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Sample records for hcov-229e fusion core

  1. Characterization of HCoV-229E fusion core: Implications for structure basis of coronavirus membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Cheng; Feng Youjun; Gao Feng; Zhang Qiangmin; Wang Ming

    2006-01-01

    Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), a member of group I coronaviruses, has been identified as one of the major viral agents causing respiratory tract diseases in humans for nearly 40 years. However, the detailed molecular mechanism of the membrane fusion mediated by the spike (S) protein of HCoV-229E remains elusive. Here, we report, for the first time, a rationally designed fusion core of HCoV-229E (HR1-SGGRGG-HR2), which was in vitro produced in GST prokaryotic expression system. Multiple lines of experimental data including gel-filtration, chemical cross-linking, and circular diagram (CD) demonstrated that the HCoV-229E fusion core possesses the typical properties of the trimer of coiled-coil heterodimer (six α-helix bundle). 3D structure modeling presents its most-likely structure, similar to those of coronaviruses that have been well-documented. Collectively, HCoV-229E S protein belongs to the type I fusion protein, which is characterized by the existence of two heptad-repeat regions (HR1 and HR2), furthermore, the available knowledge concerning HCoV-229E fusion core may make it possible to design small molecule or polypeptide drugs targeting the membrane fusion, a crucial step of HCoV-229E infection

  2. Peptide-Based Membrane Fusion Inhibitors Targeting HCoV-229E Spike Protein HR1 and HR2 Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Xia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E infection in infants, elderly people, and immunocompromised patients can cause severe disease, thus calling for the development of effective and safe therapeutics to treat it. Here we reported the design, synthesis and characterization of two peptide-based membrane fusion inhibitors targeting HCoV-229E spike protein heptad repeat 1 (HR1 and heptad repeat 2 (HR2 domains, 229E-HR1P and 229E-HR2P, respectively. We found that 229E-HR1P and 229E-HR2P could interact to form a stable six-helix bundle and inhibit HCoV-229E spike protein-mediated cell-cell fusion with IC50 of 5.7 and 0.3 µM, respectively. 229E-HR2P effectively inhibited pseudotyped and live HCoV-229E infection with IC50 of 0.5 and 1.7 µM, respectively. In a mouse model, 229E-HR2P administered intranasally could widely distribute in the upper and lower respiratory tracts and maintain its fusion-inhibitory activity. Therefore, 229E-HR2P is a promising candidate for further development as an antiviral agent for the treatment and prevention of HCoV-229E infection.

  3. The Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.; Sheffield, G.V.; Bushnell, C.

    1985-01-01

    The basic objective of the next major step in the US fusion programme has been defined as the achievement of ignition and long pulse equilibrium burn of a fusion plasma in the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) device. Preconceptual design studies have seen completion of four candidate versions to provide the comparative information needed to narrow down the range of TFCX options before proceeding to the conceptual design phase. All four designs share the same objective and conform to common physics, engineering and costing criteria. The four base options considered differed mainly in the toroidal field coil design, two employing superconducting coils and the other two copper coils. In each case (copper and superconducting), one relatively conventional version was carried as well as a version employing more exotic toroidal field coil design assumptions. Sizes range from R=2.6 m for the smaller of the two copper versions to R=4.08 m for the larger superconducting option. In all cases, the plasma current was about 10 MA and the toroidal field about 4 T. (author)

  4. Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment maintenance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, A.M.; Watts, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    The recently completed Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) design project was carried out to investigate potential next generation tokamak concepts. An important aspect of this project was the early development and incorporation of remote maintainability throughout the design process. This early coordination and incorporation of maintenance aspects to the design of the device and facilities would assure that the machine could ultimately be maintained and repaired in an efficient and cost effective manner. To meet this end, a rigorously formatted engineering trade study was performed to determine the preferred configuration for the TFCX reactor based primarily on maintenance requirements. The study indicated that the preferred design was one with an external vacuum vessel and torrodial field coils that could be removed via a simple radial motion. The trade study is presented and the preferred TFCX configuration is described

  5. Structural characterization of Mumps virus fusion protein core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yueyong; Xu Yanhui; Lou Zhiyong; Zhu Jieqing; Hu Xuebo; Gao, George F.; Qiu Bingsheng; Rao Zihe; Tien, Po

    2006-01-01

    The fusion proteins of enveloped viruses mediating the fusion between the viral and cellular membranes comprise two discontinuous heptad repeat (HR) domains located at the ectodomain of the enveloped glycoproteins. The crystal structure of the fusion protein core of Mumps virus (MuV) was determined at 2.2 A resolution. The complex is a six-helix bundle in which three HR1 peptides form a central highly hydrophobic coiled-coil and three HR2 peptides pack against the hydrophobic grooves on the surface of central coiled-coil in an oblique antiparallel manner. Fusion core of MuV, like those of simian virus 5 and human respiratory syncytium virus, forms typical 3-4-4-4-3 spacing. The similar charecterization in HR1 regions, as well as the existence of O-X-O motif in extended regions of HR2 helix, suggests a basic rule for the formation of the fusion core of viral fusion proteins

  6. Demountable toroidal fusion core facility for physics optimization and fusion engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogart, S.L.; Wagner, C.E.; Krall, N.A.; Dalessandro, J.A.; Weggel, C.F.; Lund, K.O.; Sedehi, S.

    1986-01-01

    Following a successful compact ignition tokamak (CIT) experiment, a fusion facility will be required for physics optimization (POF) and fusion engineering research (FERF). The POF will address issues such as high-beta operation, current drive, impurity control, and will test geometric and configurational variations such as the spherical torus or the reversed-field pinch (RFP). The FERF will be designed to accumulate rapidly a large neutron dose in prototypical fusion subsystems exposed to radiation. Both facilities will require low-cost replacement cores and rapid replacement times. The Demountable Toroidal Fusion Core (DTFC) facility is designed to fulfill these requirements. It would be a cost-effective stepping stone between the CIT and a demonstration fusion reactor

  7. Path to Market for Compact Modular Fusion Power Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Simon; Baerny, Jennifer K.; Mattor, Nathan; Stoulil, Don; Miller, Ronald; Marston, Theodore

    2012-08-01

    The benefits of an energy source whose reactants are plentiful and whose products are benign is hard to measure, but at no time in history has this energy source been more needed. Nuclear fusion continues to promise to be this energy source. However, the path to market for fusion systems is still regularly a matter for long-term (20 + year) plans. This white paper is intended to stimulate discussion of faster commercialization paths, distilling guidance from investors, utilities, and the wider energy research community (including from ARPA-E). There is great interest in a small modular fusion system that can be developed quickly and inexpensively. A simple model shows how compact modular fusion can produce a low cost development path by optimizing traditional systems that burn deuterium and tritium, operating not only at high magnetic field strength, but also by omitting some components that allow for the core to become more compact and easier to maintain. The dominant hurdles to the development of low cost, practical fusion systems are discussed, primarily in terms of the constraints placed on the cost of development stages in the private sector. The main finding presented here is that the bridge from DOE Office of Science to the energy market can come at the Proof of Principle development stage, providing the concept is sufficiently compact and inexpensive that its development allows for a normal technology commercialization path.

  8. Core fusion accidents in nuclear power reactors. Knowledge review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentaib, Ahmed; Bonneville, Herve; Clement, Bernard; Cranga, Michel; Fichot, Florian; Koundy, Vincent; Meignen, Renaud; Corenwinder, Francois; Leteinturier, Denis; Monroig, Frederique; Nahas, Georges; Pichereau, Frederique; Van-Dorsselaere, Jean-Pierre; Cenerino, Gerard; Jacquemain, Didier; Raimond, Emmanuel; Ducros, Gerard; Journeau, Christophe; Magallon, Daniel; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Tourniaire, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This reference document proposes a large and detailed review of severe core fusion accidents occurring in nuclear power reactors. It aims at presenting the scientific aspects of these accidents, a review of knowledge and research perspectives on this issue. After having recalled design and operation principles and safety principles for reactors operating in France, and the main studied and envisaged accident scenarios for the management of severe accidents in French PWRs, the authors describe the physical phenomena occurring during a core fusion accident, in the reactor vessel and in the containment building, their sequence and means to mitigate their effects: development of the accident within the reactor vessel, phenomena able to result in an early failure of the containment building, phenomena able to result in a delayed failure with the corium-concrete interaction, corium retention and cooling in and out of the vessel, release of fission products. They address the behaviour of containment buildings during such an accident (sizing situations, mechanical behaviour, bypasses). They review and discuss lessons learned from accidents (Three Mile Island and Chernobyl) and simulation tests (Phebus-PF). A last chapter gives an overview of software and approaches for the numerical simulation of a core fusion accident

  9. Characterization of the fusion core in zebrafish endogenous retroviral envelope protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Zhang, Huaidong [CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Gong, Rui, E-mail: gongr@wh.iov.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Xiao, Gengfu, E-mail: xiaogf@wh.iov.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China)

    2015-05-08

    Zebrafish endogenous retrovirus (ZFERV) is the unique endogenous retrovirus in zebrafish, as yet, containing intact open reading frames of its envelope protein gene in zebrafish genome. Similarly, several envelope proteins of endogenous retroviruses in human and other mammalian animal genomes (such as syncytin-1 and 2 in human, syncytin-A and B in mouse) were identified and shown to be functional in induction of cell–cell fusion involved in placental development. ZFERV envelope protein (Env) gene appears to be also functional in vivo because it is expressible. After sequence alignment, we found ZFERV Env shares similar structural profiles with syncytin and other type I viral envelopes, especially in the regions of N- and C-terminal heptad repeats (NHR and CHR) which were crucial for membrane fusion. We expressed the regions of N + C protein in the ZFERV Env (residues 459–567, including predicted NHR and CHR) to characterize the fusion core structure. We found N + C protein could form a stable coiled-coil trimer that consists of three helical NHR regions forming a central trimeric core, and three helical CHR regions packing into the grooves on the surface of the central core. The structural characterization of the fusion core revealed the possible mechanism of fusion mediated by ZFERV Env. These results gave comprehensive explanation of how the ancient virus infects the zebrafish and integrates into the genome million years ago, and showed a rational clue for discovery of physiological significance (e.g., medicate cell–cell fusion). - Highlights: • ZFERV Env shares similar structural profiles with syncytin and other type I viral envelopes. • The fusion core of ZFERV Env forms stable coiled-coil trimer including three NHRs and three CHRs. • The structural mechanism of viral entry mediated by ZFERV Env is disclosed. • The results are helpful for further discovery of physiological function of ZFERV Env in zebrafish.

  10. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of the transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus fusion core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Guangpeng; Feng Youjun; Gao Feng; Wang Jinzi; Liu Cheng; Li Yijing

    2005-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) is one of the most destructive agents, responsible for the enteric infections that are lethal for suckling piglets, causing enormous economic loss to the porcine fostering industry every year. Although it has been known that TGEV spiker protein is essential for the viral entry for many years, the detail knowledge of the TGEV fusion protein core is still very limited. Here, we report that TGEV fusion core (HR1-SGGRGG-HR2), in vitro expressed in GST prokaryotic expression system, shares the typical properties of the trimer of coiled-coil heterodimer (six α-helix bundle), which has been confirmed by a combined series of biochemical and biophysical evidences including size exclusion chromatography (gel-filtration), chemical crossing, and circular diagram. The 3D homologous structure model presents its most likely structure, extremely similar to those of the coronaviruses documented. Taken together, TGEV spiker protein belongs to the class I fusion protein, characterized by the existence of two heptad-repeat (HR) regions, HR1 and HR2, and the present knowledge about the truncated TGEV fusion protein core may facilitate in the design of the small molecule or polypeptide drugs targeting the membrane fusion between TGEV and its host

  11. Fusion power core engineering for the ARIES-ST power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillack, M.S.; Wang, X.R.; Pulsifer, J.; Malang, S.; Sze, D.K.; Billone, M.; Sviatoslavsky, I.

    2003-01-01

    ARIES-ST is a 1000 MWe fusion power plant based on a low aspect ratio 'spherical torus' (ST) plasma. The ARIES-ST power core was designed to accommodate the unique features of an ST power plant, to meet the top-level requirements of an attractive fusion energy source, and to minimize extrapolation from the fusion technology database under development throughout the world. The result is an advanced helium-cooled ferritic steel blanket with flowing PbLi breeder and tungsten plasma-interactive components. Design improvements, such as the use of SiC inserts in the blanket to extend the outlet coolant temperature range were explored and the results are reported here. In the final design point, the power and particle loads found in ARIES-ST are relatively similar to other advanced tokamak power plants (e.g. ARIES-RS [Fusion Eng. Des. 38 (1997) 3; Fusion Eng. Des. 38 (1997) 87]) such that exotic technologies were not required in order to satisfy all of the design criteria. Najmabadi and the ARIES Team [Fusion Eng. Des. (this issue)] provide an overview of ARIES-ST design. In this article, the details of the power core design are presented together with analysis of the thermal-hydraulic, thermomechanical and materials behavior of in-vessel components. Detailed engineering analysis of ARIES-ST TF and PF systems, nuclear analysis, and safety are given in the companion papers

  12. Overview of the TITAN-II reversed-field pinch aqueous fusion power core design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Creedon, R.L.; Grotz, S.; Cheng, E.T.; Sharafat, S.; Cooke, P.I.H.

    1988-03-01

    TITAN-II is a compact, high power density Reversed-Field Pinch fusion power reactor design based on the aqueous lithium solution fusion power core concept. The selected breeding and structural materials are LiNO/sub 3/ and 9-C low activation ferritic steel, respectively. TITAN-II is a viable alternative to the TITAN-I lithium self-cooled design for the Reversed-Field Pinch reactor to operate at a neutron wall loading of 18 MWm/sup 2/. Submerging the complete fusion power core and the primary loop in a large pool of cool water will minimize the probability of radioactivity release. Since the protection of the large pool integrity is the only requirement for the protection of the public, TITAN-II is a passive safety assurance design. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Overview of the TITAN-II reversed-field pinch aqueous fusion power core design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Creedon, R.L.; Cheng, E.T. (General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (USA)); Grotz, S.P.; Sharafat, S.; Cooke, P.I.H. (California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering; California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA). Inst. for Plasma and Fusion Research); TITAN Research Group

    1989-04-01

    TITAN-II is a compact, high-power-density Reversed-Field Pinch fusion power reactor design based on the aqueous lithium solution fusion power core concept. The selected breeding and structural materials are LiNO/sub 3/ and 9-C low activation ferritic steel, respectively. TITAN-II is a viable alternative to the TITAN-I lithium self-cooled design for the Reversed-Field Pinch reactor to operate at a neutron wall loading of 18 MW/m/sup 2/. Submerging the complete fusion power core and the primary loop in a large pool of cool water will minimize the probability of radioactivity release. Since the protection of the large pool integrity is the only requirement for the protection of the public, TITAN-II is a level 2 of passive safety assurance design. (orig.).

  14. Design assumptions and bases for small D-T-fueled Sperical Tokamak (ST) fusion core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Galambos, J.D.; Fogarty, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Recent progress in defining the assumptions and clarifying the bases for a small D-T-fueled ST fusion core are presented. The paper covers several issues in the physics of ST plasmas, the technology of neutral beam injection, the engineering design configuration, and the center leg material under intense neutron irradiation. This progress was driven by the exciting data from pioneering ST experiments, a heightened interest in proof-of-principle experiments at the MA level in plasma current, and the initiation of the first conceptual design study of the small ST fusion core. The needs recently identified for a restructured fusion energy sciences program have provided a timely impetus for examining the subject of this paper. Our results, though preliminary in nature, strengthen the case for the potential realism and attractiveness of the ST approach

  15. ARIES-I Fusion-Power-Core Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharafat, S.; Najmabadi, F.; Wong, C.P.C.

    1991-01-01

    The ARIES research program is a multi-institutional project, the goal of which is to determine the economic, safety, and environmental potential of tokamak fusion reactors. The ARIES-I steady-state tokamak reactor is a conceptual, DT-burning, 1000 MWe reactor with a major radius of 6.75 m, a minor radius of 1.5 m, and an average neutron wall loading of 2.5 MW/m 2 . The ARIES-I plasma operates in the first MHD stability regime with a toroidal beta of 1.9%. The choice to operate in the first stability regime, with a high aspect ratio and with a low plasma current, leads to the need for high magnetic field to achieve adequate fusion power density (β 2 B 4 ). The toroidal field at the plasma center is 11 T and the maximum field at the coil is 21 T. Nonetheless, it is found that the maximum stress in the structural material of these magnets is ∝700 MPa and industrially available alloys can be used. The impurity-control and particle-exhaust system is based on a high recycling double-null divertor system. The low-activation silicon-carbide (SiC) composite is used as structural material. The breeder material, Li 2 ZrO 3 , and the multiplier material, Be, are both sphere-packed between poloidally nested SiC-composite shells. The divertor plates consist of SiC-composite tube shells protected with 2 mm-thick tungsten armor. The first wall, blanket, shield, and divertor are all helium cooled with an inlet coolant temperature of 350deg C at a pressure of 10 MPa. The high helium-outlet temperature of 650deg C ensures a relatively high gross thermal efficiency of 49%. The ARIES-I design has demonstrated that tokamak reactors have the potential to achieve a high level of safety coupled with a Class-C waste-disposal rating. (orig.)

  16. Reconstruction and analysis of temperature and density spatial profiles inertial confinement fusion implosion cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, R. C.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss several methods for the extraction of temperature and density spatial profiles in inertial confinement fusion implosion cores based on the analysis of the x-ray emission from spectroscopic tracers added to the deuterium fuel. The ideas rely on (1) detailed spectral models that take into account collisional-radiative atomic kinetics, Stark broadened line shapes, and radiation transport calculations, (2) the availability of narrow-band, gated pinhole and slit x-ray images, and space-resolved line spectra of the core, and (3) several data analysis and reconstruction methods that include a multi-objective search and optimization technique based on a novel application of Pareto genetic algorithms to plasma spectroscopy. The spectroscopic analysis yields the spatial profiles of temperature and density in the core at the collapse of the implosion, and also the extent of shell material mixing into the core. Results are illustrated with data recorded in implosion experiments driven by the OMEGA and Z facilities

  17. Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) special-purpose remote maintenance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, L.S.; Welland, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    A key element in the preconceptual design of the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) was the development of design concepts for special-purpose remote maintenance systems. Included were systems for shield sector replacement, vacuum vessel sector and toroidal field coil replacement, limiter blade replacement, protective tile replacement, and general-purpose maintenance. This paper addresses these systems as they apply to the copper toroidal field (TF) coil version of the TFCX

  18. A Functional Core of IncA Is Required for Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusion Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mary M; Noriea, Nicholas F; Bauler, Laura D; Lam, Jennifer L; Sager, Janet; Wesolowski, Jordan; Paumet, Fabienne; Hackstadt, Ted

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen that is the etiological agent of a variety of human diseases, including blinding trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. Chlamydiae replicate within a membrane-bound compartment, termed an inclusion, which they extensively modify by the insertion of type III secreted proteins called Inc proteins. IncA is an inclusion membrane protein that encodes two coiled-coil domains that are homologous to eukaryotic SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor) motifs. Recent biochemical evidence suggests that a functional core, composed of SNARE-like domain 1 (SLD-1) and part of SNARE-like domain 2 (SLD-2), is required for the characteristic homotypic fusion of C. trachomatis inclusions in multiply infected cells. To verify the importance of IncA in homotypic fusion in Chlamydia, we generated an incA::bla mutant. Insertional inactivation of incA resulted in the formation of nonfusogenic inclusions, a phenotype that was completely rescued by complementation with full-length IncA. Rescue of homotypic inclusion fusion was dependent on the presence of the functional core consisting of SLD-1 and part of SLD-2. Collectively, these results confirm in vitro membrane fusion assays identifying functional domains of IncA and expand the genetic tools available for identification of chlamydia with a method for complementation of site-specific mutants. Chlamydia trachomatis replicates within a parasitophorous vacuole termed an inclusion. The chlamydial inclusions are nonfusogenic with vesicles in the endocytic pathway but, in multiply infected cells, fuse with each other to form a single large inclusion. This homotypic fusion is dependent upon the presence of a chlamydial inclusion membrane-localized protein, IncA. Specificity of membrane fusion in eukaryotic cells is regulated by SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment receptor) proteins on the cytosolic face of vesicles and target

  19. Parametric system studies of candidate TF coil system options for the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiersen, W.T.; Flanagan, C.A.; Miller, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    System studies were performed to determine the sensitivity of hybrid and superconducting toroidal field (TF) coil system options to maximum field at the TF coil and to field enhancement due to resistive insert coils. The studies were performed using Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) design assumptions, guidelines, and criteria and involved iterative execution of the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) systems code, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibrium code, and EFFI (a code to evaluate magnetic field strength). The results indicate that for TFCX with no minimum wall loading specified, a design point chosen solely on the basis of cost would likely be in the low-field region of design space where the cost advantage of hybrids is least apparent. However, as the desired neutron wall loading increases, the hybrid option suggests an increasing cost advantage over the all-superconducting option; this cost advantage is countered by increased complexity in design -- particularly in assembly and maintenance

  20. Parametric system studies of candidate TF coil system options for the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiersen, W.T.; Flanagan, C.A.; Miller, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    System studies were performed to determine the sensitivity of hybrid and superconducting toroidal field (TF) coil system options to maximum field at the TF coil and to field enhancement due to resistive insert coils. The studies were performed using Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) design assumptions, guidelines, and criteria and involved iterative execution of the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) systems code, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibrium code, and EFFI (a code to evaluate magnetic field strength). The results indicate that for TFCX with no minimum wall loading specified, a design point chosen solely on the basis of cost would likely be in the low-field region of design space where the cost advantage of hybrids is least apparent. However, as the desired neutron wall loading increases, the hybrid option suggests an increasing cost advantage over the all-superconducting option; this cost advantage is countered by increased complexity in design - particularly in assembly and maintenance

  1. Fluorescent protein-tagged Vpr dissociates from HIV-1 core after viral fusion and rapidly enters the cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Tanay M; Marin, Mariana; Sood, Chetan; Shi, Jiong; Nawaz, Fatima; Aiken, Christopher; Melikyan, Gregory B

    2015-10-29

    HIV-1 Vpr is recruited into virions during assembly and appears to remain associated with the viral core after the reverse transcription and uncoating steps of entry. This feature has prompted the use of fluorescently labeled Vpr to visualize viral particles and to follow trafficking of post-fusion HIV-1 cores in the cytoplasm. Here, we tracked single pseudovirus entry and fusion and observed that fluorescently tagged Vpr gradually dissociates from post-fusion viral cores over the course of several minutes and accumulates in the nucleus. Kinetics measurements showed that fluorescent Vpr released from the cores very rapidly entered the cell nucleus. More than 10,000 Vpr molecules can be delivered into the cell nucleus within 45 min of infection by HIV-1 particles pseudotyped with the avian sarcoma and leukosis virus envelope glycoprotein. The fraction of Vpr from cell-bound viruses that accumulated in the nucleus was proportional to the extent of virus-cell fusion and was fully blocked by viral fusion inhibitors. Entry of virus-derived Vpr into the nucleus occurred independently of envelope glycoproteins or target cells. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy revealed two forms of nuclear Vpr-monomers and very large complexes, likely involving host factors. The kinetics of viral Vpr entering the nucleus after fusion was not affected by point mutations in the capsid protein that alter the stability of the viral core. The independence of Vpr shedding of capsid stability and its relatively rapid dissociation from post-fusion cores suggest that this process may precede capsid uncoating, which appears to occur on a slower time scale. Our results thus demonstrate that a bulk of fluorescently labeled Vpr incorporated into HIV-1 particles is released shortly after fusion. Future studies will address the question whether the quick and efficient nuclear delivery of Vpr derived from incoming viruses can regulate subsequent steps of HIV-1 infection.

  2. Structural characterization of the fusion core in syncytin, envelope protein of human endogenous retrovirus family W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Rui; Peng Xiaoxue; Kang Shuli; Feng Huixing; Huang Jianying; Zhang Wentao; Lin Donghai; Tien Po; Xiao Gengfu

    2005-01-01

    Syncytin is a captive retroviral envelope protein, possibly involved in the formation of the placental syncytiotrophoblast layer generated by trophoblast cell fusion at the maternal-fetal interface. We found that syncytin and type I viral envelope proteins shared similar structural profiling, especially in the regions of N- and C-terminal heptad repeats (NHR and CHR). We expressed the predicted regions of NHR (41 aa) and CHR (34 aa) in syncytin as a native single chain (named 2-helix protein) to characterize it. 2-helix protein exists as a trimer and is highly α-helix, thermo-stable, and denatured by low pH. NHR and CHR could form a protease-resistant complex. The complex structure built by the molecular docking demonstrated that NHR and CHR associated in an antiparallel manner. Overall, the 2-helix protein could form a thermo-stable coiled coil trimer. The fusion core structure of syncytin was first demonstrated in endogenous retrovirus. These results support the explanation how syncytin mediates cytotrophoblast cell fusion involved in placental morphogenesis

  3. Evaluation of compatibility of flowing liquid lithium curtain for blanket with core plasma in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Baiquan; Huang Jinhua; Peng Lilin; Yan Jiancheng

    2003-01-01

    A global model analysis of the compatibility of flowing liquid lithium curtain for blanket with core plasma has been performed. The relationships between the surface temperature of lithium curtain and mean effective plasma charges, fuel dilution and produced fusion power have been obtained. Results show that under normal circumstances, the evaporation of liquid lithium does not affect Z eff seriously, but affects fuel dilution and fusion power sensitively. The authors have investigated the relationships between the flow velocity of liquid lithium and its surface temperature rise based on the conditions of the option II of the fusion experimental breeder (FEB-E) design with reversed shear configuration and fairly high power density. The authors concluded that the effects of evaporation from liquid lithium curtain for FEB-E on plasma are negligible even if the flow velocity of liquid lithium is as low as 0.5 m·s -1 . Finally, the sputtering yield of liquid lithium saturated by hydrogen isotopes is briefly discussed

  4. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  5. Possible generation of heat from nuclear fusion in Earth's inner core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Mikio

    2016-11-23

    The cause and source of the heat released from Earth's interior have not yet been determined. Some research groups have proposed that the heat is supplied by radioactive decay or by a nuclear georeactor. Here we postulate that the generation of heat is the result of three-body nuclear fusion of deuterons confined in hexagonal FeDx core-centre crystals; the reaction rate is enhanced by the combined attraction effects of high-pressure (~364 GPa) and high-temperature (~5700 K) and by the physical catalysis of neutral pions: 2 D +  2 D +  2 D → 2 1 H +  4 He + 2  + 20.85 MeV. The possible heat generation rate can be calculated as 8.12 × 10 12  J/m 3 , based on the assumption that Earth's primitive heat supply has already been exhausted. The H and He atoms produced and the anti-neutrino are incorporated as Fe-H based alloys in the H-rich portion of inner core, are released from Earth's interior to the universe, and pass through Earth, respectively.

  6. ORR core re-configuration measurements to increase the fast neutron flux in the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, R.W.; Stinnett, R.M.; Sims, T.M.

    1985-06-01

    A study has been made of the relative increases obtainable in the fast neutron flux in the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) experiment positions by reconfiguring the current ORR core. The study was made at the request of the MFE program to examine the percentage increase possible in the current displacement per atom (dpa) rate (assumed proportional to the fast flux). The principle methods investigated to increase the fast flux consisted of reducing the current core size (number of fuel elements) to increase the core average power density and arrangement of the fuel elements in the reduced-size core to tilt the core power distribution towards the MFE positions. The study concluded that fast fluxes in the E-3 core position could be increased by approximately 15 to 20% over current values and in E-5 by approximately 45 to 55%

  7. False-Positive Results in a Recombinant Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Associated Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) Nucleocapsid Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Due to HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E Rectified by Western Blotting with Recombinant SARS-CoV Spike Polypeptide

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Wong, Beatrice H. L.; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Hui, Wai-Ting; Kwan, Grace S. W.; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Couch, Robert B.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2004-01-01

    Using paired serum samples obtained from patients with illness associated with increases in anti-human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) or anti-HCoV-229E antibodies, we examined the possibility of false-positive results detected in a recombinant severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nucleocapsid protein immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Three of the 21 and 1 of the 7 convalescent-phase serum samples from persons with increases in anti...

  8. Identification of a human protein-derived HIV-1 fusion inhibitor targeting the gp41 fusion core structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Chao

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env gp41 plays a crucial role in the viral fusion process. The peptides derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR of gp41 are potent HIV fusion inhibitors. However, the activity of these anti-HIV-1 peptides in vivo may be attenuated by their induction of anti-gp41 antibodies. Thus, it is essential to identify antiviral peptides or proteins with low, or no, immunogenicity to humans. Here, we found that the C-terminal fragment (aa 462-521 of the human POB1 (the partner of RalBP1, designated C60, is an HIV-1 fusion inhibitor. It bound to N36, the peptide derived from the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR of gp41, and to the six-helix bundle (6-HB formed by N36 and C34, a CHR-peptide, but it did not bind to C34. Unlike the CHR-peptides, C60 did not block gp41 6-HB formation. Rather, results suggest that C60 inhibits HIV-1 fusion by binding to the 6-HB, in particular, the residues in the gp41 NHR domain that are exposed on the surface of 6-HB. Since 6-HB plays a crucial role in the late stage of fusion between the viral envelope and endosomal membrane during the endocytic process of HIV-1, C60 may serve as a host restriction factor to suppress HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T lymphocytes. Taken together, it can be concluded from these results that C60 can be used as a lead for the development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutics or microbicides for the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection, as well as a molecular probe to study the fusogenic mechanism of HIV-1.

  9. Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactors (CRFPR): fusion-power-core integration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, C.; Krakowski, R.A.; Schnurr, N.M.

    1985-08-01

    Using detailed two-dimensional neutronics studies based on the results of a previous framework study (LA-10200-MS), the fusion-power-core (FPC) integration, maintenance, and radio-activity/afterheat control are examined for the Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (CRFPR). While maintaining as a base case the nominal 20-MW/m 2 neutron first-wall loading design, CRFPR(20), the cost and technology impact of lower-wall-loading designs are also examined. The additional detail developed as part of this follow-on study also allows the cost estimates to be refined. The cost impact of multiplexing lower-wall-loading FPCs into a approx. 1000-MWe(net) plant is also examined. The CRFPR(20) design remains based on a PbLi-cooled FPC with pressurized-water used as a coolant for first-wall, pumped-limiter, and structural-shield systems. Single-piece FPC maintenance of this steady-state power plant is envisaged and evaluated on the basis of a preliminary layout of the reactor building. This follow-on study also develops the groundwork for assessing the feasibility and impact of impurity/ash control by magnetic divertors as an alternative to previously considered pumped-limiter systems. Lastly, directions for future, more-detailed power-plant designs based on the Reversed-Field Pinch are suggested

  10. JSPS-CAS Core University Program seminar on summary of 10-year collaborations in plasma and nuclear fusion research area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, Kazuo; Wang Kongjia

    2011-07-01

    The JSPS-CAS Core University Program (CUP) seminar on “Summary of 10-year Collaborations in Plasma and Nuclear Fusion Research Area” was held from March 9 to March 11, 2011 in the Okinawa Prefectural Art Museum, Naha city, Okinawa, Japan. The collaboration program on plasma and nuclear fusion started from 2001 under the auspices of Japanese Society of Promotion of Science (JSPS) and Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). This year is the last year of the CUP. This seminar was organized in the framework of the CUP. In the seminar, 29 oral talks were presented, having 14 Chinese and 30 Japanese participants. These presentations covered key topics related to the collaboration categories: (1) improvement of core plasma properties, (2) basic research on fusion reactor technologies, and (3) theory and numerical simulation. This seminar aims at summarizing the results obtained through the collaborations for 10 years, and discussing future prospects of China-Japan collaboration in plasma and nuclear fusion research areas. (author)

  11. Development of 2-D/1-D fusion method for three-dimensional whole-core heterogeneous neutron transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gil Soo

    2006-02-01

    To describe power distribution and multiplication factor of a reactor core accurately, it is necessary to perform calculations based on neutron transport equation considering heterogeneous geometry and scattering angles. These calculations require very heavy calculations and were nearly impossible with computers of old days. From the limitation of computing power, traditional approach of reactor core design consists of heterogeneous transport calculation in fuel assembly level and whole core diffusion nodal calculation with assembly homogenized properties, resulting from fuel assembly transport calculation. This approach may be effective in computation time, but it gives less accurate results for highly heterogeneous problems. As potential for whole core heterogeneous transport calculation became more feasible owing to rapid development of computing power during last several years, the interests in two and three dimensional whole core heterogeneous transport calculations by deterministic method are increased. For two dimensional calculation, there were several successful approaches using even parity transport equation with triangular meshes, S N method with refined rectangular meshes, the method of characteristics (MOC) with unstructured meshes, and so on. The work in this thesis originally started from the two dimensional whole core heterogeneous transport calculation by using MOC. After successful achievement in two dimensional calculation, there were efforts in three-dimensional whole-core heterogeneous transport calculation using MOC. Since direct extension to three dimensional calculation of MOC requires too much computing power, indirect approach to three dimensional calculation was considered.Thus, 2D/1D fusion method for three dimensional heterogeneous transport calculation was developed and successfully implemented in a computer code. The 2D/1D fusion method is synergistic combination of the MOC for radial 2-D calculation and S N -like methods for axial 1

  12. Impact of an integrated core/SOL description on the R and B T optimization of tokamak fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siccinio, M.; Fable, E.; Angioni, C.; Saarelma, S.; Scarabosio, A.; Zohm, H.

    2018-01-01

    An updated and improved version of the 0D divertor and scrape-off layer (SOL) model published in Siccinio et al (2016 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 125011) was coupled with the 1.5D transport code ASTRA (Pereverzev 1991 IPP Report 5/42, Pereverzev and Yushmanov 2002 IPP Report 5/98 and Fable et al 2013 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 55 124028). The resulting numerical tool was employed for various scans in the major radius R and in the toroidal magnetic field B T—for different safety factors q, allowable loop voltages V loop and H factors—in order to identify the most convenient choices for an electricity producing tokamak. Such a scenario analysis was carried out evaluating self-consistently, and simultaneously, the core profile and transport effects, which significantly impact on the fusion power outcome, and the divertor heat loads, which represent one of the most critical issues in view of the realization of fusion power plants (Zohm et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 073019 and Wenninger et al 2017 Nucl. Fusion 57 046002). The main result is that, when divertor limits are enforced, the curves at constant electrical power output are closed on themselves in the R-BT plane, and a maximum achievable power exists—i.e. no benefits would be obtained from a further increase in R and B T once the optimum is reached. This result appears as an intrinsic physical limit for all those devices where a radiative SOL is needed to deal with the power exhaust, and where a lower limit on the power crossing the separatrix (e.g. because of the L-H transition) is present.

  13. Maturation of the viral core enhances the fusion of HIV-1 particles with primary human T cells and monocyte-derived macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jiyang; Aiken, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    HIV-1 infection requires fusion of viral and cellular membranes in a reaction catalyzed by the viral envelope proteins gp120 and gp41. We recently reported that efficient HIV-1 particle fusion with target cells is linked to maturation of the viral core by an activity of the gp41 cytoplasmic domain. Here, we show that maturation enhances the fusion of a variety of recombinant viruses bearing primary and laboratory-adapted Env proteins with primary human CD4 + T cells. Overall, HIV-1 fusion was more dependent on maturation for viruses bearing X4-tropic envelope proteins than for R5-tropic viruses. Fusion of HIV-1 with monocyte-derived macrophages was also dependent on particle maturation. We conclude that the ability to couple fusion to particle maturation is a common feature of HIV-1 Env proteins and may play an important role during HIV-1 replication in vivo

  14. Multitude of Core-Localized Shear Alfvén Waves in a High-Temperature Fusion Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazikian, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Berk, H. L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Budny, R. V. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Burrell, K. H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Doyle, E. J. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Fonck, R. J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Gorelenkov, N. N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Holcomb, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kramer, G. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Jayakumar, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); La Haye, R. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); McKee, G. R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Makowski, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Peebles, W. A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rhodes, T. L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Solomon, W. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Strait, E. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); VanZeeland, M. A. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zeng, L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Evidence is provided for a multitude of discrete frequency Alfvén waves in the core of magnetically confined high-temperature fusion plasmas. Multiple diagnostic instruments verify wave excitation over a wide spatial range from the device size at the longest wavelengths down to the thermal ion Larmor radius. At the shortest scales, the poloidal wavelengths are like the scale length of electrostatic drift wave turbulence. Theoretical analysis verifies a dominant interaction of the modes with particles in the thermal ion distribution traveling well below the Alfvén velocity.

  15. Characterization of BIV Env core: Implication for mechanism of BIV-mediated cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shu; Zhu Jieqing; Peng Yu; Cui Shanshan; Wang Chunping; Gao, George F.; Tien Po

    2005-01-01

    Entry of lentiviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), requires folding of two heptad repeat regions (HR1 and HR2) of gp41 into a trimer-of-hairpins, which subsequently brings virus and cell membrane into fusion. This motif is a generalized feature of viral fusion proteins and has been exploited in generating antiviral fusion agents. In the present paper, we report structural characters of Env protein from another lentivirus, bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), which contributes to a good animal model of HIV. BIV HR1 and HR2 regions are predicted by two different programs and expressed separately or conjointly in Escherichia coli. Biochemical and biophysical analyses show that the predicted HRs of BIV Env can form a stable trimer-of-hairpins or six-helix bundle just like that formed by feline immunodeficiency virus Env. Cell fusion assay demonstrates that the HR2 peptide of BIV can efficiently inhibit the virus-mediated cell fusion

  16. An optical liquid level sensor based on core-offset fusion splicing method using polarization-maintaining fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Weimin; Chen, Debao; Shen, Changyu; Lu, Yanfang; Liu, Huanan; Wei, Jian

    2016-01-01

    A simple liquid level sensor using a small piece of hydrofluoric acid (HF) etched polarization maintaining fiber (PMF), with SMF-PMF-SMF fiber structure based on Mach- Zehnder interference (MZI) mechanism is proposed. The core-offset fusion splicing method induced cladding modes interfere with the core mode. Moreover, the changing liquid level would influence the optical path difference of the MZI since the effective refractive indices of the air and the liquid is different. Both the variations of the wavelength shifts and power intensity attenuation corresponding to the liquid level can be obtained with a sensitivity of 0.4956nm/mm and 0.2204dB/mm, respectively.

