrimido[1″,2″:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline derivative, circumvents multi-drug resistance and causes apoptosis in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Chandrabose; Lee, Crystal; Moore, Joshua; Mittal, Roopali; Suswam, Esther A; Abbott, Kodye L; Pondugula, Satyanarayana R; Manne, Upender; Narayanan, Narayanan K; Trivedi, Piyush; Tiwari, Amit K

    2015-02-01

    Naturally occurring condensed quinolines have anticancer properties. In efforts to find active analogues, we designed and synthesized eight polycyclic heterocycles with a pyrimido[1″,2″:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline framework (IND series). The compounds were evaluated for activity against colon (HCT-116 and S1-MI-80), prostate (PC3 and DU-145), breast (MCF-7 and MDAMB-231), ovarian (ov2008 and A2780), and hepatocellular (HepG2) cancer cells and against non-cancerous Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK), mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3), and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293). IND-2, a 4-chloro-2-methyl pyrimido[1″,2″:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline, exhibited more than ten-fold selectivity and potent cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells relative to the other cancer and non-cancer cells. With five additional colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, LS-180, LS-174, and LoVo), IND-2 had similar cytotoxicity and selectivity, and sub-micromolar concentrations caused changes in the morphology of HCT-116 and HCT-15 cells. IND-2 did not activate the transactivating function of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), indicating that it does not induce PXR-regulated ABCB1 or ABCG2 transporters. Indeed, IND-2 was not a substrate of ABCB1 or ABCG2, and it induced cytotoxicity in HEK293 cells overexpressing ABCB1 or ABCG2 to the same extent as in normal HEK293 cells. IND-2 was cytotoxic to resistant colon carcinoma S1-MI-80 cells, approximately three- and five-fold more than SN-38 and topotecan, respectively. In HCT-116 colon cancer cells, IND-2 produced concentration-dependent changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to apoptosis, and sub-micromolar concentrations caused chromosomal DNA fragmentation. These findings suggest that, by increasing apoptosis, IND-2 has potential therapeutic efficacy for colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhibitory effects of different forms of tocopherols, tocopherol phosphates, and tocopherol quinones on growth of colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolfi, Sonia C; Yang, Zhihong; Lee, Mao-Jung; Guan, Fei; Hong, Jungil; Yang, Chung S

    2013-09-11

    Tocopherols are the major source of dietary vitamin E. In this study, the growth inhibitory effects of different forms of tocopherols (T), tocopheryl phosphates (TP), and tocopherol quinones (TQ) on human colon cancer HCT116 and HT29 cells were investigated. δ-T was more active than γ-T in inhibiting colon cancer cell growth, decreasing cancer cell colony formation, and inducing apoptosis; however, α-T was rather ineffective. Similarly, the rate of cellular uptake also followed the ranking order δ-T > γ-T ≫ α-T. TP and TQ generally had higher inhibitory activities than their parent compounds. Interestingly, the γ forms of TP and TQ were more active than the δ forms in inhibiting cancer cell growth, whereas the α forms were the least effective. The potencies of γ-TQ and δ-TQ (showing IC50 values of ∼0.8 and ∼2 μM on HCT116 cells after a 72 h incubation, respectively) were greater than 100-fold and greater than 20-fold higher, respectively, than those of their parent tocopherols. Induction of cancer cell apoptosis by δ-T, γ-TP, and γ-TQ was characterized by the cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP1 and DNA fragmentation. These studies demonstrated the higher growth inhibitory activity of δ-T than γ-T, the even higher activities of the γ forms of TP and TQ, and the ineffectiveness of the α forms of tocopherol and their metabolites against colon cancer cells.

  1. The novel HDAC inhibitor AR-42-induced anti-colon cancer cell activity is associated with ceramide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Weihong; Xu, Bin; Yao, Yiting; Yu, Xiaoling; Shen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the potential activity of AR-42, a novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, against colon cancer cells. Our in vitro results showed that AR-42 induced ceramide production, exerted potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities in established (SW-620 and HCT-116 lines) and primary human colon cancer cells. Exogenously-added sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) suppressed AR-42-induced activity, yet a cell-permeable ceramide (C4) facilitated AR-42-induced cytotoxicity against colon cancer cells. In addition, AR-42-induced ceramide production and anti-colon cancer cell activity were inhibited by the ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1, but were exacerbated by PDMP, which is a ceramide glucosylation inhibitor. In vivo, oral administration of a single dose of AR-42 dramatically inhibited SW-620 xenograft growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, without inducing overt toxicities. Together, these results show that AR-42 dramatically inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, and ceramide production might be the key mechanism responsible for its actions. - Highlights: • AR-42 is anti-proliferative against primary/established colon cancer cells. • AR-42 induces significant apoptotic death in primary/established colon cancer cells. • Ceramide production mediates AR-42-induced cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells. • AR-42 oral administration potently inhibits SW-620 xenograft growth in SCID mice

  2. The novel HDAC inhibitor AR-42-induced anti-colon cancer cell activity is associated with ceramide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Weihong; Xu, Bin; Yao, Yiting; Yu, Xiaoling [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai (China); Shen, Jie, E-mail: tongrensj163@163.com [Department of Administrative, Tongren Hospital, No. 786 Yuyuan Road, Changning District, Shanghai (China)

    2015-08-07

    In the current study, we investigated the potential activity of AR-42, a novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, against colon cancer cells. Our in vitro results showed that AR-42 induced ceramide production, exerted potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities in established (SW-620 and HCT-116 lines) and primary human colon cancer cells. Exogenously-added sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) suppressed AR-42-induced activity, yet a cell-permeable ceramide (C4) facilitated AR-42-induced cytotoxicity against colon cancer cells. In addition, AR-42-induced ceramide production and anti-colon cancer cell activity were inhibited by the ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1, but were exacerbated by PDMP, which is a ceramide glucosylation inhibitor. In vivo, oral administration of a single dose of AR-42 dramatically inhibited SW-620 xenograft growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, without inducing overt toxicities. Together, these results show that AR-42 dramatically inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, and ceramide production might be the key mechanism responsible for its actions. - Highlights: • AR-42 is anti-proliferative against primary/established colon cancer cells. • AR-42 induces significant apoptotic death in primary/established colon cancer cells. • Ceramide production mediates AR-42-induced cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells. • AR-42 oral administration potently inhibits SW-620 xenograft growth in SCID mice.

  3. Inactivation of the FoxO3a transcription factor is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species during protein kinase CK2 downregulation-mediated senescence in human colon cancer and breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Yeol; Bae, Young-Seuk

    2016-09-09

    We previously showed that protein kinase CK2 downregulation mediates senescence through the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-p53-p21(Cip1/WAF1) pathway in various human cells. In the present study, we investigated whether the FoxO3a transcription factor is associated with ROS production during CK2 downregulation-induced senescence in human colon cancer HCT116 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. FoxO3a overexpression suppressed ROS production and p53 stabilization induced by a CK2α knockdown. CK2α downregulation induced nuclear export of FoxO3a through stimulation of AKT-mediated phosphorylation of FoxO3a and decreased transcription of its target genes (Cu/ZnSOD, MnSOD, and catalase). In contrast, CK2α overexpression inhibited AKT-mediated FoxO3a phosphorylation. This resulted in nuclear accumulation of FoxO3a, and elevated expression of its target genes. Therefore, these data indicate for the first time that CK2 downregulation stimulates ROS generation by inhibiting FoxO3a during premature senescence in human colon and breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrogen sulfide lowers proliferation and induces protective autophagy in colon epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya C Wu

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S is a gaseous bacterial metabolite that reaches high levels in the large intestine. In the present study, the effect of H(2S on the proliferation of normal and cancerous colon epithelial cells was investigated. An immortalized colon epithelial cell line (YAMC and a panel of colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, SW1116, HCT116 were exposed to H(2S at concentrations similar to those found in the human colon. H(2S inhibited normal and cancerous colon epithelial cell proliferation as measured by MTT assay. The anti-mitogenic effect of H(2S was accompanied by G(1-phase cell cycle arrest and the induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Cip. Moreover, exposure to H(2S led to features characteristic of autophagy, including increased formation of LC3B(+ autophagic vacuoles and acidic vesicular organelles as determined by immunofluorescence and acridine orange staining, respectively. Abolition of autophagy by RNA interference targeting Vps34 or Atg7 enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of H(2S. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that H(2S stimulated the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and inhibited the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and S6 kinase. Inhibition of AMPK significantly reversed H(2S-induced autophagy and inhibition of cell proliferation. Collectively, we demonstrate that H(2S inhibits colon epithelial cell proliferation and induces protective autophagy via the AMPK pathway.

  5. SILENCING THE NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC O-GLCNAC TRANSFERASE REDUCES PROLIFERATION, ADHESION AND MIGRATION OF CANCER AND FETAL HUMAN COLON CELL LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATA eSTEENACKERS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The post-translational modification of proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc is regulated by a unique couple of enzymes. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT transfers the GlcNAc residue from UDP-GlcNAc, the final product of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP, whereas O-GlcNAcase (OGA removes it. This study and others show that OGT and O-GlcNAcylation levels are increased in cancer cell lines. In that context we studied the effect of OGT silencing in the colon cancer cell lines HT29 and HCT116 and the primary colon cell line CCD841CoN. Herein we report that OGT silencing diminished proliferation, in vitro cell survival and adhesion of primary and cancer cell lines. SiOGT dramatically de-creased HT29 and CCD841CoN migration, CCD841CoN harboring high capabilities of mi-gration in Boyden chamber system when compared to HT29 and HCT116. The expression levels of actin and tubulin were unaffected by OGT knockdown but siOGT seemed to disor-ganize microfilament, microtubule and vinculin networks in CCD841CoN. While cancer cell lines harbor higher levels of OGT and O-GlcNAcylation to fulfill their proliferative and migra-tory properties, in agreement with their higher consumption of HBP main substrates glucose and glutamine, our data demonstrate that OGT expression is not only necessary for the biolog-ical properties of cancer cell lines but also for normal cells.

  6. Development of an Anti-HER2 Monoclonal Antibody H2Mab-139 Against Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Mika K; Yamada, Shinji; Itai, Shunsuke; Kato, Yukinari

    2018-02-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression has been reported in several cancers, such as breast, gastric, lung, pancreatic, and colorectal cancers. HER2 is overexpressed in those cancers and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Trastuzumab, a humanized anti-HER2 antibody, provides significant survival benefits for patients with HER2-overexpressing breast cancers and gastric cancers. In this study, we developed a novel anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody (mAb), H 2 Mab-139 (IgG 1 , kappa) and investigated it against colon cancers using flow cytometry, western blot, and immunohistochemical analyses. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that H 2 Mab-139 reacted with colon cancer cell lines, such as Caco-2, HCT-116, HCT-15, HT-29, LS 174T, COLO 201, COLO 205, HCT-8, SW1116, and DLD-1. Although H 2 Mab-139 strongly reacted with LN229/HER2 cells on the western blot, we did not observe a specific signal for HER2 in colon cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed sensitive and specific reactions of H 2 Mab-139 against colon cancers, indicating that H 2 Mab-139 is useful in detecting HER2 overexpression in colon cancers using flow cytometry and immunohistochemical analyses.

  7. Tussilagone suppresses colon cancer cell proliferation by promoting the degradation of β-catenin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hua; Lee, Hwa Jin; Ahn, Yeon Hwa; Kwon, Hye Jin; Jang, Chang-Young; Kim, Woo-Young; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Tussilagone (TSL) was purified from plant as an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. •TSL suppressed the β-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity. •The proteasomal degradation of β-catenin was induced by TSL. •TSL suppressed the Wnt/β-catenin target genes, cyclin D1 and c-myc. •TSL inhibit the proliferation of colon cancer cells. -- Abstract: Abnormal activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway frequently induces colon cancer progression. In the present study, we identified tussilagone (TSL), a compound isolated from the flower buds of Tussilago farfara, as an inhibitor on β-catenin dependent Wnt pathway. TSL suppressed β-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity and down-regulated β-catenin level both in cytoplasm and nuclei of HEK293 reporter cells when they were stimulated by Wnt3a or activated by an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β. Since the mRNA level was not changed by TSL, proteasomal degradation might be responsible for the decreased level of β-catenin. In SW480 and HCT116 colon cancer cell lines, TSL suppressed the β-catenin activity and also decreased the expression of cyclin D1 and c-myc, representative target genes of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and consequently inhibited the proliferation of colon cancer cells. Taken together, TSL might be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of human colon cancer

  8. Tussilagone suppresses colon cancer cell proliferation by promoting the degradation of β-catenin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hua [College of Pharmacy and Research Center for Cell Fate Control, Sookmyung Women’s University, 52 Hyochangwon-Gil, Yongsan-Gu, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hwa Jin [Department of Natural Medicine Resources, Semyung University, 65 Semyung-ro, Jecheon, Chungbuk 390-711 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Yeon Hwa; Kwon, Hye Jin; Jang, Chang-Young; Kim, Woo-Young [College of Pharmacy and Research Center for Cell Fate Control, Sookmyung Women’s University, 52 Hyochangwon-Gil, Yongsan-Gu, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jae-Ha, E-mail: ryuha@sookmyung.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy and Research Center for Cell Fate Control, Sookmyung Women’s University, 52 Hyochangwon-Gil, Yongsan-Gu, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Tussilagone (TSL) was purified from plant as an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. •TSL suppressed the β-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity. •The proteasomal degradation of β-catenin was induced by TSL. •TSL suppressed the Wnt/β-catenin target genes, cyclin D1 and c-myc. •TSL inhibit the proliferation of colon cancer cells. -- Abstract: Abnormal activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway frequently induces colon cancer progression. In the present study, we identified tussilagone (TSL), a compound isolated from the flower buds of Tussilago farfara, as an inhibitor on β-catenin dependent Wnt pathway. TSL suppressed β-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity and down-regulated β-catenin level both in cytoplasm and nuclei of HEK293 reporter cells when they were stimulated by Wnt3a or activated by an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β. Since the mRNA level was not changed by TSL, proteasomal degradation might be responsible for the decreased level of β-catenin. In SW480 and HCT116 colon cancer cell lines, TSL suppressed the β-catenin activity and also decreased the expression of cyclin D1 and c-myc, representative target genes of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and consequently inhibited the proliferation of colon cancer cells. Taken together, TSL might be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of human colon cancer.

  9. Prehistoric human colonization of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, V N

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar-Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500-1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide and

  10. Extracellular vesicle-mediated phenotype switching in malignant and non-malignant colon cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvey, Hillary E.; Chang, Audrey; Adler, Jason; Del Tatto, Michael; Perez, Kimberly; Quesenberry, Peter J.; Chatterjee, Devasis

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted from many cells, carrying cargoes including proteins and nucleic acids. Research has shown that EVs play a role in a variety of biological processes including immunity, bone formation and recently they have been implicated in promotion of a metastatic phenotype. EVs were isolated from HCT116 colon cancer cells, 1459 non-malignant colon fibroblast cells, and tumor and normal colon tissue from a patient sample. Co-cultures were performed with 1459 cells and malignant vesicles, as well as HCT116 cells and non-malignant vesicles. Malignant phenotype was measured using soft agar colony formation assay. Co-cultures were also analyzed for protein levels using mass spectrometry. The importance of 14-3-3 zeta/delta in transfer of malignant phenotype was explored using siRNA. Additionally, luciferase reporter assay was used to measure the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. This study demonstrates the ability of EVs derived from malignant colon cancer cell line and malignant patient tissue to induce the malignant phenotype in non-malignant colon cells. Similarly, EVs derived from non-malignant colon cell lines and normal patient tissue reversed the malignant phenotype of HCT116 cells. Cells expressing an EV-induced malignant phenotype showed increased transcriptional activity of NF-κB which was inhibited by the NF--κB inhibitor, BAY117082. We also demonstrate that knock down of 14-3-3 zeta/delta reduced anchorage-independent growth of HCT116 cells and 1459 cells co-cultured with HCT derived EVs. Evidence of EV-mediated induction of malignant phenotype, and reversal of malignant phenotype, provides rational basis for further study of the role of EVs in tumorigenesis. Identification of 14-3-3 zeta/delta as up-regulated in malignancy suggests its potential as a putative drug target for the treatment of colorectal cancer

  11. Colon cancer associated transcripts in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yincong; Xie, Haibiao; Gao, Qunjun; Zhan, Hengji; Xiao, Huizhong; Zou, Yifan; Zhang, Fuyou; Liu, Yuchen; Li, Jianfa

    2017-10-01

    Long non-coding RNAs serve as important regulators in complicated cellular activities, including cell differentiation, proliferation and death. Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs occurs in the formation and progression of cancers. The family of colon cancer associated transcripts, long non-coding RNAs colon cancer associated transcript-1 and colon cancer associated transcript-2 are known as oncogenes involved in various cancers. Colon cancer associated transcript-1 is a novel lncRNA located in 8q24.2, and colon cancer associated transcript-2 maps to the 8q24.21 region encompassing rs6983267. Colon cancer associated transcripts have close associations with clinical characteristics, such as lymph node metastasis, high TNM stage and short overall survival. Knockdown of them can reverse the malignant phenotypes of cancer cells, including proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis. Moreover, they can increase the expression level of c-MYC and oncogenic microRNAs via activating a series of complex mechanisms. In brief, the family of colon cancer associated transcripts may serve as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for human cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Frondoside A Enhances the Anti-Cancer Effects of Oxaliplatin and 5-Fluorouracil on Colon Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Attoub

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, we have demonstrated that Frondoside A, a triterpenoid glycoside isolated from an Atlantic sea cucumber, has potent in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer effects against human pancreatic, breast, and lung cancer. We have also demonstrated that Frondoside A is able to potentiate and/or synergize the anti-cancer effects of major classical cytotoxic agents, namely, gemcitabine, paclitaxel, and cisplatin, in the treatment of pancreatic, breast, and lung cancer, respectively. This study evaluates the impact of Frondoside A alone and in combination with the standard cytotoxic drugs oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU in the treatment of colon cancer using three human colon cancer cell lines, namely, HT-29, HCT-116, and HCT8/S11. We demonstrate that Frondoside A, oxaliplatin, and 5-FU cause a concentration- and time-dependent reduction in the number of HT-29 colon cancer cells. A concentration of 2.5 µM of Frondoside A led to almost 100% inhibition of cell numbers at 72 h. A similar effect was only observed with a much higher concentration (100 µM of oxaliplatin or 5-FU. The reduction in cell numbers by Frondoside A, oxaliplatin, and 5-FU was also confirmed in two other colon cancer cell lines, namely, HCT8/S11 and HCT-116, treated for 48 h. The combinations of low concentrations of these drugs for 48 h in vitro clearly demonstrated that Frondoside A enhances the inhibition of cell numbers induced by oxaliplatin or 5-FU. Similarly, such a combination also efficiently inhibited colony growth in vitro. Interestingly, we found that the inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation was significantly enhanced when Frondoside A was used in combination treatments. Moreover, we show that Frondoside A and 5-FU, when used alone, induce a concentration-dependent induction of apoptosis and that their pro-apoptotic effect is dramatically enhanced when used in combination. We further demonstrate that apoptosis induction upon the treatment of colon cancer

  13. REDOX IMAGING OF THE p53-DEPENDENT MITOCHONDRIAL REDOX STATE IN COLON CANCER EX VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, HE N.; FENG, MIN; MOON, LILY; DOLLOFF, NATHAN; EL-DEIRY, WAFIK; LI, LIN Z.

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial redox state and its heterogeneity of colon cancer at tissue level have not been previously reported. Nor has how p53 regulates mitochondrial respiration been measured at (deep) tissue level, presumably due to the unavailability of the technology that has sufficient spatial resolution and tissue penetration depth. Our prior work demonstrated that the mitochondrial redox state and its intratumor heterogeneity is associated with cancer aggressiveness in human melanoma and breast cancer in mouse models, with the more metastatic tumors exhibiting localized regions of more oxidized redox state. Using the Chance redox scanner with an in-plane spatial resolution of 200 μm, we imaged the mitochondrial redox state of the wild-type p53 colon tumors (HCT116 p53 wt) and the p53-deleted colon tumors (HCT116 p53−/−) by collecting the fluorescence signals of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and oxidized flavoproteins [Fp, including flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)] from the mouse xenografts snap-frozen at low temperature. Our results show that: (1) both tumor lines have significant degree of intratumor heterogeneity of the redox state, typically exhibiting a distinct bi-modal distribution that either correlates with the spatial core–rim pattern or the “hot/cold” oxidation-reduction patches; (2) the p53−/− group is significantly more heterogeneous in the mitochondrial redox state and has a more oxidized tumor core compared to the p53 wt group when the tumor sizes of the two groups are matched; (3) the tumor size dependence of the redox indices (such as Fp and Fp redox ratio) is significant in the p53−/− group with the larger ones being more oxidized and more heterogeneous in their redox state, particularly more oxidized in the tumor central regions; (4) the H&E staining images of tumor sections grossly correlate with the redox images. The present work is the first to reveal at the submillimeter scale the intratumor heterogeneity pattern

  14. Colon-targeted delivery of piceatannol enhances anti-colitic effects of the natural product: potential molecular mechanisms for therapeutic enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yum S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soohwan Yum, Seongkeun Jeong, Sunyoung Lee, Joon Nam, Wooseong Kim, Jin-Wook Yoo, Min-Soo Kim, Bok Luel Lee, Yunjin Jung College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan, Republic of Korea Abstract: Piceatannol (PCT, an anti-colitic natural product, undergoes extensive Phase II hepatic metabolism, resulting in very low bioavailability. We investigated whether colon-targeted delivery of PCT could enhance anti-colitic effects and how therapeutic enhancement occurred at the molecular level. Molecular effects of PCT were examined in human colon carcinoma cells and inflamed colons. The anti-colitic effects of PCT in a colon-targeted capsule (colon-targeted PCT were compared with PCT in a gelatin capsule (conventional PCT in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced rat colitis model. Colon-targeted PCT elicited greatly enhanced recovery of the colonic inflammation. In HCT116 cells, PCT inhibited nuclear factor kappaB while activating anti-colitic transcription factors, nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NF-E2 p45-related factor 2, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1. Colon-targeted PCT, but not conventional PCT, modulated production of the target gene products of the transcription factors in the inflamed colonic tissues. Rectal administration of PCT, which simulates the therapeutic action of colon-targeted PCT, also ameliorated rat colitis and reproduced the molecular effects in the inflamed colonic tissues. Colon-targeted delivery increased therapeutic efficacy of PCT against colitis, likely resulting from multitargeted effects exerted by colon-targeted PCT. The drug delivery technique may be useful for therapeutic optimization of anti-colitic lead compounds including natural products. Keywords: piceatannol, colitis, colon-targeted delivery, multitarget, polypharmacology

  15. Colonic spirochetosis in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James L

    2005-07-01

    Colonic spirochetosis is a disease caused by the gram-negative bacteria Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira pilosicoli. B. pilosicoli induces disease in both humans and animals, whereas B. aalborgi affects only humans and higher primates. Symptoms in humans include diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and abdominal cramps. Colonic spirochetosis is common in third world countries; however, in developed countries, the disease is observed mainly in homosexual males. Terminally ill patients infected with Brachyspira are particularly at risk for developing spirochetemia. Diarrhea, poor growth performance, and decreased feed-to-gain efficiency is seen in pigs with colonic spirochetosis. The disease in chickens is characterized by delayed and/or reduced egg production, diarrhea, poor feed conversion, and retarded growth. Thus, colonic spirochetosis can represent a serious economic loss in the swine and poultry industries. The organisms are transmitted by the fecal-oral route, and several studies have demonstrated that human, primate, pig, dog, or bird strains of B. pilosicoli can be transmitted to pigs, chickens, and mice. B. pilosicoli may be a zoonotic pathogen, and although it has not been demonstrated, there is a possibility that both B. pilosicoli and B. aalborgi can be transferred to humans via contact with the feces of infected animals, meat from infected animals, or food contaminated by food handlers. Neither B. pilosicoli nor B. aalborgi has been well characterized in terms of basic cellular functions, pathogenicity, or genetics. Studies are needed to more thoroughly understand these Brachyspira species and their disease mechanisms.

  16. The ganglioside GM3 is associated with cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Wook Chung

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, CDDP is a well-known chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of several cancers. However, the precise mechanism underlying apoptosis of cancer cells induced by CDDP remains unclear. In this study, we show mechanistically that CDDP induces GM3-mediated apoptosis of HCT116 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation, and increasing DNA fragmentation and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis signals. CDDP induced apoptosis within cells through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, regulated the ROS-mediated expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and p53, and induced the degradation of the poly (ADP-ribosyl polymerase (PARP. We also checked expression levels of different gangliosides in HCT116 cells in the presence or absence of CDDP. Interestingly, among the gangliosides, CDDP augmented the expression of only GM3 synthase and its product GM3. Reduction of the GM3 synthase level through ectopic expression of GM3 small interfering RNA (siRNA rescued HCT116 cells from CDDP-induced apoptosis. This was evidenced by inhibition of apoptotic signals by reducing ROS production through the regulation of 12-lipoxigenase activity. Furthermore, the apoptotic sensitivity to CDDP was remarkably increased in GM3 synthase-transfected HCT116 cells compared to that in controls. In addition, GM3 synthase-transfected cells treated with CDDP exhibited an increased accumulation of intracellular ROS. These results suggest the CDDP-induced oxidative apoptosis of HCT116 cells is mediated by GM3.

  17. Cytosolic calcium mediates RIP1/RIP3 complex-dependent necroptosis through JNK activation and mitochondrial ROS production in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen; Wu, Xiaxia; Gao, Hongwei; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Wenwen; Lu, Jin-Jian; Wang, Jinhua; Du, Guanhua; Chen, Xiuping

    2017-07-01

    Necroptosis is a form of programmed necrosis mediated by signaling complexes with receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and RIP3 kinases as the main mediators. However, the underlying execution pathways of this phenomenon have yet to be elucidated in detail. In this study, a RIP1/RIP3 complex was formed in 2-methoxy-6-acetyl-7-methyljuglone (MAM)-treated HCT116 and HT29 colon cancer cells. With this formation, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels increased, mitochondrial depolarization occurred, and ATP concentrations decreased. This process was identified as necroptosis. This finding was confirmed by experiments showing that MAM-induced cell death was attenuated by the pharmacological or genetic blockage of necroptosis signaling, including RIP1 inhibitor necrostatin-1s (Nec-1s) and siRNA-mediated gene silencing of RIP1 and RIP3, but was unaffected by caspase inhibitor z-vad-fmk or necrosis inhibitor 2-(1H-Indol-3-yl)-3-pentylamino-maleimide (IM54). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis further revealed the ultrastructural features of MAM-induced necroptosis. MAM-induced RIP1/RIP3 complex triggered necroptosis through cytosolic calcium (Ca 2+ ) accumulation and sustained c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Both calcium chelator BAPTA-AM and JNK inhibitor SP600125 could attenuate necroptotic features, including mitochondrial ROS elevation, mitochondrial depolarization, and ATP depletion. 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), which is a mitochondrial complex II inhibitor, was found to effectively reverse both MAM induced mitochondrial ROS generation and cell death, indicating the complex II was the ROS-producing site. The essential role of mitochondrial ROS was confirmed by the protective effect of overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). MAM-induced necroptosis was independent of TNFα, p53, MLKL, and lysosomal membrane permeabilization. In summary, our study demonstrated that RIP1/RIP3 complex-triggered cytosolic calcium

  18. Sp1 and Sp3 Are the Transcription Activators of Human ek1 Promoter in TSA-Treated Human Colon Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Chee Sian; See Too, Wei Cun; Few, Ling Ling

    2016-01-01

    Ethanolamine kinase (EK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of ethanolamine, the first step in the CDP-ethanolamine pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Human EK exists as EK1, EK2α and EK2β isoforms, encoded by two separate genes, named ek1 and ek2. EK activity is stimulated by carcinogens and oncogenes, suggesting the involvement of EK in carcinogenesis. Currently, little is known about EK transcriptional regulation by endogenous or exogenous signals, and the ek gene promoter has never been studied. In this report, we mapped the important regulatory regions in the human ek1 promoter. 5' deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis identified a Sp site at position (-40/-31) that was essential for the basal transcription of this gene. Treatment of HCT116 cells with trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, significantly upregulated the ek1 promoter activity through the Sp(-40/-31) site and increased the endogenous expression of ek1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that TSA increased the binding of Sp1, Sp3 and RNA polymerase II to the ek1 promoter in HCT116 cells. The effect of TSA on ek1 promoter activity was cell-line specific as TSA treatment did not affect ek1 promoter activity in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, we showed that Sp1 and Sp3 are not only essential for the basal transcription of the ek1 gene, their accessibility to the target site on the ek1 promoter is regulated by histone protein modification in a cell line dependent manner.

  19. Overexpression of Long Non-Coding RNA TUG1 Promotes Colon Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hui-Yuan; Sui, Ming-Hua; Yu, Xiao; Qu, Zhen; Hu, Jin-Chen; Sun, Hai-Qing; Zheng, Hai-Tao; Zhou, Kai; Jiang, Li-Xin

    2016-09-16

    BACKGROUND Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent and deadly cancers worldwide. It is still necessary to further define the mechanisms and explore therapeutic targets of colon cancer. Dysregulation of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been shown to be correlated with diverse biological processes, including tumorigenesis. This study aimed to characterize the biological mechanism of taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) in colon cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression level of TUG1 and p63 in 75 colon cancer tissues and the matched adjacent non-tumor tissue. In vitro, cultured colon cancer cell lines HCT-116 and LoVo were used as cell models. TUG1 and p63 were silenced via transferring siRNA into HCT-116 or LoVo. The effects of TUG1 were investigated by examining cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration. RESULTS Among the 75 colon cancer cases, the expression of TUG1 was significantly higher in colon cancer tissues compared with the matched adjacent non-tumor tissue, while p63 expression was lower in the tumor tissue. In HCT-116 and LoVo, the expression of TUG1 was significantly increased by p63 siRNA transfection. Furthermore, down-regulation of TUG1 by siRNA significantly inhibited the cell proliferation and promoted colon cancer cell apoptosis. In addition, inhibition of TUG1 expression significantly blocked the cell migration ability of colon cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS LncRNA TUG1 may serve as a potential oncogene for colon cancer. Overexpressed TUG1 may contribute to promoting cell proliferation and migration in colon cancer cells.

  20. Anticancer potential of Hericium erinaceus extracts against particular human cancer cell lines

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    Younis AM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Cancer resulted in 8.2 million human deaths in 2012. It is expected that annual cancer cases will rise from 14 million in 2013 to 22 million within the next two decades. Mushrooms are extensively used as nutritional supplements in many countries. Moreover, mushrooms have many medicinal properties, including anticancer activity. In this study, the anticancer activity of different polar and non-polar extracts of Hericium erinaceus were evaluated against different human cancer cell lines including human liver carcinoma (Hep G2, the human colonic epithelial carcinoma (HCT 116, the human cervical cancer cells (HeLa and the human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7 using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Furthermore, as a control, the cytotoxicity effect of the different extracts were tested against isolated mouse hepatocytes. It was observed that the extracts by water and methanol from fresh and lyophilized fruiting bodies of H. erinaceus had the strongest anticancer effect. In contrast, the extracts by ether and ethyl acetate from mycelia and broth of H. erinaceus showed lower anticancer activity against the tested carcinoma cell lines. The highest anticancer activity was recorded for aqueous extract of lyophilized fruiting bodies with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 6.1±0.2, 5.1±0.1, 5.7±0.2 and 5.8±0.3 µg/ml against Hep G2, HCT 116, HeLa and MCF-7 cells, respectively with non-significant effect on the normal mouse hepatocytes. To summarise, polar extracts of H. erinaceus can be good sources for isolating natural anticancer compounds. I recommend further chemical studies to isolate the active principles of the extract of H. erinaceus evaluated in the present.

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and IRE-1 signaling cause apoptosis in colon cancer cells in response to andrographolide treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Aditi; Ahmed, Hafiz; Yang, Peixin; Czinn, Steven J.; Blanchard, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    The plant metabolite andrographolide induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. The mechanism(s) by which andrographolide induces apoptosis however, have not been elucidated. The present study was performed to determine the molecular events that promote apoptosis in andrographolide treated cells using T84, HCT116 and COLO 205 colon cancer cell lines. Andrographolide was determined to limit colony formation and Ki67 expression, alter nuclear morphology, increase cytoplasmic histo...

  2. Isolation and in vitro expansion of human colonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, P.; Sato, T.; Merlos-Suarez, A.; Barriga, F.M.; Iglesias, M.; Rossell, D.; Auer, H.; Gallardo, M.; Blasco, M.A.; Sancho, E.; Clevers, H.; Batlle, E.

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe the isolation of stem cells of the human colonic epithelium. Differential cell surface abundance of ephrin type-B receptor 2 (EPHB2) allows the purification of different cell types from human colon mucosa biopsies. The highest EPHB2 surface levels correspond to epithelial colonic

  3. The anti-proliferative effect of L-carnosine correlates with a decreased expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha in human colon cancer cells.

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    Barbara Iovine

    Full Text Available In recent years considerable attention has been given to the use of natural substances as anticancer drugs. The natural antioxidant dipeptide L-carnosine belongs to this class of molecules because it has been proved to have a significant anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have shown that L-carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells by affecting the ATP and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS production. In the present study we identified the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α (HIF-1α as a possible target of L-carnosine in HCT-116 cell line. HIF-1α protein is over-expressed in multiple types of human cancer and is the major cause of resistance to drugs and radiation in solid tumours. Of particular interest are experimental data supporting the concept that generation of ROS provides a redox signal for HIF-1α induction, and it is known that some antioxidants are able to suppress tumorigenesis by inhibiting HIF-1α. In the current study we found that L-carnosine reduces the HIF-1α protein level affecting its stability and decreases the HIF-1 transcriptional activity. In addition, we demonstrated that L-carnosine is involved in ubiquitin-proteasome system promoting HIF-1α degradation. Finally, we compared the antioxidant activity of L-carnosine with that of two synthetic anti-oxidant bis-diaminotriazoles (namely 1 and 2, respectively. Despite these three compounds have the same ability in reducing intracellular ROS, 1 and 2 are more potent scavengers and have no effect on HIF-1α expression and cancer cell proliferation. These findings suggest that an analysis of L-carnosine antioxidant pathway will clarify the mechanism underlying the anti-proliferative effects of this dipeptide on colon cancer cells. However, although the molecular mechanism by which L-carnosine down regulates or inhibits the HIF-1α activity has not been yet elucidated, this ability may be promising in treating hypoxia

  4. Polyyne-Enriched Extract from Oplopanax elatus Significantly Ameliorates the Progression of Colon Carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+ Mice

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    Xin Qiao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in the world. Oplopanax elatus is widely used in traditional medicine. However, little is known about its pharmacological effects and bioactive compounds. We evaluated the effects of the polyyne-enriched extract from O. elatus (PEO on the progression of colon carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+ mice. In addition, these effects were also investigated in HCT116 and SW480 cells. After PEO oral administration (0.2% diet for 12 weeks, PEO significantly improved body weight changes and reduced the tumor burden and tumor multiplicity compared with the untreated mice. Meanwhile, western blot and immunohistochemistry results showed PEO significantly reduced the expression of β-catenin and cyclinD1 in both small intestine and the colon tissues compared with the untreated mice. In addition, PEO treatment significant decreased the cell viability in both HCT116 and SW480 cell lines. It also decreased the levels of β-catenin, cyclinD1, c-myc and p-GSK-3β in HCT116 and SW480 cells at 25 μM. These results indicate that PEO may have potential value in prevention of colon cancer by down-regulating Wnt-related protein.

  5. Inactivation of the FoxO3a transcription factor is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species during protein kinase CK2 downregulation-mediated senescence in human colon cancer and breast cancer cells

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    Park, Seong-Yeol; Bae, Young-Seuk, E-mail: ysbae@knu.ac.kr

    2016-09-09

    We previously showed that protein kinase CK2 downregulation mediates senescence through the reactive oxygen species (ROS)–p53–p21{sup Cip1/WAF1} pathway in various human cells. In the present study, we investigated whether the FoxO3a transcription factor is associated with ROS production during CK2 downregulation-induced senescence in human colon cancer HCT116 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. FoxO3a overexpression suppressed ROS production and p53 stabilization induced by a CK2α knockdown. CK2α downregulation induced nuclear export of FoxO3a through stimulation of AKT-mediated phosphorylation of FoxO3a and decreased transcription of its target genes (Cu/ZnSOD, MnSOD, and catalase). In contrast, CK2α overexpression inhibited AKT-mediated FoxO3a phosphorylation. This resulted in nuclear accumulation of FoxO3a, and elevated expression of its target genes. Therefore, these data indicate for the first time that CK2 downregulation stimulates ROS generation by inhibiting FoxO3a during premature senescence in human colon and breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • FoxO3a overexpression inhibited ROS production mediated by CK2α knockdown. • CK2α downregulation induced nuclear export of FoxO3a via AKT activation. • CK2α downregulation reduced transcription of FoxO3a target genes including SOD. • CK2α upregulation elevated nuclear import and target gene expression of FoxO3a. • This study indicates that CK2 can modulate the intracellular ROS level via FoxO3a.

  6. Colonic complications following human bone marrow transplantation

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    Paulino Martínez Hernández-Magro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human bone marrow transplantation (BMT becomes an accepted treatment of leukemia, aplastic anemia, immunodeficiency syndromes, and hematologic malignancies. Colorectal surgeons must know how to determine and manage the main colonic complications. Objective: To review the clinical features, clinical and pathological staging of graft vs host disease (GVHD, and treatment of patients suffering with colonic complications of human bone marrow transplantation. Patients and methods: We have reviewed the records of all patients that received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant and were evaluated at our Colon and Rectal Surgery department due to gastrointestinal symptoms, between January 2007 and January 2012. The study was carried out in patients who developed colonic complications, all of them with clinical, histopathological or laboratory diagnosis. Results: The study group was constituted by 77 patients, 43 male and 34 female patients. We identified colonic complications in 30 patients (38.9%; five patients developed intestinal toxicity due to pretransplant chemotherapy (6.4%; graft vs. host disease was present in 16 patients (20%; 13 patients (16.8% developed acute colonic GVHD, and 3 (3.8% chronic GVHD. Infection was identified in 9 patients (11.6%. Conclusions: The three principal colonic complications are the chemotherapy toxicity, GVHD, and superinfection; the onset of symptoms could help to suspect the type of complication (0–20 day chemotherapy toxicity, 20 and more GVHD, and infection could appear in any time of transplantation. Resumo: Experiência: O transplante de medula óssea humana (MOH passou a ser um tratamento adotado para leucemia, anemia aplástica, síndromes de imunodeficiência e neoplasias hematológicas. Cirurgiões colorretais devem saber como determinar e tratar as principais complicações do cólon. Objetivo: Revisar as características clínicas, estadiamentos clínico e patológico da doença do enxerto

  7. Curcumin synergizes with resveratrol to inhibit colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Adhip P N; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Nautiyal, Jyoti; Patel, Bhaumik B; Patel, Vaishali; Du, Jianhua; Yu, Yingjie; Elliott, Althea A; Levi, Edi; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2009-01-01

    Development and progression of many malignancies, including colorectal cancer, are associated with activation of multiple signaling pathways. Therefore, inhibition of these signaling pathways with noncytotoxic natural products represents a logical preventive and/or therapeutic approach for colon cancer. Curcumin and resveratrol, both of which inhibit the growth of transformed cells and colon carcinogenesis, were selected to examine whether combining them would be an effective preventive and/or therapeutic strategy for colon cancer. Indeed, the combination of curcumin and resveratrol was found to be more effective in inhibiting growth of p53-positive (wt) and p53-negative colon cancer HCT-116 cells in vitro and in vivo in SCID xenografts of colon cancer HCT-116 (wt) cells than either agent alone. Analysis by Calcusyn software showed synergism between curcumin and resveratrol. The inhibition of tumors in response to curcumin and/or resveratrol was associated with the reduction in proliferation and stimulation of apoptosis accompanied by attenuation of NF-kappaB activity. In vitro studies have further demonstrated that the combinatorial treatment caused a greater inhibition of constitutive activation of EGFR and its family members as well as IGF-1R. Our current data suggest that the combination of curcumin and resveratrol could be an effective preventive/therapeutic strategy for colon cancer.

  8. Prohibitin 1 modulates mitochondrial stress-related autophagy in human colonic epithelial cells.

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    Arwa S Kathiria

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an adaptive response to extracellular and intracellular stress by which cytoplasmic components and organelles, including damaged mitochondria, are degraded to promote cell survival and restore cell homeostasis. Certain genes involved in autophagy confer susceptibility to Crohn's disease. Reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, both of which are increased during active inflammatory bowel disease, promote cellular injury and autophagy via mitochondrial damage. Prohibitin (PHB, which plays a role in maintaining normal mitochondrial respiratory function, is decreased during active inflammatory bowel disease. Restoration of colonic epithelial PHB expression protects mice from experimental colitis and combats oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the potential role of PHB in modulating mitochondrial stress-related autophagy in intestinal epithelial cells.We measured autophagy activation in response to knockdown of PHB expression by RNA interference in Caco2-BBE and HCT116 WT and p53 null cells. The effect of exogenous PHB expression on TNFα- and IFNγ-induced autophagy was assessed. Autophagy was inhibited using Bafilomycin A(1 or siATG16L1 during PHB knockdown and the affect on intracellular oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cell viability were determined. The requirement of intracellular ROS in siPHB-induced autophagy was assessed using the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine.TNFα and IFNγ-induced autophagy inversely correlated with PHB protein expression. Exogenous PHB expression reduced basal autophagy and TNFα-induced autophagy. Gene silencing of PHB in epithelial cells induces mitochondrial autophagy via increased intracellular ROS. Inhibition of autophagy during PHB knockdown exacerbates mitochondrial depolarization and reduces cell viability.Decreased PHB levels coupled with dysfunctional autophagy renders intestinal epithelial cells

  9. Oropharyngeal perinatal colonization by human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Torices, María Soledad; Corrales-Millan, Rocío; Hijona-Elosegui, Jesús J

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common human sexually transmitted disease. It is clinically relevant because this condition is necessary for the development of epithelial cervical cancer, and it is also a factor closely associated with the occurrence of diverse tumours and various benign and malignant lesions of the head and neck area. The infective mechanism in most of these cases is associated with sexual intercourse, but there is recent scientific evidence suggesting that HPV infection may also be acquired by other routes of infection not necessarily linked to sexual contact. One of them is vertical transmission from mother to child, either during pregnancy or at the time of delivery. The aim of our research was to study maternal-foetal HPV transmission during childbirth in detail, establishing the rate of oropharyngeal neonatal HPV in vaginal deliveries. The presence and type of HPV viral DNA at the time of delivery in samples of maternal cervical secretions, amniotic fluid, venous cord blood samples and neonatal oropharynx in pregnant women (and their babies) were determined. The rate of oropharyngeal neonatal HPV colonization in vaginal deliveries was 58.24%. The maternal and neonatal HPV colonization mechanism is essentially, but not exclusively, transvaginal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Barbara; Borrelli, Francesca; Pagano, Ester; Cascio, Maria Grazia; Pertwee, Roger G; Izzo, Angelo A

    2014-04-15

    Colon cancer is a major public health problem. Cannabis-based medicines are useful adjunctive treatments in cancer patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD), here named CBD BDS, i.e. CBD botanical drug substance, on colorectal cancer cell proliferation and in experimental models of colon cancer in vivo. Proliferation was evaluated in colorectal carcinoma (DLD-1 and HCT116) as well as in healthy colonic cells using the MTT assay. CBD BDS binding was evaluated by its ability to displace [(3)H]CP55940 from human cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. In vivo, the effect of CBD BDS was examined on the preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypt foci), polyps and tumours induced by the carcinogenic agent azoxymethane (AOM) as well as in a xenograft model of colon cancer in mice. CBD BDS and CBD reduced cell proliferation in tumoral, but not in healthy, cells. The effect of CBD BDS was counteracted by selective CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonists. Pure CBD reduced cell proliferation in a CB1-sensitive antagonist manner only. In binding assays, CBD BDS showed greater affinity than pure CBD for both CB1 and CB2 receptors, with pure CBD having very little affinity. In vivo, CBD BDS reduced AOM-induced preneoplastic lesions and polyps as well as tumour growth in the xenograft model of colon cancer. CBD BDS attenuates colon carcinogenesis and inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation via CB1 and CB2 receptor activation. The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of Cannabis-based medicines in cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. The Association of CXC Receptor 4 Mediated Signaling Pathway with Oxaliplatin-Resistant Human Colorectal Cancer Cells.

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    Wen-Shih Huang

    Full Text Available The stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4 axis plays an important role in tumor angiogenesis and invasiveness in colorectal cancer (CRC progression. In addition, metastatic CRC remains one of the most difficult human malignancies to treat because of its chemoresistant behavior. However, the mechanism by which correlation occurs between CXCR4 and the clinical response of CRC to chemotherapy remains unknown. We generated chemoresistant cells with increasing doses of oxaliplatin (OXA and 5-Fluorouracil (5FU to develop resistance at a clinical dose. We found that the putative markers did not change in the parental cells, but HCT-116/OxR and HCT-116/5-FUR were more aggressive and had higher tumor growth (demonstrated by wound healing, chemotaxis assay, and a nude mice xenograft model with the use of oxaliplatin. Apoptosis induced by oxaliplatin treatment was significantly decreased in HCT-116/OxR compared to the parental cells. Moreover, HCT-116/OxR cells displayed increased levels of p-gp, p-Akt p-ERK, p-IKBβ, CXCR4, and Bcl-2, but they also significantly inhibited the apoptotic pathways when compared to the parental strain. We evaluated the molecular mechanism governing the signaling pathway associated with anti-apoptosis activity and the aggressive status of chemoresistant cells. Experiments involving specific inhibitors demonstrated that the activation of the pathways associated with CXCR4, ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt is critical to the functioning of the HCT-116/OxR and HCT-116/5-FUR characteristics of chemosensitivity. These findings elucidate the mechanism of CXCR4/PI3K/Akt downstream signaling and provide strategies to inhibit CXCR4 mediated signaling pathway in order to overcome CRC's resistance to chemotherapy.

  12. Curcumin chemosensitizes 5-fluorouracil resistant MMR-deficient human colon cancer cells in high density cultures.

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    Mehdi Shakibaei

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC remains a clinical challenge, as more than 15% of patients are resistant to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU-based chemotherapeutic regimens, and tumor recurrence rates can be as high as 50-60%. Cancer stem cells (CSC are capable of surviving conventional chemotherapies that permits regeneration of original tumors. Therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of 5-FU and plant polyphenol (curcumin in context of DNA mismatch repair (MMR status and CSC activity in 3D cultures of CRC cells. METHODS: High density 3D cultures of CRC cell lines HCT116, HCT116+ch3 (complemented with chromosome 3 and their corresponding isogenic 5-FU-chemo-resistant derivative clones (HCT116R, HCT116+ch3R were treated with 5-FU either without or with curcumin in time- and dose-dependent assays. RESULTS: Pre-treatment with curcumin significantly enhanced the effect of 5-FU on HCT116R and HCR116+ch3R cells, in contrast to 5-FU alone as evidenced by increased disintegration of colonospheres, enhanced apoptosis and by inhibiting their growth. Curcumin and/or 5-FU strongly affected MMR-deficient CRC cells in high density cultures, however MMR-proficient CRC cells were more sensitive. These effects of curcumin in enhancing chemosensitivity to 5-FU were further supported by its ability to effectively suppress CSC pools as evidenced by decreased number of CSC marker positive cells, highlighting the suitability of this 3D culture model for evaluating CSC marker expression in a close to vivo setting. CONCLUSION: Our results illustrate novel and previously unrecognized effects of curcumin in enhancing chemosensitization to 5-FU-based chemotherapy on DNA MMR-deficient and their chemo-resistant counterparts by targeting the CSC sub-population. (246 words in abstract.

  13. Curcumin chemosensitizes 5-fluorouracil resistant MMR-deficient human colon cancer cells in high density cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Buhrmann, Constanze; Kraehe, Patricia; Shayan, Parviz; Lueders, Cora; Goel, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a clinical challenge, as more than 15% of patients are resistant to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapeutic regimens, and tumor recurrence rates can be as high as 50-60%. Cancer stem cells (CSC) are capable of surviving conventional chemotherapies that permits regeneration of original tumors. Therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of 5-FU and plant polyphenol (curcumin) in context of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) status and CSC activity in 3D cultures of CRC cells. High density 3D cultures of CRC cell lines HCT116, HCT116+ch3 (complemented with chromosome 3) and their corresponding isogenic 5-FU-chemo-resistant derivative clones (HCT116R, HCT116+ch3R) were treated with 5-FU either without or with curcumin in time- and dose-dependent assays. Pre-treatment with curcumin significantly enhanced the effect of 5-FU on HCT116R and HCR116+ch3R cells, in contrast to 5-FU alone as evidenced by increased disintegration of colonospheres, enhanced apoptosis and by inhibiting their growth. Curcumin and/or 5-FU strongly affected MMR-deficient CRC cells in high density cultures, however MMR-proficient CRC cells were more sensitive. These effects of curcumin in enhancing chemosensitivity to 5-FU were further supported by its ability to effectively suppress CSC pools as evidenced by decreased number of CSC marker positive cells, highlighting the suitability of this 3D culture model for evaluating CSC marker expression in a close to vivo setting. Our results illustrate novel and previously unrecognized effects of curcumin in enhancing chemosensitization to 5-FU-based chemotherapy on DNA MMR-deficient and their chemo-resistant counterparts by targeting the CSC sub-population. (246 words in abstract).

  14. Resveratrol-induced transcriptional up-regulation of ASMase (SMPD1) of human leukemia and cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, Naoki [Department of Pathophysiological Laboratory Science, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); College of Life and Health Sciences, Chubu University, Kasugai (Japan); Omori, Yukari [Department of Pathophysiological Laboratory Science, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kawamoto, Yoshiyuki; Sobue, Sayaka; Ichihara, Masatoshi [College of Life and Health Sciences, Chubu University, Kasugai (Japan); Suzuki, Motoshi [Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kyogashima, Mamoru [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Nihon Pharmaceutical University, Saitama (Japan); Nakamura, Mitsuhiro [Department of Drug Information, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu (Japan); Tamiya-Koizumi, Keiko [College of Life and Health Sciences, Chubu University, Kasugai (Japan); Nozawa, Yoshinori [Tokai Gakuin University, Kakamigahara (Japan); Murate, Takashi, E-mail: murate@isc.chubu.ac.jp [College of Life and Health Sciences, Chubu University, Kasugai (Japan)

    2016-02-19

    Resveratrol (RSV) is a plant-derived phytoalexin present in plants, whose pleiotropic effects for health benefits have been previously reported. Its anti-cancer activity is among the current topics for novel cancer treatment. Here, effects of RSV on cell proliferation and the sphingolipid metabolism of K562, a human leukemia cell line, were analyzed. Some experiments were also performed in HCT116, a human colon cancer cell line. RSV inhibited cell proliferation of both cell lines. Increased cellular ceramide and decreased sphingomyelin and S1P by RSV were observed in RSV-treated K562 cells. Further analysis revealed that acid sphingomyelinase mRNA and enzyme activity levels were increased by RSV. Desipramine, a functional ASMase inhibitor, prevented RSV-induced ceramide increase. RSV increased ATF3, EGR1, EGR3 proteins and phosphorylated c-Jun and FOXO3. However, co-transfection using these transcription factor expression vectors and ASMase promoter reporter vector revealed positive effects of EGR1 and EGR3 but not others. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) and Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated the direct binding of EGR1/3 transcription factors with ASMase 5′-promoter. These results indicate that increased EGR1/3 and ASMase expression play an important role in cellular ceramide increase by RSV treatment. - Highlights: • Resveratrol inhibited cell proliferation of K562 and HCT116 cells. • Resveratrol increased cellular ceramide and decreased sphingomyelin and S1P. • ASMase mRNA and activity were increased with resveratrol. • ASMase inhibition suppressed RSV-induced ceramide accumulation. • Increased ASMase transcription was at least partially due to EGR family proteins.

  15. Cytotoxic Effects and Anti-Angiogenesis Potential of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Hulls against MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifaddinipour, Maryam; Farghadani, Reyhaneh; Namvar, Farideh; Mohamad, Jamaludin; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2018-01-05

    Pistachio ( Pistacia vera L.) hulls (PVLH) represents a significant by-product of industrial pistachio processing that contains high amounta of phenolic and flavonoid compounds known to act as antioxidants. The current study was designed to evaluate the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic potentials of PVLH extracts. The cytotoxic effects of hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water PVLH extracts toward human colon cancer (HT-29 and HCT-116), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), lung adenocarcinoma (H23), liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), cervical cancer (Ca Ski), and normal fibroblast (BJ-5ta) cells were assessed using a MTT cell viability assay. Apoptosis induction was evaluated through the different nuclear staining assays and confirmed by flow cytometry analysis. Anti-angiogenic activities were also determined using chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. PVLH ethyl acetate extracts (PVLH-EAE) demonstrated a suppressive effect with an IC 50 value of 21.20 ± 1.35, 23.00 ± 1.2 and 25.15 ± 1.85 µg/mL against MCF-7, HT-29 and HCT-116, respectively, after 72 h of treatment. Morphological assessment and flow cytometry analysis showed the potential of PVLH-EAE to induce apoptosis. PVLH-EAE at the highest concentration demonstrated significant inhibition of angiogenesis as comparing with control group. Also the expression of Bax increased and the expression of Bcl-2 decreased in treated MCF-7 cells. Thus, the apoptosis induction and angiogenesis potential of PVLH-EAE make it to be the most suitable for further cancer research study to deal with selective antitumor active substances to human cancers especially breast cancer.

  16. Resveratrol-induced transcriptional up-regulation of ASMase (SMPD1) of human leukemia and cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Naoki; Omori, Yukari; Kawamoto, Yoshiyuki; Sobue, Sayaka; Ichihara, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Motoshi; Kyogashima, Mamoru; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Tamiya-Koizumi, Keiko; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Murate, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) is a plant-derived phytoalexin present in plants, whose pleiotropic effects for health benefits have been previously reported. Its anti-cancer activity is among the current topics for novel cancer treatment. Here, effects of RSV on cell proliferation and the sphingolipid metabolism of K562, a human leukemia cell line, were analyzed. Some experiments were also performed in HCT116, a human colon cancer cell line. RSV inhibited cell proliferation of both cell lines. Increased cellular ceramide and decreased sphingomyelin and S1P by RSV were observed in RSV-treated K562 cells. Further analysis revealed that acid sphingomyelinase mRNA and enzyme activity levels were increased by RSV. Desipramine, a functional ASMase inhibitor, prevented RSV-induced ceramide increase. RSV increased ATF3, EGR1, EGR3 proteins and phosphorylated c-Jun and FOXO3. However, co-transfection using these transcription factor expression vectors and ASMase promoter reporter vector revealed positive effects of EGR1 and EGR3 but not others. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) and Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated the direct binding of EGR1/3 transcription factors with ASMase 5′-promoter. These results indicate that increased EGR1/3 and ASMase expression play an important role in cellular ceramide increase by RSV treatment. - Highlights: • Resveratrol inhibited cell proliferation of K562 and HCT116 cells. • Resveratrol increased cellular ceramide and decreased sphingomyelin and S1P. • ASMase mRNA and activity were increased with resveratrol. • ASMase inhibition suppressed RSV-induced ceramide accumulation. • Increased ASMase transcription was at least partially due to EGR family proteins.

  17. Human wound colonization by Lucilia eximia and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): myiasis, perimortem, or postmortem colonization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Whitworth, Terry L; Phatak, Darshan R

    2014-05-01

    The infestation of human or animal tissues by fly larvae has been given distinctive terminology depending on the timing and location of colonization. Wounds and orifices colonized by Diptera in a living human or animal are typically referred to as myiasis. When the colonization occurs after death, it is referred to as postmortem colonization and can be used to estimate the minimum postmortem interval. What happens when the human, as in the case presented here, has a necrotic limb while the human remains alive, at least for a short period of time? The case presented here documents perimortem wound colonization by Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and the considerations for approximating development temperatures and estimating the time of colonization (TOC). This represents the first record of L. eximia in human myiasis in the United States and the first record of the co-occurrence of L. eximia and C. rufifacies in human myiasis in the United States. The TOC was estimated using both ambient and body temperature. Insect colonization before death complicates the estimation of TOC and minimum postmortem interval and illustrates the problem of temperature approximation in forensic entomology casework.

  18. Inhibition of Colon Carcinoma Cell Migration Following Treatment with Purified Venom from Lesser Weever Fish (Trachinus Vipera

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    Myriam Fezai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injury by the sting of Lesser weever fish (Trachinus vipera may lead to severe pain, edema or tissue necrosis. Cellular effects of the venom are still incompletely understood. Previous observations revealed that purified Lesser weever fish venom (LWFV induces suicidal death of erythrocytes and HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells. The present study addressed the effect of the venom on colon carcinoma cell toxicity, shape and migration both in p53+/+ and/or p53-/- conditions. Methods: Cells were exposed to medium without or with 500 µg/ ml LWFV. Cell shape, cell area and circularity were visualized and quantified by fluorescence microscopy. Cell volume, granularity and cells toxicity were assessed via the apoptotic parameters dissipation of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential, phosphatidylserine surface exposure and cell membrane permeabilization were measured utilizing flow cytometry. Cell migration was evaluated using wound healing assay and two-dimensional migration assay. Results: LWFV treatment was followed by a marked change of cell shape and size, significant decrease of cell area and circularity, significant impairment of cell migration, as well as induction of apoptosis after long exposition. Conclusions: LWFV exposure leads to cell shrinkage, increased granularity, apoptosis and impairment of cell migration, effects presumably contributing to LWFV-induced tissue injury.

  19. Pharmacological blockade of aquaporin-1 water channel by AqB013 restricts migration and invasiveness of colon cancer cells and prevents endothelial tube formation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorward, Hilary S; Du, Alice; Bruhn, Maressa A; Wrin, Joseph; Pei, Jinxin V; Evdokiou, Andreas; Price, Timothy J; Yool, Andrea J; Hardingham, Jennifer E

    2016-02-24

    Aquaporins (AQP) are water channel proteins that enable fluid fluxes across cell membranes, important for homeostasis of the tissue environment and for cell migration. AQP1 knockout mouse models of human cancers showed marked inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis, and in pre-clinical studies of colon adenocarcinomas, forced over-expression of AQP1 was shown to increase angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. We have synthesized small molecule antagonists of AQP1. Our hypothesis is that inhibition of AQP1 will reduce migration and invasiveness of colon cancer cells, and the migration and tube-forming capacity of endothelial cells in vitro. Expression of AQP1 in cell lines was assessed by quantitative (q) PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence, while expression of AQP1 in human colon tumour tissue was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of varying concentrations of the AQP1 inhibitor AqB013 was tested on human colon cancer cell lines expressing high versus low levels of AQP1, using wound closure (migration) assays, matrigel invasion assays, and proliferation assays. The effect of AqB013 on angiogenesis was tested using an endothelial cell tube-formation assay. HT29 colon cancer cells with high AQP1 levels showed significant inhibition of migration compared to vehicle control of 27.9% ± 2.6% (p migration of HCT-116 cells with low AQP1 expression. In an invasion assay, HT29 cells treated with 160 μM of AqB013, showed a 60.3% ± 8.5% decrease in invasion at 144 hours (p < 0.0001) and significantly decreased rate of invasion compared with the vehicle control (F-test, p = 0.001). Almost complete inhibition of endothelial tube formation (angiogenesis assay) was achieved at 80 μM AqB013 compared to vehicle control (p < 0.0001). These data provide good evidence for further testing of the inhibitor as a therapeutic agent in colon cancer.

  20. TRAIL pathway is associated with inhibition of colon cancer by protopanaxadiol

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    Zhiyu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among important components of American ginseng, protopanaxadiol (PPD showed more active anticancer potential than other triterpenoid saponins. In this study, we determined the in vivo effects of PPD in a mouse cancer model first. Then, using human colorectal cancer cell lines, we observed significant cancer cell growth inhibition by promoting G1 cell cycle redistribution and apoptosis. Subsequently, we characterized the downstream genes targeted by PPD in HCT-116 cancer cells. Using Affymetrix high density GeneChips, we obtained the gene expression profile of the cells. Microarray data indicated that the expression levels of 76 genes were changed over two-fold after PPD, of which 52 were upregulated while the remaining 24 were downregulated. Ingenuity pathway analysis of top functions affected was carried out. Data suggested that by regulating the interactions between p53 and DR4/DR5, the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL pathway played a key role in the action of PPD, a promising colon cancer inhibitory compound.

  1. TRAIL pathway is associated with inhibition of colon cancer by protopanaxadiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Li, Zejuan; Wu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Calway, Tyler; He, Tong-Chuan; Du, Wei; Chen, Jianjun; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Among important components of American ginseng, protopanaxadiol (PPD) showed more active anticancer potential than other triterpenoid saponins. In this study, we determined the in vivo effects of PPD in a mouse cancer model first. Then, using human colorectal cancer cell lines, we observed significant cancer cell growth inhibition by promoting G1 cell cycle redistribution and apoptosis. Subsequently, we characterized the downstream genes targeted by PPD in HCT-116 cancer cells. Using Affymetrix high density GeneChips, we obtained the gene expression profile of the cells. Microarray data indicated that the expression levels of 76 genes were changed over two-fold after PPD, of which 52 were upregulated while the remaining 24 were downregulated. Ingenuity pathway analysis of top functions affected was carried out. Data suggested that by regulating the interactions between p53 and DR4/DR5, the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) pathway played a key role in the action of PPD, a promising colon cancer inhibitory compound. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Circulatory shear flow alters the viability and proliferation of circulating colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Emery, Travis; Zhang, Yongguo; Xia, Yuxuan; Sun, Jun; Wan, Jiandi

    2016-06-01

    During cancer metastasis, circulating tumor cells constantly experience hemodynamic shear stress in the circulation. Cellular responses to shear stress including cell viability and proliferation thus play critical roles in cancer metastasis. Here, we developed a microfluidic approach to establish a circulatory microenvironment and studied circulating human colon cancer HCT116 cells in response to a variety of magnitude of shear stress and circulating time. Our results showed that cell viability decreased with the increase of circulating time, but increased with the magnitude of wall shear stress. Proliferation of cells survived from circulation could be maintained when physiologically relevant wall shear stresses were applied. High wall shear stress (60.5 dyne/cm2), however, led to decreased cell proliferation at long circulating time (1 h). We further showed that the expression levels of β-catenin and c-myc, proliferation regulators, were significantly enhanced by increasing wall shear stress. The presented study provides a new insight to the roles of circulatory shear stress in cellular responses of circulating tumor cells in a physiologically relevant model, and thus will be of interest for the study of cancer cell mechanosensing and cancer metastasis.

  3. Expression of DIAPH1 is up-regulated in colorectal cancer and its down-regulation strongly reduces the metastatic capacity of colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Na; Izbicki, Jakob R; König, Alexandra; Habermann, Jens K; Blechner, Christine; Lange, Tobias; Schumacher, Udo; Windhorst, Sabine

    2014-04-01

    In most cases, metastatic colorectal cancer is not curable, thus new approaches are necessary to identify novel targets for colorectal cancer therapy. Actin-binding-proteins (ABPs) directly regulate motility of metastasising tumor cells, and for cortactin an association with colon cancer metastasis has been already shown. However, as its depletion only incompletely inhibits metastasis, additional, more suitable cellular targets have to be identified. Here we analyzed expression of the ABPs, DIAPH1, VASP, N-WASP, and fascin in comparison with cortactin and found that, besides cortactin, DIAPH1 was expressed with the highest frequency (63%) in colorectal cancer. As well as cortactin, DIAPH1 was not detectable in normal colon tissue and expression of both proteins was positively correlated with metastasis of colorectal cancer. To analyse the mechanistic role of DIAPH1 for metastasis of colon carcinoma cells in comparison with cortactin, expression of the proteins was stably down-regulated in the human colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29, HROC-24 and HCT-116. Analysis of metastasis of colon carcinoma cells in SCID mice revealed that depletion of DIAPH1 reduced metastasis 60-fold and depletion of cortactin 16-fold as compared with control cells. Most likely the stronger effect of DIAPH1 depletion on colon cancer metastasis is due to the fact that in vitro knock down of DIAPH1 impaired all steps of metastasis; adhesion, invasion and migration while down-regulation of cortactin only reduced adhesion and invasion. This very strong reducing effect of DIAPH1 depletion on colon carcinoma cell metastasis makes the protein a promising therapeutic target for individualized colorectal cancer therapy. © 2013 UICC.

  4. Colonic Fermentation: A Neglected Topic in Human Physiology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeur, Jorgen; Berstad, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Human physiology textbooks tend to limit their discussion of colonic functions to those of absorbing water and electrolytes and storing waste material. However, the colon is a highly active metabolic organ, containing an exceedingly complex society of microbes. By means of fermentation, gastrointestinal microbes break down nutrients that cannot be…

  5. Biosynthesis of human colonic mucin: Muc2 is the prominent secretory mucin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, K. M.; Büller, H. A.; Opdam, F. J.; Kim, Y. S.; Einerhand, A. W.; Dekker, J.

    1994-01-01

    Human colonic epithelium produces large amounts of mucin. The aim of this study was to examine mucin biosynthesis in the human colon. Human colonic mucin was isolated using CsCl density gradients, and polyclonal antiserum was raised. Biosynthesis of colonic mucins was studied by labeling colonic

  6. 1-L-MT, an IDO inhibitor, prevented colitis-associated cancer by inducing CDC20 inhibition-mediated mitotic death of colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuting; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Ding, Yang; Du, Qianming; Hu, Rong

    2018-04-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), known as IDO, catabolizes tryptophan through kynurenine pathway, whose activity is correlated with impaired clinical outcome of colorectal cancer. Here we showed that 1-L-MT, a canonical IDO inhibitor, suppressed proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells through inducing mitotic death. Our results showed that inhibition of IDO decreased the transcription of CDC20, which resulted in G2/M cycle arrest of HCT-116 and HT-29. Furthermore, 1-L-MT induced mitochondria injuries and caused apoptotic cancer cells. Importantly, 1-L-MT protected mice from azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colon carcinogenesis, with reduced mortality, tumor number and size. What is more, IDO1-/- mice exhibited fewer tumor burdens and reduced proliferation in the neoplastic epithelium, while, 1-L-MT did not exhibit any further protective effects on IDO-/- mice, confirming the critical role of IDO and the protective effect of 1-L-MT-mediated IDO inhibition in CRC. Furthermore, 1-L-MT also alleviated CRC in Rag1-/- mice, demonstrating the modulatory effects of IDO independent of its role in modulating adaptive immunity. Taken together, our findings validated that the anti-proliferation effect of 1-L-MT in vitro and the prevention of CRC in vivo were through IDO-induced cell cycle disaster of colon cancer cells. Our results identified 1-L-MT as a promising candidate for the chemoprevention of CRC. © 2018 UICC.

  7. Echoendoscopic characterization of the human colon

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    Fernando M. Castro-Poças

    Full Text Available Purpose: To characterize colon and rectum walls, pericolic and perirectal spaces, using endoscopic ultrasonography miniprobes. Methods: Sixty individuals (50% males, aged 18-80, were included. Using 12 and 20 MHz endoscopic ultrasonography miniprobes, all different colon segments (ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid and rectum were evaluated according to the number and thickness of the different layers in intestinal wall, to the presence and (largest diameter of vessels in the submucosa and of peri-intestinal nodes. Results: The 20 MHz miniprobe identified a higher number of layers than the 12 MHz miniprobe, with medians of 7 and 5 respectively (p < 0.001. The rectal wall (p = 0.001, its muscularis propria (p < 0.001 and mucosa (p = 0.01 were significantly thicker than the different segments of the colon, which had no significant differences between them. Patients aged 41-60 presented thicker colonic wall and muscularis propria in descending (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004 and rectum (p=0.01 and p=0.01. Submucosal vessels were identified in 30% of individuals in descending and rectum, and in 12% in ascending. Adenopathies were observed in 9% of the colon segments and 5% in rectum. Conclusions: A higher frequency enabled the identification of a higher number of layers. Rectal wall is thicker than the one from all the segments of the colon and there are no differences between these, namely in the ascending colon. Moreover, peri-intestinal adenopathies were rarely identified but present in asymptomatic individuals. All together, these results describe for the first time features which are relevant during staging and therapeutic management of colonic lesions.

  8. Strategies For Human Exploration Leading To Human Colonization of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Everett, Harmon

    2009-01-01

    Enabling the commercial development of space is key to the future colonization of space and key to a viable space exploration program. Without commercial development following in the footsteps of exploration it is difficult to justify and maintain public interest in the efforts. NASA's exploration program has suffered from the lack of a good commercial economic strategy for decades. Only small advances in commercial space have moved forward, and only up to Earth orbit with the commercial satellite industry. A way to move beyond this phase is to begin the establishment of human commercial activities in space in partnership with the human exploration program. In 2007 and 2008, the authors researched scenarios to make space exploration and commercial space development more feasible as part of their graduate work in the Space Architecture Program at the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture at the University of Houston, Houston, Texas. Through this research it became apparent that the problems facing future colonization are much larger than the technology being developed or the international missions that our space agencies are pursuing. These issues are addressed in this paper with recommendations for space exploration, commercial development, and space policy that are needed to form a strategic plan for human expansion into space. In conclusion, the authors found that the current direction in space as carried out by our space agencies around the world is definitely needed, but is inadequate and incapable of resolving all of the issues that inhibit commercial space development. A bolder vision with strategic planning designed to grow infrastructures and set up a legal framework for commercial markets will go a long way toward enabling the future colonization of space.

  9. The oncogenic role of microRNA-130a/301a/454 in human colorectal cancer via targeting Smad4 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liu

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor (TGF-β/Smad signaling plays an important role in colon cancer development, progression and metastasis. In this study we demonstrated that the microRNA-130a/301a/454 family is up-regulated in colon cancer tissues compared to paired adjacent normal mucosa, which share the same 3'-untranslational region (3'-UTR binding seed sequence and are predicated to target Smad4. In colorectal cancer HCT116 and SW480 cells, overexpression of miRNA-130a/301a/454 mimics enhances cell proliferation and migration, while inhibitors of these miRNAs affect cell survival. The biological function of miRNA-130a/301a/454 on colon cancer cells is likely mediated by suppression of Smad4, and the up-regulation of the miRNAs is correlated with Smad4 down-regulation in human colon cancers. Collectively, these results suggest that miRNA-130a/301a/454 are novel oncogenic miRNAs contributing to colon tumorigenesis by regulating TGF-β/Smad signaling, which may have potential application in cancer therapy.

  10. The Oncogenic Role of microRNA-130a/301a/454 in Human Colorectal Cancer via Targeting Smad4 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Dong, Guanglong; Du, Xiaohui; Wu, Xin; Tang, Yun; Han, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad signaling plays an important role in colon cancer development, progression and metastasis. In this study we demonstrated that the microRNA-130a/301a/454 family is up-regulated in colon cancer tissues compared to paired adjacent normal mucosa, which share the same 3′-untranslational region (3′-UTR) binding seed sequence and are predicated to target Smad4. In colorectal cancer HCT116 and SW480 cells, overexpression of miRNA-130a/301a/454 mimics enhances cell proliferation and migration, while inhibitors of these miRNAs affect cell survival. The biological function of miRNA-130a/301a/454 on colon cancer cells is likely mediated by suppression of Smad4, and the up-regulation of the miRNAs is correlated with Smad4 down-regulation in human colon cancers. Collectively, these results suggest that miRNA-130a/301a/454 are novel oncogenic miRNAs contributing to colon tumorigenesis by regulating TGF-β/Smad signaling, which may have potential application in cancer therapy. PMID:23393589

  11. Sensitization of human colon cancer cells to sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis by modulation of sphingosine kinase 2 and protein kinase D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Min; Liu, Yungang; Zou, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine kinases (SphKs) have been recognized as important proteins regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Of the two isoforms of SphK (SphK1 and SphK2), little is known about the functions of SphK2. Sodium butyrate (NaBT) has been established as a promising chemotherapeutic agent, but the precise mechanism for its effects is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of SphK2 in NaBT-induced apoptosis of HCT116 colon cancer cells. The results indicated that following NaBT treatment SphK2 was translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, leading to its accumulation in the cytoplasm; in the meantime, only mild apoptosis occurred. However, downregulation of SphK2 resulted in sensitized apoptosis, and overexpression of SphK2 led to even lighter apoptosis; these strongly indicate an inhibitory role of SphK2 in cell apoptosis induced by NaBT. After knocking down protein kinase D (PKD), another protein reported to be critical in cell proliferation/apoptosis process, by using siRNA, blockage of cytoplasmic accumulation of SphK2 and sensitized apoptosis following NaBT treatment were observed. The present study suggests that PKD and SphK2 may form a mechanism for the resistance of cancer cells to tumor chemotherapies, such as HCT116 colon cancer cells to NaBT, and these two proteins may become molecular targets for designation of new tumor-therapeutic drugs. -- Highlights: ► In the present study sodium butyrate (10 mM) induced mild apoptosis of cancer cells. ► The apoptosis was negatively regulated by cytoplasmic Sphingosine Kinase 2 (SphK2). ► Translocation of SphK2 from nucleus to cytoplasm was mediated by protein kinase D. ► Downregulation of SphK2 or protein kinase D leads to sensitized cell apoptosis.

  12. Tuft (caveolated) cells in two human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Barkla, D. H.; Whitehead, R. H.; Foster, H.; Tutton, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of an unusual cell type in two human colon carcinoma cell lines is reported. The cells show the same morphology as "tuft" (caveolated) cells present in normal gastrointestinal epithelium. Tuft cells were seen in cell line LIM 1863 growing in vitro and in human colon carcinoma cell line LIM 2210 growing as subcutaneous solid tumour xenografts in nude mice. Characteristic morphologic features of tuft cells included a wide base, narrow apex and a tuft of long microvilli projecting f...

  13. Histochemical and radioautographic studies of normal human fetal colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lev, R.; Orlic, D.; New York Medical Coll., N.Y.

    1974-01-01

    Twenty fetal and infant colons ranging from 10 weeks in utero to 20 months postpartum, and 12 adult human colons were examined using histochemical techniques in conjunction with in vitro radioautography using Na 2 35 SO 4 as a sulfomucin precursor. Only the sulfated components of mucus in fetal goblet cells was found to differ significantly from adult colonic mucins. In the fetus sulfomucin staining was much weaker than in the adult, and was more intense in the left colon which is the reverse of the adult pattern. Sulfomucin was concentrated in the crypts throughout the fetal colon whereas in the adult right colon it predominated in the surface cells. As in the adult, saponification liberated carboxyl groups, possibly belonging to sialic acid, and vicinal hydroxyl groups from fetal mucins suggesting that this procedure hydrolyses an ester linkage between these 2 reactive groups. During the middle trimester of fetal life the colon possesses villi whose constituent cells display alkaline phosphatase in their surface coat. These and other morphological and histochemical similarities to fetal small intestine suggest that the fetal colon may have a limited capacity to absorb materials contained within swallowed amniotic fluid during this period. (orig.) [de

  14. Dispersal time for ancient human migrations: Americas and Europe colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, J. C.

    2007-07-01

    I apply the recently proposed intermittence strategy to investigate the ancient human migrations in the world. That is, the Americas colonization (Bering-bridge and Pacific-coast theories) and Neanderthal replacement in Europe around 45000 years before the present. Using a mathematical equation related to diffusion and ballistic motion, I calculate the colonization time in all these cases in good agreement with archeological data (including Neolithic transition in Europe). Moreover, to support these calculations, I obtain analytically the effective speed of colonization in Europe veff=0.62 [km/yr] and related to the Aurignacian culture propagation.

  15. Genetic disruption of tubulin acetyltransferase, αTAT1, inhibits proliferation and invasion of colon cancer cells through decreases in Wnt1/β-catenin signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Somi; You, Eunae; Ko, Panseon; Jeong, Jangho; Keum, Seula; Rhee, Sangmyung

    2017-01-01

    Microtubules are required for diverse cellular processes, and abnormal regulation of microtubule dynamics is closely associated with severe diseases including malignant tumors. In this study, we report that α-tubulin N-acetyltransferase (αTAT1), a regulator of α-tubulin acetylation, is required for colon cancer proliferation and invasion via regulation of Wnt1 and its downstream genes expression. Public transcriptome analysis showed that expression of ATAT1 is specifically upregulated in colon cancer tissue. A knockout (KO) of ATAT1 in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line, using the CRISPR/Cas9 system showed profound inhibition of proliferative and invasive activities of these cancer cells. Overexpression of αTAT1 or the acetyl-mimic K40Q α-tubulin mutant in αTAT1 KO cells restored the invasiveness, indicating that microtubule acetylation induced by αTAT1 is critical for HCT116 cell invasion. Analysis of colon cancer-related gene expression in αTAT1 KO cells revealed that the loss of αTAT1 decreased the expression of WNT1. Mechanistically, abrogation of tubulin acetylation by αTAT1 knockout inhibited localization of β-catenin to the plasma membrane and nucleus, thereby resulting in the downregulation of Wnt1 and of its downstream genes including CCND1, MMP-2, and MMP-9. These results suggest that αTAT1-mediated Wnt1 expression via microtubule acetylation is important for colon cancer progression. - Highlights: • Ablation of αTAT1 inhibits HCT116 colon cancer cell invasion. • αTAT1/acetylated microtubules regulate expression of Wnt1/β-catenin target genes. • Acetylated microtubules regulate cellular localization of β-catenin. • Loss of αTAT1 prevents Wnt1 from inducing β-catenin-dependent and -independent pathways.

  16. Zebrafish Axenic Larvae Colonization with Human Intestinal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Jayo, Nerea; Alonso-Saez, Laura; Ramirez-Garcia, Andoni; Pardo, Miguel A

    2018-04-01

    The human intestine hosts a vast and complex microbial community that is vital for maintaining several functions related with host health. The processes that determine the gut microbiome composition are poorly understood, being the interaction between species, the external environment, and the relationship with the host the most feasible. Animal models offer the opportunity to understand the interactions between the host and the microbiota. There are different gnotobiotic mice or rat models colonized with the human microbiota, however, to our knowledge, there are no reports on the colonization of germ-free zebrafish with a complex human intestinal microbiota. In the present study, we have successfully colonized 5 days postfertilization germ-free zebrafish larvae with the human intestinal microbiota previously extracted from a donor and analyzed by high-throughput sequencing the composition of the transferred microbial communities that established inside the zebrafish gut. Thus, we describe for first time which human bacteria phylotypes are able to colonize the zebrafish digestive tract. Species with relevant interest because of their linkage to dysbiosis in different human diseases, such as Akkermansia muciniphila, Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Prevotella spp., or Roseburia spp. have been successfully transferred inside the zebrafish digestive tract.

  17. The first microbial colonizers of the human gut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milani, Christian; Duranti, Sabrina; Bottacini, Francesca; Casey, Eoghan; Turroni, Francesca; Mahony, Jennifer; Belzer, Clara; Palacio, Susana Delgado; Montes, Silvia Arboleya; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Rodriguez, Juan Miguel; Bode, Lars; Vos, De Willem; Gueimonde, Miguel; Margolles, Abelardo; Sinderen, Van Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The human gut microbiota is engaged in multiple interactions affecting host health during the host's entire life span. Microbes colonize the neonatal gut immediately following birth. The establishment and interactive development of this early gut microbiota are believed to be (at least partially)

  18. Deoxycholate, an Endogenous Cytotoxin/Genotoxin, Induces the Autophagic Stress-Survival Pathway: Implications for Colon Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Payne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report that deoxycholate (DOC, a hydrophobic bile acid associated with a high-fat diet, activates the autophagic pathway in non-cancer colon epithelial cells (NCM-460, and that this activation contributes to cell survival. The DOC-induced increase in autophagy was documented by an increase in autophagic vacuoles (detected using transmission electron microscopy, increased levels of LC3-I and LC3-II (western blotting, an increase in acidic vesicles (fluorescence spectroscopy of monodansycadaverine and lysotracker red probes, and increased expression of the autophagic protein, beclin-1 (immunohistochemistry/western blotting. The DOC-induced increase in beclin-1 expression was ROS-dependent. Rapamycin (activator of autophagy pre-treatment of NCM-460 cells significantly (P<.05 decreased, and 3-MA (inhibitor of autophagy significantly (P<.05 increased the cell loss caused by DOC treatment, alone. Rapamycin pre-treatment of the apoptosis-resistant colon cancer cell line, HCT-116RC (developed in our laboratory, resulted in a significant decrease in DOC-induced cell death. Bafilomycin A1 and hydroxychloroquine (inhibitors of the autophagic process increased the DOC-induced percentage of apoptotic cells in HCT-116RC cells. It was concluded that the activation of autophagy by DOC has important implications for colon carcinogenesis and for the treatment of colon cancer in conjunction with commonly used chemotherapeutic agents.

  19. Deoxycholate, an Endogenous Cytotoxin/Geno toxin, Induces the Autophagic Stress-Survival Pathway: Implications for Colon Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, C.M.; Skillicorn, C.C.; Holubec, H.; Bernstein, C.; Dvorak, K.; Bernstein, H.; Moyer, M.P.; Garewal, H.

    2009-01-01

    We report that deoxycholate (DOC), a hydrophobic bile acid associated with a high-fat diet, activates the autophagic pathway in non-cancer colon epithelial cells (NCM-460), and that this activation contributes to cell survival. The DOC-induced increase in autophagy was documented by an increase in autophagic vacuoles (detected using transmission electron microscopy, increased levels of LC3-I and LC3-II (western blotting), an increase in acidic vesicles (fluorescence spectroscopy of monodansylcadaverine and lyso tracker red probes), and increased expression of the autophagic protein, beclin-1 (immunohistochemistry/western blotting). The DOC-induced increase in beclin-1 expression was ROS-dependent. Rapa mycin (activator of autophagy) pre-treatment of NCM-460 cells significantly (P<.05) decreased, and 3-MA (inhibitor of autophagy) significantly (P<.05) increased the cell loss caused by DOC treatment, alone. Rapa mycin pre-treatment of the apoptosis-resistant colon cancer cell line, HCT-116RC (developed in our laboratory), resulted in a significant decrease in DOC-induced cell death. Bafilomycin A1 and hydroxychloroquine (inhibitors of the autophagic process) increased the DOC-induced percentage of apoptotic cells in HCT-116RC cells. It was concluded that the activation of autophagy by DOC has important implications for colon carcinogenesis and for the treatment of colon cancer in conjunction with commonly used chemotherapeutic agents.

  20. Reduced migration of MLH1 deficient colon cancer cells depends on SPTAN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, Inga; Ernst, Benjamin Philipp; Nuber, Franziska; Passmann, Sandra; Schäfer, Dieter; Steinke, Verena; Friedrichs, Nicolaus; Plotz, Guido; Zeuzem, Stefan; Brieger, Angela

    2014-01-24

    Defects in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein MLH1 are frequently observed in sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancers (CRC). Affected tumors generate much less metastatic potential than the MLH1 proficient forms. Although MLH1 has been shown to be not only involved in postreplicative MMR but also in several MMR independent processes like cytoskeletal organization, the connection between MLH1 and metastasis remains unclear. We recently identified non-erythroid spectrin αII (SPTAN1), a scaffolding protein involved in cell adhesion and motility, to interact with MLH1. In the current study, the interaction of MLH1 and SPTAN1 and its potential consequences for CRC metastasis was evaluated. Nine cancer cell lines as well as fresh and paraffin embedded colon cancer tissue from 12 patients were used in gene expression studies of SPTAN1 and MLH1. Co-expression of SPTAN1 and MLH1 was analyzed by siRNA knock down of MLH1 in HeLa, HEK293, MLH1 positive HCT116, SW480 and LoVo cells. Effects on cellular motility were determined in MLH1 deficient HCT116 and MLH1 deficient HEK293T compared to their MLH1 proficient sister cells, respectively. MLH1 deficiency is clearly associated with SPTAN1 reduction. Moreover, siRNA knock down of MLH1 decreased the mRNA level of SPTAN1 in HeLa, HEK293 as well as in MLH1 positive HCT116 cells, which indicates a co-expression of SPTAN1 by MLH1. In addition, cellular motility of MLH1 deficient HCT116 and MLH1 deficient HEK293T cells was impaired compared to the MLH1 proficient sister clones. Consequently, overexpression of SPTAN1 increased migration of MLH1 deficient cells while knock down of SPTAN1 decreased cellular mobility of MLH1 proficient cells, indicating SPTAN1-dependent migration ability. These data suggest that SPTAN1 levels decreased in concordance with MLH1 reduction and impaired cellular mobility in MLH1 deficient colon cancer cells. Therefore, aggressiveness of MLH1-positive CRC might be related to SPTAN1.

  1. EMT is the dominant program in human colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tollenaar Rob AEM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colon cancer has been classically described by clinicopathologic features that permit the prediction of outcome only after surgical resection and staging. Methods We performed an unsupervised analysis of microarray data from 326 colon cancers to identify the first principal component (PC1 of the most variable set of genes. PC1 deciphered two primary, intrinsic molecular subtypes of colon cancer that predicted disease progression and recurrence. Results Here we report that the most dominant pattern of intrinsic gene expression in colon cancer (PC1 was tightly correlated (Pearson R = 0.92, P -135 with the EMT signature-- both in gene identity and directionality. In a global micro-RNA screen, we further identified the most anti-correlated microRNA with PC1 as MiR200, known to regulate EMT. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the biology underpinning the native, molecular classification of human colon cancer--previously thought to be highly heterogeneous-- was clarified through the lens of comprehensive transcriptome analysis.

  2. Studies on a role of XRCC4 in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, M.; Itsukaichi, H.; Kanda, R.; Nakamura, A.; Shiomi, N.; Aizawa, S.; Shiomi, T.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Ionizing radiation produces a variety of lesions in DNA including single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks and base damage. The repair of DNA double-strand breaks is essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity. Failure to repair DNA double-strand breaks result in loss of genetic information, chromosome translocations, carcinogenesis and cell death. XRCC4 is a member of non-homologous end-joining proteins that functioned in DNA double-strand break repair in eukaryote including human. XRCC4 is a DNA ligase IV accessory factor and required for the rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks. Both XRCC4 and DNA ligase IV deficient mice have been generated. Both deficient mice are not viable because of neuronal degeneration caused by p53-induced apoptosis. Cells obtained from XRCC4 or DNA ligase IV deficient embryo are viable, but show reduced cell proliferation and hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation. To study the role of XRCC4 in human cells, we tried to inactivate XRCC4 gene by using gene targeting technology in human colon cancer cell line, HCT116. We have succeeded to disrupt both alleles of XRCC4 gene. Heterozygous (XRCC4 +/-) cells showed reduced cell proliferation but normal X ray-sensitivity, indicating haploinsufficiency in cell proliferation but not in X ray-sensitivity. Homozygous (XRCC4 -/-) cells show reduced cell proliferation and increased chromosome aberrations, and are highly sensitive to X rays

  3. Branched chain amino acid suppressed insulin-initiated proliferation of human cancer cells through induction of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubetu, Gizachew Yismaw; Utsunomiya, Tohru; Ishikawa, Daichi; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Yamada, Shinichiro; Morine, Yuji; Iwahashi, Shuichi; Saito, Yu; Arakawa, Yusuke; Imura, Satoru; Arimochi, Hideki; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2014-09-01

    Branched chain amino acid (BCAA) dietary supplementation inhibits activation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) axis in diabetic animal models. However, the in vitro effect of BCAA on human cancer cell lines under hyper-insulinemic conditions remains unclear. Colon (HCT-116) and hepatic (HepG2) tumor cells were treated with varying concentrations of BCAA with or without fluorouracil (5-FU). The effect of BCAA on insulin-initiated proliferation was determined. Gene and protein expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting, respectively. BCAA supplementation had no significant effect on cell proliferation and did not show significant synergistic or antagonistic effects with 5-FU. However, BCAA significantly decreased insulin-initiated proliferation of human colon and hepatic cancer cell lines in vitro. BCAA supplementation caused a marked decrease in activated IGF-IR expression and significantly enhanced both mRNA and protein expression of LC3-II and BECN1 (BECLIN-1). BCAA could be a useful chemopreventive modality for cancer in hyperinsulinemic conditions. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Continued colonization of the human genome by mitochondrial DNA.

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    Miria Ricchetti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Integration of mitochondrial DNA fragments into nuclear chromosomes (giving rise to nuclear DNA sequences of mitochondrial origin, or NUMTs is an ongoing process that shapes nuclear genomes. In yeast this process depends on double-strand-break repair. Since NUMTs lack amplification and specific integration mechanisms, they represent the prototype of exogenous insertions in the nucleus. From sequence analysis of the genome of Homo sapiens, followed by sampling humans from different ethnic backgrounds, and chimpanzees, we have identified 27 NUMTs that are specific to humans and must have colonized human chromosomes in the last 4-6 million years. Thus, we measured the fixation rate of NUMTs in the human genome. Six such NUMTs show insertion polymorphism and provide a useful set of DNA markers for human population genetics. We also found that during recent human evolution, Chromosomes 18 and Y have been more susceptible to colonization by NUMTs. Surprisingly, 23 out of 27 human-specific NUMTs are inserted in known or predicted genes, mainly in introns. Some individuals carry a NUMT insertion in a tumor-suppressor gene and in a putative angiogenesis inhibitor. Therefore in humans, but not in yeast, NUMT integrations preferentially target coding or regulatory sequences. This is indeed the case for novel insertions associated with human diseases and those driven by environmental insults. We thus propose a mutagenic phenomenon that may be responsible for a variety of genetic diseases in humans and suggest that genetic or environmental factors that increase the frequency of chromosome breaks provide the impetus for the continued colonization of the human genome by mitochondrial DNA.

  5. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 6H-1-benzopyrano[4,3-b]quinolin-6-one derivatives as inhibitors of colon cancer cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie-Ling Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A convenient synthesis of 6H-1-benzopyrano[4,3-b]quinolin-6-one derivatives was reported using 4-chloro-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbaldehyde with different aromatic amines using silica sulfuric acid. The compounds were tested for their anticancer activity against colon (HCT-116 and S1-MI-80, prostate (PC3 and DU-145, breast (MCF-7 and MDAMB-231 cancer cells. These com-pounds showed more selectivity and potent cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells. 3c was tested against five other colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, LS-180, LS-174, and LoVo, which had similar cytotoxicity and selectivity. 3c did not induce PXR-regulated ABCB1 or ABCG2 transporters. In fact, 3c induced cytotoxicity in HEK293 cells over expressing ABCB1 or ABCG2 to the same extent as in normal HEK293 cells. It was cytotoxic approximately 3- and 5-fold to resistant colon carcinoma S1-MI-80 cells. 3c also produced concentration-dependent changes in HCT-116 colon cancer cells, in mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to apoptosis, and sub-micromolar concentrations caused chromosomal DNA fragmentation.

  6. Synthesis and Cytotoxic Evaluation of a Series of 2-Amino-Naphthoquinones against Human Cancer Cells

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    Thiago A. P. de Moraes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxicity of a series of aminonaphthoquinones resulting from the reaction of suitable aminoacids with 1,4-naphthoquinone was assayed against SF-295 (glioblastoma, MDAMB-435 (breast, HCT-8 (colon, HCT-116 (colon, HL-60 (leukemia, OVCAR-8 (ovarian, NCI-H358M (bronchoalveolar lung carcinoma and PC3-M (prostate cancer cells and also against PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results demonstrated that all the synthetic aminonaphthoquinones had relevant cytotoxic activity against all human cancer lines used in this experiment. Five of the compounds showed high cytotoxicity and selectivity against all cancer cell lines tested (IC50 = 0.49 to 3.89 µg·mL−1. The title compounds were less toxic to PBMC, since IC50 was 1.5 to eighteen times higher (IC50 = 5.51 to 17.61 µg·mL−1 than values shown by tumour cell lines. The mechanism of cell growth inhibition and structure–activity relationships remains as a target for future investigations.

  7. Emigrating Beyond Earth Human Adaptation and Space Colonization

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Cameron M

    2012-01-01

    For four million years humankind has been actively expanding geographically and in doing so has adapted to a wide variety of hostile environments. Now we are looking towards the ultimate adaptation - the colonization of space. Emigrating Beyond Earth illustrates that this is not a technocratic endeavor, but a natural continuation of human evolution; a journey not just for the engineer and rocket scientist, but for everyman. Based on the most current understanding of our universe, human adaptation and evolution, the authors explain why space colonization must be planned as an adaptation to, rather than the conquest of, space. Emigrating Beyond Earth argues that space colonization is an insurance policy for our species, and that it isn't about rockets and robots, it's about humans doing what we've been doing for four million years: finding new places and new ways to live. Applying a unique anthropological approach, the authors outline a framework for continued human space exploration and offer a glimpse of a po...

  8. Lucidumol C, a new cytotoxic lanostanoid triterpene from Ganoderma lingzhi against human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Yhiya M; Zhu, Qinchang; Tran, Hai-Bang; Afifi, Mohamed S; Halim, Ahmed F; Ashour, Ahmed; Mira, Amira; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-07-01

    A new oxygenated lanostane-type triterpene, named lucidumol C, together with six known compounds, was isolated from the chloroform extract of the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lingzhi. Structures were established based on extensive spectroscopic and chemical studies. Potential cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated against human colorectal carcinoma (HCT-116, Caco-2), human liver carcinoma (HepG2), and human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cell lines using WST-1 reagent. Selectivity was evaluated using normal human fibroblast cells (TIG-1 and HF19). Among the compounds, lucidumol C showed potent selective cytotoxicity against HCT-116 cells with an IC50 value of 7.86 ± 4.56 µM and selectivity index (SI) >10 with remarkable cytotoxic activities against Caco-2, HepG2 and HeLa cell lines.

  9. Colonic transit time is related to bacterial metabolism and mucosal turnover in the human gut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Bahl, Martin Iain

    Little is known about how colonic transit time relates to human colonic metabolism, and its importance for host health, although stool consistency, a proxy for colonic transit time, has recently been negatively associated with gut microbial richness. To address the relationships between colonic t...... imply a healthy gut microbial ecosystem and points at colonic transit time as a highly important factor to consider in microbiome and metabolomics studies.......Little is known about how colonic transit time relates to human colonic metabolism, and its importance for host health, although stool consistency, a proxy for colonic transit time, has recently been negatively associated with gut microbial richness. To address the relationships between colonic...... transit time and the gut microbial composition and metabolism, we assessed the colonic transit time of 98 subjects using radiopaque markers, and profiled their gut microbiota by16S rRNA gene sequencing and their urine metabolome by ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Based...

  10. Comparative effects of RRR-alpha- and RRR-gamma-tocopherol on proliferation and apoptosis in human colon cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Sharon E; Krishnan, Koyamangalath; Stone, William L; Lee, Steven; Whaley, Sarah; Yang, Hongsong; Qui, Min; Goforth, Paige; Sherman, Devin; McHaffie, Derek

    2006-01-01

    Mediterranean societies, with diets rich in vitamin E isoforms, have a lower risk for colon cancer than those of northern Europe and the Americas. Vitamin E rich diets may neutralize free radicals generated by fecal bacteria in the gut and prevent DNA damage, but signal transduction activities can occur independent of the antioxidant function. The term vitamin E represents eight structurally related compounds, each differing in their potency and mechanisms of chemoprevention. The RRR-γ-tocopherol isoform is found primarily in the US diet, while RRR-α-tocopherol is highest in the plasma. The effectiveness of RRR-α- and RRR-γ-tocopherol at inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines with varying molecular characteristics (SW480, HCT-15, HCT-116 and HT-29) and primary colon cells (CCD-112CoN, nontransformed normal phenotype) was studied. Colon cells were treated with and without RRR-α- or RRR-γ-tocopherol using varying tocopherol concentrations and time intervals. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured using the trypan blue assay, annexin V staining, DNA laddering and caspase activation. Treatment with RRR-γ-tocopherol resulted in significant cell death for all cancer cell lines tested, while RRR-α-tocopherol did not. Further, RRR-γ-tocopherol treatment showed no cytotoxicity to normal colon cells CCD-112CoN at the highest concentration and time point tested. RRR-γ-tocopherol treatment resulted in cleavage of PARP, caspase 3, 7, and 8, but not caspase 9. Differences in the percentage cell death and apoptosis were observed in different cell lines suggesting that molecular differences in these cell lines may influence the ability of RRR-γ-tocopherol to induce cell death. This is the first study to demonstrate that multiple colon cancer cell lines containing varying genetic alterations will under go growth reduction and apoptosis in the presence of RRR-γ-tocopherol without damage to normal colon cells. The amount growth

  11. Comparative effects of RRR-alpha- and RRR-gamma-tocopherol on proliferation and apoptosis in human colon cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman Devin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mediterranean societies, with diets rich in vitamin E isoforms, have a lower risk for colon cancer than those of northern Europe and the Americas. Vitamin E rich diets may neutralize free radicals generated by fecal bacteria in the gut and prevent DNA damage, but signal transduction activities can occur independent of the antioxidant function. The term vitamin E represents eight structurally related compounds, each differing in their potency and mechanisms of chemoprevention. The RRR-γ-tocopherol isoform is found primarily in the US diet, while RRR-α-tocopherol is highest in the plasma. Methods The effectiveness of RRR-α- and RRR-γ-tocopherol at inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines with varying molecular characteristics (SW480, HCT-15, HCT-116 and HT-29 and primary colon cells (CCD-112CoN, nontransformed normal phenotype was studied. Colon cells were treated with and without RRR-α- or RRR-γ-tocopherol using varying tocopherol concentrations and time intervals. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured using the trypan blue assay, annexin V staining, DNA laddering and caspase activation. Results Treatment with RRR-γ-tocopherol resulted in significant cell death for all cancer cell lines tested, while RRR-α-tocopherol did not. Further, RRR-γ-tocopherol treatment showed no cytotoxicity to normal colon cells CCD-112CoN at the highest concentration and time point tested. RRR-γ-tocopherol treatment resulted in cleavage of PARP, caspase 3, 7, and 8, but not caspase 9. Differences in the percentage cell death and apoptosis were observed in different cell lines suggesting that molecular differences in these cell lines may influence the ability of RRR-γ-tocopherol to induce cell death. Conclusion This is the first study to demonstrate that multiple colon cancer cell lines containing varying genetic alterations will under go growth reduction and apoptosis in the presence of RRR

  12. Comparative effects of RRR-alpha- and RRR-gamma-tocopherol on proliferation and apoptosis in human colon cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sharon E; Stone, William L; Lee, Steven; Whaley, Sarah; Yang, Hongsong; Qui, Min; Goforth, Paige; Sherman, Devin; McHaffie, Derek; Krishnan, Koyamangalath

    2006-01-17

    Mediterranean societies, with diets rich in vitamin E isoforms, have a lower risk for colon cancer than those of northern Europe and the Americas. Vitamin E rich diets may neutralize free radicals generated by fecal bacteria in the gut and prevent DNA damage, but signal transduction activities can occur independent of the antioxidant function. The term vitamin E represents eight structurally related compounds, each differing in their potency and mechanisms of chemoprevention. The RRR-gamma-tocopherol isoform is found primarily in the US diet, while RRR-alpha-tocopherol is highest in the plasma. The effectiveness of RRR-alpha- and RRR-gamma-tocopherol at inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines with varying molecular characteristics (SW480, HCT-15, HCT-116 and HT-29) and primary colon cells (CCD-112CoN, nontransformed normal phenotype) was studied. Colon cells were treated with and without RRR-alpha- or RRR-gamma-tocopherol using varying tocopherol concentrations and time intervals. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured using the trypan blue assay, annexin V staining, DNA laddering and caspase activation. Treatment with RRR-gamma-tocopherol resulted in significant cell death for all cancer cell lines tested, while RRR-alpha-tocopherol did not. Further, RRR-gamma-tocopherol treatment showed no cytotoxicity to normal colon cells CCD-112CoN at the highest concentration and time point tested. RRR-gamma-tocopherol treatment resulted in cleavage of PARP, caspase 3, 7, and 8, but not caspase 9. Differences in the percentage cell death and apoptosis were observed in different cell lines suggesting that molecular differences in these cell lines may influence the ability of RRR-gamma-tocopherol to induce cell death. This is the first study to demonstrate that multiple colon cancer cell lines containing varying genetic alterations will under go growth reduction and apoptosis in the presence of RRR-gamma-tocopherol without damage to

  13. Urotensin-II receptor is over-expressed in colon cancer cell lines and in colon carcinoma in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Alessandro; Zappavigna, Silvia; Romano, Marco; Grieco, Paolo; Luce, Amalia; Marra, Monica; Gravina, Antonietta Gerarda; Stiuso, Paola; D'Armiento, Francesco Paolo; Vitale, Giovanni; Tuccillo, Concetta; Novellino, Ettore; Loguercio, Carmela; Caraglia, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Urotensin (U)-II receptor (UTR) has been previously reported to be over-expressed in a number of tumours. Whether UTR-related pathway plays a role in colon carcinogenesis is unknown. We evaluated UTR protein and mRNA expression in human epithelial colon cancer cell lines and in normal colon tissue, adenomatous polyps and colon cancer. U-II protein expression was assessed in cancer cell lines. Moreover, we evaluated the effects of U-II(4-11) (an UTR agonist), antagonists and knockdown of UTR protein expression through a specific shRNA, on proliferation, invasion and motility of human colon cancer cells. Cancer cell lines expressed U-II protein and UTR protein and mRNA. By immunohistochemistry, UTR was expressed in 5-30% of epithelial cells in 45 normal controls, in 30-48% in 21 adenomatous polyps and in 65-90% in 48 colon adenocarcinomas. UTR mRNA expression was increased by threefold in adenomatous polyps and eightfold in colon cancer, compared with normal colon. U-II(4-11) induced a 20-40% increase in cell growth while the blockade of the receptor with specific antagonists caused growth inhibition of 20-40%. Moreover, the knock down of UTR with a shRNA or the inhibition of UTR with the antagonist urantide induced an approximately 50% inhibition of both motility and invasion. UTR appears to be involved in the regulation of colon cancer cell invasion and motility. These data suggest that UTR-related pathway may play a role in colon carcinogenesis and that UTR may function as a target for therapeutic intervention in colon cancer. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  14. Tuft (caveolated) cells in two human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Whitehead, R H; Foster, H; Tutton, P J

    1988-09-01

    The presence of an unusual cell type in two human colon carcinoma cell lines is reported. The cells show the same morphology as "tuft" (caveolated) cells present in normal gastrointestinal epithelium. Tuft cells were seen in cell line LIM 1863 growing in vitro and in human colon carcinoma cell line LIM 2210 growing as subcutaneous solid tumour xenografts in nude mice. Characteristic morphologic features of tuft cells included a wide base, narrow apex and a tuft of long microvilli projecting from the apical surface. The microvilli are attached by a core of long microfilaments passing deep into the apical cytoplasm. Between the microvilli are parallel arrays of vesicles (caveoli) containing flocculent material. Two different but not mutually exclusive explanations for the presence of tuft cells are proposed. The first explanation is that tuft cells came from the resected tumour and have survived by mitotic division during subsequent passages. The second explanation suggests that tuft cells are the progeny of undifferentiated tumour cells. Descriptions of tuft cells in colon carcinomas are uncommon and possible reasons for this are presented. The morphology of tuft cells is consistent with that of a highly differentiated cell specialised for absorption, and these new models provide an opportunity to further investigate the structure and function of tuft cells.