  17. African Swine Fever Virus Undergoes Outer Envelope Disruption, Capsid Disassembly and Inner Envelope Fusion before Core Release from Multivesicular Endosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hernáez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV that causes a highly lethal disease in domestic pigs. As other NCLDVs, the extracellular form of ASFV possesses a multilayered structure consisting of a genome-containing nucleoid successively wrapped by a thick protein core shell, an inner lipid membrane, an icosahedral protein capsid and an outer lipid envelope. This structural complexity suggests an intricate mechanism of internalization in order to deliver the virus genome into the cytoplasm. By using flow cytometry in combination with pharmacological entry inhibitors, as well as fluorescence and electron microscopy approaches, we have dissected the entry and uncoating pathway used by ASFV to infect the macrophage, its natural host cell. We found that purified extracellular ASFV is internalized by both constitutive macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Once inside the cell, ASFV particles move from early endosomes or macropinosomes to late, multivesicular endosomes where they become uncoated. Virus uncoating requires acidic pH and involves the disruption of the outer membrane as well as of the protein capsid. As a consequence, the inner viral membrane becomes exposed and fuses with the limiting endosomal membrane to release the viral core into the cytosol. Interestingly, virus fusion is dependent on virus protein pE248R, a transmembrane polypeptide of the inner envelope that shares sequence similarity with some members of the poxviral entry/fusion complex. Collective evidence supports an entry model for ASFV that might also explain the uncoating of other multienveloped icosahedral NCLDVs.

  18. Electrostatic Architecture of the Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus (ISAV) Core Fusion Protein Illustrates a Carboxyl-Carboxylate pH Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jonathan D; Soto-Montoya, Hazel; Korpela, Markus K; Lee, Jeffrey E

    2015-07-24

    Segment 5, ORF 1 of the infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) genome, encodes for the ISAV F protein, which is responsible for viral-host endosomal membrane fusion during a productive ISAV infection. The entry machinery of ISAV is composed of a complex of the ISAV F and ISAV hemagglutinin esterase (HE) proteins in an unknown stoichiometry prior to receptor engagement by ISAV HE. Following binding of the receptor to ISAV HE, dissociation of the ISAV F protein from HE, and subsequent endocytosis, the ISAV F protein resolves into a fusion-competent oligomeric state. Here, we present a 2.1 Å crystal structure of the fusion core of the ISAV F protein determined at low pH. This structure has allowed us to unambiguously demonstrate that the ISAV entry machinery exhibits typical class I viral fusion protein architecture. Furthermore, we have determined stabilizing factors that accommodate the pH-dependent mode of ISAV transmission, and our structure has allowed the identification of a central coil that is conserved across numerous and varied post-fusion viral glycoprotein structures. We then discuss a mechanistic model of ISAV fusion that parallels the paramyxoviral class I fusion strategy wherein attachment and fusion are relegated to separate proteins in a similar fashion to ISAV fusion. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Final Report for the "Fusion Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations (FACETS)"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, John R; Kruger, Scott

    2014-10-02

    The FACETS project over its lifetime developed the first self-consistent core-edge coupled capabilities, a new transport solver for modeling core transport in tokamak cores, developed a new code for modeling wall physics over long time scales, and significantly improved the capabilities and performance of legacy components, UEDGE, NUBEAM, GLF23, GYRO, and BOUT++. These improved capabilities leveraged the team’s expertise in applied mathematics (solvers and algorithms) and computer science (performance improvements and language interoperability). The project pioneered new methods for tackling the complexity of simulating the concomitant complexity of tokamak experiments.

  20. First wall and blanket stresses induced by cyclic fusion core operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohachevsky, I.O.; Kostoff, R.N.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is made of cyclic thermal loads and stresses for the complete range of operating conditions. Two critical components were examined; the solid wall adjacent to the fusion plasma (first wall) and the fuel elements in the high power density region of the blanket. Simple closed form expressions were derived for temperature increases and thermal stresses that may be evaluated conveniently and rapidly and the values compared for different systems

  1. Proceedings of JSPS-CAS core university program seminar on PWI/PFC and fusion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Tomoaki; Chen Junling

    2009-01-01

    The present symposium has the topics on plasma wall interaction, plasma facing materials and components, core plasma behavior, blanket, tritium, superconductor, ITER related R and D and theory. The number of the presented papers was 39, and the participants were 45, 18 from Japan and 27 from China. Very aggressive discussions were conducted in this symposium, and the understanding for important issues toward to ITER and Demonstration Reactor was deepened. The 29 of the papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  2. Fusion core start-up, ignition, and burn simulations of reversed-field pinch (RFP) reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Y.Y.

    1988-01-01

    A transient reactor simulation model is developed to investigate and simulate the start-up, ignition, and burn of a reversed-field pinch reactor. The simulation is based upon a spatially averaged plasma balance model with field profiles obtained from MHD quasi-equilibrium analysis. Alpha particle heating is estimated from Fokker-Planck calculations. The instantaneous plasma current is derived from a self-consistent circuit analysis for plasma/coil/eddy current interactions. The simulation code is applied to the TITAN RFP reactor design which features a compact, high-power-density reversed-field pinch fusion system. A contour analysis is performed using the steady-state global plasma balance. The results are presented with contours of constant plasma current. A saddle point is identified in the contour plot which determined the minimum value of plasma current required to achieve ignition. In the simulations of the TITAN RFP reactor, the OH-driven super-conducting EF coils are found to deviate from the required equilibrium values as the induced plasma current increases. A set of basic results from the simulation of TITAN RFP reactor yield a picture of RFP plasma operation in a reactor. Investigations of eddy currents are also presented and have very important in reactor design

  3. Core configuration of a gas-cooled reactor as a tritium production device for fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaya, H., E-mail: nakaya@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 8190395 (Japan); Matsuura, H.; Nakao, Y. [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 8190395 (Japan); Shimakawa, S.; Goto, M.; Nakagawa, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan); Nishikawa, M. [Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology, UTM, Kuala Lumpur 54100 (Malaysia)

    2014-05-01

    The performance of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor as a tritium production device is examined, assuming the compound LiAlO{sub 2} as the tritium-producing material. A gas turbine high-temperature reactor of 300 MWe nominal capacity (GTHTR300) is assumed as the calculation target, and using the continuous-energy Monte Carlo transport code MVP-BURN, burn-up simulations are carried out. To load sufficient Li into the core, LiAlO{sub 2} is loaded into the removable reflectors that surround the ring-shaped fuel blocks in addition to the burnable poison insertion holes. It is shown that module high-temperature gas-cooled reactors with a total thermal output power of 3 GW can produce almost 8 kg of tritium in a year.

  4. Tandem fusion of hepatitis B core antigen allows assembly of virus-like particles in bacteria and plants with enhanced capacity to accommodate foreign proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadrien Peyret

    Full Text Available The core protein of the hepatitis B virus, HBcAg, assembles into highly immunogenic virus-like particles (HBc VLPs when expressed in a variety of heterologous systems. Specifically, the major insertion region (MIR on the HBcAg protein allows the insertion of foreign sequences, which are then exposed on the tips of surface spike structures on the outside of the assembled particle. Here, we present a novel strategy which aids the display of whole proteins on the surface of HBc particles. This strategy, named tandem core, is based on the production of the HBcAg dimer as a single polypeptide chain by tandem fusion of two HBcAg open reading frames. This allows the insertion of large heterologous sequences in only one of the two MIRs in each spike, without compromising VLP formation. We present the use of tandem core technology in both plant and bacterial expression systems. The results show that tandem core particles can be produced with unmodified MIRs, or with one MIR in each tandem dimer modified to contain the entire sequence of GFP or of a camelid nanobody. Both inserted proteins are correctly folded and the nanobody fused to the surface of the tandem core particle (which we name tandibody retains the ability to bind to its cognate antigen. This technology paves the way for the display of natively folded proteins on the surface of HBc particles either through direct fusion or through non-covalent attachment via a nanobody.

  5. Study of fusion cross-sections of 16O + 208Pb and 28Si + 208Pb reactions by effective soft-core nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghodsi, O. N.; Mahmodi, M.; Ariai, J.; O. N. Ghodsi)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the cross-sections of fusion reactions 16 O + 208 Pb, 28 Si + 208 Pb, 40 C + 40 Ca, 40 Ca + 48 Ca, 58 Ni + 58 Ni, and 16 O + 154 Sm at bombarding energies above and near the fusion barrier have been investigated. The fusion cross-sections have been studied by means of the Monte Carlo method and effective soft-core nucleon-nucleon interaction. One adjustable parameter was used in these calculations. This parameter can change the strength and repulsive parts of soft-core potential values. It has to be adjusted, so that the analytical results are in acceptable agreement with the experimental data. In our calculations, we have taken the range of the nucleon-nucleon soft-core interaction to be constant and equal to that of the M3Y-Raid potential. Results show that the higher values for the diffusion parameter in the Woods-Saxon potential obtained from a careful analysis of 16 O + 208 Pb and 28 Si + 208 Pb reactions are due to the many particle effects on the nucleon-nucleon potential. (author)

  6. Study of fusion cross-sections of 16O + 208Pb and 28Si + 208Pb reactions by effective soft-core nucleon-nucleon interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodsi Omid N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cross-sections of fusion reactions 16O + 208Pb, 28Si + 208Pb, 40C + + 40Ca, 40Ca + 48Ca, 58Ni + 58Ni, and 16O + 154Sm at bombarding energies above and near the fusion barrier have been investigated. The fusion cross-sections have been studied by means of the Monte Carlo method and effective soft-core nucleon-nucleon interaction. One adjustable parameter was used in these calculations. This parameter can change the strength and repulsive parts of soft-core potential values. It has to be adjusted, so that the analytical results are in acceptable agreement with the experimental data. In our calculations, we have taken the range of the nucleon-nucleon soft-core interaction to be constant and equal to that of the M3Y-Raid potential. Results show that the higher values for the diffusion parameter in the Woods-Saxon potential obtained from a careful analysis of 16O + 208Pb and 28Si + 208Pb reactions are due to the many particle effects on the nucleon-nucleon potential.

  7. Evidence for an Ancestral Association of Human Coronavirus 229E with Bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corman, Victor Max; Baldwin, Heather J.; Tateno, Adriana Fumie; Zerbinati, Rodrigo Melim; Annan, Augustina; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Maganga, Gael Darren; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Vallo, Peter; da Silva Filho, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira; Leroy, Eric M.; Thiel, Volker; van der Hoek, Lia; Poon, Leo L. M.; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that close relatives of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) exist in African bats. The small sample and limited genomic characterizations have prevented further analyses so far. Here, we tested 2,087 fecal specimens from 11 bat species sampled in Ghana for HCoV-229E-related

  8. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of hepatitis B virus core fusion protein corresponding to octahedral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masaki; Iwabuchi, Shinichiro; Kikkou, Tatsuhiko; Noguchi, Keiichi; Odaka, Masafumi; Yohda, Masafumi; Kawata, Masaaki; Sato, Chikara; Matsumoto, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Novel hepatitis B virus-like particles of recombinant dimeric core–GFP fusion protein were expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.15 Å resolution and belonged to space group F432, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 219.7 Å. Recombinant hepatitis B virus core proteins dimerize to form building blocks that are capable of self-assembly into a capsid. A core capsid protein dimer (CPD) linked to a green fluorescent protein variant, EGFP, at the C-terminus has been designed. The recombinant fusion CPD was expressed in Escherichia coli, assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs), purified and crystallized. The single crystal diffracted to 2.15 Å resolution and belonged to the cubic space group F432, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 219.7 Å. The fusion proteins assembled into icosahedral VLPs in aqueous solution, but were rearranged into octahedral symmetry through the crystal-packing process under the crystallization conditions

  9. The biodistribution and pretargeting radioimmunoimaging of the fusion protein of anti-CEA single-chain antibody and core-streptavidin in human rectocolonic tumor bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Weidong; Li Biao; Zhu Chengmo; Jiang Xufeng; Feng Guowei; Wu Xiangpu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the biodistribution and two-step pretargeting radioimmunoimaging of the fusion protein of anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) single-chain antibody (ScFv) and core-streptavidin in human rectocolonic tumor bearing nude mice. Methods: Before the injection of 153 Sm-biotin, the fusion protein of ScFv-core-streptavidin was pretargeted for 24 h (200 μg every nude mouse), 24 h later 153 Sm-biotin was injected. The uptake of radioactivity in tumor and normal tissues in 20 nude mice was measured at 1, 4, 8 and 24 h and the other 3 nude mice was scanned at 8 and 24 h after peritoneal injection of 153 Sm-biotin. Results: The tumor to blood ratio (tumor/blood) reached 0.49 , 1.21, 1.56 and 3.09 at 1, 4, 8 and 24 h respectively. Radioactivity concentration peaked at 8 h in tumor site and demonstrated a 'hot' area, with significant decreasing its background at 24 h. Conclusion: The fusion protein can elevate the tumor/blood ratio, shorten pretargeting and imaging process and also improve image quality

  10. How to arrest a core meltdown accident (doing nothing); Como detener un accidente con fusion de nucleo (sin hacer nada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, Jorge H [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    In the eventual situation of a severe accident in a nuclear reactor, the molten core is able to relocate inside the pressure vessel. This may lead to the vessel failure, due to the thermal attack of the molten core (at approximation of 3000K) on the vessel steel wall. The vessel failure implies the failure of a very important barrier that contains the radioactive materials generated during the reactor operation, with a significant risk of producing high radiation doses both on operators and on the public. It is expected, for the new generation of nuclear reactors, that these will be required to withstand (by design) a core melt down accident, without the need for an immediate evacuation of the surrounding population. In this line, the use of a totally passive system is postulated, which fulfills the objective of containing the molten core inside the pressure vessel, at low temperature (approximation 1200K) precluding its failure. The conceptual design of a passive in-vessel core catcher is presented in this paper, built up of zinc, and designed for the CAREM-25 nuclear power plant. (author)

  11. Low-loss polarization-maintaining fusion splicing of single-mode fibers and hollow-core photonic crystal fibers, relevant for monolithic fiber laser pulse compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jesper Toft; Houmann, Andreas; Liu, Xiaomin

    2008-01-01

    of the splicing process. We also demonstrate that the higher splice loss compromises the PM properties of the splice. Our splicing technique was successfully applied to the realization of a low-loss, environmentally stable monolithic PM fiber laser pulse compressor, enabling direct end-of-the-fiber femtosecond......We report on highly reproducible low-loss fusion splicing of polarization-maintaining single-mode fibers (PM-SMFs) and hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (HC-PCFs). The PM-SMF-to-HC-PCF splices are characterized by the loss of 0.62 ± 0.24 dB, and polarization extinction ratio of 19 ± 0.68 d...... pulse delivery...

  12. Potential profiles in the central core of the cathode in the star mode operation in an inertial-electrostatic fusion neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Masuda, K.; Toku, H.

    2003-01-01

    After the successful measurements of the localized electric fields in the center-spot mode operation with relatively large space-charge effects by the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method, measurements of potential profiles in the star mode operation with small space-charge effects on helium gas are made in the central cathode core region of an Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) neutron source, which is most suitable to neutron calibration in the fusion devices. Since the high-voltage is required to the star mode operation on deuterium gas, it is predicted to bring about very small beam space charge-related potential. To increase accuracy, we adopted n=4 (2 1 S to 4 1 D:HeI) transition, instead of previous n=3, which is most sensitive to the local electric fields in the Stark transition, and verified using the well-known U-shaped hollow cathode potential. The localized electric fields thus measured by LIF method using n=4 transition show negligible electric fields in the star mode compared with the center-spot mode. (author)

  13. Thermal and mechanical design of the plasma core CXRS diagnostics for the fusion reactor ITER; Thermische und mechanische Auslegung der Plasma Core CXRS Diagnostik des ITER Kernfusionsreaktors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greza, H. [WTI Wissenschaftlich-Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Neubauer, O.; Wolters, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In the frame of the research project ITER (international thermonuclear experimental reactor) the plasma state is monitored using the plasma core diagnostics CXRS (charge exchange recombination spectroscopy).The authors describe the thermal and mechanical design of the first mirror of the CXRS diagnostics. The components of the first mirror are exposed to high heat and neutron irradiation. The surface temperature will be 300 to 400 deg C. The misalignment tolerance is plus or minus 0.1 degree. The maximum mechanical stresses in the mirror have to be minimized. The design calculations use the finite element code ANSYS. The results indicate that the heat input from the plasma can be removed by the coolant flow. Further calculation shave to concern the brazed joints between mirror and cooling block.

  14. Thermal and mechanical design of the plasma core CXRS diagnostics for the fusion reactor ITER; Thermische und mechanische Auslegung der Plasma Core CXRS Diagnostik des ITER Kernfusionsreaktors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greza, H.; Knauff, R. [Wissenschaftlich-Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH (WTI), Juelich (Germany); Neubauer, O.; Wolters, J.; Offermanns, G.; Biel, W. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the frame of the research project ITER (international thermonuclear experimental reactor) the plasma state is monitored using the plasma core diagnostics CXRS (charge exchange recombination spectroscopy).The authors describe the thermal and mechanical design of the first mirror of the CXRS diagnostics. The components of the first mirror are exposed to high heat and neutron irradiation. The surface temperature will be 300 to 400 deg C. The misalignment tolerance is plus or minus 0.1 degree. The maximum mechanical stresses in the mirror have to be minimized. The design calculations use the finite element code ANSYS. The results indicate that the heat input from the plasma can be removed by the coolant flow. Further calculation shave to concern the brazed joints between mirror and cooling block.

  15. MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein of the macrolide transporter MacAB-TolC, binds lipopolysaccharide core specifically and with high affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuo; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2013-11-01

    The Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC transporter has been implicated in efflux of macrolide antibiotics and secretion of enterotoxin STII. In this study, we found that purified MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, contains one tightly bound rough core lipopolysaccharide (R-LPS) molecule per MacA molecule. R-LPS was bound specifically to MacA protein with affinity exceeding that of polymyxin B. Sequence analyses showed that MacA contains two high-density clusters of positively charged amino acid residues located in the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain and the periplasmic C-terminal domain. Substitutions in the C-terminal cluster reducing the positive-charge density completely abolished binding of R-LPS. At the same time, these substitutions significantly reduced the functionality of MacA in the protection of E. coli against macrolides in vivo and in the in vitro MacB ATPase stimulation assays. Taken together, our results suggest that R-LPS or a similar glycolipid is a physiological substrate of MacAB-TolC.

  16. The C Terminus of the Core β-Ladder Domain in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Is Flexible for Accommodation of Heterologous Epitope Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Li-Chen; Liao, Jia-Teh; Lee, Hwei-Jen; Chou, Wei-Yuan; Chen, Chun-Wei; Lin, Yi-Ling; Liao, Ching-Len

    2016-02-01

    NS1 is the only nonstructural protein that enters the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where NS1 is glycosylated, forms a dimer, and is subsequently secreted during flavivirus replication as dimers or hexamers, which appear to be highly immunogenic to the infected host, as protective immunity can be elicited against homologous flavivirus infections. Here, by using a trans-complementation assay, we identified the C-terminal end of NS1 derived from Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which was more flexible than other regions in terms of housing foreign epitopes without a significant impact on virus replication. This mapped flexible region is located in the conserved tip of the core β-ladder domain of the multimeric NS1 structure and is also known to contain certain linear epitopes, readily triggering specific antibody responses from the host. Despite becoming attenuated, recombinant JEV with insertion of a neutralizing epitope derived from enterovirus 71 (EV71) into the C-terminal end of NS1 not only could be normally released from infected cells, but also induced dual protective immunity for the host to counteract lethal challenge with either JEV or EV71 in neonatal mice. These results indicated that the secreted multimeric NS1 of flaviviruses may serve as a natural protein carrier to render epitopes of interest more immunogenic in the C terminus of the core β-ladder domain. The positive-sense RNA genomes of mosquito-borne flaviviruses appear to be flexible in terms of accommodating extra insertions of short heterologous antigens into their virus genes. Here, we illustrate that the newly identified C terminus of the core β-ladder domain in NS1 could be readily inserted into entities such as EV71 epitopes, and the resulting NS1-epitope fusion proteins appeared to maintain normal virus replication, secretion ability, and multimeric formation from infected cells. Nonetheless, such an insertion attenuated the recombinant JEV in mice, despite having retained

  17. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, S.

    1982-02-01

    In this paper, the physics of laser fusion is described on an elementary level. The irradiated matter consists of a dense inner core surrounded by a less dense plasma corona. The laser radiation is mainly absorbed in the outer periphery of the plasma. The absorbed energy is transported inward to the ablation surface where plasma flow is created. Due to this plasma flow, a sequence of inward going shock waves and heat waves are created, resulting in the compression and heating of the core to high density and temperature. The interaction physics between laser and matter leading to thermonuclear burn is summarized by the following sequence of events: Laser absorption → Energy transport → Compression → Nuclear Fusion. This scenario is shown in particular for a Nd:laser with a wavelength of 1 μm. The wavelength scaling of the physical processes is also discussed. In addition to the laser-plasma physics, the Nd high power pulsed laser is described. We give a very brief description of the oscillator, the amplifiers, the spatial filters, the isolators and the diagnostics involved. Last, but not least, the concept of reactors for laser fusion and the necessary laser system are discussed. (author)

  18. Controlled thermonuclear fusion power apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, R.W.; Coppi, B.

    1982-01-01

    This invention provides a modular fusion reactor system containing several fusion power cores, each of relatively small size and low cost. Energy from the cores is absorbed in the core structure and within a surrounding blanket, and the cores themselves may be individually removed from the blanket and replaced as they deteriorate from high radiation flux damage

  19. Progress of nuclear fusion research and review on development of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Set up in October 1971, the ad hoc Committee on Survey of Nuclear Fusion Reactors has worked on overall fusion reactor aspects and definition of the future problems under four working groups of core, nuclear heat, materials and system. The presect volume is intended to provide reference materials in the field of fusion reactor engineering, prepared by members of the committee. Contents are broadly the following: concept of the nuclear fusion reactor, fusion core engineering, fusion reactor blanket engineering, fusion reactor materials engineering, and system problems in development of fusion reactors. (Mori, K.)

  20. Membrane fusion and exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R; Südhof, T C

    1999-01-01

    Membrane fusion involves the merger of two phospholipid bilayers in an aqueous environment. In artificial lipid bilayers, fusion proceeds by means of defined transition states, including hourglass-shaped intermediates in which the proximal leaflets of the fusing membranes are merged whereas the distal leaflets are separate (fusion stalk), followed by the reversible opening of small aqueous fusion pores. Fusion of biological membranes requires the action of specific fusion proteins. Best understood are the viral fusion proteins that are responsible for merging the viral with the host cell membrane during infection. These proteins undergo spontaneous and dramatic conformational changes upon activation. In the case of the paradigmatic fusion proteins of the influenza virus and of the human immunodeficiency virus, an amphiphilic fusion peptide is inserted into the target membrane. The protein then reorients itself, thus forcing the fusing membranes together and inducing lipid mixing. Fusion of intracellular membranes in eukaryotic cells involves several protein families including SNAREs, Rab proteins, and Sec1/Munc-18 related proteins (SM-proteins). SNAREs form a novel superfamily of small and mostly membrane-anchored proteins that share a common motif of about 60 amino acids (SNARE motif). SNAREs reversibly assemble into tightly packed helical bundles, the core complexes. Assembly is thought to pull the fusing membranes closely together, thus inducing fusion. SM-proteins comprise a family of soluble proteins that bind to certain types of SNAREs and prevent the formation of core complexes. Rab proteins are GTPases that undergo highly regulated GTP-GDP cycles. In their GTP form, they interact with specific proteins, the effector proteins. Recent evidence suggests that Rab proteins function in the initial membrane contact connecting the fusing membranes but are not involved in the fusion reaction itself.

  1. BST2/CD317 counteracts human coronavirus 229E productive infection by tethering virions at the cell surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shiu-Mei [Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Kuo-Jung [Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chin-Tien, E-mail: chintien@ym.edu.tw [Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-20

    Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST2), an interferon-inducible antiviral factor, has been shown to block the release of various enveloped viruses from cells. It has also been identified as an innate immune system component. Most enveloped viruses subject to BST2 restriction bud at the plasma membrane. Here we report our findings that (a) the production of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) progeny viruses, whose budding occurs at the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC), markedly decreases in the presence of BST2; and (b) BST2 knockdown expression results in enhanced HCoV-229E virion production. Electron microscopy analyses indicate that HCoV-229E virions are tethered to cell surfaces or intracellular membranes by BST2. Our results suggest that BST2 exerts a broad blocking effect against enveloped virus release, regardless of whether budding occurs at the plasma membrane or intracellular compartments. - Highlights: • BST2 knockdown expression results in enhanced HCoV-229E egress. • HCoV-229E virions are tethered to cell surfaces or intracellular membranes by BST2. • HCoV-229E infection at high MOI can significantly downregulate HeLa BST2 and rescue HIV-1 egress.

  2. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook covers the physics and technology upon which future fusion power reactors will be based. It reviews the history of fusion, reaction physics, plasma physics, heating, and confinement. Descriptions of commercial plants and design concepts are included. Topics covered include: fusion reactions and fuel resources; reaction rates; ignition, and confinement; basic plasma directory; Tokamak confinement physics; fusion technology; STARFIRE: A commercial Tokamak fusion power plant. MARS: A tandem-mirror fusion power plant; and other fusion reactor concepts

  3. Controlled nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, R.W.; Coppi, B.

    1982-01-01

    A fusion power generating device is disclosed having a relatively small and inexpensive core region which may be contained within an energy absorbing blanket region. The fusion power core region contains apparatus of the toroidal type for confining a high density plasma. The fusion power core is removable from the blanket region and may be disposed and/or recycled for subsequent use within the same blanket region. Thermonuclear ignition of the plasma is obtained by feeding neutral fusible gas into the plasma in a controlled manner such that charged particle heating produced by the fusion reaction is utilized to bootstrap the device to a region of high temperatures and high densities wherein charged particle heating is sufficient to overcome radiation and thermal conductivity losses. The high density plasma produces a large radiation and particle flux on the first wall of the plasma core region thereby necessitating replacement of the core from the blanket region from time to time. A series of potentially disposable and replaceable central core regions are disclosed for a large-scale economical electrical power generating plant

  4. Fusion fuel blanket technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, I.J.; Gierszewski, P.

    1987-05-01

    The fusion blanket surrounds the burning hydrogen core of a fusion reactor. It is in this blanket that most of the energy released by the nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium is converted into useful product, and where tritium fuel is produced to enable further operation of the reactor. As fusion research turns from present short-pulse physics experiments to long-burn engineering tests in the 1990's, energy removal and tritium production capabilities become important. This technology will involve new materials, conditions and processes with applications both to fusion and beyond. In this paper, we introduce features of proposed blanket designs and update and status of international research. In focusing on the Canadian blanket technology program, we discuss the aqueous lithium salt blanket concept, and the in-reactor tritium recovery test program

  5. The fusion-fission hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, E.

    1985-01-01

    As the history of the development of fusion energy shows, a sustained controlled fusion reaction is much more difficult to produce than rapid uncontrolled release of fusion energy. Currently, the ''magnetic bottle'' technique shows sufficient progress that it might applied for the commercial fuel production of /sup 233/U, suitable for use in fission reactors, by developing a fusion-fission hybrid. Such a device would consist of a fusion chamber core surrounded by a region containing cladded uranium pellets cooled by helium, with lithium salts also present to produce tritium to refuel the fusion process. Successful development of this hybrid might be possible within 10 y, and would provide both experience and funds for further development of controlled fusion energy

  6. EMP Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    KUNTAY, Isık

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel fusion scheme, called EMP Fusion, which has the promise of achieving breakeven and realizing commercial fusion power. The method is based on harnessing the power of an electromagnetic pulse generated by the now well-developed flux compression technology. The electromagnetic pulse acts as a means of both heating up the plasma and confining the plasma, eliminating intermediate steps. The EMP Fusion device is simpler compared to other fusion devices and this reduces...

  7. Fusion Simulation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Many others in the fusion energy and advanced scientific computing communities participated in the development of this plan. The core planning team is grateful for their important contributions. This summary is meant as a quick overview the Fusion Simulation Program's (FSP's) purpose and intentions. There are several additional documents referenced within this one and all are supplemental or flow down from this Program Plan. The overall science goal of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) research and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. (1). Initial FSP research will focus on two critical Integrated Science Application (ISA) areas: ISA1, the plasma edge; and ISA2, whole device modeling (WDM) including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical

  8. Osteoclast Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie Julie Møller, Anaïs; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

    2017-01-01

    on the nuclearity of fusion partners. While CD47 promotes cell fusions involving mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts, syncytin-1 promotes fusion of two multi-nucleated osteoclasts, but also reduces the number of fusions between mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts. Furthermore, CD47 seems to mediate fusion mostly through...... individual fusion events using time-lapse and antagonists of CD47 and syncytin-1. All time-lapse recordings have been studied by two independent observers. A total of 1808 fusion events were analyzed. The present study shows that CD47 and syncytin-1 have different roles in osteoclast fusion depending...... broad contact surfaces between the partners' cell membrane while syncytin-1 mediate fusion through phagocytic-cup like structure. J. Cell. Physiol. 9999: 1-8, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  9. Concepts for fusion fuel production blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.

    1986-06-01

    The fusion blanket surrounds the burning hydrogen core of the fusion reactor. It is in this blanket that most of the energy released by the DT fusion reaction is converted into useable product, and where tritium fuel is produced to enable further operation of the reactor. Blankets will involve new materials, conditions and processes. Several recent fusion blanket concepts are presented to illustrate the range of ideas

  10. Fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of fusion power, and its advantages and disadvantages, are outlined. Present research programmes and future plans directed towards the development of a fusion power reactor, are summarized. (U.K.)

  11. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum......This dissertation investigates fusion rings, which are Grothendieck groups of rigid, monoidal, semisimple, abelian categories. Special interest is in rational fusion rings, i.e., fusion rings which admit a finite basis, for as commutative rings they may be presented as quotients of polynomial rings...

  12. Fusion: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2006-01-01

    The article gives an overview and introduction to the activities of SCK-CEN's research programme on fusion. The decision to construct the ITER international nuclear fusion experiment in Cadarache is highlighted. A summary of the Belgian contributions to fusion research is given with particular emphasis on studies of radiation effects on diagnostics systems, radiation effects on remote handling sensing systems, fusion waste management and socio-economic studies

  13. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  14. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  15. Soluble expression and purifiation of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg subgenotype B3 in Escherichia coli using thioredoxin fusion tag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmah Waty

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To express HBcAg protein (hepatitis B virus subgenotype B3 in Escherichia coli in soluble form. Methods: HBcAg sequence of hepatitis B virus subgenotype B3 was cloned into plasmid pET32a and introduced to E. coli BL21 (DE3. The E. coli was grown in Luria-Bertani (LB medium supplemented with ampicillin with agitation. Protein expression was induced by adding isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG at concentrations of 0.1 mmol/L, 0.3 mmol/L, and 0.5 mmol/L at room temperature (28 °C. The bacteria were dissolved in lysis buffer and lysed by freeze-thawing method then sonication. The fusion protein [thioredoxin A-(His6tag-HBcAg] was purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The protein expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, dot blot, and western blot. Results: This research showed that DNA sequence of HBcAg could be propagated in pET32a and soluble protein was successfully expressed in E. coli. Induction with 0.3 mmol/L IPTG and 4-hour incubation was the best condition to express the HBcAg protein. SDS-PAGE and dot blot analysis showed that HBcAg protein could be expressed in E. coli. Western blot analysis showed that molecular weight of HBcAg fusion protein was about 38.5 kDa. Conclusions: This study confirmed that HBcAg protein could be expressed in soluble form in E. coli.

  16. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    The transmission resonance model (TRM) is combined with some electrochemistry of the cathode surface and found to provide a good fit to new data on excess heat. For the first time, a model for cold fusion not only fits calorimetric data but also predicts optimal trigger points. This suggests that the model is meaningful and that the excess heat phenomenon claimed by Fleischmann and Pons is genuine. A crucial role is suggested for the overpotential and, in particular, for the concentration overpotential, i.e., the hydrogen overvoltage. Self-similar geometry, or scale invariance, i.e., a fractal nature, is revealed by the relative excess power function. Heat bursts are predicted with a scale invariance in time, suggesting a possible link between the TRM and chaos theory. The model describes a near-surface phenomenon with an estimated excess power yield of ∼1 kW/cm 3 Pd, as compared to 50 W/cm 3 of reactor core for a good fission reactor. Transmission resonance-induced nuclear transmutation, a new type of nuclear reaction, is strongly suggested with two types emphasized: transmission resonance-induced neutron transfer reactions yielding essentially the same end result as Teller's hypothesized catalytic neutron transfer and a three-body reaction promoted by standing de Broglie waves. In this paper suggestions for the anomalous production of heat, particles, and radiation are given

  17. Fusion neutronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  18. Fusion Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Lackner, Karl; Tran, Minh Quang [eds.

    2012-09-15

    Recreating the energy production process of the Sun - nuclear fusion - on Earth in a controlled fashion is one of the greatest challenges of this century. If achieved at affordable costs, energy supply security would be greatly enhanced and environmental degradation from fossil fuels greatly diminished. Fusion Physics describes the last fifty years or so of physics and research in innovative technologies to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion for energy production. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been involved since its establishment in 1957 in fusion research. It has been the driving force behind the biennial conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion, today known as the Fusion Energy Conference. Hosted by several Member States, this biennial conference provides a global forum for exchange of the latest achievements in fusion research against the backdrop of the requirements for a net energy producing fusion device and, eventually, a fusion power plant. The scientific and technological knowledge compiled during this series of conferences, as well as by the IAEA Nuclear Fusion journal, is immense and will surely continue to grow in the future. It has led to the establishment of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which represents the biggest experiment in energy production ever envisaged by humankind.

  19. A Rare Case of Human Coronavirus 229E Associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in a Healthy Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foula Vassilara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E is one of the first coronavirus strains being described. It is linked to common cold symptoms in healthy adults. Younger children and the elderly are considered vulnerable to developing lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs. In particular, immunocompromised patients have been reported with severe and life-threatening LRTIs attributed to HCoV-229E. We report for the first time a case of LRTI and acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in a healthy adult with no comorbidities and HCoV-229E strain identified as the only causative agent. A 45-year-old female with a clear medical history presented with fever, cough, and headache. Respiratory tract infection was diagnosed, and empirical antibiotics were started. Within two days, she developed bilateral pleural effusions, diffuse consolidations, and ground glass opacities involving all lung fields. She needed immediate oxygen supply, while ABGs deteriorated and chest imaging and PaO2/FiO2 indicated ARDS. Early administration of systemic corticosteroids led to gradual clinical improvement. Multiplex PCR from nasal secretions was positive only for HCoV-229E and negative for multiple other pathogens. It remains to be elucidated how an immunocompetent adult developed a life-threatening LRTI caused by a “benign considered” coronavirus strain, the HCoV-229E.

  20. Fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs

  1. LiWall Fusion - The New Concept of Magnetic Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of the outstanding abilities of a liquid lithium layer in pumping hydrogen isotopes leads to a new approach to magnetic fusion, called the LiWall Fusion. It relies on innovative plasma regimes with low edge density and high temperature. The approach combines fueling the plasma by neutral injection beams with the best possible elimination of outside neutral gas sources, which cools down the plasma edge. Prevention of cooling the plasma edge suppresses the dominant, temperature gradient related turbulence in the core. Such an approach is much more suitable for controlled fusion than the present practice, relying on high heating power for compensating essentially unlimited turbulent energy losses.

  2. Fusion Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans

  3. Compact magnetic fusion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.K.

    1983-12-01

    If the core (first wall, blanket, shield, and magnet coils) of fusion reactor systems could be made smaller in mass and volume for a given net electric power output than is usually predicted for the mainline tokamak/sup 1/ and mirror concepts, the cost of the technological development of the core and the construction of power plants might be significantly reduced. Although progress in plasma physics and engineering approaches should continue to yield improvements in reactor designs, certain physics features of the mainline concepts may prevent major reductions in the size of the core without straining the limits of technology. However, more than a factor of ten reduction in volume and mass of the core, at constant output power, may be possible for a class of toroidal confinement concepts in which the confining magnetic fields are supported more by currents flowing in the plasma than those in the external coils. In spite of this dramatic increase in power density (ratio of total thermal output power to the volume of the core), the design of compact systems need not rely on any materials requirements that are qualitatively more difficult than those proposed for the lower-power-density mainline fusion concepts. In some respects compact systems require less of an extension of existing technology, e.g. magnetics.

  4. Compact magnetic fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    If the core (first wall, blanket, shield, and magnet coils) of fusion reactor systems could be made smaller in mass and volume for a given net electric power output than is usually predicted for the mainline tokamak 1 and mirror concepts, the cost of the technological development of the core and the construction of power plants might be significantly reduced. Although progress in plasma physics and engineering approaches should continue to yield improvements in reactor designs, certain physics features of the mainline concepts may prevent major reductions in the size of the core without straining the limits of technology. However, more than a factor of ten reduction in volume and mass of the core, at constant output power, may be possible for a class of toroidal confinement concepts in which the confining magnetic fields are supported more by currents flowing in the plasma than those in the external coils. In spite of this dramatic increase in power density (ratio of total thermal output power to the volume of the core), the design of compact systems need not rely on any materials requirements that are qualitatively more difficult than those proposed for the lower-power-density mainline fusion concepts. In some respects compact systems require less of an extension of existing technology, e.g. magnetics

  5. Thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisse, J.

    2000-01-01

    This document takes stock of the two ways of thermonuclear fusion research explored today: magnetic confinement fusion and inertial confinement fusion. The basic physical principles are recalled first: fundamental nuclear reactions, high temperatures, elementary properties of plasmas, ignition criterion, magnetic confinement (charged particle in a uniform magnetic field, confinement and Tokamak principle, heating of magnetized plasmas (ohmic, neutral particles, high frequency waves, other heating means), results obtained so far (scale laws and extrapolation of performances, tritium experiments, ITER project), inertial fusion (hot spot ignition, instabilities, results (Centurion-Halite program, laser experiments). The second part presents the fusion reactor and its associated technologies: principle (tritium production, heat source, neutron protection, tritium generation, materials), magnetic fusion (superconducting magnets, divertor (role, principle, realization), inertial fusion (energy vector, laser adaptation, particle beams, reaction chamber, stresses, chamber concepts (dry and wet walls, liquid walls), targets (fabrication, injection and pointing)). The third chapter concerns the socio-economic aspects of thermonuclear fusion: safety (normal operation and accidents, wastes), costs (costs structure and elementary comparison, ecological impact and external costs). (J.S.)