  15. Inferring human colonization history using a copying model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett Hellenthal

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide scans of genetic variation can potentially provide detailed information on how modern humans colonized the world but require new methods of analysis. We introduce a statistical approach that uses Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP data to identify sharing of chromosomal segments between populations and uses the pattern of sharing to reconstruct a detailed colonization scenario. We apply our model to the SNP data for the 53 populations of the Human Genome Diversity Project described in Conrad et al. (Nature Genetics 38,1251-60, 2006. Our results are consistent with the consensus view of a single "Out-of-Africa" bottleneck and serial dilution of diversity during global colonization, including a prominent East Asian bottleneck. They also suggest novel details including: (1 the most northerly East Asian population in the sample (Yakut has received a significant genetic contribution from the ancestors of the most northerly European one (Orcadian. (2 Native North [corrected] Americans have received ancestry from a source closely related to modern North-East Asians (Mongolians and Oroquen that is distinct from the sources for native South [corrected] Americans, implying multiple waves of migration into the Americas. A detailed depiction of the peopling of the world is available in animated form.

  16. PPARδ deficiency disrupts hypoxia-mediated tumorigenic potential of colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunshil; Koo, Jung Eun; Yeon, Sang Hyeon; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung; Hwang, Daniel H; Lee, Joo Young

    2014-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ is highly expressed in colon epithelial cells and closely linked to colon carcinogenesis. However, the role of PPARδ in colon cancer cells in a hypoxic tumor microenvironment is not fully understood. We found that expression of the tumor-promoting cytokines, IL-8 and VEGF, induced by hypoxia (colon cancer cells. Consequently, PPARδ-knockout colon cancer cells exposed to hypoxia and deferoxamine failed to stimulate endothelial cell vascularization and macrophage migration/proliferation, whereas wild-type cells were able to induce angiogenesis and macrophage activation in response to hypoxic stress. Hypoxic stress induced transcriptional activation of PPARδ, but not its protein expression, in HCT116 cells. Exogenous expression of p300 potentiated deferoxamine-induced PPARδ transactivation, while siRNA knockdown of p300 abolished hypoxia- and deferoxamine-induced PPARδ transactivation. PPARδ associated with p300 upon hypoxic stress as demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation studies. PI3K inhibitors or siRNA knockdown of Akt suppressed the PPARδ transactivation induced by hypoxia and deferoxamine in HCT116 cells, leading to decreased expression of IL-8 and VEGF. Collectively, these results reveal that PPARδ is required for hypoxic stress-mediated cytokine expression in colon cancer cells, resulting in promotion of angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment, and macrophage proliferation in the tumor microenvironment. p300 and the PI3K/Akt pathway play a role in the regulation of PPARδ transactivation induced by hypoxic stress. Our results demonstrate the positive crosstalk between PPARδ in tumor cells and the hypoxic tumor microenvironment and provide potential therapeutic targets for colon cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Differential expression of nanog1 and nanogp8 in colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Tatsuya; Sato, Ai; Ohata, Hirokazu; Sakai, Hiroaki; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanog is expressed in a majority of colon cancer cell lines examined. ► Both nanog1 and nanogp8 are expressed in colon cancer cells with varying ratios. ► Nanog mediates cell proliferation of colon cancer cells. ► Nanog predominantly localizes in cytoplasm of colon cancer cells. -- Abstract: Nanog, a homeodomain transcription factor, is an essential regulator for promotion of self-renewal of embryonic stem cells and inhibition of their differentiation. It has been demonstrated that nanog1 as well as nanogp8, a retrogene of nanog1, is preferentially expressed in advanced stages of several types of cancer, suggesting their involvement during cancer progression. Here, we investigated the expression of Nanog in well-characterized colon cancer cell lines. Expression of Nanog was detectable in 5 (HCT116, HT29, RKO, SW48, SW620) out of seven cell lines examined. RNA expression analyses of nanog1 and nanogp8 indicated that, while nanog1 was a major form in SW620 as well as in teratoma cells Tera-2, nanogp8 was preferentially expressed in HT29 and HCT116. In accordance with this, shRNA-mediated knockdown of nanog1 caused the reduction of Nanog in SW620 but not in HT29. Inhibition of Nanog in SW620 cells negatively affected cell proliferation and tumor formation in mouse xenograft. Biochemical subcellular fractionation and immunostaining analyses revealed predominant localization of Nanog in cytoplasm in SW620 and HT29, while it was mainly localized in nucleus in Tera-2. Our data indicate that nanog1 and nanogp8 are differentially expressed in colon cancer cells, and suggest that their expression contributes to proliferation of colon cancer cells.

  18. Differential expression of nanog1 and nanogp8 in colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, Tatsuya; Sato, Ai; Ohata, Hirokazu; Sakai, Hiroaki [Division of Cancer Differentiation, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Nakagama, Hitoshi, E-mail: hnakagam@ncc.go.jp [Division of Cancer Development System, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Okamoto, Koji, E-mail: kojokamo@ncc.go.jo [Division of Cancer Differentiation, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog is expressed in a majority of colon cancer cell lines examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both nanog1 and nanogp8 are expressed in colon cancer cells with varying ratios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog mediates cell proliferation of colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog predominantly localizes in cytoplasm of colon cancer cells. -- Abstract: Nanog, a homeodomain transcription factor, is an essential regulator for promotion of self-renewal of embryonic stem cells and inhibition of their differentiation. It has been demonstrated that nanog1 as well as nanogp8, a retrogene of nanog1, is preferentially expressed in advanced stages of several types of cancer, suggesting their involvement during cancer progression. Here, we investigated the expression of Nanog in well-characterized colon cancer cell lines. Expression of Nanog was detectable in 5 (HCT116, HT29, RKO, SW48, SW620) out of seven cell lines examined. RNA expression analyses of nanog1 and nanogp8 indicated that, while nanog1 was a major form in SW620 as well as in teratoma cells Tera-2, nanogp8 was preferentially expressed in HT29 and HCT116. In accordance with this, shRNA-mediated knockdown of nanog1 caused the reduction of Nanog in SW620 but not in HT29. Inhibition of Nanog in SW620 cells negatively affected cell proliferation and tumor formation in mouse xenograft. Biochemical subcellular fractionation and immunostaining analyses revealed predominant localization of Nanog in cytoplasm in SW620 and HT29, while it was mainly localized in nucleus in Tera-2. Our data indicate that nanog1 and nanogp8 are differentially expressed in colon cancer cells, and suggest that their expression contributes to proliferation of colon cancer cells.

  19. Perivascular Interstitial Cells of Cajal in Human ColonSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-An Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC closely associate with nerves and smooth muscles to modulate gut motility. In the ICC microenvironment, although the circulating hormones/factors have been shown to influence ICC activities, the association between ICC and microvessels in the gut wall has not been described. We applied three-dimensional (3D vascular histology with c-kit staining to identify the perivascular ICC and characterize their morphologic and population features in the human colon wall. Methods: Full-thickness colons were obtained from colectomies performed for colorectal cancer. We targeted the colon wall away from the tumor site. Confocal microscopy with optical clearing (use of immersion solution to reduce scattering in optical imaging was performed to simultaneously reveal the ICC and vascular networks in space. 3D image rendering and projection were digitally conducted to illustrate the ICC–vessel contact patterns. Results: Perivascular ICC were identified in the submucosal border, myenteric plexus, and circular and longitudinal muscles via high-definition 3D microscopy. Through in-depth image projection, we specified two contact patterns—the intimate cell body-to-vessel contact (type I, 18% of ICC in circular muscle and the long-distance process-to-vessel contact (type II, 16%—to classify perivascular ICC. Particularly, type I perivascular ICC were detected with elevated c-kit staining levels and were routinely found in clusters, making them readily distinguishable from other ICC in the network. Conclusions: We propose a new subclass of ICC that closely associates with microvessels in the human colon. Our finding suggests a functional relationship between these mural ICC and microvessels based on the morphologic proximity. Keywords: 3D Histology, c-kit, ICC, Mural Cells

  20. Colonization and infection by Helicobacter pylori in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Leif Percival

    2007-11-01

    When Helicobacter pylori arrives in the human stomach, it may penetrate the mucin layer and adhere to the gastric epithelial cells or it may pass through the stomach without colonizing the mucosa. In this paper, the colonization process and the ensuing immunological response will be briefly described. Urease production is necessary for H. pylori to establish a pH-neutral microenvironment around the bacteria. The flagella enable the bacteria to move and the shape of H. pylori makes it possible to penetrate the mucin layer where it comes into contact with the gastric epithelial cells. H. pylori contains several adhesins that enable it to adhere to the epithelial cells. This adherence activates IL-8 which, together with bacterial antigens, attracts polymorphs and monocytes and causes acute gastritis. Antigen-presenting cells activate lymphocytes and other mononuclear cells that are attracted to the inflamed mucosa, causing chronic superficial gastritis and initiating a cytotoxic or an antigen-producing Th response. The infection is established within a few weeks after the primary exposure to H. pylori. After this initial colonization, many chemical, biochemical, and immunologic reactions take place that are of importance in the progress of the infection and the development of disease.

  1. Distribution of some elements in human colon mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drashkovich, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of Co, Zn, Fe, Cr and Sb were determined in human colon mucosa as a function of pathalogical alterations during development of colitis Chronica, Colitis Ulcerosa, Adenoma Tubulare and Adenocarcinoma. The sample (0.00023-0.00087 kg in weight) from 80 patients were taken during rectosigmoidoscopy by teflon coated forceps and were deep frozen (T=244 deg. K) and liophilysed. A thermal neutron fluxes 0.54-1.85x10 17 n/m 2 .s for 3 days and 4096-channel analyser with a Ge(Li) detector

  2. Standard colonic lavage alters the natural state of mucosal-associated microbiota in the human colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Harrell

    Full Text Available Past studies of the human intestinal microbiota are potentially confounded by the common practice of using bowel-cleansing preparations. We examined if colonic lavage changes the natural state of enteric mucosal-adherent microbes in healthy human subjects.Twelve healthy individuals were divided into three groups; experimental group, control group one, and control group two. Subjects in the experimental group underwent an un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopy with biopsies. Within two weeks, subjects were given a standard polyethylene glycol-based bowel cleansing preparation followed by a second flexible sigmoidoscopy. Subjects in control group one underwent two un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopies within one week. Subjects in the second control group underwent an un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopy followed by a second flexible sigmoidoscopy after a 24-hour clear liquid diet within one week. The mucosa-associated microbial communities from the two procedures in each subject were compared using 16S rRNA gene based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP, and library cloning and sequencing.Clone library sequencing analysis showed that there were changes in the composition of the mucosa-associated microbiota in subjects after colonic lavage. These changes were not observed in our control groups. Standard bowel preparation altered the diversity of mucosa-associated microbiota. Taxonomic classification did not reveal significant changes at the phylum level, but there were differences observed at the genus level.Standard bowel cleansing preparation altered the mucosal-adherent microbiota in all of our subjects, although the degree of change was variable. These findings underscore the importance of considering the confounding effects of bowel preparation when designing experiments exploring the gut microbiota.

  3. Cell surface glycopeptides from human intestinal epithelial cell lines derived from normal colon and colon adenocarcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youakim, A.; Herscovics, A.

    1985-01-01

    The cell surface glycopeptides from an epithelial cell line (CCL 239) derived from normal human colon were compared with those from three cell lines (HCT-8R, HCT-15, and CaCo-2) derived independently from human colonic adenocarcinomas. Cells were incubated with D-[2- 3 H]mannose or L-[5,6- 3 H]fucose for 24 h and treated with trypsin to release cell surface components which were then digested exhaustively with Pronase and fractionated on Bio-Gel P-6 before and after treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. The most noticeable difference between the labeled glycopeptides from the tumor and CCL 239 cells was the presence in the former of an endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H-resistant high molecular weight glycopeptide fraction which was eluted in the void volume of Bio-Gel P-6. This fraction was obtained with both labeled mannose and fucose as precursors. However, acid hydrolysis of this fraction obtained after incubation with [2- 3 H]mannose revealed that as much as 60-90% of the radioactivity was recovered as fucose. Analysis of the total glycopeptides (cell surface and cell pellet) obtained after incubation with [2- 3 H]mannose showed that from 40-45% of the radioactivity in the tumor cells and less than 10% of the radioactivity in the CCL 239 cells was recovered as fucose. After incubation of the HCT-8R cells with D-[1,6- 3 H]glucosamine and L-[1- 14 C]fucose, strong acid hydrolysis of the labeled glycopeptide fraction excluded from Bio-Gel P-6 produced 3 H-labeled N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine

  4. An Apta-Biosensor for Colon Cancer Diagnostics

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    Mojgan Ahmadzadeh Raji

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the design and implementation of an aptasensor using a modified KCHA10a aptamer. This aptasensor consists of a functionalized electrodes using various materials including 11-mercaptoandecanoic acid (11-MUA and modified KCHA10a aptamer. The HCT 116, HT 29 and HEp-2 cell lines are used in this study to demonstrate the functionality of aptasensor for colon cancer detection purposes. Flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy and electrochemical cyclic voltammetry are used to verify the binding between the target cells and aptamer. The limit of detection (LOD of this aptasensor is equal to seven cancer cells. Based on the experimental results, the proposed sensor can be employed for point-of-care cancer disease diagnostics.

  5. Effect of β,β-Dimethylacrylshikonin on Inhibition of Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Growth in Vitro and in Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Yingying; Jin, Shaoju; He, Jun; Shao, Zhenjun; Yan, Jiao; Feng, Ting; Li, Hong

    2012-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, shikonin and its derivatives, has been used in East Asia for several years for the prevention and treatment of several diseases, including cancer. We previously identified that β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin (DA) could inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma growth. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of DA on human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line HCT-116 in vitro and in vivo. A viability assay showed th...

  6. Genistein inhibits proliferation of colon cancer cells by attenuating a negative effect of epidermal growth factor on tumor suppressor FOXO3 activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Wentao; Weber, Christopher R; Wasland, Kaarin; Savkovic, Suzana D

    2011-01-01

    Soy consumption is associated with a lower incidence of colon cancer which is believed to be mediated by one of its of components, genistein. Genistein may inhibit cancer progression by inducing apoptosis or inhibiting proliferation, but mechanisms are not well understood. Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced proliferation of colon cancer cells plays an important role in colon cancer progression and is mediated by loss of tumor suppressor FOXO3 activity. The aim of this study was to assess if genistein exerts anti-proliferative properties by attenuating the negative effect of EGF on FOXO3 activity. The effect of genistein on proliferation stimulated by EGF-mediated loss of FOXO3 was examined in human colonic cancer HT-29 cells. EGF-induced FOXO3 phosphorylation and translocation were assessed in the presence of genistein. EGF-mediated loss of FOXO3 interactions with p53 (co-immunoprecipitation) and promoter of p27kip1 (ChIP assay) were examined in presence of genistein in cells with mutated p53 (HT-29) and wild type p53 (HCT116). Silencing of p53 determined activity of FOXO3 when it is bound to p53. Genistein inhibited EGF-induced proliferation, while favoring dephosphorylation and nuclear retention of FOXO3 (active state) in colon cancer cells. Upstream of FOXO3, genistein acts via the PI3K/Akt pathway to inhibit EGF-stimulated FOXO3 phosphorylation (i.e. favors active state). Downstream, EGF-induced disassociation of FOXO3 from mutated tumor suppressor p53, but not wild type p53, is inhibited by genistein favoring FOXO3-p53(mut) interactions with the promoter of the cell cycle inhibitor p27kip1 in colon cancer cells. Thus, the FOXO3-p53(mut) complex leads to elevated p27kip1 expression and promotes cell cycle arrest. These novel anti-proliferative mechanisms of genistein suggest a possible role of combining genistein with other chemoreceptive agents for the treatment of colon cancer

  7. Benzylidene derivatives of andrographolide inhibit growth of breast and colon cancer cells in vitro by inducing G1 arrest and apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jada, S R; Matthews, C; Saad, M S; Hamzah, A S; Lajis, N H; Stevens, M F G; Stanslas, J

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Andrographolide, the major phytoconstituent of Andrographis paniculata, was previously shown by us to have activity against breast cancer. This led to synthesis of new andrographolide analogues to find compounds with better activity than the parent compound. Selected benzylidene derivatives were investigated for their mechanisms of action by studying their effects on the cell cycle progression and cell death. Experimental approach: Microculture tetrazolium, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assays were utilized in assessing the in vitro growth inhibition and cytotoxicity of compounds. Flow cytometry was used to analyse the cell cycle distribution of control and treated cells. CDK1 and CDK4 levels were determined by western blotting. Apoptotic cell death was assessed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Key results: Compounds, in nanomolar to micromolar concentrations, exhibited growth inhibition and cytotoxicity in MCF-7 (breast) and HCT-116 (colon) cancer cells. In the NCI screen, 3,19-(2-bromobenzylidene) andrographolide (SRJ09) and 3,19-(3-chloro-4-fluorobenzylidene) andrographolide (SRJ23) showed greater cytotoxic potency and selectivity than andrographolide. SRJ09 and SRJ23 induced G1 arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 and HCT-116 cells, respectively. SRJ09 downregulated CDK4 but not CDK1 level in MCF-7 cells. Apoptosis induced by SRJ09 and SRJ23 in HCT-116 cells was confirmed by annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometry analysis. Conclusion and implications: The new benzylidene derivatives of andrographolide are potential anticancer agents. SRJ09 emerged as the lead compound in this study, exhibiting anticancer activity by downregulating CDK4 to promote a G1 phase cell cycle arrest, coupled with induction of apoptosis. PMID:18806812

  8. Tryptophan autofluorescence imaging of neoplasms of the human colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Bhaskar; Renkoski, Timothy; Graves, Logan R.; Rial, Nathaniel S.; Tsikitis, Vassiliki Liana; Nfonsom, Valentine; Pugh, Judith; Tiwari, Piyush; Gavini, Hemanth; Utzinger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Detection of flat neoplasia is a major challenge in colorectal cancer screening, as missed lesions can lead to the development of an unexpected `incident' cancer prior to the subsequent endoscopy. The use of a tryptophan-related autofluorescence has been reported to be increased in murine intestinal dysplasia. The emission spectra of cells isolated from human adenocarcinoma and normal mucosa of the colon were studied and showed markedly greater emission intensity from cancerous cells compared to cells obtained from the surrounding normal mucosa. A proto-type multispectral imaging system optimized for ultraviolet macroscopic imaging of tissue was used to obtain autofluorescence images of surgical specimens of colonic neoplasms and normal mucosa after resection. Fluorescence images did not display the expected greater emission from the tumor as compared to the normal mucosa, most probably due to increased optical absorption and scattering in the tumors. Increased fluorescence intensity in neoplasms was observed however, once fluorescence images were corrected using reflectance images. Tryptophan fluorescence alone may be useful in differentiating normal and cancerous cells, while in tissues its autofluorescence image divided by green reflectance may be useful in displaying neoplasms.

  9. MiR-30a-5p suppresses tumor growth in colon carcinoma by targeting DTL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraniskin, Alexander; Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Maghnouj, Abdelouahid

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are involved in different biological processes by suppressing target gene expression. Altered expression of miR-30a-5p has been reported in colon carcinoma. To elucidate its potential biological role in colon cancer, miR-30a-5p was overexpressed via...... with in silico miRNA target prediction, we identified the denticleless protein homolog (DTL) as a potential miRNA-30a-5p target. Subsequent reporter gene assays confirmed the predicted miR-30a-5p binding site in the 3'untranslated region of DTL. Importantly, overexpression of DTL in HCT116 cells partially...... is frequently overexpressed in colorectal cancer. Thus, our data suggest that restoring miR-30a-5p function may prove useful as therapeutic strategy for tumors with reduced miR-30a-5p expression....

  10. Isolation and Characterization of a Human Intestinal Bacterium Eggerthella sp. AUH-JLD49s for the Conversion of (-)-3'-Desmethylarctigenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Yu, Fei; Liu, Ming-Yue; Zhao, Yi-Kai; Wang, Dong-Ming; Hao, Qing-Hong; Wang, Xiu-Ling

    2017-05-24

    Arctiin is the most abundant bioactive compound contained in the Arctium lappa plant. In our previous study, we isolated one single bacterium capable of bioconverting arctigenin, an aglycone of arctiin, to 3'-desmethylarctigenin (3'-DMAG) solely. However, to date, a specific bacterium capable of producing other arctiin metabolites has not been reported. In this study, we isolated one single bacterium, which we named Eggerthella sp. AUH-JLD49s, capable of bioconverting 3'-DMAG under anaerobic conditions. The metabolite of 3'-DMAG by strain AUH-JLD49s was identified as 3'-desmethyl-4'-dehydroxyarctigenin (DMDH-AG) based on electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The bioconversion kinetics and bioconversion capacity of strain AUH-JLD49s were investigated. In addition, the metabolite DMDH-AG showed an inhibitory effect on cell growth of human colon cancer cell line HCT116 and human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.

  11. Overexpression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 induces growth arrest through phosphorylation of p53 in human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Sik; Baek, Seung Joon; Bottone, Frank G; Sali, Tina; Eling, Thomas E

    2005-09-01

    To investigate the function of 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) in human colorectal cancer, we overexpressed 15-LOX-1 in HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells. Clones expressing the highest levels of 15-LOX-1 displayed reduced viability compared with the HCT-116-Vector control cells. Further, by cell cycle gene array analyses, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 and MDM2 genes were up-regulated in 15-LOX-1-overexpressing cells. The induction of p21(WAF1/CIP1) and MDM2 were linked to activation of p53 by 15-LOX-1, as there was a dramatic induction of phosphorylated p53 (Ser15) in 15-LOX-1-overesxpressing cells. However, the 15-LOX-1 metabolites 13(S)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid and 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid failed to induce phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15, and the 15-LOX-1 inhibitor PD146176 did not inhibit the phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 in 15-LOX-1-overexpressing cells. Nonetheless, the growth-inhibitory effects of 15-LOX-1 were p53 dependent, as 15-LOX-1 overexpression had no effect on cell growth in p53 (-/-) HCT-116 cells. Finally, treatment of HCT-116-15-LOX-1 cells with different kinase inhibitors suggested that the effects of 15-LOX-1 on p53 phosphorylation and activation were due to effects on DNA-dependent protein kinase. Collectively, these findings suggest a new mechanism to explain the biological activity of 15-LOX-1, where 15-LOX plays a stoichiometric role in activating a DNA-dependent protein kinase-dependent pathway that leads to p53-dependent growth arrest.

  12. Curcumin significantly enhances dual PI3K/Akt and mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235-induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma Caki cells through down-regulation of p53-dependent Bcl-2 expression and inhibition of Mcl-1 protein stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ram Seo

    Full Text Available The PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling pathways are important for cell survival and growth, and they are highly activated in cancer cells compared with normal cells. Therefore, these signaling pathways are targets for inducing cancer cell death. The dual PI3K/Akt and mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 completely inhibited both signaling pathways. However, NVP-BEZ235 had no effect on cell death in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. We tested whether combined treatment with natural compounds and NVP-BEZ235 could induce cell death. Among several chemopreventive agents, curcumin, a natural biologically active compound that is extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma species, markedly induced apoptosis in NVP-BEZ235-treated cells. Co-treatment with curcumin and NVP-BEZ235 led to the down-regulation of Mcl-1 protein expression but not mRNA expression. Ectopic expression of Mcl-1 completely inhibited curcumin plus NVP-NEZ235-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Bcl-2 was involved in curcumin plus NVP-BEZ235-induced apoptosis. Curcumin or NVP-BEZ235 alone did not change Bcl-2 mRNA or protein expression, but co-treatment reduced Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression. Combined treatment with NVP-BEZ235 and curcumin reduced Bcl-2 expression in wild-type p53 HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells but not p53-null HCT116 cells. Moreover, Bcl-2 expression was completely reversed by treatment with pifithrin-α, a p53-specific inhibitor. Ectopic expression of Bcl-2 also inhibited apoptosis in NVP-BE235 plus curcumin-treated cells. In contrast, NVP-BEZ235 combined with curcumin did not have a synergistic effect on normal human skin fibroblasts and normal human mesangial cells. Taken together, combined treatment with NVP-BEZ235 and curcumin induces apoptosis through p53-dependent Bcl-2 mRNA down-regulation at the transcriptional level and Mcl-1 protein down-regulation at the post-transcriptional level.

  13. Separation of water-soluble metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene formed by cultured human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman

    1979-01-01

    A method has been developed to separate conjugated metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene into three major fractions: sulfate esters, glucuronides and glutathione conjugates. In cultured human colon, formation of sulfate esters and glutathione conjugates is the major conjugation pathway, while formation......-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene were the major substrates for sulfotransferase in cultured human colon....

  14. Compound K, a Ginsenoside Metabolite, Inhibits Colon Cancer Growth via Multiple Pathways Including p53-p21 Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene B. Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Compound K (20-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S-protopanaxadiol, CK, an intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng protopanaxadiol saponins, has been shown to inhibit cell growth in a variety of cancers. However, the mechanisms are not completely understood, especially in colorectal cancer (CRC. A xenograft tumor model was used first to examine the anti-CRC effect of CK in vivo. Then, multiple in vitro assays were applied to investigate the anticancer effects of CK including antiproliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution. In addition, a qPCR array and western blot analysis were executed to screen and validate the molecules and pathways involved. We observed that CK significantly inhibited the growth of HCT-116 tumors in an athymic nude mouse xenograft model. CK significantly inhibited the proliferation of human CRC cell lines HCT-116, SW-480, and HT-29 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also observed that CK induced cell apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle in the G1 phase in HCT-116 cells. The processes were related to the upregulation of p53/p21, FoxO3a-p27/p15 and Smad3, and downregulation of cdc25A, CDK4/6 and cyclin D1/3. The major regulated targets of CK were cyclin dependent inhibitors, including p21, p27, and p15. These results indicate that CK inhibits transcriptional activation of multiple tumor-promoting pathways in CRC, suggesting that CK could be an active compound in the prevention or treatment of CRC.

  15. Anti-proliferative activity of 2,6-dichloro-9- or 7-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-9H- or 7H-purines against several human solid tumour cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Fátima; Ramírez, Alberto; Conejo-García, Ana; Morata, Cynthia; Marchal, Juan A; Campos, Joaquín M

    2014-04-09

    As leads we took several benzo-fused seven- and six-membered scaffolds linked to the pyrimidine or purine moieties with notable anti-proliferative activity against human breast, colon and melanoma cancerous cell lines. We then decided to maintain the double-ringed nitrogenous bases and change the other components to the ethyl acetate moiety. This way six purine and two 5-fluorouracil derivatives were obtained and evaluated against the MCF-7, HCT-116, A-375 and G-361 cancer cell lines. Two QSARs are obtained between the anti-proliferative IC₅₀ values for compounds 26-33 and the clog P against the melanoma cell lines A-375 and G-361. Our results show that two of the analogues [ethyl 2-(2,6-dichloro-9H- or 7H-purine-9- or 7-yl)acetates (30 and 33, respectively)] are potent cytotoxic agents against all the tumour cell lines assayed, showing single-digit micromolar IC₅₀ values. This exemplifies the potential of our previously reported purine compounds to qualify as lead structures for medicinal chemistry campaigns, affording simplified analogues easy to synthesize and with a noteworthy bioactivity. The selective activity of 30 and 33 against the melanoma cell line A-375, via apoptosis, supposes a great advantage for a future therapeutic use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro efficacy of a novel chemoradiopotentiator-taxoltere metro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lixi; Wang Huijuan; Holton, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic and radiopotentiating effects of a novel paclitaxel analog (taxoltere metro) on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and human colon cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Three cell lines (CHO cells, HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells [paclitaxel-sensitive], and VM46 cells [paclitaxel-resistant subline of HCT116]) were employed in this study. Cell survival was determined using the standard colony-forming assay. The ID 50 value (drug concentrations required to reduce colony formation to 50% of the control value) was determined as a cytotoxic index from each cell survival curve. The sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) as a radiopotentiating endpoint was determined as the ratio of the D 0 values (with or without drugs) under hypoxic or air conditions. Results: Taxoltere metro was 5-15 times more effective in killing CHO cells than paclitaxel under both hypoxic and euoxic treatment conditions. Cytocidal effects of taxoltere metro on HCT116 cells and VM46 cells were 28 and 70 times higher than those of paclitaxel (p < 0.001), respectively. Taxoltere metro also produced significant radiopotentiating effects on euoxic CHO and HCT116 cells, but not on hypoxic cells. The SER value of taxoltere metro for CHO cells was about 2.3 at a dose of 100 nM. With HCT116 cells, taxoltere metro yielded an SER of 1.2 at the low dose of 10 nM. In contrast, the parent compound paclitaxel yielded little or no radiosensitization with either CHO or HCT116 cells. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that taxoltere metro is significantly more potent than paclitaxel in chemoradiopotentiating CHO cells and HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells. The data strongly suggest that taxoltere metro could be a promising chemoradiopotentiating agent for treatment of cancer

  17. Oncogenic KRAS activates an embryonic stem cell-like program in human colon cancer initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rolle, Anne-France; Chiu, Thang K; Zeng, Zhaoshi; Shia, Jinru; Weiser, Martin R; Paty, Philip B; Chiu, Vi K

    2016-01-19

    Colorectal cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. Prevention of colorectal cancer initiation represents the most effective overall strategy to reduce its associated morbidity and mortality. Activating KRAS mutation (KRASmut) is the most prevalent oncogenic driver in colorectal cancer development, and KRASmut inhibition represents an unmet clinical need. We apply a systems-level approach to study the impact of KRASmut on stem cell signaling during human colon cancer initiation by performing gene set enrichment analysis on gene expression from human colon tissues. We find that KRASmut imposes the embryonic stem cell-like program during human colon cancer initiation from colon adenoma to stage I carcinoma. Expression of miR145, an embryonic SC program inhibitor, promotes cell lineage differentiation marker expression in KRASmut colon cancer cells and significantly suppresses their tumorigenicity. Our data support an in vivo plasticity model of human colon cancer initiation that merges the intrinsic stem cell properties of aberrant colon stem cells with the embryonic stem cell-like program induced by KRASmut to optimize malignant transformation. Inhibition of the embryonic SC-like program in KRASmut colon cancer cells reveals a novel therapeutic strategy to programmatically inhibit KRASmut tumors and prevent colon cancer.

  18. Wogonin induced G1 cell cycle arrest by regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and inactivating CDK8 in human colorectal cancer carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Licheng; Lu, Na; Dai, Qinsheng; Zhao, Yue; Zhao, Li; Wang, Hu; Li, Zhiyu; You, Qidong; Guo, Qinglong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Wogonin inhibited HCT116 cells growth and arrested at G1 phase of the cell cycle. • Wogonin down-regulated the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. • Wogonin interfered in the combination of β-catenin and TCF/Lef. • Wogonin limited the kinase activity of CDK8. - Abstract: Wogonin, a naturally occurring mono-flavonoid, has been reported to have tumor therapeutic potential and good selectivity both in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we investigated the anti-proliferation effects and associated mechanisms of wogonin in human colorectal cancer in vitro. The flow-cytometric analysis showed that wogonin induced a G1 phase cell cycle arrest in HCT116 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the cell cycle-related proteins, such as cyclin A, E, D1, and CDK2, 4 were down-regulated in wogonin-induced G1 cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we showed that the anti-proliferation and G1 arrest effect of wogonin on HCT116 cells was associated with deregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Wogonin-treated cells showed decreased intracellular levels of Wnt proteins, and activated degradation complex to phosphorylated and targeted β-catenin for proteasomal degradation. Wogonin inhibited β-catenin-mediated transcription by interfering in the transcriptional activity of TCF/Lef, and repressing the kinase activity of CDK8 which has been considered as an oncogene involving in the development of colorectal cancers. Moreover, CDK8 siRNA-transfected HCT116 cells showed similar results to wogonin treated cells. Thus, our data suggested that wogonin induced anti-proliferation and G1 arrest via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and it can be developed as a therapeutic agent against human colorectal cancer

  19. Effects of liquid versus solid diet on colonic transit in humans. Evaluation by standard colonic transit scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, P.N.; Richter, J.E.; Chilton, H.M.; Kerr, R.M.; Cowan, R.C.; Gelfand, D.W.; Ott, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of liquid versus solid diet on human colonic transit were investigated, and transit following cecal instillation of tracer was compared with transit following instillation in the proximal jejunum. In a randomized cross-over, single-blind fashion, 6 normal volunteers ingesting either normal solid foods or a liquid diet were studied using colonic transit scintigraphy. 111In-DTPA was instilled either into the cecum via a long intestinal tube or into the proximal jejunum via a feeding tube. Compared with the liquid diet, the solid diet slowed transit in the cecum and ascending colon (p less than 0.025) and delayed progression of the geometric center (p less than 0.05) during the first 4 h of the study. Transit from 18 to 48 h was similar on the 2 diets. On the solid diet, transit was similar whether 111In-DTPA was instilled into the proximal jejunum or into the cecum. Transit from the terminal ileum to the cecum was assessed in an additional 5 volunteers following jejunal instillation of 99mTc-DTPA. Cecal filling was rapid (T1/2 = 0.49 h) and complete in all subjects before the onset of cecal emptying. These results suggest that colonic transit is slower on a solid than a liquid diet and that jejunal instillation of radiopharmaceuticals should be suitable for colonic transit studies in most subjects

  20. miR-297 modulates multidrug resistance in human colorectal carcinoma by down-regulating MRP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Liang, Xin; Shen, Ke; Cui, Daling; Zheng, Yuanhong; Xu, Jianhua; Fan, Zhongze; Qiu, Yanyan; Li, Qi; Ni, Lei; Liu, Jianwen

    2012-09-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is a frequent cause of cancer-related death in men and women. miRNAs (microRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression negatively at the post-transcriptional level. In the present study we investigated the possible role of microRNAs in the development of MDR (multidrug resistance) in colorectal carcinoma cells. We analysed miRNA expression levels between MDR colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT116/L-OHP cells and their parent cell line HCT116 using a miRNA microarray. miR-297 showed lower expression in HCT116/L-OHP cells compared with its parental cells. MRP-2 (MDR-associated protein 2) is an important MDR protein in platinum-drug-resistance cells and is a predicted target of miR-297. Additionally miR-297 was down-regulated in a panel of human colorectal carcinoma tissues and negatively correlated with expression levels of MRP-2. Furthermore, we found that ectopic expression of miR-297 in MDR colorectal carcinoma cells reduced MRP-2 protein level and sensitized these cells to anti-cancer drugs in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-297 could play a role in the development of MDR in colorectal carcinoma cells, at least in part by modulation of MRP-2.

  1. MSH3 mismatch repair protein regulates sensitivity to cytotoxic drugs and a histone deacetylase inhibitor in human colon carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Myung Park

    Full Text Available MSH3 is a DNA mismatch repair (MMR gene that undergoes frequent somatic mutation in colorectal cancers (CRCs with MMR deficiency. MSH3, together with MSH2, forms the MutSβ heteroduplex that interacts with interstrand cross-links induced by drugs such as cisplatin. To date, the impact of MSH3 on chemosensitivity is unknown.We utilized isogenic HCT116 (MLH1-/MSH3- cells where MLH1 is restored by transfer of chromosome 3 (HCT116+ch3 and also MSH3 by chromosome 5 (HCT116+3+5. We generated HCT116+3+5, SW480 (MLH1+/MSH3+ and SW48 (MLH1-/MSH3+ cells with shRNA knockdown of MSH3. Cells were treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, SN-38, oxaliplatin, or the histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor PCI-24781 and cell viability, clonogenic survival, DNA damage and apoptosis were analyzed.MSH3-deficient vs proficient CRC cells showed increased sensitivity to the irinotecan metabolite SN-38 and to oxaliplatin, but not 5-FU, as shown in assays for apoptosis and clonogenic survival. In contrast, suppression of MLH1 attenuated the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU, but did not alter sensitivity to SN-38 or oxaliplatin. The impact of MSH3 knockdown on chemosensitivity to SN-38 and oxaliplatin was maintained independent of MLH1 status. In MSH3-deficient vs proficient cells, SN-38 and oxaliplatin induced higher levels of phosphorylated histone H2AX and Chk2, and similar results were found in MLH1-proficient SW480 cells. MSH3-deficient vs proficient cells showed increased 53BP1 nuclear foci after irradiation, suggesting that MSH3 can regulate DNA double strand break (DSB repair. We then utilized PCI-24781 that interferes with homologous recombination (HR indicated by a reduction in Rad51 expression. The addition of PCI-24781 to oxaliplatin enhanced cytotoxicity to a greater extent compared to either drug alone.MSH3 status can regulate the DNA damage response and extent of apoptosis induced by chemotherapy. The ability of MSH3 to regulate chemosensitivity was independent of MLH1

  2. Inflammasome-independent NLRP3 is required for epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Yajing; Du, Qianming; Lu, Ping; Fan, Huimin; Lu, Jinrong; Hu, Rong

    2016-03-15

    Inflammasome NLRP3 plays a crucial role in the process of colitis and colitis--associated colon cancer. Even though much is known regarding the NLRP3 inflammasome that regulates pro-inflammatory cytokine release in innate immune cells, the role of NLRP3 in non-immune cells is still unclear. In this study, we showed that NLRP3 was highly expressed in mesenchymal-like colon cancer cells (SW620), and was upregulated by tumor necrosis factors-α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) respectively, during EMT in colon cancer epithelial cells HCT116 and HT29. Knockdown of NLRP3 retained epithelial spindle-like morphology of HCT116 and HT29 cells and reversed the mesenchymal characteristic of SW620 cells, indicated by the decreased expression of vimentin and MMP9 and increased expression of E-cadherin. In addition, knockdown of NLRP3 in colorectal carcinoma cells displayed diminished cell migration and invasion. Interestingly, during the EMT process induced by TNF-α or TGF-β1, the cleaved caspase-1 and ASC speck were not detected, indicating that NLRP3 functions in an inflammasome-independent way. Further studies demonstrated that NLRP3 protein expression was regulated by NF-κB signaling in TNF-α or TGF-β1-induced EMT, as verified by the NF-κB inhibitor Bay 11-7082. Moreover, NLRP3 knockdown reduced the expression of Snail1, indicating that NLRP3 may promote EMT through regulating Snail1. In summary, our results showed that the NLRP3 expression, not the inflammasome activation, was required for EMT in colorectal cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Leptin and insulin up-regulate miR-4443 to suppress NCOA1 and TRAF4, and decrease the invasiveness of human colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerson, Ari; Yehuda, Hila

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Normal and tumor cells respond to metabolic hormones, such as leptin and insulin. Thus, obesity-associated resistance to these hormones likely leads to changes in gene expression and behavior of tumor cells. However, the mechanisms affected by leptin and insulin signaling in CRC cells remain mostly unknown. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of tumorigenesis-related gene expression in CRC cells by leptin and insulin. To test this hypothesis, miRNA levels in the CRC-derived cell lines HCT-116, HT-29 and DLD-1 were profiled, following leptin and insulin treatment. Candidate miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR. Predicted miRNA targets with known roles in cancer, were validated by immunoblots and reporter assays in HCT-116 cells. Transfection of HCT-116 cells with candidate miRNA mimic was used to test in vitro effects on proliferation and invasion. Of ~800 miRNAs profiled, miR-4443 was consistently up-regulated by leptin and insulin in HCT-116 and HT-29, but not in DLD-1, which lacked normal leptin receptor expression. Dose response experiments showed that leptin at 100 ng/ml consistently up-regulated miR-4443 in HCT-116 cells, concomitantly with a significant decrease in cell invasion ability. Transfection with miR-4443 mimic decreased invasion and proliferation of HCT-116 cells. Moreover, leptin and miR-4443 transfection significantly down-regulated endogenous NCOA1 and TRAF4, both predicted targets of miR-4443 with known roles in cancer metastasis. miR-4443 was found to directly regulate TRAF4 and NCOA1, as validated by a reporter assay. The up-regulation of miR-4443 by leptin or insulin was attenuated by the inhibition of MEK1/2. Our findings suggest that miR-4443 acts in a tumor-suppressive manner by down-regulating TRAF4 and NCOA1 downstream of MEK-C/EBP-mediated leptin and insulin signaling, and that insulin and/or leptin resistance (e.g. in obesity) may suppress this pathway

  4. Synthesis, spectroscopic properties, molecular docking, anti-colon cancer and anti-microbial studies of some novel metal complexes for 2-amino-4-phenylthiazole derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harbi, Sami A.; Bashandy, Mahmoud S.; Al-Saidi, Hammed M.; Emara, Adel A. A.; Mousa, Tarek A. A.

    2015-06-01

    This article describes the synthesis of novel bidentate Schiff base (H2L) from condensation of 2-amino-4-phenylthiazole (APT) with 4,6-diacetylresorcinol (DAR) in the molar ratio 2:1. We studied interaction of ligand (H2L) with transition metal ions such as Cr(III), Fe(III), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II). The ligand (H2L) has two bidentate sets of (N-O) units which can coordinate with two metal ions to afford novel binuclear metal complexes. The directions of coordinate bonds are from nitrogen atoms of azomethine groups and oxygen atoms of the phenolic groups. Structures of the newly synthesized complexes were confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, UV, 1H NMR, ESR, TGA and mass spectral data. All of the newly synthesized complexes were evaluated for their antibacterial and anti-fungal activities. They were also evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activity against human colon carcinoma cells (HCT-116) and mammalian cells of African green monkey kidney (VERO). The Cu(II) complex with selectivity index (S.I.) = 21.26 exhibited better activity than methotrexate (MTX) as a reference drug with S.I. value = 13.30, while Zn(II) complex with S.I. value = 10.24 was found to be nearly as active as MTX. Molecular docking studies further helped in understanding the mode of action of the compounds through their various interactions with active sites of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme. The observed activity of Fe(III) and Cu(II) complexes gave rise to the conclusion that they might exert their action through inhibition of the DHFR enzyme.

  5. Induction of farnesoid X receptor signaling in germ-free mice colonized with a human microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Annika; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota influences the development and progression of metabolic diseases partly by metabolism of bile acids (BAs) and modified signaling through the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). In this study, we aimed to determine how the human gut microbiota metabolizes murine BAs and affects FXR...... signaling in colonized mice. We colonized germ-free mice with cecal content from a mouse donor or feces from a human donor and euthanized the mice after short-term (2 weeks) or long-term (15 weeks) colonization. We analyzed the gut microbiota and BA composition and expression of FXR target genes in ileum...... and liver. We found that cecal microbiota composition differed between mice colonized with mouse and human microbiota and was stable over time. Human and mouse microbiota reduced total BA levels similarly, but the humanized mice produced less secondary BAs. The human microbiota was able to reduce the levels...

  6. Multiplex flow cytometry barcoding and antibody arrays identify surface antigen profiles of primary and metastatic colon cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sukhdeo

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is a deadly disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Current treatment challenges include management of disease burden as well as improvements in detection and targeting of tumor cells. To identify disease state-specific surface antigen signatures, we combined fluorescent cell barcoding with high-throughput flow cytometric profiling of primary and metastatic colon cancer lines (SW480, SW620, and HCT116. Our multiplexed technique offers improvements over conventional methods by permitting the simultaneous and rapid screening of cancer cells with reduced effort and cost. The method uses a protein-level analysis with commercially available antibodies on live cells with intact epitopes to detect potential tumor-specific targets that can be further investigated for their clinical utility. Multiplexed antibody arrays can easily be applied to other tumor types or pathologies for discovery-based approaches to target identification.

  7. 5-Fluorouracil-radiation interactions in human colon adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Daniel J.; Lepek, Katherine J.; Rich, Tyvin A.; Murray, David

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of cellular proliferation and cell cycle stage on the ability of postirradiation 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to radiosensitize cultured human colon adenocarcinoma Clone A cells. Methods and Materials: Cell survival curves were generated for irradiated: (a) log- and plateau-phase Clone A cells; and (b) Clone A cells separated by centrifugal elutriation into the various phases of the cell cycle; with and without postirradiation treatment with 100 μg/ml 5-FU. Results: Postirradiation treatment with 5-FU sensitized proliferating cells to a greater degree than it sensitized cells growing in plateau phase. The β component of cell kill in log-phase cells was increased by a factor of 1.5 with a sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.21 at the 0.01 survival level. Plateau-phase cells showed less radiosensitization (sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.13 at the 0.01 survival level); however, there was a mild increase in both α and β kill in plateau-phase cells. Elutriated G 1 cells were the most radiosensitive, independent of treatment with 5-FU. The phase of the cell cycle had little effect on the ability of fluorouracil to radiosensitize Clone A cells. Conclusion: Proliferating cells are more susceptible to radiosensitization with 5-FU than plateau-phase cells are, but this effect appears to be independent of the phase of the cell cycle

  8. Expanding the Tissue Toolbox : Deriving Colon Tissue from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruens, Lotte; Snippert, Hugo J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Organoid technology holds great potential for disease modeling and regenerative medicine. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Múnera et al. (2017) establish the generation of pluripotent stem cell-derived colon organoids that upon transplantation in mice, resembling human colon to a large extent,

  9. Effect of β,β-Dimethylacrylshikonin on Inhibition of Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Growth in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Feng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine, shikonin and its derivatives, has been used in East Asia for several years for the prevention and treatment of several diseases, including cancer. We previously identified that β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin (DA could inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma growth. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of DA on human colorectal cancer (CRC cell line HCT-116 in vitro and in vivo. A viability assay showed that DA could inhibit tumor cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed that DA blocks the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase. Western blotting results demonstrated that the induction of apoptosis by DA correlated with the induction of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, and Bid, and a decrease in the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl. Furthermore, treatment of HCT-116 bearing nude mice with DA significantly retarded the growth of xenografts. Consistent with the results in vitro, the DA-mediated suppression of HCT-116 xenografts correlated with Bax and Bcl-2. Taken together, these results suggest that DA could be a novel and promising approach to the treatment of CRC.

  10. Different molecular organization of two carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, in human colon epithelial cells and colon adenocarcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzinski, Wojciech; Piet, Mateusz; Luchowski, Rafal; Reszczynska, Emilia; Welc, Renata; Paduch, Roman; Gruszecki, Wieslaw I.

    2018-01-01

    Two cell lines, human normal colon epithelial cells (CCD 841 CoTr) and human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) were cultured in the presence of exogenous carotenoids, either zeaxanthin or lutein. Both carotenoids demonstrated cytotoxicity with respect to cancer cells but not to normal cells. Cells from both the cell lines were analyzed with application of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and Raman scattering microscopy. Both imaging techniques show effective incorporation of carotenoid molecules into growing cells. Comparison of the Raman scattering and fluorescence lifetime characteristics reveals different molecular organization of carotenoids in the carcinoma and normal cells. The main difference consists in a carotenoid aggregation level which is substantially lower in the carcinoma cells as compared to the normal cells. Different molecular organization of carotenoids was interpreted in terms of a different metabolism of normal and carcinoma cells and has been concluded to provide a possibility of cancer diagnosis based on spectroscopic analyses.

  11. Comparative Study of Green Sub- and Supercritical Processes to Obtain Carnosic Acid and Carnosol-Enriched Rosemary Extracts with in Vitro Anti-Proliferative Activity on Colon Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea del Pilar Sánchez-Camargo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, four green processes have been compared to evaluate their potential to obtain rosemary extracts with in vitro anti-proliferative activity against two colon cancer cell lines (HT-29 and HCT116. The processes, carried out under optimal conditions, were: (1 pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, using an hydroalcoholic mixture as solvent at lab-scale; (2 Single-step supercritical fluid extraction (SFE at pilot scale; (3 Intensified two-step sequential SFE at pilot scale; (4 Integrated PLE plus supercritical antisolvent fractionation (SAF at pilot scale. Although higher extraction yields were achieved by using PLE (38.46% dry weight, this extract provided the lowest anti-proliferative activity with no observed cytotoxic effects at the assayed concentrations. On the other hand, extracts obtained using the PLE + SAF process provided the most active rosemary extracts against both colon cancer cell lines, with LC50 ranging from 11.2 to 12.4 µg/mL and from 21.8 to 31.9 µg/mL for HCT116 and HT-29, respectively. In general, active rosemary extracts were characterized by containing carnosic acid (CA and carnosol (CS at concentrations above 263.7 and 33.9 mg/g extract, respectively. Some distinct compounds have been identified in the SAF extracts (rosmaridiphenol and safficinolide, suggesting their possible role as additional contributors to the observed strong anti-proliferative activity of CA and CS in SAF extracts.

  12. Blocking hepatic metastases of colon cancer cells using an shRNA against Rac1 delivered by activatable cell-penetrating peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ying; Guo, Huihui; Lu, Yongliang; Feng, Wenming; Sun, Xinrong; Tang, Chengwu; Wang, Xiang; Shen, Mo

    2016-11-22

    Hepatic metastasis is one of the critical progressions of colon cancer. Blocking this process is key to prolonging survival time in cancer patients. Studies on activatable cell-penetrating peptides (dtACPPs) have demonstrated their potential as gene carriers. It showed high tumor cell-targeting specificity and transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity in the in vitro settings of drug delivery. However, using this system to silence target genes to inhibit metastasis in colorectal cancer cells has not been widely reported and requires further investigation. In this study, we observed that expression of Rac1, a key molecule for cytoskeletal reorganization, was higher in hepatic metastatic tumor tissue compared with prime colon cancer tissue and that patients with high Rac1-expressing colon cancer showed shorter survival time. Base on these findings, we created dtACPP-PEG-DGL (dtACPPD)/shRac1 nanoparticles and demonstrated that they downregulated Rac1 expression in colon cancer cells. Moreover, we observed inhibitory effects on migration, invasion and adhesion in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells in vitro, and our results showed that Rac1 regulated colon cancer cell matrix adhesion through the regulation of cytofilament dynamics. Moreover, mechanically, repression of Rac1 inhibiting cells migration and invasion by enhancing cell to cell adhesion and reducing cell to extracellular matrix adhesion. Furthermore, when atCDPPD/shRac1 nanoparticles were administered intravenously to a HCT116 xenograft model, significant tumor metastasis to the liver was inhibited. Our results suggest that atCDPP/shRac1 nanoparticles may enable the blockade of hepatic metastasis in colon cancer.

  13. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. ► Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. ► Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers – this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre-treatment with anti-MMP1 antibody. This study contributes to understanding

  14. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: jraufman@medicine.umaryland.edu [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers - this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre

  15. Characterization and significance of ACE2 and Mas receptor in human colon adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Stella; Zennaro, Cristina; Palmisano, Silvia; Velkoska, Elena; Sabato, Nicoletta; Toffoli, Barbara; Giacomel, Greta; Buri, Luigi; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Bellini, Giuseppe; Burrell, Louise M; De Manzini, Nicolò; Fabris, Bruno

    2012-03-01

    A new arm of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been recently characterized; this includes angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2 and angiotensin (Ang)1-7, a heptapeptide acting through the Mas receptor (MasR). Recent studies show that Ang1-7 has an antiproliferative action on lung adenocarcinoma cells. The aim of this study was to characterize RAS expression in human colon adenocarcinoma and to investigate whether Ang1-7 exerts an antiproliferative effect on human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Gene, protein expression and enzymatic activity of the main components of the RAS were determined on non-neoplastic colon mucosa as well as on the tumor mass and the mucosa taken 5 cm distant from it, both collected from patients with colon adenocarcinoma. Two different human colon cancer cell lines were treated with AngII and Ang1-7. The novel finding of this study was that MasR was significantly upregulated in colon adenocarcinoma compared with non-neoplastic colon mucosa, which showed little or no expression of it. ACE gene expression and enzymatic activity were also increased in the tumors. However, AngII and Ang1-7 did not have any pro-/antiproliferative effects in the cell lines studied. The data suggest that upregulation of the MasR could be used as a diagnostic marker of colon adenocarcinoma.

  16. Effects of cholera toxin on human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Whitehead, R H; Hayward, I P

    1992-10-01

    This study reports on changes in morphology and membrane transport in 5 human colon carcinoma cell lines treated with cholera toxin (CT). Three of the cell lines that grew as monolayers (LIM 1215, LIM 1899, LIM 2099) and 1 that grew as floating clumps (LIM 2408) did not show morphological changes after CT treatment. However, cell line LIM 1863 that grows as floating "crypt-like" organoids showed rapid and distinctive changes in morphology and membrane transport after CT treatment. At 1 and 6 hrs after CT treatment, light and transmission electron microscopy revealed rapid dilatation of the central lumen of organoids and the appearance of 2 populations of apical vesicular inclusions. The first population was unusual in being non-membrane bound and limited by fuzzy filamentous material. The second population was membrane bound. Scanning electron microscopy at 1-6 hr after CT treatment showed swelling and loss of surface microvilli on some, but not all, cells. At 24 hr after CT treatment the majority of organoids showed evidence of fluid accumulation and small apical vesicles coalesced to form large single vacuoles that obliterated normal cell morphology. By 48 hr, continued swelling produced extreme attenuation of the plasma membrane with cells taking on an "endothelial cell-like" appearance. The response to CT was dose-dependent. Uptake studies using 86Rubidium and blocking studies using ouabain and amiloride indicated that CT is acting on the Na+/K+ ATPase membrane pump to cause the increased fluid uptake by LIM 1863 cells. This study is the first to report specific morphological changes in intestine-derived cells in response to CT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Dragon (RGMb) induces oxaliplatin resistance in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Chen, Guo-Bin; Wang, Ying; Zhi, Qiang; Liu, Yuan-Sheng; Wu, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Li-Fen; Yang, Bing; Xiao, Chuan-Xing; Xing, Hui-Qin; Ren, Jian-Lin; Xia, Yin; Guleng, Bayasi

    2016-07-26

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and a major cause of cancer mortality. Chemotherapy resistance remains a major challenge for treating advanced CRC. Therefore, the identification of targets that induce drug resistance is a priority for the development of novel agents to overcome resistance. Dragon (also known as RGMb) is a member of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family. We previously showed that Dragon expression increases with CRC progression in human patients. In the present study, we found that Dragon inhibited apoptosis and increased viability of CMT93 and HCT116 cells in the presence of oxaliplatin. Dragon induced resistance of xenograft tumor to oxaliplatinin treatment in mice. Mechanistically, Dragon inhibited oxaliplatin-induced JNK and p38 MAPK activation, and caspase-3 and PARP cleavages. Our results indicate that Dragon may be a novel target that induces drug resistance in CRC.

  18. Human colon cancer HT-29 cell death responses to doxorubicin and Morus Alba leaves flavonoid extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, S; Karimi, A; Panahi, G; Gerayesh Nejad, S; Fadaei, R; Seifi, M

    2016-03-31

    The mechanistic basis for the biological properties of Morus alba flavonoid extract (MFE) and chemotherapy drug of doxorubicin on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line death are unknown. The effect of doxorubicin and flavonoid extract on colon cancer HT-29 cell line death and identification of APC gene expression and PARP concentration of HT-29 cell line were investigated. The results showed that flavonoid extract and doxorubicin induce a dose dependent cell death in HT-29 cell line. MFE and doxorubicin exert a cytotoxic effect on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line by probably promoting or induction of apoptosis.

  19. Assessing the potential for raw meat to influence human colonization with Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Carrel, Margaret; Zhao, Chang; Thapaliya, Dipendra; Bitterman, Patrick; Kates, Ashley E.; Hanson, Blake M.; Smith, Tara C.

    2017-01-01

    The role of household meat handling and consumption in the transfer of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) from livestock to consumers is not well understood. Examining the similarity of S. aureus colonizing humans and S. aureus in meat from the stores in which those individuals shop can provide insight into the role of meat in human S. aureus colonization. S. aureus isolates were collected from individuals in rural and urban communities in Iowa (n?=?3347) and contemporaneously from meat produc...

  20. Acetylcholine release by human colon cancer cells mediates autocrine stimulation of cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kunrong; Samimi, Roxana; Xie, Guofeng; Shant, Jasleen; Drachenberg, Cinthia; Wade, Mark; Davis, Richard J; Nomikos, George; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2008-09-01

    Most colon cancers overexpress M3 muscarinic receptors (M3R), and post-M3R signaling stimulates human colon cancer cell proliferation. Acetylcholine (ACh), a muscarinic receptor ligand traditionally regarded as a neurotransmitter, may be produced by nonneuronal cells. We hypothesized that ACh release by human colon cancer cells results in autocrine stimulation of proliferation. H508 human colon cancer cells, which have robust M3R expression, were used to examine effects of muscarinic receptor antagonists, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and choline transport inhibitors on cell proliferation. A nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist (atropine), a selective M3R antagonist (p-fluorohexahydro-sila-difenidol hydrochloride), and a choline transport inhibitor (hemicholinum-3) all inhibited unstimulated H508 colon cancer cell proliferation by approximately 40% (P<0.005). In contrast, two acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (eserine-hemisulfate and bis-9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine) increased proliferation by 2.5- and 2-fold, respectively (P<0.005). By using quantitative real-time PCR, expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a critical enzyme for ACh synthesis, was identified in H508, WiDr, and Caco-2 colon cancer cells. By using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection, released ACh was detected in H508 and Caco-2 cell culture media. Immunohistochemistry in surgical specimens revealed weak or no cytoplasmic staining for ChAT in normal colon enterocytes (n=25) whereas half of colon cancer specimens (n=24) exhibited moderate to strong staining (P<0.005). We conclude that ACh is an autocrine growth factor in colon cancer. Mechanisms that regulate colon epithelial cell production and release of ACh warrant further investigation.

  1. Retention of zinc and calcium from the human colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, B.C.; Cederblad, A.; Kivistoe, B.S.; Stenquist, B.; Andersson, H.

    1986-01-01

    Colonic retention of zinc and calcium was studied after installation during colonoscopy of 30 mumol of zinc and 6.4 mmol of calcium labeled with 65 Zn and 47 Ca, and measurement of the whole-body retention of the radionuclides. After cecal installation in nine patients, retention (day 13) of zinc was 3.5 +/- 2.1% (mean +/- SD) and of calcium 3.5 +/- 2.7%. The calculated mean absorption was 4.1% for zinc and 14.1% for calcium. Application at the hepatic flexure in four patients resulted in a mean retention (day 13) of 1.2% for zinc and 0.6% for calcium. Under prevailing conditions, colonic absorption of zinc is relatively small, compared to the uptake after oral administration. Colonic absorption of calcium could, however, account for a substantial part of the total calcium uptake

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quantification of Fasted State Colonic Liquid Pockets in Healthy Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L; Mudie, Deanna M; Wright, Jeff; Heissam, Khaled; Abrehart, Nichola; Pritchard, Susan E; Al Atwah, Salem; Gowland, Penny A; Garnett, Martin C; Amidon, Gregory E; Spiller, Robin C; Amidon, Gordon L; Marciani, Luca

    2017-08-07

    The rate and extent of drug dissolution and absorption from solid oral dosage forms is highly dependent on the volume of liquid in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). However, little is known about the time course of GIT liquid volumes after drinking a glass of water (8 oz), particularly in the colon, which is a targeted site for both locally and systemically acting drug products. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies offered novel insights on GIT liquid distribution in fasted humans in the stomach and small intestine, and showed that freely mobile liquid in the intestine collects in fairly distinct regions or "pockets". Based on this previous pilot data, we hypothesized that (1) it is possible to quantify the time course of the volume and number of liquid pockets in the undisturbed colon of fasted healthy humans following ingestion of 240 mL, using noninvasive MRI methods; (2) the amount of freely mobile water in the fasted human colon is of the order of only a few milliliters. Twelve healthy volunteers fasted overnight and underwent fasted abdominal MRI scans before drinking 240 mL (∼8 fluid ounces) of water. After ingesting the water they were scanned at frequent intervals for 2 h. The images were processed to quantify freely mobile water in the total and regional colon: ascending, transverse, and descending. The fasted colon contained (mean ± SEM) 11 ± 5 pockets of resting liquid with a total volume of 2 ± 1 mL (average). The colonic fluid peaked at 7 ± 4 mL 30 min after the water drink. This peak fluid was distributed in 17 ± 7 separate liquid pockets in the colon. The regional analysis showed that pockets of free fluid were found primarily in the ascending colon. The interindividual variability was very high; the subjects showed a range of number of colonic fluid pockets from 0 to 89 and total colonic freely mobile fluid volume from 0 to 49 mL. This is the first study measuring the time course of the number, regional location, and volume of

  3. High mobility group box-1 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C zeta and secreted in colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hanna; Park, Minhee; Shin, Nara; Kim, Gamin [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Gi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jeon-Soo [Department of Microbiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoguen, E-mail: hkyonsei@yuhs.ac [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific enzyme for HMGB1 phosphorylation and its secretion is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of PKC-{zeta} leads to significant reduction of the secreted HMGB1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation of specific site of HMGB1 redirects its secretion in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of PKC-{zeta} in cancers explains the enhanced HMGB1 secretion. -- Abstract: High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein, is overexpressed and secreted in cancer cells. Phosphorylation on two different nuclear localization signal regions are known to be important for the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic transport and secretion of HMGB1. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanism of HMGB1 modifications and its subsequent secretion from cancer cells. To identify the specific enzyme and important sites for HMGB1 phosphorylation, we screened the protein kinase C (PKC) family in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116) for HMGB1 binding by pull-down experiments using a 3XFLAG-HMGB1 construct. Strong interactions between atypical PKCs (PKC-{zeta}, {lambda}, and {iota}) and cytoplasmic HMGB1 were observed in HCT116 cells. We further identified the most critical PKC isotype that regulates HMGB1 secretion is PKC-{zeta} by using PKC inhibitors and siRNA experiments. The serine residues at S39, S53 and S181 of HMGB1 were related to enhancing HMGB1 secretion. We also demonstrated overexpression and activation of PKC-{zeta} in colon cancer tissues. Our findings suggest that PKC-{zeta} is involved in the phosphorylation of HMGB1, and the phosphorylation of specific serine residues in the nuclear localization signal regions is related to enhanced HMGB1 secretion in colon cancer cells.

  4. High mobility group box-1 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C zeta and secreted in colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hanna; Park, Minhee; Shin, Nara; Kim, Gamin; Kim, Yun Gi; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Kim, Hoguen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Specific enzyme for HMGB1 phosphorylation and its secretion is proposed. ► Inhibition of PKC-ζ leads to significant reduction of the secreted HMGB1. ► Phosphorylation of specific site of HMGB1 redirects its secretion in cancer cells. ► Activation of PKC-ζ in cancers explains the enhanced HMGB1 secretion. -- Abstract: High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein, is overexpressed and secreted in cancer cells. Phosphorylation on two different nuclear localization signal regions are known to be important for the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic transport and secretion of HMGB1. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanism of HMGB1 modifications and its subsequent secretion from cancer cells. To identify the specific enzyme and important sites for HMGB1 phosphorylation, we screened the protein kinase C (PKC) family in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116) for HMGB1 binding by pull-down experiments using a 3XFLAG-HMGB1 construct. Strong interactions between atypical PKCs (PKC-ζ, λ, and ι) and cytoplasmic HMGB1 were observed in HCT116 cells. We further identified the most critical PKC isotype that regulates HMGB1 secretion is PKC-ζ by using PKC inhibitors and siRNA experiments. The serine residues at S39, S53 and S181 of HMGB1 were related to enhancing HMGB1 secretion. We also demonstrated overexpression and activation of PKC-ζ in colon cancer tissues. Our findings suggest that PKC-ζ is involved in the phosphorylation of HMGB1, and the phosphorylation of specific serine residues in the nuclear localization signal regions is related to enhanced HMGB1 secretion in colon cancer cells.

  5. Human colon tissue in organ culture: calcium and multi-mineral-induced mucosal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, Michael K; Veerapaneni, Indiradevi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Naik, Madhav; Varani, James

    2011-01-01

    We have recently shown that a multi-mineral extract from the marine red algae, Lithothamnion calcareum, suppresses colon polyp formation and inflammation in mice. In the present study, we used intact human colon tissue in organ culture to compare responses initiated by Ca(2+) supplementation versus the multi-mineral extract. Normal human colon tissue was treated for 2 d in culture with various concentrations of calcium or the mineral-rich extract. The tissue was then prepared for histology/immunohistochemistry, and the culture supernatants were assayed for levels of type I procollagen and type I collagen. At higher Ca(2+) concentrations or with the mineral-rich extract, proliferation of epithelial cells at the base and walls of the mucosal crypts was suppressed, as visualized by reduced Ki67 staining. E-cadherin, a marker of differentiation, was more strongly expressed at the upper third of the crypt and at the luminal surface. Treatment with Ca(2+) or with the multi-mineral extract influenced collagen turnover, with decreased procollagen and increased type I collagen. These data suggest that calcium or mineral-rich extract has the capacity to (1) promote differentiation in human colon tissue in organ culture and (2) modulate stromal function as assessed by increased levels of type I collagen. Taken together, these data suggest that human colon tissue in organ culture (supporting in vivo finding in mice) will provide a valuable model for the preclinical assessment of agents that regulate growth and differentiation in the colonic mucosa.

  6. Long-term expansion of epithelial organoids from human colon, adenoma, adenocarcinoma, and Barrett's epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Toshiro; Stange, Daniel E; Ferrante, Marc; Vries, Robert G J; Van Es, Johan H; Van den Brink, Stieneke; Van Houdt, Winan J; Pronk, Apollo; Van Gorp, Joost; Siersema, Peter D; Clevers, Hans

    2011-11-01

    We previously established long-term culture conditions under which single crypts or stem cells derived from mouse small intestine expand over long periods. The expanding crypts undergo multiple crypt fission events, simultaneously generating villus-like epithelial domains that contain all differentiated types of cells. We have adapted the culture conditions to grow similar epithelial organoids from mouse colon and human small intestine and colon. Based on the mouse small intestinal culture system, we optimized the mouse and human colon culture systems. Addition of Wnt3A to the combination of growth factors applied to mouse colon crypts allowed them to expand indefinitely. Addition of nicotinamide, along with a small molecule inhibitor of Alk and an inhibitor of p38, were required for long-term culture of human small intestine and colon tissues. The culture system also allowed growth of mouse Apc-deficient adenomas, human colorectal cancer cells, and human metaplastic epithelia from regions of Barrett's esophagus. We developed a technology that can be used to study infected, inflammatory, or neoplastic tissues from the human gastrointestinal tract. These tools might have applications in regenerative biology through ex vivo expansion of the intestinal epithelia. Studies of these cultures indicate that there is no inherent restriction in the replicative potential of adult stem cells (or a Hayflick limit) ex vivo. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA): a new marker to study human colonic cell proliferation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kubben, F J; Peeters-Haesevoets, A; Engels, L G; Baeten, C G; Schutte, B; Arends, J W; Stockbrügger, R W; Blijham, G H

    1994-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry of the S phase related proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was studied as an alternative to ex-vivo bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry for assessment of human colonic cell proliferation. From 16 subjects without colonic disease biopsy specimens were collected from five different sites along the colorectum and processed for BrdU and PCNA immunohistochemistry. The mean proliferation index of PCNA was significantly higher at 133% of the value obtained with B...

  8. FXR silencing in human colon cancer by DNA methylation and KRAS signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Ann M; Zhan, Le; Maru, Dipen; Shureiqi, Imad; Pickering, Curtis R; Kiriakova, Galina; Izzo, Julie; He, Nan; Wei, Caimiao; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Liang, Han; Kopetz, Scott; Powis, Garth; Guo, Grace L

    2014-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid nuclear receptor described through mouse knockout studies as a tumor suppressor for the development of colon adenocarcinomas. This study investigates the regulation of FXR in the development of human colon cancer. We used immunohistochemistry of FXR in normal tissue (n = 238), polyps (n = 32), and adenocarcinomas, staged I-IV (n = 43, 39, 68, and 9), of the colon; RT-quantitative PCR, reverse-phase protein array, and Western blot analysis in 15 colon cancer cell lines; NR1H4 promoter methylation and mRNA expression in colon cancer samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas; DNA methyltransferase inhibition; methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP); bisulfite sequencing; and V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) knockdown assessment to investigate FXR regulation in colon cancer development. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR revealed that expression and function of FXR was reduced in precancerous lesions and silenced in a majority of stage I-IV tumors. FXR expression negatively correlated with phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3 kinase signaling and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The NR1H4 promoter is methylated in ~12% colon cancer The Cancer Genome Atlas samples, and methylation patterns segregate with tumor subtypes. Inhibition of DNA methylation and KRAS silencing both increased FXR expression. FXR expression is decreased early in human colon cancer progression, and both DNA methylation and KRAS signaling may be contributing factors to FXR silencing. FXR potentially suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and other oncogenic signaling cascades, and restoration of FXR activity, by blocking silencing mechanisms or increasing residual FXR activity, represents promising therapeutic options for the treatment of colon cancer.

  9. Indoors forensic entomology: colonization of human remains in closed environments by specific species of sarcosaprophagous flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O; Karhunen, Pekka J; Goebeler, Sirkka; Saukko, Pekka; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2010-06-15

    Fly species that are commonly recovered on human corpses concealed in houses or other dwellings are often dependent on human created environments and might have special features in their biology that allow them to colonize indoor cadavers. In this study we describe nine typical cases involving forensically relevant flies on human remains found indoors in southern Finland. Eggs, larvae and puparia were reared to adult stage and determined to species. Of the five species found the most common were Lucilia sericata Meigen, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Protophormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy. The flesh fly Sarcophaga caerulescens Zetterstedt is reported for the first time to colonize human cadavers inside houses and a COI gene sequence based DNA barcode is provided for it to help facilitate identification in the future. Fly biology, colonization speed and the significance of indoors forensic entomological evidence are discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. CD44 regulates cell migration in human colon cancer cells via Lyn kinase and AKT phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Venkateswaran; Vincent, Isabella R; Gardner, Helena; Chan, Emily; Dhamko, Helena; Jothy, Serge

    2007-10-01

    Colon cancer is among the leading causes of cancer death in North America. CD44, an adhesion and antiapoptotic molecule is overexpressed in colon cancer. Cofilin is involved in the directional motility of cells. In the present study, we looked at how CD44 might modulate cell migration in human colon cancer via cofilin. We used a human colon cancer cell line, HT29, which expresses CD44, HT29 where CD44 expression was knocked down by siRNA, SW620, a human colon cancer cell line which does not express CD44, stably transfected exons of CD44 in SW620 cells and the colon from CD44 knockout and wild-type mouse. Western blot analysis of siRNA CD44 lysates showed increased level of AKT phosphorylation and decreased level of cofilin expression. Similar results were also observed with SW620 cells and CD44 knockout mouse colon lysates. Experiments using the AKT phosphorylation inhibitor LY294002 indicate that AKT phosphorylation downregulates cofilin. Immunoprecipitation studies showed CD44 complex formation with Lyn, providing an essential link between CD44 and AKT phosphorylation. LY294002 also stabilized Lyn from phosphorylated AKT, suggesting an interaction between Lyn and AKT phosphorylation. Immunocytochemistry showed that cofilin and Lyn expression were downregulated in siRNA CD44 cells and CD44 knockout mouse colon. siRNA CD44 cells had significantly less migration compared to HT29 vector. Given the well-defined roles of CD44, phosphorylated AKT in apoptosis and cancer, these results indicate that CD44-induced cell migration is dependent on its complex formation with Lyn and its consequent regulation of AKT phosphorylation and cofilin expression.

  11. Rapid effects of phytoestrogens on human colonic smooth muscle are mediated by oestrogen receptor beta.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A M

    2012-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have correlated consumption of dietary phytoestrogens with beneficial effects on colon, breast and prostate cancers. Genomic and non-genomic mechanisms are responsible for anti-carcinogenic effects but, until now, the effect on human colon was assumed to be passive and remote. No direct effect on human colonic smooth muscle has previously been described. Institutional research board approval was granted. Histologically normal colon was obtained from the proximal resection margin of colorectal carcinoma specimens. Circular smooth muscle strips were microdissected and suspended under 1g of tension in organ baths containing oxygenated Krebs solution at 37 degrees C. After an equilibration period, tissues were exposed to diarylpropionitrile (DPN) (ER beta agonist) and 1,3,5-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-propyl-1H-pyrazole (PPT) (ER alpha agonist) or to the synthetic phytoestrogen compounds genistein (n=8), daidzein (n=8), fisetin (n=8) and quercetin (n=8) in the presence or absence of fulvestrant (oestrogen receptor antagonist). Mechanism of action was investigated by inhibition of downstream pathways. The cholinergic agonist carbachol was used to induce contractile activity. Tension was recorded isometrically. Phytoestrogens inhibit carbachol-induced colonic contractility. In keeping with a non-genomic, rapid onset direct action, the effect was within minutes, reversible and similar to previously described actions of 17 beta oestradiol. No effect was seen in the presence of fulvestrant indicating receptor modulation. While the DPN exerted inhibitory effects, PPT did not. The effect appears to be reliant on a p38\\/mitogen activated protein kinase mediated induction of nitric oxide production in colonic smooth muscle. The present data set provides the first description of a direct effect of genistein, daidzein, fisetin and quercetin on human colonic smooth muscle. The presence of ER in colonic smooth muscle has been functionally proven and the beta

  12. Essential oils from Egyptian aromatic plants as antioxidant and novel anticancer agents in human cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan, M. M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of tumor growth using extracts from aromatic plants are rapidly emerging as important new drug candidates for cancer therapy. The cytotoxicity and in vitro anticancer evaluation of the essential oils from thyme, juniper and clove has been assessed against five different human cancer cell lines (liver HepG2, breast MCF-7, prostate PC3, colon HCT116 and lung A549. A GC/MS analysis revealed that α-pinene, thymol and eugenol are the major components of Egyptian juniper, thyme and clove oils with concentrations of 31.19%, 79.15% and 82.71%, respectively. Strong antioxidant profiles of all the oils are revealed in vitro by DPPH and β-carotene bleaching assays. The results showed that clove oil was similarly potent to the reference drug, doxorubicin in prostate, colon and lung cell lines. Thyme oil was more effective than the doxorubicin in breast and lung cell lines while juniper oil was more effective than the doxorubicin in all the tested cancer cell lines except prostate cancer. In conclusion, the essential oils from Egyptian aromatic plants can be used as good candidates for novel therapeutic strategies for cancer as they possess significant anticancer activity.Los inhibidores de crecimiento de tumores usando extractos de plantas aromáticas están emergiendo con rapidez como nuevos e importantes medicamentos para el tratamiento del cáncer. La citotoxicidad y la acción anticancerígena in vitro de aceites esenciales de tomillo, enebro y clavo han sido evaluadas en cinco líneas celulares de cáncer humano (hígado HepG2, mama MCF-7, próstata PC3, colon HCT116 y pulmón A549. Los análisis de GC/MS mostraron que α-pineno, timol y eugenol son los principales componentes de los aceites egipcios de enebro, tomillo y clavo, con concentraciones de 31,19%, 79,15% y 82,71%, respectivamente. Se demuestra, mediante ensayos in vitro de blanqueo de DPPH y β-caroteno, el enérgico perfil antioxidante de todos los aceites. Los resultados

  13. Impact of Mesenchymal Stem Cell secreted PAI-1 on colon cancer cell migration and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, Niamh M.; Joyce, Myles R.; Murphy, J. Mary; Barry, Frank P.; O’Brien, Timothy; Kerin, Michael J.; Dwyer, Roisin M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •MSCs were directly co-cultured with colorectal cancer (CRC) cells on 3D scaffolds. •MSCs influence CRC protein/gene expression, proliferation and migration. •We report a significant functional role of MSC-secreted PAI-1 in colon cancer. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal Stem Cells are known to engraft and integrate into the architecture of colorectal tumours, with little known regarding their fate following engraftment. This study aimed to investigate mediators of Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) and colon cancer cell (CCC) interactions. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and colon cancer cells (HT29 and HCT-116) were cultured individually or in co-culture on 3-dimensional scaffolds. Conditioned media containing all secreted factors was harvested at day 1, 3 and 7. Chemokine secretion and expression were analyzed by Chemi-array, ELISA (Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1)) and RQ-PCR. Colon cancer cell migration and proliferation in response to recombinant PAI-1, MSCs and MSCs + antibody to PAI-1 was analyzed using Transwell inserts and an MTS proliferation assay respectively. Chemi-array revealed secretion of a wide range of factors by each cell population, including PAI-1and MIF. ELISA analysis revealed Mesenchymal Stem Cells to secrete the highest levels of PAI-1 (MSC mean 10.6 ng/mL, CCC mean 1.01 ng/mL), while colon cancer cells were the principal source of MIF. MSC-secreted PAI-1 stimulated significant migration of both CCC lines, with an antibody to the chemokine shown to block this effect (67–88% blocking,). A cell-line dependant effect on CCC proliferation was shown for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-secreted PAI-1 with HCT-116 cells showing decreased proliferation at all concentrations, and HT29 cells showing increased proliferation in the presence of higher PAI-1 levels. This is the first study to identify PAI-1 as an important mediator of Mesenchymal Stem Cell/colon cancer cell interactions and highlights the

  14. Impact of Mesenchymal Stem Cell secreted PAI-1 on colon cancer cell migration and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Niamh M. [Discipline of Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Joyce, Myles R. [Department of Colorectal Surgery, University College Hospital, Galway (Ireland); Murphy, J. Mary; Barry, Frank P.; O’Brien, Timothy [Regenerative Medicine Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Kerin, Michael J. [Discipline of Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Dwyer, Roisin M., E-mail: roisin.dwyer@nuigalway.ie [Discipline of Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •MSCs were directly co-cultured with colorectal cancer (CRC) cells on 3D scaffolds. •MSCs influence CRC protein/gene expression, proliferation and migration. •We report a significant functional role of MSC-secreted PAI-1 in colon cancer. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal Stem Cells are known to engraft and integrate into the architecture of colorectal tumours, with little known regarding their fate following engraftment. This study aimed to investigate mediators of Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) and colon cancer cell (CCC) interactions. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and colon cancer cells (HT29 and HCT-116) were cultured individually or in co-culture on 3-dimensional scaffolds. Conditioned media containing all secreted factors was harvested at day 1, 3 and 7. Chemokine secretion and expression were analyzed by Chemi-array, ELISA (Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1)) and RQ-PCR. Colon cancer cell migration and proliferation in response to recombinant PAI-1, MSCs and MSCs + antibody to PAI-1 was analyzed using Transwell inserts and an MTS proliferation assay respectively. Chemi-array revealed secretion of a wide range of factors by each cell population, including PAI-1and MIF. ELISA analysis revealed Mesenchymal Stem Cells to secrete the highest levels of PAI-1 (MSC mean 10.6 ng/mL, CCC mean 1.01 ng/mL), while colon cancer cells were the principal source of MIF. MSC-secreted PAI-1 stimulated significant migration of both CCC lines, with an antibody to the chemokine shown to block this effect (67–88% blocking,). A cell-line dependant effect on CCC proliferation was shown for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-secreted PAI-1 with HCT-116 cells showing decreased proliferation at all concentrations, and HT29 cells showing increased proliferation in the presence of higher PAI-1 levels. This is the first study to identify PAI-1 as an important mediator of Mesenchymal Stem Cell/colon cancer cell interactions and highlights the

  15. Cytotoxic, antimigratory, pro-and antioxidative activities of extracts from medicinal mushrooms on colon cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šeklić Dragana S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol extracts of five commercially available mushroom species (Phellinus linteus (Berk. et Curt Teng, Cordyceps sinensis (Berk. Sacc., Lentinus edodes (Berk. Pegler, Coprinus comatus (O. F. Müll. Pers. and Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis P. Karst, traditionally used as anticancer agents, were evaluated in vitro for their total phenol and flavonoid contents, cytotoxic and antimigratory activities and antioxidant/prooxidant effects on colon cancer cell lines (HCT-116 and SW-480. Spectrophotometric methods were used for the determination of total phenol content, flavonoid concentrations and DPPH activity of the extracts. Cytotoxic activity was measured by the MTT assay. The antimigratory activity of extracts was determined using the Transwell assay and immunofluorescence staining of β-catenin. The prooxidant/antioxidant status was followed by measuring the superoxide anion radical (O2•-, nitrite and reduced glutathione (GSH concentrations. Our results show that the highest phenolic and flavonoid content was found in P. linteus, and its DPPH-scavenging capacity was significantly higher than in other samples. The P. linteus extract significantly decreased cell viability of both tested cancer cell lines. All other extracts selectively inhibited SW-480 cell viability, but did not show significant cytotoxic activity. The mushroom extracts caused changes in the prooxidant/antioxidant status of cells, inducing oxidative stress. All extracts tested on HCT-116 cells demonstrated significant antimigratory effects, which correlated with increased production of O2•- and a reduced level of β-catenin protein expression, while only P. linteus showed the same effect on SW-480 cells. The results of the present research indicate that the mushroom extracts causes oxidative stress which has a pronounced impact on the migratory status of colon cancer cell lines. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41010

  16. The action of sennosides and related compounds on human colon and rectum 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, J. D.; Wilkins, J. L.

    1970-01-01

    The direct action of intraluminal senna and related compounds on the human colon and rectum has been investigated. Motility was recorded by balloon kymography with recording units inserted into well established transverse colostomies or into the rectum. The motility of the colon was not changed by intraluminal senna glycosides but the introduction of senna previously incubated with faeces or Esch. coli stimulated the colon to peristalt. The peristalsis was similar to that stimulated by rheinanthrone, an oxanthrone produced by chemical hydrolysis and reduction of senna. Both activated senna and rheinanthrone appeared to act in the colon by contact stimulation. No peristaltic response was stimulated in the rectum, either with activated senna or with rheinanthrone. PMID:4929273

  17. Oral Candida spp. colonization in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Moris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several yeast species of Candida genus can colonize the skin as well as the mucous membrane of the vagina and the digestive tract for short or long periods. Depending on the host's immunological state and the yeast's virulence, colonization can become an infection, invading the colonized tissues and also disseminating. AIDS is characterized by the host's intensive and progressive immunodepression which manifests as diverse symptoms, mainly lesions in the mouth. Oral candidiasis is the most prevalent opportunistic infection in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and is an important indicator of the disease progress and the immunosuppression increase. The factors involved in the equilibrium between Candida spp. and HIV-infected subjects are sometimes contradictory and were evaluated in the present study specially for colonization.

  18. Identifying colon cancer risk modules with better classification performance based on human signaling network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaoli; Xie, Ruiqiang; Chen, Lina; Feng, Chenchen; Zhou, Yanyan; Li, Wan; Huang, Hao; Jia, Xu; Lv, Junjie; He, Yuehan; Du, Youwen; Li, Weiguo; Shi, Yuchen; He, Weiming

    2014-10-01

    Identifying differences between normal and tumor samples from a modular perspective may help to improve our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for colon cancer. Many cancer studies have shown that signaling transduction and biological pathways are disturbed in disease states, and expression profiles can distinguish variations in diseases. In this study, we integrated a weighted human signaling network and gene expression profiles to select risk modules associated with tumor conditions. Risk modules as classification features by our method had a better classification performance than other methods, and one risk module for colon cancer had a good classification performance for distinguishing between normal/tumor samples and between tumor stages. All genes in the module were annotated to the biological process of positive regulation of cell proliferation, and were highly associated with colon cancer. These results suggested that these genes might be the potential risk genes for colon cancer. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Effect of sulindac sulfide on metallohydrolases in the human colon cancer cell line HT-29.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Guillen-Ahlers

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7, a metallohydrolase involved in the development of several cancers, is downregulated in the Apc(Min/+ colon cancer mouse model following sulindac treatment. To determine whether this effect is relevant to the human condition, HT-29 human colon cancer cells were treated with sulindac and its metabolites, and compared to results obtained from in vivo mouse studies. The expression of MMP7 was monitored. The results demonstrated that sulindac sulfide effectively downregulated both MMP7 expression and activity. Furthermore, activity-based proteomics demonstrated that sulindac sulfide dramatically decreased the activity of leukotriene A4 hydrolase in HT-29 cells as reflected by a decrease in the level of its product, leukotriene B4. This study demonstrates that the effect of sulindac treatment in a mouse model of colon cancer may be relevant to the human counterpart and highlights the effect of sulindac treatment on metallohydrolases.

  20. Negligible colon cancer risk from food-borne acrylamide exposure in male F344 rats and nude (nu/nu mice-bearing human colon tumor xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev Raju

    Full Text Available Acrylamide, a possible human carcinogen, is formed in certain carbohydrate-rich foods processed at high temperature. We evaluated if dietary acrylamide, at doses (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg diet reflecting upper levels found in human foods, modulated colon tumorigenesis in two rodent models. Male F344 rats were randomized to receive diets without (control or with acrylamide. 2-weeks later, rats in each group received two weekly subcutaneous injections of either azoxymethane (AOM or saline, and were killed 20 weeks post-injections; colons were assessed for tumors. Male athymic nude (nu/nu mice bearing HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells-derived tumor xenografts received diets without (control or with acrylamide; tumor growth was monitored and mice were killed 4 weeks later. In the F344 rat study, no tumors were found in the colons of the saline-injected rats. However, the colon tumor incidence was 54.2% and 66.7% in the control and the 2 mg/kg acrylamide-treated AOM-injected groups, respectively. While tumor multiplicity was similar across all diet groups, tumor size and burden were higher in the 2 mg/kg acrylamide group compared to the AOM control. These results suggest that acrylamide by itself is not a "complete carcinogen", but acts as a "co-carcinogen" by exacerbating the effects of AOM. The nude mouse study indicated no differences in the growth of human colon tumor xenografts between acrylamide-treated and control mice, suggesting that acrylamide does not aid in the progression of established tumors. Hence, food-borne acrylamide at levels comparable to those found in human foods is neither an independent carcinogen nor a tumor promoter in the colon. However, our results characterize a potential hazard of acrylamide as a colon co-carcinogen in association with known and possibly other environmental tumor initiators/promoters.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus MnhF mediates cholate efflux and facilitates survival under human colonic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Sannasiddappa, Thippeswamy; Hood, Graham; Hanson, Kevan; Costabile, Adele; Gibson, Glenn; Clarke, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to the innate defenses of the intestine is crucial for the survival and carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, a common colonizer of the human gut. Bile salts produced by the liver and secreted into the intestines are one such group of molecules with potent antimicrobial activity. The mechanisms by which S. aureus is able to resist such defenses in order to colonize and survive in the human gut are unknown. Here we show that mnhF confers resistance to bile salts, which can be abrogated...

  2. Evaluation of an in vitro faecal degradation method for early assessment of the impact of colonic degradation on colonic absorption in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannergren, Christer; Borde, Anders; Boreström, Cecilia; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Lindahl, Anders

    2014-06-16

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate an in vitro method to investigate bacterial-mediated luminal degradation of drugs in colon in humans. This would be a valuable tool for the assessment of drug candidates during early drug development, especially for compounds intended to be developed as oral extended release formulations. Freshly prepared faecal homogenate from healthy human volunteers (n=3-18), dog (n=6) and rat (colon and caecal content, n=3) was homogenised with 3.8 parts (w/w) physiological saline under anaerobical conditions. Four model compounds (almokalant, budesonide, ximelagatran and metoprolol) were then incubated (n=3-18) separately in the human faecal homogenate for up to 120min at 37°C. In addition, ximelagatran was also incubated in the faecal or colonic content from dog and rat. The mean (±SD) in vitro half-life for almokalant, budesonide and ximelagatran was 39±1, 68±21 and 26±12min, respectively, in the human faecal homogenate. Metoprolol was found to be stable in the in vitro model. The in vitro degradation data was then compared to literature data on fraction absorbed after direct colon administration in humans. The percentage of drug remaining after 60min of in vitro incubation correlated (R(2)=0.90) with the fraction absorbed from colon in humans. The mean in vitro half-life of ximelagatran was similar in human faeces (26±12min) and rat colon content (34±31min), but significantly (pdegradation in vivo was rapidly degraded in the faecal homogenates as well as quantitatively since a correlation was established between percentage degraded in vitro at 60min and fraction absorbed in the colon for the model drugs, which have no other absorption limiting properties. Also, the method is easy to use from a technical point of view, which suggests that the method is suitable for use in early assessment of colonic absorption of extended release formulation candidates. Further improvement of the confidence in the use of the

  3. Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Caroline B; Gibson, Adam P [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Fitzgerald, Anthony; Wallace, Vincent P [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009 (Australia); Reese, George; Tekkis, Paris [Division of Surgery, Chelsea and Westminster Campus, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Goldin, Robert [Centre for Pathology, Imperial College London, St Mary' s Campus, London (United Kingdom); O' Kelly, P S [TeraView Ltd, Platinum Building, St John' s Innovation Park, Cowley Road, Cambridge, CB4 0WS (United Kingdom); Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma, E-mail: c.reid@medphys.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT (Hong Kong)

    2011-07-21

    We present the results from a feasibility study which measures properties in the terahertz frequency range of excised cancerous, dysplastic and healthy colonic tissues from 30 patients. We compare their absorption and refractive index spectra to identify trends which may enable different tissue types to be distinguished. In addition, we present statistical models based on variations between up to 17 parameters calculated from the reflected time and frequency domain signals of all the measured tissues. These models produce a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 77% in distinguishing between healthy and all diseased tissues and a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 71% in distinguishing between dysplastic and healthy tissues. The contrast between the tissue types was supported by histological staining studies which showed an increased vascularity in regions of increased terahertz absorption.

  4. Proteogenomic characterization of human colon and rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Qi; Shi, Zhiao; Chambers, Matthew C.; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Shaddox, Kent F.; Kim, Sangtae; Davies, Sherri; Wang, Sean; Wang, Pei; Kinsinger, Christopher; Rivers, Robert; Rodriguez, Henry; Townsend, Reid; Ellis, Matthew; Carr, Steven A.; Tabb, David L.; Coffey, Robert J.; Slebos, Robbert; Liebler, Daniel

    2014-09-18

    We analyzed proteomes of colon and rectal tumors previously characterized by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and performed integrated proteogenomic analyses. Protein sequence variants encoded by somatic genomic variations displayed reduced expression compared to protein variants encoded by germline variations. mRNA transcript abundance did not reliably predict protein expression differences between tumors. Proteomics identified five protein expression subtypes, two of which were associated with the TCGA "MSI/CIMP" transcriptional subtype, but had distinct mutation and methylation patterns and associated with different clinical outcomes. Although CNAs showed strong cis- and trans-effects on mRNA expression, relatively few of these extend to the protein level. Thus, proteomics data enabled prioritization of candidate driver genes. Our analyses identified HNF4A, a novel candidate driver gene in tumors with chromosome 20q amplifications. Integrated proteogenomic analysis provides functional context to interpret genomic abnormalities and affords novel insights into cancer biology.

  5. Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Caroline B; Gibson, Adam P; Fitzgerald, Anthony; Wallace, Vincent P; Reese, George; Tekkis, Paris; Goldin, Robert; O'Kelly, P S; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2011-01-01

    We present the results from a feasibility study which measures properties in the terahertz frequency range of excised cancerous, dysplastic and healthy colonic tissues from 30 patients. We compare their absorption and refractive index spectra to identify trends which may enable different tissue types to be distinguished. In addition, we present statistical models based on variations between up to 17 parameters calculated from the reflected time and frequency domain signals of all the measured tissues. These models produce a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 77% in distinguishing between healthy and all diseased tissues and a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 71% in distinguishing between dysplastic and healthy tissues. The contrast between the tissue types was supported by histological staining studies which showed an increased vascularity in regions of increased terahertz absorption.

  6. The Nucleotide Synthesis Enzyme CAD Inhibits NOD2 Antibacterial Function in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Amy L.; Kabi, Amrita; Homer, Craig R.; García, Noemí Marina; Nickerson, Kourtney P.; NesvizhskiI, Alexey I.; Sreekumar, Arun; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Nuñez, Gabriel; McDonald, Christine

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Polymorphisms that reduce the function of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)2, a bacterial sensor, have been associated with Crohn’s disease (CD). No proteins that regulate NOD2 activity have been identified as selective pharmacologic targets. We sought to discover regulators of NOD2 that might be pharmacologic targets for CD therapies. METHODS Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase/ aspartate transcarbamylase/dihydroorotase (CAD) is an enzyme required for de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis; it was identified as a NOD2-interacting protein by immunoprecipitation-coupled mass spectrometry. CAD expression was assessed in colon tissues from individuals with and without inflammatory bowel disease by immunohistochemistry. The interaction between CAD and NOD2 was assessed in human HCT116 intestinal epithelial cells by immunoprecipitation, immunoblot, reporter gene, and gentamicin protection assays. We also analyzed human cell lines that express variants of NOD2 and the effects of RNA interference, overexpression and CAD inhibitors. RESULTS CAD was identified as a NOD2-interacting protein expressed at increased levels in the intestinal epithelium of patients with CD compared with controls. Overexpression of CAD inhibited NOD2-dependent activation of nuclear factor κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, as well as intracellular killing of Salmonella. Reduction of CAD expression or administration of CAD inhibitors increased NOD2-dependent signaling and antibacterial functions of NOD2 variants that are and are not associated with CD. CONCLUSIONS The nucleotide synthesis enzyme CAD is a negative regulator of NOD2. The antibacterial function of NOD2 variants that have been associated with CD increased in response to pharmacologic inhibition of CAD. CAD is a potential therapeutic target for CD. PMID:22387394

  7. Maximizing the Therapeutic Efficacy of Imatinib Mesylate-Loaded Niosomes on Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Using Box-Behnken Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohammed A; El-Sawy, Hossam S; Abd-Allah, Fathy I; Abdelghany, Tamer M; El-Say, Khalid M

    2017-01-01

    This research purposed to formulate an optimized imatinib mesylate (IM)-loaded niosomes to improve its chemotherapeutic efficacy. The influence of 3 formulation factors on niosomal vesicular size (Y 1 ), zeta potential (Y 2 ), entrapment capacity percentage (Y 3 ), the percentage of initial drug release after 2 h (Y 4 ), and the percentage of cumulative drug release after 24 h (Y 5 ) were studied and optimized using Box-Behnken design. Optimum desirability was specified and the optimized formula was prepared, stability tested, morphologically examined, checked for vesicular bilayer formation and evaluated for its in vitro cytotoxicity on 3 different cancer cell lines namely MCF-7, HCT-116, and HepG-2 in addition to 1 normal cell line to ensure its selectivity against cancer cells. The actual responses of the optimized IM formulation were 425.36 nm, -62.4 mV, 82.96%, 18.93%, and 89.45% for Y 1 , Y 2 , Y 3 , Y 4 , and Y 5 , respectively. The optimized IM-loaded niosomes confirmed the spherical vesicular shape imaged by both light and electron microscopes and further proven by differential scanning calorimetry. Moreover, the optimized formula exhibited improved stability on storage at 4 ± 2°C and superior efficacy on MCF7, HCT-116, and HepG2 as IC 50 values were 6.7, 16.4, and 7.3 folds less than those of free drug, respectively. Interestingly, IC 50 of the optimized formula against normal cell line was ranged from 3 to 11 folds higher than in different cancer cells indicating a higher selectivity of the optimized formula to cancer cells. In conclusion, the incorporation of IM in niosomes enhanced its efficacy and selectivity toward cancer cells, presenting a promising tool to fight cancer using this approach. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of soy saponin on the growth of human colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Yue-Hwa; Chien, Yi-Wen; Huang, Wen-Hsuan; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of extracted soybean saponins on the growth of human colon cancer cells. METHODS: WiDr human colon cancer cells were treated with 150, 300, 600 or 1200 ppm of soy saponin to determine the effect on cell growth, cell morphology, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and protein kinase C (PKC) activities, and P53 protein, c-Fos and c-Jun gene expression. RESULTS: Soy saponin decreased the number of viable cells in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed 12-O-tetradecanol-phorbol-13-acetate-stimulated PKC activity (P saponins developed cytoplasmic vesicles and the cell membrane became rougher and more irregular in a dose-dependent manner, and eventually disassembled. At 600 and 1200 ppm, the activity of AP was increased (P saponin. CONCLUSION: Soy saponin may be effective in preventing colon cancer by affecting cell morphology, cell proliferation enzymes, and cell growth. PMID:20632438

  9. Transit of solids through the human colon: Regional quantification in the unprepared bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proano, M.; Camilleri, M.; Phillips, S.F.; Brown, M.L.; Thomforde, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    We used a noninvasive method to label the solid phase of contents in the unprepared human colon. 111 In-labeled Amberlite pellets (0.5-1.8 mm diam) were placed in a gelatin capsule that was then coated with a pH-sensitive polymer (methacrylate). In vitro, the capsules disintegrated in simulated small bowel contents within 1-2 h; when ingested by healthy subjects, capsules released radiolabel in the distal ileum or proximal colon in 13 of 15 subjects. Transit of 111 In-pellets through the unprepared colon could then be quantitated radioscintigraphically. Segmental transit was defined in the ascending (AC), transverse (TC), descending (DC), and rectosigmoid (RS) colon. Radioactivity was also quantitated in stools. At 12 h, radioactivity was most obvious in the AC (59 +/- 11%, mean +/- SE) and the TC (21 +/- 6%); at 24 h, counts were distributed equally between AC, TC, and stools (P greater than 0.05); by 48 h, 56 +/- 11% counts had been excreted, although 30 +/- 10% remained in the TC. At 24 and 48 h, the amount in DC or RS was lower (P less than 0.05) than in the TC or in stools. Emptying of the AC was characterized by an initial lag period, when no counts emptied into the TC, followed by a period of emptying that was approximately linear. Thus this simple approach is able to label contents in the healthy human colon. The ascending and transverse colon appear to be sites of storage of solid residue, whereas the left colon and rectosigmoid function mainly as conduits

  10. Anti-proliferative effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the in vitro anti-proliferative effect and mechanism of action of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract on human colon carcinoma HCT116 cell line. Methods: M. oleifera leaves were extracted with methanol. It was fractionated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Several fractions were identified ...