  6. Fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of thermonuclear fusion devices currently under development are reviewed for an electric utilities management audience. Overall design features of laser fusion, tokamak, and magnetic mirror type reactors are described and illustrated. Thrusts and trends in current research on these devices that promise to improve performance are briefly reviewed. Twenty photographs and drawings are included

  7. Atomic fusion, Gerrard atomic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerrard, T.H.

    1980-01-01

    In the approach to atomic fusion described here the heat produced in a fusion reaction, which is induced in a chamber by the interaction of laser beams and U.H.F. electromagnetic beams with atom streams, is transferred to a heat exchanger for electricity generation by a coolant flowing through a jacket surrounding the chamber. (U.K.)

  8. DNA immunization with fusion of CTLA-4 to hepatitis B virus (HBV core protein enhanced Th2 type responses and cleared HBV with an accelerated kinetic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Typically, DNA immunization via the intramuscular route induces specific, Th1-dominant immune responses. However, plasmids expressing viral proteins fused to cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4 primed Th2-biased responses and were able to induced effective protection against viral challenge in the woodchuck model. Thus, we addressed the question in the mouse model how the Th1/Th2 bias of primed immune responses by a DNA vaccine influences hepatitis B virus (HBV clearance. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasmids expressing HBV core protein (HBcAg or HBV e antigen and HBcAg fused to the extracellular domain of CTLA-4 (pCTLA-4-HBc, CD27, and full length CD40L were constructed. Immunizations of these DNA plasmids induced HBcAg-specific antibody and cytotoxic T-cell responses in mice, but with different characteristics regarding the titers and subtypes of specific antibodies and intensity of T-cell responses. The plasmid pHBc expressing HBcAg induced an IgG2a-dominant response while immunizations of pCTLA-4-HBc induced a balanced IgG1/IgG2a response. To assess the protective values of the immune responses of different characteristics, mice were pre-immunized with pCTLA-4-HBc and pHBc, and challenged by hydrodynamic injection (HI of pAAV/HBV1.2. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg and DNA in peripheral blood and HBcAg in liver tissue were cleared with significantly accelerated kinetics in both groups. The clearance of HBsAg was completed within 16 days in immunized mice while more than 50% of the control mice are still positive for HBsAg on day 22. Stronger HBcAg-specific T-cell responses were primed by pHBc correlating with a more rapid decline of HBcAg expression in liver tissue, while anti-HBs antibody response developed rapidly in the mice immunized with pCTLA-4-HBc, indicating that the Th1/Th2 bias of vaccine-primed immune responses influences the mode of viral clearance. CONCLUSION: Viral clearance could be efficiently achieved by Th1/Th2-balanced

  9. Peaceful fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englert, Matthias [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Like other intense neutron sources fusion reactors have in principle a potential to be used for military purposes. Although the use of fissile material is usually not considered when thinking of fusion reactors (except in fusion-fission hybrid concepts) quantitative estimates about the possible production potential of future commercial fusion reactor concepts show that significant amounts of weapon grade fissile materials could be produced even with very limited amounts of source materials. In this talk detailed burnup calculations with VESTA and MCMATH using an MCNP model of the PPCS-A will be presented. We compare different irradiation positions and the isotopic vectors of the plutonium bred in different blankets of the reactor wall with the liquid lead-lithium alloy replaced by uranium. The technical, regulatory and policy challenges to manage the proliferation risks of fusion power will be addressed as well. Some of these challenges would benefit if addressed at an early stage of the research and development process. Hence, research on fusion reactor safeguards should start as early as possible and accompany the current research on experimental fusion reactors.

  10. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik

    1995-02-01

    So called 'cold fusion phenomena' are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording 4 He, 3 He, 3 H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of 4 He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author)

  11. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  12. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, D.E.T.F.

    1976-01-01

    A short survey is given on laser fusion its basic concepts and problems and the present theoretical and experimental methods. The future research program of the USA in this field is outlined. (WBU) [de

  13. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The efforts of the Chemical Technology Division in fusion energy include the areas of fuel handling, processing, and containment. Current studies are concerned largely with the development of vacuum pumps for fusion reactors and experiments and with development and evaluation of techniques for recovering tritium from solid or liquid breeding blankets. In addition, a small effort is devoted to support of the ORNL design of a major Tokamak experiment, The Next Step (TNS)

  14. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.; Oxford Univ.

    1990-04-01

    The use of lasers to drive implosions for the purpose of inertially confined fusion is an area of intense activity where progress compares favourably with that made in magnetic fusion and there are significant prospects for future development. In this brief review the basic concept is summarised and the current status is outlined both in the area of laser technology and in the most recent results from implosion experiments. Prospects for the future are also considered. (author)

  15. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-zaelic, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fusion can be relied on to solve the global energy crisis if the process of limiting the heat produced by the fusion reaction (Plasma) is successful. Currently scientists are progressively working on this aspect whereas there are two methods to limit the heat produced by fusion reaction, the two methods are auto-restriction using laser beam and magnetic restriction through the use of magnetic fields and research is carried out to improve these two methods. It is expected that at the end of this century the nuclear fusion energy will play a vital role in overcoming the global energy crisis and for these reasons, acquiring energy through the use of nuclear fusion reactors is one of the most urge nt demands of all mankind at this time. The conclusion given is that the source of fuel for energy production is readily available and inexpensive ( hydrogen atoms) and whole process is free of risks and hazards, especially to general health and the environment . Nuclear fusion importance lies in the fact that energy produced by the process is estimated to be about four to five times the energy produced by nuclear fission. (author)

  16. A human coronavirus responsible for the common cold massively kills dendritic cells but not monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesel-Lemoine, Mariana; Millet, Jean; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Law, Helen; Vabret, Astrid; Lorin, Valérie; Escriou, Nicolas; Albert, Matthew L; Nal, Béatrice; Tangy, Frédéric

    2012-07-01

    Human coronaviruses are associated with upper respiratory tract infections that occasionally spread to the lungs and other organs. Although airway epithelial cells represent an important target for infection, the respiratory epithelium is also composed of an elaborate network of dendritic cells (DCs) that are essential sentinels of the immune system, sensing pathogens and presenting foreign antigens to T lymphocytes. In this report, we show that in vitro infection by human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) induces massive cytopathic effects in DCs, including the formation of large syncytia and cell death within only few hours. In contrast, monocytes are much more resistant to infection and cytopathic effects despite similar expression levels of CD13, the membrane receptor for HCoV-229E. While the differentiation of monocytes into DCs in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-4 requires 5 days, only 24 h are sufficient for these cytokines to sensitize monocytes to cell death and cytopathic effects when infected by HCoV-229E. Cell death induced by HCoV-229E is independent of TRAIL, FasL, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and caspase activity, indicating that viral replication is directly responsible for the observed cytopathic effects. The consequence of DC death at the early stage of HCoV-229E infection may have an impact on the early control of viral dissemination and on the establishment of long-lasting immune memory, since people can be reinfected multiple times by HCoV-229E.

  17. Human coronavirus 229E encodes a single ORF4 protein between the spike and the envelope genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkhout Ben

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of coronaviruses contains structural and non-structural genes, including several so-called accessory genes. All group 1b coronaviruses encode a single accessory protein between the spike and envelope genes, except for human coronavirus (HCoV 229E. The prototype virus has a split gene, encoding the putative ORF4a and ORF4b proteins. To determine whether primary HCoV-229E isolates exhibit this unusual genome organization, we analyzed the ORF4a/b region of five current clinical isolates from The Netherlands and three early isolates collected at the Common Cold Unit (CCU in Salisbury, UK. Results All Dutch isolates were identical in the ORF4a/b region at amino acid level. All CCU isolates are only 98% identical to the Dutch isolates at the nucleotide level, but more closely related to the prototype HCoV-229E (>98%. Remarkably, our analyses revealed that the laboratory adapted, prototype HCoV-229E has a 2-nucleotide deletion in the ORF4a/b region, whereas all clinical isolates carry a single ORF, 660 nt in size, encoding a single protein of 219 amino acids, which is a homologue of the ORF3 proteins encoded by HCoV-NL63 and PEDV. Conclusion Thus, the genome organization of the group 1b coronaviruses HCoV-NL63, PEDV and HCoV-229E is identical. It is possible that extensive culturing of the HCoV-229E laboratory strain resulted in truncation of ORF4. This may indicate that the protein is not essential in cell culture, but the highly conserved amino acid sequence of the ORF4 protein among clinical isolates suggests that the protein plays an important role in vivo.

  18. Diversity and Evolutionary Histories of Human Coronaviruses NL63 and 229E Associated with Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khannaq, Maryam Nabiel; Ng, Kim Tien; Oong, Xiang Yong; Pang, Yong Kek; Takebe, Yutaka; Chook, Jack Bee; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2016-05-04

    The human alphacoronaviruses HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E are commonly associated with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Information on their molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics in the tropical region of southeast Asia however is limited. Here, we analyzed the phylogenetic, temporal distribution, population history, and clinical manifestations among patients infected with HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 2,060 consenting adults presented with acute URTI symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between 2012 and 2013. The presence of HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E was detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The spike glycoprotein, nucleocapsid, and 1a genes were sequenced for phylogenetic reconstruction and Bayesian coalescent inference. A total of 68/2,060 (3.3%) subjects were positive for human alphacoronavirus; HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E were detected in 45 (2.2%) and 23 (1.1%) patients, respectively. A peak in the number of HCoV-NL63 infections was recorded between June and October 2012. Phylogenetic inference revealed that 62.8% of HCoV-NL63 infections belonged to genotype B, 37.2% was genotype C, while all HCoV-229E sequences were clustered within group 4. Molecular dating analysis indicated that the origin of HCoV-NL63 was dated to 1921, before it diverged into genotype A (1975), genotype B (1996), and genotype C (2003). The root of the HCoV-229E tree was dated to 1955, before it diverged into groups 1-4 between the 1970s and 1990s. The study described the seasonality, molecular diversity, and evolutionary dynamics of human alphacoronavirus infections in a tropical region. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research on the titan-1 fusion power core. The major topics covered are: titan-1 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-1 divertor engineering; titan-1 tritium systems; titan-1 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-1 maintenance procedures.

  20. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research on the titan-1 fusion power core. The major topics covered are: titan-1 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-1 divertor engineering; titan-1 tritium systems; titan-1 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-1 maintenance procedures

  1. Basic characteristics of an efficient fusion breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, C W; Harms, A A [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    1977-01-01

    Some reactor physics characteristics of an efficient fusion breeder, consisting of an integrated fusion-fission reactor system with fissile and fusile fuel linkages, are examined. Core parameters of existing fission reactors and proposed fusion reactors are used to determine the system fissile fuel breeding gain, the fissile fuel doubling time, the nuclear fuel production capacity and the ratio of fusion-to-fission thermal power. It is concluded that such a symbiotic reactor configuration possesses considerable merit from the standpoint of long-term supply of fissile fuel and provides new options for the development of the next generation of nuclear energy systems.

  2. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this contribution the author the phenomenom of so-called cold fusion, inspired by the memorable lecture of Moshe Gai on his own search for this effect. Thus much of what follows was presented by Dr. Gai; the rest is from independent reading. What is referred to as cold fusion is of course the observation of possible products of deuteron-deuteron (d-d) fusion within deuterium-loaded (dentended) electrodes. The debate over the two vanguard cold fusion experiments has raged under far more public attention than usually accorded new scientific phenomena. The clamor commenced with the press conference of M. Fleishmann and S. Pons on March 23, 1989 and the nearly simultaneous wide circulation of a preprint of S. Jones and collaborators. The majority of work attempting to confirm these observations has at the time of this writing yet to appear in published form, but contributions to conferences and electronic mail over computer networks were certainly filled with preliminary results. To keep what follows to a reasonable length the author limit this discussion to the searches for neutron (suggested by ref. 2) or for excessive heat production (suggested by ref. 1), following a synopsis of the hypotheses of cold fusion

  3. Fusion events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fusion reactions between low energy heavy ions have a very high cross section. First measurements at energies around 30-40 MeV/nucleon indicated no residue of either complete or incomplete fusion, thus demonstrating the disappearance of this process. This is explained as being due to the high amount o energies transferred to the nucleus, what leads to its total dislocation in light fragments and particles. Exclusive analyses have permitted to mark clearly the presence of fusion processes in heavy systems at energies above 30-40 MeV/nucleon. Among the complete events of the Kr + Au reaction at 60 MeV/nucleon the majority correspond to binary collisions. Nevertheless, for the most considerable energy losses, a class of events do occur for which the detected fragments appears to be emitted from a unique source. These events correspond to an incomplete projectile-target fusion followed by a multifragmentation. Such events were singled out also in the reaction Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/nucleon. For the events in which the energy dissipation was maximal it was possible to isolate an isotropic group of events showing all the characteristics of fusion nuclei. The fusion is said to be incomplete as pre-equilibrium Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles are emitted. The cross section is of the order of 25 mb. Similar conclusions were drown for the systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. A cross section value of ∼ 20 mb was determined at 55 MeV/nucleon in the first case, while the measurement of evaporation light residues in the last system gave an upper limit of 20-30 mb for the cross section at 50 MeV/nucleon

  4. Nuclear core catchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, M.P.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Heylmun, N.F.

    1976-01-01

    A receptacle is described for taking the molten fragments of a nuclear reactor during a reactor core fusion accident. The receptacle is placed under the reactor. It includes at least one receptacle for the reactor core fragments, with a dome shaped part to distribute the molten fragments and at least one outside layer of alumina bricks around the dome. The characteristic of this receptacle is that the outer layer of bricks contains neutron poison rods which pass through the bricks and protrude in relation to them [fr

  5. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of the present state of knowledge in nuclear fusion research. In the first part, potential thermonuclear reactions, basic energy balances of the plasma (Lawson criterion), and the main criteria to be observed in the selection of appropriate thermonuclear reactions are dealt with. This is followed by a discussion of the problems encountered in plasma physics (plasma confinement and heating, transport processes, plasma impurities, plasma instabilities and plasma diagnostics) and by a consideration of the materials problems involved, such as material of the first wall, fuel inlet and outlet, magnetic field generation, as well as repair work and in-service inspections. Two main methods have been developed to tackle these problems: reactor concepts using the magnetic pinch (stellarator, Tokamak, High-Beta reactors, mirror machines) on the one hand, and the other concept using the inertial confinement (laser fusion reactor). These two approaches and their specific problems as well as past, present and future fusion experiments are treated in detail. The last part of the work is devoted to safety and environmental aspects of the potential thermonuclear aspects of the potential thermonuclear reactor, discussing such problems as fusion-specific hazards, normal operation and potential hazards, reactor incidents, environmental pollution by thermal effluents, radiological pollution, radioactive wastes and their disposal, and siting problems. (orig./GG) [de

  6. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  7. Magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project

  8. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Suk Yong; You, Jae Jun

    1996-01-01

    Nearly every technical information is chased in the world. All of them are reviewed and analyzed. Some of them are chosen to study further more to review every related documents. And a probable suggestion about the excitonic process in deuteron absorbed condensed matter is proposed a way to cold fusion. 8 refs. (Author)

  9. Prospects for improved fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Ideally, a new energy source must be capable of displacing old energy sources while providing both economic opportunities and enhanced environmental benefits. The attraction of an essentially unlimited fuel supply has generated a strong impetus to develop advanced fission breeders and, even more strongly, the exploitation of nuclear fusion. Both fission and fusion systems trade a reduced fuel charge for a more capital-intensive plant needed to utilize a cheaper and more abundant fuel. Results from early conceptual designs of fusion power plants, however, indicated a capital intensiveness that could override cost savings promised by an inexpensive fuel cycle. Early warnings of these problems appeared, and generalized routes to more economically attractive systems have been suggested; specific examples have also recently been given. Although a direct reduction in the cost (and mass) of the fusion power core (FPC, i.e., plasma chamber, first wall, blanket, shield, coils, and primary structure) most directly reduces the overall cost of fusion power, with the mass power density (MPD, ratio of net electric power to FPC mass, kWe/tonne) being suggested as a figure-of-merit in this respect, other technical, safety/environmental, and institutional issues also enter into the definition of and direction for improved fusion concepts. These latter issues and related tradeoffs are discussed

  10. Evidence for an Ancestral Association of Human Coronavirus 229E with Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Victor Max; Baldwin, Heather J; Tateno, Adriana Fumie; Zerbinati, Rodrigo Melim; Annan, Augustina; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Maganga, Gael Darren; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Vallo, Peter; da Silva Filho, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira; Leroy, Eric M; Thiel, Volker; van der Hoek, Lia; Poon, Leo L M; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2015-12-01

    We previously showed that close relatives of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) exist in African bats. The small sample and limited genomic characterizations have prevented further analyses so far. Here, we tested 2,087 fecal specimens from 11 bat species sampled in Ghana for HCoV-229E-related viruses by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Only hipposiderid bats tested positive. To compare the genetic diversity of bat viruses and HCoV-229E, we tested historical isolates and diagnostic specimens sampled globally over 10 years. Bat viruses were 5- and 6-fold more diversified than HCoV-229E in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and spike genes. In phylogenetic analyses, HCoV-229E strains were monophyletic and not intermixed with animal viruses. Bat viruses formed three large clades in close and more distant sister relationships. A recently described 229E-related alpaca virus occupied an intermediate phylogenetic position between bat and human viruses. According to taxonomic criteria, human, alpaca, and bat viruses form a single CoV species showing evidence for multiple recombination events. HCoV-229E and the alpaca virus showed a major deletion in the spike S1 region compared to all bat viruses. Analyses of four full genomes from 229E-related bat CoVs revealed an eighth open reading frame (ORF8) located at the genomic 3' end. ORF8 also existed in the 229E-related alpaca virus. Reanalysis of HCoV-229E sequences showed a conserved transcription regulatory sequence preceding remnants of this ORF, suggesting its loss after acquisition of a 229E-related CoV by humans. These data suggested an evolutionary origin of 229E-related CoVs in hipposiderid bats, hypothetically with camelids as intermediate hosts preceding the establishment of HCoV-229E. The ancestral origins of major human coronaviruses (HCoVs) likely involve bat hosts. Here, we provide conclusive genetic evidence for an evolutionary origin of the common cold virus HCoV-229E in hipposiderid bats by analyzing a large sample of African bats and characterizing several bat viruses on a full-genome level. Our evolutionary analyses show that animal and human viruses are genetically closely related, can exchange genetic material, and form a single viral species. We show that the putative host switches leading to the formation of HCoV-229E were accompanied by major genomic changes, including deletions in the viral spike glycoprotein gene and loss of an open reading frame. We reanalyze a previously described genetically related alpaca virus and discuss the role of camelids as potential intermediate hosts between bat and human viruses. The evolutionary history of HCoV-229E likely shares important characteristics with that of the recently emerged highly pathogenic Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D 2 molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D 2 fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into 4 He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; 3 He to 4 He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of 3 He/ 4 He

  12. Magnetic fusion; La fusion magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project.

  13. Splenogonadal Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Lang Chen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Splenogonadal fusion (SGF is a rare congenital non-malignant anomaly characterized by fusion of splenic tissue to the gonad, and can be continuous or discontinuous. Very few cases have been diagnosed preoperatively, and many patients who present with testicular swelling undergo unnecessary orchiectomy under the suspicion of testicular neoplasm. A 16-year-old boy presented with a left scrotal mass and underwent total excision of a 1.6-cm tumor without damaging the testis, epididymis or its accompanying vessels. Pathologic examination revealed SFG (discontinuous type. If clinically suspected before surgery, the diagnosis may be confirmed by Tc-99m sulfur colloid imaging, which shows uptake in both the spleen and accessory splenic tissue within the scrotum. Frozen section should be considered if there remains any doubt regarding the diagnosis during operation.

  14. Fusion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, N.J.

    1995-09-01

    This article traces developments in the spectroscopy of high temperature laboratory plasma used in controlled fusion research from the early 1960's until the present. These three and a half decades have witnessed many orders of magnitude increase in accessible plasma parameters such as density and temperature as well as particle and energy confinement timescales. Driven by the need to interpret the radiation in terms of the local plasma parameters, the thrust of fusion spectroscopy has been to develop our understanding of (i) the atomic structure of highly ionised atoms, usually of impurities in the hydrogen isotope fuel; (ii) the atomic collision rates and their incorporation into ionization structure and emissivity models that take into account plasma phenomena like plasma-wall interactions, particle transport and radiation patterns; (iii) the diagnostic applications of spectroscopy aided by increasingly sophisticated characterisation of the electron fluid. These topics are discussed in relation to toroidal magnetically confined plasmas, particularly the Tokamak which appears to be the most promising approach to controlled fusion to date. (author)

  15. Congress turns cold on fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, E.

    1984-01-01

    A 5% cut in fusion research budgets will force some programs to be dropped in order to keep the large machinery running unless US and European scientists collaborate instead of competing. Legislators became uneasy about the escalating costs of the new devices. The 1984 budget of $470 million for magnetic fusion research is only half the projected cost of the Tokomak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) planned to ignite, for the first time, a self-sustaining burn. Planning for the TCFX continued despite the message from Congress. Work at the large institutions at Princeton, MIT, etc. may survive at the expense of other programs, some of which will lose academic programs as well. Scientists point to the loss of new ideas and approaches when projects are cancelled. Enthusiasm is growing for international collaboration

  16. Proteomics Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Proteomics Core is the central resource for mass spectrometry based proteomics within the NHLBI. The Core staff help collaborators design proteomics experiments in a...

  17. The PWR cores management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barral, J.C.; Rippert, D.; Johner, J.

    2000-01-01

    During the meeting of the 25 january 2000, organized by the SFEN, scientists and plant operators in the domain of the PWR debated on the PWR cores management. The five first papers propose general and economic information on the PWR and also the fast neutron reactors chains in the electric power market: statistics on the electric power industry, nuclear plant unit management, the ITER project and the future of the thermonuclear fusion, the treasurer's and chairman's reports. A second part offers more technical papers concerning the PWR cores management: performance and optimization, in service load planning, the cores management in the other countries, impacts on the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  18. Environmental aspects of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.E.; Williams, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    With the continued depletion of fossil and uranium resources in the coming decades, the U. S. will be forced to look more toward renewable energy resources (e.g., wind, tidal, geothermal, and solar power) and toward such longer-term and nondepletable energy resources as fissile fast breeder reactors and fusion power. Several reference reactor designs have been completed for full-scale fusion power reactors that indicate that the environmental impacts from construction, operation, and eventual decommissioning of fusion reactors will be quite small. The principal environmental impact from fusion reactor operation will be from thermal discharges. Some of the safety and environmental characteristics that make fusion reactors appear attractive include an effectively infinite fuel supply at low cost, inherent incapability for a ''nuclear explosion'' or a ''nuclear runaway,'' the absence of fission products, the flexibility of selecting low neutron-cross-section structural materials so that emergency core cooling for a loss-of-coolant or other accident will not be necesary, and the absence of special nuclear materials such as 235 U or 239 Pu, so that diversion of nuclear weapons materials will not be possible and nuclear blackmail will not be a serious concern

  19. Fusion Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weynants, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    A concise overview is given of the principles of inertial and magnetic fusion, with an emphasis on the latter in view of the aim of this summer school. The basis of magnetic confinement in mirror and toroidal geometry is discussed and applied to the tokamak concept. A brief discussion of the reactor prospects of this configuration identifies which future developments are crucial and where alternative concepts might help in optimising the reactor design. The text also aims at introducing the main concepts encountered in tokamak research that will be studied and used in the subsequent lectures

  20. Fusion Canada issue 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Fusion Materials Research, ITER physics research, fusion performance record at JET, and design options for reactor building. 4 figs

  1. Laser induced photonuclear and fusion-reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LoDato, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The energy release from the fusion-fission pellets is demonstrated. It is shown that the coupling of the fusion-fission process is extremely efficient provided one can obtain the proper compression heating. The pellet of an outer core of (Li6D-Li6T) with an inner core of U238 is shown to be an efficient and practical fuel and can be ignited by the present generation of lasers to produce thermonuclear burn. The demonstration of the efficiency for photonuclear and photofission pellets is shown. However no suitable gamma ray source exists at present to initiate these processes. (orig.) [de

  2. Core labeling of adenovirus with EGFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Long P.; Le, Helen N.; Nelson, Amy R.; Matthews, David A.; Yamamoto, Masato; Curiel, David T.

    2006-01-01

    The study of adenovirus could greatly benefit from diverse methods of virus detection. Recently, it has been demonstrated that carboxy-terminal EGFP fusions of adenovirus core proteins Mu, V, and VII properly localize to the nucleus and display novel function in the cell. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that the core proteins may serve as targets for labeling the adenovirus core with fluorescent proteins. To this end, we constructed various chimeric expression vectors with fusion core genes (Mu-EGFP, V-EGFP, preVII-EGFP, and matVII-EGFP) while maintaining expression of the native proteins. Expression of the fusion core proteins was suboptimal using E1 expression vectors with both conventional CMV and modified (with adenovirus tripartite leader sequence) CMV5 promoters, resulting in non-labeled viral particles. However, robust expression equivalent to the native protein was observed when the fusion genes were placed in the deleted E3 region. The efficient Ad-wt-E3-V-EGFP and Ad-wt-E3-preVII-EGFP expression vectors were labeled allowing visualization of purified virus and tracking of the viral core during early infection. The vectors maintained their viral function, including viral DNA replication, viral DNA encapsidation, cytopathic effect, and thermostability. Core labeling offers a means to track the adenovirus core in vector targeting studies as well as basic adenovirus virology

  3. Identification of a new human coronavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoek, Lia; Pyrc, Krzysztof; Jebbink, Maarten F.; Vermeulen-Oost, Wilma; Berkhout, Ron J. M.; Wolthers, Katja C.; Wertheim-van Dillen, Pauline M. E.; Kaandorp, Jos; Spaargaren, Joke; Berkhout, Ben

    2004-01-01

    Three human coronaviruses are known to exist: human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), HCoV-OC43 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Here we report the identification of a fourth human coronavirus, HCoV-NL63, using a new method of virus discovery. The virus was

  4. Human Coronaviruses 229E and NL63: Close Yet Still So Far

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Ronald; van der Hoek, Lia

    2009-01-01

    HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E are two of the four human coronaviruses that circulate worldwide. These two viruses are unique in their relationship towards each other. Phylogenetically, the viruses are more closely related to each other than to any other human coronavirus, yet they only share 65% sequence

  5. Isolation and characterization of current human coronavirus strains in primary human epithelial cell cultures reveal differences in target cell tropism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Ronald; Jebbink, Maarten F.; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; Deijs, Martin; Jónsdóttir, Hulda R.; Molenkamp, Richard; Ieven, Margareta; Goossens, Herman; Thiel, Volker; van der Hoek, Lia

    2013-01-01

    The human airway epithelium (HAE) represents the entry port of many human respiratory viruses, including human coronaviruses (HCoVs). Nowadays, four HCoVs, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-NL63, are known to be circulating worldwide, causing upper and lower respiratory tract infections in

  6. Revitalizing Fusion via Fission Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2001-10-01

    Existing tokamaks could generate significant nuclear fuel. TFTR, operating steady state with DT might generate enough fuel for a 300 MW nuclear reactor. The immediate goals of the magnetic fusion program would necessarily shift from a study of advanced plasma regimes in larger sized devices, to mostly known plasmas regimes, but at steady state or high duty cycle operation in DT plasmas. The science and engineering of breeding blankets would be equally important. Follow on projects could possibly produce nuclear fuel in large quantity at low price. Although today there is strong opposition to nuclear power in the United States, in a 21st century world of 10 billion people, all of whom will demand a middle class life style, nuclear energy will be important. Concern over greenhouse gases will also drive the world toward nuclear power. There are studies indicating that the world will need 10 TW of carbon free energy by 2050. It is difficult to see how this can be achieved without the breeding of nuclear fuel. By using the thorium cycle, proliferation risks are minimized. [1], [2]. 1 W. Manheimer, Fusion Technology, 36, 1, 1999, 2.W. Manheimer, Physics and Society, v 29, #3, p5, July, 2000

  7. Catalysed fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Farley, Francis

    2012-01-01

    A sizzling romance and a romp with subatomic particles at CERN. Love, discovery and adventure in the city where nations meet and beams collide. Life in a large laboratory. As always, the challenges are the same. Who leads? Who follows? Who succeeds? Who gets the credit? Who gets the women or the men? Young Jeremy arrives in CERN and joins the quest for green energy. Coping with baffling jargon and manifold dangers, he is distracted by radioactive rats, lovely ladies and an unscrupulous rival. Full of doubts and hesitations, he falls for a dazzling Danish girl, who leads him astray. His brilliant idea leads to a discovery and a new route to cold fusion. But his personal life is scrambled. Does it bring fame or failure? Tragedy or triumph?

  8. Fusion cuisine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Chris; Broersma, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    JJournalism studies as an academic field is characterized by multidisciplinarity. Focusing on one object of study, journalism and the news, it established itself by integrating and synthesizing approaches from established disciplines – a tendency that lives on today. This constant gaze to the out......JJournalism studies as an academic field is characterized by multidisciplinarity. Focusing on one object of study, journalism and the news, it established itself by integrating and synthesizing approaches from established disciplines – a tendency that lives on today. This constant gaze...... to the outside for conceptual inspiration and methodological tools lends itself to a journalism studies that is a fusion cuisine of media, communication, and related scholarship. However, what happens when this object becomes as fragmented and multifaceted as the ways we study it? This essay addresses...

  9. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: overview of titan-2 design; titan-2 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-2 divertor engineering; titan-2 tritium systems; titan-2 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-2 maintenance procedures

  10. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: overview of titan-2 design; titan-2 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-2 divertor engineering; titan-2 tritium systems; titan-2 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-2 maintenance procedures.

  11. Towards nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The results of nuclear fusion researches in JAERI are summarized. In this report, following themes are collected: the concept of fusion reactor (including ITER), fusion reactor safety, plasma confinement, fusion reactor equipment, and so on. Includes glossary. (J.P.N.)

  12. Fusion Canada issue 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue the Canada - US fusion meeting in Montreal, fusion breeder work in Chile, new management at CFFTP, fast electrons in tokamaks: new data from TdeV, a program review of CCFM and Velikhov to address Montreal fusion meeting. 1 fig

  13. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Summaries of research are included for each of the following topics: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of fusion concepts, (4) the MACK/MACKLIB system for nuclear response functions, and (5) energy storage and power supply systems for fusion reactors

  14. Heavy-ion accelerator research for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers a most attractive long-term solution to the problem of future energy supplies: The fuel is virtually inexhaustible and the fusion reaction is notably free of long-lived radioactive by-products. Also, because the fuel is in the form of a plasma, there is no solid fuel core that could melt down. The DOE supports two major fusion research programs to exploit these virtues, one based on magnetic confinement and a second on inertial confinement. One part of the program aimed at inertial fusion is known as Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, or HIFAR. In this booklet, the aim is to place this effort in the context of fusion research generally, to review the brief history of heavy-ion fusion, and to describe the current status of the HIFAR program

  15. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Research during this report period has covered the following areas: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of fusion concepts, (4) MACKLIB-IV, a new library of nuclear response functions, (5) energy storage and power supply requirements for commercial fusion reactors, (6) blanket/shield design evaluation for commercial fusion reactors, and (7) cross section measurements, evaluations, and techniques

  16. Fusion fuel and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entler, Slavomir

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that fusion fuel meets all aspects applied when defining renewables. A table of definitions of renewables is presented. The sections of the paper are as follows: An industrial renewable source; Nuclear fusion; Current situation in research; Definitions of renewable sources; Energy concept of nuclear fusion; Fusion fuel; Natural energy flow; Environmental impacts; Fusion fuel assessment; Sustainable power; and Energy mix from renewables. (P.A.)

  17. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R ampersand D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R ampersand D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase

  18. Image fusion tool: Validation by phantom measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, A.; Geworski, L.; Richter, M.; Ivancevic, V.; Munz, D.L.; Muehler, M.; Ditt, H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Validation of a new image fusion tool with regard to handling, application in a clinical environment and fusion precision under different acquisition and registration settings. Methods: The image fusion tool investigated allows fusion of imaging modalities such as PET, CT, MRI. In order to investigate fusion precision, PET and MRI measurements were performed using a cylinder and a body contour-shaped phantom. The cylinder phantom (diameter and length 20 cm each) contained spheres (10 to 40 mm in diameter) which represented 'cold' or 'hot' lesions in PET measurements. The body contour-shaped phantom was equipped with a heart model containing two 'cold' lesions. Measurements were done with and without four external markers placed on the phantoms. The markers were made of plexiglass (2 cm diameter and 1 cm thickness) and contained a Ga-Ge-68 core for PET and Vitamin E for MRI measurements. Comparison of fusion results with and without markers was done visually and by computer assistance. This algorithm was applied to the different fusion parameters and phantoms. Results: Image fusion of PET and MRI data without external markers yielded a measured error of 0 resulting in a shift at the matrix border of 1.5 mm. Conclusion: The image fusion tool investigated allows a precise fusion of PET and MRI data with a translation error acceptable for clinical use. The error is further minimized by using external markers, especially in the case of missing anatomical orientation. Using PET the registration error depends almost only on the low resolution of the data

  19. Fusion Plasma Theory: Task 1, Magnetic confinement Fusion Plasma Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The research performed under this grant during the current year has concentrated on few tokamak plasma confinement issues: applications of our new Chapman-Enskog-like approach for developing hybrid fluid/kinetic descriptions of tokamak plasmas; multi-faceted studies as part of our development of a new interacting island paradigm for the tokamak equilibrium'' and transport; investigations of the resolution power of BES and ECE diagnostics for measuring core plasma fluctuations; and studies of net transport in the presence of fluctuating surfaces. Recent progress and publications in these areas, and in the management of the NERSC node and the fusion theory workstations are summarized briefly in this report

  20. Fusion technology: The Iter fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    Plans for the Iter international fusion experiment, in which the European Union, Japan, Canada, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, and the USA cooperate, were begun in 1985, and construction work started in early 1994. These activities serve for the preparation of the design and construction documents for a research reactor in which a stable fusion plasma is to be generated. This is to be the basis for the construction of a fusion reactor for electricity generation. Preparatory work was performed in the Tokamak experiments with JET and TFTR. The fusion power of 1.5 GW will be attained, thus enabling Iter to keep a deuterium-tritium plasma burning. (orig.) [de

  1. Review of fusion synfuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high-temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 65% are projected for fusion reactors using high-temperatures blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion

  2. Barriers to fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriman, A.C.; Butt, R.D.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D.J.; Morton, C.R.; Newton, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    The fusion barrier is formed by the combination of the repulsive Coulomb and attractive nuclear forces. Recent research at the Australian National University has shown that when heavy nuclei collide, instead of a single fusion barrier, there is a set of fusion barriers. These arise due to intrinsic properties of the interacting nuclei such deformation, rotations and vibrations. Thus the range of barrier energies depends on the properties of both nuclei. The transfer of matter between nuclei, forming a neck, can also affect the fusion process. High precision data have been used to determine fusion barrier distributions for many nuclear reactions, leading to new insights into the fusion process

  3. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  4. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  5. Fusion reactor design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Santarius, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the ARIES tokamak: systems; plasma power balance; impurity control and fusion ash removal; fusion product ripple loss; energy conversion; reactor fueling; first wall design; shield design; reactor safety; and fuel cost and resources

  6. Laser fusion: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, K.

    1975-01-01

    The laser fusion concept is described along with developments in neodymium and carbon dioxide lasers. Fuel design and fabrication are reviewed. Some spin-offs of the laser fusion program are discussed. (U.S.)

  7. Fusion Canada issue 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue TdeV tokamak updates, fusion research in Korea, CCFM program review, TdeV divertor plasma, and CFFTP program review. 4 figs.

  8. Fusion Canada issue 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue ITER reactor siting, a major upgrade for TdeV tokamak, Ceramic Breeders: new tritium mapping technique and Joint Fusion Symposium. 2 figs

  9. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  10. Fusion Canada issue 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue TdeV tokamak updates, fusion research in Korea, CCFM program review, TdeV divertor plasma, and CFFTP program review. 4 figs

  11. Canada's Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada's fusion strategy is based on developing specialized technologies in well-defined areas and supplying these technologies to international fusion projects. Two areas are specially emphasized in Canada: engineered fusion system technologies, and specific magnetic confinement and materials studies. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project focuses on the first of these areas. It tritium and fusion reactor fuel systems, remote maintenance and related safety studies. In the second area, the Centre Canadian de fusion magnetique operates the Tokamak de Varennes, the main magnetic fusion device in Canada. Both projects are partnerships linking the Government of Canada, represented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and provincial governments, electrical utilities, universities and industry. Canada's program has extensive international links, through which it collaborates with the major world fusion programs, including participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

  12. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Information is given on each of the following topics: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of CTR concepts, and (4) cross section measurements and techniques

  13. Fusion Canada issue 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a funding report for CFFTP, a technical update for Tokamak de Varennes and a network for university research by the National Fusion Program. 4 figs

  14. The need and prospects for improved fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.; Miller, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Conceptual fusion reactor studies over the past 10-15 yr have projected systems that may be too large, complex, and costly to be of commercial interest. One main direction for improved fusion reactors points toward smaller, higher-power-density approaches. First-order economic issues (i.e., unit direct cost and cost of electricity) are used to support the need for more compact fusion reactors. The results of a number of recent conceptual designs of reversed-field pinch, spheromak, and tokamak fusion reactors are summarized as examples of more compact approaches. While a focus has been placed on increasing the fusion-power-core mass power density beyond the minimum economic threshold of 100-200 kWe/tonne, other means by which the overall attractiveness of fusion as a long-term energy source are also addressed

  15. Core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, N G; Edel' man, Ya A

    1981-02-15

    A core lifter is suggested which contains a housing, core-clamping elements installed in the housing depressions in the form of semirings with projections on the outer surface restricting the rotation of the semirings in the housing depressions. In order to improve the strength and reliability of the core lifter, the semirings have a variable transverse section formed from the outside by the surface of the rotation body of the inner arc of the semiring aroung the rotation axis and from the inner a cylindrical surface which is concentric to the outer arc of the semiring. The core-clamping elements made in this manner have the possibility of freely rotating in the housing depressions under their own weight and from contact with the core sample. These semirings do not have weakened sections, have sufficient strength, are inserted into the limited ring section of the housing of the core lifter without reduction in its through opening and this improve the reliability of the core lifter in operation.