  11. Constituents from the bark resin of Schinus molle

    OpenAIRE

    Malca-García,Gonzalo Rodolfo; Hennig,Lothar; Ganoza-Yupanqui,Mayar Luis; Piña-Iturbe,Alejandro; Bussmann,Rainer W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A total of five terpenes was isolated from the bark resin of Schinus molle L., Anacardiaceae, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques. Among these compounds the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon terebinthene showed significant growth inhibitory activity against human colon carcinoma HCT-116 cells. Furthermore, terebinthene and pinicolic acid (5) also showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633.

  12. Decorin in Human Colon Cancer: Localization In Vivo and Effect on Cancer Cell Behavior In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Marie C; Sainio, Annele O; Pennanen, Mirka M; Lund, Riikka J; Vuorikoski, Sanna; Sundström, Jari T T; Järveläinen, Hannu T

    2015-09-01

    Decorin is generally recognized as a tumor suppressing molecule. Nevertheless, although decorin has been shown to be differentially expressed in malignant tissues, it has often remained unclear whether, in addition to non-malignant stromal cells, cancer cells also express it. Here, we first used two publicly available databases to analyze the current information about decorin expression and immunoreactivity in normal and malignant human colorectal tissue samples. The analyses demonstrated that decorin expression and immunoreactivity may vary in cancer cells of human colorectal tissues. Therefore, we next examined decorin expression in normal, premalignant and malignant human colorectal tissues in more detail using both in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for decorin. Our results invariably demonstrate that malignant cells within human colorectal cancer tissues are devoid of both decorin mRNA and immunoreactivity. Identical results were obtained for cells of neuroendocrine tumors of human colon. Using RT-qPCR, we showed that human colon cancer cell lines are also decorin negative, in accordance with the above in vivo results. Finally, we demonstrate that decorin transduction of human colon cancer cell lines causes a significant reduction in their colony forming capability. Thus, strategies to develop decorin-based adjuvant therapies for human colorectal malignancies are highly rational. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Metabolism of acyclic and cyclic N-nitroamines by cultured human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Harris, Curtis C.; Trump, Benjamin F.

    1978-01-01

    Cultured human colon mucosa was found to metabolize both acyclic and cyclic N-nitrosamines as measured by 14C-CO2 formation and reaction of the activated moieties with cellular macromolecules. Dimethylnitrosamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine were metabolized by explants from all patients studied. A p...

  14. Boletus edulis biologically active biopolymers induce cell cycle arrest in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Cardoso, Claudia; Ferreira Milheiro Nunes, Fernando Hermínio; Ramos Novo Amorim de Barros, Ana Isabel; Marques, Guilhermina; Pożarowski, Piotr; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2013-04-25

    The use of biologically active compounds isolated from edible mushrooms against cancer raises global interest. Anticancer properties are mainly attributed to biopolymers including mainly polysaccharides, polysaccharopeptides, polysaccharide proteins, glycoproteins and proteins. In spite of the fact that Boletus edulis is one of the widely occurring and most consumed edible mushrooms, antitumor biopolymers isolated from it have not been exactly defined and studied so far. The present study is an attempt to extend this knowledge on molecular mechanisms of their anticancer action. The mushroom biopolymers (polysaccharides and glycoproteins) were extracted with hot water and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. The antiproliferative activity in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (LS180) was screened by means of MTT and BrdU assays. At the same time fractions' cytotoxicity was examined on the human colon epithelial cells (CCD 841 CoTr) by means of the LDH assay. Flow cytometry and Western blotting were applied to cell cycle analysis and protein expression involved in anticancer activity of the selected biopolymer fraction. In vitro studies have shown that fractions isolated from Boletus edulis were not toxic against normal colon epithelial cells and in the same concentration range elicited a very prominent antiproliferative effect in colon cancer cells. The best results were obtained in the case of the fraction designated as BE3. The tested compound inhibited cancer cell proliferation which was accompanied by cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1-phase. Growth inhibition was associated with modulation of the p16/cyclin D1/CDK4-6/pRb pathway, an aberration of which is a critical step in the development of many human cancers including colon cancer. Our results indicate that a biopolymer BE3 from Boletus edulis possesses anticancer potential and may provide a new therapeutic/preventive option in colon cancer chemoprevention.

  15. Effects of treatment with antimicrobial agents on the human colonic microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rafii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatemeh Rafii, John B Sutherland, Carl E CernigliaDivision of Microbiology, National Center for Toxicological Research, FDA, Jefferson, AR, USAAbstract: Antimicrobial agents are the most valuable means available for treating bacterial infections. However, the administration of therapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents to patients is a leading cause of disturbance of the normal gastrointestinal microflora. This disturbance results in diminishing the natural defense mechanisms provided by the colonic microbial ecosystem, making the host vulnerable to infection by commensal microorganisms or nosocomial pathogens. In this minireview, the impacts of antimicrobials, individually and in combinations, on the human colonic microflora are discussed.Keywords: antibiotics, intestinal bacteria

  16. Plaque assay for human coronavirus NL63 using human colon carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drosten Christian

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronaviruses cause a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. Human coronavirus (hCoV NL63 is associated with up to 10% of common colds. Viral plaque assays enable the characterization of virus infectivity and allow for purifying virus stock solutions. They are essential for drug screening. Hitherto used cell cultures for hCoV-NL63 show low levels of virus replication and weak and diffuse cytopathogenic effects. It has not yet been possible to establish practicable plaque assays for this important human pathogen. Results 12 different cell cultures were tested for susceptibility to hCoV-NL63 infection. Human colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2 replicated virus more than 100 fold more efficiently than commonly used African green monkey kidney cells (LLC-MK2. CaCo-2 cells showed cytopathogenic effects 4 days post infection. Avicel, agarose and carboxymethyl-cellulose overlays proved suitable for plaque assays. Best results were achieved with Avicel, which produced large and clear plaques from the 4th day of infection. The utility of plaque assays with agrose overlay was demonstrated for purifying virus, thereby increasing viral infectivity by 1 log 10 PFU/mL. Conclusion CaCo-2 cells support hCoV-NL63 better than LLC-MK2 cells and enable cytopathogenic plaque assays. Avicel overlay is favourable for plaque quantification, and agarose overlay is preferred for plaque purification. HCoV-NL63 virus stock of increased infectivity will be beneficial in antiviral screening, animal modelling of disease, and other experimental tasks.

  17. The bioenergetic signature of isogenic colon cancer cells predicts the cell death response to treatment with 3-bromopyruvate, iodoacetate or 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Aragó, María; Cuezva, José M

    2011-02-08

    Metabolic reprogramming resulting in enhanced glycolysis is a phenotypic trait of cancer cells, which is imposed by the tumor microenvironment and is linked to the down-regulation of the catalytic subunit of the mitochondrial H+-ATPase (β-F1-ATPase). The bioenergetic signature is a protein ratio (β-F1-ATPase/GAPDH), which provides an estimate of glucose metabolism in tumors and serves as a prognostic indicator for cancer patients. Targeting energetic metabolism could be a viable alternative to conventional anticancer chemotherapies. Herein, we document that the bioenergetic signature of isogenic colon cancer cells provides a gauge to predict the cell-death response to the metabolic inhibitors, 3-bromopyruvate (3BrP) and iodoacetate (IA), and the anti-metabolite, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The bioenergetic signature of the cells was determined by western blotting. Aerobic glycolysis was determined from lactate production rates. The cell death was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Cellular ATP concentrations were determined using bioluminiscence. Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied to assess the relationship between the bioenergetic signature and the cell death response. In vivo tumor regression activities of the compounds were assessed using a xenograft mouse model injected with the highly glycolytic HCT116 colocarcinoma cells. We demonstrate that the bioenergetic signature of isogenic HCT116 cancer cells inversely correlates with the potential to execute necrosis in response to 3BrP or IA treatment. Conversely, the bioenergetic signature directly correlates with the potential to execute apoptosis in response to 5-FU treatment in the same cells. However, despite the large differences observed in the in vitro cell-death responses associated with 3BrP, IA and 5-FU, the in vivo tumor regression activities of these agents were comparable. Overall, we suggest that the determination of the bioenergetic signature of colon carcinomas could

  18. Single-molecule optical genome mapping of a human HapMap and a colorectal cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Audrey S M; Verzotto, Davide; Yao, Fei; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Hillmer, Axel M

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have changed our understanding of the variability of the human genome. However, the identification of genome structural variations based on NGS approaches with read lengths of 35-300 bases remains a challenge. Single-molecule optical mapping technologies allow the analysis of DNA molecules of up to 2 Mb and as such are suitable for the identification of large-scale genome structural variations, and for de novo genome assemblies when combined with short-read NGS data. Here we present optical mapping data for two human genomes: the HapMap cell line GM12878 and the colorectal cancer cell line HCT116. High molecular weight DNA was obtained by embedding GM12878 and HCT116 cells, respectively, in agarose plugs, followed by DNA extraction under mild conditions. Genomic DNA was digested with KpnI and 310,000 and 296,000 DNA molecules (≥ 150 kb and 10 restriction fragments), respectively, were analyzed per cell line using the Argus optical mapping system. Maps were aligned to the human reference by OPTIMA, a new glocal alignment method. Genome coverage of 6.8× and 5.7× was obtained, respectively; 2.9× and 1.7× more than the coverage obtained with previously available software. Optical mapping allows the resolution of large-scale structural variations of the genome, and the scaffold extension of NGS-based de novo assemblies. OPTIMA is an efficient new alignment method; our optical mapping data provide a resource for genome structure analyses of the human HapMap reference cell line GM12878, and the colorectal cancer cell line HCT116.

  19. Subepithelial myofibroblasts are novel nonprofessional APCs in the human colonic mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saada, Jamal I; Pinchuk, Irina V; Barrera, Carlos A; Adegboyega, Patrick A; Suarez, Giovanni; Mifflin, Randy C; Di Mari, John F; Reyes, Victor E; Powell, Don W

    2006-11-01

    The human gastrointestinal mucosa is exposed to a diverse normal microflora and dietary Ags and is a common site of entry for pathogens. The mucosal immune system must respond to these diverse signals with either the initiation of immunity or tolerance. APCs are important accessory cells that modulate T cell responses which initiate and maintain adaptive immunity. The ability of APCs to communicate with CD4+ T cells is largely dependent on the expression of class II MHC molecules by the APCs. Using immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, and flow cytometry, we demonstrate that alpha-smooth muscle actin(+), CD90+ subepithelial myofibroblasts (stromal cells) constitutively express class II MHC molecules in normal colonic mucosa and that they are distinct from professional APCs such as macrophages and dendritic cells. Primary isolates of human colonic myofibroblasts (CMFs) cultured in vitro were able to stimulate allogeneic CD4+ T cell proliferation. This process was dependent on class II MHC and CD80/86 costimulatory molecule expression by the myofibroblasts. We also demonstrate that CMFs, engineered to express a specific DR4 allele, can process and present human serum albumin to a human serum albumin-specific and DR4 allele-restricted T cell hybridoma. These studies characterize a novel cell phenotype which, due to its strategic location and class II MHC expression, may be involved in capture of Ags that cross the epithelial barrier and present them to lamina propria CD4+ T cells. Thus, human CMFs may be important in regulating local immunity in the colon.

  20. Time- and dose-dependent effects of curcumin on gene expression in human colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Erk Marjan J

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Curcumin is a spice and a coloring food compound with a promising role in colon cancer prevention. Curcumin protects against development of colon tumors in rats treated with a colon carcinogen, in colon cancer cells curcumin can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, it is an anti-oxidant and it can act as an anti-inflammatory agent. The aim of this study was to elucidate mechanisms and effect of curcumin in colon cancer cells using gene expression profiling. Methods Gene expression changes in response to curcumin exposure were studied in two human colon cancer cell lines, using cDNA microarrays with four thousand human genes. HT29 cells were exposed to two different concentrations of curcumin and gene expression changes were followed in time (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. Gene expression changes after short-term exposure (3 or 6 hours to curcumin were also studied in a second cell type, Caco-2 cells. Results Gene expression changes (>1.5-fold were found at all time points. HT29 cells were more sensitive to curcumin than Caco-2 cells. Early response genes were involved in cell cycle, signal transduction, DNA repair, gene transcription, cell adhesion and xenobiotic metabolism. In HT29 cells curcumin modulated a number of cell cycle genes of which several have a role in transition through the G2/M phase. This corresponded to a cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase as was observed by flow cytometry. Functional groups with a similar expression profile included genes involved in phase-II metabolism that were induced by curcumin after 12 and 24 hours. Expression of some cytochrome P450 genes was downregulated by curcumin in HT29 and Caco-2 cells. In addition, curcumin affected expression of metallothionein genes, tubulin genes, p53 and other genes involved in colon carcinogenesis. Conclusions This study has extended knowledge on pathways or processes already reported to be affected by curcumin (cell cycle arrest, phase

  1. Flux analysis of the human proximal colon using anaerobic digestion model 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motelica-Wagenaar, Anne Marieke; Nauta, Arjen; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2014-08-01

    The colon can be regarded as an anaerobic digestive compartment within the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). An in silico model simulating the fluxes in the human proximal colon was developed on basis of the anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1), which is traditionally used to model waste conversion to biogas. Model calibration was conducted using data from in vitro fermentation of the proximal colon (TIM-2), and, amongst others, supplemented with the bio kinetics of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) fermentation. The impact of water and solutes absorption by the host was also included. Hydrolysis constants of carbohydrates and proteins were estimated based on total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and ammonia production in vitro. Model validation was established using an independent dataset of a different in vitro model: an in vitro three-stage continuous culture system. The in silico model was shown to provide quantitative insight in the microbial community structure in terms of functional groups, and the substrate and product fluxes between these groups as well as the host, as a function of the substrate composition, pH and the solids residence time (SRT). The model confirms the experimental observation that methanogens are washed out at low pH or low SRT-values. The in silico model is proposed as useful tool in the design of experimental setups for in vitro experiments by giving insight in fermentation processes in the proximal human colon. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Breast Cancer Cell Colonization of the Human Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Zach S; Lie, Wen-Rong; Wang, Weiqi; Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Alluri, Rajiv V; Tamaresis, John S; Bachmann, Michael H; Lee, Kitty; Maloney, William J; Contag, Christopher H; King, Bonnie L

    2015-12-01

    Bone is a preferred site of breast cancer metastasis, suggesting the presence of tissue-specific features that attract and promote the outgrowth of breast cancer cells. We sought to identify parameters of human bone tissue associated with breast cancer cell osteotropism and colonization in the metastatic niche. Migration and colonization patterns of MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP (luciferase-enhanced green fluorescence protein) and MCF-7-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cells were studied in co-culture with cancellous bone tissue fragments isolated from 14 hip arthroplasties. Breast cancer cell migration into tissues and toward tissue-conditioned medium was measured in Transwell migration chambers using bioluminescence imaging and analyzed as a function of secreted factors measured by multiplex immunoassay. Patterns of breast cancer cell colonization were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Enhanced MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cell migration to bone-conditioned versus control medium was observed in 12/14 specimens (P = .0014) and correlated significantly with increasing levels of the adipokines/cytokines leptin (P = .006) and IL-1β (P = .001) in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry of fragments underscored the extreme adiposity of adult human bone tissues and revealed extensive breast cancer cell colonization within the marrow adipose tissue compartment. Our results show that breast cancer cells migrate to human bone tissue-conditioned medium in association with increasing levels of leptin and IL-1β, and colonize the bone marrow adipose tissue compartment of cultured fragments. Bone marrow adipose tissue and its molecular signals may be important but understudied components of the breast cancer metastatic niche. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Purification of antilisterial peptide (SubtilosinA from novel Bacillus tequilensis FR9 and demonstrate their pathogen invasion protection ability using human carcinoma cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana Parveen Rani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on isolation, screening and characterization of novel probiotics from gastrointestinal tract of free-range chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus. Fifty seven colonies were isolated and three isolates (FR4, FR9 and FR12 were selected and identified as Lactobacillus gasseri FR4, Bacillus tequilensis FR9 and L. animalis FR12 by 16S rRNA sequencing. Three strains were able to survive in stimulated acidic and bile conditions and inhibit the growth of pathogens. Especially, FR9 exhibited maximum inhibition against Listeria monocytogenes and none of them exhibited hemolytic activity. Native-PAGE revealed the presence of low molecular weight (3.4-5.0 KDa antimicrobial peptide. The peptide was further purified by Sephadex G-50 column and RP-HPLC using C18 column. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of antimicrobial peptide showed 100% consensus to antilisterial peptide SubtilosinA and SboA gene was amplified from FR9 genome. FR9 showed maximum aggregation activity, EPS production (85.46 mg/L and cholesterol assimilation (63.12 ± 0.05 µg/mL. Strong adhesion property (12.6% and pathogen invasion protection ability was revealed by B. tequilensis FR9 towards HCT-116 human colon carcinoma cell line. This is the first study to demonstrate antilisterial SubtilosinA production of B. tequilensis. Our results indicate that B. tequilensis FR9 strain furnish the essential characteristics of a potential probiotics and might be incorporated into human and animal food supplements.

  4. Study on therapy of 188Re labelled stannic sulfur suspension in nude mice bearing human colon tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huiyuan; Wu Yuanfang; Dong Mo

    2003-01-01

    The effect of therapy, tissue distribution and stability are studied in nude mice bearing human colon tumor after injections of 188 Re labelled stannic sulfur suspension. The tissues are observed with electric microscope. The results show that 188 Re labelled stannic sulfur suspension is stabilized in the tumor and its inhibitive effects on human colon tumor cells are obvious. 188 Re labelled stannic sulfur suspension is a potential radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of human tumor

  5. Cell Transformation by PTP1B Truncated Mutants Found in Human Colon and Thyroid Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Wenhan; Wang, Kemin; Huang, Jian; Zheng, Xinmin

    2016-01-01

    Expression of wild-type protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) 1B may act either as a tumor suppressor by dysregulation of protein tyrosine kinases or a tumor promoter through Src dephosphorylation at Y527 in human breast cancer cells. To explore whether mutated PTP1B is involved in human carcinogenesis, we have sequenced PTP1B cDNAs from human tumors and found splice mutations in ~20% of colon and thyroid tumors. The PTP1BΔE6 mutant expressed in these two tumor types and another PTP1BΔE5 mutant expressed in colon tumor were studied in more detail. Although PTP1BΔE6 revealed no phosphatase activity compared with wild-type PTP1B and the PTP1BΔE5 mutant, its expression induced oncogenic transformation of rat fibroblasts without Src activation, indicating that it involved signaling pathways independent of Src. The transformed cells were tumourigenic in nude mice, suggesting that the PTP1BΔE6 affected other molecule(s) in the human tumors. These observations may provide a novel therapeutic target for colon and thyroid cancer.

  6. Isolation of Human Colon Stem Cells Using Surface Expression of PTK7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Peter; Sommer, Christian; Barriga, Francisco M; Buczacki, Simon J; Hernando-Momblona, Xavier; Sevillano, Marta; Duran-Frigola, Miquel; Aloy, Patrick; Selbach, Matthias; Winton, Douglas J; Batlle, Eduard

    2015-12-08

    Insertion of reporter cassettes into the Lgr5 locus has enabled the characterization of mouse intestinal stem cells (ISCs). However, low cell surface abundance of LGR5 protein and lack of high-affinity anti-LGR5 antibodies represent a roadblock to efficiently isolate human colonic stem cells (hCoSCs). We set out to identify stem cell markers that would allow for purification of hCoSCs. In an unbiased approach, membrane-enriched protein fractions derived from in vitro human colonic organoids were analyzed by quantitative mass spectrometry. Protein tyrosine pseudokinase PTK7 specified a cell population within human colonic organoids characterized by highest self-renewal and re-seeding capacity. Antibodies recognizing the extracellular domain of PTK7 allowed us to isolate and expand hCoSCs directly from patient-derived mucosa samples. Human PTK7+ cells display features of canonical Lgr5+ ISCs and include a fraction of cells that undergo differentiation toward enteroendocrine lineage that resemble crypt label retaining cells (LRCs). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Promoter hypermethylation mediated downregulation of FBP1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma and colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingquan Chen

    Full Text Available FBP1, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase-1, a gluconeogenesis regulatory enzyme, catalyzes the hydrolysis of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate and inorganic phosphate. The mechanism that it functions to antagonize glycolysis and was epigenetically inactivated through NF-kappaB pathway in gastric cancer has been reported. However, its role in the liver carcinogenesis still remains unknown. Here, we investigated the expression and DNA methylation of FBP1 in primary HCC and colon tumor. FBP1 was lowly expressed in 80% (8/10 human hepatocellular carcinoma, 66.7% (6/9 liver cancer cell lines and 100% (6/6 colon cancer cell lines, but was higher in paired adjacent non-tumor tissues and immortalized normal cell lines, which was well correlated with its promoter methylation status. Methylation was further detected in primary HCCs, gastric and colon tumor tissues, but none or occasionally in paired adjacent non-tumor tissues. Detailed methylation analysis of 29 CpG sites at a 327-bp promoter region by bisulfite genomic sequencing confirmed its methylation. FBP1 silencing could be reversed by chemical demethylation treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Aza, indicating direct epigenetic silencing. Restoring FBP1 expression in low expressed cells significantly inhibited cell growth and colony formation ability through the induction of G2-M phase cell cycle arrest. Moreover, the observed effects coincided with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. In summary, epigenetic inactivation of FBP1 is also common in human liver and colon cancer. FBP1 appears to be a functional tumor suppressor involved in the liver and colon carcinogenesis.

  8. Colonization of plants by human pathogenic bacteria in the course of organic vegetable production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eHofmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing numbers of outbreaks caused by the consumption of vegetables contaminated with human pathogenic bacteria were reported. The application of organic fertilizers during vegetable production is one of the possible reasons for contamination with those pathogens. In this study laboratory experiments in axenic and soil systems following common practices in organic farming were conducted to identify the minimal dose needed for bacterial colonization of plants and to identify possible factors like bacterial species or serovariation, plant species or organic fertilizer types used, influencing the success of plant colonization by human pathogenic bacteria. Spinach and corn salad were chosen as model plants and were inoculated with different concentrations of Salmonella enterica sv. Weltevreden, Listeria monocytogenes sv. 4b and EGD-E sv. 1/2a either directly (axenic system or via agricultural soil amended with spiked organic fertilizers (soil system. In addition to PCR- and culture-based detection methods, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH was applied in order to localize bacteria on or in plant tissues. Our results demonstrate that shoots were colonized by the pathogenic bacteria at inoculation doses as low as 4x10CFU/ml in the axenic system or 4x105CFU/g in the soil system. In addition, plant species dependent effects were observed. Spinach was colonized more often and at lower inoculation doses compared to corn salad. Differential colonization sites on roots, depending on the plant species could be detected using FISH-CLSM analysis. Furthermore, the transfer of pathogenic bacteria to plants via organic fertilizers was observed more often and at lower initial inoculation doses when fertilization was performed with inoculated slurry compared to inoculated manure. Finally, it could be shown that by introducing a simple washing step, the bacterial contamination was reduced in most cases or even was removed completely in

  9. Human gastric emptying and colonic filling of solids characterized by a new method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilleri, M.; Colemont, L.J.; Phillips, S.F.; Brown, M.L.; Thomforde, G.M.; Chapman, N.; Zinsmeister, A.R. (Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Our first aim was to compare {sup 111}In-labeled Amberlite IR-12OP resin pellets and {sup 131}I-labeled fiber in the assessment of gastric and small bowel transit and colonic filling in healthy humans. Both radiolabels were highly stable for 3 h in an in vitro stomach model and remained predominantly bound to solid phase of stools collected over 5 days (90.5 +/- 2.1 (SE)% for {sup 131}I and 87.4 +/- 1.4% for {sup 111}In). The lag phase of gastric emptying was shorter for {sup 111}In-pellets (30 +/- 11 min compared with 58 +/- 12 min for {sup 131}I-fiber, P less than 0.05). However, the slope of the postlag phase of gastric emptying and the half time of small bowel transit were not significantly different for {sup 111}In-pellets and {sup 131}I-fiber. Filling of the colon was characterized by bolus movements of the radiolabel (10-80% range, 26% mean) followed by plateaus (periods of no movement of isotope into colon lasting 15-120 min, range; 51 min, mean). Half of the bolus movements occurred within 1 h of the intake of a second meal. Thus {sup 111}In-labeled Amberlite pellets provide an excellent marker for the study of gastric and small bowel transit and colonic filling in humans. The ileum acts as a reservoir and transfers boluses of variable sizes into the colon, often soon after the intake of a subsequent meal.

  10. Evaluation of selected features of Staphylococcus cohnii enabling colonization of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldon, E; Sobiś-Glinkowska, M; Szewczyk, E M

    2002-01-01

    Based on iron utilization, sensitivity to skin fatty acids, lipolytic and proteolytic activity the potential abilities of Staphylococcus cohnii strains to colonize humans were evaluated. The investigation included 60 strains that belong to both subspecies, viz. S. cohnii ssp. cohnii and S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus. Strains were isolated from different sources of the Intensive Care Unit and from non-hospital environment. Most of the strains were multiple antibiotic-resistant. Strains of both subspecies revealed a relatively low iron requirement. These strains were capable of utilizing iron bound in oxo acids and from host iron-binding proteins. S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus were more effective in iron uptake than S. cohnii ssp. cohnii. All investigated strains revealed sensitivity to skin fatty acids, but S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus strains were more resistant. Special features of strains of this subspecies promote colonization of humans.

  11. Dietary pectic glycans are degraded by coordinated enzyme pathways in human colonic Bacteroides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis, Ana S.; Briggs, Jonathon; Zhang, Xiaoyang

    2018-01-01

    The major nutrients available to human colonic Bacteroides species are glycans, exemplified by pectins, a network of covalently linked plant cell wall polysaccharides containing galacturonic acid (GalA). Metabolism of complex carbohydrates by the Bacteroides genus is orchestrated by polysaccharid...... PULs ensuring a continuous supply of inducing molecules throughout growth. The contribution of Bacteroides spp. to metabolism of the pectic network is illustrated by cross-feeding between organisms....

  12. Human milk lactoferrin inactivates two putative colonization factors expressed by Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, J; Hendrixson, D R; Baker, E N; Murphy, T F; St Geme, J W; Plaut, A G

    1998-10-13

    Haemophilus influenzae is a major cause of otitis media and other respiratory tract disease in children. The pathogenesis of disease begins with colonization of the upper respiratory mucosa, a process that involves evasion of local immune mechanisms and adherence to epithelial cells. Several studies have demonstrated that human milk is protective against H. influenzae colonization and disease. In the present study, we examined the effect of human milk on the H. influenzae IgA1 protease and Hap adhesin, two autotransported proteins that are presumed to facilitate colonization. Our results demonstrated that human milk lactoferrin efficiently extracted the IgA1 protease preprotein from the bacterial outer membrane. In addition, lactoferrin specifically degraded the Hap adhesin and abolished Hap-mediated adherence. Extraction of IgA1 protease and degradation of Hap were localized to the N-lobe of the bilobed lactoferrin molecule and were inhibited by serine protease inhibitors, suggesting that the lactoferrin N-lobe may contain serine protease activity. Additional experiments revealed no effect of lactoferrin on the H. influenzae P2, P5, and P6 outer-membrane proteins, which are distinguished from IgA1 protease and Hap by the lack of an N-terminal passenger domain or an extracellular linker region. These results suggest that human milk lactoferrin may attenuate the pathogenic potential of H. influenzae by selectively inactivating IgA1 protease and Hap, thereby interfering with colonization. Future studies should examine the therapeutic potential of lactoferrin, perhaps as a supplement in infant formulas.

  13. Matrix Stiffness Corresponding to Strictured Bowel Induces a Fibrogenic Response in Human Colonic Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura A.; Rodansky, Eva S.; Sauder, Kay L.; Horowitz, Jeffrey C.; Mih, Justin D.; Tschumperlin, Daniel J.; Higgins, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Crohn’s disease is characterized by repeated cycles of inflammation and mucosal healing which ultimately progress to intestinal fibrosis. This inexorable progression towards fibrosis suggests that fibrosis becomes inflammation-independent and auto-propagative. We hypothesized that matrix stiffness regulates this auto-propagation of intestinal fibrosis. Methods The stiffness of fresh ex vivo samples from normal human small intestine, Crohn’s disease strictures, and the unaffected margin were measured with a microelastometer. Normal human colonic fibroblasts were cultured on physiologically normal or pathologically stiff matrices corresponding to the physiological stiffness of normal or fibrotic bowel. Cellular response was assayed for changes in cell morphology, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) staining, and gene expression. Results Microelastometer measurements revealed a significant increase in colonic tissue stiffness between normal human colon and Crohn’s strictures as well as between the stricture and adjacent tissue margin. In Ccd-18co cells grown on stiff matrices corresponding to Crohn’s strictures, cellular proliferation increased. Pathologic stiffness induced a marked change in cell morphology and increased αSMA protein expression. Growth on a stiff matrix induced fibrogenic gene expression, decreased matrix metalloproteinase and pro-inflammatory gene expression, and was associated with nuclear localization of the transcriptional cofactor MRTF-A. Conclusions Matrix stiffness, representative of the pathological stiffness of Crohn’s strictures, activates human colonic fibroblasts to a fibrogenic phenotype. Matrix stiffness affects multiple pathways suggesting the mechanical properties of the cellular environment are critical to fibroblast function and may contribute to autopropagation of intestinal fibrosis in the absence of inflammation, thereby contributing to the intractable intestinal fibrosis characteristic of Crohn’s disease. PMID

  14. Characteristics of [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chae Kyun; Chung, June Key; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon

    1997-01-01

    Cancer tissues are characterized by increased glucose uptake. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose(FDG), a glucose analogue is used for the diagnosis of cancer in PET studies. This study was aimed to compare the glucose uptake and glucose transporter 1(GLUT1) expression in various human colon cancer cells. We measured FDG uptake by cell retention study and expression of GLUT1 using Western blotting. Human colon cancer cells, SNU-C2A, SNU-C4 and SNU-C5, were used. The cells were incubated with 1μ Ci/ml of FDG in HEPES- buffered saline for one hour. The FDG uptake of SNU-C2A, SNU-C4 and SNU-C5 were 16.8±1.36, 12.3±5.55 and 61.0±2.17 cpm/μg of protein, respectively. Dose-response and time-course studies represent that FDG uptake of cancer cells were dose dependent and time dependent. The rate of FDG uptake of SNU-C2A, SNU-C4 and SNU-C5 were 0.29±0.03, 0.21±0.09 and 1.07±0.07 cpm/min/μg of protein, respectively. Western blot analysis showed that the GLUT1 expression of SNU-C5 was significantly higher than those of SNU-C2A and SNU-C4. These results represent that FDG uptake into human colon cancer cells are different from each other. In addition, FDG uptake and expression of GLUT1 are closely related in human colon cancer cells

  15. Two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of nuclear matrix proteins in human colon adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumpanaki, A; Baltatzis, G E; Gaitanarou, E; Seretis, E; Toumpanakis, C; Aroni, K; Kittas, Christos; Voloudakis-Baltatzis, I E

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe possible qualitative and quantitative expression differences between nuclear matrix proteins (NMPs) of human colon adenocarcinoma and their mirror biopsies, using the technique of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, in order to identify the existence of specific NMP fingerprints for colon cancer. Colon tissues were examined ultrastructurally and NMPs were isolated biochemically, by serial extraction of lipids, soluble proteins, DNA, RNA, and intermediate filaments and were separated according to their isoelectric point (pI) and their molecular weight (MW) by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D). By comparing the 2D electropherograms of colon cancer tissues and mirror biopsy tissues we observed qualitative and quantitative expression differences between their NMPs but also a differentiation of NMP composition between the stages of malignancy. Moreover, despite the similarities between mirror biopsy samples, a highlight percentage of exception was observed. Electrophoretic results provided in this study demonstrated that the examined NMPs could be further investigated as potential markers for detection of colorectal cancer in an early stage, for the assessment of the disease progression, as well as useful tools for individual therapy and for preventing a possible recurrence of cancer and metastasis.

  16. Chemopreventive effects of in vitro digested and fermented bread in human colon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlörmann, Wiebke; Hiller, Beate; Jahns, Franziska; Zöger, Romy; Hennemeier, Isabell; Wilhelm, Anne; Lindhauer, Meinolf G; Glei, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Bread as a staple food product represents an important source for dietary fibre consumption. Effects of wheat bread, wholemeal wheat bread and wholemeal rye bread on mechanisms which could have impact on chemoprevention were analysed in colon cells after in vitro fermentation. Effects of fermented bread samples on gene expression, glutathione S-transferase activity and glutathione content, differentiation, growth and apoptosis were investigated using the human colon adenoma cell line LT97. Additionally, apoptosis was studied in normal and tumour colon tissue by determination of caspase activities. The expression of 76 genes (biotransformation, differentiation, apoptosis) was significantly upregulated (1.5-fold) in LT97 cells. The fermented bread samples were able to significantly increase glutathione S-transferase activity (1.8-fold) and glutathione content (1.4-fold) of the cells. Alkaline phosphatase activity as a marker of differentiation was also significantly enhanced (1.7-fold). The fermented bread samples significantly inhibited LT97 cell growth and increased the level of apoptotic cells (1.8-fold). Only marginal effects on apoptosis in tumour compared to normal tissue were observed. This is the first study which presents chemopreventive effects of different breads after in vitro fermentation. In spite of differences in composition, the results were comparable between the bread types. Nevertheless, they indicate a potential involvement of this staple food product regarding the prevention of colon cancer.

  17. Oestrogen inhibits human colonic motility by a non-genomic cell membrane receptor-dependent mechanism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Classical effects of oestrogen involve activation of target genes after binding nuclear receptors. Oestrogenic effects too rapid for DNA transcription (non-genomic) are known to occur. The effect of oestrogen on colonic motility is unknown despite the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in pregnant and premenopausal women. METHODS: Histologically normal colon was obtained from proximal resection margins of colorectal carcinoma specimens. Circular smooth muscle strips were microdissected and suspended in organ baths under 1 g of tension. After equilibration, they were exposed to 17beta-oestradiol (n = 8) or bovine serum albumin (BSA)-conjugated 17beta-oestradiol (n = 8). Fulvestrant, an oestrogen receptor antagonist, was added to some baths (n = 8). Other strips were exposed to calphostin C or cycloheximide. Carbachol was added in increasing concentrations and contractile activity was recorded isometrically. RESULTS: Oestrogen inhibited colonic contractility (mean difference 19.7 per cent; n = 8, P < 0.001). In keeping with non-genomic, rapid-onset steroid action, the effect was apparent within minutes and reversible. It was observed with both 17beta-oestradiol and BSA-conjugated oestrogen, and was not altered by cycloheximide. Effects were inhibited by fulvestrant, suggesting receptor mediation. CONCLUSION: Oestrogen decreases contractility in human colonic smooth muscle by a non-genomic mechanism involving cell membrane coupling.

  18. Detection of human papillomavirus infection by molecular tests and its relation to colonic polyps and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten Gazzaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To prospectively examine the association between human papilloma virus (HPV colonization of the colonic mucosa and the development of colorectal polyps (CRPs, and colorectal cancer (CRC in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A case control study was performed between January 2013 and December 2014. All eligible patients underwent standard diagnostic colonoscopy. Patients with polyps or colorectal cancer were considered cases, while those with any other endoscopic findings were controls. Biopsy samples from polyps and tumors, and/or from normal colonic mucosa were acquired. Human papilloma virus colonization was detected using a hybrid capture technique of samples taken from both normal tissue, and CRPs and CRC. The association between HPV and CRPs/CRC was evaluated. Results: A total of 132 patients were recruited. The mean age was 53 (±15.9 years. Sixty patients had endoscopically detectable CRPs/CRC, and 72 had either inflammation or normal endoscopic evaluations. Only 4 (0.8% of the 132 samples that were collected and analyzed were positive for the HPV gene. Statistical analysis did not identify any significant association between HPV colonization and the presence of CRPs/CRC. The only significant predictor of detecting CRPs/CRC on colonoscopy was symptomatic presentation (odds ratio=11.072, 95% confidence interval 4.7-26.2, p<0.001. Conclusion: Human papilloma virus colonic colonization is rare in Saudi Arabia. An association between HPV colonization and CRP/CRC development could not be identified in this cohort of patients.

  19. Compartment-specific immunity in the human gut: properties and functions of dendritic cells in the colon versus the ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Elizabeth R; Bernardo, David; English, Nicholas R; Landy, Jon; Al-Hassi, Hafid O; Peake, Simon T C; Man, Ripple; Elliott, Timothy R; Spranger, Henning; Lee, Gui Han; Parian, Alyssa; Brant, Steven R; Lazarev, Mark; Hart, Ailsa L; Li, Xuhang; Knight, Stella C

    2016-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) mediate intestinal immune tolerance. Despite striking differences between the colon and the ileum both in function and bacterial load, few studies distinguish between properties of immune cells in these compartments. Furthermore, information of gut DC in humans is scarce. We aimed to characterise human colonic versus ileal DC. Human DC from paired colonic and ileal samples were characterised by flow cytometry, electron microscopy or used to stimulate T cell responses in a mixed leucocyte reaction. A lower proportion of colonic DC produced pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-1β) compared with their ileal counterparts and exhibited an enhanced ability to generate CD4(+)FoxP3(+)IL-10(+) (regulatory) T cells. There were enhanced proportions of CD103(+)Sirpα(-) DC in the colon, with increased proportions of CD103(+)Sirpα(+) DC in the ileum. A greater proportion of colonic DC subsets analysed expressed the lymph-node-homing marker CCR7, alongside enhanced endocytic capacity, which was most striking in CD103(+)Sirpα(+) DC. Expression of the inhibitory receptor ILT3 was enhanced on colonic DC. Interestingly, endocytic capacity was associated with CD103(+) DC, in particular CD103(+)Sirpα(+) DC. However, expression of ILT3 was associated with CD103(-) DC. Colonic and ileal DC differentially expressed skin-homing marker CCR4 and small-bowel-homing marker CCR9, respectively, and this corresponded to their ability to imprint these homing markers on T cells. The regulatory properties of colonic DC may represent an evolutionary adaptation to the greater bacterial load in the colon. The colon and the ileum should be regarded as separate entities, each comprising DC with distinct roles in mucosal immunity and imprinting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Assessing the potential for raw meat to influence human colonization with Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Zhao, Chang; Thapaliya, Dipendra; Bitterman, Patrick; Kates, Ashley E; Hanson, Blake M; Smith, Tara C

    2017-09-07

    The role of household meat handling and consumption in the transfer of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) from livestock to consumers is not well understood. Examining the similarity of S. aureus colonizing humans and S. aureus in meat from the stores in which those individuals shop can provide insight into the role of meat in human S. aureus colonization. S. aureus isolates were collected from individuals in rural and urban communities in Iowa (n = 3347) and contemporaneously from meat products in stores where participants report purchasing meat (n = 913). The staphylococcal protein A (spa) gene was sequenced for all isolates to determine a spa type. Morisita indices and Permutational Multivariate Analysis of Variance Using Distance Matrices (PERMANOVA) were used to determine the relationship between spa type composition among human samples and meat samples. spa type composition was significantly different between households and meat sampled from their associated grocery stores. spa types found in meat were not significantly different regardless of the store or county in which they were sampled. spa types in people also exhibit high similarity regardless of residential location in urban or rural counties. Such findings suggest meat is not an important source of S. aureus colonization in shoppers.

  1. Assessment of cytotoxicity of Portulaca oleracea Linn. against human colon adenocarcinoma and vero cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Prashant Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Portulaca oleracea Linn. (Portulacaceae) is commonly known as purslane in English. In traditional system it is used to cure diarrhea, dysentery, leprosy, ulcers, asthma, and piles, reduce small tumors and inflammations. Aim: To assess cytotoxic potential of chloroform extract of P. oleracea whole plant against human colon adenocarcinoma (HCT-15) and normal (Vero) cell line. Materials and Methods: Characterization of chloroform extract of P. oleracea by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed. Cytotoxicity (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay was used for assessment of cytotoxic potential of chloroform extract of P. oleracea. The concentrations of 1000–0.05 μg/ml were used in the experiment. Doxorubicin was considered as standard reference drug. Results: FTIR spectrum showed the peak at 1019.52 and 1396.21 center. The 50% cell growth inhibition (IC50) of chloroform extract of P. oleracea and doxorubicin was 1132.02 μg/ml and 460.13 μg/ml against human colon adenocarcinoma and 767.60 μg/ml and 2392.71 μg/ml against Vero cell line, respectively. Conclusion: Chloroform extract of P. oleracea whole plant was less efficient or does not have cytotoxic activity against human colon adenocarcinoma cell line. It was not safe to normal Vero cell line. But, there is a need to isolate, identify, and confirm the phytoconstituents present in extract by sophisticated analytical techniques. PMID:27833374

  2. A cross sectional study of animal and human colonization with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in an Aboriginal community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Daley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections are common among humans in Aboriginal communities in Canada, for unknown reasons. Methods Cross sectional study of humans and dogs in an Aboriginal community of approximately 1200 persons. Our objectives were to measure community-based prevalence of nasal MRSA colonization among humans, use multivariable logistic regression to analyze risk factors for MRSA colonization, and perform molecular typing of Staphylococci isolated to investigate interspecies transmission. Results 461 humans were approached for consent and 442 provided complete data. 109/442 (24.7 %, 95 % C.I. = 20.7–28.7 % of humans were colonized with MRSA. 169/442 (38.2 % of humans had received antibiotics in the last 12 months. Only number of rooms in the house (OR 0.86, p = 0.023 and recreational dog use (OR 7.7, p = 0.002 were significant risk factors for MRSA colonization. 95/109 (87.1 % of MRSA strains from humans were of the same spa type (CMRSA10/USA300. 8/157 (5.1 %, 95 % C.I. = 1.7–8.5 % of dogs were colonized with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and no dogs were colonized with MRSA. Conclusions Human MRSA colonization in this community is very common, and a single clone is predominant, suggesting local transmission. Antibiotic use is also very common. Crowding may partially explain high colonization, but most considered risk factors including animal exposure were not predictive. Very few dogs carried human Staphylococcal strains.

  3. Boletus edulis ribonucleic acid - a potent apoptosis inducer in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Ribeiro, Miguel; Guichard Alves, Helena; Marques, Guilhermina; Nunes, Fernando Milheiro; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2016-07-13

    Despite the large popularity of the Boletus edulis mushroom, little is known about its influence on human health and the possibilities of its therapeutic use. Nevertheless, several reports revealed the usefulness of biopolymers isolated from it in cancer treatment. Our previous studies have shown that B. edulis water soluble biopolymers are not toxic against normal colon epithelial cells (CCD841 CoTr) and at the same concentration range elicited a very prominent antiproliferative effect in colon cancer cells (LS180) which was accompanied with cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The purpose of the present study was to verify the proapoptotic properties of a selected fraction from B. edulis - BE3, as well as determine its chemical nature. The BE3 fraction was extracted with hot water and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. Further chemical examinations revealed that BE3 consists mainly of ribonucleic acid (59.1%). The ability of BE3 to induce programmed cell death was examined in human colon cancer cell lines LS180 and HT-29 by measuring caspase activation, DNA fragmentation and expression of BAX, BCL2, TP53 and CDKN1A genes. The sensitivity of colon cancer cells with silenced BAX, TP53 and CDKN1A expression to BE3 treatment was also evaluated. We have demonstrated for the first time that the BE3 fraction is a potent apoptosis inducer in human colon cancer cells. The revealed mechanism of apoptosis triggering was dependent on the presence of functional p53 and consequently was a little different in investigated cell lines. Our results indicated that BE3 stimulated proapoptotic genes BAX (LS180, HT-29), TP53 (LS180) and CDKN1A (HT-29) while at the same time silenced the expression of the key prosurvival gene BCL2 (LS180, HT-29). The obtained results indicate the high therapeutic potential of the BE3 fraction against colon cancer, yet it is necessary to further confirm fraction efficacy and safety in animal and clinical studies.

  4. Transforming growth factor-β suppresses metastasis in a subset of human colon carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simms, Neka A K; Rajput, Ashwani; Sharratt, Elizabeth A; Ongchin, Melanie; Teggart, Carol A; Wang, Jing; Brattain, Michael G

    2012-01-01

    TGFβ signaling has typically been associated with suppression of tumor initiation while the role it plays in metastasis is generally associated with progression of malignancy. However, we present evidence here for an anti-metastatic role of TGFβ signaling. To test the importance of TGFβ signaling to cell survival and metastasis we compared human colon carcinoma cell lines that are either non-tumorigenic with TGFβ response (FET), or tumorigenic with TGFβ response (FETα) or tumorigenic with abrogated TGFβ response via introduction of dominant negative TGFβRII (FETα/DN) and their ability to metastasize. Metastatic competency was assessed by orthotopic transplantation. Metastatic colony formation was assessed histologically and by imaging. Abrogation of TGFβ signaling through introduction of a dominant negative TGFβ receptor II (TGFβRII) in non-metastatic FETα human colon cancer cells permits metastasis to distal organs, but importantly does not reduce invasive behavior at the primary site. Loss of TGFβ signaling in FETα-DN cells generated enhanced cell survival capabilities in response to cellular stress in vitro. We show that enhanced cellular survival is associated with increased AKT phosphorylation and cytoplasmic expression of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family members (survivin and XIAP) that elicit a cytoprotective effect through inhibition of caspases in response to stress. To confirm that TGFβ signaling is a metastasis suppressor, we rescued TGFβ signaling in CBS metastatic colon cancer cells that had lost TGFβ receptor expression due to epigenetic repression. Restoration of TGFβ signaling resulted in the inhibition of metastatic colony formation in distal organs by these cells. These results indicate that TGFβ signaling has an important role in the suppression of metastatic potential in tumors that have already progressed to the stage of an invasive carcinoma. The observations presented here indicate a metastasis suppressor role for TGF

  5. Superoxide production and expression of NAD(P)H oxidases by transformed and primary human colonic epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Andresen, Lars; Pedersen, G

    2003-01-01

    Superoxide (O(2)(-)) generation through the activity of reduced nicotinamide dinucleotide (NADH) or reduced nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases has been demonstrated in a variety of cell types, but not in human colonic epithelial cells....

  6. Evidence for greater production of colonic short-chain fatty acids in overweight than lean humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahat-Rozenbloom, S; Fernandes, J; Gloor, G B; Wolever, T M S

    2014-12-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are produced by colonic microbiota from dietary carbohydrates and proteins that reach the colon. It has been suggested that SCFA may promote obesity via increased colonic energy availability. Recent studies suggest obese humans have higher faecal SCFA than lean, but it is unclear whether this difference is due to increased SCFA production or reduced absorption. To compare rectal SCFA absorption, dietary intake and faecal microbial profile in lean (LN) versus overweight and obese (OWO) individuals. Eleven LN and eleven OWO individuals completed a 3-day diet record, provided a fresh faecal sample and had SCFA absorption measured using the rectal dialysis bag method. The procedures were repeated after 2 weeks. Age-adjusted faecal SCFA concentration was significantly higher in OWO than LN individuals (81.3±7.4 vs 64.1±10.4 mmol kg(-1), P=0.023). SCFA absorption (24.4±0.8% vs 24.7±1.2%, respectively, P=0.787) and dietary intakes were similar between the groups, except for a higher fat intake in OWO individuals. However, fat intake did not correlate with SCFAs or bacterial abundance. OWO individuals had higher relative Firmicutes abundance (83.1±4.1 vs 69.5±5.8%, respectively, P=0.008) and a higher Firmicutes:Bacteriodetes ratio (P=0.023) than LN individuals. There was a positive correlation between Firmicutes and faecal SCFA within the whole group (r=0.507, P=0.044), with a stronger correlation after adjusting for available carbohydrate (r=0.615, P=0.005). The higher faecal SCFA in OWO individuals is not because of differences in SCFA absorption or diet. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that OWO individuals produce more colonic SCFA than LN individuals because of differences in colonic microbiota. However, further studies are needed to prove this.

  7. Noscapine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zi-Rong; Liu, Meng; Peng, Xiu-Lan; Lei, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Ji-Xiang [Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, Hubei Province (China); Dong, Wei-Guo, E-mail: dongwg1966@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, Hubei Province (China)

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noscapine inhibited cell viability of colon cancer in a time- and dose- dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G{sub 2}/M phase arrest and chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noscapine promoted apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumorigenicity was inhibited by noscapine. -- Abstract: Noscapine, a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, has been widely used as a cough suppressant for decades. Noscapine has recently been shown to potentiate the anti-cancer effects of several therapies by inducing apoptosis in various malignant cells without any detectable toxicity in cells or tissues. However, the mechanism by which noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells remains unclear. The signaling pathways by which noscapine induces apoptosis were investigated in colon cancer cell lines treated with various noscapine concentrations for 72 h, and a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability was observed. Noscapine effectively inhibited the proliferation of LoVo cells in vitro (IC{sub 50} = 75 {mu}M). This cytotoxicity was reflected by cell cycle arrest at G{sub 2}/M and subsequent apoptosis, as indicated by increased chromatin condensation and fragmentation, the upregulation of Bax and cytochrome c (Cyt-c), the downregulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, in a xenograft tumor model in mice, noscapine injection clearly inhibited tumor growth via the induction of apoptosis, which was demonstrated using a TUNEL assay. These results suggest that noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via mitochondrial pathways. Noscapine may be a safe and effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human colon cancer.