  16. Fusion Canada issue 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the ITER agreement signed with the EDA, the robotic maintenance for NET, the CFFTP Fusion Pilot Study, the new IEA joint programs on environment, safety and economic aspects of fusion power, and a review by the CCFM advisory committee. 3 figs.

  17. User's perspective on fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    The need in fusion, from the electric utilities viewpoint, is for fusion to be a real option, not huge, complicated nuclear plants costing $10 billion each and requiring restructuring the energy industry to provide and use them. A course for future fusion reactor work in order to be a real option is discussed. The advantages of alternate concepts to the tokamak are presented

  18. Fusion Canada issue 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs

  19. Fusion Canada issue 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the ITER agreement signed with the EDA, the robotic maintenance for NET, the CFFTP Fusion Pilot Study, the new IEA joint programs on environment, safety and economic aspects of fusion power, and a review by the CCFM advisory committee. 3 figs

  20. CO2-laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, E.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The basic concept of laser fusion is described, with a set of requirements on the laser system. Systems and applications concepts are presented and discussed. The CO 2 laser's characteristics and advantages for laser fusion are described. Finally, technological issues in the development of CO 2 laser systems for fusion applications are discussed

  1. Fusion Canada issue 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs.

  2. Heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    This report on the International Symposium on Heavy Ion Fusion held May 27-29, 1986 summarizes the problems and achievements in the areas of targets, accelerators, focussing, reactor studies, and system studies. The symposium participants recognize that there are large uncertainties in Heavy Ion Fusion but many of them are also optimistic that HIF may ultimately be the best approach to fusion

  3. Fusion Canada issue 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs.

  4. Fusion Canada issue 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue an economic impact study of the Canadian site for ITER, Harvey Skarsgard: fusion pioneer retires, NFP: Phillips and Holtslander exchange roles, Europe's fusion funding proposals and an update of CCFM/TdeV. 1 fig

  5. Fusion reactors - types - problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitter, K.H.

    1979-07-01

    A short account is given of the principles of fusion reactions and of the expected advantages of fusion reactors. Descriptions are presented of various Tokamak experimental devices being developed in a number of countries and of some mirror machines. The technical obstacles to be overcome before a fusion reactor could be self-supporting are discussed. (U.K.)

  6. Cold fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy

  7. Fusion Canada issue 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs

  8. Philosophy and physics of predemonstration fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    A PDFD will operate in the 1980's and must provide the plasma and plasma support technology information necessary to warrant design, construction, and operation of succeeding experimental power reactors and then the demonstration plant. The PDFD must be prototypical of economic fusion devices to justify its cost. Therefore, development of the fusion core will be the focus of the PDFD. The physics performance, power production objectives, and characteristics of the PDFD, and their relationship to the research and development needs to achieve them are outlined. The design criteria for a PDFD which satisfied these constraints will be established

  9. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azekura, Kazuo; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1992-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, a great number of pipes (spectral shift pipes) are disposed in the reactor core. Moderators having a small moderating cross section (heavy water) are circulated in the spectral shift pipes to suppress the excess reactivity while increasing the conversion ratio at an initial stage of the operation cycle. After the intermediate stage of the operation cycle in which the reactor core reactivity is lowered, reactivity is increased by circulating moderators having a great moderating cross section (light water) to extend the taken up burnup degree. Further, neutron absorbers such as boron are mixed to the moderator in the spectral shift pipe to control the concentration thereof. With such a constitution, control rods and driving mechanisms are no more necessary, to simplify the structure of the reactor core. This can increase the fuel conversion ratio and control great excess reactivity. Accordingly, a nuclear reactor core of high conversion and high burnup degree can be attained. (I.N.)

  10. Ice Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  11. Conflicting views on the membrane fusion machinery and the fusion pore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob B

    2009-01-01

    of the assembly of the fusogenic SNARE-complex. Here, I review conflicting views on the function of the core fusion machinery consisting of the SNAREs, Munc18, complexin, and synaptotagmin. Munc18 controls docking of vesicles to the plasma membrane and initial SNARE-complex assembly, whereas complexin...

  12. Viral membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism

  13. Viral membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  14. Fusion technology 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, C.; Gasparatto, M.; Knoepfel, H.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the biennial series of symposia on the title subject, organized by the European Fusion Laboratories, is the exchange of information on the design, construction and operation of fusion experiments and on the technology being developed for the next step devices and fusion reactors. The coverage of the volume includes the technological aspects of fusion reactors in relation to new developments, this forming a guideline for the definition of future work. These proceedings comprise three volumes and contain both the invited lectures and contributed papers presented at the symposium which was attended by 569 participants from around the globe. The 343 papers, including 12 invited papers, characterize the increasing interest of industry in the fusion programme, giving a broad and current overview on the progress and trends fusion technology is experiencing now, as well as indicating the future for fusion devices

  15. Alternate fusion -- continuous inertial confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.C.; Turner, L.; Nebel, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors argue that alternate approaches to large tokamak confinement are appropriate for fusion applications if: (1) They do not require magnetic confinement of a much higher quality than demonstrated in tokamaks; (2) Their physics basis may be succinctly stated and experimentally tested; (3) They offer near-term applications to important technical problems; and (4) Their cost to proof-of-principle is low enough to be consistent with current budget realities. An approach satisfying all of these criteria is presented. Fusion systems based on continuous inertial confinement are described. In these approaches, the inertia of a nonequilibrium plasma is used to produce local concentrations of plasma density in space and/or time. One implementation (inertial electrostatic confinement) which has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically uses a system of electrostatic grids to accelerate plasma ions toward a spherical focus. This system produced a steady 2 x 10 10 D-T neutrons/second with an overall fusion gain of 10 -5 in a sphere of about 9 cm radius. Recent theoretical developments show how to raise the fusion gain to order unity or greater by replacing the internal grids by a combination of applied magnetic and electrostatic fields. In these approaches, useful thermonuclear conditions may be produced in a system as small as a few mm radius. Confinement is that of a nonneutralized plasma. A pure electron plasma with a radial beam velocity distribution is absolutely confined by an applied Penning trap field. Spherical convergence of the confined electrons forms a deep virtual cathode near r = 0, in which thermonuclear ions are absolutely confined at useful densities. The authors have examined the equilibrium, stability, and classical relaxation of such systems, and obtained many positive physics results. Equilibria exist for both pure electron and partially charge-neutralized systems with arbitrarily high core-plasma densities

  16. Economics of fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics

  17. Economics of fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1977-10-15

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics.

  18. Recycling fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooms, L.

    2005-01-01

    The inherent safety and environmental advantages of fusion power in comparison with other energy sources play an important role in the public acceptance. No waste burden for future generations is therefore one of the main arguments to decide for fusion power. The waste issue has thus been studied in several documents and the final conclusion of which it is stated that there is no permanent disposal waste needed if recycling is applied. But recycling of fusion reactor materials is far to be obvious regarding mostly the very high specific activity of the materials to be handled, the types of materials and the presence of tritium. The main objective of research performed by SCK-CEN is to study the possible ways of recycling fusion materials and analyse the challenges of the materials management from fusion reactors, based on current practices used in fission reactors and the requirements for the manufacture of fusion equipment

  19. The controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    After some generalities on particle physics, and on fusion and fission reactions, the author outlines that the fission reaction is easier to obtain than the fusion reaction, evokes the fusion which takes place in stars, and outlines the difficulty to manage and control this reaction: one of its application is the H bomb. The challenge is therefore to find a way to control this reaction and make it a steady and continuous source of energy. The author then presents the most promising way: the magnetic confinement fusion. He evokes its main issues, the already performed experiments (tokamak), and gives a larger presentation of the ITER project. Then, he evokes another way, the inertial confinement fusion, and the two main experimental installations (National Ignition Facility in Livermore, and the Laser Megajoule in Bordeaux). Finally, he gives a list of benefits and drawbacks of an industrial nuclear fusion

  20. Laser fusion overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.

    1976-01-01

    Because of recent breakthroughs in the target area, and in the glass laser area, the scientific feasibility of laser fusion--and of inertial fusion--may be demonstrated in the early 1980's. Then the development in that time period of a suitable laser (or storage ring or other driving source) would make possible an operational inertial fusion reactor in this century. These are roughly the same time scales as projected by the Tokamak magnetic confinement approach. It thus appears that the 15-20 year earlier start by magnetic confinement fusion may be overcome. Because inertial confinement has been demonstrated, and inertial fusion reactors may operate on smaller scales than Tokamaks, laser fusion may have important technical and economic advantages

  1. Synthetic fuels and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J A; Powell, J; Steinberg, M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)

    1981-03-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. equal to 40-60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. equal to 50-70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long-term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  2. Application of fusion plasma technology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, Z.A.

    1976-06-01

    This report presents principal findings of studies conducted at Iowa State on Applications of Fusion Plasma Technology. Two tasks were considered. The first was to identify and investigate plasma processes for near term industrial applications of already developed plasma technology. The second was to explore the potential of reprocessing the fuel for fusion test facilities in a closed-cycle system. For the first task, two applications were considered. One was alumina reduction in magnetically confined plasmas, and the other was uranium enrichment using plasma centrifuges. For the second task, in-core and ex-core plasma purification were considered. Separation techniques that are compatible with the plasma state were identified and preliminary analysis of their effectiveness were carried out. The effects of differential ionization of impurities on the separation effectiveness are considered. Possible technical difficulties in both tasks are identified and recommendations for future work are given

  3. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Tetsuaki; Nomura, Teiji; Tokunaga, Kensuke; Okuda, Shin-ichi

    1990-01-01

    Fuel assemblies in the portions where the gradient of fast neutron fluxes between two opposing faces of a channel box is great are kept loaded at the outermost peripheral position of the reactor core also in the second operation cycle in the order to prevent interference between a control rod and the channel box due to bending deformation of the channel box. Further, the fuel assemblies in the second row from the outer most periphery in the first operation cycle are also kept loaded at the second row in the second operation cycle. Since the gradient of the fast neutrons in the reactor core is especially great at the outer circumference of the reactor core, the channel box at the outer circumference is bent such that the surface facing to the center of the reactor core is convexed and the channel box in the second row is also bent to the identical direction, the insertion of the control rod is not interfered. Further, if the positions for the fuels at the outermost periphery and the fuels in the second row are not altered in the second operation cycle, the gaps are not reduced to prevent the interference between the control rod and the channel box. (N.H.)

  4. Magnetic-fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    In February 1980, the Director of Energy Research requested that the Energy Research Advisory Board (ERAB) review the Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetic Fusion Program. Of particular concern to the DOE was the judicious choice of the next major steps toward demonstration of economic power production from fusion. Of equal concern was the overall soundness of the DOE Magnetic Fusion Program: its pace, scope, and funding profiles. Their finding and recommendations are included

  5. Magnetic fusion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Fusion Technology describes the technologies that are required for successful development of nuclear fusion power plants using strong magnetic fields. These technologies include: ? magnet systems, ? plasma heating systems, ? control systems, ? energy conversion systems, ? advanced materials development, ? vacuum systems, ? cryogenic systems, ? plasma diagnostics, ? safety systems, and ? power plant design studies. Magnetic Fusion Technology will be useful to students and to specialists working in energy research.

  6. Status of fusion maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Effective maintenance will be an essential ingredient in determining fusion system productivity. This level of productivity will result only after close attention is paid to the entire system as an entity and appropriate integration of the elements is made. The status of fusion maintenance is reviewed in the context of the entire system. While there are many challenging developmental tasks ahead in fusion maintenance, the required technologies are available in several high-technology industries, including nuclear fission

  7. Fusion facility siting considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussell, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. A critically important consideration in this regard is site selection. The purpose of this paper is to examine major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion

  8. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  9. Nuclear fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinghee, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this chapter, fusion is compared with other inexhaustible energy sources. Research is currently being conducted both within and outside the USA. The current confinement principles of thermonuclear reactions are reveiwed with the discussion of economics mainly focusing on the magnetic confinement concepts. Environmental, health and safety factors are of great concern to the public and measures are being taken to address them. The magnetic fusion program logic and the inertial fusion program logic are compared

  10. Fusion technology applications of the spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.C.; Akers, R.; Allfrey, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Fusion technology applications of the spherical tokamak are presented, exploiting its high β capability, normal conducting TF coils, compact core, high natural elongation, disruption resilience and low capital cost. We concentrate here on two particular applications: a volume neutron source (VNS) for component testing and a power plant, addressing engineering and physics issues for steady state operation. The prospect of nearer term burning plasma ST devices are discussed in the conclusions. (author)

  11. Fusion technology applications of the spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.C.; Akers, R.; Allfrey, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    Fusion technology applications of the spherical tokamak are presented, exploiting its high β capability, normal conducting TF coils, compact core, high natural elongation, disruption resilience and low capital cost. We concentrate here on two particular applications: a volume neutron source (VNS) for component testing and a power plant, addressing engineering and physics issues for steady state operation. The prospect of nearer term burning plasma ST devices are discussed in the conclusions. (author)

  12. Atomic and molecular processes in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janev, R.K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-01-01

    The role of atomic and molecular processes in achieving and maintaining the conditions for thermonuclear burn in a magnetically confined fusion plasma is described. Emphasis is given to the energy balance and power and particle exhaust issues. The most important atomic and molecular processes which affect the radiation losses and impurity transport in the core plasma, the neutral particle transport in the plasma edge and the radiative cooling of divertor plasmas are discussed in greater detail. (author)

  13. Inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.

    1977-01-01

    The principal goal of the inertial confinement fusion program is the development of a practical fusion power plant in this century. Rapid progress has been made in the four major areas of ICF--targets, drivers, fusion experiments, and reactors. High gain targets have been designed. Laser, electron beam, and heavy ion accelerator drivers appear to be feasible. Record-breaking thermonuclear conditions have been experimentally achieved. Detailed diagnostics of laser implosions have confirmed predictions of the LASNEX computer program. Experimental facilities are being planned and constructed capable of igniting high gain fusion microexplosions in the mid 1980's. A low cost long lifetime reactor design has been developed

  14. Inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decroisette, M.; Andre, M.; Bayer, C.; Juraszek, D.; Le Garrec, B.; Deutsch, C.; Migus, A.

    2005-01-01

    We first recall the scientific basis of inertial fusion and then describe a generic fusion reactor with the different components: the driver, the fusion chamber, the material treatment unit, the target factory and the turbines. We analyse the options proposed at the present time for the driver and for target irradiation scheme giving the state of art for each approach. We conclude by the presentation of LMJ (laser Megajoule) and NIF (national ignition facility) projects. These facilities aim to demonstrate the feasibility of laboratory DT ignition, first step toward Inertial Fusion Energy. (authors)

  15. Laser fusion program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    This program is structured to proceed through a series of well defined fusion milestones to proof of the scientific feasibility, of laser fusion with the Shiva Nova system. Concurrently, those key technical areas, such as advanced lasers, which are required to progress beyond proof of feasibility, are being studied. We have identified and quantified the opportunities and key technical issues in military applications, such as weapons effects simulations, and in civilian applications, such as central-station electric power production. We summarize the current status and future plans for the laser fusion program at LLL, emphasizing the civilian applications of laser fusion

  16. Frontiers in fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Frontiers in Fusion Research provides a systematic overview of the latest physical principles of fusion and plasma confinement. It is primarily devoted to the principle of magnetic plasma confinement, that has been systematized through 50 years of fusion research. Frontiers in Fusion Research begins with an introduction to the study of plasma, discussing the astronomical birth of hydrogen energy and the beginnings of human attempts to harness the Sun's energy for use on Earth. It moves on to chapters that cover a variety of topics such as: * charged particle motion, * plasma kinetic theory, *

  17. Fusion of Nonionic Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, Sanja; Oskolkova, M. Z.; Schweins, R.

    2010-01-01

    We present an experimental study of vesicle fusion using light and neutron scattering to monitor fusion events. Vesicles are reproducibly formed with an extrusion procedure using an single amphiphile triethylene glycol mono-n-decyl ether in water. They show long-term stability for temperatures ar...... a barrier to fusion changing from 15 k(B)T at T = 26 degrees C to 10k(H) T at T = 35 degrees C. These results are compatible with the theoretical predictions using the stalk model of vesicle fusion....

  18. Fusion reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    Nuclear fusion could soon become a viable energy source. Work in plasma physics, fusion technology and fusion safety is progressing rapidly in a number of Member States and international collaboration continues on work aiming at the demonstration of fusion power generation. Safety of fusion reactors and technological and radiological aspects of waste management are important aspects in the development and design of fusion machines. In order to provide an international forum to review and discuss the status and the progress made since 1983 in programmes related to operational safety aspects of fusion reactors, their waste management and decommissioning concepts, the IAEA had organized the Technical Committee on ''Fusion Reactor Safety'' in Culham, 3-7 November 1986. All presentations of this meeting were divided into four sessions: 1. Statements on National-International Fusion Safety Programmes (5 papers); 2. Operation and System Safety (15 papers); 3. Waste Management and Decommissioning (5 papers); 4. Environmental Impacts (6 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 31 papers. Refs, figs, tabs

  19. Magnetic fusion reactor economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission → fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ''burner'' far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ''implementation-by-default'' plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant

  20. Complexity and availability for fusion power plants: The potential advantages of inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Probably the single largest advantage of the inertial route to fusion energy (IFE) is the perception that its power plant embodiments could achieve acceptable capacity factors. This is a result of its relative simplicity, the decoupling of the driver and reactor chamber, and the potential to employ thick liquid walls. The author examines these issues in terms of the complexity, reliability, maintainability and, therefore, availability of both magnetic and inertial fusion power plants and compares these factors with corresponding scheduled and unscheduled outage data from present day fission experience. The author stresses that, given the simple nature of a fission core, the vast majority of unplanned outages in fission plants are due to failures outside the reactor vessel itself. Given one must be prepared for similar outages in the analogous plant external to a fusion power core, this puts severe demands on the reliability required of the fusion core itself. The author indicates that such requirements can probably be met for IFE plants. He recommends that this advantage be promoted by performing a quantitative reliability and availability study for a representative IFE power plant and suggests that databases are probably adequate for this task. 40 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Complexity versus availability for fusion: The potential advantages of inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    Probably the single largest advantage of the inertial route to fusion energy (IFE) is the perception that its power plant embodiments could achieve acceptable capacity factors. This is a result of its relative simplicity, the decoupling of the driver and reactor chamber, and the potential to employ thick liquid walls. We examine these issues in terms of the complexity, reliability, maintainability and, therefore, availability of both magnetic and inertial fusion power plants and compare these factors with corresponding scheduled and unscheduled outage data from present day fission experience. We stress that, given the simple nature of a fission core, the vast majority of unplanned outages in fission plants are due to failures outside the reactor vessel itself Given we must be prepared for similar outages in the analogous plant external to a fusion power core, this puts severe demands on the reliability required of the fusion core itself. We indicate that such requirements can probably be met for IFE plants. We recommend that this advantage be promoted by performing a quantitative reliability and availability study for a representative IFE power plant and suggest that databases are probably adequate for this task

  2. The LOFA analysis of fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Z.-C.; Xie, H.

    2014-01-01

    The fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor can produce energy, breed nuclear fuel, and handle the nuclear waste, etc, with the fusion neutron source striking the subcritical blanket. The passive safety system, consisting of passive residual heat removal system, passive safety injection system and automatic depressurization system, was adopted into the fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor in this paper. Modeling and nodalization of primary loop, passive core cooling system and partial secondary loop of the fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor using RELAP5 were conducted and LOFA (Loss of Flow Accident) was analyzed. The results of key transient parameters indicated that the PRHRs could mitigate the accidental consequence of LOFA effectively. It is also concluded that it is feasible to apply the passive safety system concept to fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor. (author)

  3. An FPGA-based heterogeneous image fusion system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Le; Lin, Yu-chi; Chen, Yan-hua; Zhao, Mei-rong

    2011-08-01

    Taking the advantages of FPGA's low cost and compact structure, an FPGA-based heterogeneous image fusion platform is established in this study. Altera's Cyclone IV series FPGA is adopted as the core processor of the platform, and the visible light CCD camera and infrared thermal imager are used as the image-capturing device in order to obtain dualchannel heterogeneous video images. Tailor-made image fusion algorithms such as gray-scale weighted averaging, maximum selection and minimum selection methods are analyzed and compared. VHDL language and the synchronous design method are utilized to perform a reliable RTL-level description. Altera's Quartus II 9.0 software is applied to simulate and implement the algorithm modules. The contrast experiments of various fusion algorithms show that, preferably image quality of the heterogeneous image fusion can be obtained on top of the proposed system. The applied range of the different fusion algorithms is also discussed.

  4. Review of the Inertial Fusion Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-03-29

    Igniting fusion fuel in the laboratory remains an alluring goal for two reasons: the desire to study matter under the extreme conditions needed for fusion burn, and the potential of harnessing the energy released as an attractive energy source for mankind. The inertial confinement approach to fusion involves rapidly compressing a tiny spherical capsule of fuel, initially a few millimeters in radius, to densities and temperatures higher than those in the core of the sun. The ignited plasma is confined solely by its own inertia long enough for a significant fraction of the fuel to burn before the plasma expands, cools down and the fusion reactions are quenched. The potential of this confinement approach as an attractive energy source is being studied in the Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) program, which is the subject of this report. A complex set of interrelated requirements for IFE has motivated the study of novel potential solutions. Three types of “drivers” for fuel compression are presently studied: high-averagepower lasers (HAPL), heavy-ion (HI) accelerators, and Z-Pinches. The three main approaches to IFE are based on these drivers, along with the specific type of target (which contains the fuel capsule) and chamber that appear most promising for a particular driver.

  5. Review of the Inertial Fusion Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Igniting fusion fuel in the laboratory remains an alluring goal for two reasons: the desire to study matter under the extreme conditions needed for fusion burn, and the potential of harnessing the energy released as an attractive energy source for mankind. The inertial confinement approach to fusion involves rapidly compressing a tiny spherical capsule of fuel, initially a few millimeters in radius, to densities and temperatures higher than those in the core of the sun. The ignited plasma is confined solely by its own inertia long enough for a significant fraction of the fuel to burn before the plasma expands, cools down and the fusion reactions are quenched. The potential of this confinement approach as an attractive energy source is being studied in the Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) program, which is the subject of this report. A complex set of interrelated requirements for IFE has motivated the study of novel potential solutions. Three types of @@@drivers@@@ for fuel compression are presently studied: high-averagepower lasers (HAPL), heavy-ion (HI) accelerators, and Z-Pinches. The three main approaches to IFE are based on these drivers, along with the specific type of target (which contains the fuel capsule) and chamber that appear most promising for a particular driver.

  6. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elen, J.D.

    1981-10-01

    In the water cooled INTOR blanket modules a loss of coolant accident will result in melting of the lead rods after 1 minute and of the ss first wall after 3 minutes. Also partial melting and evaporization of the ss first wall as caused by plasma disruption was analysed. Part of the UKCTR-IIIA neutron reaction cross section data library is based on calculations using the nuclear-model code THRES-2. Results of a revision using the modified THRES-F code are reported. A combined preequilibrium and equilibrium model was applied for calculation of neutron emission spectra and of their angular distributions. Neutron transport calculations are reported to determine the polodial distribution of activation of various threshold detectors, which will be placed on the plasma chamber of JET as part of the diagnostic system. In vanadium the preinjection of helium by means of cyclotron irradiation is shown to lead to a lower cavity concentration and a slightly larger cavity size as a result of a following fast neutron irradiation in the core of the HFR reactor. In the V - 1% Cr - 0.1% Ti alloy preinjected helium has the opposite effect on cavity concentration and size. The ratio between helium production and displacement damage in ss 316 by irradiation in the HFR is shown to meet the fusion reactor condition. The development of high current superconducting niobium-tin cables is introduced as a new activity at ECN. Results are shown of a technique for welding multifilament wires. The conductor concept for a small prototype toroidal field coil is presented. Progress is reported of fabrication of a 8 Tesla niobium-titanium insert coil for the SULTAN conductor test facility

  7. A T2 graph-reduction approach to fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Troels; Oancea, Cosmin Eugen

    2013-01-01

    Fusion is one of the most important code transformations as it has the potential to substantially optimize both the memory hierarchy time overhead and, sometimes asymptotically, the space requirement. In functional languages, fusion is naturally and relatively easily derived as a producer...... the producer is used in different consumers and without duplicating computation. We report an implementation of the fusion algorithm for a functional-core language, named L0, which is intended to support nested parallelism across regular multi-dimensional arrays. We succinctly describe L0's semantics...

  8. Symbiosis of near breeder HTR's with hybrid fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1978-07-01

    In this contribution to INFCE a symbiotic fusion/fission reactor system, consisting of a hybrid beam-driven micro-explosion fusion reactor (HMER) and associated high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTR) with a coupled fuel cycle, is proposed. This system is similar to the well known Fast Breeder/Near Breeder HTR symbiosis except that the fast fission breeder - running on the U/Pu-cycle in the core and the axial blankets and breeding the surplus fissile material as U-233 in its radial thorium metal or thorium oxide blankets - is replaced by a hybrid micro-explosion DT fusion reactor

  9. Incomplete fusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.P.

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the incomplete fusion reaction dynamics at energies ≅ 4-7 MeV/nucleon, several experiments have been carried out using accelerator facilities available in India. The measurements presented here cover a wide range of projectile-target combinations and enhance significantly our knowledge about incomplete fusion reaction dynamics. Here, the three sets of measurements have been presented; (i) excitation functions, (ii) forward recoil range distributions and (iii) the spin distributions. The first evidence of these reactions has been obtained from the measurement and analysis of excitation functions for xn/αxn/2αxn-channels. The measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus model. The results obtained indicate the occurrence of fusion incompleteness at low beam energies. However, in order to determine the relative contribution of complete and incomplete fusion reaction processes, the recoil range distributions of the heavy residues have also been measured and analyzed within the framework of breakup fusion model which confirmed the fusion incompleteness in several heavy ion reactions involving α-emitting reaction channels. Further, in order to study the role of l-values in these reactions the spin distributions of the residues populated in case of complete and incomplete channels have been measured and are found to be distinctly different. The analysis of the data on spin distribution measurements indicate that the mean values of driving input angular momenta associated with direct-α-emitting (incomplete fusion) channels are higher than that observed for fusion-evaporation xn or α-emitting (complete fusion) channels, and is found to increase with direct α-multiplicity in the forward cone. One of the important conclusions drawn in the present work is that, there is significant incomplete fusion contribution even at energies slightly above the barrier. Further, the projectile structure has been found to

  10. Mirror fusion--fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission concept and the mirror fusion-fission hybrid program are outlined. Magnetic mirror fusion drivers and blankets for hybrid reactors are discussed. Results of system analyses are presented and a reference design is described

  11. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, M.H.

    1974-01-01

    Basic principles of the fusion reactor are outlined. Plasma heating and confinement schemes are described. These confinement systems include the linear Z pinch, magnetic mirrors and Tokamaks. A fusion reactor is described and a discussion is given of its environmental impact and its fuel situation. (R.L.)

  13. Fusion Canada issue 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs

  14. Fusion Canada issue 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the 1996 IAEA Fusion Conference site, operations at the Tokamak de Varennes including divertor pumping of impurities and pumping of carbon monoxide and methane, a discussion of the CFFTP and it's role. 1 fig

  15. Energy by nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.; Daenner, W.; Herold, H.; Raeder, J.

    1976-12-01

    This report reviews the state of knowledge in a number of fields of fusion research up to autumn 1976. Section 1 gives a very brief presentation of the elementary fusion reactions, the energies delivered by them and the most basic energy balances leading to Lawson-type diagrams. Section 2 outlines the reserves and cost of lithium and deuterium, gives estimates of the total energy available from DT fusion and comments on production technology, availlability and handling of the fuels. In section 3 a survey is given of the different concepts of magnetic confinement (stellarators, tokamaks, toroidal pinches, mirror machines, two-component plasmas), of confinement by walls, gas blankets and imploding liners and, finally, of the concepts of interial confinement (laser fusion, beam fusion). The reactors designed or outlined on the basis of the tokamak, high-β, mirror, and laser fusion concepts are presented in section 4, which is followed in section 5 by a discussion of the key problems of fusion power plants. The present-day knowledge of the cost structure of fusion power plants and the sensitivity of this structure with respect to the physical and technical assumptions made is analysed in section 6. Section 7 and 8 treat the aspects of safety and environment. The problems discussed include the hazard potentials of different designs (radiological, toxicological, and with respect to stored energies), release of radioactivity, possible kinds of malfunctioning, and the environmental impact of waste heat, radiation and radioactive waste (orig.) [de

  16. Fusion helps diversification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, S.; Ren, Z.; de Rijke, M.

    2014-01-01

    A popular strategy for search result diversification is to first retrieve a set of documents utilizing a standard retrieval method and then rerank the results. We adopt a different perspective on the problem, based on data fusion. Starting from the hypothesis that data fusion can improve performance

  17. Fusion Canada issue 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs

  18. International fusion research council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belozerov, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    A brief history of the International Fusion Research Council (IFRC) is given and the minutes of the 1976 meeting in Garching are summarized. At the Garching meeting, the IFRC evaluated the quality of papers presented at recent IAEA conferences on plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear research, and made recommendations on the organization and timing of future meetings on nuclear fusion

  19. Fusion Canada issue 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the 1996 IAEA Fusion Conference site, operations at the Tokamak de Varennes including divertor pumping of impurities and pumping of carbon monoxide and methane, a discussion of the CFFTP and it`s role. 1 fig.

  20. Magnetic Fusion Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    This Plan reflects the present conditions of the energy situation and is consistent with national priorities for the support of basic and applied research. It is realistic in taking advantage of the technical position that the United States has already established in fusion research to make cost-effective progress toward the development of fusion power as a future energy option

  1. Fusion Canada issue 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs.

  2. Sensor Data Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plascencia, Alfredo; Stepán, Petr

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to present a sensor fusion approach to scene environment mapping as part of a Sensor Data Fusion (SDF) architecture. This approach involves combined sonar array with stereo vision readings.  Sonar readings are interpreted using probability density functions...

  3. Coatings for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors

  4. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, V.K.; Scholz, R.; Nolfi, F.V. Jr.; Turner, A.P.L.

    1980-01-01

    Data are given for each of the following areas: (1) effects of irradiation on fusion reactor materials, (2) hydrogen permeation and materials behavior in alloys, (3) carbon coatings for fusion applications, (4) surface damage of TiB 2 coatings under energetic D + and 4 He + irradiations, and (5) neutron dosimetry

  5. The IGNITEX fusion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera, R.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the recently proposed fusion ignition experiment, IGNITEX. He emphasizes the basic ideas of this concept rather than the specific details of the physics and engineering aspects of the experiment. This concept is a good example of the importance of maintaining an adequate balance between the basic scientific progress in fusion physics and the new technologies that are becoming available in order to make fusion work. The objective of the IGNITEX project is to produce and control ignited plasmas for scientific study in the simplest and least expensive way possible. Being able to study this not-yet-produced regime of plasma operation is essential to fusion research. Two years after the fission nuclear reaction was discovered, a non-self-sustained fission reaction was produced in a laboratory, and in one more year a self-sustained reaction was achieved at the University of Chicago. However, after almost forty years of fusion research, a self-sustained fusion reaction has yet not been produced in a laboratory experiment. This fact indicates the greater difficulty of the fusion experiment. Because of the difficulty involved in the production of a self-sustained fusion reaction, it is necessary to propose such an experiment with maximum ignition margins, maximum simplicity, and minimum financial risk

  6. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Bobin, Jean Louis

    2014-01-01

    The book is a presentation of the basic principles and main achievements in the field of nuclear fusion. It encompasses both magnetic and inertial confinements plus a few exotic mechanisms for nuclear fusion. The state-of-the-art regarding thermonuclear reactions, hot plasmas, tokamaks, laser-driven compression and future reactors is given.

  7. Fusion Power Deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.; Ogden, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Fusion power plants could be part of a future portfolio of non-carbon dioxide producing energy supplies such as wind, solar, biomass, advanced fission power, and fossil energy with carbon dioxide sequestration. In this paper, we discuss key issues that could impact fusion energy deployment during the last half of this century. These include geographic issues such as resource availability, scale issues, energy storage requirements, and waste issues. The resource needs and waste production associated with fusion deployment in the U.S. should not pose serious problems. One important feature of fusion power is the fact that a fusion power plant should be locatable within most local or regional electrical distribution systems. For this reason, fusion power plants should not increase the burden of long distance power transmission to our distribution system. In contrast to fusion power, regional factors could play an important role in the deployment of renewable resources such as wind, solar and biomass or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration. We examine the role of these regional factors and their implications for fusion power deployment

  8. Fusion Canada issue 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a technical update on Tokamak de Varennes, a report on the Beatrix II Breeding Materials Test Program, the Tritium glovebox system for UPM, Saudi Arabia, a broad update of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project is also included. 1 fig

  9. Fusion Canada issue 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Darlington`s Tritium Removal Facility, work at universities on Deuterium Diffusivity in Beryllium, Fusion Studies, confinement research and the operation of divertors at Tokamak de Varennes. 5 figs.

  10. Fusion Canada issue 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs.

  11. Fusion Canada issue 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a technical update on Tokamak de Varennes, a report on the Beatrix II Breeding Materials Test Program, the Tritium glovebox system for UPM, Saudi Arabia, a broad update of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project is also included. 1 fig.

  12. Fusion Canada issue 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the IAEA Plasma Biasing Meeting, the new IEA program -Nuclear Technology of Fusion reactors, TFTR tritium purification system, an update by CCFM on machine additions and modifications, and news of a new compact Toroid injector at the University of Saskatchewan. 1 fig

  13. Fusion Canada issue 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on a fusion cooperation agreement between Japan and Canada, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on plasma biasing experiments and boronization tests and a collaboration between Canada and the U.S. on a compact toroid fuelling gun. 4 figs

  14. Fusion Canada issue 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Darlington's Tritium Removal Facility, work at universities on Deuterium Diffusivity in Beryllium, Fusion Studies, confinement research and the operation of divertors at Tokamak de Varennes. 5 figs

  15. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  16. Industry's role in inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is an address to the Tenth Symposium on Fusion Engineering. The speaker first addressed the subject of industry's role in inertial fusion three years earlier in 1980, outlining programs that included participation in the Shiva construction project, and the industrial participants' program set up in the laser fusion program to bring industrial scientists and engineers into the laboratory to work on laser fusion. The speaker is now the president of KMS Fusion, Inc., the primary industrial participant in the inertial fusion program. The outlook for fusion energy and the attitude of the federal government toward the fusion program is discussed

  17. Towards fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataraman, G.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt has been made to present general but broad review of the recent developments in the field of plasma physics and its application to fusion power. The first chapter describes the fusion reactions and fusion power systems. The second chapter deals in detail with production and behaviour of plasma, screening, oscillations, instability, energy losses, temperature effects, etc. Magnetic confinements, including pinch systems, toroidal systems such as Tokamac and stellarator, minor machine, etc. are discussed in detail in chapter III. Laser produced plasma, laser implosion and problems associated with it and future prospects are explained in chapter IV. Chapter V is devoted entirely to the various aspects of hybrid systems. The last chapter throws light on problems of fusion technology, such as plasma heating, vacuum requirements, radiation damage, choice of materials, blanket problems, hazards of fusion reactions, etc. (K.B.)

  18. Decomposition of incomplete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobotka, L.B.; Sarantities, D.G.; Stracener, D.W.; Majka, Z.; Abenante, V.; Semkow, T.M.; Hensley, D.C.; Beene, J.R.; Halbert, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The velocity distribution of fusion-like products formed in the reaction 701 MeV 28 Si+ 100 Mo is decomposed into 26 incomplete fusion channels. The momentum deficit of the residue per nonevaporative mass unit is approximately equal to the beam momentum per nucleon. The yields of the incomplete fusion channels correlate with the Q-value for projectile fragmentation rather than that for incomplete fusion. The backward angle multiplicities of light particles and heavy ions increase with momentum transfer, however, the heavy ion multiplicities also depend on the extent of the fragmentation of the incomplete fusion channel. These data indicate that at fixed linear momentum transfer, increased fragmentation of the unfused component is related to a reduced transferred angular momentum. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. Nuclear fusion: The issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    The taming of fusion energy, has proved one of the most elusive quests of modern science. For four decades, the United States has doggedly pursued energy's holy grail, pumping more than $9 billion into research and reactor prototypes. This year, the federal government is slated to spend $339 million on fusion, more than the combined amount the government will spend for research on oil, natural gas, solar power, wind power, geothermal energy, biofuels and conservation. This article summarizes the technical, political in terms of international cooperation, economic, planning, etc. issues surrounding the continued development of fusion as a possible power source for the next century. Brief descriptions of how fusion works and of the design of a tokamak fusion machine are included

  20. Fusion safety data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.; Hardy, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this Fusion Safety Data Base Program is to provide a repository of data for the design and development of safe commercial fusion reactors. The program is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fusion Energy. The function of the program is to collect, examine, permanently store, and make available the safety data to the entire US magnetic-fusion energy community. The sources of data will include domestic and foreign fusion reactor safety-related research programs. Any participant in the DOE Program may use the Data Base Program from his terminal through user friendly dialog and can view the contents in the form of text, tables, graphs, or system diagrams

  1. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  2. Some fusion perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, J.R. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the concepts of nuclear fusion reactions, advanced fusion fuels, environmental impacts, etc., are explored using the following general outline: I. Principles of Fusion (Nuclear Fuels and Reactions, Lawson Condition, n tau vs T, Nuclear Burn Characteristics); II. Magnetic Mirror Possibilities (the Ion Layer and Electron Layer, Exponential Build-up at MeV energies, Lorentz trapping at GeV energies); III. Pellet Fuel Fusion Prospects (Advanced Pellet Fuel Fusion Prospects, Burn Characteristics and Applications, Excitation-heating Prospects for Runaway Ion Temperatures). Inasmuch as the outline is very skeletal, a significant research and development effort may be in order to evaluate these prospects in more detail and hopefully ''harness the H-bomb'' for peaceful applications, the author concludes. 28 references

  3. Imaging of High-Z doped, Imploded Capsule Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisbrey, Shon T.; Edwards, M. John; Suter, Larry J.

    2006-10-01

    The ability to correctly ascertain the shape of imploded fusion capsules is critical to be able to achieve the spherical symmetry needed to maximize the energy yield of proposed fusion experiments for the National Ignition Facility. Implosion of the capsule creates a hot, dense core. The introduction of a high-Z dopant into the gas-filled core of the capsule increases the amount of bremsstrahlung radiation produced in the core and should make the imaging of the imploded core easier. Images of the imploded core can then be analyzed to ascertain the symmetry of the implosion. We calculate that the addition of Ne gas into a deuterium gas core will increase the amount of radiation emission while preserving the surrogacy of the radiation and hydrodynamics in the indirect drive NIF hohlraum in the proposed cryogenic hohlraums. The increased emission will more easily enable measurement of asymmetries and tuning of the implosion.

  4. Investigations of image fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong

    1999-12-01

    The objective of image fusion is to combine information from multiple images of the same scene. The result of image fusion is a single image which is more suitable for the purpose of human visual perception or further image processing tasks. In this thesis, a region-based fusion algorithm using the wavelet transform is proposed. The identification of important features in each image, such as edges and regions of interest, are used to guide the fusion process. The idea of multiscale grouping is also introduced and a generic image fusion framework based on multiscale decomposition is studied. The framework includes all of the existing multiscale-decomposition- based fusion approaches we found in the literature which did not assume a statistical model for the source images. Comparisons indicate that our framework includes some new approaches which outperform the existing approaches for the cases we consider. Registration must precede our fusion algorithms. So we proposed a hybrid scheme which uses both feature-based and intensity-based methods. The idea of robust estimation of optical flow from time- varying images is employed with a coarse-to-fine multi- resolution approach and feature-based registration to overcome some of the limitations of the intensity-based schemes. Experiments show that this approach is robust and efficient. Assessing image fusion performance in a real application is a complicated issue. In this dissertation, a mixture probability density function model is used in conjunction with the Expectation- Maximization algorithm to model histograms of edge intensity. Some new techniques are proposed for estimating the quality of a noisy image of a natural scene. Such quality measures can be used to guide the fusion. Finally, we study fusion of images obtained from several copies of a new type of camera developed for video surveillance. Our techniques increase the capability and reliability of the surveillance system and provide an easy way to obtain 3-D

  5. Laser induced fusion - theoretical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawande, S.V.; Gunye, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    The theoretical aspects of thermonuclear fusion induced by laser are discussed. After outlining the basic features and the energetics of laser fusion in the chapter 1, various non-linear mechanisms responsible for an enhanced absorption of laser energy into the plasma and the stimulated scattering processes which hinder the absorption are discussed in the second chapter on laser plasma interactions. The third chapter on gas dynamics and the shock phenomena presents the mathematical formulation of the compression to high densities of the core of the pellet for its implosion. A hydrodynamic model developed to stimulate the evolution of laser heated symmetric plasma is outlined in the chapter four on numerichigly relativistic noninteracting particles, regular bouncing states may occur at high densities, or at high temperatures. The latter case is considered in details for the collapse phase of a hot universe; lepton pair creation may completely decelerate the collapse of a hot hadronic plasma, provided the observational parameters, the Hubble constant Hsub(deg), the matter parameter Ωsub(deg) and the deceleration parameter qsub(deg) satisfy certain constraint conditions

  6. Core BPEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallwyl, Tim; Højsgaard, Espen

    The Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) is a language for expressing business process behaviour based on web services. The language is intentionally not minimal but provides a rich set of constructs, allows omission of constructs by relying on defaults, and supports language......, does not allow omissions, and does not contain ignorable elements. We do so by identifying syntactic sugar, including default values, and ignorable elements in WS-BPEL. The analysis results in a translation from the full language to the core subset. Thus, we reduce the effort needed for working...

  7. US fusion community discussion on fusion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marton, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    On April 26 - May 1, 1998, a US Fusion Community Forum for Major Next-Step Experiments was held at Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Both the Single Integrated Step strategy and the Multiple Machine strategy have substantial support from the about 180 scientists and engineers who participated

  8. Materials for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, K.; Kaletta, D.

    1978-03-01

    The following report describes five papers which were given during the IMF seminar series summer 1977. The purpose of this series was to discuss especially the irradiation behaviour of materials intended for the first wall of future fusion reactors. The first paper deals with the basic understanding of plasma physics relating to the fusion reactor and presents the current state of art of fusion technology. The next two talks discuss the metals intended for the first wall and structural components of a fusion reactor. Since 14 MeV neutrons play an important part in the process of irradiation damage their role is discussed in detail. The question which machines are presently available to simulate irradiation damage under conditions similar to the ones found in a fusion reactor are investigated in the fourth talk which also presents the limitations of the different methods of simulation. In this context also discussed is the importance future intensive neutron sources and materials test reactors will have for this problem area. The closing paper has as a theme the review of the present status of research of metallic and non-metallic materials in view of the quite different requirements for different fusion systems; a closing topic is the world supply on rare materials required for fusion reactors. (orig) [de

  9. Fusion research in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoletnik, S.

    2004-01-01

    Hungarian fusion research started in the 1970s, when the idea of installing a small tokamak experiment emerged. In return to computer equipment a soviet tokamak was indeed sent to Hungary and started to operate as MT-1 at the Central Research Institute for Physics (KFKI) in 1979. Major research topics included diagnostic development, edge plasma studies and investigation of disruptions. Following a major upgrade in 1992 (new vacuum vessel, active position control and PC network based data acquisition system) the MT-1M tokamak was used for the study of transport processes with trace impurity injection, micropellet ablation studies, X-ray tomography and laser blow-off diagnostic development. Although funding ceased in the middle of the 90's the group was held alive by collaborations with EU fusion labs: FZ -Juelich, IPP-Garching and CRPP-EPFL Lausanne. In 1998 the machine was dismantled due to reorganization of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. New horizons opened to fusion research from 1999, when Hungary joined EURATOM and a fusion Association was formed. Since then fusion physics studies are done in collaboration with major EU fusion laboratories, Hungarian researchers also play an active role in JET diagnostics upgrade and ITER design. Major topics are pellet ablation studies, plasma turbulence diagnosis using Beam Emission Spectroscopy and other techniques, tomography and plasma diagnostics using various neutral beams. In fusion relevant technology R and D Hungary has less records. Before joining EURATOM some materials irradiation studies were done at the Budapest Research Reactor at KFKI-AEKI. The present day fusion technology programme focuses still on irradiation studies, nuclear material database and electromagnetic testing techniques. Increasing the fusion technology research activities is a difficult task, as the competition in Hungarian industry is very strong and the interest of organizations in long-term investments into R and D is rather weak and

  10. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Conceptual design studies were made of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror-confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid and a small pilot-plant hybrid based on standard mirror confinement. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000-MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single-cell pilot plant

  11. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    We have carried out conceptual design studies of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fission fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid based on standard mirror confinement, and also a small pilot plant hybrid. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000 MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single cell pilot plant

  12. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed

  13. Remote sensing image fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano; Garzelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis of more than ten years of experience, Remote Sensing Image Fusion covers methods specifically designed for remote sensing imagery. The authors supply a comprehensive classification system and rigorous mathematical description of advanced and state-of-the-art methods for pansharpening of multispectral images, fusion of hyperspectral and panchromatic images, and fusion of data from heterogeneous sensors such as optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and integration of thermal and visible/near-infrared images. They also explore new trends of signal/image processing, such as

  14. Beam dancer fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    To accomplish fusion of two or more fusion fuel elements numerous minute spots of energy or laser light are directed to a micro target area, there to be moved or danced about by a precision mechanical controlling apparatus at the source of the laser light or electromagnetic energy beams, so that merging and coinciding patterns of light or energy beams can occur around the area of the fuel atoms or ions. The projecting of these merging patterns may be considered as target searching techniques to locate responsive clusters of fuel elements and to compress such elements into a condition in which fusion may occur. Computerized programming may be used

  15. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components during and after irradiation. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; and the study of dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are discussed

  16. Japanese fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, T.

    1987-01-01

    The Japan experience during thirty years in nuclear fusion research is reported, after attending the 1st Geneva Conference in 1955, Osaka University, immedeately began linear pinch study using capacitor bank discharge. Subsequently to his trial several groups were organized to ward fusion R and D at universities in Tokyo, Nagoya, Kyoto, Sendai and son on. Based upon the recommendation of Japan Science Council, Institut of Plasma Physics (IPP) was established at Nagoya University in 1961 When the 1st International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research was held in Saltzburg. The gloomy Bohm barrier had stood in front of many of experiments at that time. (author) [pt

  17. 13th EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop on transport in fusion plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connor, J.W.; Fasoli, A.; Hidalgo, C.

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the contributions presented at the 13th EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop on transport in fusion plasmas, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, 1-4 September 2008. There were sessions on core heat and particle transport; core and edge momentum transport; edge and scrape-off-layer ......This report summarizes the contributions presented at the 13th EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop on transport in fusion plasmas, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, 1-4 September 2008. There were sessions on core heat and particle transport; core and edge momentum transport; edge and scrape...

  18. ASTRID core: Design objectives, design approach, and R&D in support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignot, G.; Devictor, N.

    2012-01-01

    ASTRID core design is mainly guided by safety objectives: 1. Prevention of the core meltdown accident: To prevent meltdown accidents: - by a natural behavior of the core and the reactor (no actuation of the two shutdown systems); - with adding passive complementary systems if natural behavior is not sufficient for some transient cases. 2. Mitigation of the fusion accident: To garantee that core fusion accidents don’t lead to significant mechanical energy release, whatever initiator event: - by a natural core behavior; - with adding specific mitigation dispositions in case of natural behavior is not suffficient

  19. Fusion Simulation Program Execution Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The overall science goal of the FSP is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in research related to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. [1]. Initial FSP research will focus on two critical areas: 1) the plasma edge and 2) whole device modeling including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model (WDM) will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical impediment to successful operation of machines like ITER. If disruptions prove unable to be avoided, their associated dynamics and effects will be addressed in the next phase of the FSP. The FSP plan targets the needed modeling capabilities by developing Integrated Science Applications (ISAs) specific to their needs. The Pedestal-Boundary model will include boundary magnetic topology, cross-field transport of multi-species plasmas, parallel plasma transport, neutral transport, atomic physics and interactions with the plasma wall

  20. Inertial thermonuclear fusion by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, J.P.

    1993-12-01

    The principles of deuterium tritium (DT) magnetic or inertial thermonuclear fusion are given. Even if results would be better with heavy ions beams, most of the results on fusion are obtained with laser beams. Technical and theoretical aspects of the laser fusion are presented with an extrapolation to the future fusion reactor. (A.B.). 34 refs., 17 figs

  1. Inertial fusion commercial power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation discusses the motivation for inertial fusion energy, a brief synopsis of five recently-completed inertial fusion power plant designs, some general conclusions drawn from these studies, and an example of an IFE hydrogen synfuel plant to suggest that future fusion studies consider broadening fusion use to low-emission fuels production as well as electricity

  2. Why and how of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    The potential advantages of fusion power are listed. The approaches to plasma containment are mentioned and the status of the fusion program is described. The ERDA and EPRI programs are discussed. The Fusion Energy Foundation's activities are mentioned. Fusion research at the U. of Ill. is described briefly

  3. Fusion in the energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching...... of integration into the future electricity system and socio-economic studies of fusion energy will be presented, referring to the programme of Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) under the European Fusion Energy Agreement (EFDA)....

  4. Fusion-power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Carlson, G.A.; Neef, W.S.; Moir, R.W.; Campbell, R.B.; Botwin, R.; Clarkson, I.R.; Carpenter, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  5. International aspects of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    International collaborative efforts in magnetic confinement fusion in which the USA is involved are reviewed. These efforts are carried under the auspices of international agencies and through bilateral agreements

  6. Magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The efforts of the Chemical Technology Division in the area of fusion energy include fuel handling, processing, and containment. These studies are closely coordinated with the ORNL Fusion Energy Division. Current experimental studies are concerned with the development of vacuum pumps for fusion reactors, the evaluation and development of techniques for recovering tritium (fuel) from either solid or liquid lithium containing blankets, and the use of deep beds of sorbents as roughing pumps and/or transfer operations. In addition, a small effort is devoted to the support of the ORNL design of The Next Step (TNS) in tokamak reactor development. The more applied studies--vacuum pump development and TNS design--are funded by the DOE/Magnetic Fusion Energy, and the more fundamental studies--blanket recovery and sorption in deep beds--are funded by the DOE/Basic Energy Sciences

  7. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1984-04-01

    KfK participates to the Fusion Technology Programme of the European Community. Most of the work in progress addresses the Next European Torus (NET) and the long term technology aspects as defined in the 82/86 programme. A minor part serves to preparation of future contributions and to design studies on fusion concepts in a wider perspective. The Fusion Technology Programme of Euratom covers mainly aspects of nuclear engineering. Plasma engineering, heating, refueling and vacuum technology are at present part of the Physics Programme. In view of NET, integration of the different areas of work will be mandatory. KfK is therefore prepared to address technical aspects beyond the actual scope of the physics experiments. The technology tasks are reported project wise under title and code of the Euratom programme. Most of the projects described here are shared with other European fusion laboratories as indicated in the table annexed to this report. (orig./GG)

  8. Fusion-breeder program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The various approaches to a combined fusion-fission reactor for the purpose of breeding 239 Pu and 233 U are described. Design aspects and cost estimates for fuel production and electricity generation are discussed

  9. Cold nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Shinji.

    1991-01-01

    Selection of cathode material is a key to the attainment of cold nuclear fusion. However, there are only few reports on the cathode material at present and an effective development has been demanded. The device comprises an anode and a cathode and an electrolytic bath having metal salts dissolved therein and containing heavy water in a glass container. The anode is made of gold or platinum and the cathode is made of metals of V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta, and a voltage of 3-25V is applied by way of a DC power source between them. The metal comprising V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta absorbs deuterium formed by electrolysis of heavy water effectively to cause nuclear fusion reaction at substantially the same frequency and energy efficiency as palladium and titanium. Accordingly, a cold nuclear fusion device having high nuclear fusion generation frequency can be obtained. (N.H.)

  10. Cell fusions in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Lars-Inge; Bjerregaard, Bolette; Talts, Jan Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Cell fusions are important to fertilization, placentation, development of skeletal muscle and bone, calcium homeostasis and the immune defense system. Additionally, cell fusions participate in tissue repair and may be important to cancer development and progression. A large number of factors appear...... to regulate cell fusions, including receptors and ligands, membrane domain organizing proteins, proteases, signaling molecules and fusogenic proteins forming alpha-helical bundles that bring membranes close together. The syncytin family of proteins represent true fusogens and the founding member, syncytin-1......, has been documented to be involved in fusions between placental trophoblasts, between cancer cells and between cancer cells and host ells. We review the literature with emphasis on the syncytin family and propose that syncytins may represent universal fusogens in primates and rodents, which work...

  11. Fusion Canada issue 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-06-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on operation at Tokamak de Varennes, CRITIC irradiations at AECL, Tritium systems at TFTR, physics contribution at ITER. 4 figs.

  12. Fusion technology (FT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The annual report of tha fusion technology (FT) working group discusses the projects carried out by the participating institutes in the fields of 1) fuel injection and plasma heating, 2) magnetic field technology, and 3) systems investigations. (HK) [de

  13. Fusion technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    This report includes information on the following chapters: (1) conceptual design studies, (2) magnetics, (3) plasma heating, fueling, and exhaust, (4) materials for fusion reactors, (5) alternate applications, and (6) environment and safety

  14. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Burn, G.L.; Knee', S.S.; Dowker, C.L.

    1994-02-01

    This is the fifteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; Special purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide

  15. Fusion cost normalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, S.C.; Willke, T.L.

    1978-01-01

    The categorization and accounting methods described in this paper provide a common format that can be used to assess the economic character of magnetically confined fusion reactor design concepts. The format was developed with assistance from the fusion economics community, thus ensuring that the methods meet with the approval of potential users. The format will aid designers in the preparation of design concept cost estimates and also provide policy makers with a tool to assist in appraising which design concepts may be economically promising. Adherence to the format when evaluating prospective fusion reactor design concepts will result in the identification of the more promising concepts, thus enabling the fusion power alternatives with better economic potential to be quickly and efficiently developed

  16. Complimentary Advanced Fusion Exploration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alford, Mark G; Jones, Eric C; Bubalo, Adnan; Neumann, Melissa; Greer, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    .... The focus areas were in the following regimes: multi-tensor homographic computer vision image fusion, out-of-sequence measurement and track data handling, Nash bargaining approaches to sensor management, pursuit-evasion game theoretic modeling...

  17. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  18. Fusion power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  19. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Yablon, Andrew D

    2005-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  20. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanaka, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    A simplified review on the status of the controlled thermonuclear fusion research aiming to present the motivation, objective, necessary conditions and adopted methods to reach the objective. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Fusion safety program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, J.G.; Holland, D.F.; Herring, J.S.

    1980-09-01

    The program plan consists of research that has been divided into 13 different areas. These areas focus on the radioactive inventories that are expected in fusion reactors, the energy sources potentially available to release a portion of these inventories, and analysis and design techniques to assess and ensure that the safety risks associated with operation of magnetic fusion facilities are acceptably low. The document presents both long-term program requirements that must be fulfilled as part of the commercialization of fusion power and a five-year plan for each of the 13 different program areas. Also presented is a general discussion of magnetic fusion reactor safety, a method for establishing priorities in the program, and specific priority ratings for each task in the five-year plan

  2. Fusion Revisits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It's going to be a hot summer at CERN. At least in the Main Building, where from 13 July to 20 August an exhibition is being hosted on nuclear fusion, the energy of the Stars. Nuclear fusion is the engine driving the stars but also a potential source of energy for mankind. The exhibition shows the different nuclear fusion techniques and research carried out on the subject in Europe. Inaugurated at CERN in 1993, following collaboration between Lausanne's CRPP-EPFL and CERN, with input from Alessandro Pascolini of Italy's INFN, this exhibition has travelled round Europe before being revamped and returning to CERN. 'Fusion, Energy of the Stars', from 13 July onwards, Main Building

  3. Present status of inertial confinement fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mima, Kunioki; Ido, Shunji; Nakai, Sadao.

    1986-01-01

    Since inertial nuclear fusion reactors do not require high vacuum and high magnetic field, the structure of the reactor cavity becomes markedly simple as compared with tokamak type fusion reactors. In particular, since high vacuum is not necessary, liquid metals such as lithium and lead can be used for the first wall, and the damage of reactor structures by neutrons can be prevented. As for the core, the energy efficiency of lasers is not very high, accordingly it must be designed so that the pellet gain due to nuclear fusion becomes sufficiently high, and typically, the gain coefficient from 100 to 200 is necessary. In this paper, the perspective of pellet gain, the plan from the present status to the practical reactors, and the conceptual design of the practical reactors are discussed. The plan of fuel ignition, energy break-even and high gain by the implosion mode, of which the uncertain factor due to uneven irradiation and instability was limited to the minimum, was clarified. The scenario of the development of laser nuclear fusion reactors is presented, and the concept of the reactor system is shown. The various types of nuclear fusion-fission hybrid reactors are explained. As for the design of inertial fusion power reactors, the engineering characteristics of the core, the conceptual design, water fall type reactors and DD fuel reactors are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  4. The spheromak as a compact fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1987-03-01

    After summarizing the economic and utility-based rationale for compact, higher-power-density fusion reactors, the gun-sustained spheromak concept is explored as one of a number of poloidal-field-dominated confinement configurations that might improve the prospects for economically attractive and operationally simplified fusion power plants. Using a comprehensive physics/engineering/costing model for the spheromak, guided by realistic engineering constraints and physics extrapolation, a range of cost-optimized reactor design points is presented, and the sensitivity of cost to key physics, engineering, and operational variables is reported. The results presented herein provide the basis for conceptual engineering designs of key fusion-power-core (FPC) subsystems and more detailed plasma modeling of this promising, high mass-power-density concept, which stresses single-piece FPC maintenance, steady-state current drive through electrostatic magnetic helicity injection, a simplified co-axial electrode-divertor, and efficient resistive-coal equilibrium-field coils. The optimal FPC size and the cost estimates project a system that competes aggressively with the best offered by alternative energy sources while simplifying considerably the complexity that has generally been associated with most approaches to magnetic fusion energy

  5. The spheromak as a compact fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1987-03-01

    After summarizing the economic and utility-based rationale for compact, higher-power-density fusion reactors, the gun-sustained spheromak concept is explored as one of a number of poloidal-field-dominated confinement configurations that might improve the prospects for economically attractive and operationally simplified fusion power plants. Using a comprehensive physics/engineering/costing model for the spheromak, guided by realistic engineering constraints and physics extrapolation, a range of cost-optimized reactor design points is presented, and the sensitivity of cost to key physics, engineering, and operational variables is reported. The results presented herein provide the basis for conceptual engineering designs of key fusion-power-core (FPC) subsystems and more detailed plasma modeling of this promising, high mass-power-density concept, which stresses single-piece FPC maintenance, steady-state current drive through electrostatic magnetic helicity injection, a simplified co-axial electrode-divertor, and efficient resistive-coal equilibrium-field coils. The optimal FPC size and the cost estimates project a system that competes aggressively with the best offered by alternative energy sources while simplifying considerably the complexity that has generally been associated with most approaches to magnetic fusion energy.

  6. Materials needs for compact fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The economic prospects for magnetic fusion energy can be dramatically improved if for the same total power output the fusion neutron first-wall (FW) loading and the system power density can be increased by factors of 3 to 5 and 10 to 30, respectively. A number of compact fusion reactor embodiments have been proposed, all of which would operate with increased FW loadings, would use thin (0.5 to 0.6 m) blankets, and would confine quasi-steady-state plasma with resistive, water-cooled copper or aluminum coils. Increased system power density (5 to 15 MWt/m 3 versus 0.3 to 0.5 MW/m 3 ), considerably reduced physical size of the fusion power core (FPC), and appreciably reduced economic leverage exerted by the FPC and associated physics result. The unique materials requirements anticipated for these compact reactors are outlined against the well documented backdrop provided by similar needs for the mainline approaches. Surprisingly, no single materials need that is unique to the compact systems is identified; crucial uncertainties for the compact approaches must also be addressed by the mainline approaches, particularly for in-vacuum components (FWs, limiters, divertors, etc.)

  7. The fusion dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, R.

    1981-01-01

    The present position in fusion research is reviewed and discussed with relation to the requirements of an economic reactor. Meeting these requirements calls for a mission-oriented project of interdisciplinary character whose timely evolution from one with a research orientation, is a challenging management problem. The cost-effectiveness of future expenditure on fusion research is dependent upon acknowledging this challenge and realistically facing the difficult tasks which it presents. (U.K.)

  8. Possible fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1976-05-01

    A scheme to improve performance characteristics of a tokamak-type fusion reactor is proposed. Basically, the tokamak-type plasma could be moved around so that the plasma could be heated by compression, brought to the region where the blanket surrounds the plasma, and moved so as to keep wall loading below the acceptable limit. This idea should be able to help to economize a fusion reactor

  9. Fusion power plant economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The rationale, methodology, and updated comparative results of cost projections for magnetic-fusion-energy central-station electric power plants are considered. Changing market and regulatory conditions, particularly in the U.S., prompt fundamental reconsideration of what constitutes a competitive future energy-source technology and has implications for the direction and emphasis of appropriate near-term research and development programs, for fusion and other advanced generation systems. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Sonoluminescence and bubble fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Arakeri, Vijay H

    2003-01-01

    Sonoluminescence (SL), the phenomenon of light emission from nonlinear motion of a gas bubble, involves an extreme degree of energy focusing. The conditions within the bubble during the last stages of the nearly catastrophic implosion are thought to parallel the efforts aimed at developing inertial confinement fusion. A limited review on the topic of SL and its possible connection to bubble nuclear fusion is presented here. The emphasis is on looking for a link between the various forms o...

  11. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The following topics are briefly discussed: (1) surface blistering studies on fusion reactor materials, (2) TFTR design support activities, (3) analysis of samples bombarded in-situ in PLT, (4) chemical sputtering effects, (5) modeling of surface behavior, (6) ion migration in glow discharge tube cathodes, (7) alloy development for irradiation performance, (8) dosimetry and damage analysis, and (9) development of tritium migration in fusion devices and reactors

  12. Bringing together fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiser, M.

    1982-01-01

    The increasing involvement of the IAEA in fusion, together with the growing efforts devoted to this area, are described. The author puts forward the idea that one of the most important aspects of this involvement is in providing a world-wide forum for scientists. The functions of the IFRC (International Fusion Research Council) as an advisory group are outlined, and the role played by IFRC in the definition and objectives of INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor) are briefly described

  13. Fusion Canada issue 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Canada's plans to participate in the Engineering Design Activities (EDA), bilateral meetings with Canada and the U.S., committee meeting with Canada-Europe, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on Plasma Biasing experiments and boronized graphite tests, fusion materials research at the University of Toronto using a dual beam accelerator and a review of the CFFTP and the CCFM. 2 figs

  14. Conference on Norwegian fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of instituting a systematic research programme in Norway on aspects of thermonuclear and plasma physics has been raised. The conference here reported was intended to provide basic information on the status of fusion research internationally and to discuss a possible Norwegian programme. The main contributions covered the present status of fusion research, international cooperation, fusion research in small countries and minor laboratories, fusion research in Denmark and Sweden, and a proposed fusion experiment in Bergen. (JIW)

  15. Status of fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Ashok

    1978-01-01

    The current status of fusion technology is surveyed. Limited reserves of fossil fuel and dangers of proliferation from nuclear reactors have brought into focus the need to develop an optional energy source. Fusion is being looked upon as an optional energy source which is free from environmental hazards unlike fossil fuels and nuclear reactors. Investments in R and D of fusion energy have increased rapidly in USA, Japan, USSR and European countries. Out of the various fusion fuels known, a mixture of D and T is widely chosen. The main problem in fusion technology is the confinement of plasma for a time sufficient to start the fusion reaction. This can be done magnetically or inertially. The three approaches to magnetic confinement are : (1) tokamak, (2) mirror and (3) pinch. Inertial confinement makes use of lasers or electron beams or ion beams. Both the methods of confinement i.e. magnetic and inertial have problems which are identified and their nature is discussed. (M.G.B.)

  16. Energy from inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This book contains 22 articles on inertial fusion energy (IFE) research and development written in the framework of an international collaboration of authors under the guidance of an advisory group on inertial fusion energy set up in 1991 to advise the IAEA. It describes the actual scientific, engineering and technological developments in the field of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It also identifies ways in which international co-operation in ICF could be stimulated. The book is intended for a large audience and provides an introduction to inertial fusion energy and an overview of the various technologies needed for IFE power plants to be developed. It contains chapters on (i) the fundamentals of IFE; (ii) inertial confinement target physics; (iii) IFE power plant design principles (requirements for power plant drivers, solid state laser drivers, gas laser drivers, heavy ion drivers, and light ion drivers, target fabrication and positioning, reaction chamber systems, power generation and conditioning and radiation control, materials management and target materials recovery), (iv) special design issues (radiation damage in structural materials, induced radioactivity, laser driver- reaction chamber interfaces, ion beam driver-reaction chamber interfaces), (v) inertial fusion energy development strategy, (vi) safety and environmental impact, (vii) economics and other figures of merit; (viii) other uses of inertial fusion (both those involving and not involving implosions); and (ix) international activities. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Perspectives of fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, V.O.

    1984-01-01

    New and practically inexhaustible sources of energy must be developed for the period when oil, coal and uranium will become scarce and expensive. Nuclear fusion holds great promise as one of these practically inexhaustible energy sources. Based on the deuteriumtritium reaction with tritium obtained from naturally occuring lithium, which is also widely available in Europe, the accessible energy resources in the world are 3.10 12 to 3.10 16 toe; based on the deuterium-deuterium reaction, the deuterium content of the oceans corresponds to 10 20 toe. It is presently envisaged that in order to establish fusion as a large-scale energy source, three major thresholds must be reached: - Scientific feasibility, - Technical feasibility, i.e. the proof that the basic technical problems of the fusion reactor can be solved. - Commercial feasibility, i.e. proof that fusion power reactors can be built on an industrial scale, can be operated reliably and produce usable energy at prices competitive with other energy sources. From the above it is clear that the route to commercial fusion will be long and costly and involve the solution of extremely difficult technical problems. In view of the many steps which have to be taken, it appears unlikely that commercial fusion power will be in general use within the next 50 years and by that time world-wide expenditure on research, development and demonstration may well have exceeded 100 Bio ECU. (author)

  18. Controlled thermonuclear fusion: research on magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, P.J.

    1988-12-01

    Recent progress in thermonuclear fusion research indicates that the scientists' schedule for the demonstration of the scientific feasibility will be kept and that break-even will be attained in the course of the next decade. To see the implementation of ignition, however, the generation of future experiments must be awaited. These projects are currently under study. With technological research going on in parallel, they should at the same time contribute to the design of a reactor. Fusion reactors will be quite different from the fission nuclear reactors we know, and the waste of the plants will also be of a different nature. It is still too early to define the precise design of a fusion reactor. On the basis of a toric machine concept like that of the tokamak, we can, however, envisage that the problems with which we are confronted will be solved one after the other. As we have just seen, these will be the objectives of the future experimental installations where ignition will be possible and where the flux of fast neutrons will be so strong that they will allow the study of low-activation materials which will be used in the structure of the reactor. But this is also a task in which from now onwards numerous laboratories in Europe and in the world participate. The works are in fact punctiform, and often the mutual incidences can only be determined by an approach simulated by numerical codes. (author) 19 figs., 6 tabs., 8 refs

  19. An Innovative Thinking-Based Intelligent Information Fusion Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an intelligent algorithm that can realize information fusion in reference to the relative research achievements in brain cognitive theory and innovative computation. This algorithm treats knowledge as core and information fusion as a knowledge-based innovative thinking process. Furthermore, the five key parts of this algorithm including information sense and perception, memory storage, divergent thinking, convergent thinking, and evaluation system are simulated and modeled. This algorithm fully develops innovative thinking skills of knowledge in information fusion and is a try to converse the abstract conception of brain cognitive science to specific and operable research routes and strategies. Furthermore, the influences of each parameter of this algorithm on algorithm performance are analyzed and compared with those of classical intelligent algorithms trough test. Test results suggest that the algorithm proposed in this study can obtain the optimum problem solution by less target evaluation times, improve optimization effectiveness, and achieve the effective fusion of information.

  20. Human Coronaviruses 229E and NL63: Close Yet Still So Far

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Dijkman

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E are two of the four human coronaviruses that circulate worldwide. These two viruses are unique in their relationship towards each other. Phylogenetically, the viruses are more closely related to each other than to any other human coronavirus, yet they only share 65% sequence identity. Moreover, the viruses use different receptors to enter their target cell. HCoV-NL63 is associated with croup in children, whereas all signs suggest that the virus probably causes the common cold in healthy adults. HCoV-229E is a proven common cold virus in healthy adults, so it is probable that both viruses induce comparable symptoms in adults, even though their mode of infection differs. Here, we present an overview of the current knowledge on both human coronaviruses, focusing on similarities and differences.

  1. The Multifaceted Role of SNARE Proteins in Membrane Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Pluhackova, Kristyna; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2017-01-01

    Membrane fusion is a key process in all living organisms that contributes to a variety of biological processes including viral infection, cell fertilization, as well as intracellular transport, and neurotransmitter release. In particular, the various membrane-enclosed compartments in eukaryotic cells need to exchange their contents and communicate across membranes. Efficient and controllable fusion of biological membranes is known to be driven by cooperative action of SNARE proteins, which constitute the central components of the eukaryotic fusion machinery responsible for fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane. During exocytosis, vesicle-associated v-SNARE (synaptobrevin) and target cell-associated t-SNAREs (syntaxin and SNAP-25) assemble into a core trans-SNARE complex. This complex plays a versatile role at various stages of exocytosis ranging from the priming to fusion pore formation and expansion, finally resulting in the release or exchange of the vesicle content. This review summarizes current knowledge on the intricate molecular mechanisms underlying exocytosis triggered and catalyzed by SNARE proteins. Particular attention is given to the function of the peptidic SNARE membrane anchors and the role of SNARE-lipid interactions in fusion. Moreover, the regulatory mechanisms by synaptic auxiliary proteins in SNARE-driven membrane fusion are briefly outlined.

  2. Advanced fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Yukihiro

    2003-01-01

    The main subjects on fusion research are now on D-T fueled fusion, mainly due to its high fusion reaction rate. However, many issues are still remained on the wall loading by the 14 MeV neutrons. In the case of D-D fueled fusion, the neutron wall loading is still remained, though the technology related to tritium breeding is not needed. The p- 6 Li and p- 11 B fueled fusions are not estimated to be the next generation candidate until the innovated plasma confinement technologies come in useful to achieve the high performance plasma parameters. The fusion reactor of D- 3 He fuels has merits on the smaller neutron wall loading and tritium handling. However, there are difficulties on achieving the high temperature plasma more than 100 keV. Furthermore the high beta plasma is needed to decrease synchrotron radiation loss. In addition, the efficiency of the direct energy conversion from protons coming out from fusion reaction is one of the key parameters in keeping overall power balance. Therefore, open magnetic filed lines should surround the plasma column. In this paper, we outlined the design of the commercial base reactor (ARTEMIS) of 1 GW electric output power configured by D- 3 He fueled FRC (Field Reversed Configuration). The ARTEMIS needs 64 kg of 3 He per a year. On the other hand, 1 million tons of 3 He is estimated to be in the moon. The 3 He of about 10 23 kg are to exist in gaseous planets such as Jupiter and Saturn. (Y. Tanaka)

  3. Ion beam inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1995-01-01

    About twenty years ago, A. W. Maschke of Brookhaven National Laboratory and R. L. Martin of Argonne National Laboratory recognized that the accelerators that have been developed for high energy and nuclear physics are, in many ways, ideally suited to the requirements of inertial fusion power production. These accelerators are reliable, they have a long operating life, and they can be efficient. Maschke and Martin noted that they can focus ion beams to small focal spots over distances of many meters and that they can readily operate at the high pulse repetition rates needed for commercial power production. Fusion, however, does impose some important new constraints that are not important for high energy or nuclear physics applications. The most challenging new constraint from a scientific standpoint is the requirement that the accelerator deliver more than 10 14 W of beam power to a small quantity (less than 100 mg) of matter. The most challenging constraint from an engineering standpoint is accelerator cost. Maschke showed theoretically that accelerators could produce adequate work. Heavy-ion fusion is widely recognized to be a promising approach to inertial fusion power production. It provides an excellent opportunity to apply methods and technology developed for basic science to an important societal need. The pulsed-power community has developed a complementary, parallel approach to ion beam fusion known as light-ion fusion. The talk will discuss both heavy-ion and light-ion fusion. It will explain target physics requirements and show how they lead to constraints on the usual accelerator parameters such as kinetic energy, current, and emittance. The talk will discuss experiments that are presently underway, specifically experiments on high-current ion sources and injectors, pulsed-power machines recirculating induction accelerators, and transverse beam combining. The talk will give a brief description of a proposed new accelerator called Elise

  4. Fusion Canada issue 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Canada-Europe Accords: 5 year R and D collaboration for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) AECL is designated to arrange and implement the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) while EUROTAM is responsible for operating Europe's Fusion R and D programs plus MOU and EDA. The MOU includes tokamaks, plasma physics, fusion technology, fusion fuels and other approaches to fusion energy (as alternatives to tokamaks). STOR-M Tokamak was restarted at the University of Saskatchewan following upgrades to the plasma chamber to accommodate the Compact Toroid (CT) injector. The CT injector has a flexible attachment thus allowing for injection angle adjustments. Real-time video images of a single plasma discharge on TdeV showing that as the plasma density increases, in a linear ramp divertor, the plasma contact with the horizontal plate decreases while contact increases with the oblique plate. Damage-resistant diffractive optical elements (DOE) have been developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research by Gentac Inc. and the National Optics Institute, laser beam homogeniser and laser harmonic separator DOE can also be made using the same technology. Studies using TdeV indicate that a divertor will be able to pump helium from the tokamak with a detached-plasma divertor but helium extraction performance must first be improved, presently the deuterium:helium retention radio-indicates that in order to pump enough helium through a fusion reactor, too much deuterium-tritium fuel would be pumped out. 2 fig

  5. Advanced fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Yukihiro [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2003-04-01

    The main subjects on fusion research are now on D-T fueled fusion, mainly due to its high fusion reaction rate. However, many issues are still remained on the wall loading by the 14 MeV neutrons. In the case of D-D fueled fusion, the neutron wall loading is still remained, though the technology related to tritium breeding is not needed. The p-{sup 6}Li and p-{sup 11}B fueled fusions are not estimated to be the next generation candidate until the innovated plasma confinement technologies come in useful to achieve the high performance plasma parameters. The fusion reactor of D-{sup 3}He fuels has merits on the smaller neutron wall loading and tritium handling. However, there are difficulties on achieving the high temperature plasma more than 100 keV. Furthermore the high beta plasma is needed to decrease synchrotron radiation loss. In addition, the efficiency of the direct energy conversion from protons coming out from fusion reaction is one of the key parameters in keeping overall power balance. Therefore, open magnetic filed lines should surround the plasma column. In this paper, we outlined the design of the commercial base reactor (ARTEMIS) of 1 GW electric output power configured by D-{sup 3}He fueled FRC (Field Reversed Configuration). The ARTEMIS needs 64 kg of {sup 3}He per a year. On the other hand, 1 million tons of {sup 3}He is estimated to be in the moon. The {sup 3}He of about 10{sup 23} kg are to exist in gaseous planets such as Jupiter and Saturn. (Y. Tanaka)

  6. Nuclear Fusion Award 2010 speech Nuclear Fusion Award 2010 speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, John

    2011-01-01

    Following the suggestion of Earl Marmar in 1995, I installed a compact von Hamos type x-ray spectrometer (originally built with Elisabeth Rachlew and Jan Kallne) on a tangentially viewing port on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The spectrometer views the plasma through a 2 cm diameter hole, and is tuned to H-like argon, suitable for passive measurement of the core toroidal rotation velocity from the Doppler shift. It soon became evident that the rotation in Ohmic L-mode discharges, while for the most part directed counter-current, depends in a very complicated fashion on plasma parameters, notably the electron density, current and magnetic configuration. The rotation can even flip sign for almost no apparent reason! In Ohmic and ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heated H-mode plasmas the rotation is in the co-current direction and has a relatively simple dependence on plasma parameters, proportional to the stored energy normalized to the current. Rotation velocities as high as 130 km s-1 have been observed without external momentum input. In dimensionless terms this intrinsic (or spontaneous rotation) depends on the normalized plasma pressure. The association of toroidal rotation with plasma pressure in ICRF H-modes was first observed by Lars-Goran Eriksson in JET discharges. Similar results were subsequently reported for Tore Supra enhanced confinement plasmas. In the early 2000s concerns began to surface about the lack of substantial neutral beam driven rotation in ITER, and intrinsic rotation became a topic of interest in the ITPA Transport Group. Through that connection, similar observations from DIII-D, TCV and JT-60U were added to the growing list. A database of intrinsic rotation observations was assembled with the goal of extrapolating to the expected values for ITER. Both dimensional and dimensionless scalings were developed and formed the backbone of the 2007 Nuclear Fusion paper. I gratefully acknowledge the important contributions to this paper from

  7. Modeling of impurity transport in the core plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulse, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of computer modeling of impurity transport in the core region of controlled thermonuclear fusion plasmas. The atomic processes of importance in these high temperature plasmas and the numerical formulation of the model are described. Selected modeling examples are then used to highlight some features of the physics of impurity behavior in large tokamak fusion devices, with an emphasis on demonstrating the sensitivity of such modeling to uncertainties in the rate coefficients used for the atomic processes. This leads to a discussion of current requirements and opportunities for generating the improved sets of comprehensive atomic data needed to support present and future fusion impurity modeling studies

  8. EDITORIAL: Plasma Surface Interactions for Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Because plasma-boundary physics encompasses some of the most important unresolved issues for both the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project and future fusion power reactors, there is a strong interest in the fusion community for better understanding and characterization of plasma wall interactions. Chemical and physical sputtering cause the erosion of the limiters/divertor plates and vacuum vessel walls (made of C, Be and W, for example) and degrade fusion performance by diluting the fusion fuel and excessively cooling the core, while carbon redeposition could produce long-term in-vessel tritium retention, degrading the superior thermo-mechanical properties of the carbon materials. Mixed plasma-facing materials are proposed, requiring optimization for different power and particle flux characteristics. Knowledge of material properties as well as characteristics of the plasma material interaction are prerequisites for such optimizations. Computational power will soon reach hundreds of teraflops, so that theoretical and plasma science expertise can be matched with new experimental capabilities in order to mount a strong response to these challenges. To begin to address such questions, a Workshop on New Directions for Advanced Computer Simulations and Experiments in Fusion-Related Plasma Surface Interactions for Fusion (PSIF) was held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory from 21 to 23 March, 2005. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together researchers in fusion related plasma wall interactions in order to address these topics and to identify the most needed and promising directions for study, to exchange opinions on the present depth of knowledge of surface properties for the main fusion-related materials, e.g., C, Be and W, especially for sputtering, reflection, and deuterium (tritium) retention properties. The goal was to suggest the most important next steps needed for such basic computational and experimental work to be facilitated

  9. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haralalka, Shruti [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Abmayr, Susan M., E-mail: sma@stowers.org [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 66160 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  10. Fusion, magnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or 3 He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied

  11. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1986-05-01

    In 1982, KfK joined the fusion programme of EURATOM as a further association introducing its experience in nuclear technology. KfK closely cooperates with IPP Garching, the two institutions forming a research unit aiming at planning and realization of future development steps of fusion. KfK has combined its forces in the Nuclear Fusion Project (PKF) with participation of several KfK departments to the project tasks. Previous work of KfK in magnetic fusion has addressed mainly superconducting magnets, plasma heating by cluster ions and studies on structural materials. At present, emphasis of our work has concentrated increasingly on the nuclear part, i.e. the first wall and blanket structures and the elements of the tritium extraction and purification system. Associated to this component development are studies of remote maintenance and safety. Most of the actual work addresses NET, the next step to a demonstration of fusion feasibility. NET is supposed to follow JET, the operating plasma physics experiment of Euratom, on the 1990's. Detailed progress of the work in the past half year is described in this report. (orig./GG)

  12. Challenges of nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    After 30 years of research and development in many countries, the magnetic confinement fusion experiments finally seem to be getting close to the original first goal: the point of ''scientific break-even''. Plans are being made for a generation of experiments and tests with actual controlled thermonuclear fusion conditions. Therefore engineers and material scientists are hard at work to develop the required technology. In this paper the principal elements of a generic fusion reactor are described briefly to introduce the reader to the nature of the problems at hand. The main portion of the presentation summarises the recent advances made in this field and discusses the major issues that still need to be addressed in regard to materials and technology for fusion power. Specific examples are the problems of the first wall and other components that come into direct contact with the plasma, where both lifetime and plasma contamination are matters of concern. Equally challenging are the demands on structural materials and on the magnetic-field coils, particularly in connection with the neutron-radiation environment of fusion reactors. Finally, the role of ceramics must be considered, both for insulators and for fuel breeding purposes. It is evident that we still have a formidable task before us, but at this point none of the problems seem to be insoluble. (author)

  13. The need for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llewellyn Smith, Chris

    2005-01-01

    World energy use is predicted to double in the next 40 years. Currently 80% is provided by burning fossil fuels, but this is not sustainable indefinitely because (i) it is driving climate change, and (ii) fossil fuels will eventually be exhausted (starting with oil). The resulting potential energy crisis requires increased investment in energy research and development (which is currently very small on the scale of the $3 trillion p.a. energy market, and falling). The wide portfolio of energy work that should be supported must include fusion, which is one of the very few options that are capable in principle of supplying a large fraction of need. The case for fusion has been strengthened by recent advances in plasma physics and fusion technology that are reflected in the forthcoming European Fusion Power Plant Conceptual Study, which addresses safety and cost issues. The big questions are - How can we deliver fusion power as fast as possible? How long is it likely to take? I argue for a fast track programme, and describe a fast-track model developed at Culham, which is intended to stimulate debate on the way ahead and the resources that are needed

  14. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haralalka, Shruti; Abmayr, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  15. Material for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhishek, Anuj; Ranjan, Prem

    2011-01-01

    To make nuclear fusion power a reality, the scientists are working restlessly to find the materials which can confine the power generated by the fusion of two atomic nuclei. A little success in this field has been achieved, though there are still miles to go. Fusion reaction is a special kind of reaction which must occur at very high density and temperature to develop extremely large amount of energy, which is very hard to control and confine within using the present techniques. As a whole it requires the physical condition that rarely exists on the earth to carry out in an efficient manner. As per the growing demand and present scenario of the world energy, scientists are working round the clock to make effective fusion reactions to real. In this paper the work presently going on is considered in this regard. The progress of the Joint European Torus 2010, ITER 2005, HiPER and minor works have been studied to make the paper more object oriented. A detailed study of the technological and material requirement has been discussed in the paper and a possible suggestion is provided to make a contribution in the field of building first ever nuclear fusion reactor

  16. Coatings for fusion reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The internal surfaces of a tokamak fusion reactor control the impurity injection and gas recycling into the fusion plasma. Coating of internal surfaces may provide a desirable and possibly necessary design flexibility for achieving the temperatures, ion densities and containment times necessary for net energy production from fusion reactions to take place. In this paper the reactor environments seen by various componentare reviewed along with possible materials responses. Characteristics of coating-substrate systems, important to fusion applications, are delineated and the present status of coating development for fusion applications is reviewed. Coating development for fusion applications is just beginning and poses a unique and important challenge for materials development

  17. Fusion: Energy for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    Fusion, which occurs in the sun and the stars, is a process of transforming matter into energy. If we can harness the fusion process on Earth, it opens the way to assuring that future generations will not want for heat and electric power. The purpose of this booklet is to introduce the concept of fusion energy as a viable, environmentally sustainable energy source for the twenty-first century. The booklet presents the basic principles of fusion, the global research and development effort in fusion, and Canada's programs for fusion research and development

  18. Overview of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor Design Study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jinhua; Feng Kaiming; Deng Baiquan; Deng, P.Zh.; Zhang Guoshu; Hu Gang; He Kaihui; Wu Yican; Qiu Lijian; Huang Qunying; Xiao Bingjia; Liu Xiaoping; Chen Yixue; Kong, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    The motivation for developing fusion-fission hybrid reactors is discussed in the context of electricity power requirements by 2050 in China. A detailed conceptual design of the Fusion Experimental Breeder (FEB) was developed from 1986-1995. The FEB has a subignited tokamak fusion core with a major radius of 4.0 m, a fusion power of 145 MW, and a fusion energy gain Q of 3. Based on this, an engineering outline design study of the FEB, FEB-E, has been performed. This design study is a transition from conceptual to engineering design in this research. The main results beyond that given in the detailed conceptual design are included in this paper, namely, the design studies of the blanket, divertor, test blanket, and tritium and environment issues. In-depth analyses have been performed to support the design. Studies of related advanced concepts such as the waste transmutation blanket concept and the spherical tokamak core concept are also presented

  19. Pulsed fission/fusion hybrid engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, G.C.

    1979-01-01

    Research into high-thrust, high-specific impulse rocket engines using energy from nuclear reactions which has been conducted at this organization will be discussed. The engines are all conceptual in nature, yet are within the realization of conventional or near-term technology. The engine concepts under study at Foundation, Inc. are designed to obviate or minimize these negative effects of the ORION scheme. By using non-chemical triggers to initiate a non-breakeven fusion reaction at the core of a target composed of both fission and fusion fuel, it should be possible to employ the fusion neutrons thus produced to begin a fission reaction in U-235 or Pu-239. Since the density of the target can be increased by as much as a factor of 250 through compression of the pellet, the amount of fission material necessary to produce a critical mass can be greatly reduced. (This also means that the amount of fission products produced for a giventhrust level is also reduced from the ORION levels.) Coupling this eeffect to the large number of 14 MeV fusion neutrons produced early in the compression process and subsequently to the heating of some additional fusion fuel surrounding the critical mass leads to the very efficient burnup of the target. This insures both high yield from the target as well as low cost per MJ energy released. Finally, the use of such small pellets allows the scale of the energy released to be tailored to a level usable in rocket engines of a few tens of tons thrust level. (orig.) [de

  20. Inhibition of the Hantavirus Fusion Process by Predicted Domain III and Stem Peptides from Glycoprotein Gc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Gonzalo P; Villalón-Letelier, Fernando; Márquez, Chantal L; Bignon, Eduardo A; Acuña, Rodrigo; Ross, Breyan H; Monasterio, Octavio; Mardones, Gonzalo A; Vidal, Simon E; Tischler, Nicole D

    2016-07-01

    Hantaviruses can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. To enter cells, hantaviruses fuse their envelope membrane with host cell membranes. Previously, we have shown that the Gc envelope glycoprotein is the viral fusion protein sharing characteristics with class II fusion proteins. The ectodomain of class II fusion proteins is composed of three domains connected by a stem region to a transmembrane anchor in the viral envelope. These fusion proteins can be inhibited through exogenous fusion protein fragments spanning domain III (DIII) and the stem region. Such fragments are thought to interact with the core of the fusion protein trimer during the transition from its pre-fusion to its post-fusion conformation. Based on our previous homology model structure for Gc from Andes hantavirus (ANDV), here we predicted and generated recombinant DIII and stem peptides to test whether these fragments inhibit hantavirus membrane fusion and cell entry. Recombinant ANDV DIII was soluble, presented disulfide bridges and beta-sheet secondary structure, supporting the in silico model. Using DIII and the C-terminal part of the stem region, the infection of cells by ANDV was blocked up to 60% when fusion of ANDV occurred within the endosomal route, and up to 95% when fusion occurred with the plasma membrane. Furthermore, the fragments impaired ANDV glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion, and cross-inhibited the fusion mediated by the glycoproteins from Puumala virus (PUUV). The Gc fragments interfered in ANDV cell entry by preventing membrane hemifusion and pore formation, retaining Gc in a non-resistant homotrimer stage, as described for DIII and stem peptide inhibitors of class II fusion proteins. Collectively, our results demonstrate that hantavirus Gc shares not only structural, but also mechanistic similarity with class II viral fusion proteins, and will hopefully help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against hantaviruses.

  1. Vacuum engineering for fusion research and fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittenger, L.C.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are described: (1) surface pumping by cryogenic condensation, (2) operation of large condensing cryopumps, (3) pumping for large fusion experiments, and (4) vacuum technology for fusion reactors

  2. Side core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A

    1982-01-01

    A side core lifter is proposed which contains a housing with guide slits and a removable core lifter with side projections on the support section connected to the core receiver. In order to preserve the structure of the rock in the core sample by means of guaranteeing rectilinear movement of the core lifter in the rock, the support and core receiver sections are hinged. The device is equipped with a spring for angular shift in the core-reception part.

  3. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trocheris, M.

    1975-01-01

    An outline is given of the present position of research into controlled fusion. After a brief reminder of the nuclear reactions of fusion and the principle of their use as a source of energy, the results obtained by the method of magnetic confinement are summarized. Among the many solutions that have been imagined and tried out to achieve a magnetic containing vessel capable of holding the thermonuclear plasma, the devices of the Tokamak type have a good lead and that is why they are described in greater detail. An idea is then given of the problems that arise when one intends conceiving the thermonuclear reactor based on the principle of the Tokamaks. The last section deals with fusion by lasers which is a new and most attractive alternative, at least from the viewpoint of basis physics. The report concludes with an indication of the stages to be passed through to reach production of energy on an industrial scale [fr

  4. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  5. Ceramics for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al 2 O 3 , MgAl 2 O 4 , BeO, Si 3 N 4 and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying responses to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today that will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications. (author)

  6. Inverse fusion PCR cloning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Spiliotis

    Full Text Available Inverse fusion PCR cloning (IFPC is an easy, PCR based three-step cloning method that allows the seamless and directional insertion of PCR products into virtually all plasmids, this with a free choice of the insertion site. The PCR-derived inserts contain a vector-complementary 5'-end that allows a fusion with the vector by an overlap extension PCR, and the resulting amplified insert-vector fusions are then circularized by ligation prior transformation. A minimal amount of starting material is needed and experimental steps are reduced. Untreated circular plasmid, or alternatively bacteria containing the plasmid, can be used as templates for the insertion, and clean-up of the insert fragment is not urgently required. The whole cloning procedure can be performed within a minimal hands-on time and results in the generation of hundreds to ten-thousands of positive colonies, with a minimal background.

  7. Laser for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Solid state lasers have proven to be very versatile tools for the study and demonstration of inertial confinement fusion principles. When lasers were first contemplated to be used for the compression of fusion fuel in the late 1950s, the laser output energy levels were nominally one joule and the power levels were 10 3 watts (pulse duration's of 10 -3 sec). During the last 25 years, lasers optimized for fusion research have been increased in power to typically 100,000 joules with power levels approaching 10 14 watts. As a result of experiments with such lasers at many locations, DT target performance has been shown to be consistent with high gain target output. However, the demonstration of ignition and gain requires laser energies of several megajoules. Laser technology improvements demonstrated over the past decade appear to make possible the construction of such multimegajoule lasers at affordable costs. (author)

  8. Ceramics for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle, and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al 2 O 3 , MgAl 2 O 4 , BeO, Si 3 N 4 and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying response to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today which will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications

  9. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed.

  10. Fusion reactor wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    The fusion reactor currently is being developed as a clean source of electricity with an essentially infinite source of fuel. These reactors are visualized as using a fusion reaction to generate large quantities of high temperature energy which can be used as process heat or for the generation of electricity. The energy would be created primarily as the kinetic energy of neutrons or other reaction products. Neutron energy could be converted to high-temperature heat by moderation and capture of the neutrons. The energy of other reaction products could be converted to high-temperature heat by capture, or directly to electricity by direct conversion electrostatic equipment. An analysis to determine the wastes released as a result of operation of fusion power plants is presented

  11. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics; the present paper addresses itself to this alternative. As will be demonstrated the very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion-source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at. (Auth.)

  12. On impact fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1997-01-01

    Impact fusion is a promising, but much less developed road towards inertial confinement fusion. It offers an excellent solution to the so-called stand-off problem for thermonuclear microexplosions but is confronted with the challenge to accelerate macroscopic particles to the needed high velocities of 10 2 -10 3 km/s. To reach these velocities, two ways have been studied in the past. The electric acceleration of a beam of microparticles, with the particles as small as large clusters, and the magnetic acceleration of gram-size ferromagnetic or superconducting projectiles. For the generation of an intense burst of soft X-rays used for the indirect drive, impact fusion may offer new promising possibilities

  13. Fusion research at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The ORNL Fusion Program includes the experimental and theoretical study of two different classes of magnetic confinement schemes - systems with helical magnetic fields, such as the tokamak and stellarator, and the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) class of toroidally linked mirror systems; the development of technologies, including superconducting magnets, neutral atomic beam and radio frequency (rf) heating systems, fueling systems, materials, and diagnostics; the development of databases for atomic physics and radiation effects; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; and the design of advanced demonstration fusion devices. The program involves wide collaboration, both within ORNL and with other institutions. The elements of this program are shown. This document illustrates the program's scope; and aims by reviewing recent progress

  14. Canadian fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.S.

    1982-06-01

    The National Research Council of Canada is establishing a coordinated national program of fusion research and development that is planned to grow to a total annual operating level of about $20 million in 1985. The long-term objective of the program is to put Canadian industry in a position to manufacture sub-systems and components of fusion power reactors. In the near term the program is designed to establish a minimum base of scientific and technical expertise sufficient to make recognized contributions and thereby gain access to the international effort. The Canadian program must be narrowly focussed on a few specializations where Canada has special indigenous skills or technologies. The programs being funded are the Tokamak de Varennes, the Fusion Fuels Technology Project centered on tritium management, and high-power gas laser technology and associated diagnostic instrumentation

  15. Ceramics for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a number of applications in fusion devices, among the most critical of which are magnetic coil insulators, windows for RF heating systems, and structural uses. Radiation effects dominate consideration of candidate materials, although good pre-irradiation properties are a requisite. Materials and components can be optimized by careful control of chemical and microstructural content, and application of brittle material design and testing techniques. Future directions for research and development should include further extension of the data base in the areas of electrical, structural, and thermal properties; establishment of a fission neutron/fusion neutron correlation including transmutation gas effects; and development of new materials tailored to meet the specific needs of fusion reactors

  16. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    1980-07-01

    Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics; the present paper addresses itself to this alternative. As will be demonstrated the very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at

  17. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleasance, L.D.

    1979-11-01

    One objective of research on inertial confinement fusion is the development of a power generating system based on this concept. Realization of this goal will depend on the availability of a suitable laser or other system to drive the power plant. The primary laser systems used for laser fusion research, Nd 3+ : Glass and CO 2 , have characteristics which may preclude their use for this application. Glass lasers are presently perceived to be incapable of sufficiently high average power operation and the CO 2 laser may be limited by and issues associated with target coupling. These general perceptions have encouraged a search for alternatives to the present systems. The search for new lasers has been directed generally towards shorter wavelengths; most of the new lasers discovered in the past few years have been in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Virtually all of them have been advocated as the most promising candidate for a fusion driver at one time or another

  18. A tethering complex drives the terminal stage of SNARE-dependent membrane fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Massimo; Risselada, Herre Jelger; Lürick, Anna; Ungermann, Christian; Mayer, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    Membrane fusion in eukaryotic cells mediates the biogenesis of organelles, vesicular traffic between them, and exo- and endocytosis of important signalling molecules, such as hormones and neurotransmitters. Distinct tasks in intracellular membrane fusion have been assigned to conserved protein systems. Tethering proteins mediate the initial recognition and attachment of membranes, whereas SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) protein complexes are considered as the core fusion engine. SNARE complexes provide mechanical energy to distort membranes and drive them through a hemifusion intermediate towards the formation of a fusion pore. This last step is highly energy-demanding. Here we combine the in vivo and in vitro fusion of yeast vacuoles with molecular simulations to show that tethering proteins are critical for overcoming the final energy barrier to fusion pore formation. SNAREs alone drive vacuoles only into the hemifused state. Tethering proteins greatly increase the volume of SNARE complexes and deform the site of hemifusion, which lowers the energy barrier for pore opening and provides the driving force. Thereby, tethering proteins assume a crucial mechanical role in the terminal stage of membrane fusion that is likely to be conserved at multiple steps of vesicular traffic. We therefore propose that SNAREs and tethering proteins should be considered as a single, non-dissociable device that drives fusion. The core fusion machinery may then be larger and more complex than previously thought.

  19. Neutrons and fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynard, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The production of energy from fusion reactions does not require neutrons in the fundamental sense that they are required in a fission reactor. Nevertheless, the dominant fusion reaction, that between deuterium and tritium, yields a 14 MeV neutron. To contrast a fusion reactor based on this reaction with the fission case, 3 x 10 20 such neutrons produced per gigawatt of power. This is four times as many neutrons as in an equivalent fission reactor and they carry seven times the energy of the fission neutrons. Thus, they dominate the energy recovery problem and create technological problems comparable to the original plasma confinement problem as far as a practical power producing device is concerned. Further contrasts of the fusion and fission cases are presented to establish the general role of neutrons in fusion devices. Details of the energy deposition processes are discussed and those reactions necessary for producing additional tritium are outlined. The relatively high energy flux with its large intensity will activate almost any materials of which the reactor may be composed. This activation is examined from the point of view of decay heat, radiological safety, and long-term storage. In addition, a discussion of the deleterious effects of neutron interactions on materials is given in some detail; this includes the helium and hydrogen producing reactions and displacement rate of the lattice atoms. The various materials that have been proposed for structural purposes, for breeding, reflecting, and moderating neutrons, and for radiation shielding are reviewed from the nuclear standpoint. The specific reactions of interest are taken up for various materials and finally a report is given on the status and prospects of data for fusion studies

  20. Insulators for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    Design studies for fusion devices and reactors have become more detailed in recent years and with this has come a better understanding of requirements and operating conditions for insulators in these machines. Ceramic and organic insulators are widely used for many components of fusion devices and reactors namely: radio frequency (RF) energy injection systems (BeO, Al 2 O 3 , Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 3 N 4 ); electrical insulation for the torus structure (SiC, Al 2 O 3 , MgO, Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 4 Al 2 O 2 N 6 , Si 3 N 4 , Y 2 O 3 ); lightly-shielded magnetic coils (MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 ); the toroidal field coil (epoxies, polyimides), neutron shield (B 4 C, TiH 2 ); high efficiency electrical generation; as well as the generation of very high temperatures for high efficiency hydrogen production processes (ZrO 2 and Al 2 O 3 - mat, graphite and carbon - felt). Timely development of insulators for fusion applications is clearly necessary. Those materials to be used in fusion machines should show high resistance to radiation damage and maintain their structural integrity. Now the need is urgent for a variety of radiation resistant materials, but much effort in these areas is required for insulators to be considered seriously by the design community. This document contains 14 papers from an IAEA meeting. It was the objective of this meeting to identify existing problems in analysing various situations of applications and requirements of electrical insulators and ceramics in fusion and to recommend strategies and different stages of implementation. This meeting was endorsed by the International Fusion Research Council

  1. International fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear energy of the light elements deuterium and lithium can be released if the 100 MK degree temperature required for deuterium-tritium thermonuclear fusion reactions can be achieved together with sufficient thermal insulation for a net energy yield. Progress of world-wide research shows good prospect for these physical conditions being achieved by the use of magnetic field confinement and of rapidly developing heating methods. Tokamak systems, alternative magnetic systems and inertial confinement progress are described. International co-operation features a number of bilateral agreements between countries: the Euratom collaboration which includes the Joint European Torus, a joint undertaking of eleven Western European nations of Euratom, established to build and operate a major confinement experiment; the development of co-operative projects within the OECD/IEA framework; the INTOR workshop, a world-wide study under IAEA auspices of the next major step in fusion research which might be built co-operatively; and assessments of the potential of nuclear fusion by the IAEA and the International Fusion Research Council. The INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor) studies have outlined a major plant of the tokamak type to study the engineering and technology of fusion reactor systems, which might be constructed on a world-wide basis to tackle and share the investment risks of the developments which lie ahead. This paper summarizes the recent progress of research on controlled nuclear fusion, featuring those areas where international co-operation has played an important part, and describes the various arrangements by which this international co-operation is facilitated. (author)

  2. Intense fusion neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-01-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10 15 -10 21 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10 20 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  3. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  4. Confinement inertial fusion. Power reactors of nuclear fusion by lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, G.; Ahnert, C.; Aragones, J.M.; Leira, G; Martinez-Val, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The energy crisis and the need of the nuclear fusion energy are analized. The nuclear processes in the laser interation with the ablator material are studied, as well as the thermohydrodinamic processes in the implossion, and the neutronics of the fusion. The fusion reactor components are described and the economic and social impact of its introduction in the future energetic strategies.(author)

  5. Nuclear fusion: Pursuing the Soft [Symposium on fusion technology] option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenward, M.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion research has come a long way since the fusion community held the first Symposium on fusion technology (Soft) in Britain 30 years ago. Some of the recent achievements of the Jet project are reported from this year's symposium, the 16th in the series, held in London at the beginning of September. (author)

  6. Fusion Energy Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    Fusion Energy Update (CFU) provides monthly abstracting and indexing coverage of current scientific and technical reports, journal articles, conference papers and proceedings, books, patents, theses, and monographs for all sources on fusion energy. All information announced in CFU, plus additional backup information, is included in the energy information data base of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center. The subject matter covered by CFU includes plasma physics, the physics and engineering of blankets, magnet coils and fields, power supplies and circuitry, cooling systems, fuel systems, radiation hazards, power conversion systems, inertial confinement systems, and component development and testing

  7. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised

  8. Vacuum fusion of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohr, J.A.

    1957-01-01

    After having outlined that vacuum fusion and moulding of uranium and of its alloys have some technical and economic benefits (vacuum operations avoid uranium oxidation and result in some purification; precision moulding avoids machining, chip production and chemical reprocessing of these chips; direct production of the desired shape is possible by precision moulding), this report presents the uranium fusion unit (its low pressure enclosure and pumping device, the crucible-mould assembly, and the MF supply device). The author describes the different steps of cast production, and briefly comments the obtained results

  9. Pulsed power for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.

    1976-01-01

    A review which traces the development of high power pulsed accelerators from the original inception at the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston, England, for Bremsstrahlung output, through the low impedance accelerators, to the double-sided accelerators for fusion will be given. Proto II is presently being assembled at Sandia and preliminary testing on the Marx has been completed. Examples of various techniques will be shown from Sandia accelerators. Requirements for accelerators capable of achieving fusion levels will be developed and problem areas outlined. The diode insulator flashover problem presently limits the maximum current available from the accelerators

  10. Atomic data for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A. (eds.); Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  11. Small mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Schultz, K.R.; Smith, A.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Basic requirements for the pilot plants are that they produce a net product and that they have a potential for commercial upgrade. We have investigated a small standard mirror fusion-fission hybrid, a two-component tandem mirror hybrid, and two versions of a field-reversed mirror fusion reactor--one a steady state, single cell reactor with a neutral beam-sustained plasma, the other a moving ring field-reversed mirror where the plasma passes through a reaction chamber with no energy addition

  12. Thermonuclear fusion power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, B

    1977-01-01

    The present state and future possibilities of controlled-nuclear-fusion research are reviewed, including basic concepts and problems, as well as various approaches based on magnetic- and nonmagnetic-confinement schemes. Considerable progress has so far been made in both plasma physics and fusion-reactor technology, and a closer relationship has been established between theory and experiments. Still, none of the present approaches will, for certain, lead to the final solution of a full-scale reactor. Intensified work along broad lines, with emphasis also on basic research and new ideas, is necessary for future success.

  13. The European Fusion Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, D.

    1983-01-01

    The European Fusion Programme is coordinated by Euratom and represents a long term cooperative project of Member States of the European Communities in the field of fusion, designed to lead to the joint construction of prototypes. The main lines of the programme proposed for 1982 to 1986 are: (1) the continuation of a strong effort on tokamaks with emphasis on JET construction, operation and upgrading, (2) conceptual design of NET and development of the related technology, and (3) further work on two alternative magnetic confinement systems. The current status and future plans for this programme are discussed in the paper. (author)

  14. Atomic data for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research

  15. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised.

  16. Advanced fusion concepts program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, W.F.

    1978-01-01

    While the prospects for the eventual development of a tokamak-based fusion reactor appear promising at the present time, the Department of Energy maintains a vigorous program in alternate magnetic fusion concepts. Several of the concepts presently supported include the toroidal reversed field pinch, Tormac, Elmo Bumpy Torus, and various linear options. Recent technical accomplishments and program evaluations indicate that the possibility now exists for undertaking the next development stage, a proof-of-principle experiment, for a few of the most promising alternate concepts

  17. Fusion welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kenneth C.; Jones, Eric D.; McBride, Marvin A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content such that ferrite phases occur within the weld nugget, resulting in improved weld properties. The steel alloys encompassed also include alloys containing carbon and manganese, considered nickel equivalents.

  18. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1985-05-01

    In the current Fusion Technology Programme of the European Community the KfK association is working at present on 16 R and D contracts. Most of the work is strongly oriented towards the Next European Torus. Direct support to NET is given by three KfK delegates being member of the NET study group. In addition to the R and D contracts the association is working on 11 NET study contracts. Though KfK contributes to all areas defined in fusion technology, the main emphasis is put on superconducting magnet and breeding blanket development. Other important fields are tritium technology, materials research, and remote handling. (orig./GG)

  19. Cold fusion in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, L.

    1989-01-01

    Since early April a great deal of excitement has been created over the Fleischmann/Pons cold fusion experiment, which if it performs as advertised, could turn out to be mankind's best hope of heading off the energy crisis scheduled for early in the next century. Dozens of groups around the world are now attempting to duplicate the experiment to see if Fleischmann and Pons' discovery is an experimental mistake, an unknown electrochemical effect or a new kind of fusion reaction. This article puts the experiment into the perspective of today and looks at how it might affect the energy scene tomorrow if it should turn out to be commercially exploitable. (author)

  20. Multisensor data fusion algorithm development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yocky, D.A.; Chadwick, M.D.; Goudy, S.P.; Johnson, D.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a two-year LDRD research effort into multisensor data fusion. We approached the problem by addressing the available types of data, preprocessing that data, and developing fusion algorithms using that data. The report reflects these three distinct areas. First, the possible data sets for fusion are identified. Second, automated registration techniques for imagery data are analyzed. Third, two fusion techniques are presented. The first fusion algorithm is based on the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform. Using test images, the wavelet algorithm is compared against intensity modulation and intensity-hue-saturation image fusion algorithms that are available in commercial software. The wavelet approach outperforms the other two fusion techniques by preserving spectral/spatial information more precisely. The wavelet fusion algorithm was also applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT panchromatic imagery data. The second algorithm is based on a linear-regression technique. We analyzed the technique using the same Landsat and SPOT data.

  1. Atomic physics issues in fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Atomic physics issues have played a large role in controlled fusion research. A general introduction to the present role of atomic processes in both inertial and magnetic controlled fusion work is presented. (Auth.)

  2. Bringing fusion electric power closer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kintner, E.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the controlled fusion research program is given. The tokamak research program is described. Beam injection heating, control systems, and the safety of fusion reactors are topics that are also discussed

  3. Fusion technology status and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of fusion technology and discusses the requirements to be met in order to build a demonstration fusion plant. Strategies and programmatic considerations in pursuing engineering feasibility are also outlined

  4. The quest for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.L.

    1997-10-01

    A brief history of the magnetic fusion program from the point of view of a stellarator enthusiast who worked at a major tokamak laboratory. The reason that success in the magnetic fusion energy program is essential is presented. (author)

  5. Prospect for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents recent inertial fusion experiments at Osaka. The inertial fusion energy reactor used for these experiments was designed according to some principles based on environmental, social and safety considerations. (TEC). 1 fig., 1 ref

  6. Accelerator and fusion research division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This report contains brief discussions on research topics in the following area: Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research; Magnetic Fusion Energy; Advanced Light Source; Center for Beam Physics; Superconducting Magnets; and Bevalac Operations

  7. Cost assessment of a generic magnetic fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.; Dory, R.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Delene, J.G.; Parsly, L.F.; Ashby, D.E.T.F.; Reiersen, W.T.

    1986-03-01

    A generic reactor model is used to examine the economic viability of generating electricity by magnetic fusion. The simple model uses components that are representative of those used in previous reactor studies of deuterium-tritium-burning tokamaks, stellarators, bumpy tori, reversed-field pinches (RFPs), and tandem mirrors. Conservative costing assumptions are made. The generic reactor is not a tokamak; rather, it is intended to emphasize what is common to all magnetic fusion rectors. The reactor uses a superconducting toroidal coil set to produce the dominant magnetic field. To this extent, it is not as good an approximation to systems such as the RFP in which the main field is produced by a plasma current. The main output of the study is the cost of electricity as a function of the weight and size of the fusion core - blanket, shield, structure, and coils. The model shows that a 1200-MW(e) power plant with a fusion core weight of about 10,000 tonnes should be competitive in the future with fission and fossil plants. Studies of the sensitivity of the model to variations in the assumptions show that this result is not sensitively dependent on any given assumption. Of particular importance is the result that a fusion reactor of this scale may be realized with only moderate advances in physics and technology capabilities

  8. Fusion engineering device design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  9. Fusion Engineering Device design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein

  10. Fusion reactor development: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is a review of the current prospects for fusion reactor development based upon the present status in plasma physics research, fusion technology development and reactor conceptual design for the tokamak magnetic confinement concept. Recent advances in tokamak plasma research and fusion technology development are summarized. The direction and conclusions of tokamak reactor conceptual design are discussed. The status of alternate magnetic confinement concept research is reviewed briefly. A feasible timetable for the development of fusion reactors is presented

  11. Fusion engineering device design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein

  12. Fusion protein of tapasin and hepatitis B core antigen 18‑27 enhances T helper cell type 1/2 cytokine ratio and antiviral immunity by inhibiting suppressors of cytokine signaling family members 1/3 in hepatitis B virus transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuyan; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Yi; Tang, Zhenghao; Zhuo, Meng; Li, Dan; Wang, Peng; Zang, Guoqing; Yu, Yongsheng

    2014-04-01

    Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by a weak adaptive immune response, which is considered to be due to an imbalance of T helper cell types 1 and 2 (Th1/Th2). Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family members, particularly SOCS1 and SOCS3, have been demonstrated to be important in the regulation of T cell differentiation. Previous studies by our group showed that the expressed and purified fusion protein of cytoplasmic transduction peptide (CTP) and HBV core antigen 18‑27 (HBcAg18‑27)‑tapasin was able to enter the cytoplasm of bone marrow‑derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), promoting the maturation of BMDCs and efficiently enhancing T cell immune responses in vitro. In the present study, HBcAg‑specific immune responses induced by CTP‑HBcAg18‑27‑tapasin in HBV were assessed in transgenic mice, and SOCS1 and SOCS3 were identified as negative regulators of this response. The Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio was analyzed by ELISA. The expression of T cell‑specific T‑box transcription factor (T‑bet) and GATA‑binding protein 3 (GATA‑3), SOCS1 and SOCS3 were detected by real‑time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that CTP‑HBcAg18‑27‑tapasin significantly increased the Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio in HBV transgenic mice. CTP‑HBcAg18‑27‑tapasin immunization more efficiently suppressed the expression of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), HBV DNA as well as liver HBsAg and HBcAg in HBV transgenic mice. Furthermore, CTP‑HBcAg18‑27‑tapasin promotes T‑bet but reduces GATA‑3 expression. In addition, the expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 was significantly downregulated in the CTP‑HBcAg18‑27‑tapasin group compared with the control groups. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that CTP‑HBcAg18‑27‑tapasin enhanced the Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio and antiviral immunity by suppressing SOCS1/3 in HBV transgenic mice.

  13. Graphite for fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eatherly, W.P.; Clausing, R.E.; Strehlow, R.A.; Kennedy, C.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

    1987-03-01

    Graphite is in widespread and beneficial use in present fusion energy devices. This report reflects the view of graphite materials scientists on using graphite in fusion devices. Graphite properties are discussed with emphasis on application to fusion reactors. This report is intended to be introductory and descriptive and is not intended to serve as a definitive information source

  14. Fusion reactor radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, J.D.; Postma, A.K.; Bradley, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Quantities and compositions of non-tritium radioactive waste are estimated for some current conceptual fusion reactor designs, and disposal of large amounts of radioactive waste appears necessary. Although the initial radioactivity of fusion reactor and fission reactor wastes are comparable, the radionuclides in fusion reactor wastes are less hazardous and have shorter half-lives. Areas requiring further research are discussed

  15. Hugging fusion and related topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    An important problem related to the synthesis of very heavy nuclides by fusion of two heavy-ions is the extra push effect. To avoid it, we propose a hugging fusion, which is the fusion of two well-deformed heavy-ions. (author)

  16. Bubble fusion: Preliminary estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The collapse of a gas-filled bubble in disequilibrium (i.e., internal pressure much-lt external pressure) can occur with a significant focusing of energy onto the entrapped gas in the form of pressure-volume work and/or acoustical shocks; the resulting heating can be sufficient to cause ionization and the emission of atomic radiations. The suggestion that extreme conditions necessary for thermonuclear fusion to occur may be possible has been examined parametrically in terms of the ratio of initial bubble pressure relative to that required for equilibrium. In this sense, the disequilibrium bubble is viewed as a three-dimensional ''sling shot'' that is ''loaded'' to an extent allowed by the maximum level of disequilibrium that can stably be achieved. Values of this disequilibrium ratio in the range 10 -5 --10 -6 are predicted by an idealized bubble-dynamics model as necessary to achieve conditions where nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium might be observed. Harmonic and aharmonic pressurizations/decompressions are examined as means to achieve the required levels of disequilibrium required to create fusion conditions. A number of phenomena not included in the analysis reported herein could enhance or reduce the small levels of nuclear fusions predicted

  17. Fusion technology 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumont, B.; Libeyre, P.; Gentile, B. de; Tonon, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Symposium On Fusion Technology (SOFT) is held every two years with the objective to set the stage for the exchange of information on the design, construction and operation of fusion experiments and on the technology which is being developed for the next step devices and fusion reactors. By decision of the International Organizing Committee, the 20. SOFT includes invited talks, and oral and poster contributions in the following topics: plasma facing components, plasma heating and current drive, plasma engineering and control, experimental systems and diagnostics, magnets and power supplies, fuel technologies, remote operation, blanket and shield technologies, safety and environment, and system engineering and future devices. This symposium differs from the previous ones of this series by the way the present proceedings are produced. In order to have the written material available to the participants and the community at the nearest to the conference event, the papers have been collected 2 months in advance and printed in the present books. The goal was to deliver them to each participant upon arrival to the conference centre. These books contain all the papers corresponding to poster presentation, and the abstracts of the oral contributions and invited papers. The papers corresponding to these presentations, both oral and invited, will be published in 1999, after a standard review process, in a supplement of Fusion Engineering and Design. (author)

  18. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 64; Issue 6. Fusion of biological membranes. K Katsov M Müller M Schick. Invited Talks:- Topic 11. Biologically motivated problems (protein-folding models, dynamics at the scale of the cell; biological networks, evolution models, etc.) Volume 64 Issue 6 June 2005 pp ...

  19. Future with fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschfeld, F.

    1977-01-01

    This article reviews several current approaches to the development of nuclear fusion power sources by the year 2000. First mentioned is the only project to develop a nonpolluting, radiation-free source by using only natural and nonradioactive isotopes (nuclei of deuterium, helium 3 and boron) as ''advanced'' fuels. This system will also be capable of direct conversion of the released energy into electricity. Next described is the PACER concept, in which thermonuclear burning of deuterium occurs in fusion explosion taking place underground (e.g., in a salt dome). The released energy is absorbed in high-pressure steam which is then piped to a surface heat exchanger to provide steam for a turbogenerator. After filtration, the steam is returned. The PACER system also produces fissionable fuel. The balance of the article reviews three ''magnetic fusion'' approaches. Tokamak, mirror and theta pinch systems utilize magnetic fields to confine a plasma for either pulsed or steady-state operation. The tokamak and theta pinch are toroidal in shape, while the mirror can be thought of as a magnetic field configuration of roughly tubular shape that confines the plasma by means of higher fields at the ends than at its center. The tokamak approach accounts for about 65 percent of the magnetic fusion research and development, while theta pinches and mirrors represent about 15 percent each. Refs

  20. Fusion Canada issue 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs

  1. Charged particle fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Meeker, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    The power, voltage, energy and other requirements of electron and ion beam fusion targets are reviewed. Single shell, multiple shell and magnetically insulated target designs are discussed. Questions of stability are also considered. In particular, it is shown that ion beam targets are stabilized by an energy spread in the ion beam

  2. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedrick, J.; Buchholtz, B.; Ward, P.; Freuh, J.; Jensen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium. Helium can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system

  3. Magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, B.

    1977-01-01

    A brief review of fusion research during the last 20 years is given. Some highlights of theoretical plasma physics are presented. The role that computational plasma physics is playing in analyzing and understanding the experiments of today is discussed. The magnetic mirror program is reviewed

  4. Fusion development and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: superconducting magnet technology high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies -- Aries; ITER physics; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development

  5. Cold fusion - todays situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmqvist, K.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review of the history of cold fusion is given. It is noted that it is not possible to draw any definite conclusions about all the experimental and theoretical details, but that some of the results presented do not seem to be reached according to the normal scientific methods. 6 figs

  6. Fusion energy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are considered: (1) cryosorption vacuum pumping for fusion reactors, (2) TNS support studies, (3) tritium recovery from irradiated Li-Al and SAP, (4) actinide oxides, nitrides, and carbides, and (5) transition metal-actinide-C phase equilibria

  7. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1985-10-01

    KfK is involved in the European Fusion Programme predominantly in the NET and Fusion Technology part. The following fields of activity are covered: Studies for NET, alternative confinement concepts, and needs and issues of integral testing. Research on structural materials. Development of superconducting magnets. Gyrotron development (part of the Physics Programme). Nuclear technology (breeding materials, blanket design, tritium technology, safety and environmental aspects of fusion, remote maintenance). Reported here are status and results of work under contracts with the CEC within the NET and Technology Programme. The aim of the major part of this R and D work is the support of NET, some areas (e.g. materials, safety and environmental impact, blanket design) have a wider scope and address problems of a demonstration reactor. In the current working period, several new proposals have been elaborated to be implemented into the 85/89 Euratom Fusion Programme. New KfK contributions relate to materials research (dual beam and fast reactor irradiations, ferritic steels), to blanket engineering (MHD-effects) and to safety studies (e.g. magnet safety). (orig./GG)

  8. Research into thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, U.

    1989-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical studies carried out in close international cooperation in the field of thermonuclear fusion by magnetic plasma confinement have achieved such progress towards higher plasma temperatures and densities, longer confinement times and, thus, increased fusion product, that emphasis now begins to be shifted from problems of physics to those of technology as a next major step is being prepared towards a large international project (ITER) to achieve thermonuclear burning. The generation and maintenance of a burning fusion plasma in an experimental physics phase will be followed by a phase of technical materials studies at high fluxes of fusion neutrons. These goals have been pursued since 1983 by an international study group at Garching working on the design of a Next European Torus (NET). Since May 1988, an international study group comprising ten experts each from the USSR, USA, Japan, and the European Community has begun to work on a design draft of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) in Garching under the auspices of IAEA. (orig.) [de

  9. Fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  10. Fusion Canada issue 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada`s participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs.

  11. Advanced lasers for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupke, W.F.; George, E.V.; Haas, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Laser drive systems' performance requirements for fusion reactors are developed following a review of the principles of inertial confinement fusion and of the technical status of fusion research lasers (Nd:glass; CO 2 , iodine). These requirements are analyzed in the context of energy-storing laser media with respect to laser systems design issues: optical damage and breakdown, medium excitation, parasitics and superfluorescence depumping, energy extraction physics, medium optical quality, and gas flow. Three types of energy-storing laser media of potential utility are identified and singled out for detailed review: (1) Group VI atomic lasers, (2) rare earth solid state hybrid lasers, and (3) rare earth molecular vapor lasers. The use of highly-radiative laser media, particularly the rare-gas monohalide excimers, are discussed in the context of short pulse fusion applications. The concept of backward wave Raman pulse compression is considered as an attractive technique for this purpose. The basic physics and device parameters of these four laser systems are reviewed and conceptual designs for high energy laser systems are presented. Preliminary estimates for systems efficiencies are given. (Auth.)

  12. International fusion og spaltning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone L.

    Bogen analyserer de nye muligheder fra 2007 i europæisk ret med hensyn til fusion eller spaltning mellem aktieselskaber og anpartsselskaber med hjemsted i forskellige europæiske lande. Bogen gennemgår de nye muligheder for strukturændringer, der herved er opstået mulighed for, og den sætter fokus...

  13. Fusion program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    There has been and continues to be a perceived need for the fusion energy option in our energy future. The National Energy Plan states that ''the Federal Government recognizes a direct responsibility to demonstrate the scientific and engineering feasibility of fusion''. The goal of the program, in exercising this responsibility, is to develop the knowledge base upon which decisions on the commercial feasibility of fusion will be made after the conclusion of the present scientific feasibility phase of the program. The strategy is to preceed sequentially through a product definition phase, to the product development phase. Product definition is the identification of an attractive fusion reactor concept supported by a sound base of scientific and technological information. Product development is the further refinement of scientific, technological and engineering information base of the selected concept to provide a firm basis for commercial application. Each of these phases will be discussed with special emphasis on the relationship between the annual appropriation process and the influence of external forces on the pace of the program. This discussion will include the use of international cooperation to maintain and extend program scope. Further discussion will cover the important scientific and technological advances of the last few years and the way in which they have influenced the development of our management strategy to maximize our resources

  14. Fusion Canada issue 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Ontario Hydro`s contract for tritium supply from Germany, a CCFM update on plasma biasing, divertor operation, radiofrequency plasma current drive and the plasma heating system for the Tokamak de Varennes, and an agreement for ITER engineering design activities. 5 figs.

  15. Rencontre on fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, S.F.J.

    1979-02-01

    This report of a rencontre held to consider the technology of magnetic confinement fusion devices gives the agenda for the meeting and lists those topics which were identified as areas of research. These topics included materials, tritium, structures and heat transfer, neutronics and nuclear data, and corrosion problems. (UK)

  16. Bouillabaisse sushi fusion power

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "If avant-garde cuisine is any guide, Japanese-French fusion does not work all that well. And the interminable discussions over the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) suggest that what is true of cooking is true of physics" (1 page)

  17. Status of inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1987-04-01

    The technology advancement to high-power beams has also given birth to new technologies. That class of Free Electron Lasers that employs rf linacs, synchrotrons, and storage rings - although the use the tools of High Energy Physics (HEP) - was developed well behind the kinetic energy frontier. The induction linac, however, is something of an exception; it was born directly from the needs of the magnetic fusion program, and was not motivated by a high-energy physics application. The heavy-ion approach to inertial fusion starts with picking from the rich menu of accelerator technologies those that have, ab initio, the essential ingredients needed for a power plant driver: multigap acceleration - which leads to reliability/lifetime; electrical efficiency; repetition rate; and beams that can be reliably focused over a suitably long distance. The report describes the programs underway in Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research as well as listing expected advances in driver, target, and beam quality areas in the inertial fusion power program

  18. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics

  19. Fusion meets electronics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řípa, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2011), s. 8-8 ISSN 1818-5355 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : fusion * AMPER 2011 * ITER * COMPASS * IPP * CR Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.jet.efda.org/ multimedia /newsletter/current/

  20. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs

  1. Fusion Canada issue 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs.

  2. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    The author gives a chronological account of the research about thermonuclear fusion and presents the principle of JET thermonuclear reactor based upon the magnetic confinement. The problems of heating and confining a thermonuclear plasma may be regarded as solved. They make possible the definition of the size and geometry needed to realize a next-step tokamak (ITER, NET projects)

  3. Fusion Canada issue 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue tritium supply for Japanese research, Canada to host the 1995 IAEA Conference on Tritium, studies on the tokamak divertor and edge plasma studies, a tritium field release study, erosion studies on plasma facing materials, G. Pacher returns to CCFM and an update on CCFM/TdeV

  4. Fusion target design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1978-01-01

    Most detailed fusion target design is done by numerical simulation using large computers. Although numerical simulation is briefly discussed, this lecture deals primarily with the way in which basic physical arguments, driver technology considerations and economical power production requirements are used to guide and augment the simulations. Physics topics discussed include target energetics, preheat, stability and symmetry. A specific design example is discussed

  5. Fusion Canada issue 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Ontario Hydro's contract for tritium supply from Germany, a CCFM update on plasma biasing, divertor operation, radiofrequency plasma current drive and the plasma heating system for the Tokamak de Varennes, and an agreement for ITER engineering design activities. 5 figs

  6. Fusion Canada issue 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue the opening of the Garching ITER site, a CCFM/TdeV update,a tritium release field test, measuring radial profile of plasma current density on TdeV, power supplies for TdeV, 5th International Tritium Technology conference, and 1994 basic tritium course. 4 figs

  7. Plasma nuclear fusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Shunpei; Miyanaga, Shoji; Wakaizumi, Kazuhiro; Takemura, Yasuhiko.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear fusion reactions are attained by plasma gas phase reactions using magnetic fields and microwaves, and the degree of the reactions is controlled. That is, deuterium (D 2 ) is introduced into a plasma container by utilizing the resonance of microwaves capable of generating plasmas at high density higher by more than 10 - 10 3 times as compared with the high frequency and magnetic fields, and an electric energy is applied to convert gaseous D 2 into plasmas and nuclear fusion is conducted. Further, the deuterium ions in the plasmas are attracted to a surface of a material causing nuclear fusion under a negatively biased electric field from the outside (typically represented by Pd or Ti). Then, deuterium nuclei (d) or deuterium ions collide to the surface of the cathode on the side of palladium to conduct nuclear reaction at the surface or the inside (vicinity) thereof. However, a DC bias is applied as an external bias with the side of the palladium being negative. The cold nuclear fusion was demonstrated by placing a neutron counter in the vicinity of the container and confirming neutrons generated there. (I.S.)

  8. lysosome tethering and fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AMIT TULI

    LYSOSOME. MTOC. LATE ENDOSOME. Arl8b promotes the assembly of the HOPS complex on the lysosomes to mediate late endosome-lysosome fusion and cargo delivery to lysosomes. Khatter D et al., J Cell Science 2015. Khatter D et al., Cellular Logistics 2015 ...

  9. Magnetic Fusion Advisory Committee report on recommended fusion program priorities and strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The Magnetic Fusion Advisory Committee recommends a new program strategy with the following principal features: (1) Initiation in FY86 of the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX), a moderate-cost tokamak reactor device (less than $1 B PACE) designed to achieve ignition and long-pulse equilibrium burn. Careful trade-off studies are needed before making key design choices in interrelated technology areas. Cost reductions relative to earlier plans can be realized by exploiting new plasma technology, by locating the TFCX at the TFTR site, and by assigning responsibility for complementary reactor engineering tasks to other sectors of the fusion program. (2) Potential utilization of the MFTF Upgrade to provide a cost-effective means for quasi-steady-state testing of blanket and power-system components, complementary to TFCX. This will depend on future assessments of the data base for tandem mirrors. (3) Vigorous pursuit of the broad US base program in magnetic confinement, including new machine starts, where appropriate, at approximately the present total level of support. (4) Utilization of Development and Technology programs in plasma and magnet technology in support of specific hardware requirements of the TFCX and of other major fusion facilities, so as to minimize overall program cost

  10. Tritium experience in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Blanchard, W.; Hosea, J.; Mueller, D.; Nagy, A.; Hogan, J.

    1998-01-01

    Tritium management is a key enabling element in fusion technology. Tritium fuel was used in 3.5 years of successful deuterium-tritium (D-T) operations in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The D-T campaign enabled TFTR to explore the transport, alpha physics, and MHD stability of a reactor core. It also provided experience with tritium retention and removal that highlighted the importance of these issues in future D-T machines. In this paper, the authors summarize the tritium retention and removal experience in TFTR and its implications for future reactors

  11. Controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Controlled production of energy by fusion of light nuclei has been the goal of a large portion of the physics community since the 1950's. In order for a fusion reaction to take place, the fuel must be heated to a temperature of 100 million degrees Celsius. At this temperature, matter can exist only in the form of an almost fully ionized plasma. In order for the reaction to produce net power, the product of the density and energy confinement time must exceed a minimum value of 10 20 sec m -3 , the so-called Lawson criterion. Basically, two approaches are being taken to meet this criterion: inertial confinement and magnetic confinement. Inertial confinement is the basis of the laser fusion approach; a fuel pellet is imploded by intense laser beams from all sides and ignites. Magnetic confinement devices, which exist in a variety of geometries, rely upon electromagnetic forces on the charged particles of the plasma to keep the hot plasma from expanding. Of these devices, the most encouraging results have been achieved with a class of devices known as tokamaks. Recent successes with these devices have given plasma physicists confidence that scientific feasibility will be demonstrated in the next generation of tokamaks; however, an even larger effort will be required to make fusion power commercially feasible. As a result, emphasis in the controlled thermonuclear research program is beginning to shift from plasma physics to a new branch of nuclear engineering which can be called fusion engineering, in which instrumentation and control engineers will play a major role. Among the new problem areas they will deal with are plasma diagnostics and superconducting coil instrumentation

  12. Magnetic fusion energy research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    This report on the Department of Energy's Magnetic Fusion Program was requested by the Secretary of Energy. The Panel finds that substantial progress has been made in the three years since the previous ERAB review, although budget constraints have precluded the engineering initiatives recommended in that review and authorized in the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980 (the Act). Recognizing that the goals of the Act cannot now be met, the Panel recommends that the engineering phase be further postponed in favor of a strong base program in physics and technology, including immediate commitment to a major new tokamak-based device for the investigation of an ignited long-pulse plasma designated in this report as the Burning Core Experiment or BCX. Resources to design such a device could be obtained from within the existing program by redirecting work toward to BCX. At this time it is not possible to assess accurately the potential economic viability of fusion power in the future. The Panel strongly recommends expansion of international collaboration, particularly the joint construction and operation of major new unique facilities, such as the proposed BCX

  13. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  14. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1985-10-01

    Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985

  15. Commercial application of laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamentals of laser-induced fusion, some laser-fusion reactor concepts, and attendant means of utilizing the thermonuclear energy for commercial electric power generation are discussed. Theoretical fusion-pellet microexplosion energy release characteristics are described and the effects of pellet design options on pellet-microexplosion characteristics are discussed. The results of analyses to assess the engineering feasibility of reactor cavities for which protection of cavity components is provided either by suitable ablative materials or by diversion of plasmas by magnetic fields are presented. Two conceptual laser-fusion electric generating stations, based on different laser-fusion reactor concepts, are described

  16. Prospects for alternative Fusion Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glancy, J.

    1986-01-01

    The author has worked on three different magnetic confinement concepts for alternate fusion fueled reactors: tokamaks; tanden mirrors, and reversed field pinches. The focus of this article is on prospects for alternate fusion fuels as the author sees them relative to the other choices: increased numbers of coal plants, fission reactors, renewables, and D-T fusion. Discussion is limited on the consideration of alternate fusion fuels to the catalyzed deuterium-deuterium fuel cycle. Reasons for seeking an alternate energy source are cost, a more secure fuel supply, environmental impact and safety. The technical risks associated with development of fusion are examined briefly

  17. Directions for improved fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Delene, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    Conceptual fusion reactor studies over the past 10 to 15 years have projected systems that may be too large, complex, and costly to be of commercial interest. One main direction for improved fusion reactors points towards smaller, higher-power-density approaches. First-order economic issues (i.e., unit direct cost and cost of electricity) are used to support the need for more compact fusion reactors. A generic fusion physics/engineering/costing model is used to provide a quantiative basis for these arguments for specific fusion concepts

  18. Risk considerations for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimi, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is made of the public and occupational health effects implied in the utilization of fusion reactors as a source of electricity. Three conceptual designs for TOKAMAK fusion reactors are used in the assessment. It was assumed in this analysis that a fusion plant will release 10 Ci/day of tritium to the atmosphere. Risk from waste management and accidents are estimated relative to risk of LWR's energy cycle. Comparison of the fusion occupational and public risk from coal, LWR, solar thermal and solar-photovoltaic plants has been undertaken. It is concluded that, compared to other fuel cycles, fusion can potentially have a favorable position with respect to risk

  19. Fusion research activities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xiwen

    1998-01-01

    The fusion program in China has been executed in most areas of magnetic confinement fusion for more than 30 years. Basing on the situation of the power supply requirements of China, the fusion program is becoming an important and vital component of the nuclear power program in China. This paper reviews the status of fusion research and next step plans in China. The motivation and goal of the Chinese fusion program is explained. Research and development on tokamak physics and engineering in the southwestern institute of physics (SWIP) and the institute of plasma physics of Academic Sinica (ASIPP) are introduced. A fusion breeder program and a pure fusion reactor design program have been supported by the state science and technology commission (SSTC) and the China national nuclear corporation (CNNC), respectively. Some features and progress of fusion reactor R and D activities are reviewed. Non fusion applications of plasma science are an important part of China fusion research; a brief introduction about this area is given. Finally, an introductional collaboration network on fusion research activities in China is reported. (orig.)

  20. Inertial fusion with ultra-powerful lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabak, M.; Hammer, J.; Glinsky, M.; Kruer, W.; Wilks, S.; Woodworth, J.; Campbell, E.M.; Perry, M.D.; Mason, R.

    1993-10-01

    Ultra-high intensity lasers can be used to ignite ICF capsules with a few tens of kilojoules of light and can lead to high gain with as little as 100 kilojoules of incident laser light. We propose a scheme with three phases. First, a capsule is imploded as in the conventional approach to inertial fusion to assemble a high density fuel configuration. Second, a hole is bored through capsule corona composed of ablated material, pushing critical density close to the high density core of the capsule, by employing the ponderomotive force associated with high intensity laser light. Finally, the fuel is ignited by suprathermal electrons, produced in the high intensity laser plasma interactions, which propagate from critical density to this high density core. This paper reviews two models of energy gain in ICF capsules and explains why ultra-high intensity lasers allow access to the model producing the higher gains. This new scheme also drastically reduces the difficulty of the implosion and thereby allows lower quality fabrication and less stringent beam quality and symmetry requirements from the implosion driver. The difficulty of the fusion scheme is transferred to the technological difficulty of producing the ultra-high-intensity laser and of transporting this energy to the fuel

  1. Cell fusion by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khair, M.B.

    1993-08-01

    The relevance and importance of cell fusion are illustrated by the notion that current interest in this phenomenon is shared by scientists in quite varied disciplines. The diversity of cellular membrane fusion phenomena could provoke one to think that there must be a multitude of mechanisms that can account for such diversity. But, in general, the mechanism for the fusion reaction itself could be very similar in many, or even all, cases. Cell fusion can be induced by several factors such as virus Sendai, polyethylene glycol, electric current and ionizing radiation. This article provides the reader with short view of recent progress in research on cell fusion and gives some explanations about fusion mechanisms. This study shows for the first time, the results of the cell fusion induced by ionizing radiations that we have obtained in our researches and the work performed by other groups. (author). 44 refs

  2. 50 years of fusion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Fusion energy research began in the early 1950s as scientists worked to harness the awesome power of the atom for peaceful purposes. There was early optimism for a quick solution for fusion energy as there had been for fission. However, this was soon tempered by reality as the difficulty of producing and confining fusion fuel at temperatures of 100 million °C in the laboratory was appreciated. Fusion research has followed two main paths—inertial confinement fusion and magnetic confinement fusion. Over the past 50 years, there has been remarkable progress with both approaches, and now each has a solid technical foundation that has led to the construction of major facilities that are aimed at demonstrating fusion energy producing plasmas.

  3. Fusion performance analysis of plasmas with reversed magnetic shear in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskov, E.; Bell, M.; Budny, R.V.; McCune, D.C.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Synakowski, E.J.; Goeler, S. von; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    A case for substantial loss of fast ions degrading the performance of tokamak fusion test reactor plasmas [Phys. Plasmas 2, 2176 (1995)] with reversed magnetic shear (RS) is presented. The principal evidence is obtained from an experiment with short (40 - 70 ms) tritium beam pulses injected into deuterium beam heated RS plasmas [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 924 (1999)]. Modeling of this experiment indicates that up to 40% beam power is lost on a time scale much shorter than the beam - ion slowing down time. Critical parameters which connect modeling and experiment are: The total 14 MeV neutron emission, its radial profile, and the transverse stored energy. The fusion performance of some plasmas with internal transport barriers is further deteriorated by impurity accumulation in the plasma core. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  4. Inertial Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mima, K

    2012-09-15

    In 1917, Albert Einstein suggested the theory of stimulated emission of light that led to the development of the laser. The first laser, based on Einstein's theory, was demonstrated by the Maiman experiment in 1960. In association with the invention and developments of the laser, N.G. Basov, A. Prokorov and C.H. Towns received the Nobel prize for physics in 1963. On the other hand, it had been recognized that nuclear fusion energy is the energy source of our universe. It is the origin of the energy in our sun and in the stars. Right after the laser oscillation experiment, it was suggested by J. Nuckolls, E. Teller and S. Colgate in the USA and A. Sakharov in the USSR that nuclear fusion induced by lasers be used to solve the energy problem. Following the suggestion, the pioneering works for heating plasmas to a thermonuclear temperature with a laser were published by N. Basov, O.N. Krohin, J.M. Dawson, C.R. Kastler, H. Hora, F. Flux and S. Eliezer. The new concept of fusion ignition and burn by laser 'implosion' was proposed by J. Nuckolls, which extended the spherically imploding shock concept discovered by G. Guderley to the laser fusion concept. Since then, laser fusion research has started all over the world. For example, many inertial fusion energy (IFE) facilities have been constructed for investigating implosion physics: Lasers: GEKKO I, GEKKO II, GEKKO IV, GEKKO MII and GEKKO xII at ILE, Osaka University, Japan; JANUS, CYCLOPS, ARUGUS, SHIVA and NOVA at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), USA; OMEGA at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), University of Rochester, USA; PHEBUS at Limeil, Paris, France; the ASTERIx iodine laser at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP), Garching, Germany; MPI, GLECO at the Laboratoire d'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI), ecole Polytecnique, France; HELIOS at Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA; Shengan II at the Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, China; VULCAN at the Rutherford

  5. Muon nuclear fusion and low temperature nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamine, Kanetada

    1990-01-01

    Low temperature (or normal temperature) nuclear fusion is one of the phenomena causing nuclear fusion without requiring high temperature. In thermal nuclear fusion, the Coulomb barrier is overcome with the help of thermal energy, but in the low temperature nuclear fusion, the Coulomb barrier is neutralized by the introduction of the particles having larger mass than electrons and negative charges, at this time, if two nuclei can approach to the distance of 10 -13 cm in the neutral state, the occurrence of nuclear fusion reaction is expected. As the mass of the particles is heavier, the neutral region is smaller, and nuclear fusion is easy to occur. The particles to meet this purpose are the electrons within substances and muons. The research on muon nuclear fusion became suddenly active in the latter half of 1970s, the cause of which was the discovery of the fact that the formation of muons occurs resonantly rapidly in D-T and D-D systems. Muons are the unstable elementary particles having the life of 2.2 μs, and they can have positive and negative charges. In the muon catalyzed fusion, the muons with negative charge take part. The principle of the muon catalyzed fusion, its present status and future perspective, and the present status of low temperature nuclear fusion are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Fusion reactor problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, R.

    It is pointed out that plasma parameters for a fusion reactor have been fairly accurately defined for many years, and the real plasma physics objective must be to find the means of achieving and maintaining these specifiable parameters. There is good understanding of the generic technological problems: breading blankets and shields, radiation damage, heat transfer and methods of magnet design. The required plasma parameters for fusion self-heated reactors are established at ntausub(E) approximately 2.10 14 cm -3 sec, plasma radius 1.5 to 3 m, wall loading 5 to 10 MW cm -2 , temperature 15 keV. Within this model plasma control by quasi-steady burn as a key problem is studied. It is emphasized that the future programme must interact more closely with engineering studies and should concentrate upon research which is relevant to reactor plasmas. (V.P.)

  7. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1984-10-01

    The KfK-Association has continued work on 17 R and D contracts of the Fusion Technology Programme. An effort of 94 manyears per year is at present contributed by 10 KfK departments, covering all aereas defined in the Fusion Technology Programme. The dominant part of the work is directed towards the need of the NET design or supporting experiments. Some additional effort addresses long term technological issues and system studies relevant to DEMO or confinement schemes alternative to tokamaks. Direct contribution to the NET team has increased by augmentation of NET study contracts and delegation of personnel, three KfK delegates being at present members of the NET team. In reverse, specifications and design guidelines worked out by NET have started to have an impact on the current R and D-work in the laboratory. (orig./GG)

  8. Fluorination by fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    LECO crucibles and incinerator ash are two waste categories that cannot be discarded due to the presence of insoluble transuranics. Current chemical processing methods are not too effective, requiring a number of repeated operations in order to dissolve more than half the transuranics. An alternate dissolution approach has been developed involving the use of ammonium bifluoride. Low temperature fusion of the waste with ammonium bifluoride is followed by dissolution of the fused material in boiling nitric acid solutions. Greater than 60% of the transuranics contained in LECO crucibles and greater than 95% of the transuranics mixed with the incinerator ash are dissolved after a single fusion and dissolution step. Fluorination of the transuranics along with other impurities appears to render the waste material soluble in nitric acid

  9. Fusion pumped laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, D.S.

    1987-07-31

    The apparatus of this invention may comprise a system for generating laser radiation from a high-energy neutron source. The neutron source is a tokamak fusion reactor generating a long pulse of high-energy neutrons and having a temperature and magnetic field effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//center dot/s. Conversion means are provided adjacent the fusion reactor at a location operable for converting the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. A lasing medium is spaced about and responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Pulsed fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This summer school specialized in examining specific fusion center systems. Papers on scientific feasibility are first presented: confinement of high-beta plasma, liners, plasma focus, compression and heating and the use of high power electron beams for thermonuclear reactors. As for technological feasibility, lectures were on the theta-pinch toroidal reactors, toroidal diffuse pinch, electrical engineering problems in pulsed magnetically confined reactors, neutral gas layer for heat removal, the conceptual design of a series of laser fusion power plants with ''Saturn'', implosion experiments and the problem of the targets, the high brightness lasers for plasma generation, and topping and bottoming cycles. Some problems common to pulsed reactors were examined: energy storage and transfer, thermomechanical and erosion effects in the first wall and blanket, the problems of tritium production, radiation damage and neutron activation in blankets, and the magnetic and inertial confinement

  11. Experiments in cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The work of Steve Jones and others in muon-catalyzed cold fusion of deuterium and hydrogen suggests the possibility of such fusion catalyzed by ions, or combinations of atoms, or more-or-less free electrons in solid and liquid materials. A hint that this might occur naturally comes from the heat generated in volcanic action in subduction zones on the earth. It is questionable whether the potential energy of material raised to the height of a midocean ridge and falling to the depth of an ocean trench can produce the geothermal effects seen in the volcanoes of subduction zones. If the ridge, the trench, the plates, and the asthenosphere are merely visible effects of deeper density-gradient driven circulations, it is still uncertain that observed energy-concentration effects fit the models

  12. Fusion through the NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the next generation of fusion machines which are intended to demonstrate the technical viability of fusion. In Europe, the device that will follow on from JET is known as NET - the Next European Torus. If the design programme for NET proceeds, Europe could start to build the machine in 1994. The present JET programme hopes to achieve breakeven in the early 1990's. NET hopes to reach ignition in the next century, and so lay the foundation for a demonstration reactor. A description is given of the technical specifications of the components of NET, including: the first wall, the divertors to protect the wall, the array of magnets that provide the fields containing the plasma, the superconducting magnets, and the shield of the machine. NET's research programme is briefly outlined, including the testing programme to optimise conditions in the machine to achieve ignition, and its safety work. (U.K.)

  13. Heavy ion fusion III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, D.; Max, C.; Perkins, F.; Rosenbluth, M.

    1987-03-01

    This report updates Heavy Ion Fusion, JSR-82-302, dated January, 1983. During the last four years, program management and direction has been changed and the overall Inertial Confinement Program has been reviewed. This report therefore concentrates on accelerator physics issues, how the program has addressed those issues during the last four years, and how it will be addressing them in the future. 8 refs., 3 figs

  14. Alternative fusion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostagni, G.

    1981-01-01

    The paper reports the discussions and statements made by the participants on the actual state and future of five different approaches on the fusion concept; they are the following: bumpy torus, reversed-field pinch, open-ended configurations, compact toroids and stellarators. Tables show for each concept parameters that represent the achieved results; data expected for future devices and extrapolations on reactor requirements are included

  15. Fusion development and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R ampersand D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development

  16. (Fusion energy research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  17. Fusion impulse containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohachevsky, I.O.

    1979-01-01

    The characteristics of impact fusion energy releases are not known sufficiently well to examine in detail specific containment vessel concepts or designs. Therefore it appears appropriate to formulate the impulse containment problem in general and to derive results in the form of explicit expressions from which magnitude estimates and parametric dependencies (trends) can be inferred conveniently and rapidly. In the following presentation we carry out this task using assumptions and approximations that are required to perform the analysis

  18. Nuclear fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The invention pertains to the method and apparatus for the confining of a stream of fusible positive ions at values of density and high average kinetic energy, primarily of tightly looping motions, to produce nuclear fusion at a useful rate; more or less intimately mixed with the fusible ions will be lowerenergy electrons at about equal density, introduced solely for the purpose of neutralizing the positive space charge of the ions

  19. [Fusion energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer

  20. Fusion-fission dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocki, J.; Planeta, R.; Brzychczyk, J.; Grotowski, K.

    1992-01-01

    Classical dynamical calculations of the heavy ion induced fission processes have been performed for the reactions 40 Ar+ 141 Pr, 20 Ne+ 165 Ho and 12 C+ 175 Lu leading to the iridium like nucleus. As a result prescission lifetimes were obtained and compared with the experimental values. The comparison between the calculated and experimental lifetimes indicates that the one-body dissipation picture is much more relevant in describing the fusion-fission dynamics than the two-body one. (orig.)

  1. Fusion propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haloulakos, V.E.; Bourque, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The continuing and expanding national efforts in both the military and commercial sectors for exploration and utilization of space will require launch, assembly in space, and orbital transfer of large payloads. The currently available delivery systems, utilizing various forms of chemical propulsion, do not have the payload capacity to fulfill the planned missions. National planning documents such as Air Force Project Forecast II and the National Commission on Space Report to the President contain numerous missions and payload delivery schedules that are beyond the present capabilities of the available systems, such as the Space Shuttle and the Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs). The need, therefore, is very pressing to design, develop, and deploy propulsion systems that offer a quantum level increase in delivered performance. One such potential system is fusion propulsion. This paper summarizes the result of an Air Force Astronautics Laboratory (AFAL) sponsored study of fusion propulsion conducted by the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC), and its subcontractor General Atomics This study explored the potential of fusion propulsion for Air Force missions. Fusion fuels and existing confinement concepts were evaluated according to elaborate criteria. Two fuels, deuterium-tritium and deuterium-helium 3 (D- 3 He) were considered worthy of further consideration. D- 3 He was selected as the most attractive for this Air Force study. The colliding translating compact torus confinement concept was evaluated in depth and found to possibly possess the low mass and compactness required. Another possible concept is inertial confinement with the propellant surrounding the target. 5 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  2. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.

    1998-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials includes studies (1) to investigate fracture mechanics of neutron-irradiated beryllium; (2) to describe the helium behaviour in irradiated beryllium at atomic scale; (3) to define the kinetics of beryllium reacting with air or steam; (3) to perform a feasibility study for the testing of integrated blanket modules under neutron irradiation. Progress and achievements in 1997 are reported

  3. Automating ASW fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Pabelico, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis examines ASW eFusion, an anti-submarine warfare (ASW) tactical decision aid (TDA) that utilizes Kalman filtering to improve battlespace awareness by simplifying and automating the track management process involved in anti-submarine warfare (ASW) watchstanding operations. While this program can currently help the ASW commander manage uncertainty and make better tactical decisions, the program has several limitations. Comman...

  4. Fusion reactor critical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    The document summarizes the results of a series of INTOR-related meetings organized by the IAEA in 1985-1986 with the following topics: Impurity control modelling, non-inductive current-drive, confinement in tokamaks with intense heating and DEMO requirements. These results are useful to the specialists involved in research on large fusion machines or in the design activity on the next generation tokamaks. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Wood, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    Edward Teller has been a strong proponent of harnessing nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes. There are two approaches: Plowshare, which utilizes macro- explosions, and inertial confinement fusion, which utilizes microexplosions. The development of practical fusion power plants is a principal goal of the inertial program. It is remarkable that Teller's original thermonuclear problem, how to make super high yield nuclear explosions, and the opposite problem, how to make ultra low yield nuclear explosions, may both be solved by Teller's radiation implosion scheme. This paper reports on the essential physics of these two thermonuclear domains, which are separated by nine orders of magnitude in yield, provided by Teller's similarity theorem and its exceptions. Higher density makes possible thermonuclear burn of smaller masses of fuel. The leverage is high: the scale of the explosion diminishes with the square of the increase in density. The extraordinary compressibility of matter, first noticed by Teller during the Los Alamos atomic bomb program, provides an almost incredible opportunity to harness fusion. The energy density of thermonuclear fuels isentropically compressed to super high-- -densities---even to ten thousand times solid density---is small compared to the energy density at thermonuclear ignition temperatures. In small masses of fuel imploded to these super high matter densities, the energy required to achieve ignition may be greatly reduced by exploiting thermonuclear propagation from a relatively small hot spot

  6. Heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    With controlled thermonuclear fusion holding out the possibility of a prolific and clean new source of energy, the goal remains elusive after many years of continual effort. While the conventional Tokamak route with magnetic confinement continues to hit the headlines, other alternatives are now becoming competitive. One possible solution is to confine the thermonuclear fuel pellet by high power beams. Current research and perspectives for future work in such inertial confinement was the subject of the 'Prospects for Heavy Ion Fusion' European Research Conference held in Aghia Pelaghia, Crete, last year. Its main focus was on the potential of heavy ion accelerators as well as recent advances in target physics with high power lasers and light ion beams. Carlo Rubbia declared that high energy accelerators, with their high efficiency, are the most promising approach to economical fusion energy production. However the need for cost saving in the driver accelerator requires new ideas in target design tailored to the particularities of heavy ion beams, which need to be pushed to the limits of high current and phase space density at the same time

  7. The light controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, BingXin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This is a new technique for controlled fusion. • There will be an attraction force between the two oscillating nuclei. • The attraction force is greater than the Coulomb repulsion between the two nuclei. • The kinetic energy and the density of the two nuclei can be controlled. • The electric vector and the frequency of the light can be controlled. - Abstract: This is a new technique for controlled fusion. When two nuclei are colliding with each other, light, whose the frequency is higher than the minimal threshold frequency of lithium, will be aimed directly at the two nuclei, the two nuclei will perform the simple harmonic oscillation, the charged particle’s simple harmonic oscillation can be considered as an oscillating electric dipole, and the two oscillating nuclei will radiate the electromagnetic wave. Either of the two oscillating electric dipoles will attract each other, or they will repulse each other. There will be an attraction force between the two oscillating nuclei. When the attraction force is greater than the Coulomb repulsion between the two nuclei, the two nuclei will fuse together. Where the kinetic energy and the density of the two nuclei can be controlled, the electric vector and the frequency of the light can be controlled also and, therefore, the fusion can be controlled

  8. Future of fusion implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsworth, E.; Powell, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    For fusion to become available for commercial use in the 21st century, R and D must be undertaken now. But it is hard to justify these expenditures with a cost/benefit oriented assessment methodology, because of both the time-frame and the uncertainty of the future benefits. Focusing on the factors most relevant for current consideration of fusion's commercial prospects, i.e., consumption levels and the outcomes for fission, solar, and coal, many possible futures of the US energy system are posited and analyzed under various assumptions about costs. The Reference Energy System approach was modified to establish both an appropriate degree of detail and explicit time dependence, and a computer code used to organize the relevant data and to perform calculations of system cost (annual and discounted present value), resource use, and residuals that are implied by the consumptions levels and technology mix in each scenario. Not unreasonable scenarios indicate benefits in the form of direct cost savings, which may well exceed R and D costs, which could be attributed to the implementation of fusion

  9. Jazz-Philosophy Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Tartaglia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I describe and provide a justification for the fusion of jazz music and philosophy which I have developed; the justification is provided from the perspectives of both jazz and philosophy. I discuss two of my compositions, based on philosophical ideas presented by Schopenhauer and Derek Parfit respectively; links to sound files are provided. The justification emerging from this discussion is that philosophy produces ‘non-argumentative effects’ which provide suitable material for artistic expression and exploration. These effects – which are often emotional – are under-recognised in philosophy, but they do important philosophical work in demarcating the kinds of truths we want to discover, and in sustaining our search for them. Jazz-Philosophy Fusion can help to increase metaphilosophical self-consciousness about these effects, while also helping to counteract any undue persuasive force they may achieve. Jazz is a particularly suitable medium because it has independently developed a concern with philosophical ideas; because of strong parallels between jazz and philosophy which explain their mutual openness to fusions, and because improvisation very effectively facilitates the direct audience engagement essential to inducing these effects.

  10. Solenoidal fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linlor, W.I.

    1980-01-01

    This invention discloses apparatus and methods to produce nuclear fusion utilizing fusible material in the form of high energy ion beams confined in magnetic fields. For example, beams of deuterons and tritons are injected in the same direction relative to the axis of a vacuum chamber. The ion beams are confined by the magnetic fields of long solenoids. The products of the fusion reactions, such as neutrons and alpha particles, escape to the wall surrounding the vacuum chamber, producing heat. The momentum of the deuterons is approximately equal to the momentum of the tritons, so that both types of ions follow the same path in the confining magnetic field. The velocity of the deuteron is sufficiently greater than the velocity of the triton so that overtaking collisions occur at a relative velocity which produces a high fusion reaction cross section. Electrons for space charge neutralization are obtained by ionization of residual gas in the vacuum chamber, and additionally from solid material (Irradiated with ultra-violet light or other energetic radiation) adjacent to the confinement region. For start-up operation, injected high-energy molecular ions can be dissociated by intense laser beam, producing trapping via change of charge state. When sufficiently intense deuteron and triton beams have been produced, the laser beam can be removed, and subsequent change of charge state can be achieved by collisions

  11. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Friedman, A.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the research status in the following areas of research in the field of heavy ion inertial fusion: (1) RF accelerators, storage rings, and synchrotrons; (2) induction linacs; (3) recirculation induction accelerator approach; (4) a new accelerator concept, the ''Mirrortron''; (5) general issues of transport, including beam merging, production of short, fat quadrupoles with nearly linear focusing, calculations of beam behaviour in image fields; 3-D electrostatic codes on drift compression with misalignments and transport around bends; (6) injectors, ion sources and RFQs, a.o., on the development of a 27 MHz RFQ to be used for the low energy portion of a new injector for all ions up to Uranium, and the development of a 2 MV carbon ion injector to provide 16 C + beams of 0.5 A each for ILSE; (7) beam transport from accelerator to target, reporting, a.o., the feasibility to suppress third-order aberrations; while Particle-in-Cell simulations on the propagation of a non-neutral ion beam in a low density gas identified photo-ionization by thermal X-rays from the target as an important source of defocusing; (9) heavy ion target studies; (10) reviewing experience with laser drivers; (11) ion cluster stopping and muon catalyzed fusion; (12) heavy ion systems, including the option of a fusion-fission burner. 1 tab

  12. Fusion research at Culham site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolonen, P.; Toppila, T.

    1998-01-01

    One of the many targets on the Finnish Nuclear Society (ATS) excursion to England was the Culham fusion research site. The site has divided into two parts. One of them is UKAEA Fusion with small scale fusion reactors and 200 employees. UKAEA has 3 fusion reactors at Culham site. One of is the START (Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak) which was operational since 1991 but is today already out of operation. UKAEA has been operating a JET-like tokamak fusion reactor COMPASS-D since 1989. The latest of three reactors is MAST (Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak), which is still under construction. The first plasma will take place in the end of 1998. Another part of Culham site is JET (Joint European Torus), an all-European fusion undertaking with 350 employees. 150 of them are from various European countries and the rest 200 are employed by UKAEA. JET is the biggest fusion reactor ever and it represents the latest step in world wide fusion programme. In October 1997 JET achieved a world record in fusion power and energy. JET produced 16,1 MW power for 1 s and totally 21,7 MJ energy. This is the closest attempt to achieve break-even conditions. The next step in world wide fusion programme will be international ITER-reactor. This undertaking has some financial problems, since United States has taken distance to magnetic fusion research and moved closer to inertial fusion with funding of US Department of Defence. The planned reactor, however, is physically twice as big as JET. The step after this phase will be DEMO, which is purposed to produce fusion energy. According to our hosts in Culham this phase is 40 years ahead. (author)

  13. Inertial fusion energy; L'energie de fusion inertielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decroisette, M.; Andre, M.; Bayer, C.; Juraszek, D. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dir. des Systemes d' Information (CEA/DIF), 91 (France); Le Garrec, B. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, 33 - Le Barp (France); Deutsch, C. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Migus, A. [Institut d' Optique Centre scientifique, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2005-07-01

    We first recall the scientific basis of inertial fusion and then describe a generic fusion reactor with the different components: the driver, the fusion chamber, the material treatment unit, the target factory and the turbines. We analyse the options proposed at the present time for the driver and for target irradiation scheme giving the state of art for each approach. We conclude by the presentation of LMJ (laser Megajoule) and NIF (national ignition facility) projects. These facilities aim to demonstrate the feasibility of laboratory DT ignition, first step toward Inertial Fusion Energy. (authors)

  14. Recent fusion research in the National Institute for Fusion Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, Akio; Sakakibara, Satoru; Sagara, Akio; Horiuchi, Ritoku; Yamada, Hiroshi; Takeiri, Yasuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), which was established in 1989, promotes academic approaches toward the exploration of fusion science for steady-state helical reactor and realizes the establishment of a comprehensive understanding of toroidal plasmas as an inter-university research organization and a key center of worldwide fusion research. The Large Helical Device (LHD) Project, the Numerical Simulation Science Project, and the Fusion Engineering Project are organized for early realization of net current free fusion reactor, and their recent activities are described in this paper. The LHD has been producing high-performance plasmas comparable to those of large tokamaks, and several new findings with regard to plasma physics have been obtained. The numerical simulation science project contributes understanding and systemization of the physical mechanisms of plasma confinement in fusion plasmas and explores complexity science of a plasma for realization of the numerical test reactor. In the fusion engineering project, the design of the helical fusion reactor has progressed based on the development of superconducting coils, the blanket, fusion materials and tritium handling. (author)

  15. Core Hunter 3: flexible core subset selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beukelaer, Herman; Davenport, Guy F; Fack, Veerle

    2018-05-31

    Core collections provide genebank curators and plant breeders a way to reduce size of their collections and populations, while minimizing impact on genetic diversity and allele frequency. Many methods have been proposed to generate core collections, often using distance metrics to quantify the similarity of two accessions, based on genetic marker data or phenotypic traits. Core Hunter is a multi-purpose core subset selection tool that uses local search algorithms to generate subsets relying on one or more metrics, including several distance metrics and allelic richness. In version 3 of Core Hunter (CH3) we have incorporated two new, improved methods for summarizing distances to quantify diversity or representativeness of the core collection. A comparison of CH3 and Core Hunter 2 (CH2) showed that these new metrics can be effectively optimized with less complex algorithms, as compared to those used in CH2. CH3 is more effective at maximizing the improved diversity metric than CH2, still ensures a high average and minimum distance, and is faster for large datasets. Using CH3, a simple stochastic hill-climber is able to find highly diverse core collections, and the more advanced parallel tempering algorithm further increases the quality of the core and further reduces variability across independent samples. We also evaluate the ability of CH3 to simultaneously maximize diversity, and either representativeness or allelic richness, and compare the results with those of the GDOpt and SimEli methods. CH3 can sample equally representative cores as GDOpt, which was specifically designed for this purpose, and is able to construct cores that are simultaneously more diverse, and either are more representative or have higher allelic richness, than those obtained by SimEli. In version 3, Core Hunter has been updated to include two new core subset selection metrics that construct cores for representativeness or diversity, with improved performance. It combines and outperforms the

  16. [Image fusion in medical radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, C

    1996-07-20

    Image fusion supports the correlation between images of two or more studies of the same organ. First, the effect of differing geometries during image acquisitions, such as a head tilt, is compensated for. As a consequence, congruent images can easily be obtained. Instead of merely putting them side by side in a static manner and burdening the radiologist with the whole correlation task, image fusion supports him with interactive visualization techniques. This is especially worthwhile for small lesions as they can be more precisely located. Image fusion is feasible today. Easy and robust techniques are readily available, and furthermore DICOM, a rapidly evolving data exchange standard, diminishes the once severe compatibility problems for image data originating from systems of different manufacturers. However, the current solutions for image fusion are not yet established enough for a high throughput of fusion studies. Thus, for the time being image fusion is most appropriately confined to clinical research studies.

  17. Intitutional constraints to fusion commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The major thrust of this report is that the long time frame associated with the development of commercial fusion systems in the context of the commercialization and institutional history of an allied technology, fission-power, suggests that fusion commercialization will not occur without active and broad-based support on the part of the Nation's political leaders. Its key recommendation is that DOE fusion planners devote considerable resources to analytical efforts aimed at determining the need for fusion and the timing of that need, in order to convince policymakers that they need do more than preserve fusion as an option for application at some indefinite point in the future. It is the thesis of the report that, in fact, an act of political vision on the part of the Nation's leaders will be required to accomplish fusion commercialization

  18. Fusion power and its prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammash, T.

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in research towards the development of fusion power is reviewed. In the magnetic approach, the impressive advances made in Tokamak research in the past few years have bolstered the confidence that experimental Tokamak devices currently under construction will demonstrate the break-even condition or scientific feasibility of fusion power. Exciting and innovative ideas in mirror magnetic confinement are expected to culminate in high-Q devices which will make open-ended confinement a serious contender for fusion reactors. In the inertial confinement approach, conflicting pellet temperature requirements have placed severe constraints on useful laser intensities and wavelengths for laser-driven fusion. Relativistic electron beam fusion must solve critical focusing and pellet coupling problems, and the newly proposed heavy ion beam fusion, though feasible and attractive in principle, requires very high energy particles for which the accelerator technology may not be available for some time to come

  19. Fusion power: the transition from fundamental science to fusion reactor engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1975-01-01

    The historical development of fusion research is outlined. The basics of fusion power along with fuel cost and advantages of fusion are discussed. Some quantitative requirements for fusion power are described. (MOW)

  20. k-core covers and the core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Rodriguez, E.; Borm, Peter; Estevez-Fernandez, A.; Fiestras-Janeiro, G.; Mosquera, M.A.

    This paper extends the notion of individual minimal rights for a transferable utility game (TU-game) to coalitional minimal rights using minimal balanced families of a specific type, thus defining a corresponding minimal rights game. It is shown that the core of a TU-game coincides with the core of

  1. The preliminary research for biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Chang Hyun; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the solution to the production of bioactive substance using biotransformation process from core technology of biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology. And, this strategy will provide core technology for development of drugs as new concept and category. Research scopes and contents of project include 1) The development of mutant for biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology 2) The development of host for biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology 3) The preliminary study for biosynthetic engineering of isoflavone by radiation fusion technology. The results are as follows. Isoflavone compounds(daidzein, hydroxylated isoflavone) were analyzed by GC-MS. The study of radiation doses and p-NCA high-throughput screening for mutant development were elucidated. And, it was carried out the study of radiation doses for host development. Furthermore, the study of redox partner and construction of recombinant strain for region-specific hydroxylation(P450, redox partner). In addition, the biological effect of 6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone as an anti-obesity agent was elucidated in this study.

  2. Weaving Hilbert space fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Neyshaburi, Fahimeh Arabyani; Arefijamaal, Ali Akbar

    2018-01-01

    A new notion in frame theory, so called weaving frames has been recently introduced to deal with some problems in signal processing and wireless sensor networks. Also, fusion frames are an important extension of frames, used in many areas especially for wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we survey the notion of weaving Hilbert space fusion frames. This concept can be had potential applications in wireless sensor networks which require distributed processing using different fusion frames...

  3. ALKALI FUSION OF ROSETTA ZIRCON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAHER, A.

    2008-01-01

    The decomposition of Rosetta zircon by fusion with different types of alkalis has been investigated. These alkalis include sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and eutectic mixture of both. The influences of the reaction temperature, zircon to alkalis ratio, fusion time and the stirring of the reactant on the fusion reaction have been evaluated. The obtained results favour the decomposition of zircon with the eutectic alkalis mixture by a decomposition efficiency of 96% obtained at 500 0 C after one hour

  4. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  5. An electrolytic route to fusion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    A patent has been granted by the Swedish Patent Authority for a new process to initiate and control energy generation through fusion reactions of hydrogen. According to the patent-holder, the Swedish company AB Technology Development, the fusion power process could be available for commercial applications within 4-5 years if laboratory and pilot plant tests prove successful. The new process employs a high voltage discharge in heavy water to create conditions under which, according to the patent holder, a high probability of fusion is achieved without the extraordinary high temperatures required in a conventional fusion reactor. (author)

  6. Radioisotope production in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engholm, B.A.; Cheng, E.T.; Schultz, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Radioisotope production in fusion reactors is being investigated as part of the Fusion Applications and Market Evaluation (FAME) study. /sup 60/Co is the most promising such product identified to date, since the /sup 60/Co demand for medical and food sterilization is strong and the potential output from a fusion reactor is high. Some of the other radioisotopes considered are /sup 99/Tc, /sup 131/l, several Eu isotopes, and /sup 210/Po. Among the stable isotopes of interest are /sup 197/Au, /sup 103/Rh and Os. In all cases, heat or electricity can be co-produced from the fusion reactor, with overall attractive economics

  7. Results of nuclear fusion development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kenzo

    1975-01-01

    Compared with the nuclear fission research which followed that in advanced countries, Japan has treaded on its own track in nuclear fusion development; in the former, she had been far behind other leading countries. Characteristic of the efforts in Japan is the collaboration with educational institutions. Works are now carried out mainly in Tokamak plasma confinement, though other means being studied simultaneously. The nation's fusion research program is the realization of a fusion reactor at the turn of the present century, based on the world-level results attained with Tokamak. Past developments in the nuclear fusion research, the current status, and aspects for the future are discribed. (Mori, K.)

  8. Stockpile tritium production from fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokke, W.A.; Fowler, T.K.

    1986-01-01

    A fusion breeder holds the promise of a new capability - ''dialable'' reserve capacity at little additional cost - that offers stockpile planners a new way to deal with today's uncertainties in forecasting long range needs. Though still in the research stage, fusion can be developed in time to meet future military requirements. Much of the necessary technology will be developed by the ongoing magnetic fusion energy program. However, a specific program to develop the nuclear technology required for materials production is needed if fusion is to become a viable option for a new production complex around the turn of the century

  9. Economic potential of inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1984-04-01

    Beyond the achievement of scientific feasibility, the key question for fusion energy is: does it have the economic potential to be significantly cheaper than fission and coal energy. If fusion has this high economic potential then there are compelling commercial and geopolitical incentives to accelerate the pace of the fusion program in the near term, and to install a global fusion energy system in the long term. Without this high economic potential, fusion's success depends on the failure of all alternatives, and there is no real incentive to accelerate the program. If my conjectures on the economic potential of inertial fusion are approximately correct, then inertial fusion energy's ultimate costs may be only half to two-thirds those of advanced fission and coal energy systems. Relative cost escalation is not assumed and could increase this advantage. Both magnetic and inertial approaches to fusion potentially have a two-fold economic advantage which derives from two fundamental properties: negligible fuel costs and high quality energy which makes possible more efficient generation of electricity. The wining approach to fusion may excel in three areas: electrical generating efficiency, minimum material costs, and adaptability to manufacture in automated factories. The winning approach must also rate highly in environmental potential, safety, availability factor, lifetime, small 0 and M costs, and no possibility of utility-disabling accidents

  10. Synchrotron radiation and fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    The development of fusion energy is approaching a stage where the capabilities of materials will be dictating the further progress and the time scale for the attainment of fusion power. EU has therefore funded the Fusion Energy Materials Science project Coordination Action (FEMaS - CA) with the intension to utilise the know-how in the materials community to help overcome the material science problems with the fusion related materials. The FEMaS project and some of the possible applications of synchrotron radiation for materials characterisation are described in this paper. (au)

  11. Reactor prospects of muon-catalyzed fusion of deuterium and tritium concentrated in transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    It is conjectured that the number of fusion events catalyzed by a single muon is orders of magnitude greater for deuterium and tritium concentrated in a transition metal than in gaseous form and that the recent observation of 2.5-MeV neutrons from a D 2 O electrolytic cell with palladium and titanium cathodes can thereby be interpreted in terms of cosmic muon-catalyzed deuterium-deuterium fusion. This suggests a new fusion reactor reactor consisting of deuterium and tritium concentrated in transition metal fuel elements in a fusion core that surrounds an accelerator-produced muon source. The feasibility of net energy production in such a reactor is established in terms of requirements on the number of fusion events catalyzed per muon. The technological implications for a power reactor based on this concept are examined. The potential of such a concept as a neutron source for materials testing and tritium and plutonium production is briefly discussed

  12. Cold nuclear fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyganov, E.N., E-mail: edward.tsyganov@coldfusion-power.com [Cold Fusion Power, International (United States); Bavizhev, M.D. [LLC “Radium”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Buryakov, M.G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Dabagov, S.B. [RAS P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Golovatyuk, V.M.; Lobastov, S.P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction’s theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300–700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of {sup 4}He{sup ∗}.

  13. Direct energy conversion for IEC fusion for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momota, Hiromu; Nadler, Jon; Miley, George H.

    2000-08-01

    The paper describes a concept of extracting fusion power from D- 3 He fueled IEC (Inertia Electrostatic Configuration) devices. The fusion system consists of a series of fusion modules and direct energy converters at an end or at both ends. This system of multiple units is linear and is connected by a magnetic field. A pair of coils anti-parallel to the magnetic field yields a field-null domain at the center of each unit as required for IEC operation. A stabilizing coil installed between the coil pairs eliminates the strong attractive force between the anti-parallel coils. Accessible regions for charged particle trajectories are essentially isolated from the coil structure. Thus, charged particles are directed along magnetic field lines to the direct energy converter without appreciable losses. A direct energy converter unit designed to be compatible to this unique system is also described. It basically consists of a separator and a traveling wave converter. A separator separates low energy ions and electron from the 14.7 MeV fusion protons and then converts their energy into electricity. In the traveling wave direct energy converter, fusion protons are modulated to form bunches. It couples with a transmission line to couple AC power out. The overall conversion efficiency of this system, combined with E- 3 He IEC cores, is estimated as high as 60%. (author)

  14. Plutonium-239 production rate study using a typical fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, F.; Havasi, H.; Amin-Mozafari, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to compute fissile 239 Pu material by supposed typical fusion reactor operation to make the fuel requirement for other purposes (e.g. MOX fissile fuel, etc.). It is assumed that there is a fusion reactor has a cylindrical geometry and uses uniformly distributed deuterium-tritium as fuel so that neutron wall load is taken at 10(MW)/(m 2 ) . Moreover, the reactor core is surrounded by six suggested blankets to make best performance of the physical conditions described herein. We determined neutron flux in each considered blanket as well as tritium self-sufficiency using two groups neutron energy and then computation is followed by the MCNP-4C code. Finally, material depletion according to a set of dynamical coupled differential equations is solved to estimate 239 Pu production rate. Produced 239 Pu is compared with two typical fission reactors to find performance of plutonium breeding ratio in the case of the fusion reactor. We found that 0.92% of initial U is converted into fissile Pu by our suggested fusion reactor with thermal power of 3000 MW. For comparison, 239 Pu yield of suggested large scale PWR is about 0.65% and for LMFBR is close to 1.7%. The results show that the fusion reactor has an acceptable efficiency for Pu production compared with a large scale PWR fission reactor type

  15. Plutonium-239 production rate study using a typical fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, F. [Research Center for Radiation Protection, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: faghihif@shirazu.ac.ir; Havasi, H.; Amin-Mozafari, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, 71348-51154 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of the present paper is to compute fissile {sup 239}Pu material by supposed typical fusion reactor operation to make the fuel requirement for other purposes (e.g. MOX fissile fuel, etc.). It is assumed that there is a fusion reactor has a cylindrical geometry and uses uniformly distributed deuterium-tritium as fuel so that neutron wall load is taken at 10(MW)/(m{sup 2}) . Moreover, the reactor core is surrounded by six suggested blankets to make best performance of the physical conditions described herein. We determined neutron flux in each considered blanket as well as tritium self-sufficiency using two groups neutron energy and then computation is followed by the MCNP-4C code. Finally, material depletion according to a set of dynamical coupled differential equations is solved to estimate {sup 239}Pu production rate. Produced {sup 239}Pu is compared with two typical fission reactors to find performance of plutonium breeding ratio in the case of the fusion reactor. We found that 0.92% of initial U is converted into fissile Pu by our suggested fusion reactor with thermal power of 3000 MW. For comparison, {sup 239}Pu yield of suggested large scale PWR is about 0.65% and for LMFBR is close to 1.7%. The results show that the fusion reactor has an acceptable efficiency for Pu production compared with a large scale PWR fission reactor type.

  16. Direct energy conversion for IEC fusion for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momota, Hiromu; Nadler, Jon [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Miley, George H. [Fusion Studies Laboratory, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2000-08-01

    The paper describes a concept of extracting fusion power from D-{sup 3}He fueled IEC (Inertia Electrostatic Configuration) devices. The fusion system consists of a series of fusion modules and direct energy converters at an end or at both ends. This system of multiple units is linear and is connected by a magnetic field. A pair of coils anti-parallel to the magnetic field yields a field-null domain at the center of each unit as required for IEC operation. A stabilizing coil installed between the coil pairs eliminates the strong attractive force between the anti-parallel coils. Accessible regions for charged particle trajectories are essentially isolated from the coil structure. Thus, charged particles are directed along magnetic field lines to the direct energy converter without appreciable losses. A direct energy converter unit designed to be compatible to this unique system is also described. It basically consists of a separator and a traveling wave converter. A separator separates low energy ions and electron from the 14.7 MeV fusion protons and then converts their energy into electricity. In the traveling wave direct energy converter, fusion protons are modulated to form bunches. It couples with a transmission line to couple AC power out. The overall conversion efficiency of this system, combined with E-{sup 3}He IEC cores, is estimated as high as 60%. (author)

  17. Fusion technology projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elen, J.D.

    1985-11-01

    The current status of the European Fusion File project (EFF) is reviewed. Some new tools for the nuclear-data evaluation and the processing are discussed. A method description and users manual for the toroidal-geometry neutronic program system FURNACE has been published. Calculations with FURNACE have been started to obtain the effective tritium breeding ratio and the distribution of the nuclear heat for the 17 Li 83 Pb blanket in the NET II torus geometry. The results of several experiments are reported: tensile tests on vanadium alloy V5%Ti doped with boron; creep embrittlement of stainless steel type 316; critical current test of a composite niobium-tin superconductor

  18. The laser thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, J.; Dautray, R.; Decroisette, M.; Watteau, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Principle of the thermonuclear fusion by inertial confinement: required characteristics of the deuterium-tritium plasma and of the high power lasers to be used Development of high power lasers: active media used; amplifiers; frequency conversion; beam quality; pulse conditioning; existing large systems. The laser-matter interaction: collision and collective interaction of the laser radiation with matter; transport of the absorbed energy; heating and compression of deuterium-tritium; diagnoses and their comparison with the numerical simulation of the experiment; performances. Conclusions: difficulties to overcome; megajoule lasers; other energy source: particles beams [fr

  19. The future of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, John

    2001-01-01

    The population of the world is increasing, mainly in the developing world, and is projected to saturate within about 100 years at up to twice the present population of 6 billion people (Bos et al., World Population Projections: 1994-95 Edition, Published for the World Bank). Studies (Goldemberg and Johansson (Eds.), Energy as an Instrument for Socio-Economic Development United Nations Development Programme, New York, 1995, p. 9; United Nations Statistical Yearbooks, 10th issue; 1965; 20th issue; 1975, 22nd issue, 1977; 32nd issue, 1987; and 39th issue 1994, United Nations Publications; Sheffield, J. Technol. Forecasting Social Change 59 (1998) 55.) show that, historically, the population growth rate has varied inversely as the annual per capita energy use in most parts of the developing world, where per capita energy use is typically less than 1 t of oil equivalent energy per year. However, in areas with more than 2-3 t of oil equivalent of energy use per year per person, the growth rate is around zero. If this trend continues, a stable world population will require, allowing for energy efficiency improvements, some 2-3 times the present annual energy use. There is an abundance of energy in the world both exploited and potential to meet this need - fossil, fission, and renewables - but it is not evenly distributed, some are costly, and there are issues of environmental pollution in present use, that may limit use. Fusion energy is a potential longer-term source with attractive environmental features. It is the least-developed energy option and still faces a challenging development path, but there are many areas of the world that would benefit hugely from its deployment from the later part of the 21st century onward, and it is important to consider how it might be deployed. Most fusion power plant options considered today show an economy of scale, owing to the fixed distance needed for shielding fusion neutrons, tritium breeding and handling the heat loads. One

  20. Achievement of solid-state plasma fusion ('Cold-Fusion')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arata, Yoshiaki; Zhang, Yue-Chang

    1995-01-01

    Using a 'QMS' (Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer), the authors detected a significantly large amount (10 20 -10 21 [cm -3 ]) of helium ( 2 4 He), which was concluded to have been produced by a deuterium nuclear reaction within a host solid. These results were found to be fully repeatable and supported the authors' proposition that solid state plasma fusion ('Cold Fusion') can be generated in energetic deuterium Strongly Coupled Plasma ('SC-plasma'). This fusion reaction is thought to be sustained by localized 'Latticequake' in a solid-state media with the deuterium density equivalent to that of the host solid. While exploring this basic proposition, the characteristic differences when compared with ultra high temperature-state plasma fusion ('Hot Fusion') are clarified. In general, the most essential reaction product in both types of the deuterium plasma fusion is considered to be helium, irrespective of the 'well-known and/or unknown reactions', which is stored within the solid-state medium in abundance as a 'Residual Product', but which generally can not enter into nor be released from host-solid at a room temperature. Even measuring instruments with relatively poor sensitivity should be able to easily detect such residual helium. An absence of residual helium means that no nuclear fusion reaction has occurred, whereas its presence provides crucial evidence that nuclear fusion has, in fact, occurred in the solid. (author)

  1. Fusion energy 2000. Fusion energy 1998 (2001 Edition). Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains the Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Fusion Energy. It also contains an updated version of the Fusion Energy Conference 1998 Proceedings (38 additional papers included) as well as information on how to use this CD-ROM. The 18th International Atomic Energy Agency Fusion Energy Conference (FEC-2000) was held in Sorrento, Italy, 4-10 October 2000. 573 participants from over thirty countries and three international organizations took part in this Conference. The Conference was organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment (ENEA). Around 400 papers were presented in 22 oral and 8 poster sessions on magnetic confinement experiments, inertial fusion energy, plasma heating and current drive, ITER engineering design activities, magnetic confinement theory, innovative concepts, fusion technology, and safety and environment aspects. The 17th International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Fusion Energy Conference was held in Yokohama, Japan, 19-24 October 1999. This 6-day conference, which was attended by 835 participants from over 30 countries and two international organizations, was organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). More than 360 papers plus 5 summary talks were presented in 23 oral and 8 poster sessions on magnetic confinement and experiments, inertial fusion energy, plasma heating and current drive, ITER engineering design activities, magnetic confinement theory, innovative concepts and fusion technology

  2. Muon-catalyzed fusion: A new direction in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    In four years of intensive research, muon-catalyzed fusion has been raised from the level of a scientific curiosity to a potential means of achieving clean fusion energy. This novel approach to fusion is based on the fact that a sub-atomic particle known as a ''muon'' can induce numerous energy-releasing fusion reactions without the need for high temperatures or plasmas. Thus, the muon serves as a catalyst to facilitate production for fusion energy. The success of the research effort stems from the recent discovery of resonances in the reaction cycle which make the muon-induced fusion process extremely efficient. Prior estimates were pessimistic in that only one fusion per muon was expected. In that case energy balance would be impossible since energy must be invested to generate the muons. However, recent work has gone approximately half-way to energy balance and further improvements are being worked on. There has been little time to assess the full implications of these discoveries. However, various ways to use muon-catalyzed fusion for electrical power production are now being explored

  3. Muon-catalyzed fusion: a new direction in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    In four years of intensive research, muon-catalyzed fusion has been raised from the level of a scientific curiosity to a potential means of achieving clean fusion energy. This novel approach to fusion is based on the fact that a sub-atomic particle known as a ''muon'' can induce numerous energy-releasing fusion reactions without the need for high temperatures or plasmas. Thus, the muon serves as a catalyst to facilitate production for fusion energy. The success of the research effort stems from the recent discovery of resonances in the reaction cycle which make the muon-induced fusion process extremely efficient. Prior estimates were pessimistic in that only one fusion per muon was expected. In that case energy balance would be impossible since energy must be invested to generate the muons. However, recent work has gone approximately half-way to energy balance and further improvements are being worked on. There has been little time to assess the full implications of these discoveries. However, various ways to use muon-catalyzed fusion for electrical power production are now being explored

  4. Circumferential fusion improves outcome in comparison with instrumented posterolateral fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbaek, Tina S; Christensen, Finn B; Soegaard, Rikke

    2006-01-01

    with respect to all four DPQ categories: daily activities, work/leisure, anxiety/depression, and social interest. The Oswestry Disability Index supported these results (P ...STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized clinical study with a 5- to 9-year follow-up period. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to analyze the long-term outcome with respect to functional disability, pain, and general health of patients treated by means of circumferential lumbar fusion...... in comparison with those treated by means of instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Circumferential fusion has become a common procedure in lumbar spinal fusion both as a primary and salvage procedure. However, the claimed advantages of circumferential fusion over conventional...

  5. Reactor core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.

    1976-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: concepts of reactor physics; neutron diffusion; core heat transfer; reactivity; reactor operation; variables of core management; computer code modules; alternative reactor concepts; methods of optimization; general system aspects. (U.K.)

  6. Nuclear reactor core catcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core catcher is described for containing debris resulting from an accident causing core meltdown and which incorporates a method of cooling the debris by the circulation of a liquid coolant. (U.K.)

  7. Seismic core shroud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, A.; Mullooly, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A core shroud is provided, comprising: a coolant boundary, following the shape of the core boundary, for channeling the coolant through the fuel assemblies; a cylindrical band positioned inside the core barrel and surrounding the coolant boundary; and support members extending from the coolant boundary to the band, for transferring load from the coolant boundary to the band. The shroud may be assembled in parts using automated welding techniques, and it may be adjusted to fit the reactor core easily

  8. Culham: fusion and commerce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, R.

    1976-01-01

    An overview is given of present day work at the UKAEA research establishment at Culham. This consists not only of research into the practical and theoretical problems of nuclear fusion but also contract work for commercial companies and government agencies. This latter type of work includes studies on the effect of lightening striking aircraft, work on electrostatic hazards in oil tankers and potential uses of lasers in industrial processes such as cutting, drilling and welding. The six toroidal confinement devices at present at Culham are described. Reference is made to the superconducting levitron which is of the toroidal multipole type, two stellarators TORSO and CLEO, the reversed field pinch configuration Zeta experiment and the two tokamaks TOSCA and DITE. Work on such complex machines needs substantial support in engineering and computational skills, and these are also provided by groups at Culham. Research is already under way into overcoming the difficulties of an actual reactor system such as extracting energy from the neutrons coming out of the plasma, and the long term effects of neutron irradiation on cell modules for fusion reactor blankets. (U.K.)

  9. Utility requirements for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability

  10. Collaborations in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.; Davis, S.; Roney, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews current experimental collaborative efforts in the fusion community and extrapolates to operational scenarios for the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Current requirements, available technologies and tools, and problems, issues and concerns are discussed. This paper specifically focuses on the issues that apply to experimental operational collaborations. Special requirements for other types of collaborations, such as theoretical or design and construction efforts, will not be addressed. Our current collaborative efforts have been highly successful, even though the tools in use will be viewed as primitive by tomorrow's standards. An overview of the tools and technologies in today's collaborations can be found in the first section of this paper. The next generation of fusion devices will not be primarily institutionally based, but will be national (TPX) and international (ITER) in funding, management, operation and in ownership of scientific results. The TPX will present the initial challenge of real-time remotely distributed experimental data analysis for a steady state device. The ITER will present new challenges with the possibility of several remote control rooms all participating in the real-time operation of the experimental device. A view to the future of remote collaborations is provided in the second section of this paper

  11. Clean steels for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels

  12. Fusion energy division computer systems network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, C.E.

    1980-12-01

    The Fusion Energy Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operated by Union Carbide Corporation Nuclear Division (UCC-ND) is primarily involved in the investigation of problems related to the use of controlled thermonuclear fusion as an energy source. The Fusion Energy Division supports investigations of experimental fusion devices and related fusion theory. This memo provides a brief overview of the computing environment in the Fusion Energy Division and the computing support provided to the experimental effort and theory research

  13. Fusion energy. What Canada can do

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    As Canada's fusion programs have grown, Canadian capabilities in fusion science and technology have grown and matured with them. The fusion capabilities described in this booklet have come from a coordinated national effort. The Government of Canada is committed to continuing its fusion energy program, and to supporting global fusion efforts. These first pages provide an overview of Canada's fusion work and its underlying basis of science and technology

  14. Core Values | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core Values Core Values NREL's core values are rooted in a safe and supportive work environment guide our everyday actions and efforts: Safe and supportive work environment Respect for the rights physical and social environment Integrity Maintain the highest standard of ethics, honesty, and integrity

  15. Sidewall coring shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A; Konstantinov, L P; Martyshin, A N

    1966-12-12

    A sidewall coring shell consists of a housing and a detachable core catcher. The core lifter is provided with projections, the ends of which are situated in another plane, along the longitudinal axis of the lifter. The chamber has corresponding projections.

  16. Data fusion qualitative sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.A.; Lewis, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked with testing, debugging, and refining the Hanford Site data fusion workstation (DFW), with the assistance of Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), before delivering the DFW to the environmental restoration client at the Hanford Site. Data fusion is the mathematical combination (or fusion) of disparate data sets into a single interpretation. The data fusion software used in this study was developed by CRC. The data fusion software developed by CRC was initially demonstrated on a data set collected at the Hanford Site where three types of data were combined. These data were (1) seismic reflection, (2) seismic refraction, and (3) depth to geologic horizons. The fused results included a contour map of the top of a low-permeability horizon. This report discusses the results of a sensitivity analysis of data fusion software to variations in its input parameters. The data fusion software developed by CRC has a large number of input parameters that can be varied by the user and that influence the results of data fusion. Many of these parameters are defined as part of the earth model. The earth model is a series of 3-dimensional polynomials with horizontal spatial coordinates as the independent variables and either subsurface layer depth or values of various properties within these layers (e.g., compression wave velocity, resistivity) as the dependent variables

  17. Magnetic fusion energy. Part VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The first chapter of this part describes briefly the DOE policy for fusion energy. Subsequent chapters include: FY 1980 overview - activities of the Office of Fusion Energy; subactivity descriptions (confinement systems, development and technology, applied plasma physics, and reactor projects); field activities (DOE laboratories, educational institutions, nonprofit organizations, and commercial firms); commercialization; environmental implications; regional activities; and international programs

  18. Tritium-assisted fusion breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Miley, G.H.

    1983-08-01

    This report undertakes a preliminary assessment of the prospects of tritium-assisted D-D fuel cycle fusion breeders. Two well documented fusion power reactor designs - the STARFIRE (D-T fuel cycle) and the WILDCAT (Cat-D fuel cycle) tokamaks - are converted into fusion breeders by replacing the fusion electric blankets with 233 U producing fission suppressed blankets; changing the Cat-D fuel cycle mode of operation by one of the several tritium-assisted D-D-based modes of operation considered; adjusting the reactor power level; and modifying the resulting plant cost to account for the design changes. Three sources of tritium are considered for assisting the D-D fuel cycle: tritium produced in the blankets from lithium or from 3 He and tritium produced in the client fission reactors. The D-D-based fusion breeders using tritium assistance are found to be the most promising economically, especially the Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium mode of operation in which the 3 He exhausted from the plasma is converted, by neutron capture in the blanket, into tritium which is in turn fed back to the plasma. The number of fission reactors of equal thermal power supported by Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium fusion breeders is about 50% higher than that of D-T fusion breeders, and the profitability is found to be slightly lower than that of the D-T fusion breeders

  19. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  20. Laser-induced nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablon, Claude

    1977-01-01

    Research programs on laser-induced thermonuclear fusion in the United States, in Europe and in USSR are reviewed. The principle of the fusion reactions induced is explained, together with the theoretical effects of the following phenomena: power and type of laser beams, shape and size of the solid target, shock waves, and laser-hydrodynamics coupling problems [fr