  8. Noscapine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vivo and in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zi-Rong; Liu, Meng; Peng, Xiu-Lan; Lei, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Ji-Xiang; Dong, Wei-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Noscapine inhibited cell viability of colon cancer in a time- and dose- dependent manner. ► G 2 /M phase arrest and chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were induced. ► Noscapine promoted apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways. ► Tumorigenicity was inhibited by noscapine. -- Abstract: Noscapine, a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, has been widely used as a cough suppressant for decades. Noscapine has recently been shown to potentiate the anti-cancer effects of several therapies by inducing apoptosis in various malignant cells without any detectable toxicity in cells or tissues. However, the mechanism by which noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells remains unclear. The signaling pathways by which noscapine induces apoptosis were investigated in colon cancer cell lines treated with various noscapine concentrations for 72 h, and a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability was observed. Noscapine effectively inhibited the proliferation of LoVo cells in vitro (IC 50 = 75 μM). This cytotoxicity was reflected by cell cycle arrest at G 2 /M and subsequent apoptosis, as indicated by increased chromatin condensation and fragmentation, the upregulation of Bax and cytochrome c (Cyt-c), the downregulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, in a xenograft tumor model in mice, noscapine injection clearly inhibited tumor growth via the induction of apoptosis, which was demonstrated using a TUNEL assay. These results suggest that noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via mitochondrial pathways. Noscapine may be a safe and effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human colon cancer.

  9. The G-protein coupled chemoattractant receptor FPR2 promotes malignant phenotype of human colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yi; Yao, Xiaohong; Chen, Keqiang; Wang, Xiafei; Zhou, Jiamin; Gong, Wanghua; Yoshimura, Teizo; Huang, Jiaqiang; Wang, Rongquan; Wu, Yuzhang; Shi, Guochao; Bian, Xiuwu; Wang, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    The G-protein coupled chemoattractant receptor formylpeptide receptor-2 (FPR2 in human, Fpr2 in mice) is expressed by mouse colon epithelial cells and plays a critical role in mediating mucosal homeostasis and inflammatory responses. However, the biological role of FPR2 in human colon is unclear. Our investigation revealed that a considerable number of human colon cancer cell lines expressed FPR2 and its ligands promoted cell migration and proliferation. Human colon cancer cell lines expressing high levels of FPR2 also formed more rapidly growing tumors in immunocompromised mice as compared with cell lines expressing lower levels of FPR2. Knocking down of FPR2 from colon cancer cell lines highly expressing FPR2 reduced their tumorigenicity. Clinically, FPR2 is more highly expressed in progressive colon cancer, associated with poorer patient prognosis. These results suggest that FPR2 can be high-jacked by colon cancer cells for their growth advantage, thus becoming a potential target for therapeutic development. PMID:27904774

  10. Factors that mediate colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Ciara; Dolan, Brendan; Clyne, Marguerite

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonizes the stomach of humans and causes chronic infection. The majority of bacteria live in the mucus layer overlying the gastric epithelial cells and only a small proportion of bacteria are found interacting with the epithelial cells. The bacteria living in the gastric mucus may act as a reservoir of infection for the underlying cells which is essential for the development of disease. Colonization of gastric mucus is likely to be key to the establishment of chronic infection. How H. pylori manages to colonise and survive in the hostile environment of the human stomach and avoid removal by mucus flow and killing by gastric acid is the subject of this review. We also discuss how bacterial and host factors may together go some way to explaining the susceptibility to colonization and the outcome of infection in different individuals. H. pylori infection of the gastric mucosa has become a paradigm for chronic infection. Understanding of why H. pylori is such a successful pathogen may help us understand how other bacterial species colonise mucosal surfaces and cause disease.

  11. Decreased Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content Contributes to Increased Survival in Human Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Oraldi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Among diet components, some fatty acids are known to affect several stages of colon carcinogenesis, whereas others are probably helpful in preventing tumors. In light of this, our aim was to determine the composition of fatty acids and the possible correlation with apoptosis in human colon carcinoma specimens at different Duke's stages and to evaluate the effect of enriching human colon cancer cell line with the possible reduced fatty acid(s. Specimens of carcinoma were compared with the corresponding non-neoplastic mucosa: a significant decrease of arachidonic acid, PPARα, Bad, and Bax and a significant increase of COX-2, Bcl-2, and pBad were found. The importance of arachidonic acid in apoptosis was demonstrated by enriching a Caco-2 cell line with this fatty acid. It induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner via induction of PPARα that, in turn, decreased COX-2. In conclusion, the reduced content of arachidonic acid is likely related to carcinogenic process decreasing the susceptibility of cancer cells to apoptosis.

  12. PKH26 staining defines distinct subsets of normal human colon epithelial cells at different maturation stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pastò

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Colon crypts are characterized by a hierarchy of cells distributed along the crypt axis. Aim of this paper was to develop an in vitro system for separation of epithelial cell subsets in different maturation stages from normal human colon. METHODOLOGY AND MAJOR FINDINGS: Dissociated colonic epithelial cells were stained with PKH26, which allows identification of distinct populations based on their proliferation rate, and cultured in vitro in the absence of serum. The cytofluorimetric expression of CK20, Msi-1 and Lgr5 was studied. The mRNA levels of several stemness-associated genes were also compared in cultured cell populations and in three colon crypt populations isolated by microdissection. A PKH(pos population survived in culture and formed spheroids; this population included subsets with slow (PKH(high and rapid (PKH(low replicative rates. Molecular analysis revealed higher mRNA levels of both Msi-1 and Lgr-5 in PKH(high cells; by cytofluorimetric analysis, Msi-1(+/Lgr5(+ cells were only found within PKH(high cells, whereas Msi-1(+/Lgr5(- cells were also observed in the PKH(low population. As judged by qRT-PCR analysis, the expression of several stemness-associated markers (Bmi-1, EphB2, EpCAM, ALDH1 was highly enriched in Msi-1(+/Lgr5(+ cells. While CK20 expression was mainly found in PKH(low and PKH(neg cells, a small PKH(high subset co-expressed both CK20 and Msi-1, but not Lgr5; cells with these properties also expressed Mucin, and could be identified in vivo in colon crypts. These results mirrored those found in cells isolated from different crypt portions by microdissection, and based on proliferation rates and marker expression they allowed to define several subsets at different maturation stages: PKH(high/Lgr5(+/Msi-1(+/CK20(-, PKH(high/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(+/CK20(+, PKH(low/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(+/Ck20(-, and PKH(low/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(-/CK20(+ cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show the possibility of deriving in vitro, without any

  13. Phosphoproteomic Analysis Identifies Signaling Pathways Regulated by Curcumin in Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatsuhiro; Higuchi, Yutaka; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Hattori, Seisuke

    2017-09-01

    Curcumin, a major polyphenol of the spice turmeric, acts as a potent chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent in several cancer types, including colon cancer. Although various proteins have been shown to be affected by curcumin, how curcumin exerts its anticancer activity is not fully understood. Phosphoproteomic analyses were performed using SW480 and SW620 human colon cancer cells to identify curcumin-affected signaling pathways. Curcumin inhibited the growth of the two cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-nine curcumin-regulated phosphoproteins were identified, five of which are involved in cancer signaling pathways. Detailed analyses revealed that the mTORC1 and p53 signaling pathways are main targets of curcumin. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of the anticancer activities of curcumin and future molecular targets for its clinical application. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. Ursodeoxycholic acid inhibits the proliferation of colon cancer cells by regulating oxidative stress and cancer stem-like cell growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, EuiJoo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) exists as a therapeutic target for cancer treatments. Previous studies have shown that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) suppresses the proliferation of colon cancer cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UDCA upon the proliferation of colon cancer cells as a direct result of the regulation of ROS. Method Colon cancer cell lines (HT29 and HCT116) were treated with UDCA. The total number of cells and the number of dead cells were determined using cell counters. A fluorescein isothiocyanate-bromodeoxyuridine flow kit was used to analyze cell cycle variations. Upon exposure to UDCA, the protein levels of p27, p21, CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 were determined using western blotting, and qRT-PCR was used to determine levels of mRNA. We preformed dichlorofluorescindiacetate (DCF-DA) staining to detect alteration of intracellular ROS using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Colon cancer stem-like cell lines were generated by tumorsphere culture and treated with UDCA for seven days. The total number of tumorspheres was determined using microscopy. Results We found that UDCA reduced the total number of colon cancer cells, but did not increase the number of dead cells. UDCA inhibited the G1/S and G2/M transition phases in colon cancer cells. UDCA induced expression of cell cycle inhibitors such as p27 and p21. However, it was determined that UDCA suppressed levels of CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6. UDCA regulated intracellular ROS generation in colon cancer cells, and induced activation of Erk1/2. Finally, UDCA inhibited formation of colon cancer stem-like cells. Conclusion Our results indicate that UDCA suppresses proliferation through regulation of oxidative stress in colon cancer cells, as well as colon cancer stem-like cells. PMID:28708871

  15. Genetic evidence of paleolithic colonization and neolithic expansion of modern humans on the tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xuebin; Cui, Chaoying; Peng, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yang, Zhaohui; Zhong, Hua; Zhang, Hui; Xiang, Kun; Cao, Xiangyu; Wang, Yi; Ouzhuluobu; Basang; Ciwangsangbu; Bianba; Gonggalanzi; Wu, Tianyi; Chen, Hua; Shi, Hong; Su, Bing

    2013-08-01

    Tibetans live on the highest plateau in the world, their current population size is approximately 5 million, and most of them live at an altitude exceeding 3,500 m. Therefore, the Tibetan Plateau is a remarkable area for cultural and biological studies of human population history. However, the chronological profile of the Tibetan Plateau's colonization remains an unsolved question of human prehistory. To reconstruct the prehistoric colonization and demographic history of modern humans on the Tibetan Plateau, we systematically sampled 6,109 Tibetan individuals from 41 geographic populations across the entire region of the Tibetan Plateau and analyzed the phylogeographic patterns of both paternal (n = 2,354) and maternal (n = 6,109) lineages as well as genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism markers (n = 50) in Tibetan populations. We found that there have been two distinct, major prehistoric migrations of modern humans into the Tibetan Plateau. The first migration was marked by ancient Tibetan genetic signatures dated to approximately 30,000 years ago, indicating that the initial peopling of the Tibetan Plateau by modern humans occurred during the Upper Paleolithic rather than Neolithic. We also found evidences for relatively young (only 7-10 thousand years old) shared Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes between Tibetans and Han Chinese, suggesting a second wave of migration during the early Neolithic. Collectively, the genetic data indicate that Tibetans have been adapted to a high altitude environment since initial colonization of the Tibetan Plateau in the early Upper Paleolithic, before the last glacial maximum, followed by a rapid population expansion that coincided with the establishment of farming and yak pastoralism on the Plateau in the early Neolithic.

  16. MicroRNA-98 Suppress Warburg Effect by Targeting HK2 in Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weimin; Huang, Yijiao; Pan, Qi; Xiang, Pei; Xie, Nanlan; Yu, Hao

    2017-03-01

    Warburg effect is a hallmark of cancer cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRs) could regulate such metabolic reprograming. Aberrant expression of miR-98 has been observed in many types of cancers. However, its functions and significance in colon cancer remain largely elusive. To investigate miR-98 expression and the biological functions in colon cancer progression. miR-98 expression levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in 215 cases of colon cancer samples. miR-98 mimic or inhibitor was used to test the biological functions in SW480 and HCT116 cells, followed by cell proliferation assay, lactate production, glucose uptake, and cellular ATP levels assay and extracellular acidification rates measurement. Western blot and luciferase assay were used to identify the target of miR-98. miR-98 was significantly down-regulated in colon cancer tissues compared to adjacent colon tissues and acted as a suppressor for Warburg effect in cancer cells. miR-98 inhibited glycolysis by directly targeting hexokinase 2, or HK2, illustrating a novel pathway to mediate Warburg effect of cancer cells. In vitro experiments further indicated that HK2 was involved in miR-98-mediated suppression of glucose uptake, lactate production, and cell proliferation. In addition, we detected HK2 expression in colon cancer tissues and found that the expressions of miR-98 and HK2 were negatively correlated. miR-98 acts as tumor suppressor gene and inhibits Warburg effect in colon cancer cells, which provided potential targets for clinical treatments.

  17. A novel NSAID derivative, phospho-ibuprofen, prevents AOM-induced colon cancer in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    OUYANG, NENGTAI; JI, PING; WILLIAMS, JENNIE L.

    2013-01-01

    The cancer chemopreventive properties and gastrointestinal toxicity of ibuprofen are well documented. Modification of existing NSAIDs has improved on the chemopreventive efficacy of this agent and reduced its toxicity. In this study, ibuprofen and a modified derivative (phospho-modified ibuprofen or p-ibuprofen) were used in a chemically induced model of colon cancer. Fisher 344 rats were injected with azoxymethane then treated with either ibuprofen (500 ppm) or p-ibuprofen (900 ppm) for 20 weeks to observe aberrant crypt foci (ACF) or 40 weeks to evaluate tumor incidence and multiplicity. β-catenin and p65 were measured in colonic tissues by immunofluorescence staining. Equal molar doses of ibuprofen (75 and 670 mg/kg) and p-ibuprofen (135 and 1,215 mg/kg) were administered to rats for 7 days to assess acute toxicity. The in vitro effect of p-ibuprofen on COX-2 and PGE2 synthesis, β-catenin expression and NF-κB activity were examined in RAW 264.7 macrophage and HCT 116 colon cancer cells. At week 20, p-ibuprofen and ibuprofen significantly reduced the multiplicity of ACF compared with control (pibuprofen and ibuprofen reduced the multiplicity of colon tumors compared with control (pibuprofen (670 mg/kg) and p-ibuprofen (1,215 mg/kg) resulted in stomach ulceration in 85.7% (6 out of 7) and 14.3% (1 out of 7) of rats, respectively, with pibuprofen and p-ibuprofen suppressed β-catenin nuclear translocation in colon cancer cells. In addition, p-ibuprofen but not ibuprofen inhibited NF-κB activation in colon cancer cells. Collectively, these results suggest that p-ibuprofen is a potential effective novel drug for long-term use in colon cancer prevention. PMID:23291777

  18. Interdependence of DNA mismatch repair proteins MLH1 and MSH2 in apoptosis in human colorectal carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassen, Samar; Ali, Akhtar A; Kilaparty, Surya P; Al-Anbaky, Qudes A; Majeed, Waqar; Boman, Bruce M; Fields, Jeremy Z; Ali, Nawab

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system consists of a number of proteins that play important roles in repair of base pair mismatch mutations and in maintenance of genomic integrity. A defect in this system can cause genetic instability, which can lead to carcinogenesis. For instance, a germline mutation in one of the mismatch repair proteins, especially MLH1 or MSH2, is responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. These MMR proteins also play an important role in the induction of apoptosis. Accordingly, altered expression of or a defect in MLH1 or MSH2 may confer resistance to anti-cancer drugs used in chemotherapy. We hypothesized that the ability of these two MMR proteins to regulate apoptosis are interdependent. Moreover, a defect in either one may confer resistance to chemotherapy by an inability to trigger apoptosis. To this end, we studied three cell lines-SW480, LoVo, and HTC116. These cell lines were selected based on their differential expression of MLH1 and MSH2 proteins. SW480 expresses both MLH1 and MSH2; LoVo expresses only MLH1 but not MSH2; HCT116 expresses only MSH2 but not MLH1 protein. MTT assays, a measure of cytotoxicity, showed that there were different cytotoxic effects of an anti-cancer drug, etoposide, on these cell lines, effects that were correlated with the MMR status of the cells. Cells that are deficient in MLH1 protein (HCT116 cells) were resistant to the drug. Cells that express both MLH1 and MSH2 proteins (SW480 cells) showed caspase-3 cleavage, an indicator of apoptosis. Cells that lack MLH1 (HCT116 cells) did not show any caspase-3 cleavage. Expression of full-length MLH1 protein was decreased in MMR proficient (SW480) cells during apoptosis; it remained unchanged in cells that lack MSH2 (LoVo cells). The expression of MSH2 protein remained unchanged during apoptosis both in MMR proficient (SW480) and deficient (HCT116) cells. Studies on translocation of MLH1 protein from nucleus to cytosolic fraction, an

  19. Quantification of Crypt and Stem Cell Evolution in the Normal and Neoplastic Human Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Marie Baker

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human intestinal stem cell and crypt dynamics remain poorly characterized because transgenic lineage-tracing methods are impractical in humans. Here, we have circumvented this problem by quantitatively using somatic mtDNA mutations to trace clonal lineages. By analyzing clonal imprints on the walls of colonic crypts, we show that human intestinal stem cells conform to one-dimensional neutral drift dynamics with a “functional” stem cell number of five to six in both normal patients and individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis (germline APC−/+. Furthermore, we show that, in adenomatous crypts (APC−/−, there is a proportionate increase in both functional stem cell number and the loss/replacement rate. Finally, by analyzing fields of mtDNA mutant crypts, we show that a normal colon crypt divides around once every 30–40 years, and the division rate is increased in adenomas by at least an order of magnitude. These data provide in vivo quantification of human intestinal stem cell and crypt dynamics.

  20. Effective inhibition of colon cancer cell growth with MgAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH loaded 5-FU and PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor BEZ-235 through apoptotic pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Jiezhong Chen,1,2 Renfu Shao,3 Li Li,4 Zhi Ping Xu,4 Wenyi Gu4 1School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, 2Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, 3GeneCology Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Queensland, 4Australian Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia Abstract: Colon cancer is the third most common cancer and the third largest cause of cancer-related death. Fluorouracil (5-FU is the front-line chemotherapeutic agent for colon cancer. However, its response rate is less than 60%, even in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. The side effects of 5-FU also limit its application. Nanoparticles have been used to deliver 5-FU, to increase its effectiveness and reduce side effects. Another common approach for colon cancer treatment is targeted therapy against the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt pathway. A recently-invented inhibitor of this pathway, BEZ-235, has been tested in several clinical trials and has shown effectiveness and low side effects. Thus, it is a very promising drug for colon cancer treatment. The combination of these two drugs, especially nanoparticle-packed 5-FU and BEZ-235, has not been studied. In the present study, we demonstrated that nanoparticles of layered double hydroxide (LDH loaded with 5-FU were more effective than a free drug at inhibiting colon cancer cell growth, and that a combination treatment with BEZ-235 further increased the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to the treatment of LDH-packed 5-FU (LDH-5-FU. BEZ-235 alone can decrease colon cancer HCT-116 cell viability to 46% of the control, and the addition of LDH-5-FU produced a greater effect, reducing cell survival to 8% of the control. Our data indicate that the combination therapy of

  1. Lactate has the potential to promote hydrogen sulphide formation in the human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Perrine; Duncan, Sylvia H; Chassard, Christophe; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Flint, Harry J

    2009-10-01

    High concentrations of sulphide are toxic for the gut epithelium and may contribute to bowel disease. Lactate is a favoured cosubstrate for the sulphate-reducing colonic bacterium Desulfovibrio piger, as shown here by the stimulation of sulphide formation by D. piger DSM749 by lactate in the presence of sulphate. Sulphide formation by D. piger was also stimulated in cocultures with the lactate-producing bacterium Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32. Other lactate-utilizing bacteria such as the butyrate-producing species Eubacterium hallii and Anaerostipes caccae are, however, expected to be in competition with the sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) for the lactate formed in the human colon. Strains of E. hallii and A. caccae produced 65% and 96% less butyrate from lactate, respectively, in a coculture with D. piger DSM749 than in a pure culture. In triculture experiments involving B. adolescentis L2-32, up to 50% inhibition of butyrate formation by E. hallii and A. caccae was observed in the presence of D. piger DSM749. On the other hand, sulphide formation by D. piger was unaffected by E. hallii or A. caccae in these cocultures and tricultures. These experiments strongly suggest that lactate can stimulate sulphide formation by SRB present in the colon, with possible consequences for conditions such as colitis.

  2. Patterns of Early-Life Gut Microbial Colonization during Human Immune Development: An Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbial colonization during early life have been reported in infants that later developed asthma, allergies, type 1 diabetes, as well as in inflammatory bowel disease patients, previous to disease flares. Mechanistic studies in animal models have established that microbial alterations influence disease pathogenesis via changes in immune system maturation. Strong evidence points to the presence of a window of opportunity in early life, during which changes in gut microbial colonization can result in immune dysregulation that predisposes susceptible hosts to disease. Although the ecological patterns of microbial succession in the first year of life have been partly defined in specific human cohorts, the taxonomic and functional features, and diversity thresholds that characterize these microbial alterations are, for the most part, unknown. In this review, we summarize the most important links between the temporal mosaics of gut microbial colonization and the age-dependent immune functions that rely on them. We also highlight the importance of applying ecology theory to design studies that explore the interactions between this complex ecosystem and the host immune system. Focusing research efforts on understanding the importance of temporally structured patterns of diversity, keystone groups, and inter-kingdom microbial interactions for ecosystem functions has great potential to enable the development of biologically sound interventions aimed at maintaining and/or improving immune system development and preventing disease.

  3. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer.

  4. Human Colon Tumors Express a Dominant-Negative Form of SIGIRR That Promotes Inflammation and Colitis-Associated Colon Cancer in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junjie; Bulek, Katarzyna; Gulen, Muhammet F; Zepp, Jarod A; Karagkounis, Georgio; Martin, Bradley N; Zhou, Hao; Yu, Minjia; Liu, Xiuli; Huang, Emina; Fox, Paul L; Kalady, Matthew F; Markowitz, Sanford D; Li, Xiaoxia

    2015-12-01

    Single immunoglobulin and toll-interleukin 1 receptor (SIGIRR), a negative regulator of the Toll-like and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling pathways, controls intestinal inflammation and suppresses colon tumorigenesis in mice. However, the importance of SIGIRR in human colorectal cancer development has not been determined. We investigated the role of SIGIRR in development of human colorectal cancer. We performed RNA sequence analyses of pairs of colon tumor and nontumor tissues, each collected from 68 patients. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence analyses were used to determine levels of SIGIRR protein in primary human colonic epithelial cells, tumor tissues, and colon cancer cell lines. We expressed SIGIRR and mutant forms of the protein in Vaco cell lines. We created and analyzed mice that expressed full-length (control) or a mutant form of Sigirr (encoding SIGIRR(N86/102S), which is not glycosylated) specifically in the intestinal epithelium. Some mice were given azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium to induce colitis-associated cancer. Intestinal tissues were collected and analyzed by immunohistochemical and gene expression profile analyses. RNA sequence analyses revealed increased expression of a SIGIRR mRNA isoform, SIGIRR(ΔE8), in colorectal cancer tissues compared to paired nontumor tissues. SIGIRR(ΔE8) is not modified by complex glycans and is therefore retained in the cytoplasm-it cannot localize to the cell membrane or reduce IL1R signaling. SIGIRR(ΔE8) interacts with and has a dominant-negative effect on SIGIRR, reducing its glycosylation, localization to the cell surface, and function. Most SIGIRR detected in human colon cancer tissues was cytoplasmic, whereas in nontumor tissues it was found at the cell membrane. Mice that expressed SIGIRR(N86/102S) developed more inflammation and formed larger tumors after administration of azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium than control mice; colon tissues from these mutant mice expressed

  5. MicroRNA-320a suppresses human colon cancer cell proliferation by directly targeting {beta}-catenin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jian-Yong [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, 710032 Xi' an (China); State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Fourth Military Medical University, 710032 Xi' an (China); Huang, Yi [Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, 710032 Xi' an (China); Li, Ji-Peng [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Fourth Military Medical University, 710032 Xi' an (China); Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, 710032 Xi' an (China); Meng, Yan-Ling [Department of Immunology, Fourth Military Medical University, 710032 Xi' an (China); Yan, Bo [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, 710032 Xi' an (China); Bian, Yong-Qian [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Fourth Military Medical University, 710032 Xi' an (China); Zhao, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, 710032 Xi' an (China); Wang, Wei-Zhong, E-mail: weichang@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Fourth Military Medical University, 710032 Xi' an (China); and others

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-320a is downregulated in human colorectal carcinoma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of miR-320a inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-Catenin is a direct target of miR-320a in colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-320a expression inversely correlates with mRNA expression of {beta}-catenin's target genes in human colon carcinoma. -- Abstract: Recent profile studies of microRNA (miRNA) expression have documented a deregulation of miRNA (miR-320a) in human colorectal carcinoma. However, its expression pattern and underlying mechanisms in the development and progression of colorectal carcinoma has not been elucidated clearly. Here, we performed real-time PCR to examine the expression levels of miR-320a in colon cancer cell lines and tumor tissues. And then, we investigated its biological functions in colon cancer cells by a gain of functional strategy. Further more, by the combinational approaches of bioinformatics and experimental validation, we confirmed target associations of miR-320a in colorectal carcinoma. Our results showed that miR-320a was frequently downregulated in cancer cell lines and colon cancer tissues. And we demonstrated that miR-320a restoration inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation and {beta}-catenin, a functionally oncogenic molecule was a direct target gene of miR-320a. Finally, the data of real-time PCR showed the reciprocal relationship between miR-320a and {beta}-catenin's downstream genes in colon cancer tissues. These findings indicate that miR-320a suppresses the growth of colon cancer cells by directly targeting {beta}-catenin, suggesting its application in prognosis prediction and cancer treatment.

  6. MicroRNA-320a suppresses human colon cancer cell proliferation by directly targeting β-catenin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jian-Yong; Huang, Yi; Li, Ji-Peng; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Lei; Meng, Yan-Ling; Yan, Bo; Bian, Yong-Qian; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Wei-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► miR-320a is downregulated in human colorectal carcinoma. ► Overexpression of miR-320a inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation. ► β-Catenin is a direct target of miR-320a in colon cancer cells. ► miR-320a expression inversely correlates with mRNA expression of β-catenin’s target genes in human colon carcinoma. -- Abstract: Recent profile studies of microRNA (miRNA) expression have documented a deregulation of miRNA (miR-320a) in human colorectal carcinoma. However, its expression pattern and underlying mechanisms in the development and progression of colorectal carcinoma has not been elucidated clearly. Here, we performed real-time PCR to examine the expression levels of miR-320a in colon cancer cell lines and tumor tissues. And then, we investigated its biological functions in colon cancer cells by a gain of functional strategy. Further more, by the combinational approaches of bioinformatics and experimental validation, we confirmed target associations of miR-320a in colorectal carcinoma. Our results showed that miR-320a was frequently downregulated in cancer cell lines and colon cancer tissues. And we demonstrated that miR-320a restoration inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation and β-catenin, a functionally oncogenic molecule was a direct target gene of miR-320a. Finally, the data of real-time PCR showed the reciprocal relationship between miR-320a and β-catenin’s downstream genes in colon cancer tissues. These findings indicate that miR-320a suppresses the growth of colon cancer cells by directly targeting β-catenin, suggesting its application in prognosis prediction and cancer treatment.

  7. Phage display selection of fully human antibody fragments to inhibit growth-promoting effects of glycine-extended gastrin 17 on human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajeh, Shirin; Tohidkia, Mohammad Reza; Aghanejad, Ayuob; Mehdipour, Tayebeh; Fathi, Farzaneh; Omidi, Yadollah

    2018-06-09

    Glycine-extended gastrin 17 (G17-Gly), a dominant processing intermediate of gastrin gene, has been implicated in the development or maintenance of colorectal cancers (CRCs). Hence, neutralizing G17-Gly activity by antibody entities can provide a potential therapeutic strategy in the patients with CRCs. To this end, we isolated fully human antibody fragments from a phage antibody library through biopanning against different epitopes of G17-Gly in order to obtain the highest possible antibody diversity. ELISA screening and sequence analysis identified 2 scFvs and 4 V L antibody fragments. Kinetic analysis of the antibody fragments by SPR revealed K D values to be in the nanomolar range (87.9-334 nM). The selected anti-G17-Gly antibody fragments were analyzed for growth inhibition and apoptotic assays in a CRC cell line, HCT-116, which is well-characterized for expressing gastrin intermediate species but not amidated gastrin. The antibody fragments exhibited significant inhibition of HCT-116 cells proliferation ranging from 36.5 to 73% of controls. Further, Annexin V/PI staining indicated that apoptosis rates of scFv H8 and V L G8 treated cells were 45.8 and 63%, respectively. Based on these results, we for the first time, demonstrated the isolation of anti-G17-Gly human scFv and V L antibodies with potential therapeutic applications in G17-Gly-responsive tumors.

  8. Isolation and characterisation of new putative probiotic bacteria from human colonic flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Irit; Gollop, Natan; Polak-Charcon, Sylvie; Schwartz, Betty

    2007-04-01

    The present study describes a novel bacterial isolate exhibiting high ability to synthesise and secrete butyrate. The novel isolated bacterium was obtained from human faeces and grown in selective liquid intestinal microflora medium containing rumen fluid under microaerobic conditions. Its probiotic properties were demonstrated by the ability of the isolate to survive high acidity and medium containing bile acids and the ability to adhere to colon cancer cells (Caco-2) in vitro. Phylogenetic identity to Enterococcus durans was established using specific primers for 16S rRNA (99% probability). PCR analyses with primers to the bacterial gene encoding butyrate kinase, present in the butyrogenic bacteria Clostridium, showed that this gene is present in E. durans. The in vivo immunoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of E. durans were assessed in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in Balb/c mice. Administration of E. durans ameliorated histological, clinical and biochemical scores directly related to intestinal inflammation whereas the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus delbrueckii was ineffective in this regard. Colonic cDNA concentrations of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were significantly down regulated in DSS-treated E. durans-fed mice but not in control or DSS-treated L. delbrueckii- fed mice. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation analyses of colonic tissue from mice fed E. durans, using a butyrate kinase probe, demonstrated that E. durans significantly adheres to the colonic tissue. The novel isolated bacterium described in the present paper, upon further characterisation, can be developed into a useful probiotic aimed at the treatment of patients suffering from ulcerative colitis.

  9. Deciphering the colon cancer genes--report of the InSiGHT-Human Variome Project Workshop, UNESCO, Paris 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Macrae, Finlay; Genuardi, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    The Human Variome Project (HVP) has established a pilot program with the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours (InSiGHT) to compile all inherited variation affecting colon cancer susceptibility genes. An HVP-InSiGHT Workshop was held on May 10, 2010, prior to the HVP...... Integration and Implementation Meeting at UNESCO in Paris, to review the progress of this pilot program. A wide range of topics were covered, including issues relating to genotype-phenotype data submission to the InSiGHT Colon Cancer Gene Variant Databases (chromium.liacs.nl/LOVD2/colon_cancer...

  10. Polyamine and methionine adenosyltransferase 2A crosstalk in human colon and liver cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasi, Maria Lauda [Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); USC Research Center for Liver Diseases, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); The Southern California Research Center for Alcoholic and Pancreatic Diseases and Cirrhosis, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Ryoo, Minjung; Skay, Anna [Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); USC Research Center for Liver Diseases, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Tomasi, Ivan; Giordano, Pasquale [Department of Colorectal Surgery, Whipps Cross University Hospital, London E11 1NR (United Kingdom); Mato, José M. [CIC bioGUNE, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (Ciberehd), Technology Park of Bizkaia, 48160 Derio, Bizkaia (Spain); Lu, Shelly C., E-mail: shellylu@usc.edu [Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); USC Research Center for Liver Diseases, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); The Southern California Research Center for Alcoholic and Pancreatic Diseases and Cirrhosis, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is an essential enzyme that is responsible for the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the principal methyl donor and precursor of polyamines. MAT1A is expressed in normal liver and MAT2A is expressed in all extrahepatic tissues. MAT2A expression is increased in human colon cancer and in colon cancer cells treated with mitogens, whereas silencing MAT2A resulted in apoptosis. The aim of the current work was to examine the mechanism responsible for MAT2A-dependent growth and apoptosis. We found that in RKO (human adenocarcinoma cell line) cells, MAT2A siRNA treatment lowered cellular SAMe and putrescine levels by 70–75%, increased apoptosis and inhibited growth. Putrescine supplementation blunted significantly MAT2A siRNA-induced apoptosis and growth suppression. Putrescine treatment (100 pmol/L) raised MAT2A mRNA level to 4.3-fold of control, increased the expression of c-Jun and c-Fos and binding to an AP-1 site in the human MAT2A promoter and the promoter activity. In human colon cancer specimens, the expression levels of MAT2A, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), c-Jun and c-Fos are all elevated as compared to adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Overexpression of ODC in RKO cells also raised MAT2A mRNA level and MAT2A promoter activity. ODC and MAT2A are also overexpressed in liver cancer and consistently, similar MAT2A-ODC-putrescine interactions and effects on growth and apoptosis were observed in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, there is a crosstalk between polyamines and MAT2A. Increased MAT2A expression provides more SAMe for polyamines biosynthesis; increased polyamine (putrescine in this case) can activate MAT2A at the transcriptional level. This along with increased ODC expression in cancer all feed forward to further enhance the proliferative capacity of the cancer cell. -- Highlights: • MAT2A knockdown depletes putrescine and leads to apoptosis. • Putrescine attenuates MAT2A knockdown-induced apoptosis and growth

  11. Fermentation of mucins and plant polysaccharides by anaerobic bacteria from the human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyers, A A; West, S E; Vercellotti, J R; Wilkins, T D

    1977-01-01

    A total of 154 strains from 22 species of Bifidobacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, Coprococcus, Eubacterium, and Fusobacterium, which are present in high concentrations in the human colon, were surveyed for their ability to ferment 21 different complex carbohydrates. Plant polysaccharides, including amylose, amylopectin, pectin, polygalacturonate, xylan, laminarin, guar gum, locust bean gum, gum ghatti, gum arabic, and gum tragacanth, were fermented by some strains from Bifidobacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium species. Porcine gastric mucin, which was fermented by some strains of Ruminococcus torques and Bifidobacterium bifidum, was the only mucin utilized by any of the strains tested. PMID:563214

  12. Streptococcus sanguinis as an opportunistic bacteria in human oral cavity: Adherence, colonization, and invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Tjaturina Pramesti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus sanguinis (formerly S. sanguis is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobe,  nonmotile , normal  inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and  a member of  the viridans group of streptococci. Among the streptococcus, S. sanguinis is a  primary colonizer in the human tooth surface or it is recognize as a ‘pioneer’ by forming dental plaque. The aim of this paper is to review the role of Streptococcus sanguinis  in the adherence to and  invasion of  human tissues.  S. sanguinis  has been reported  that it is associated  with healthy  tooth  surfaces  but not with caries. S. sanguinis  tend to involved in an interspecies interactions with Streptococcus mutans, which is known as  competition/coexistence within dental biofilm.  In their colonization, this bacteria used enzyme sortase A (SrtA to cleave  LPXTG-containing proteins sequence and  anchored  the  cell wall, while virulence factors  in infective endocarditis  involved housekeeping functions such as cell wall synthesis, amino acid and nucleic acid synthesis, and the ability to survive under anaerobic conditions.

  13. Colonizing the embryonic zebrafish gut with anaerobic bacteria derived from the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Michael C; Goodyear, Mara; Daigneault, Michelle; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Van Raay, Terence J

    2013-06-01

    The zebrafish has become increasingly popular for microbiological research. It has been used as an infection model for a variety of pathogens, and is also emerging as a tool for studying interactions between a host and its resident microbial communities. The mouse microbiota has been transplanted into the zebrafish gut, but to our knowledge, there has been no attempt to introduce a bacterial community derived from the human gut. We explored two methods for colonizing the developing gut of 5-day-old germ-free zebrafish larvae with a defined anaerobic microbial community derived from a single human fecal sample. Both environmental exposure (static immersion) and direct microinjection into the gut resulted in the establishment of two species-Lactobacillus paracasei and Eubacterium limosum-from a community of 30 strains consisting of 22 anaerobic species. Of particular interest is E. limosum, which, as a strict anaerobe, represents a group of bacteria which until now have not been shown to colonize the developing zebrafish gut. Our success here indicates that further investigation of zebrafish as a tool for studying human gut microbial communities is warranted.

  14. Time- and dose-dependent effects of curcumin on gene expression in human colon cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, M.J. van; Teuling, E.; Staal, Y.C.M.; Huybers, S.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Ommen, B. van

    2004-01-01

    Background. Curcumin is a spice and a coloring food compound with a promising role in colon cancer prevention. Curcumin protects against development of colon tumors in rats treated with a colon carcinogen, in colon cancer cells curcumin can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, it is an

  15. Time- and dose-dependent effects of curcumin on gene expression in human colon cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, van M.J.; Teuling, E.; Staal, Y.C.M.; Huybers, S.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Ommen, van B.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Curcumin is a spice and a coloring food compound with a promising role in colon cancer prevention. Curcumin protects against development of colon tumors in rats treated with a colon carcinogen, in colon cancer cells curcumin can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, it is an

  16. Time- and dose-dependent effects of curcumin on gene expression in human colon cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Erk, Marjan J; Teuling, Eva; Staal, Yvonne C. M.; Huybers, Sylvie; Van Bladeren, Peter J; Aarts, Jac MMJG; Van Ommen, Ben

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Curcumin is a spice and a coloring food compound with a promising role in colon cancer prevention. Curcumin protects against development of colon tumors in rats treated with a colon carcinogen, in colon cancer cells curcumin can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, it is an

  17. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 is a marker for normal and malignant human colonic stem cells (SC) and tracks SC overpopulation during colon tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Emina H; Hynes, Mark J; Zhang, Tao; Ginestier, Christophe; Dontu, Gabriela; Appelman, Henry; Fields, Jeremy Z; Wicha, Max S; Boman, Bruce M

    2009-04-15

    Although the concept that cancers originate from stem cells (SC) is becoming scientifically accepted, mechanisms by which SC contribute to tumor initiation and progression are largely unknown. For colorectal cancer (CRC), investigation of this problem has been hindered by a paucity of specific markers for identification and isolation of SC from normal and malignant colon. Accordingly, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) was investigated as a possible marker for identifying colonic SC and for tracking them during cancer progression. Immunostaining showed that ALDH1(+) cells are sparse and limited to the normal crypt bottom, where SCs reside. During progression from normal epithelium to mutant (APC) epithelium to adenoma, ALDH1(+) cells increased in number and became distributed farther up the crypt. CD133(+) and CD44(+) cells, which are more numerous and broadly distributed in normal crypts, showed similar changes during tumorigenesis. Flow cytometric isolation of cancer cells based on enzymatic activity of ALDH (Aldefluor assay) and implantation of these cells in nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient mice (a) generated xenograft tumors (Aldefluor(-) cells did not), (b) generated them after implanting as few as 25 cells, and (c) generated them dose dependently. Further isolation of cancer cells using a second marker (CD44(+) or CD133(+) serially) only modestly increased enrichment based on tumor-initiating ability. Thus, ALDH1 seems to be a specific marker for identifying, isolating, and tracking human colonic SC during CRC development. These findings also support our original hypothesis, derived previously from mathematical modeling of crypt dynamics, that progressive colonic SC overpopulation occurs during colon tumorigenesis and drives CRC development.

  18. MicroRNAs Induce Epigenetic Reprogramming and Suppress Malignant Phenotypes of Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisataka Ogawa

    Full Text Available Although cancer is a genetic disease, epigenetic alterations are involved in its initiation and progression. Previous studies have shown that reprogramming of colon cancer cells using Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc reduces cancer malignancy. Therefore, cancer reprogramming may be a useful treatment for chemo- or radiotherapy-resistant cancer cells. It was also reported that the introduction of endogenous small-sized, non-coding ribonucleotides such as microRNA (miR 302s and miR-369-3p or -5p resulted in the induction of cellular reprogramming. miRs are smaller than the genes of transcription factors, making them possibly suitable for use in clinical strategies. Therefore, we reprogrammed colon cancer cells using miR-302s and miR-369-3p or -5p. This resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation and invasion and the stimulation of the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition phenotype in colon cancer cells. Importantly, the introduction of the ribonucleotides resulted in epigenetic reprogramming of DNA demethylation and histone modification events. Furthermore, in vivo administration of the ribonucleotides in mice elicited the induction of cancer cell apoptosis, which involves the mitochondrial Bcl2 protein family. The present study shows that the introduction of miR-302s and miR-369s could induce cellular reprogramming and modulate malignant phenotypes of human colorectal cancer, suggesting that the appropriate delivery of functional small-sized ribonucleotides may open a new avenue for therapy against human malignant tumors.

  19. In vitro evaluation of antiproliferative and cytotoxic properties of pterostilbene against human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawszczyk, Joanna; Kapral, Małgorzata; Hollek, Andrzej; Węglarz, Ludmiła

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer has been remaining the second leading cause of cancer mortality in Poland in the last years. Epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies reveal that dietary phytochemicals may exert chemopreventive and therapeutic effect against colorectal cancer. There is a growing interest in identifying new biologically active agents from dietary sources in this respect. Pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxystilbene) is a naturally occurring stilbene, that has been found to have antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antipro- liferative properties. Compared to other stilbenes, pterostilbene has greater bioavailability, and so, a greater potential for clinical applications. Recent studies showed that pterostilbene exhibits the hallmark characteristics of an anticancer agent. The aim of this study was to analyze antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of pterostilbene on human colon cancer Caco-2 cells. They were cultured using standard techniques and exposed to increasing doses of pterostilbene (5-100 μM) for 48 and 72 h. Cell proliferation was determined by sulforhodamine B assay. The growth of treated cells was expressed as a percentage of that of untreated control cells. Pterostilbene decreased proliferation rate of Caco-2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Its concentrations = 25 μM did not affect cell growth after 48 h treatment period. Significant growth inhibition was observed in cultures incubated with higher concentrations of pterostilbene (40-100 μM). Pterostilbene at all concentrations used (5-100 μM) caused significant inhibition of cell proliferation when the experimental time period was elongated to 72 h. The maximum growth reduction was observed at 100 mM pterostilbene. The cytotoxicity of pterostilbene was evaluated in 48 h cultures based on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage into the culture medium and showed dose-related pattern. The findings of this study showed significant dose-dependent antiproliferative and cytotoxic

  20. Combining fisetin and ionizing radiation suppresses the growth of mammalian colorectal cancers in xenograft tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Jyh-Der; Wang, Bo-Shen; Chiu, Shu-Jun; Chang, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chen, Fu-Du; Avirmed, Shiirevnyamba; Lee, Yi-Jang

    2016-12-01

    Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), which belongs to the flavonoid group of polyphenols and is found in a wide range of plants, has been reported to exhibit a number of biological activities in human cancer cells, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, anti-invasive and antiproliferative effects. Although previous in vitro studies have shown that fisetin treatment increases the apoptotic rate and enhances the radiosensitivity of human colorectal cancer cells, the in vivo effects of fisetin on tumor growth remain unclear. In the present study a murine xenograft tumor model was employed to investigate the therapeutic effects of fisetin in combination with radiation on CT-26 colon cancer cells and human HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. This revealed that intratumoral injection of fisetin significantly suppressed the growth of CT-26 tumors compared with the untreated control group, but had little effect on the growth of HCT116 tumors. However, fisetin in combination with 2-Gy radiation enhanced tumor suppressor activity in murine colon and human colorectal xenograft tumors, as compared with 2-Gy fractionated radiation administered alone for 5 days and fisetin alone. Interestingly, fisetin downregulated the expression of the oncoprotein securin in a p53-independent manner. However, securin-null HCT116 tumors showed only moderate sensitivity to fisetin treatment, and the combination of fisetin and radiation did not significantly suppress securin-null HCT116 tumor growth compared with normal HCT116 tumors. Therefore, the role of securin in mediating the effect of fisetin on colorectal cancer growth warrants further investigation. In conclusion, the results of the current study provide important preclinical data for evaluating the efficacy of fisetin and radiation combination treatment as an adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for human colorectal cancers.

  1. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma; Colon carcinoma ... eat may play a role in getting colon cancer. Colon cancer may be linked to a high-fat, ...

  2. In Vitro Degradation and Fermentation of Three Dietary Fiber Sources by Human Colonic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Donna Z.; Weimer, Paul J.; Jung, Hans-Joachim G.; Savik, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Although clinical benefits of dietary fiber supplementation seem to depend partially on the extent of fiber degradation and fermentation by colonic bacteria, little is known about the effect of supplemental fiber type on bacterial metabolism. In an experiment using a non-adapted human bacterial population from three normal subjects, extent of in vitro fermentation was greater for gum arabic (GA) than for psyllium (PSY), which was greater than that for carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). In a separate experiment, in vitro incubation with feces from 52 subjects with fecal incontinence, before and after random assignment to and consumption of one of three fiber (GA, PSY, or CMC) supplements or a placebo for 20-21d, indicated that prior consumption of a specific fiber source did not increase its degradation by fecal bacteria. Results suggest that the colonic microbial community enriched on a particular fiber substrate can rapidly adapt to the presentation of a new fiber substrate. Clinical implications of the findings are that intake of a fiber source by humans is not expected to result in bacterial adaptation that would require continually larger and eventually intolerable amounts of fiber to achieve therapeutic benefits. PMID:23556460

  3. Anti-proliferative effects of Bifidobacterium adolescentis SPM0212 extract on human colon cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Jung Hyun; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Kyung Jae; Ha, Nam Joo

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as anti-tumor activity. The aim of the present work was to study the growth inhibition of tumor cells by butanol extract of Bifidobacterium adolescentis isolated from healthy young Koreans. The anti-proliferative activity of B. adolescentis isolates was assessed by XTT assays on three human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29, and SW480). The effects of B. adolescentis SPM0212 butanol extract on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production were tested using the murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line. The butanol extract of B. adolescentis SPM0212 dose-dependently inhibited the growth of Caco-2, HT-29, and SW480 cells by 70%, 30%, and 40%, respectively, at 200 μg/mL. Additionally, the butanol extract of B. adolescentis SPM0212 induced macrophage activation and significantly increased the production of TNF-α and NO, which regulate immune modulation and are cytotoxic to tumor cells. The butanol extract of B. adolescentis SPM0212 increased activity of the host immune system and may improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer as a biological response modifier

  4. Methanolic extracts of Uncaria rhynchophylla induce cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Kyung-Jin; Cha, Mi-Ran; Lee, Mi-Ra; Yoon, Mi-Young; Park, Hae-Ryong

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we report the anticancer activities of Uncaria rhynchophylla extracts, a Rubiaceae plant native to China. Traditionally, Uncaria rhynchophylla has been used in the prevention and treatment of neurotoxicity. However, the cytotoxic activity of Uncaria rhynchophylla against human colon carcinoma cells has not, until now, been elucidated. We found that the methanolic extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla (URE) have cytotoxic effects on HT-29 cells. The URE showed highly cytotoxic effects via the MTT reduction assay, LDH release assay, and colony formation assay. As expected, URE inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, the methanolic URE of the 500 microg/ml showed 15.8% inhibition against growth of HT-29 cells. It induced characteristic apoptotic effects in HT-29 cells, including chromatin condensation and sharking occurring 24 h when the cells were treated at a concentration of the 500 microg/ml. The activation of caspase-3 and the specific proteolytic cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase were detected over the course of apoptosis induction. These results indicate that URE contains bioactive materials with strong activity, and is a potential chemotherapeutic agent candidate against HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells.

  5. In vitro radiosensitization by oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil in a human colon cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellstroem, Johan; Kjellen, Elisabeth; Johnsson, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The current study was designed to compare the radiosensitizing effects of oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5FU) in a human colon cancer cell line. A human colon cancer cell line (S1) was treated with various doses of oxaliplatin, 5FU, radiation, and combinations thereof. Various clinically used schedules were mimicked. 5FU was either incubated during 1 h ('bolus') or 24 h ('continuous infusion'). When combining oxaliplatin and 5FU, an isobologram analysis revealed synergistic effects, regardless of 5FU schedule. The IC 10 and IC 50 -doses for the drugs where then combined with radiotherapy. With equitoxic drug doses (IC 50 ), radiosensitization was observed in the following order: oxaliplatin>5FU 24 h>5FU 1 h exposure. The degree of potentiation corresponded to approximately 0.8 Gy, 0.7 Gy, and 0.2 Gy, respectively. In this experimental setting, oxaliplatin seemed to be a better radiosensitizer than 5FU, and longer incubation time with 5FU was better than short exposure

  6. Tetranectin, a plasminogen kringle 4-binding protein. Cloning and gene expression pattern in human colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tetranectin is a recently discovered protein that binds to kringle 4 region of plasminogen (Clemmensen I, Petersen LC, Kluft C. Eur J Biochem 1986; 156:327. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The mRNA encoding human tetranectin was cloned by using degenerate primers in a reverse transcriptase...... reaction followed by polymerase chain reaction amplification. The resulting polymerase chain reaction product was examined by DNA sequencing and subsequently used as probe for screening a human placental cDNA library. A full length cDNA clone (TET-1) was isolated, characterized, and used for Northern blot...... prominent in the lungs and spleen. No hybridization signal was detected in three carcinoma cell lines examined in parallel. Northern blot analysis of poly A+ RNA isolated from solid tumors revealed a tetranectin specific mRNA band. In situ hybridizations on tissue sections of colon carcinomas and normal...

  7. Pathway of deoxynivalenol-induced apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensassi, Fatma; El Golli-Bennour, Emna; Abid-Essefi, Salwa; Bouaziz, Chayma; Hajlaoui, Mohamed Rabeh; Bacha, Hassen

    2009-01-01

    The mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), is generally detected in cereal grains and grain-based food products worldwide. Therefore, DON has numerous toxicological effects on animals and humans. The present investigation was conducted to determine the molecular aspects of DON toxicity on human colon carcinoma cells (HT 29). To this aim, we have monitored the effects of DON on (i) cell viability, (ii) Heat shock protein expressions as a parameter of protective and adaptive response, (iii) oxidative damage and (iv) cell death signalling pathway. Our results clearly showed that DON treatment inhibits cell proliferation, did not induce Hsp 70 protein expression and reactive oxygen species generation. We have also demonstrated that this toxin induced a DNA fragmentation followed by p53 and caspase-3 activations. Finally, our findings suggested that oxidative damage is not the major contributor to DON toxicity. This mycotoxin induces direct DNA lesions and could be considered by this fact as a genotoxic agent inducing cell death via an apoptotic process.

  8. Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and identification of the major aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts formed in cultured human bronchus and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Essigmann, John M.; Croy, Robert G.

    1979-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 and benzo(a)pyrene were activated by both cultured human bronchus and human colon as measured by binding to cellular DNA and protein. The binding of aflatoxin B1 to DNA was dose dependent, and the level of binding was higher in cultured human bronchus than it was in the colon. When c...

  9. Endoscopic biopsies in Ussing chambers evaluated for studies of macromolecular permeability in the human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, Conny; Braaf, Ylva; Wolving, Mats; Olaison, Gunnar; Söderholm, Johan D

    2005-05-01

    Studies of mucosal permeability to protein antigens in humans are limited to in vitro techniques. The use of surgical specimens for such studies has major shortcomings. Endoscopic biopsies in Ussing chambers have been introduced as a means of studying secretion and transepithelial permeability, but have not been evaluated for studies of protein antigen uptake in human intestine. Standard forceps biopsies from the sigmoid colon of 24 healthy volunteers were mounted in Ussing chambers with an exposed tissue area of 1.76 mm2. 51Cr-EDTA (paracellular probe) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP; 45 kDa protein antigen) were used as permeability markers. Mucosal permeability, electrophysiology, histology and energy contents of the biopsies were studied over time. To evaluate the ability of the technique to detect permeability changes, the mucosa was modulated with capric acid, a medium-chain fatty acid, known to affect tight junctions. In the Ussing chamber the mucosal biopsies were viable for 160 min with stable levels of ATP and lactate, and only minor changes in morphology. Steady-state permeability with low variability was seen for both markers during the 30-90 min period. Exposure to capric acid induced a rapid decrease in short-circuit current (Isc) and a slower reversible decrease in transepithelial resistance (TER), as well as an increased permeability to 51Cr-EDTA and HRP. Endoscopic biopsies of human colon are viable in Ussing chambers and are reliable tools for studies of mucosal permeability to protein antigens. The technique offers a broad potential for studies of mucosal function in the pathophysiology of human gastrointestinal diseases.

  10. Scaffold-Free Coculture Spheroids of Human Colonic Adenocarcinoma Cells and Normal Colonic Fibroblasts Promote Tumorigenicity in Nude Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-il Park

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to form a scaffold-free coculture spheroid model of colonic adenocarcinoma cells (CACs and normal colonic fibroblasts (NCFs and to use the spheroids to investigate the role of NCFs in the tumorigenicity of CACs in nude mice. We analysed three-dimensional (3D scaffold-free coculture spheroids of CACs and NCFs. CAC Matrigel invasion assays and tumorigenicity assays in nude mice were performed to examine the effect of NCFs on CAC invasive behaviour and tumorigenicity in 3D spheroids. We investigated the expression pattern of fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP-α by immunohistochemical staining. CAC monocultures did not form densely-packed 3D spheroids, whereas cocultured CACs and NCFs formed 3D spheroids. The 3D coculture spheroids seeded on a Matrigel extracellular matrix showed higher CAC invasiveness compared to CACs alone or CACs and NCFs in suspension. 3D spheroids injected into nude mice generated more and faster-growing tumors compared to CACs alone or mixed suspensions consisting of CACs and NCFs. FAP-α was expressed in NCFs-CACs cocultures and xenograft tumors, whereas monocultures of NCFs or CACs were negative for FAP-α expression. Our findings provide evidence that the interaction between CACs and NCFs is essential for the tumorigenicity of cancer cells as well as for tumor propagation.

  11. Functional heterogeneity of cancer-associated fibroblasts from human colon tumors shows specific prognostic gene expression signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Mercedes; Islam, Abul B M M K; Herrera, Alberto; Martín, Paloma; García, Vanesa; Silva, Javier; Garcia, Jose M; Salas, Clara; Casal, Ignacio; de Herreros, Antonio García; Bonilla, Félix; Peña, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) actively participate in reciprocal communication with tumor cells and with other cell types in the microenvironment, contributing to a tumor-permissive neighborhood and promoting tumor progression. The aim of this study is the characterization of how CAFs from primary human colon tumors promote migration of colon cancer cells. Primary CAF cultures from 15 primary human colon tumors were established. Their enrichment in CAFs was evaluated by the expression of various epithelial and myofibroblast specific markers. Coculture assays of primary CAFs with different colon tumor cells were performed to evaluate promigratory CAF-derived effects on cancer cells. Gene expression profiles were developed to further investigate CAF characteristics. Coculture assays showed significant differences in fibroblast-derived paracrine promigratory effects on cancer cells. Moreover, the association between CAFs' promigratory effects on cancer cells and classic fibroblast activation or stemness markers was observed. CAF gene expression profiles were analyzed by microarray to identify deregulated genes in different promigratory CAFs. The gene expression signature, derived from the most protumorogenic CAFs, was identified. Interestingly, this "CAF signature" showed a remarkable prognostic value for the clinical outcome of patients with colon cancer. Moreover, this prognostic value was validated in an independent series of 142 patients with colon cancer, by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), with a set of four genes included in the "CAF signature." In summary, these studies show for the first time the heterogeneity of primary CAFs' effect on colon cancer cell migration. A CAF gene expression signature able to classify patients with colon cancer into high- and low-risk groups was identified.

  12. Genetics of the pig tapeworm in madagascar reveal a history of human dispersal and colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Tetsuya; Carod, Jean-François; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Hoberg, Eric P; Ito, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of human pathogens. The pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serious neglected tropical diseases. Discrete genetic lineages of T. solium in Asia and Africa/Latin America are geographically disjunct; only in Madagascar are they sympatric. Linguistic, archaeological and genetic evidence has indicated that the people in Madagascar have mixed ancestry from Island Southeast Asia and East Africa. Hence, anthropogenic introduction of the tapeworm from Southeast Asia and Africa had been postulated. This study shows that the major mitochondrial haplotype of T. solium in Madagascar is closely related to those from the Indian Subcontinent. Parasitological evidence presented here, and human genetics previously reported, support the hypothesis of an Indian influence on Malagasy culture coinciding with periods of early human migration onto the island. We also found evidence of nuclear-mitochondrial discordance in single tapeworms, indicating unexpected cross-fertilization between the two lineages of T. solium. Analyses of genetic and geographic populations of T. solium in Madagascar will shed light on apparently rapid evolution of this organism driven by recent (<2,000 yr) human migrations, following tens of thousands of years of geographic isolation.

  13. EGF signalling pathway regulates colon cancer stem cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Y; Dai, X; Li, X; Wang, H; Liu, J; Zhang, J; Du, Y; Xia, L

    2012-10-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) compose a subpopulation of cells within a tumour that can self-renew and proliferate. Growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) promote cancer stem cell proliferation in many solid tumours. This study assesses whether EGF, bFGF and IGF signalling pathways are essential for colon CSC proliferation and self-renewal. Colon CSCs were cultured in serum-free medium (SFM) with one of the following growth factors: EGF, bFGF or IGF. Characteristics of CSC gene expression were evaluated by real time PCR. Tumourigenicity of CSCs was determined using a xenograft model in vivo. Effects of EGF receptor inhibitors, Gefitinib and PD153035, on CSC proliferation, apoptosis and signalling were evaluated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting and western blotting. Colon cancer cell HCT116 transformed to CSCs in SFM. Compared to other growth factors, EGF was essential to support proliferation of CSCs that expressed higher levels of progenitor genes (Musashi-1, LGR5) and lower levels of differential genes (CK20). CSCs promoted more rapid tumour growth than regular cancer cells in xenografts. EGFR inhibitors suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis of CSCs by inhibiting autophosphorylation of EGFR and downstream signalling proteins, such as Akt kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2). This study indicates that EGF signalling was essential for formation and maintenance of colon CSCs. Inhibition of the EGF signalling pathway may provide a useful strategy for treatment of colon cancer. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and mast cells in the regulation of mucosal barrier function in the human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, Conny; Söderholm, Johan D

    2009-05-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is an important neuro-endocrine mediator of the stress response. Local effects of CRH in the intestinal mucosa have become evident in recent years. We showed that CRH activates CRH receptor subtypes R1 and R2 on subepithelial mast cells, thereby inducing increased transcellular uptake of protein antigens in human colonic biopsies in Ussing chambers. Ongoing studies also implicate local cholinergic signaling in regulation of macromolecular permeability in the human colon. Since increased uptake of antigenic molecules is associated with mucosal inflammation, our findings may have implications for understanding stress-related intestinal disorders.

  15. Antiproliferative Activity of Egg Yolk Peptides in Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousr, Marwa N; Aloqbi, Akram A; Omar, Ulfat M; Howell, Nazlin K

    2017-01-01

    Egg yolk peptides were successfully prepared from egg yolk protein by-products after lecithin extraction. Defatted egg yolk protein was hydrolyzed with pepsin and pancreatin and purified by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fraction (EYGF-33) with antiproliferative activity. The highlight of this study was that the peptide EYGF-33 (1.0 mg/ml) significantly inhibits cell viability of colon cancer cells (Caco-2) with no inhibitory effects on the viability of human colon epithelial normal cells (HCEC) after 48 h. Reduced cell viability can be explained by cell cycle arrest in the S-phase in which DNA replication normally takes place. EYGF-33 significantly enhanced the production of superoxide anions in the mitochondria of Caco-2 cells; this could activate a mitochondrial apoptotic pathway leading to typical Poly Adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage as observed in the Western blot result. The induction of apoptotic cell death by EYGF-33 was supported by the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS). However, further elucidation of the mechanism of EYGF-33-mediated apoptosis would provide further support for its use as a potential therapeutic and chemopreventive agent.

  16. Essential Oil Content of the Rhizome of Curcuma purpurascens Bl. (Temu Tis) and Its Antiproliferative Effect on Selected Human Carcinoma Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sok-Lai; Lee, Guan-Serm; Ahmed Hamdi, Omer Abdalla; Awang, Khalijah; Aznam Nugroho, Nurfina

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma purpurascens Bl., belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, is known as temu tis in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In this study, the hydrodistilled dried ground rhizome oil was investigated for its chemical content and antiproliferative activity against selected human carcinoma cell lines (MCF7, Ca Ski, A549, HT29, and HCT116) and a normal human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC5). Results from GC-MS and GC-FID analysis of the rhizome oil of temu tis showed turmerone as the major component, followed by germacrone, ar-turmerone, germacrene-B, and curlone. The rhizome oil of temu tis exhibited strong cytotoxicity against HT29 cells (IC50 value of 4.9 ± 0.4 μg/mL), weak cytotoxicity against A549, Ca Ski, and HCT116 cells (with IC50 values of 46.3 ± 0.7, 32.5 ± 1.1, and 35.0 ± 0.3 μg/mL, resp.), and no inhibitory effect against MCF7 cells. It exhibited mild cytotoxicity against a noncancerous human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC5), with an IC50 value of 25.2 ± 2.7 μg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of this rhizome's oil and its selective antiproliferative effect on HT29. The obtained data provided a basis for further investigation of the mode of cell death. PMID:25177723

  17. Prevention and treatment of colon cancer by peroral administration of HAMLET (human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumour cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthia, Manoj; Storm, Petter; Nadeem, Aftab; Hsiung, Sabrina; Svanborg, Catharina

    2014-01-01

    Most colon cancers start with dysregulated Wnt/β-catenin signalling and remain a major therapeutic challenge. Examining whether HAMLET (human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumour cells) may be used for colon cancer treatment is logical, based on the properties of the complex and its biological context. To investigate if HAMLET can be used for colon cancer treatment and prevention. Apc(Min)(/+) mice, which carry mutations relevant to hereditary and sporadic human colorectal tumours, were used as a model for human disease. HAMLET was given perorally in therapeutic and prophylactic regimens. Tumour burden and animal survival of HAMLET-treated and sham-fed mice were compared. Tissue analysis focused on Wnt/β-catenin signalling, proliferation markers and gene expression, using microarrays, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Confocal microscopy, reporter assay, immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, ion flux assays and holographic imaging were used to determine effects on colon cancer cells. Peroral HAMLET administration reduced tumour progression and mortality in Apc(Min)(/+) mice. HAMLET accumulated specifically in tumour tissue, reduced β-catenin and related tumour markers. Gene expression analysis detected inhibition of Wnt signalling and a shift to a more differentiated phenotype. In colon cancer cells with APC mutations, HAMLET altered β-catenin integrity and localisation through an ion channel-dependent pathway, defining a new mechanism for controlling β-catenin signalling. Remarkably, supplying HAMLET to the drinking water from the time of weaning also significantly prevented tumour development. These data identify HAMLET as a new, peroral agent for colon cancer prevention and treatment, especially needed in people carrying APC mutations, where colon cancer remains a leading cause of death.

  18. The inflammatory mediator leukotriene D4 induces subcellular β-catenin translocation and migration of colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, Tavga; Sand-Dejmek, Janna; Sjölander, Anita

    2014-01-01

    The abnormal activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway frequently occurs in colorectal cancer. The nuclear translocation of β-catenin activates the transcription of target genes that promote cell proliferation, survival, and invasion. The pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene D 4 (LTD 4 ) exerts its effects through the CysLT 1 receptor. We previously reported an upregulation of CysLT 1 R in patients with colon cancer, suggesting the importance of leukotrienes in colon cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of LTD 4 on Wnt/β-catenin signaling and its effects on proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells. LTD 4 stimulation led to an increase in β-catenin expression, β-catenin nuclear translocation and the subsequent transcription of MYC and CCND1. Furthermore, LTD 4 significantly reduced the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin at the plasma membrane and increased the migration and proliferation of HCT116 colon cancer cells. The effects of LTD 4 can be blocked by the inhibition of CysLT 1 R. Furthermore, LTD 4 induced the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK)-3β activity, indicating a crosstalk between the G-protein-coupled receptor CysLT 1 and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In conclusion, LTD 4 , which can be secreted from macrophages and leukocytes in the tumor microenvironment, induces β-catenin translocation and the activation of β-catenin target genes, resulting in the increased proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells. - Highlights: • Leukotriene D 4 (LTD 4 ) lowers membrane β-catenin but increases nuclear β-catenin levels in colon cancer cells. • In agreement, LTD 4 triggers inactivation of GSK-3β, activation of TCF/LEF and increased expression of Cyclin D1 and c-Myc. • LTD 4 also caused a significant reduction in the expression of E-cadherin and an increased migration of colon cancer cells

  19. Nasal colonization of humans with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA CC398 with and without exposure to pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Cuny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies in several European countries and in North America revealed a frequent nasal colonization of livestock with MRSA CC398 and also in humans with direct professional exposure to colonized animals. The study presented here addresses the question of further transmission to non exposed humans. METHODS: After selecting 47 farms with colonized pigs in different regions of Germany we sampled the nares of 113 humans working daily with pigs and of their 116 non exposed family members. The same was performed in 18 veterinarians attending pig farms and in 44 of their non exposed family members. For investigating transmission beyond families we samples the nares of 462 pupils attending a secondary school in a high density pig farming area. MRSA were detected by direct culture on selective agar. The isolates were typed by means of spa-sequence typing and classification of SCCmec elements. For attribution of spa sequence types to clonal lineages as defined by multi locus sequence typing we used the BURP algorithm. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by microbroth dilution assay. RESULTS: At the farms investigated 86% of humans exposed and only 4.3% of their family members were found to carry MRSA exhibiting spa-types corresponding to clonal complex CC398. Nasal colonization was also found in 45% of veterinarians caring for pig farms and in 9% of their non exposed family members. Multivariate analysis revealed that antibiotic usage prior to sampling beard no risk with respect to colonization. From 462 pupils only 3 were found colonized, all 3 were living on pig farms. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that so far the dissemination of MRSA CC398 to non exposed humans is infrequent and probably does not reach beyond familial communities.

  20. Tumor associated macrophages protect colon cancer cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis through IL-1beta-dependent stabilization of Snail in tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kaler

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported that colon tumor cells stimulate macrophages to release IL-1beta, which in turn inactivates GSK3beta and enhances Wnt signaling in colon cancer cells, generating a self-amplifying loop that promotes the growth of tumor cells.Here we describe that macrophages protect HCT116 and Hke-3 colon cancer cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Inactivation of IL-1beta by neutralizing IL-1beta antibody, or silencing of IL-1beta in macrophages inhibited their ability to counter TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Accordingly, IL-1beta was sufficient to inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis. TRAIL-induced collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta psi and activation of caspases were prevented by macrophages or by recombinant IL-1beta. Pharmacological inhibition of IL-1beta release from macrophages by vitamin D(3, a potent chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer, restored the ability of TRAIL to induce apoptosis of tumor cells cultured with macrophages. Macrophages and IL-1beta failed to inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells expressing dnIkappaB, dnAKT or dnTCF4, confirming that they oppose TRAIL-induced cell death through induction of Wnt signaling in tumor cells. We showed that macrophages and IL-1beta stabilized Snail in tumor cells in an NF-kappaB/Wnt dependent manner and that Snail deficient tumor cells were not protected from TRAIL-induced apoptosis by macrophages or by IL-1beta, demonstrating a crucial role of Snail in the resistance of tumor cells to TRAIL.We have identified a positive feedback loop between tumor cells and macrophages that propagates the growth and promotes the survival of colon cancer cells: tumor cells stimulate macrophages to secrete IL-1beta, which in turn, promotes Wnt signaling and stabilizes Snail in tumor cells, conferring resistance to TRAIL. Vitamin D(3 halts this amplifying loop by interfering with the release of IL-1beta from macrophages. Accordingly, vitamin D(3 sensitizes tumor cells to TRAIL

  1. Contribution of the 7β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Ruminococcus gnavus N53 to ursodeoxycholic acid formation in the human colon[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja-Young; Arai, Hisashi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Fukiya, Satoru; Wada, Masaru; Yokota, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Bile acid composition in the colon is determined by bile acid flow in the intestines, the population of bile acid-converting bacteria, and the properties of the responsible bacterial enzymes. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is regarded as a chemopreventive beneficial bile acid due to its low hydrophobicity. However, it is a minor constituent of human bile acids. Here, we characterized an UDCA-producing bacterium, N53, isolated from human feces. 16S rDNA sequence analysis identified this isolate as Ruminococcus gnavus, a novel UDCA-producer. The forward reaction that produces UDCA from 7-oxo-lithocholic acid was observed to have a growth-dependent conversion rate of 90–100% after culture in GAM broth containing 1 mM 7-oxo-lithocholic acid, while the reverse reaction was undetectable. The gene encoding 7β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7β-HSDH), which facilitates the UDCA-producing reaction, was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Characterization of the purified 7β-HSDH revealed that the kcat/Km value was about 55-fold higher for the forward reaction than for the reverse reaction, indicating that the enzyme favors the UDCA-producing reaction. As R. gnavus is a common, core bacterium of the human gut microbiota, these results suggest that this bacterium plays a pivotal role in UDCA formation in the colon. PMID:23729502

  2. Antioxidative Effects of Phenolic Compounds of Mushroom Mycelia in Simulated Regions of the Human Colon, In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamanu Emanuel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many compounds in mushrooms are biologically active; however, the in vivo actions of their metabolites are poorly understood. An in vitro system, GIS1, was used to simulate the fermentation action of microbiota in each colon region. We used MycoPo, a natural product obtained from the lyophilized mycelia of different Pleurotus ostreatus species to determine the biological effects in human-colon regions. Controls (Lentinula edodes mycelia; dried basidia of Agaricus brunnescens were chosen to confirm the biological activity of P. ostreatus mycelia in vitro. We measured total antioxidant capacity and ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP in simulated colon regions to identify antioxidant compounds, and undertook in vitro gastrointestinal simulation and microbiological analyses. The highest FRAP was found for the ascending colon, and the antioxidant effect was higher when MycoPo was administered. A. brunnescens consumption resulted in low total antioxidant capacity. Polyphenol content was correlated with the antioxidant status and microbial composition of microbiota. Total polyphenolic content was higher after A. brunnescens consumption, and four types of polyphenols were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Major phenolic acids were gentisic acid, homogentisic acid, and small amounts of caffeic acid. The Enterobacteriaceae species populations varied greatly across the three parts of the colon. We noted a significant (p0.85. These data suggest a direct relationship between favorable bacterial strains and availability of bioactive compounds, with specificity for each colon region.

  3. Serological analysis of human anti-human antibody responses in colon cancer patients treated with repeated doses of humanized monoclonal antibody A33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, G; Cohen, L S; Williams, C; Richards, E C; Old, L J; Welt, S

    2001-09-15

    Mouse monoclonal antibody A33 (mAb A33) recognizes a M(r) 43,000 cell surface glycoprotein (designated A33) expressed in human colonic epithelium and colon cancer but absent from most other normal tissues. In patients, mAb A33 localizes with high specificity to colon cancer and is retained for up to 6 weeks in the cancer but cleared rapidly from normal colon (5-6 days). As a carrier of (125)I or (131)I, mAb A33 has shown antitumor activity. Induction of strong human anti-mouse antibody (immunoglobulin; HAMA) responses in patients, however, limits the use of the murine mAb A33 to very few injections. A humanized version of this antibody (huAb A33) has been prepared for Phase I and II clinical studies in patients with colon cancer. In those studies, immunogenicity of huAb A33 has been monitored using a novel, highly sensitive BIACORE method, which allows measurement of human anti-human antibodies (HAHAs) without the use of secondary reagents. We found that 63% (26 of 41) of the patients treated with repeated doses of huAb A33 developed HAHAs against a conformational antigenic determinant located in the V(L) and V(H) regions of huAb A33. Detailed serological analysis showed two distinct types of HAHAs. HAHA of type I (49% of patients) was characterized by an early onset with peak HAHA levels after 2 weeks of treatment, which declined with ongoing huAb A33 treatment. HAHA of type II (17% of patients) was characterized by a typically later onset of HAHA than in type I and by progressively increasing HAHA levels with each subsequent huAb A33 administration. Colon cancer patients with type I HAHAs did not develop infusion-related adverse events. In contrast, HAHA of type II was indicative of infusion-related adverse events. By using this new method, we were able to distinguish these two types of HAHAs in patients while on antibody treatment, allowing patients to be removed from study prior to the onset of severe infusion-related adverse events.

  4. Geoditin A Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis on Human Colon HT29 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Keung Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Geoditin A, an isomalabaricane triterpene isolated from the marine sponge Geodia japonica, has been demonstrated to dissipate mitochondrial membrane potential, activate caspase 3, decrease cytoplasmic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, and induce apoptosis of leukemia cells, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear [1]. In this study, we found fragmentation of Golgi structure, suppression of transferrin receptor expression, production of oxidants, and DNA fragmentation in human colon cancer HT29 cells after treatment with geoditin A for 24 h. This apoptosis was not abrogated by chelation of intracellular iron with salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH, but suppressed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a thiol antioxidant and GSH precursor, indicating that the cytotoxic effect of geoditin A is likely mediated by a NAC-inhibitable oxidative stress. Our results provide a better understanding of the apoptotic properties and chemotherapeutical potential of this marine triterpene.

  5. Lactoferricin treatment decreases the rate of cell proliferation of a human colon cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiburghaus, C; Janicke, B; Lindmark-Månsson, H; Oredsson, S M; Paulsson, M A

    2009-06-01

    Food components modify the risk of cancer at a large number of sites but the mechanism of action is unknown. In the present investigation, we studied the effect of the peptide lactoferricin derived from bovine milk lactoferrin on human colon cancer CaCo-2 cells. The cells were either untreated or treated with 2.0, 0.2, or 0.02 microM lactoferricin. Cell cycle kinetics were investigated with a bromodeoxyuridine DNA flow cytometric method. The results show that lactoferricin treatment slightly but significantly prolonged the S phase of the cell cycle. Lactoferricin treatment lowered the level of cyclin E1, a protein involved in the regulation of genes required for G(1)/S transition and consequently for efficient S phase progression. The slight prolongation of the S phase resulted in a reduction of cell proliferation, which became more apparent after a long treatment time.

  6. Spontaneous and cytokine induced expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases in human colonic epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, G; Saermark, T; Kirkegaard, T

    2009-01-01

    levels in cells from inflamed IBD mucosa. MMP-2 and -8 mRNA were expressed inconsistently and MMP-11, -13 and -14 mRNA undetectable. Proteolytic MMP activity was detected in CEC supernatants and the level was increased significantly in inflamed IBD epithelium. The enzyme activity was inhibited strongly......Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in tissue damage associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).As the role of the intestinal epithelium in this process is unknown, we determined MMP expression and enzyme activity in human colonic epithelial cells (CEC). MMP mRNA expression...... was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in HT-29 and DLD-1 cells and in CEC isolated from biopsies from IBD and control patients. Total MMP activity in the cells was measured by a functional assay, based on degradation of a fluorescent synthetic peptide containing the specific bond...

  7. Ex vivo photometric and polarimetric multilayer characterization of human healthy colon by multispectral Mueller imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierangelo, Angelo; Manhas, Sandeep; Benali, Abdelali; Fallet, Clément; Antonelli, Maria-Rosaria; Novikova, Tatiana; Gayet, Brice; Validire, Pierre; De Martino, Antonello

    2012-06-01

    Healthy human colon samples were analyzed ex vivo with a multispectral imaging Mueller polarimeter operating from 500 to 700 nm in a backscattering configuration with diffuse light illumination impinging on the innermost tissue layer, the mucosa. The intensity and polarimetric responses were taken on whole tissues first and after progressive exfoliation of the outer layers afterwards. Moreover, these measurements were carried out with two different substrates (one bright and the other dark) successively placed beneath each sample, allowing a reasonably accurate evaluation of the contributions to the overall backscattered light by the various layers. For the shorter investigated wavelengths (500 to 550 nm) the major contribution comes from mucosa and submucosa, while for the longer wavelengths (650 to 700 nm) muscular tissue and fat also contribute significantly. The depolarization has also been studied and is found to be stronger in the red part of the spectrum, mainly due to the highly depolarizing power of the muscular and fat layers.

  8. Fermentation of mucin and plant polysaccharides by strains of Bacteroides from the human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyers, A A; Vercellotti, J R; West, S E; Wilkins, T D

    1977-01-01

    Ten Bacteroides species found in the human colon were surveyed for their ability to ferment mucins and plant polysaccharides ("dietary fiber"). A number of strains fermented mucopolysaccharides (heparin, hyaluronate, and chondroitin sulfate) and ovomucoid. Only 3 of the 188 strains tested fermented beef submaxillary mucin, and none fermented porcine gastric mucin. Many of the Bacteroides strains tested were also able to ferment a variety of plant polysaccharides, including amylose, dextran, pectin, gum tragacanth, gum guar, larch arabinogalactan, alginate, and laminarin. Some plant polysaccharides such as gum arabic, gum karaya, gum ghatti and fucoidan, were not utilized by any of the strains tested. The ability to utilize mucins and plant polysaccharides varied considerably among the Bacteroides species tested. PMID:848954

  9. Evaluation of human collagen biomaterials in the healing of colonic anastomoses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, D; Aprahamian, M; Tiollier, J; Sonzini, P; Marescaux, J

    1997-04-01

    To investigate the ability of human collagen biomaterials to secure colonic anastomoses in dogs and to evaluate the biocompatibility of anastomotic protection patches (APP). Experimental open study. Experimental research centre, France. 21 mongrel dogs randomised into three groups of 7 each. Standard transverse colonic end-to-end anastomoses were secured with two-layer oxidised collagen I + III sponge covered with thin crosslinked collagen IV film (APP 1) glued around the suture (n = 7); two-layer oxidised collagen I + III sponge covered with thin non-crosslinked collagen I + III film patch (APP 2) (n = 7); or sealed by fibrin sealant (n = 7), which acted as a controls. Gross examination, radiological control (barium enemas), and microscopic examination on day 35 postoperatively. Gross clinical and radiological examinations on day 35 showed normal wound healing in all but one dog in which the anastomoses had occluded by day 16. There was significantly less stricturing with the APP 2 patch (p < 0.05 compared with the controls). Microscopic examination showed complete absorption of the APP 2 patches as well as quicker mucosal and extracellular matrix repair than controls. The APP 1 patch gave the best healing of the muscular layer but did not reduce anastomosis stricturing, and was not totally absorbed. Collagen supporting devices do not alter healing of the large bowel. Encircling patches do not increase the number of adhesions or the rate of anastomotic stricturing and a thin fibrillar collagen I + III dense layer may even improve it. The speed of absorption of the patch depends on the type of dense collagen film. These results argue for a prospective clinical evaluation in humans.

  10. Human colon cancers as a major problem in poland and in the world – medical and environmental issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Katarzyna Król

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many epidemiological data have shown an increasing incidence and mortality of colon cancer cases in the past several years, not only in Poland but all over the world as well. Each year, approximately a million new cases of colon cancer are diagnosed and that is the cause of death of almost half a million patients in the world. The aim of this article is to present the epidemiology and the current state of scientific knowledge concerning etiology and pathogenesis of neoplastic diseases in human large intestine. Furthermore, this short review describes the essential risk factors and suggests the simple and effective ways of colon cancer prevention.Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in EU countries. Scientific studies have proved that genetic and hereditary factors have a strong influence on carcinogenesis in human colon. Moreover, environmental factors, such as dietary contribute to the development of colon neoplasm. The most useful tool to reduce high morbidity and mortality is a prevention. Screening tests in nonsymptomatic people from high-risk groups or populations enable diagnosis in the early stage of colorectal cancer. Many publications have reported that modification of lifestyle and daily diet also play a significant role in prevention.

  11. Histamine and chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan released by cultured human colonic mucosa: indication for possible presence of E mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliakim, R.; Gilead, L.; Ligumsky, M; Okon, E.; Rachmilewitz, D.; Razin, E.

    1986-01-01

    An association between the release of histamine and chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan (PG) was demonstrates in human colonic mucosa (HCM). Colonic biopsy samples incorporated [ 35 S]sulfate into PG, which was partially released into the culture medium during the incubation period. Ascending thin-layer chromatography of the released 35 S-labeled PG after its digestion by chondroitin ABC lyase (chondroitinase, EC 4.2.2.4) followed by autoradiography yielded three products that migrated in the position of monosulfated disaccharides of N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate and N-acetylgalactosoamine 6-sulfate and of an oversulfated disaccharide possessing N-acetylgalatosamine 4,6-disulfate. Cultured colonic mucosa released 23.6 +/- 3.7ng of histamine per mg of wet tissue without any special trigger. Comparison by linear regression analysis of the release of histamine and chondroitin [ 35 S]sulfate E PG revealed a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.7. Histological examination of the colonic biopsies revealed the presence of many mast cells in various degrees of degranulation in the mucosa and submucosa. The above correlation, the observation that most of the mast cells showed various degrees of degranulation, and the lack of heparin synthesis as opposed to the synthesis and immunological release of chondroitin sulfate E strongly suggest that the E mast cell exists in the human colon

  12. Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as Causes of Human Infection and Colonization in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeck, Robin; Schaumburg, Frieder; Mellmann, Alexander; Koeksal, Mahir; Jurke, Annette; Becker, Karsten; Friedrich, Alexander W.

    2013-01-01

    Pigs, cattle and poultry are colonized with MRSA and the zoonotic transmission of such MRSA to humans via direct animal contact, environmental contaminations or meat are a matter of concern. Livestock-associated (LA) MRSA are mostly belonging to clonal complex (CC) 398 as defined by multilocus

  13. Bidirectional GPR119 agonism requires peptide YY and glucose for activity in mouse and human colon mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tough, Iain R; Forbes, Sarah; Herzog, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    motility in wild-type (WT), GPR119-/- and PYY-/- mice.The water-soluble GPR119 agonist, AR440006 (that cannot traverse epithelial tight-junctions) elicited responses when added apically or basolaterally in mouse and human colonic mucosas. In both species, GPR119 responses were PYY, Y1 receptor...

  14. Deciphering the Colon Cancer Genes-Report of the InSiGHT-Human Variome Project Workshop, UNESCO, Paris 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R. J.; Macrae, Finlay; Genuardi, Maurizio; Aretz, Stefan; Bapat, Bharati; Bernstein, Inge T.; Burn, John; Cotton, Richard G. H.; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Frebourg, Thierry; Greenblatt, Marc S.; Hofstra, Robert; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Lappalainen, Ilkka; Lindblom, Annika; Maglott, Donna; Moller, Pal; Morreau, Hans; Moeslein, Gabriela; Sijmons, Rolf; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Tavtigian, Sean; Tops, Carli M. J.; Weber, Thomas K.; de Wind, Niels; Woods, Michael O.

    The Human Variome Project (HVP) has established a pilot program with the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours (InSiGHT) to compile all inherited variation affecting colon cancer susceptibility genes. An HVP-InSiGHT Workshop was held on May 10, 2010, prior to the HVP

  15. Modulation of Human Serotonin Transporter Expression by 5-HTTLPR in Colon Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewin Tencomnao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT is a monoamine neurotransmitter and plays important roles in several of the human body’s systems. Known as a primary target for psychoactive drug development, the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT, SERT plays a critical role in the regulation of serotonergic function by reuptaking 5-HT. The allelic variation of 5-HTT expression is caused by functional gene promoter polymorphism with two principal variant alleles, 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR. It has been demonstrated that 5-HTTLPR is associated with numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. The functional roles of 5-HTTLPR have been reported in human choriocarcinoma (JAR, lymphoblast and raphe cells. To date, the significance of 5-HTTLPR in gastrointestinal tract-derived cells has never been elucidated. Thus, the impact of 5-HTTLPR on 5-HTT transcription was studied in SW480 human colon carcinoma cells, which were shown to express 5-HTT. We found 42-bp fragment in long (L allele as compared to short (S allele, and this allelic difference resulted in 2-fold higher transcriptional efficiency of L allele (P < 0.05 as demonstrated using a functional reporter gene assay. Nevertheless, the transcriptional effect of estrogen and glucocorticoid on 5-HTT expression via 5-HTTLPR was not found in this cell line. Our study was the first to demonstrate the molecular role of this allelic variation in gastrointestinal tract cells.

  16. Increased mRNA expression of a laminin-binding protein in human colon carcinoma: Complete sequence of a full-length cDNA encoding the protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, Hsiukang; Wong, Jau Min; Chen, Hai Shiene; Lee, C.; Steele, G.D. Jr.; Chen, Lanbo

    1988-01-01

    Reliable markers to distinguish human colon carcinoma from normal colonic epithelium are needed particularly for poorly differentiated tumors where no useful marker is currently available. To search for markers the authors constructed cDNA libraries from human colon carcinoma cell lines and screened for clones that hybridize to a greater degree with mRNAs of colon carcinomas than with their normal counterparts. Here they report one such cDNA clone that hybridizes with a 1.2-kilobase (kb) mRNA, the level of which is ∼9-fold greater in colon carcinoma than in adjacent normal colonic epithelium. Blot hybridization of total RNA from a variety of human colon carcinoma cell lines shows that the level of this 1.2-kb mRNA in poorly differentiated colon carcinomas is as high as or higher than that in well-differentiated carcinomas. Molecular cloning and complete sequencing of cDNA corresponding to the full-length open reading frame of this 1.2-kb mRNA unexpectedly show it to contain all the partial cDNA sequence encoding 135 amino acid residues previously reported for a human laminin receptor. The deduced amino acid sequence suggests that this putative laminin-binding protein from human colon carcinomas consists of 295 amino acid residues with interesting features. There is an unusual C-terminal 70-amino acid segment, which is trypsin-resistant and highly negatively charged

  17. Undecylprodigiosin conjugated monodisperse gold nanoparticles efficiently cause apoptosis in colon cancer cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Mojic, Marija; Kang, Yijin; Maksimovic-Ivanic, Danijela; Mijatovic, Sanja; Vasiljevic, Branka; Stamenkovic, Vojislav R.; Senerovic, Lidija

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial pigment undecylprodigiosin (UP) was produced using Streptomyces sp. JS520 and conjugated to monodisperse gold nanoparticles (UP-Au). Both UP and UP-Au showed cytocidal activity towards melanoma (A375), lung carcinoma (A549), breast cancer (MCF-7) and colon cancer (HCT-116) cells, inducing apoptosis with IC50 values ranging from 0.4 to 4 mu g ml(-1). Unconjugated UP had a tendency to lose its activity over time and to change biophysical characteristics over pH. The loss of the pigment potency was overcome by conjugation with gold nanoparticles. UP-Au exhibited high stability over pH 3.8 to 7.4 and its activity remained unaffected in time. Nano-packing changed the mechanism of UP toxicity by converting the intracellular signals from a mitochondrial dependent to a mitochondrial independent apoptotic process. The availability of nonpyrogenic UP in high amounts, together with specific anticancer activity and improved stability in the complex with gold nanoparticles, presents a novel platform for further development of UP-Au complexes as an anticancer drug suitable for clinical applications.

  18. The coffee diterpene kahweol suppresses the cell proliferation by inducing cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation via ERK1/2, JNK and GKS3β-dependent threonine-286 phosphorylation in human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gwang Hun; Song, Hun Min; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2016-09-01

    Kahweol as a coffee-specific diterpene has been reported to exert anti-cancer properties. However, the mechanism responsible for the anti-cancer effects of kahweol is not fully understood. The main aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of kahweol on cell proliferation and the possible mechanisms in human colorectal cancer cells. Kahweol inhibited markedly the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cell lines such as HCT116, SW480. Kahweol decreased cyclin D1 protein level in HCT116 and SW480 cells. Contrast to protein levels, cyclin D1 mRNA level and promoter activity did not be changed by kahweol treatment. MG132 treatment attenuated kahweol-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation and the half-life of cyclin D1 was decreased in kahweol-treated cells. Kahweol increased phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at threonine-286 and a point mutation of threonine-286 to alanine attenuated cyclin D1 degradation by kahweol. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by PD98059, JNK by SP600125 or GSK3β by LiCl suppressed cyclin D1 phosphorylation and downregulation by kahweol. Furthermore, the inhibition of nuclear export by LMB attenuated cyclin D1 degradation by kahweol. In conclusion, kahweol-mediated cyclin D1 degradation may contribute to the inhibition of the proliferation in human colorectal cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K upregulates the kinetochore complex component NUF2 and promotes the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimasa, Hironobu; Taniue, Kenzui; Kurimoto, Akiko; Takeda, Yasuko; Kawasaki, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Tetsu

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is a multi-functional protein involved in transcription, mRNA splicing, mRNA stabilization and translation. Although hnRNP K has been suggested to play a role in the development of many cancers, its molecular function in colorectal cancer has remained elusive. Here we show that hnRNP K plays an important role in the mitotic process in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that hnRNP K directly transactivates the NUF2 gene, the product of which is a component of the NDC80 kinetochore complex and which is known to be critical for a stable spindle microtubule-kinetochore attachment. In addition, knockdown of both hnRNP K and NUF2 caused failure in metaphase chromosome alignment and drastic decrease in the growth of colon cancer cells. These results suggest that the hnRNP K-NUF2 axis is important for the mitotic process and proliferation of colon cancer cells and that this axis could be a target for the therapy of colon cancer. - Highlights: • hnRNP K is required for the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells. • hnRNP K binds to the promoter region of NUF2 and activates its transcription. • NUF2 expression is correlated with hnRNP K expression in colorectal cancer tissue. • hnRNP K and NUF2 are required for metaphase chromosome alignment. • The hnRNP K-NUF2 axis is important for the proliferation of colon cancer cells

  20. CARMA3 is overexpressed in colon cancer and regulates NF-κB activity and cyclin D1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Zhifeng; Zhao, Tingting; Wang, Zhenning; Xu, Yingying; Song, Yongxi; Wu, Jianhua; Xu, Huimian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CARMA3 expression is elevated in colon cancers. ► CARMA3 promotes proliferation and cell cycle progression in colon cancer cells. ► CARMA3 upregulates cyclinD1 through NF-κB activation. -- Abstract: CARMA3 was recently reported to be overexpressed in cancers and associated with the malignant behavior of cancer cells. However, the expression of CARMA3 and its biological roles in colon cancer have not been reported. In the present study, we analyzed the expression pattern of CARMA3 in colon cancer tissues and found that CARMA3 was overexpressed in 30.8% of colon cancer specimens. There was a significant association between CARMA3 overexpression and TNM stage (p = 0.0383), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0091) and Ki67 proliferation index (p = 0.0035). Furthermore, knockdown of CARMA3 expression in HT29 and HCT116 cells with high endogenous expression decreased cell proliferation and cell cycle progression while overexpression of CARMA3 in LoVo cell line promoted cell proliferation and facilitated cell cycle transition. Further analysis showed that CARMA3 knockdown downregulated and its overexpression upregulated cyclin D1 expression and phospho-Rb levels. In addition, we found that CARMA3 depletion inhibited p-IκB levels and NF-κB activity and its overexpression increased p-IκB expression and NF-κB activity. NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 reversed the role of CARMA3 on cyclin D1 upregulation. In conclusion, our study found that CARMA3 is overexpressed in colon cancers and contributes to malignant cell growth by facilitating cell cycle progression through NF-κB mediated upregulation of cyclin D1.

  1. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K upregulates the kinetochore complex component NUF2 and promotes the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimasa, Hironobu; Taniue, Kenzui [Laboratory of Molecular and Genetic Information, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0032 (Japan); Kurimoto, Akiko [Laboratory of Molecular and Genetic Information, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0032 (Japan); Oncology Research Laboratories, Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd, 1-2-58, Hiromachi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, 140-8710 (Japan); Takeda, Yasuko; Kawasaki, Yoshihiro [Laboratory of Molecular and Genetic Information, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0032 (Japan); Akiyama, Tetsu, E-mail: akiyama@iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular and Genetic Information, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0032 (Japan)

    2015-03-27

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is a multi-functional protein involved in transcription, mRNA splicing, mRNA stabilization and translation. Although hnRNP K has been suggested to play a role in the development of many cancers, its molecular function in colorectal cancer has remained elusive. Here we show that hnRNP K plays an important role in the mitotic process in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that hnRNP K directly transactivates the NUF2 gene, the product of which is a component of the NDC80 kinetochore complex and which is known to be critical for a stable spindle microtubule-kinetochore attachment. In addition, knockdown of both hnRNP K and NUF2 caused failure in metaphase chromosome alignment and drastic decrease in the growth of colon cancer cells. These results suggest that the hnRNP K-NUF2 axis is important for the mitotic process and proliferation of colon cancer cells and that this axis could be a target for the therapy of colon cancer. - Highlights: • hnRNP K is required for the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells. • hnRNP K binds to the promoter region of NUF2 and activates its transcription. • NUF2 expression is correlated with hnRNP K expression in colorectal cancer tissue. • hnRNP K and NUF2 are required for metaphase chromosome alignment. • The hnRNP K-NUF2 axis is important for the proliferation of colon cancer cells.

  2. An Optically-Transparent Aptamer-Based Detection System for Colon Cancer Applications Using Gold Nanoparticles Electrodeposited on Indium Tin Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Ahmadzadeh-Raji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a label-free aptamer based detection system (apta-DS was investigated for detecting colon cancer cells. For this purpose, we employed an aptamer specific to colon cancer cells like HCT116 expressing carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA on their surfaces. Capture aptamers were covalently immobilized on the surface of gold nanoparticles (GNPs through self-assembly monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA activated with EDC (1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS. The cyclic voltammetry (CV and chronopotentiometry (CP methods were used for electrodeposition of GNPs on the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO. In this work, the CV method was also used to demonstrate the conjugation of GNPs and aptamers and identify the cancer cell capturing events. Additionally, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM confirmed the deposition of GNPs on ITO and the immobilization of aptamer on the apta-DS. The electrodeposited GNPs played the role of nanoprobes for cancer cell targeting without losing the optical transparency of the ITO substrate. A conventional optical microscope also verified the detection of captured cancer cells. Based on this study’s results relying on electrochemical and optical microscopic methods, the proposed apta-DS is reliable and high sensitive with a LOD equal to 6 cell/mL for colon cancer detection.

  3. Overexpression of arginine transporter CAT-1 is associated with accumulation of L-arginine and cell growth in human colorectal cancer tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Lu

    Full Text Available We previously showed that L-arginine (Arg accumulates in colorectal cancer tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which Arg accumulates and determine its biological significance. The concentration of Arg and Citrulline (Cit in sera and tumor tissues from colorectal cancer (CRC patients was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The expression of Arg transporters was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarray. We also transfected the colon cancer cell line HCT-116 with siRNA specific for the Arg transporter CAT-1 and measured the induction of apoptosis by flow cytometry and cell proliferation by MTT assay. Consistent with our previous results, serum Arg and Cit concentrations in colorectal cancer patients were significantly lower than those in normal volunteers, while Arg and Cit concentrations in colorectal cancer tissues were significantly higher than in matched adjacent normal colon tissues. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the CAT-1 gene was highly overexpressed in 70.5% of colorectal cancer tissue samples relative to adjacent normal colon tissues in all 122 patients with colorectal cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarray confirmed that the expression of CAT-1 was higher in all 25 colorectal cancer tissues tested. CAT-1 siRNA significantly induced apoptosis of HCT-116 cells and subsequently inhibited cell growth by 20-50%. Our findings indicate that accumulation of L-Arg and Cit and cell growth in colorectal cancer tissues is associated with over-expression of the Arg transporter gene CAT-1. Our results may be useful for the development of molecular diagnostic tools and targeted therapy for colorectal cancer.

  4. Reconstitution of TGFBR2-Mediated Signaling Causes Upregulation of GDF-15 in HCT116 Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lee

    Full Text Available Although inactivating frameshift mutations in the Transforming growth factor beta receptor type 2 (TGFBR2 gene are considered as drivers of microsatellite unstable (MSI colorectal tumorigenesis, consequential alterations of the downstream target proteome are not resolved completely. Applying a click-it chemistry protein labeling approach combined with mass spectrometry in a MSI colorectal cancer model cell line, we identified 21 de novo synthesized proteins differentially expressed upon reconstituted TGFBR2 expression. One candidate gene, the TGF-ß family member Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15, exhibited TGFBR2-dependent transcriptional upregulation causing increased intracellular and extracellular protein levels. As a new TGFBR2 target gene it may provide a link between the TGF-ß branch and the BMP/GDF branch of SMAD-mediated signaling.

  5. Impact of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Admission on Bacterial Colonization of Donated Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmekkawi, Amir; O'Connor, Deborah L; Stone, Debbie; Yoon, Eugene W; Larocque, Michael; McGeer, Allison; Unger, Sharon

    2018-05-01

    Unpasteurized human donor milk typically contains a variety of bacteria. The impact of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission of the donor's infant and duration of lactation on bacterial contamination of human milk is unknown. Research aim: This study aimed (a) to describe the frequency/concentration of skin commensal bacteria and pathogens in unpasteurized human donor milk and (b) to assess the impact of NICU admission and (c) the duration of milk expression on bacterial colonization of donated milk. The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of human milk donated to the Rogers Hixon Ontario Human Milk Bank from January 2013 to June 2014. Milk samples from each donor were cultured every 2 weeks. The study included 198 donor mothers, of whom 63 had infants admitted to the NICU. Of 1,289 cultures obtained, 1,031 (80%) had detectable bacterial growth and 363 (28%) yielded bacterial growth in excess of 10 7 cfu/L, a local threshold for allowable bacteria prior to pasteurization. The mean (standard deviation) donation period per donor was 13.0 (7.5) weeks. Milk from mothers with NICU exposure had significantly higher concentrations of commensals, but not pathogens, at every time period compared with other mothers. For every 1-month increase in donation from all donors, the odds ratio of presence of any commensal in milk increased by 1.13 (95% confidence interval [1.03, 1.23]) and any pathogen by 1.31 (95% confidence interval [1.20, 1.43]). Commensal bacteria were more abundant in donor milk expressed from mothers exposed to neonatal intensive care. Bacterial contamination increased over the milk donation period.

  6. Basally activated nonselective cation currents regulate the resting membrane potential in human and monkey colonic smooth muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Laura; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Lowe, Vanessa; Zheng, Haifeng; Peri, Lauren; Ro, Seungil; Sanders, Kenton M.

    2011-01-01

    Resting membrane potential (RMP) plays an important role in determining the basal excitability of gastrointestinal smooth muscle. The RMP in colonic muscles is significantly less negative than the equilibrium potential of K+, suggesting that it is regulated not only by K+ conductances but by inward conductances such as Na+ and/or Ca2+. We investigated the contribution of nonselective cation channels (NSCC) to the RMP in human and monkey colonic smooth muscle cells (SMC) using voltage- and current-clamp techniques. Qualitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to examine potential molecular candidates for these channels among the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily. Spontaneous transient inward currents and holding currents were recorded in human and monkey SMC. Replacement of extracellular Na+ with equimolar tetraethylammonium or Ca2+ with Mn2+ inhibited basally activated nonselective cation currents. Trivalent cations inhibited these channels. Under current clamp, replacement of extracellular Na+ with N-methyl-d-glucamine or addition of trivalent cations caused hyperpolarization. Three unitary conductances of NSCC were observed in human and monkey colonic SMC. Molecular candidates for basally active NSCC were TRPC1, C3, C4, C7, M2, M4, M6, M7, V1, and V2 in human and monkey SMC. Comparison of the biophysical properties of these TRP channels with basally active NSCC (bINSCC) suggests that TRPM4 and specific TRPC heteromultimer combinations may underlie the three single-channel conductances of bINSCC. In conclusion, these findings suggest that basally activated NSCC contribute to the RMP in human and monkey colonic SMC and therefore may play an important role in determining basal excitability of colonic smooth muscle. PMID:21566016

  7. Role of cyclooxygenase isoforms in the altered excitatory motor pathways of human colon with diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornai, M; Colucci, R; Antonioli, L; Ippolito, C; Segnani, C; Buccianti, P; Marioni, A; Chiarugi, M; Villanacci, V; Bassotti, G; Blandizzi, C; Bernardini, N

    2014-08-01

    The COX isoforms (COX-1, COX-2) regulate human gut motility, although their role under pathological conditions remains unclear. This study examines the effects of COX inhibitors on excitatory motility in colonic tissue from patients with diverticular disease (DD). Longitudinal muscle preparations, from patients with DD or uncomplicated cancer (controls), were set up in organ baths and connected to isotonic transducers. Indomethacin (COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor), SC-560 (COX-1 inhibitor) or DFU (COX-2 inhibitor) were assayed on electrically evoked, neurogenic, cholinergic and tachykininergic contractions, or carbachol- and substance P (SP)-induced myogenic contractions. Distribution and expression of COX isoforms in the neuromuscular compartment were assessed by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. In control preparations, neurogenic cholinergic contractions were enhanced by COX inhibitors, whereas tachykininergic responses were blunted. Carbachol-evoked contractions were increased by indomethacin or SC-560, but not DFU, whereas all inhibitors reduced SP-induced motor responses. In preparations from DD patients, COX inhibitors did not affect electrically evoked cholinergic contractions. Both indomethacin and DFU, but not SC-560, decreased tachykininergic responses. COX inhibitors did not modify carbachol-evoked motor responses, whereas they counteracted SP-induced contractions. COX-1 expression was decreased in myenteric neurons, whereas COX-2 was enhanced in glial cells and smooth muscle. In control colon, COX-1 and COX-2 down-regulate cholinergic motility, whereas both isoforms enhance tachykininergic motor activity. In the presence of DD, there is a loss of modulation by both COX isoforms on the cholinergic system, whereas COX-2 displays an enhanced facilitatory control on tachykininergic contractile activity. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects of corn silk extract on human colon cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hao; Guan, Hong; Yang, Wenqin; Liu, Han; Hou, Huiling; Chen, Xue; Liu, Zhenyan; Zang, Chuangang; Liu, Yuchao; Liu, Jicheng

    2016-01-01

    Corn silk is an economically and nutritionally significant natural product as it represents a staple food for a large proportion of the world population. This study investigated the anticancer activity of corn silk extract in human colon cancer cells and human gastric cancer cells. Following treatment with corn silk extract, certain apoptosis-related events were observed, including inhibition of cell proliferation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), release of Ca2+ and release of...

  9. Bacteroides intestinalis DSM 17393, a member of the human colonic microbiome, upregulates multiple endoxylanases during growth on xylan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Pereira, Gabriel V; Cavalcante, Janaina J V; Zhang, Meiling; Mackie, Roderick; Cann, Isaac

    2016-09-29

    Many human diets contain arabinoxylan, and the ease of genome sequencing coupled with reduced cost have led to unraveling the arsenal of genes utilized by the colonic Bacteroidetes to depolymerize this polysaccharide. The colonic Bacteroidetes with potential to ferment arabinoxylans include Bacteroides intestinalis. In this study, we analyzed the hydrolytic activities of members of a xylan degradation cluster encoded on the genome of Bacteroides intestinalis DSM 17393. Here, it is demonstrated that a cocktail of the xylanolytic enzymes completely hydrolyze arabinoxylans found in human diets. We show that this bacterium and relatives have evolved and secrete a unique bifunctional endoxylanase/arabinofuranosidase in the same polypeptide. The bifunctional enzyme and other secreted enzymes attack the polysaccharides extracellularly to remove the side-chains, exposing the xylan backbone for cleavage to xylo-oligosaccharides and xylose. These end products are transported into the cell where a β-xylosidase cleaves the oligosaccharides to fermentable sugars. While our experiments focused on B. intestinalis, it is likely that the extracellular enzymes also release nutrients to members of the colonic microbial community that practice cross-feeding. The presence of the genes characterized in this study in other colonic Bacteroidetes suggests a conserved strategy for energy acquisition from arabinoxylan, a component of human diets.

  10. Deciphering the colon cancer genes--report of the InSiGHT-Human Variome Project Workshop, UNESCO, Paris 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Macrae, Finlay; Genuardi, Maurizio; Aretz, Stefan; Bapat, Bharati; Bernstein, Inge T; Burn, John; Cotton, Richard G H; den Dunnen, Johan T; Frebourg, Thierry; Greenblatt, Marc S; Hofstra, Robert; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Lappalainen, Ilkka; Lindblom, Annika; Maglott, Donna; Møller, Pål; Morreau, Hans; Möslein, Gabriela; Sijmons, Rolf; Spurdle, Amanda B; Tavtigian, Sean; Tops, Carli M J; Weber, Thomas K; de Wind, Niels; Woods, Michael O

    2011-04-01

    The Human Variome Project (HVP) has established a pilot program with the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours (InSiGHT) to compile all inherited variation affecting colon cancer susceptibility genes. An HVP-InSiGHT Workshop was held on May 10, 2010, prior to the HVP Integration and Implementation Meeting at UNESCO in Paris, to review the progress of this pilot program. A wide range of topics were covered, including issues relating to genotype-phenotype data submission to the InSiGHT Colon Cancer Gene Variant Databases (chromium.liacs.nl/LOVD2/colon_cancer/home.php). The meeting also canvassed the recent exciting developments in models to evaluate the pathogenicity of unclassified variants using in silico data, tumor pathology information, and functional assays, and made further plans for the future progress and sustainability of the pilot program. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Raman microspectroscopy of nucleus and cytoplasm for human colon cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongbo; Du, Jingjing; Jing, Chuanyong

    2017-11-15

    Subcellular Raman analysis is a promising clinic tool for cancer diagnosis, but constrained by the difficulty of deciphering subcellular spectra in actual human tissues. We report a label-free subcellular Raman analysis for use in cancer diagnosis that integrates subcellular signature spectra by subtracting cytoplasm from nucleus spectra (Nuc.-Cyt.) with a partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model. Raman mapping with the classical least-squares (CLS) model allowed direct visualization of the distribution of the cytoplasm and nucleus. The PLS-DA model was employed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of five types of spectral datasets, including non-selective, nucleus, cytoplasm, ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm (Nuc./Cyt.), and nucleus minus cytoplasm (Nuc.-Cyt.), resulting in diagnostic sensitivity of 88.3%, 84.0%, 98.4%, 84.5%, and 98.9%, respectively. Discriminating between normal and cancerous cells of actual human tissues through subcellular Raman markers is feasible, especially when using the nucleus-cytoplasm difference spectra. The subcellular Raman approach had good stability, and had excellent diagnostic performance for rectal as well as colon tissues. The insights gained from this study shed new light on the general applicability of subcellular Raman analysis in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Extravirgin olive oil up-regulates CB₁ tumor suppressor gene in human colon cancer cells and in rat colon via epigenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Andrea; Falconi, Anastasia; Di Germanio, Clara; Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Costa, Antonio; Caramuta, Stefano; Del Carlo, Michele; Compagnone, Dario; Dainese, Enrico; Cifani, Carlo; Maccarrone, Mauro; D'Addario, Claudio

    2015-03-01

    Extravirgin olive oil (EVOO) represents the typical lipid source of the Mediterranean diet, an eating habit pattern that has been associated with a significant reduction of cancer risk. Diet is the more studied environmental factor in epigenetics, and many evidences suggest dysregulation of epigenetic pathways in cancer. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of EVOO and its phenolic compounds on endocannabinoid system (ECS) gene expression via epigenetic regulation in both human colon cancer cells (Caco-2) and rats exposed to short- and long-term dietary EVOO. We observed a selective and transient up-regulation of CNR1 gene - encoding for type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB₁) - that was evoked by exposure of Caco-2 cells to EVOO (100 ppm), its phenolic extracts (OPE, 50 μM) or authentic hydroxytyrosol (HT, 50 μM) for 24 h. None of the other major elements of the ECS (i.e., CB₂; GPR55 and TRPV1 receptors; and NAPE-PLD, DAGL, FAAH and MAGL enzymes) was affected at any time point. The stimulatory effect of OPE and HT on CB₁ expression was inversely correlated to DNA methylation at CNR1 promoter and was associated with reduced proliferation of Caco-2 cells. Interestingly, CNR1 gene was less expressed in Caco-2 cells when compared to normal colon mucosa cells, and again this effect was associated with higher level of DNA methylation at CNR1. Moreover, in agreement with the in vitro studies, we also observed a remarkable (~4-fold) and selective increase in CB₁ expression in the colon of rats receiving dietary EVOO supplementation for 10 days. Consistently, CpG methylation of rat Cnr1 promoter, miR23a and miR-301a, previously shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and predicted to target CB₁ mRNA, was reduced after EVOO administration down to ~50% of controls. Taken together, our findings demonstrating CB₁ gene expression modulation by EVOO or its phenolic compounds via epigenetic mechanism, both in vitro and in vivo, may

  13. Clone-specific expression, transcriptional regulation, and action of interleukin-6 in human colon carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brozek, Wolfgang; Bises, Giovanna; Fabjani, Gerhild; Cross, Heide S; Peterlik, Meinrad

    2008-01-01

    Many cancer cells produce interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine that plays a role in growth stimulation, metastasis, and angiogenesis of secondary tumours in a variety of malignancies, including colorectal cancer. Effectiveness of IL-6 in this respect may depend on the quantity of basal and inducible IL-6 expressed as the tumour progresses through stages of malignancy. We therefore have evaluated the effect of IL-6 modulators, i.e. IL-1β, prostaglandin E 2 , 17β-estradiol, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , on expression and synthesis of the cytokine at different stages of tumour progression. We utilized cultures of the human colon carcinoma cell clones Caco-2/AQ, COGA-1A and COGA-13, all of which expressed differentiation and proliferation markers typical of distinct stages of tumour progression. IL-6 mRNA and protein levels were assayed by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. DNA sequencing was utilized to detect polymorphisms in the IL-6 gene promoter. IL-6 mRNA and protein concentrations were low in well and moderately differentiated Caco-2/AQ and COGA-1A cells, but were high in poorly differentiated COGA-13 cells. Addition of IL-1β (5 ng/ml) to a COGA-13 culture raised IL-6 production approximately thousandfold via a prostaglandin-independent mechanism. Addition of 17β-estradiol (10 -7 M) reduced basal IL-6 production by one-third, but IL-1β-inducible IL-6 was unaffected. Search for polymorphisms in the IL-6 promoter revealed the presence of a single haplotype, i.e., -597A/-572G/-174C, in COGA-13 cells, which is associated with a high degree of transcriptional activity of the IL-6 gene. IL-6 blocked differentiation only in Caco-2/AQ cells and stimulated mitosis through up-regulation of c-myc proto-oncogene expression. These effects were inhibited by 10 -8 M 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 . In human colon carcinoma cells derived from well and moderately differentiated tumours, IL-6 expression is low and only marginally affected, if at all, by PGE 2 , 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D

  14. Feasibility of full-field optical coherence microscopy in ultra-structural imaging of human colon tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun Seo [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Woo June; Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Byeong Ha [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Hyuk; Bom, Hee Seung; Lee, Byeong Il [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    We demonstrated the imaging feasibility of full-field optical coherence microscopy (FF-OCM) in pathological diagnosis of human colon tissues. FF-OCM images with high transverse resolution were obtained at different depths of the samples without any dye staining or physical slicing, and detailed microstructures of human colon tissues were visualized. Morphological differences in normal tissues, cancer tissues, and tissues under transition were observed and matched with results seen in conventional optical microscope images. The optical biopsy based on FF-OCM could overcome the limitations on the number of physical cuttings of tissues and could perform high-throughput mass diagnosis of diseased tissues. The proved utility of FF-OCM as a comprehensive and efficient imaging modality of human tissues showed it to be a good alternative to conventional biopsy.

  15. Feasibility of full-field optical coherence microscopy in ultra-structural imaging of human colon tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eun Seo; Choi, Woo June; Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Byeong Ha; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Bom, Hee Seung; Lee, Byeong Il

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated the imaging feasibility of full-field optical coherence microscopy (FF-OCM) in pathological diagnosis of human colon tissues. FF-OCM images with high transverse resolution were obtained at different depths of the samples without any dye staining or physical slicing, and detailed microstructures of human colon tissues were visualized. Morphological differences in normal tissues, cancer tissues, and tissues under transition were observed and matched with results seen in conventional optical microscope images. The optical biopsy based on FF-OCM could overcome the limitations on the number of physical cuttings of tissues and could perform high-throughput mass diagnosis of diseased tissues. The proved utility of FF-OCM as a comprehensive and efficient imaging modality of human tissues showed it to be a good alternative to conventional biopsy.

  16. Colonic fermentation may play a role in lactose intolerance in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, T; Priebe, MG; Harmsen, HJM; Stellaard, F; Sun, XH; Welling, GW; Vonk, RJ

    The results of our previous study suggested that in addition to the small intestinal lactase activity and transit time, colonic processing of lactose may play a role in lactose intolerance. We investigated whether colonic fermentation of lactose is correlated with lactose intolerance. After 28

  17. Colonic transit time relates to bacterial metabolism and mucosal turnover in the human gut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Bahl, Martin Iain

    catabolism as reflected by microbial metabolites in urine. This results in a number of potentially deleterious protein-derived metabolites. Additionally, longer colonic transit time correlates with metabolites likely reflecting reduced renewal of the colonic mucosa. Together, this suggests that a high gut...

  18. The influence of Staphylococcus aureus on gut microbial ecology in an in vitro continuous culture human colonic model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannasiddappa, Thippeswamy H; Costabile, Adele; Gibson, Glenn R; Clarke, Simon R

    2011-01-01

    An anaerobic three-stage continuous culture model of the human colon (gut model), which represent different anatomical areas of the large intestine, was used to study the effect of S. aureus infection of the gut on the resident faecal microbiota. Studies on the development of the microbiota in the three vessels were performed and bacteria identified by culture independent fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Furthermore, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), as principal end products of gut bacterial metabolism, were measured along with a quantitative assessment of the predominant microbiota. During steady state conditions, numbers of S. aureus cells stabilised until they were washed out, but populations of indigenous bacteria were transiently altered; thus S. aureus was able to compromise colonisation resistance by the colonic microbiota. Furthermore, the concentration of butyric acid in the vessel representing the proximal colon was significantly decreased by infection. Thus infection by S. aureus appears to be able to alter the overall structure of the human colonic microbiota and the microbial metabolic profiles. This work provides an initial in vitro model to analyse interactions with pathogens.

  19. Differential expression of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in human colorectal cancer: A comparison with colon and rectal cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, SHUAI; CHEN, YIJUN; ZHU, ZHANMENG; DING, YUNLONG; REN, SHUANGYI; ZUO, YUNFEI

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality, being the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men and the second among women. Accumulating evidence regarding carbohydrate antigen (CA) demonstrated that tumor-associated antigens are clinically useful for the diagnosis, staging and monitoring of human gastrointestinal cancers, particularly colorectal cancer. There has been an extensive investigation for sensitive and specific markers of this disease. Currently, the gastrointestinal cancer-associated carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) is the most widely applied tumor marker in cancer diagnosis. Despite a similar etiology and cancer incidence rates, there are anatomical and clinical differences between colon and rectal cancer, as well as differences regarding tumor progression and adjuvant treatments. To investigate whether CA19-9 is differentially expressed between colon and rectal cancer, we conducted a differential analysis of serum CA19-9 levels among 227 cases of colorectal cancer, analyzing gender, age, Dukes’ stage and distant metastasis for human colon and rectal cancer as a single entity, separately and as matched pairs. We demonstrated that the serum CA19-9 levels in colorectal cancer were upregulated in advanced stages with distant metastasis. By contrast, the serum CA19-9 levels in colon cancer displayed a differential and upregulated behavior in advanced stages with distant metastasis. By analyzing as matched pairs, the upregulated serum CA19-9 levels in rectal cancer during the early stages without distant metastasis further supported our hypothesis that the expression of CA19-9 displays a site-specific differential behavior. The integrative analysis suggested a significant difference between human colon and rectal cancer, justifying individualized therapy for these two types of cancer. PMID:24649295

  20. Celecoxib Induced Tumor Cell Radiosensitization by Inhibiting Radiation Induced Nuclear EGFR Transport and DNA-Repair: A COX-2 Independent Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmann, Klaus H.; Mayer, Claus; Ohneseit, Petra A.; Raju, Uma; Andratschke, Nickolaus H.; Milas, Luka; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms mediating radiosensitization of human tumor cells by the selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor celecoxib. Methods and Materials: Experiments were performed using bronchial carcinoma cells A549, transformed fibroblasts HH4dd, the FaDu head-and-neck tumor cells, the colon carcinoma cells HCT116, and normal fibroblasts HSF7. Effects of celecoxib treatment were assessed by clonogenic cell survival, Western analysis, and quantification of residual DNA damage by γH 2 AX foci assay. Results: Celecoxib treatment resulted in a pronounced radiosensitization of A549, HCT116, and HSF7 cells, whereas FaDu and HH4dd cells were not radiosensitized. The observed radiosensitization could neither be correlated with basal COX-2 expression pattern nor with basal production of prostaglandin E2, but was depended on the ability of celecoxib to inhibit basal and radiation-induced nuclear transport of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The nuclear EGFR transport was strongly inhibited in A549-, HSF7-, and COX-2-deficient HCT116 cells, which were radiosensitized, but not in FaDu and HH4dd cells, which resisted celecoxib-induced radiosensitization. Celecoxib inhibited radiation-induced DNA-PK activation in A549, HSF7, and HCT116 cells, but not in FaDu and HH4dd cells. Consequentially, celecoxib increased residual γH2AX foci after irradiation, demonstrating that inhibition of DNA repair has occurred in responsive A549, HCT116, and HSF7 cells only. Conclusions: Celecoxib enhanced radiosensitivity by inhibition of EGFR-mediated mechanisms of radioresistance, a signaling that was independent of COX-2 activity. This novel observation may have therapeutic implications such that COX-2 inhibitors may improve therapeutic efficacy of radiation even in patients whose tumor radioresistance is not dependent on COX-2

  1. BVES regulates EMT in human corneal and colon cancer cells and is silenced via promoter methylation in human colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher S; Zhang, Baolin; Smith, J Joshua; Jayagopal, Ashwath; Barrett, Caitlyn W; Pino, Christopher; Russ, Patricia; Presley, Sai H; Peng, DunFa; Rosenblatt, Daniel O; Haselton, Frederick R; Yang, Jin-Long; Washington, M Kay; Chen, Xi; Eschrich, Steven; Yeatman, Timothy J; El-Rifai, Wael; Beauchamp, R Daniel; Chang, Min S

    2011-10-01

    The acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype is a critical step in the metastatic progression of epithelial carcinomas. Adherens junctions (AJs) are required for suppressing this epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) but less is known about the role of tight junctions (TJs) in this process. Here, we investigated the functions of blood vessel epicardial substance (BVES, also known as POPDC1 and POP1), an integral membrane protein that regulates TJ formation. BVES was found to be underexpressed in all stages of human colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and in adenomatous polyps, indicating its suppression occurs early in transformation. Similarly, the majority of CRC cell lines tested exhibited decreased BVES expression and promoter DNA hypermethylation, a modification associated with transcriptional silencing. Treatment with a DNA-demethylating agent restored BVES expression in CRC cell lines, indicating that methylation represses BVES expression. Reexpression of BVES in CRC cell lines promoted an epithelial phenotype, featuring decreased proliferation, migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth; impaired growth of an orthotopic xenograft; and blocked metastasis. Conversely, interfering with BVES function by expressing a dominant-negative mutant in human corneal epithelial cells induced mesenchymal features. These biological outcomes were associated with changes in AJ and TJ composition and related signaling. Therefore, BVES prevents EMT, and its epigenetic silencing may be an important step in promoting EMT programs during colon carcinogenesis.

  2. Rosa canina Extracts Have Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Effects on Caco-2 Human Colon Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Jiménez

    Full Text Available The in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant effects of different fractions of Rosa canina hips on human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 was studied. The compounds tested were total extract (fraction 1, vitamin C (fraction 2, neutral polyphenols (fraction 3 and acidic polyphenols (fraction 4. All the extracts showed high cytotoxicity after 72 h, both low and high concentrations. The flow cytometric analysis revealed that all the fractions produce disturbances in the cell cycle resulting in a concomitant cell death by an apoptotic pathway. Changes in the redox status of Caco-2 cells in response to Rosa canina hips were determined. Cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide in presence of plant fractions and the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS was significantly decreased. Therefore, our data demonstrate that rosehip extracts are a powerful antioxidant that produces an antiproliferative effect in Caco-2 cells. Therefore, these results predict a promising future for Rosa canina as a therapeutic agent. Thus, this natural plant could be an effective component of functional foods addressed towards colorectal carcinoma.

  3. Synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by undifferentiated and differentiated HT29 human colonic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Assmann, P; Bouziges, F; Daviaud, D; Haffen, K; Kedinger, M

    1987-08-15

    Among the extracellular matrix components which have been suggested to be involved in developmental and neoplastic changes are glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). To try to correlate their amount and nature with the process of enterocytic differentiation, we studied glycosaminoglycan synthesis of human colonic adenocarcinoma cells (HT29 cell line) by [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulfate incorporation. Enterocytic differentiation of the cells obtained in a sugar-free medium (for review, see A. Zweibaum et al. In: Handbook of Physiology. Intestinal Transport of the Gastrointestinal System, in press, 1987) resulted in a marked increase in total incorporation of labeled precursors (20-fold for [3H]glucosamine, 4.5-fold for [35S]sulfate) as well as in uronic acid content (5-fold); most of the synthesized GAGs were found associated with the cell pellet. Chromatographic and electrophoretic analysis of the labeled GAGs revealed that undifferentiated cells synthesized and secreted hyaluronic acid, heparan sulfate, and one class of chondroitin sulfate. Differentiation of HT29 cells because associated with the synthesis of an additional class of chondroitin sulfate (CS4) concomitant to a decrease in heparan sulfate which is no longer found secreted in the medium. Furthermore, the charge density of this latter GAG component varied as assessed by a shift of its affinity on ion-exchange chromatography.

  4. Musa paradisiaca inflorescence induces human colon cancer cell death by modulating cascades of transcriptional events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K B, Arun; Madhavan, Aravind; T R, Reshmitha; Thomas, Sithara; Nisha, P

    2018-01-24

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death, and diet plays an important role in the etiology of CRC. Traditional medical practitioners in many South Asian countries use plantain inflorescence to treat various gastro-intestinal ailments. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer effects of extracts of inflorescence of Musa paradisiaca against HT29 human colon cancer cells and elucidate the mechanism of these effects by studying the modulation of cascades of transcriptional events. In vitro assays depicted that methanol extract of Musa paradisiaca inflorescence (PIMET) was cytotoxic to HT29 cells. PIMET induced DNA damage and arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. Expression studies showed that PIMET pretreatment upregulates pro-apoptotic Bcl2 and downregulates anti-apoptotic Bax proteins. Different assays showed that the deregulation of pro/antiapoptotic proteins reduces the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production; moreover, it enhances cytochrome c release, which triggers the apoptotic pathway, and further cleaves caspase 3 and PARP proteins, resulting in apoptosis. Changes in the protein expression profile of HT29 cells after PIMET treatment were analyzed using mass-spectrometry-based proteomics. PIMET treatment significantly altered the expression of HT29 protein; interestingly, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein was also downregulated. Alteration in the expression of this protein has significant effects, leading to HT29 cell death.

  5. Inhibitory Effects of Probiotic Lactobacillus on the Growth of Human Colonic Carcinoma Cell Line HT-29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhung-Yuan; Hsieh, You-Miin; Huang, Chun-Chih; Tsai, Cheng-Chih

    2017-01-10

    This study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus cells and supernatants on the growth of the human colon cancer cell line HT-29. Our study results indicated that the PM153 strain exhibits the best adhesion ability and the highest survival in the gastrointestinal tract simulation experiment. Furthermore, after an 8-h co-culture of PM153 and HT-29 cells, the PM153 strain can induce the secretion of nitric oxide from the HT-29 cells. In addition, after the co-culture of the BCRC17010 strain (10⁸ cfu/mL) and HT-29 cells, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the HT-29 cells was 1.19, which showed a significant difference from the other control and LAB groups ( p strain exerts a pro-apoptotic effect on the HT-29 cells. Upon co-culture with HT-29 cells for 4, 8 and 12 h, the BCRC14625 strain (10⁸ cfu/mL) demonstrated a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity ( p strains have ability to inhibit the growth of the colorectal cancer cell line HT-29 Bax/Bcl-2 pathway or NO production. In summary, we demonstrated that the BCRC17010 strain, good abilities of adhesion and increased LDH release, was the best probiotic potential for inhibition of HT-29 growth amongst the seven LAB strains tested in vitro.

  6. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles activate IL8-related inflammatory pathways in human colonic epithelial Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Kristin; Cossais, François; Neve, Horst; Klempt, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are widely used as food additive or coating material in products of the food and pharmaceutical industry. Studies on various cell lines have shown that TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) induced the inflammatory response and cytotoxicity. However, the influences of TiO2 NPs' exposure on inflammatory pathways in intestinal epithelial cells and their differentiation have not been investigated so far. This study demonstrates that TiO2 NPs with particle sizes ranging between 5 and 10 nm do not affect enterocyte differentiation but cause an activation of inflammatory pathways in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2. 5 and 10 nm NPs' exposures transiently induce the expression of ICAM1, CCL20, COX2 and IL8, as determined by quantitative PCR, whereas larger particles (490 nm) do not. Further, using nuclear factor (NF)-κB reporter gene assays, we show that NP-induced IL8 mRNA expression occurs, in part, through activation of NF-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

  7. Laminarin Induces Apoptosis of Human Colon Cancer LOVO Cells through a Mitochondrial Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many scientific studies have shown that laminarin has anti-tumor effects, but the anti-tumor mechanism was unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of laminarin on the induction of apoptosis in human colon cancer LOVO cells and the molecular mechanism involved. LOVO cells were treated with different concentrations of laminarin at different times. Morphology observations were performed to determine the effects of laminarin on apoptosis of LOVO cells. Flow cytometry (FCM was used to detect the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and pH. Laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM was used to analyze intracellular calcium ion concentration, mitochondrion permeability transition pore (MPTP and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP. Western blotd were performed to analyze the expressions of Cyt-C, Caspase-9 and -3. The results showed the apoptosis morphology, which showed cell protuberance, concentrated cytoplasm and apoptotic bodies, was obvious after 72 h treatment. Laminarin treatment for 24 h increased the intracellular level of ROS and Ca2+; decreased pH value; activated intracellular MPTP and decreased MMP in dose-dependent manners. It also induced the release of Cyt-C and the activation of Caspase-9 and -3. In conclusion, laminarin induces LOVO cell apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway, suggesting that it could be a potent agent for cancer prevention and treatment.

  8. Molecular mechanisms for inhibition of colon cancer cells by combined epigenetic-modulating epigallocatechin gallate and sodium butyrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldanha, Sabita N., E-mail: sabivan@uab.edu [Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 175 Campbell Hall, 1300 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL 36104 (United States); Kala, Rishabh [Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 175 Campbell Hall, 1300 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Tollefsbol, Trygve O., E-mail: trygve@uab.edu [Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 175 Campbell Hall, 1300 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Comprehensive Center for Healthy Aging, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Nutrition Obesity Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Comprehensive Diabetes Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Bioactive compounds are considered safe and have been shown to alter genetic and epigenetic profiles of tumor cells. However, many of these changes have been reported at molecular concentrations higher than physiologically achievable levels. We investigated the role of the combinatorial effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a predominant polyphenol in green tea, and sodium butyrate (NaB), a dietary microbial fermentation product of fiber, in the regulation of survivin, which is an overexpressed anti-apoptotic protein in colon cancer cells. For the first time, our study showed that the combination treatment induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in RKO, HCT-116 and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells. This was found to be regulated by the decrease in HDAC1, DNMT1, survivin and HDAC activity in all three cell lines. A G2/M arrest was observed for RKO and HCT-116 cells, and G1 arrest for HT-29 colorectal cancer cells for combinatorial treatment. Further experimentation of the molecular mechanisms in RKO colorectal cancer (CRC) cells revealed a p53-dependent induction of p21 and an increase in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-p65. An increase in double strand breaks as determined by gamma-H2A histone family member X (γ-H2AX) protein levels and induction of histone H3 hyperacetylation was also observed with the combination treatment. Further, we observed a decrease in global CpG methylation. Taken together, these findings suggest that at low and physiologically achievable concentrations, combinatorial EGCG and NaB are effective in promoting apoptosis, inducing cell cycle arrest and DNA-damage in CRC cells. - Highlights: • EGCG and NaB as a combination inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation. • The combination treatment induces DNA damage, G2/M and G1 arrest and apoptosis. • Survivin is effectively down-regulated by the combination treatment. • p21 and p53 expressions are induced by the combination treatment. • Epigenetic proteins DNMT1 and HDAC1 are

  9. Molecular mechanisms for inhibition of colon cancer cells by combined epigenetic-modulating epigallocatechin gallate and sodium butyrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldanha, Sabita N.; Kala, Rishabh; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive compounds are considered safe and have been shown to alter genetic and epigenetic profiles of tumor cells. However, many of these changes have been reported at molecular concentrations higher than physiologically achievable levels. We investigated the role of the combinatorial effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a predominant polyphenol in green tea, and sodium butyrate (NaB), a dietary microbial fermentation product of fiber, in the regulation of survivin, which is an overexpressed anti-apoptotic protein in colon cancer cells. For the first time, our study showed that the combination treatment induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in RKO, HCT-116 and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells. This was found to be regulated by the decrease in HDAC1, DNMT1, survivin and HDAC activity in all three cell lines. A G2/M arrest was observed for RKO and HCT-116 cells, and G1 arrest for HT-29 colorectal cancer cells for combinatorial treatment. Further experimentation of the molecular mechanisms in RKO colorectal cancer (CRC) cells revealed a p53-dependent induction of p21 and an increase in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-p65. An increase in double strand breaks as determined by gamma-H2A histone family member X (γ-H2AX) protein levels and induction of histone H3 hyperacetylation was also observed with the combination treatment. Further, we observed a decrease in global CpG methylation. Taken together, these findings suggest that at low and physiologically achievable concentrations, combinatorial EGCG and NaB are effective in promoting apoptosis, inducing cell cycle arrest and DNA-damage in CRC cells. - Highlights: • EGCG and NaB as a combination inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation. • The combination treatment induces DNA damage, G2/M and G1 arrest and apoptosis. • Survivin is effectively down-regulated by the combination treatment. • p21 and p53 expressions are induced by the combination treatment. • Epigenetic proteins DNMT1 and HDAC1 are

  10. Short-Chain Fatty Acids Stimulate Angiopoietin-Like 4 Synthesis in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells by Activating Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alex, Sheril; Lange, Katja; Amolo, Tom

    2013-01-01

    with the notion that fermentation leads to PPAR activation in vivo, feeding mice a diet rich in inulin induced PPAR target genes and pathways in the colon. We conclude that (i) SCFA potently stimulate ANGPTL4 synthesis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells and (ii) SCFA transactivate and bind to PPARγ. Our data...

  11. Metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene and identification of the major benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adducts in cultured human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Harris, Curtis C.; Trump, Benjamin F.

    1978-01-01

    The metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene in cultured human colon has been investigated. Nontumorous colonie tissue was collected at the time of either surgery or "immediate autopsy" from patients with or without colonic cancer. After 24 hr in culture the expiants were exposed to [3H]benzo(a)pyrene for an...

  12. Saccharomyces boulardii Protease Inhibits the Effects of Clostridium difficile Toxins A and B in Human Colonic Mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Riegler, Martin F.; Valenick, Leyla; LaMont, J. Thomas; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    1999-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii is a nonpathogenic yeast used in the treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhea and colitis. We have reported that S. boulardii inhibits C. difficile toxin A enteritis in rats by releasing a 54-kDa protease which digests the toxin A molecule and its brush border membrane (BBM) receptor (I. Castagliuolo, J. T. LaMont, S. T. Nikulasson, and C. Pothoulakis, Infect. Immun. 64:5225–5232, 1996). The aim of this study was to further evaluate the role of S. boulardii protease in preventing C. difficile toxin A enteritis in rat ileum and determine whether it protects human colonic mucosa from C. difficile toxins. A polyclonal rabbit antiserum raised against purified S. boulardii serine protease inhibited by 73% the proteolytic activity present in S. boulardii conditioned medium in vitro. The anti-protease immunoglobulin G (IgG) prevented the action of S. boulardii on toxin A-induced intestinal secretion and mucosal permeability to [3H]mannitol in rat ileal loops, while control rabbit IgG had no effect. The anti-protease IgG also prevented the effects of S. boulardii protease on digestion of toxins A and B and on binding of [3H]toxin A and [3H]toxin B to purified human colonic BBM. Purified S. boulardii protease reversed toxin A- and toxin B-induced inhibition of protein synthesis in human colonic (HT-29) cells. Furthermore, toxin A- and B-induced drops in transepithelial resistance in human colonic mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers were reversed by 60 and 68%, respectively, by preexposing the toxins to S. boulardii protease. We conclude that the protective effects of S. boulardii on C. difficile-induced inflammatory diarrhea in humans are due, at least in part, to proteolytic digestion of toxin A and B molecules by a secreted protease. PMID:9864230

  13. Effects of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission on motor patterns of human sigmoid colon in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulí, M; Martínez, E; Gallego, D; Opazo, A; Espín, F; Martí-Gallostra, M; Jiménez, M; Clavé, P

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: To characterize the in vitro motor patterns and the neurotransmitters released by enteric motor neurons (EMNs) in the human sigmoid colon. Experimental approach: Sigmoid circular strips were studied in organ baths. EMNs were stimulated by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and through nicotinic ACh receptors. Key results: Strips developed weak spontaneous rhythmic contractions (3.67±0.49 g, 2.54±0.15 min) unaffected by the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX; 1 μM). EFS induced strong contractions during (on, 56%) or after electrical stimulus (off, 44%), both abolished by TTX. Nicotine (1–100 μM) inhibited spontaneous contractions. Latency of off-contractions and nicotine responses were reduced by NG-nitro-L-arginine (1 mM) and blocked after further addition of apamin (1 μM) or the P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS 2179 (10 μM) and were unaffected by the P2X antagonist NF279 (10 μM) or α-chymotrypsin (10 U mL−1). Amplitude of on- and off-contractions was reduced by atropine (1 μM) and the selective NK2 receptor antagonist Bz-Ala-Ala-D-Trp-Phe-D-Pro-Pro-Nle-NH2 (1 μM). MRS 2179 reduced the amplitude of EFS on- and off-contractions without altering direct muscular contractions induced by ACh (1 nM–1 mM) or substance P (1 nM–10 μM). Conclusions and implications: Latency of EFS-induced off-contractions and inhibition of spontaneous motility by nicotine are caused by stimulation of inhibitory EMNs coreleasing NO and a purine acting at muscular P2Y1 receptors through apamin-sensitive K+ channels. EFS-induced on- and off-contractions are caused by stimulation of excitatory EMNs coreleasing ACh and tachykinins acting on muscular muscarinic and NK2 receptors. Prejunctional P2Y1 receptors might modulate the activity of excitatory EMNs. P2Y1 and NK2 receptors might be therapeutic targets for colonic motor disorders. PMID:18846038

  14. Traditional Chinese Medicine Curcumin Sensitizes Human Colon Cancer to Radiation by Altering the Expression of DNA Repair-related Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangen; Qiu, Jianming; Wang, Dong; Tao, Yong; Song, Yihuan; Wang, Hongtao; Tang, Juping; Wang, Xing; Sun, Y U; Yang, Zhijian; Hoffman, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the radio-sensitizing efficacy of curcumin, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Human colon cancer HT-29 cells were treated with curcumin (2.5 μM), irradiation (10 Gy) and the combination of irradiation and curcumin. Cell proliferation was assessed using the MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were detected by Annexin V-PE/7-AAD analysis. PCR was performed to determine differential-expression profiling of 95 DNA-repair genes in irradiated cells and cells treated with both irradiation and curcumin. Differentially-expressed genes were confirmed by Western blotting. In vivo radio-sensitizing efficacy of curcumin was assessed in a xenograft mouse model of HT-29 colon cancer. Curcumin was administrated daily by intraperitoneal injection at 20 mg/kg/dose. Mice received irradiation (10 Gy) twice weekly. Apoptosis of the cancer cells following treatment was determined by TUNEL staining. Irradiation induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of HT-29 cells in vitro. Concurrent curcumin treatment sensitized the HT-29 tumor to irradiation (pcurcumin and irradiation compared with irradiation alone (pcurcumin and irradiation resulted in a significantly greater tumor-growth inhibition and apoptosis compared to irradiation treatment alone (pCurcumin sensitizes human colon cancer in vitro and in vivo to radiation. Downregulation of LIG4 and PNKP and upregulation of XRCC5 and CCNH DNA-repair-related genes were involved in the radio-sensitizing efficacy of curcumin in colon cancer. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Neurotensin receptor 1 gene activation by the Tcf/beta-catenin pathway is an early event in human colonic adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souazé, Frédérique; Viardot-Foucault, Véronique; Roullet, Nicolas; Toy-Miou-Leong, Mireille; Gompel, Anne; Bruyneel, Erik; Comperat, Eva; Faux, Maree C; Mareel, Marc; Rostène, William; Fléjou, Jean-François; Gespach, Christian; Forgez, Patricia

    2006-04-01

    Alterations in the Wnt/APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) signalling pathway, resulting in beta-catenin/T cell factor (Tcf)-dependent transcriptional gene activation, are frequently detected in familial and sporadic colon cancers. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) is widely distributed in the gastrointestinal tract. Its proliferative and survival effects are mediated by a G-protein coupled receptor, the NT1 receptor. NT1 receptor is not expressed in normal colon epithelial cells, but is over expressed in a number of cancer cells and tissues suggesting a link to the outgrowth of human colon cancer. Our results demonstrate that the upregulation of NT1 receptor occurring in colon cancer is the result of Wnt/APC signalling pathway activation. We first established the functionality of the Tcf response element within the NT1 receptor promoter. Consequently, we observed the activation of NT1 receptor gene by agents causing beta-catenin cytosolic accumulation, as well as a strong decline of endogenous receptor when wt-APC was restored. At the cellular level, the re-establishment of wt-APC phenotype resulted in the impaired functionality of NT1 receptor, like the breakdown in NT-induced intracellular calcium mobilization and the loss of NT pro-invasive effect. We corroborated the Wnt/APC signalling pathway on the NT1 receptor promoter activation with human colon carcinogenesis, and showed that NT1 receptor gene activation was perfectly correlated with nuclear or cytoplasmic beta-catenin localization while NT1 receptor was absent when beta-catenin was localized at the cell-cell junction in early adenomas of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer and loss of heterozygosity tumours. In this report we establish a novel link in vitro between the Tcf/beta-catenin pathway and NT1 receptor promoter activation.

  16. Constituents from the bark resin of Schinus molle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Rodolfo Malca-García

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A total of five terpenes was isolated from the bark resin of Schinus molle L., Anacardiaceae, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques. Among these compounds the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon terebinthene showed significant growth inhibitory activity against human colon carcinoma HCT-116 cells. Furthermore, terebinthene and pinicolic acid (5 also showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633.

  17. Phenolic glycosides from sugar maple (Acer saccharum) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao; Wan, Chunpeng; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B; Seeram, Navindra P

    2011-11-28

    Four new phenolic glycosides, saccharumosides A-D (1-4), along with eight known phenolic glycosides, were isolated from the bark of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for cytotoxicity effects against human colon tumorigenic (HCT-116 and Caco-2) and nontumorigenic (CCD-18Co) cell lines.

  18. Dysfunctions at human intestinal barrier by water-borne protozoan parasites: lessons from cultured human fully differentiated colon cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa

    2013-06-01

    Some water-borne protozoan parasites induce diseases through their membrane-associated functional structures and virulence factors that hijack the host cellular molecules and signalling pathways leading to structural and functional lesions in the intestinal barrier. In this Microreview we analyse the insights on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Entamoeba intestinalis, Giardia and Cryptosporidium observed in the human colon carcinoma fully differentiated colon cancer cell lines, cell subpopulations and clones expressing the structural and functional characteristics of highly specialized fully differentiated epithelial cells lining the intestinal epithelium and mimicking structurally and functionally an intestinal barrier. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The bioenergetic signature of isogenic colon cancer cells predicts the cell death response to treatment with 3-bromopyruvate, iodoacetate or 5-fluorouracil

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    Cuezva José M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic reprogramming resulting in enhanced glycolysis is a phenotypic trait of cancer cells, which is imposed by the tumor microenvironment and is linked to the down-regulation of the catalytic subunit of the mitochondrial H+-ATPase (β-F1-ATPase. The bioenergetic signature is a protein ratio (β-F1-ATPase/GAPDH, which provides an estimate of glucose metabolism in tumors and serves as a prognostic indicator for cancer patients. Targeting energetic metabolism could be a viable alternative to conventional anticancer chemotherapies. Herein, we document that the bioenergetic signature of isogenic colon cancer cells provides a gauge to predict the cell-death response to the metabolic inhibitors, 3-bromopyruvate (3BrP and iodoacetate (IA, and the anti-metabolite, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU. Methods The bioenergetic signature of the cells was determined by western blotting. Aerobic glycolysis was determined from lactate production rates. The cell death was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Cellular ATP concentrations were determined using bioluminiscence. Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied to assess the relationship between the bioenergetic signature and the cell death response. In vivo tumor regression activities of the compounds were assessed using a xenograft mouse model injected with the highly glycolytic HCT116 colocarcinoma cells. Results We demonstrate that the bioenergetic signature of isogenic HCT116 cancer cells inversely correlates with the potential to execute necrosis in response to 3BrP or IA treatment. Conversely, the bioenergetic signature directly correlates with the potential to execute apoptosis in response to 5-FU treatment in the same cells. However, despite the large differences observed in the in vitro cell-death responses associated with 3BrP, IA and 5-FU, the in vivo tumor regression activities of these agents were comparable. Conclusions Overall, we suggest that the

  20. Antiproliferative effects of prenylflavonoids from hops on human colon cancer cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudcová, T.; Bryndová, Jana; Fialová, K.; Fiala, J.; Karabín, M.; Jelínek, L.; Dostalek, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 3 (2014), s. 225-230 ISSN 0046-9750 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : hop * prenylflavonoids * xanthohumol * isoxanthohumol * antiproliferative * colon cancer Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.240, year: 2014

  1. Drosophila homologue of Diaphanous 1 (DIAPH1) controls the metastatic potential of colon cancer cells by regulating microtubule-dependent adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Na; Bhuwania, Ridhirama; Gromova, Kira; Failla, Antonio Virgilio; Lange, Tobias; Riecken, Kristoffer; Linder, Stefan; Kneussel, Matthias; Izbicki, Jakob R; Windhorst, Sabine

    2015-07-30

    Drosophila homologue of Diaphanous 1 (DIAPH1) regulates actin polymerization and microtubule (MT) stabilization upon stimulation with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Recently, we showed strongly reduced lung metastasis of DIAPH1-depleted colon cancer cells but we found accumulations of DIAPH1-depleted cells in bone marrow. Here, we analyzed possible organ- or tissue-specific metastasis of DIAPH1-depleted HCT-116 cells. Our data confirmed that depletion of DIAPH1 strongly inhibited lung metastasis and revealed that, in contrast to control cells, DIAPH1-depleted cells did not form metastases in further organs. Detailed mechanistic analysis on cells that were not stimulated with LPA to activate the cytoskeleton-modulating activity of DIAPH1, revealed that even under basal conditions DIAPH1 was essential for cellular adhesion to collagen. In non-stimulated cells DIAPH1 did not control actin dynamics but, interestingly, was essential for stabilization of microtubules (MTs). Additionally, DIAPH1 controlled directed vesicle trafficking and with this, local clustering of the adhesion protein integrin-β1 at the plasma membrane. Therefore, we conclude that under non-stimulating conditions DIAPH1 controls cellular adhesion by stabilizing MTs required for local clustering of integrin-β1 at the plasma membrane. Thus, blockade of DIAPH1-tubulin interaction may be a promising approach to inhibit one of the earliest steps in the metastatic cascade of colon cancer.

  2. Fluorescence-guided surgery of human colon cancer increases complete resection resulting in cures in an orthotopic nude mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metildi, Cristina A; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Snyder, Cynthia S; Hoffman, Robert M; Bouvet, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We inquired if fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) could improve surgical outcomes in fluorescent orthotopic nude mouse models of human colon cancer. We established fluorescent orthotopic mouse models of human colon cancer expressing a fluorescent protein. Tumors were resected under bright light surgery (BLS) or FGS. Pre- and post-operative images with the OV-100 Small Animal Imaging System (Olympus Corp, Tokyo Japan) were obtained to assess the extent of surgical resection. All mice with primary tumor that had undergone FGS had complete resection compared with 58% of mice in the BLS group (P = 0.001). FGS resulted in decreased recurrence compared with BLS (33% versus 62%, P = 0.049) and lengthened disease-free median survival from 9 to >36 wk. The median overall survival increased from 16 wk in the BLS group to 31 weeks in the FGS group. FGS resulted in a cure in 67% of mice (alive without evidence of tumor at >6 mo after surgery) compared with only 37% of mice that underwent BLS (P = 0.049). Surgical outcomes in orthotopic nude mouse models of human colon cancer were significantly improved with FGS. The present study can be translated to the clinic by various effective methods of fluorescently labeling tumors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Identifying molecular subtypes in human colon cancer using gene expression and DNA methylation microarray data

    OpenAIRE

    REN, ZHONGLU; WANG, WENHUI; LI, JINMING

    2015-01-01

    Identifying colon cancer subtypes based on molecular signatures may allow for a more rational, patient-specific approach to therapy in the future. Classifications using gene expression data have been attempted before with little concordance between the different studies carried out. In this study we aimed to uncover subtypes of colon cancer that have distinct biological characteristics and identify a set of novel biomarkers which could best reflect the clinical and/or biological characteristi...

  4. Investigation of the cytotoxicity, apoptosis and pharmacokinetics of Raddeanin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guiying; Qi, Huanhuan; Jiang, Tianyue; Ma, Bo; Fang, Zheng; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Qi

    2017-03-01

    Raddeanin A, one of the triterpenoid saponins extracted from Anemone raddeana rhizome of the Ranunculaceae family, has demonstrated the ability to inhibit the growth of human hepatic and gastric cancer cells. However, the effects of Raddeanin A on human colon cancer cells have not been investigated extensively. The present study aimed to examine the antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of Raddeanin A on the HCT-116 human colon cancer cell line in vitro , and evaluate the pharmacokinetic and biodistribution properties of Raddeanin A in mice following a single oral administration. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to assess the in vitro cytotoxicity of Raddeanin A against HCT-116 cells. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole, dihydrochloride staining and flow cytometry were performed to further examine the apoptosis-inducing capability of Raddeanin A. The concentrations of Raddeanin A in the plasma and tissues were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Raddeanin A showed a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect towards the HCT-116 cells, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of ~1.4 µM. Treatment with Raddeanin A resulted in a significant induction of apoptosis, observed as apparent morphological changes of the nuclei, with a total apoptotic ratio of 41.8% at a concentration of 3 µM. Low concentrations of Raddeanin A were detected in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and plasma of the mice following oral administration, however, the majority of the Raddeanin A was distributed in the intestinal tract, particularly in the colon and caecum. These present study confirmed the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of Raddeanin A on HCT-116 cells and performed preliminary examinations of its pharmacokinetic properties, which provide a foundation for further investigating the inhibitory mechanism on the colon cancer cells in vivo .

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and IRE-1 signaling cause apoptosis in colon cancer cells in response to andrographolide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aditi; Ahmed, Hafiz; Yang, Peixin; Czinn, Steven J; Blanchard, Thomas G

    2016-07-05

    The plant metabolite andrographolide induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. The mechanism(s) by which andrographolide induces apoptosis however, have not been elucidated. The present study was performed to determine the molecular events that promote apoptosis in andrographolide treated cells using T84, HCT116 and COLO 205 colon cancer cell lines. Andrographolide was determined to limit colony formation and Ki67 expression, alter nuclear morphology, increase cytoplasmic histone-associated-DNA-fragments, and increase cleaved caspase-3 levels. Andrographolide also induced significantly higher expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins GRP-78 and IRE-1 by 48 h but not PERK or ATF6. Apoptosis signaling molecules BAX, spliced XBP-1 and CHOP were also significantly increased. Moreover, chemical inhibition of ER stress or IRE-1 depletion with siRNA in andrographolide treated cells significantly limited expression of IRE-1 and CHOP as determined by immunofluorescence staining, real time PCR, or immunobloting. This was accompanied by a decreased BAX/Bcl-2 ratio. Andrographolide significantly promotes cancer cell death compared to normal cells. These data demonstrate that andrographolide associated ER stress contributes to apoptosis through the activation of a pro-apoptotic GRP-78/IRE-1/XBP-1/CHOP signaling pathway.

  6. Derricin and derricidin inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signaling and suppress colon cancer cell growth in vitro.

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    Barbara F Fonseca

    Full Text Available Overactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in adult tissues has been implicated in many diseases, such as colorectal cancer. Finding chemical substances that can prevent this phenomenon is an emerging problem. Recently, several natural compounds have been described as Wnt/β-catenin inhibitors and might be promising agents for the control of carcinogenesis. Here, we describe two natural substances, derricin and derricidin, belonging to the chalcone subclass, that show potent transcriptional inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Both chalcones are able to affect the cell distribution of β-catenin, and inhibit Wnt-specific reporter activity in HCT116 cells and in Xenopus embryos. Derricin and derricidin also strongly inhibited canonical Wnt activity in vitro, and rescued the Wnt-induced double axis phenotype in Xenopus embryos. As a consequence of Wnt/β-catenin inhibition, derricin and derricidin treatments reduce cell viability and lead to cell cycle arrest in colorectal cancer cell lines. Taken together, our results strongly support these chalcones as novel negative modulators of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and colon cancer cell growth in vitro.

  7. A Mechanism for the Temporal Potentiation of Genipin to the Cytotoxicity of Cisplatin in Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruihua; MoYung, K C; Zhao, Y J; Poon, Karen

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the potentiation effect of Genipin to Cisplatin induced cell senescence in HCT-116 colon cancer cells in vitro. Cell viability was estimated by Propidium iodide and Hoechst 3342, reactive oxygen species (ROS) with DHE, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) with JC-1 MMP assay Kit and electron current production with microbial fuel cells (MFC). Genipin inhibited the UCP2 mediated anti-oxidative proton leak significantly promoted the Cisplatin induced ROS and subsequent cell death, which was similar to that of UCP2-siRNA. Cells treated with Cisplatin alone or combined with Genipin, ROS negatively, while MMP positively correlated with cell viability. Cisplatin induced ROS was significantly decreased by detouring electrons to MFC, or increased by Genipin combined treatment. Compensatory effects of UCP2 up-regulation with time against Genipin treatment were suggested. Shorter the Genipin treatment before Cisplatin better promoted the Cisplatin induced ROS and subsequent cell death. The interaction of leaked electron with Cisplatin was important during ROS generation. Inhibition of UCP2-mediated proton leak with Genipin potentiated the cytotoxicity of Cisplatin. Owing to the compensatory effects against Genipin, shorter Genipin treatment before Cisplatin was recommended in order to achieve better potentiation effect.

  8. Three New Resveratrol Derivatives from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp.

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    Jinhua Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new resveratrol derivatives, namely, resveratrodehydes A–C (1–3, were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. R6. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. All compounds showed broad-spectrum inhibitory activities against three human cancer cell lines including human breast MDA-MB-435, human liver HepG2, and human colon HCT-116 by MTT assay (IC50 < 50 μM. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 both exhibited marked cytotoxic activities against MDA-MB-435 and HCT-116 cell lines (IC50 < 10 μM. Additionally, compounds 1 and 3 showed moderate antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging assay.

  9. Regulation of UGT1A1 and HNF1 transcription factor gene expression by DNA methylation in colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Mario

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgr