WorldWideScience

Sample records for hbeag-negative chb patients

  1. Manifestations of perihepatic lymph nodes in acute flare of chronic hepatitis B: association with HBeAg status and with HBeAg seroconversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ling Ko

    Full Text Available It has been observed that enlargement of perihepatic lymph nodes may be seen in patients with chronic hepatitis B, particularly during acute flares of CHB. We hypothesized that there may be a correlation between the nodal change patterns in CHB patients with acute flare and HBeAg status. Perihepatic lymph node sizes of 87 patients with acute flares of CHB were documented, with a median follow up of 43 months. Patients were separated into 3 groups, HBeAg-positive with HBe seroconversion (group 1, HBeAg-positive without HBe seroconversion (group 2, and HBeAg-negative (group 3. Group 1 has the highest incidence of enlarged lymph nodes (92.3% compared with group 2 (75.8% and group 3 (46.8% (p = 0.003. And if nodal width at acute flare was > 8mm and interval change of nodal width was >3mm, the incidence of HBeAg seroconversion will be 75% (p<0.001.Larger perihepatic lymph nodes are seen in CHB acute flare patients with positive HBeAg and the magnitude of nodal width change may predict HBeAg seroconversion at recovery.

  2. Predictive value of serum ALT and T-cell receptor beta variable chain for HBeAg seroconversion in chronic hepatitis B patients during tenofovir treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiezuan; Yan, Dong; Guo, Renyong; Chen, Jiajia; Li, Yongtao; Fan, Jun; Fu, Xuyan; Yao, Xinsheng; Diao, Hongyan; Li, Lanjuan

    2017-03-01

    Effective antiviral therapy plays a key role in slowing the progression of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Identification of serum indices, including hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) expression and seroconversion, will facilitate evaluation of the efficacy of antiviral therapy in HBeAg-positive CHB patients. The biochemical, serological, virological parameters, and the frequency of circulating CD4CD25 regulatory T cell (Treg) in 32 patients were measured at baseline and every 12 weeks during 96 weeks of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) treatment. The relationship between the hepatitis B virus (HBV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and Treg and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels was analyzed, respectively. The molecular profiles of T-cell receptor beta variable chain (TRBV) were determined using gene melting spectral pattern. For the seroconverted 12 patients, ALT declined to normal levels by week 24 and remained at this level in subsequent treatment; moreover, the predictive cutoff value of ALT for HBeAg seroconversion (SC) was 41.5 U/L at week 24. The positive correlation between HBV DNA and Treg and ALT was significant in SC patients, but not in non-SC patients. Six TRBV families (BV3, BV11, BV12, BV14, BV20, and BV24) were predominantly expressed in SC patients at baseline. The decline of ALT could be used to predict HBeAg seroconversion for CHB patients during TDF treatment. In addition, the profile of Tregs and TRBVs may be associated with HBeAg seroconversion and could also be a potential indicator for predicting HBeAg SC and treatment outcome for CHB patients.

  3. Baseline quantitative hepatitis B core antibody titre alone strongly predicts HBeAg seroconversion across chronic hepatitis B patients treated with peginterferon or nucleos(t)ide analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Sun, Jian; Yuan, Quan; Xie, Qing; Bai, Xuefan; Ning, Qin; Cheng, Jun; Yu, Yanyan; Niu, Junqi; Shi, Guangfeng; Wang, Hao; Tan, Deming; Wan, Mobin; Chen, Shijun; Xu, Min; Chen, Xinyue; Tang, Hong; Sheng, Jifang; Lu, Fengmin; Jia, Jidong; Zhuang, Hui; Xia, Ningshao; Hou, Jinlin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The investigation regarding the clinical significance of quantitative hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) during chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of anti-HBc as a predictor for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion in HBeAg-positive CHB patients treated with peginterferon (Peg-IFN) or nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs), respectively. Design This was a retrospective cohort study consisting of 231 and 560 patients enrolled in two phase IV, multicentre, randomised, controlled trials treated with Peg-IFN or NUC-based therapy for up to 2 years, respectively. Quantitative anti-HBc evaluation was conducted for all the available samples in the two trials by using a newly developed double-sandwich anti-HBc immunoassay. Results At the end of trials, 99 (42.9%) and 137 (24.5%) patients achieved HBeAg seroconversion in the Peg-IFN and NUC cohorts, respectively. We defined 4.4 log10 IU/mL, with a maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity, as the optimal cut-off value of baseline anti-HBc level to predict HBeAg seroconversion for both Peg-IFN and NUC. Patients with baseline anti-HBc ≥4.4 log10 IU/mL and baseline HBV DNA baseline anti-HBc level was the best independent predictor for HBeAg seroconversion (OR 2.178; 95% CI 1.577 to 3.009; pBaseline anti-HBc titre is a useful predictor of Peg-IFN and NUC therapy efficacy in HBeAg-positive CHB patients, which could be used for optimising the antiviral therapy of CHB. PMID:25586058

  4. Is it necessary to delay antiviral therapy for 3-6 months to anticipate HBeAg seroconversion in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B in endemic areas of HBV genotype C?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Cheol Song

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsSpontaneous HBeAg seroconversion occurs frequently in the immune reactive phase in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB. Therefore, observation for 3-6 months before commencing antiviral therapy is recommended in patients with alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels that exceed twice the upper limit of normal (ULN. However, HBeAg seroconversion occurs infrequently in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV genotype C. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the waiting policy is necessary in endemic areas of HBV genotype C infection.MethodsNinety patients with HBeAg-positive CHB were followed prospectively without administering antiviral therapy for 6 months. Antiviral therapy was initiated promptly at any time if there was any evidence of biochemical (i.e., acute exacerbation of HBV infection or aggravation of jaundice or symptomatic deterioration. After 6 months of observation, antiviral therapy was initiated according to the patient's ALT and HBV DNA levels.ResultsOnly one patient (1.1% achieved spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion. Biochemical and symptomatic deterioration occurred before 6 months in 17 patients (18.9% and 5 patients, respectively. High ALT and HBV DNA levels were both independent risk factors for biochemical deterioration. Of 15 patients with HBV DNA ≥5.1×107 IU/mL and ALT ≥5×ULN, biochemical deterioration occurred in 7 (46.7%, including 1 patient receiving liver transplantation due to liver failure.ConclusionsSpontaneous HBeAg seroconversion in patients with HBeAg-positive CHB is rare within 6 months. Biochemical deterioration was common and may lead to liver failure. Immediate antiviral therapy should be considered, especially in patients with high ALT and HBV DNA levels in endemic areas of genotype C infection.

  5. [The frequency of peripheral blood CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs is negatively correlated with the inflammation in patients with chronic hepatitis B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Guan, Shihe; Yang, Kai; Ye, Jun; Yan, Kaili; Pan, Ying; Wu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Aihua; Sun, Beibei

    2015-10-01

    To study the frequency of CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the peripheral blood of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and the relationship with biochemical characteristics, viral load and liver pathology. The frequency of CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs in the peripheral blood of 96 patients with CHB and 20 healthy control cases were detected by flow cytometry. Ultrasound-guided liver biopsies as well as HBV-related serological tests were performed in HBV-infected individuals to analyze the biochemical characteristics, viral load and pathology. The data were assessed using Spearman correlation analysis. The frequency of the peripheral blood CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs in the 96 CHB cases was (6.03 ± 0.09)%, which was significantly higher than that of the 20 healthy control cases (1.87 ± 0.05)%. The group of HBeAg positive cases had a significantly higher frequency of the peripheral blood CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs compared with the group of HBeAg negative cases and the healthy control group. The frequency of CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs in the peripheral blood was negatively correlated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. There was no correlation between the frequency of peripheral blood CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs and HBV load. The frequency of CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs in the peripheral blood was negatively correlated with the liver inflammation grade, but not related with the fibrosis stage in patients with CHB. The frequency of CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs is negatively correlated with the inflammation of CHB.

  6. [Genetic variation and typing of hepatitis B virus in patients with chronic hepatitis B negative for HBeAg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Rong; Luo, Na; Yang, Yanbin; Zhuang, Jianhai; Huang, Xinghua

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the genetic variation and typing of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients with chronic hepatitis B in relation to HBeAg status. Fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to detect serum HBV DNA in patients with chronic hepatitis B negative for HBeAg. Real-time fluorescent PCR and PCR-reverse dot blot hybridization were used to detect HBV genotypes and mutations, respectively. Of the 389 patients, 214 (55.01%) were positive and 175 (44.99%) were negative for HBV DNA; 102 (26.22%) had a HBV DNA copy number of 1×10(3), and 41 (10.54%) had a copy number of 1×10(4) (Χ(2)=226.6729, Ptype were found in 6 (2.80%), 84 (39.25%), 106 (49.53%), and 7 (3.27%), and 11 (5.14%) patients, who showed precore mutation rates of 16.67% (1 case), 36.90% (31 cases), 44.34% (47 cases), 0, and 0, and BCP mutation rates of 0, 19.05% ( 16 cases), 26.42% (28 cases), 0, and 0, respectively, demonstrating significant differences in HBV mutations between the genotype groups (P<0.001). HBeAg-negative and HBV DNA-positive patients with chronic hepatitis B have a relatively low HBV replication level, and HBV DNA load is associated with HBV mutations. The B and C genotypes are more likely to have HBV mutations in HBeAg-negative patients.

  7. Serum hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e antigen titers: disease phase influences correlation with viral load and intrahepatic hepatitis B virus markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alexander J V; Nguyen, Tin; Iser, David; Ayres, Anna; Jackson, Kathy; Littlejohn, Margaret; Slavin, John; Bowden, Scott; Gane, Edward J; Abbott, William; Lau, George K K; Lewin, Sharon R; Visvanathan, Kumar; Desmond, Paul V; Locarnini, Stephen A

    2010-06-01

    Although threshold levels for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) titers have recently been proposed to guide therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB), their relationship to circulating hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and intrahepatic HBV replicative intermediates, and the significance of emerging viral variants, remains unclear. We therefore tested the hypothesis that HBsAg and HBeAg titers may vary independently of viral replication in vivo. In all, 149 treatment-naïve CHB patients were recruited (HBeAg-positive, n = 71; HBeAg-negative, n = 78). Quantification of HBeAg and HBsAg was performed by enzyme immunoassay. Virological characterization included serum HBV DNA load, HBV genotype, basal core promoter (BCP)/precore (PC) sequence, and, in a subset (n = 44), measurement of intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and total HBV DNA, as well as quantitative immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for HBsAg. In HBeAg-positive CHB, HBsAg was positively correlated with serum HBV DNA and intrahepatic cccDNA and total HBV DNA (r = 0.69, 0.71, 0.76, P < 0.01). HBeAg correlated with serum HBV DNA (r = 0.60, P < 0.0001), although emerging BCP/PC variants reduced HBeAg titer independent of viral replication. In HBeAg-negative CHB, HBsAg correlated poorly with serum HBV DNA (r = 0.28, P = 0.01) and did not correlate with intrahepatic cccDNA nor total HBV DNA. Quantitative IHC for hepatocyte HBsAg confirmed a relationship with viral replication only in HBeAg-positive patients. The correlation between quantitative HBsAg titer and serum and intrahepatic markers of HBV replication differs between patients with HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative CHB. HBeAg titers may fall independent of viral replication as HBeAg-defective variants emerge prior to HBeAg seroconversion. These findings provide new insights into viral pathogenesis and have practical implications for the use of quantitative serology as a clinical biomarker.

  8. IL28B genotype is not useful for predicting treatment outcome in Asian chronic hepatitis B patients treated with pegylated interferon-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jacinta A; Nguyen, Tin; Ratnam, Dilip; Heerasing, Neel M; Tehan, Jane V; Bonanzinga, Sara; Dev, Anouk; Bell, Sally; Pianko, Stephen; Chen, Robert; Visvanathan, Kumar; Hammond, Rachel; Iser, David; Rusli, Ferry; Sievert, William; Desmond, Paul V; Bowden, D Scott; Thompson, Alexander J

    2013-05-01

    IL28B genotype predicts response to pegylated interferon (peg-IFN)-based therapy in chronic hepatitis C. However, the utility of IL28B genotyping in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cohorts treated with peg-IFN is unclear. It was investigated whether IL28B genotype is associated with peg-IFN treatment outcomes in a predominantly Asian CHB cohort. This was a retrospective analysis of CHB patients treated with 48 weeks of peg-IFN monotherapy. IL28B genotype (rs12979860) was determined (TaqMan allelic discrimination kit). Baseline hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA, alanine aminotransferase, and liver histology were available. The primary end-points were HBV e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion with HBV-DNA < 2000 IU/mL 24 weeks post-therapy (HBeAg-positive patients) and HBV-DNA < 2000 IU/mL 24 weeks after peg-IFN (HBeAg-negative patients). The association between IL28B genotype and peg-IFN outcomes was analyzed. IL28B genotype was determined for 96 patients. Eighty-eight percent were Asian, 62% were HBeAg positive, and 13% were METAVIR stage F3-4. Median follow-up time was 39.3 months. The majority of patients carried the CC IL28B genotype (84%). IL28B genotype did not differ according to HBeAg status. The primary end-points were achieved in 27% of HBeAg-positive and 61% of HBeAg-negative patients. There was no association between IL28B genotype and the primary end-point in either group. Furthermore, there was no difference in HBeAg loss alone, HBV surface antigen, alanine aminotransferase normalization, or on-treatment HBV-DNA levels according to IL28B genotype. In the context of a small possible effect size and high frequency in Asian populations, IL28B genotyping is likely to have, at best, limited clinical utility for predicting peg-IFN treatment outcome for CHB patients in the Asia-Pacific region. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Tenofovir therapy in chronic hepatitis B infection: 48-week results from Izmir Province, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükran Köse

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goal of therapy in chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB is to impede liver injury by suppressing viral replication.The study was aimed to determine the efficacy of tenofovir (TDF in CHB infection for 48 weeks.Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 45 CHB patients treated by tenofovir. The patientswere divided into two groups based on their hepatitis B e antigen status (HBeAg. Those who were eligible to therapyreceived TDF 300 mg once daily for 48 weeks. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels (ALT, hepatitis B virus DNA (HBVDNA, and viral serological markers were checked at three-month intervals. Liver biopsy scores were determined in allpatients.Results: The mean age ± standard deviation (SD was 35.8 ± 17.0 years, 26 (57.8 % were male, and seven patients(15.5% were treatment-experienced by a nucleos(tide analogue before TDF. HBeAg was positive in 17 (37.8% patients.At week 48 among HBeAg positive (HBeAg + patients’ biochemical and virological response rates at month-3, -6 and-12 were 64.7%, and 100%, 70.6%, and 94.1%, and 88.2%, and 64.7%, respectively. The serological response in HBeAg+ patients was 29.4%. For HBeAg negative (HBeAg - patients; biochemical, and virological response rates were 64.3%,and 96.4% at month 3; 82.1%, and 96.4% at month 6; and 100%, and 85.7% at month 12, respectively. At week 48 bothgroups had significant virological response (p<0.001.Conclusion: Treatment in CHB with TDF leads to HBV DNA suppression without evident resistance for 48-week, and iswell tolerated. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(3: 87-92Key words: Hepatitis B, chronic, tenofovir disoproxil

  10. Differential plasma microRNA profiles in HBeAg positive and HBeAg negative children with chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde Nordmann; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus Heiner; Heiberg, Ida Louise

    2013-01-01

    Children chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) are at high risk of progressive liver disease. However, no treatment is available that is consistently effective in curing chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in children. Improved understanding of the natural course of disease is warranted....... Identification of specific microRNA (miRNA) profiles in children chronically infected with HBV may provide insight into the pathogenesis of CHB and lead to advances in the management of children with CHB....

  11. Pre-existing mutations in reverse transcriptase of hepatitis B virus in treatment-naive Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xu

    Full Text Available High rate of viral replication and lacking of proofreading activity in hepatitis B virus (HBV polymerase lead to the generation of mutations in HBV virus. Mutations in the reverse transcriptase (RT region of HBV polymerase are demonstrated to be strongly associated with drug resistance during antiviral treatment. However, the presence of mutations as well as its clinical significance in treatment-naïve hepatitis patients (defined as pre-existing mutations need to be further investigated. In the present study, a total of 168 serum samples from treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients were collected, and the RT region of HBV polymerase was sequenced. The results showed that pre-existing mutations in the RT region of HBV polymerase were detected in 43 of 168 (25.6% treatment-naive CHB patients within which there were no well-characterized primary nucleotide analogs (NAs resistance sites. Three dominant sites at rt191, rt207 and rt226 were found mutant in 7(16.28%, 8(18.60%, and 14(32.56% samples respectively among these 43 patients. No significant correlation was found between pre-existing mutations and gender, age, HBV genotype, ALT, HBeAg or HBV DNA loads. However, patients with pre-existing RT mutations under HBeAg sero-negative status exhibited decreased HBV DNA loads, which contributed to the decreased HBV DNA loads in the total HBeAg sero-negative patients. The above investigation indicated that there was a prevalence of pre-existing mutations in RT region of HBV polymerase which might affect the serum HBV DNA level in treatment-naive CHB patients. Its effects on the occurrence of NAs resistance and the prognosis after treatment need to be further investigated.

  12. Response to Various Treatments in the Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B; A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Hepatitis B is one of the most common chronic viral infections worldwide, especially in developing countries. The insufficient treatment of the disease increases the risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which impose heavy costs to the patient and the society. Different studies evaluated several protocols for the treatment of the disease. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the response rate of the different treatments in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study, 89 patients with CHB who were referred to Infectious Diseases Clinics during 2004 to 2009 were studied. Serological and biochemical outcomes to the different treatments were evaluated. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16. Results CHB was more frequent in men (74.2% than women (25.8%. The mean age of the patients was 36 ± 1.36 years. Fifty-three patients (59.6% had active CHB while 36 (40.4% were asymptomatic carriers. Serologic and biochemical responses to the treatment were 50% and 69.44%, respectively. However, 50% of the patients with positive HBeAg showed serologic response to the treatment, 37.5% showed HBeAb as well as reduced amounts of HBeAg, and 12.5% just showed reduced amounts of HBeAg. Patients treated by lamivudine showed the highest serologic response rate (75%. Conclusions Serologic and biochemical response to the different treatments in the patients were better than other similar studies. Besides, it is recommended to begin antiviral therapy against CHB infection with lamivudine alone as a first-line therapy.

  13. Hepatitis B Core Antigen in Hepatocytes of Chronic Hepatitis B: Comparison between Indirect Immunofluorescence and Immunoperoxidase Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Shahina; Al-Mahtab, Mamun; Nessa, Afzalun; Jahan, Munira; Shamim Kabir, Chowdhury Mohammad; Kamal, Mohammad; Cesar Aguilar, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has many faces. Precore and core promoter mutants resemble inactive carrier status. The identification of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) in hepatocytes may have variable clinical significance. The present study was undertaken to detect HBcAg in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and to assess the efficacy of detection system by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and indirect immunoperoxidase (IIP). Materials and methods The study was done in 70 chronic HBV-infected patients. Out of 70 patients, eight (11.4%) were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive and 62 (88.57%) were HBeAg negative. Hepatitis B core antigen was detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and indirect immunoperoxidase (IIP) methods in liver tissue. Results All HBeAg positive patients expressed HBcAg by both IIF and IIP methods. Out of 62 patients with HBeAg-negative CHB, HBcAg was detected by IIF in 55 (88.7%) patients and by IIP in 51 (82.26%) patients. A positive relation among viral load and HBcAg detection was also found. This was more evident in the case of HBeAg negative patients and showed a positive relation with HBV DNA levels. Conclusion Hepatitis B core antigen can be detected using the IIF from formalin fixed paraffin block preparation and also by IIP method. This seems to reflect the magnitudes of HBV replication in CHB. How to cite this article Raihan R, Tabassum S, Al-Mahtab M, Nessa A, Jahan M, Kabir CMS, Kamal M, Aguilar JC. Hepatitis B Core Antigen in Hepatocytes of Chronic Hepatitis B: Comparison between Indirect Immunofluorescence and Immunoperoxidase Method. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):7-10. PMID:29201677

  14. Dynamic analysis of CD127 expression on memory CD8 T cells from patients with chronic hepatitis B during telbivudine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Guocai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating evidence supports the theory that expression of CD127 on CD8 T cells during the process of antiviral immune response indicates a subset of effect CD8 T cells that successfully develop into fully protective memory. CD8 T cells expression of CD127 may be used as a predictor to evaluate disease status in chronic viral infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the CD127 expression level on different subsets of CD8 T cell and explore the relationship between CD127 expression on CD8 memory T cells and serum hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB. We also aimed to investigate the CD127 expression pattern on CD8 memory T cells of CHB patients who were treated with Telbivudine. Methods/Results Twenty HBeAg-positive CHB patients were selected and treated with telbivudine 600 mg/day for 48 weeks. The memory CD8 T cells were characterized by expression of CD45RA and CD27 markers. CD127 expression on the CD8 T-cell surface was measured by four-colour flow cytometry. Our results showed that CD127 expression on memory CD8 T cells was reduced in CHB patients. There was a strong negative correlation between CD127 expression on memory CD8 T cells and serum HBV DNA and HBeAg levels in CHB patients. Moreover, successful antiviral therapy increased CD127 expression on CD8 memory T cells as well as on HBV-specific CD8 T cells in CHB patients. Conclusion These results suggest that diminished CD127 expression on CD8 memory T cells of CHB patients is a potential mechanism explaining cellular immune function impairment in CHB infection, and that CD127 expression on CD8 memory T cells is a useful indicator for evaluating the effects of anti-HBV therapy.

  15. Anti-virus prophylaxis withdrawal may be feasible in liver transplant recipients whose serum HBeAg and HBV DNA are negative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Geng; Bing-Yi Lin; Tian Shen; Hua Guo; Yu-Fu Ye; Shu-Sen Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Anti-virus prophylactic therapy may be not nec-essary for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) recur-rence after HBV-related liver transplantation (LT). However, studies on completely stopping the hepatitis B immune globu-lin (HBIG) and nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUC) after LT are few. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety of anti-virus prophylaxis withdrawal in liver recipients whose serum hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA are negative. We analyzed 190 patients undergone LT for HBV-related liver dis-ease from 2006 to 2012 and found that 10 patients completely stopped the HBIG and NUC due to poor compliance. These patients were liver biopsied and checked monthly with serum HBV markers, HBV DNA and liver function. Among the 10 patients, 9 did not show the signs of HBV recurrence after a mean follow-up of 51.6 months (range 20-73) after with-drawal of the HBIG and NUC. The average time from LT to the withdrawal of the anti-virus drug was 23.8 (13-42) months;one patient showed hepatitis B surface antigen-positive and detectable HBV DNA after stopping anti-virus drugs and this patient was successfully treated with entecavir. Our data sug-gested that complete withdrawal of anti-virus prophylaxis was safe and feasible for patients whose serum HBeAg and HBV DNA were negative at the time of LT.

  16. Anti-virus prophylaxis withdrawal may be feasible in liver transplant recipients whose serum HBeAg and HBV DNA are negative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Geng; Bing-Yi Lin; Tian Shen; Hua Guo; Yu-Fu Ye; Shu-Sen Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Anti-virus prophylactic therapy may be not nec-essary for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) recur-rence after HBV-related liver transplantation (LT). However, studies on completely stopping the hepatitis B immune globu-lin (HBIG) and nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUC) after LT are few. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety of anti-virus prophylaxis withdrawal in liver recipients whose serum hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA are negative. We analyzed 190 patients undergone LT for HBV-related liver dis-ease from 2006 to 2012 and found that 10 patients completely stopped the HBIG and NUC due to poor compliance. These patients were liver biopsied and checked monthly with serum HBV markers, HBV DNA and liver function. Among the 10 patients, 9 did not show the signs of HBV recurrence after a mean follow-up of 51.6 months (range 20-73) after with-drawal of the HBIG and NUC. The average time from LT to the withdrawal of the anti-virus drug was 23.8 (13-42) months;one patient showed hepatitis B surface antigen-positive and detectable HBV DNA after stopping anti-virus drugs and this patient was successfully treated with entecavir. Our data sug-gested that complete withdrawal of anti-virus prophylaxis was safe and feasible for patients whose serum HBeAg and HBV DNA were negative at the time of LT.

  17. Association between CISH polymorphisms and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis B virus in hepatitis B extracellular antigen-positive patients during immune active phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guangjun; Rao, Huiying; Feng, Bo; Wei, Lai

    2014-01-01

    Some hepatitis B extracellular antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in their immune active phase can clear the virus spontaneously and enter into an inactive hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier state, indicating a benign prognosis. In this study, the association between cytokine-inducible SRC homology 2 domain protein (CISH) gene polymorphisms at -292 (rs414171) and the spontaneous clearance of HBV in HBeAg-positive CHB patients in immune the active phase was investigated. Seventy HBeAg-positive CHB patients in the immune active phase were followed up for 76 weeks without antiviral therapy. The alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, HBV DNA, HBeAg and hepatitis B extracellular antibody levels were tested regularly. At week 76, 27 patients were classified into group A (HBV DNA level below 2 104 IU/ml and the value of HBeAg declined below 10% of the baseline at week 76), and 43 patients were classified into group B (HBV DNA level higher than 2×10(4) IU/ml or the value of HBeAg did not decline substantially at week 76). CISH (rs414171) polymorphisms were also tested using the iPLEX system. The HBV DNA levels at week 12 were significantly greater in group B compared with group A (group A: (6.87±1.40) log10IU/ml; group B: (7.61±1.38) log10IU/ml, P = 0.034) and the HBeAg values were greater in group B at week 28 compared with group A (P = 0.001). The differences in HBV DNA and HBeAg values increased between the groups over time. Sixteen patients in group A and 11 in group B were genotype AA. Those with genotype AT or TT included 11 in group A and 31 in group B (AA vs. AT and TT, odds ratio 4.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.462-11.491), P = 0.006). CISH gene polymorphisms at -292 (rs414171) are associated with HBV clearance in HBeAg-positive CHB patients in the immune active phase, and AA is a favorable genotype for this effect.

  18. Different natural courses of chronic hepatitis B with genotypes B and C after the fourth decade of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatsuji Maeshiro; Tomofumi Nakayoshi; Tomokuni Nakayoshi; Masashi Mizokami; Jiro Fujita; Hiroshi Sakugawa; Shingo Arakaki; Takako Watanabe; Hajime Aoyama; Joji Shiroma; Tsuyoshi Yamashiro; Tetsuo Hirata; Akira Hokama; Fukunori Kinjo

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the different impact of genotypes B and C on the development of liver cirrhosis (LC) among different age groups of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CH-B).METHODS: We examined the outcome of 121 patients with CH-B, divided by age and genotype. Univariate analyses were used to compare different groups. The Cox proportional hazard model was employed to evaluate factors affecting the development of LC.RESULTS: In patients < 30 years old, there were no significant predictors for development of LC. However,in patients ≥ 30 years old, genotype C was the only significant predictor. In the genotype C group, 8 of 12patients who progressed to LC were 30-49 years old at initial diagnosis of chronic hepatitis (7 patients were positive for HBeAg). In the genotype B group, 4 of 8patients who developed LC were ≥ 50 years old at initial diagnosis and were HBeAg-negative.CONCLUSION: The rate of development of LC was comparable in patients infected with genotypes B and C when CH-B occurred at < 30 years old. However,CH-B patients infected with genotype C showed poor prognosis if they were 30-49 years old and were positive for HBeAg. Age-specific natural course of CH-B should be considered when patients with CH-B are treated with antiviral drugs.

  19. Immunomodulation therapy in children with chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoglan, Murat; Demirci, Fikret; Coskun, Yavuz; Karaoglan, Ilkay; Bayraktaroglu, Ziya; Okan, Vahap; Karsligil, Tekin

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of HBsAg vaccine and levamisole on virological indicators in naive patients suffering from chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and in healthy carriers of hepatitis B. METHOD: Vaccination and treatment with levamisole were applied to 93 minor patients in total, 43 of them inactive CHB carriers and 50 patients suffering from CHB. RESULTS: 15 (30%) of 50 patients who had high ALT values in the beginning of the study had normal values after treatment. In nine (12%) patients, posttreatment ALT values were higher than pretreatment values, and six (10%) patients showed HBV-DNA loss. In spite of the presence of 50 (54%) HBeAg-positive patients before treatment, 17 (34%) patients proved to be HBeAg-negative after treatment. HBeAg sero-conversion was seen in 10 (20%) cases. In two (2%) patients, HBsAg sero-conversion occurred. CONCLUSION: It was found that treatment with levamisole and vaccine had positive effects on CHB patients and healthy carriers with respect to HBV DNA loss, HBeAg sero-conversion and ALT normalization. The viral load increases and ALT increases that occurred in certain cases were thought to be related to the early immune response. It was determined that combined levamisole and vaccine therapy had no additional positive effect. PMID:16708498

  20. TCRγδ+CD4−CD8− T Cells Suppress the CD8+ T-Cell Response to Hepatitis B Virus Peptides, and Are Associated with Viral Control in Chronic Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Qintao; Ma, Shiwu; Ge, Jun; Huang, Zuxiong; Huang, Xuan; Jiang, Xiaotao; Li, Yongyin; Zhang, Mingxia; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Sun, Jian; Abbott, William G. H.; Hou, Jinlin

    2014-01-01

    The immune mechanisms underlying failure to achieve hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion associated with viral control in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remain unclear. Here we investigated the role of CD4−CD8− T (double-negative T; DNT) cells including TCRαβ+ DNT (αβ DNT) and TCRγδ+ DNT (γδ DNT) cells. Frequencies of circulating DNT cell subsets were measured by flow cytometry in a retrospective cohort of 51 telbivudine-treated HBeAg-positive CHB patients, 25 immune tolerant carriers (IT), 33 inactive carriers (IC), and 37 healthy controls (HC). We found that γδ DNT cell frequencies did not significantly change during treatment, being lower at baseline (P = 0.019) in patients with HBeAg seroconversion after 52 weeks of antiviral therapy (n = 20) than in those without (n = 31), and higher in the total CHB and IT than IC and HC groups (P<0.001). αβ DNT cell frequencies were similar for all groups. In vitro, γδ DNT cells suppressed HBV core peptide-stimulated interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α production in TCRαβ+CD8+ T cells, which may require cell–cell contact, and could be partially reversed by anti-NKG2A. These findings suggest that γδ DNT cells limit CD8+ T cell response to HBV, and may impede HBeAg seroconversion in CHB. PMID:24551107

  1. Restored Circulating Invariant NKT Cells Are Associated with Viral Control in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaotao; Zhang, Mingxia; Lai, Qintao; Huang, Xuan; Li, Yongyin; Sun, Jian; Abbott, William G.H.; Ma, Shiwu; Hou, Jinlin

    2011-01-01

    Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are involved in the pathogenesis of various infectious diseases. However, their role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is not fully understood, especially in human species. In this study, 35 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, 25 inactive carriers (IC) and 36 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled and the proportions of circulating iNKT cells in fresh isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were detected by flow cytometry. A longitudinal analysis was also conducted in 19 CHB patients who received antiviral therapy with telbivudine. Thereafter, the immune functions of iNKT cells were evaluated by cytokine secretion and a two-chamber technique. The median frequency of circulating iNKT cells in CHB patients (0.13%) was lower than that in HC (0.24%, P = 0.01) and IC (0.19%, P = 0.02), and increased significantly during antiviral therapy with telbivudine (P = 0.0176). The expressions of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and CCR6 were dramatically higher on iNKT cells (82.83%±9.87%, 67.67%±16.83% respectively) than on conventional T cells (30.5%±5.65%, 14.02%±5.92%, both P<0.001) in CHB patients. Furthermore, iNKT cells could migrate toward the CC chemokine ligand 5. Patients with a high ratio (≥1.0) of CD4−/CD4+ iNKT cells at baseline had a higher rate (58.33%) of HBeAg seroconversion than those with a low ratio (<1.0, 0%, P = 0.0174). In conclusion, there is a low frequency of peripheral iNKT cells in CHB patients, which increases to normal levels with viral control. The ratio of CD4−/CD4+ iNKT cells at baseline may be a useful predictor for HBeAg seroconversion in CHB patients on telbivudine therapy. PMID:22194934

  2. HBcrAg Identifies Patients Failing to Achieve HBeAg Seroconversion Treated with Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Effective antiviral treatment can decrease HBcrAg levels in the serum. The NPVs of HBcrAg for predicting HBeAg seroconversion at 24-week follow-up was 100%, but the PPVs were not satisfactory (all <31%. The serum HBcrAg levels of the patients with HBeAg seroconversion at the end of the 24-week follow-up steadily declined or even became undetectable during the LTFU.

  3. Correlation of HBV DNA PCR and HBeAg in hepatitis carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.B.; Karamat, K.A.; Kazmi, S.Y.; Anwar, M.; Tariq, W.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To correlate hepatitis B HBV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results with HBeAg and serum ala- nine transferase (ALT) in carriers. Materials and Methods: Fifty hepatitis B carriers, with known HBsAg positive serostatus, raised serum ALT and detectable HBV DNA, were selected out of the patients reporting at AFIP for their blood test for HBV DNA. HBV DNA testing in these cases was carried out using PCR kit of Accugen-USA. After confirmation of their carrier status and raised serum ALT levels, the sera were tested for HBeAg and results of HBeAg testing were correlated with those of HBV DNA testing. Results: Out of the total 50 HBV DNA PCR positive hepatitis B carriers, 48 samples were positive for HBeAg. All the 50 HBV DNA positive cases had raised serum ALT levels. Conclusion: In case of non-availability of facility for HBV PCR, detectable HBeAg should be taken as a surrogate marker for HBV DNA in hepatitis B carriers with raised serum ALT. (author)

  4. Comparison of hepatitis B virus core-related antigen and hepatitis B surface antigen for predicting HBeAg seroconversion in chronic hepatitis B patients with pegylated interferon therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng-Lan; Liao, Juan; Wei, Bing; Zhang, Dong-Mei; He, Ming; Tao, Ming-Chuan; Chen, En-Qiang; Tang, Hong

    2018-02-20

    Recent studies revealed that both quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) and hepatitis B core-related antigen (qHBcrAg) could serve as a good marker for predicting treatment response and indirectly reflecting intrahepatic cccDNA levels. This study aimed to compare the value of qHBsAg and qHBcrAg in predicting HBeAg seroconversion among patients undergoing PEG-IFN therapy. A total of 31 HBeAg-positive patients, who underwent PEG-IFN therapy for 12 months and follow-up for six months were retrospectively included in this study. The serum qHBsAg level was measured using Elecsys® HBsAg II Quant Assay and serum qHBcrAg level was measured using chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay. During the 12-month treatment, the absolute levels of serum qHBsAg and qHBcrAg were both lower in patients with HBeAg seroconversion as compared to patients without HBeAg seroconversion, but only the difference in qHBcrAg was significant. During the 6-month follow-up period, both qHBsAg and qHBcrAg levels were rebounded significantly among patients without HBeAg seroconversion. Among patients with HBeAg seroconversion, no sustained significant decline of qHBsAg was observed, but serum qHBcrAg levels continued to decline significantly. The ROC curves analysis showed that both absolute qHBcrAg level and the extent of qHBcrAg decline at month 1 had better performance for the prediction of HBeAg seroconversion at month 6 after treatment, as compared to that of qHBsAg. Early on-treatment qHBcrAg may be a good biomarker for predicting off-treatment HBeAg seroconversion in patients receiving PEG-IFN therapy.

  5. YMDD motif mutations in chronic hepatitis B antiviral treatment naïve patients: a multi-center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Wen Tan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the natural prevalence of variants of tyrosine-methionine-aspartic acid-aspartic acid (YMDD motif in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB, and to explore its relation with demographic and clinical features, hepatitis B virus (HBV genotypes, and HBV DNA levels. METHODS: A total of 1,042 antiviral treatment naïve CHB patients (including with lamivudine [LAM] in the past year were recruited from outpatient and inpatient departments of six centers from December 2008 to June 2010. YMDD variants were analyzed using the HBV drug resistance line probe assay (Inno-Lipa HBV-DR. HBV genotypes were detected with polymerase chain reaction (PCR microcosmic nucleic acid cross-ELISA, and HBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was quantitated with real-time PCR. All serum samples underwent tests for HBV, HCV, and HDV with ELISA. RESULTS: YMDD variants were detected in 23.3% (243/1042 of CHB patients. YMDD mutation was accompanied by L180M mutation in 154 (76.9% patients. Both wild-type HBV and YMDD variant HBV were present in 231 of 243 patients. Interestingly, 12 patients had only YIDD and/or YVDD variants without wild YMDD motif. In addition, 27.2% (98/359 of HbeAg-positive patients had YMDD mutations, which was higher than that in HbeAg-negative patients (21.2%, 145/683. The incidence of YMDD varied among patients with different HBV genotypes, but the difference was not significant. Moreover, the incidence of YMDD in patients with high HBV DNA level was significantly higher than that in those with low HBV DNA level. CONCLUSION: Mutation of YMDD motif was detectable at a high rate in CHB patients in this study. The incidence of YMDD may be correlated with HBeAg and HBV DNA level.

  6. Efficacy of lamivudine and thymosin alpha-1 combination therapy in treatment of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QI Youtao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy of lamivudine and thymosin alpha-1 combination therapy in the treatment of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB by meta-analysis. MethodsRandomized controlled trials (RCTs of lamivudine and thymosin alpha-1 combination therapy in treatment of HBeAg-positive CHB (follow-up for at least 24 weeks, from January 1998 to date, were identified by searching Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, CNKI, Wanfang Data, and CQVIP. Lamivudine monotherapy RCTs were searched for in the same way as control tests. Efficacy was measured by odds ratio. Meta-analysis was carried out with RevMan 5.2 software. ResultsNine RCTs involving 600 patients were included, with 320 cases in the combination therapy group and 280 in the control group. At the end of follow-up, the combination therapy group had significantly higher serum ALT recovery rate, HBV-DNA negative conversion rate, HBeAg negative conversion rate, and HBeAg seroconversion rate than the control group (P<0.01 for all, with pooled odds ratios (95% confidence intervals of 4.84 (3.28, 7.16, 2.09 (1.45, 3.01, 5.32 (3.35, 8.46, and 6.22 (3.78, 10.25, respectively. ConclusionLamivudine and thymosin alpha-1 combination therapy is more likely to achieve sustained response rate than lamivudine monotherapy for HBeAg-positive CHB. More RCTs of high quality and large scale are required to verify this conclusion.

  7. A Noninvasive Score Model for Prediction of NASH in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To develop a noninvasive score model to predict NASH in patients with combined CHB and NAFLD. Objective and Methods. 65 CHB patients with NAFLD were divided into NASH group (34 patients and non-NASH group (31 patients according to the NAS score. Biochemical indexes, liver stiffness, and Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP were determined. Data in the two groups were compared and subjected to multivariate analysis, to establish a score model for the prediction of NASH. Results. In the NASH group, ALT, TG, fasting blood glucose (FBG, M30 CK-18, CAP, and HBeAg positive ratio were significantly higher than in the non-NASH group (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that CK-18 M30, CAP, FBG, and HBVDNA level were independent predictors of NASH. Therefore, a new model combining CK18 M30, CAP, FBG, and HBVDNA level was established using logistic regression. The AUROC curve predicting NASH was 0.961 (95% CI: 0.920–1.00, cutoff value is 0.218, with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 80.6%. Conclusion. A noninvasive score model might be considered for the prediction of NASH in patients with CHB combined with NAFLD.

  8. Chronic hepatitis B management based on standard guidelines in community primary care and specialty clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kevin C; Li, Jiayi; Ha, Nghi B; Martin, Marina; Nguyen, Vincent G; Nguyen, Mindie H

    2013-12-01

    Prior studies have underlined the need for increased screening and awareness of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), especially in certain high-risk populations. However, few studies have examined the patterns of evaluation and management of CHB between primary care physicians (PCP) and specialists according to commonly-used professional guidelines. Our goal was to examine whether necessary laboratory parameters used to determine disease status and eligibility for antiviral therapy were performed by PCPs and specialists. We conducted a retrospective study of 253 treatment-naïve CHB patients who were evaluated by PCP only (n=63) or by specialists (n=190) for CHB at a community multispecialty medical center between March 2007 and June 2009. Criteria for CHB management and treatment eligibility were based on the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases 2007 guideline and the US Panel 2006 algorithm. Required parameters for optimal evaluation for CHB included hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), HBV DNA, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Preferred antiviral agents for CHB included pegylated interferon, adefovir, and entecavir. The majority of patients were Asians (90%) and (54%) with a mean age of 43±11.6 years. Compared to PCPs, specialists were more likely to order laboratory testing for ALT (94 vs. 86%, P=0.05), HBeAg (67 vs. 41%, P<0.0001) and HBV DNA (83 vs. 52%, P<0.0001). The proportion of patients having all three laboratory parameters was significantly higher among those evaluated by specialists compared to PCP (62 vs. 33%, P<0.0001). A total of 55 patients were initiated on antiviral treatment (n=47 by specialists and n=6 by PCPs). Lamivudine was prescribed more often by PCPs than specialists (33 vs. 2%, P=0.05). Preferred agents were used 96% of the time by specialists compared to 67% of those treated by PCPs (P=0.05). Patients evaluated by specialists for CHB are more likely to undergo more complete laboratory evaluation and, if eligible, are also more

  9. Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) are associated with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhidan; Liu, Jianhua; Wang, Jiaxin; Xie, Tinyan; Zhang, Qiuhuan; Feng, Sisi; Deng, Hui; Zhong, Baiyun

    2017-10-01

    This retrospective study aimed to investigate the associations between the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and disease severity in patients with chronic HBV infection-related liver disease (CHB). Patients with CHB were retrospectively identified. Clinical data for 172 HBV-infected patients and 40 healthy controls were collected from the electronic patient medical record system database of our hospital. HBV-related-compensated-cirrhosis patients (HBV-CC patients) had a significantly lower mean PLR than did other patients (PHBV-related-decompensated-cirrhosis patients (HBV-DC patients) had a significantly higher mean NLR than did any other patients (PHBV DNA (r=0.264, PHBV DNA in both HBV-CC patients (r=-0.116, P=0.044) and HBV-DC patients (r=0.456, P=0.008). In HBV-Active-Carriers patients (HBV-AC patients), the PLR was positively correlated with serum HBeAg level (r=0.321, P=0.023). In HBV-DC patients, the NLR was positively correlated with serum HBeAg level (r=0.372, P=0.033). In the logistic regression prediction model, a predictive probability cutoff of 0.392 had the highest sensitivity and specificity (sensitivity, 91.2%; specificity, 84.0%) in distinguishing between HBV-CC and HBV-AC patients. A NLR cutoff value of 2.94 had the highest sensitivity and specificity (sensitivity, 81.8%; specificity, 88.2%) in distinguishing between HBV-DC and HBV-CC patients. The PLR and NLR partially reflect the amounts of serum HBV DNA and serum HBeAg levels circulating in CHB patients. The logistic regression model including the PLR and age most accurately distinguished between HBV-CC and HBV-AC patients. The NLR may be useful for follow-up in HBV-CC patients to predict disease progression. In summary, the PLR and NLR provided a supplementary means for effectively managing chronic HBV infection and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Relationship between HBeAg from HBsAg positive mothers and regulatory T cells in neonates and its influence on HBV intrauterine transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, H Y; Yang, Z Q; Xu, X X; Wang, X F; Wang, B; Shi, X H; Fu, Z D; Wang, B; Wang, S P

    2017-10-10

    Objective: To explore the relationship between HBeAg in HBsAg positive mothers and CD(4)(+)CD(25)(+) Foxp3 (+)regulatory T cells (Treg) in newborns, as well as how they would influence the increasing risk on HBV intrauterine transmission. Methods: We collected information on general demographic characteristics and delivery on 270 HBsAg positive mothers and their newborns from the Third People's Hospital of Taiyuan. Fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) and chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) were used to detect HBV DNA and HBV serological markers in peripheral blood from both mothers and neonates. The expression of Treg and other immune cells in peripheral blood of neonates were detected with flow cytometry (FCM). Results: Maternal HBeAg positive rates were associated with an increased risk of intrauterine transmission ( OR =4.08, 95 %CI : 1.89-8.82). Rates of Treg in newborns born to HBsAg-positive mothers were higher than that of the negative group ( Z =2.29, P =0.022). Each pair of the subjects was assigned to five different groups according to the HBeAg titers of mothers. Frequencies of both Treg and HBeAg in newborns and HBV DNA in mothers between the above said 5 groups showed similar trends of changing patterns and the differences between groups were statistically significant(χ(2)=18.73, P mother's HBeAg titers were positively related to the percentage of Treg in their newborns ( r(s) =0.19, P =0.039). In addition, the frequencies of Treg were negatively correlated with pDC and CD(4)(+) T cell in their newborns ( r(s) =-0.21, P =0.017; r(s) =-0.23, P =0.009). Conclusion: HBeAg from HBsAg positive mothers might have inhibited the function of neonatal DC cells and T cells to reduce the immune response to HBV by up-regulating the proportion of Treg and finally increased the risk of HBV intrauterine transmission.

  11. Impact of HBV DNA detection methods on evaluating the clinical effect of PEG-IFNɑ-2b in treatment of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Chunxia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the impact of different HBV DNA detection methods on evaluating the clinical effect of PEG-IFNɑ-2b in the treatment of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB. MethodsA total of 83 CHB patients who were admitted to Tianjin Second People′s Hospital from September 2014 to January 2016 and treated with PEG-IFNɑ-2b for less than 24 weeks with clearance for the first time detected by HBV DNA low-sensitivity method (the lower limit of detection was 500 IU/ml and negative results within 36 weeks obtained by low-sensitivity detection. Among these patients, 33 patients with negative results within 36 weeks obtained by high-sensitivity detection (the lower limit of detection was 20 IU/ml were enrolled in negative group, and 50 with positive results were enrolled in positive group. The reductions in HBeAg and HBsAg and HBeAg seroconversion rate at 12, 24, and 36 weeks were compared between the two groups. The independent-samples t test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between groups, the Mann-Whitney U rank sum test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. ResultsAt 12, 24, and 36 weeks after negative results were obtained by HBV DNA low-sensitivity detection, the negative group had a significant reduction in HBeAg than the positive group [12 weeks: 0.32 (0.16-0.92 log10 COI vs 014 (0.01-0.30 log10 COI, Z=-3.061, P=0.002; 24 weeks: 0.44 (0.19-1.15 log10 COI vs 0.16 (0.04-0.35 log10 COI, Z=-3.043, P=0.002; 36 weeks: 0.51 (0.36-1.21 log10 COI vs 0.24 (0.10-0.46 log10 COI, Z=-3.880, P<0.001]. At 12 weeks after negative results were obtained by HBV DNA low-sensitivity detection, there was no significant difference in the reduction in HBsAg (P=0.067, while at 24 and 36 weeks, the negative group had a significant reduction in HBsAg than the positive group [24 weeks: 0

  12. Hepatitis B virus: molecular genotypes and HBeAg serological status among HBV-infected patients in the southeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçales Fernando L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of HBV genotype is very important for clinical treatment. Studies have suggested possible pathogenic and therapeutic differences among HBV genotypes. The aim of this study was to determine HBV subtypes and genotypes in HBV-infected patients in our region (southeast Brazil and to correlate results with clinical and histopathological data. Methods One hundred and thirty-nine HBsAg-positive patients were included in the study. All patients were anti-HCV and anti-HIV negative (64% male; mean age 42 ± 14.5 years; range 7-80 years; 84% Caucasian and were followed up at the University Hospital. A method for genotyping and subtyping HBV by partial HBsAg gene sequencing with primers common to all known genotypes was used. The viral load was measured by Amplicor Monitor assay (Roche. Results HBV genotype A was the most prevalent (55%, while genotypes C, D and F were found in 3%, 38% and 4% of HBV-infected patients, respectively. Among the patients infected by genotype A, 18.3% (14/76 were African descendents and, among the patients infected by genotype D, 11.3% (6/53 were also African descendents. In the four patients infected with genotype C, 2 were Asian descendents and 2 were Caucasians. All (7 genotype F infected patients were Caucasians. Seventy percent of our HBsAg-positive patients were HBeAg negative (62% genotypes A; 26.2% D; 7.1% C and 4.7%F. The viral load of HBV-DNA was about 5 times higher in HBeAg-positive than in HBeAg-negative patients. About 40% of these patients had alanine aminotransferase of up to 1.5 times the normal level. The mean stage of fibrosis in genotype A patients (2.8 was significantly higher than the mean stage of fibrosis in genotype D patients (2.0 (P = 0.0179. Conclusion The genotypes encountered in our HBV-infected patients were apparently a consequence of the types of immigration that occurred in our region, where European and African descendents predominate. The HBeAg-negative status

  13. Research progress in combination therapy with pegylated interferon and nucleos(tide analogues in treatment of chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Yiqi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Current antiviral treatment strategy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB includes pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN and nucleos(tide analogues (NAs. Whether combination therapy with PEG-IFN and NAs improve therapeutic efficacy has become the key question regarding the antiviral therapy for CHB. This article reviews the recent progress in combination therapy for the management of CHB. The results indicate that the efficacy of simultaneous combination of PEG-IFN and NAs is not superior to that of PEG-IFN monotherapy in terms of HBeAg seroconversion and response after drug withdrawal. Sequential combination or switching therapy in PEG-IFN- or NAs-treated patients, as well as combination with immune cell therapy, is a promising treatment strategy.

  14. Impact of HBeAg on the maturation and function of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Songsong; Wu, Lecan; Wang, Xiuyan; Wu, Jinming; Lin, Xianfan; Wu, Wenzhi; Huang, Zhiming

    2016-05-01

    HBV infection typically leads to chronic hepatitis in newborns and some adults with weakened immune systems. The mechanisms by which virus escapes immunity remain undefined. Regulatory dendritic cells (DCregs) contributing to immune escape have been described. We wondered whether or not HBeAg as an immunomodulatory protein could induce DCreg which might subsequently result into HBV persistence. The immunophenotyping, T-cell activation and cytokine production were analyzed in HBeAg-treated DCs from normal or cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced immunocompromised mice. HBeAg tended to promote bone marrow derived DCs (BMDCs) from Cy-treated mice into CD11b(high)PIR-B(+) regulatory DCs exhibiting the lowest T-cell stimulatory capacity and interleukin (IL)-12p70 production compared with controls. Neutralization of IL-10 significantly inhibited the regulatory effect of these DCs on T-cell stimulation of mature DCs. After lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulation, marked phosphorylation of Akt was detected in HBeAg treated DCs from immunocompromised mice. Blocking the PI3K-Akt pathway by LY294002 led to an enhancement of IL-12 production. PI3K signalling pathway appears to be involved in the decreased IL-12 secretion by HBeAg treated DCs. These findings suggest that HBeAg may program the generation of a new DC subset with regulatory capacity under the condition of immunosuppression, which may presumably contribute to the persistent HBV infection. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Value of FibroScan in diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO Junhua

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the value of transient elastography (FibroScan, FS in predicting hepatic fibrosis in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB. MethodsOne hundred and four patients with HBeAg-negative CHB, who were diagnosed and treated in Hubei Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine from June 2011 to May 2013, were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent FS for liver stiffness measurement before liver biopsy. Statistical analysis was applied to compare liver stiffness (kPa with fibrosis stage (determined by liver biopsy. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve of FS was constructed, and the area under the ROC curve (AUROC was calculated to analyze the accuracy of live stiffness in predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis. Comparison between groups was made by Kruskal-Wallis H test, followed by Mann-Whitney U test for multiple comparisons. The correlation between two variables was analyzed by Spearman rank and Pearson correlation test. ResultsLiver stiffness gradually rose as the degree of hepatic fibrosis increased, with significant differences between groups (P<0.01 or P<0.05. Liver stiffness was positively correlated with the stage of hepatic fibrosis (r=0.810, P<0.01. The AUROC of liver stiffness for detecting liver cirrhosis was 0.956; the cut-off value for diagnosing liver cirrhosis was 13.1 kPa; the sensitivity was 92.7%, and the specificity was 80%. ConclusionFS is a promising noninvasive method for the assessment of hepatic fibrosis in patients with HBeAg-negative CHB; particularly, it has high accuracy in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. FS combined with direct or indirect markers may play an important role in differential diagnosis and efficacy evaluation in patients with hepatic fibrosis.

  16. Serum ALT levels as a surrogate marker for serum HBV DNA levels in HBeAg-negative pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangfelt, Per; Von Sydow, Madeleine; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Weiland, Ola; Lindh, Gudrun; Fischler, Björn; Lindgren, Susanne; Reichard, Olle

    2004-01-01

    In Stockholm, Sweden, the majority of pregnant women positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) are hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg) negative. Newborns to HBeAg positive mothers receive vaccination and hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg). Newborns to HBeAg negative mothers receive vaccine and HBIg only if the mothers have elevated ALT levels. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate ALT levels as a surrogate marker for HBV DNA levels in HBeAg negative carrier mothers. Altogether 8947 pregnant women were screened for HBV markers from 1999 to 2001 at the Virology Department, Karolinska Hospital. Among mothers screened 192 tested positive for HBsAg (2.2%). 13 of these samples could not be retrieved. Of the remaining 179 sera, 8 (4%) tested positive for HBeAg and 171 (95.5%) were HBeAg negative. Among the HBeAg negative mothers, 9 had HBV DNA levels > 10(5) copies/ml, and of these 7 had normal ALT levels indicating low sensitivity of an elevated ALT level as a surrogate marker for high HBV DNA level. Furthermore, no correlation was found between ALT and HBV DNA levels. Hence, it is concluded that the use of ALT as a surrogate marker for high viral replication in HBeAg negative mothers could be questioned.

  17. Hyper-activated pro-inflammatory CD16 monocytes correlate with the severity of liver injury and fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yuan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extensive mononuclear cell infiltration is strongly correlated with liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB infection. Macrophages and infiltrating monocytes also participate in the development of liver damage and fibrosis in animal models. However, little is known regarding the immunopathogenic role of peripheral blood monocytes and intrahepatic macrophages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The frequencies, phenotypes, and functions of peripheral blood and intrahepatic monocyte/macrophage subsets were analyzed in 110 HBeAg positive CHB patients, including 32 immune tolerant (IT carriers and 78 immune activated (IA patients. Liver biopsies from 20 IA patients undergoing diagnosis were collected for immunohistochemical analysis. IA patients displayed significant increases in peripheral blood monocytes and intrahepatic macrophages as well as CD16(+ subsets, which were closely associated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels and the liver histological activity index (HAI scores. In addition, the increased CD16(+ monocytes/macrophages expressed higher levels of the activation marker HLA-DR compared with CD16(- monocytes/macrophages. Furthermore, peripheral blood CD16(+ monocytes preferentially released inflammatory cytokines and hold higher potency in inducing the expansion of Th17 cells. Of note, hepatic neutrophils also positively correlated with HAI scores. CONCLUSIONS: These distinct properties of monocyte/macrophage subpopulations participate in fostering the inflammatory microenvironment and liver damage in CHB patients and further represent a collaborative scenario among different cell types contributing to the pathogenesis of HBV-induced liver disease.

  18. Safety and Efficacy of Nucleic Acid Polymers in Monotherapy and Combined with Immunotherapy in Treatment-Naive Bangladeshi Patients with HBeAg+ Chronic Hepatitis B Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mahtab, Mamun; Bazinet, Michel; Vaillant, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Previous in vivo studies have suggested that nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) may reduce circulating levels of HBsAg in the blood by blocking its release from infected hepatocytes and that this effect may have clinical benefit. NAP treatment, was evaluated in two clinical studies in patients with HBeAg positive chronic HBV infection. The REP 101 study examined REP 2055 monotherapy in 8 patients and the REP 102 study examined REP 2139-Ca, in monotherapy in 12 patients, 9 of which transitioned to s...

  19. HBV genome analysis in the progression of HBV related chronic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruksana Raihan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although HBV is a non-cytopathic virus, alteration of viral genome may also alter host immunity and may play a part in the pathogenesis LC and HCC. During the last decade, various studies have shown that mutations in the HBV genome may play a role in HCC pathogenesis. Here, we have analyzed HBV genome from patients with asymptomatic HBV carrier [ASC], chronic hepatitis B (CHB, cirrhosis of liver (LC, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC of Bangladeshi origin. A total of 225 patients tested positive for HBV with different stages of chronic HBV infection were enrolled in this study. The extent of liver damages were assayed by estimating serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, serum bilirubin and finally by abdominal ultrasonography and/or fine needle aspiration cytology. Wherever required, cancer marker like alpha fetoprotein (AFP was assessed. HBV genotype was evaluated by immunoassays and sequenced. A total of 25 patients were ASC, 135 were CHB and 65 were LC and HCC. Among ASC patients, 5, 7 and 13 belonged to HBV genotype A, C, and D, respectively. On the other hand, HBV genotype C was most prevalent in CHB patients (about 42%, followed by HBV genotype D (36%. About 69% patients with LC and HCC also had genotype C. Full genomic analysis of sera of patients with progressive liver damages (LC and HCC revealed mutations at HBeAg promoter regions in more than 80% patients. However, mutations in this region were mostly unseen in ASC and patients with less progressive liver diseases. HBV genotype was found quite different in Bangladeshi HBV patients which seem a mixture of Indian and Asia-Pacific region. This study also reveals that HBeAg promoter region mutation may have role in development of HBV related LC and HCC.

  20. Antigens of hepatitis B virus: failure to detect HBeAg on the surfaces of HBsAg forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerin, J L [Oak Ridge National Lab., Rockville, MD; Shih, J W.K.; McAuliffee, V J; Purcell, R H

    1978-01-01

    The particulate forms of HBsAg were analysed for the presence of HBeAG on their surfaces. By immunodiffusion analysis, anti-HBe did not form precipitin bands with the purified forms of HBsAg and hyperimmune guinea pig antisera to these forms did not react with HBeAg. Lines of non-identity were observed between the HBeAg determinants (e/sub 1/ and e/sub 2/) and the Dane particles and filaments isolated from an HBeAg-positive serum. Finally, anti-HBe failed to precipitate the polymerase-positive subpopulation of Dane particles, indicating that anti-HBe has no direct role in virus neutralization.

  1. Dynamic changes of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs, natural killer (NK cells, and natural killer T (NKT cells in patients with acute hepatitis B infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study is to observe changes in HBcAg-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs, natural killer (NK and natural killer T (NKT cells from peripheral blood and to relate such changes on viral clearance and liver injury in patients with acute hepatitis B (AHB. Methods Dynamic profiles on the frequency of HLA-A0201-restricted HBcAg18-27 pentamer complex (MHC-Pentamer-specific CTLs and lymphocyte subsets in AHB patients were analyzed in addition to liver function tests, HBV serological markers, and HBV DNA levels. ELISPOT was used to detect interferon-gamma (INF-γ secretion in specific CTLs stimulated with known T cell epitope peptides associated with HBV surface protein, polymerase, and core protein. Results HBV-specific CTL frequencies in AHB patients were much higher than in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB (p +CD8+ T cell numbers in AHB patients was more than observed in the healthy control group from the first to the fourth week after admission (p = 0.008 and 0.01, respectively; the number of CD3+CD8+ T cells and frequency of HBcAg18-27-specific CTLs in AHB patients reached peak levels at the second week after admission. NK and NKT cell numbers were negatively correlated with the frequency of HBcAg-specific CTLs (r = -0.266, p = 0.05. Conclusions Patients with AHB possess a higher frequency of HBcAg-specific CTLs than CHB patients. The frequency of specific CTLs in AHB patients is correlated with HBeAg clearance indicating that HBV-specific CTLs play an important role in viral clearance and the self-limited process of the disease. Furthermore, NK and NKT cells are likely involved in the early, non-specific immune response to clear the virus.

  2. The risk of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission: hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg prevalence estimates for all world regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ott Jördis J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HBeAg presence in childbearing-age women is a major determinant of perinatal hepatitis B virus (HBV transmission. The risk of developing chronic HBV infection and liver disease is highest at young age. Our aim was to assess perinatal HBV transmission risk by means of estimating age- and region-specific HBeAg prevalence. Methods Based on observed HBeAg seroprevalence data obtained from a systematic literature review, we modeled HBeAg prevalence using an empirical Bayesian hierarchical model. Age- and region-specific estimates were generated for 1990 and 2005. Results Globally, highest HBeAg prevalence of over 50 % was found in 0–9 years old girls. At reproductive age, HBeAg prevalence was 20-50 %. Prevalence was highest in young females in East Asia in 1990 (78 %, the infection was less common in Sub-Saharan and North Africa. Regional differences in prevalence were smaller in 2005. There was an overall decrease in HBeAg between 1990 and 2005, which was strongest among girls in Oceania (23.3 % decline, South and South-East Asia (14 % decline. However, in these regions, prevalence remained high at 67 % among young females in 2005. Smaller decreases were observed in women at reproductive age, at which 24-32 % of all HBsAg-positive women were HBeAg-positive in 2005, with lowest prevalence in Southern Sub-Saharan Africa and highest prevalence in Oceania and South-East Asia. Conclusions HBeAg estimates are crucial for understanding the epidemiology of HBV and for prioritizing implementation of WHO`s prevention recommendations for all infants to receive the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth. Results will have importance as access to treatment for chronic HBV infection is expanded.

  3. Results of Entecavir treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükran Köse

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to determine the efficacy and safety of Entecavir (ETV after 96 weeks treatment in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B (CHB. Methods: Thirty-eight patients were included into the study. The criteria for starting ETV treatment were as follows: elevated ALT levels >upper limit of normal (ULN two times, with HBV-DNA levels ≥5 log10 copies/ml (≥20000 IU/mL, in HBe Ag positive patients, ≥4log10 copies/ml (≥2000IU/mL in HBe Ag negative patients and liver damage was confirmed by histopathology (Knodell HAI ≥4 or fibrosis ≥1. Patients were followed up every 12 weeks by virological and biochemical tests. Results: Twenty-four of 38 patients (63.2% were male. Mean age of patients were 38.6 years, 14 of them were HBeAg positive (36.8%. At baseline, median ALT level was detected as 106.7 IU/ml, median HBV DNA levels were 4.8 x 107 copy/ml, and mean Knodell HAI score was nine. Eleven of 14 HBe Ag positive patients (78.6% were treatment-naïve. No resistance mutation was determined during treatment. Biochemical responses (BR at 48 th and 96th week were 100% and virologic response (VR were 57.1%, and 50%, respectively. Serological response (SR at 48th and 96 th weeks were 35.7% and 42.8% respectively. Fifteen (62.5% of 24 HBe Ag negative patients were treatment-naïve; two patients were detected to have lamivudine resistance mutation. At 48 th and 96 th week, BR was 95.8%, and 100%, respectively; and VR were 83.3% both. Conclusion:In our study, virologic response was significantly high after two years of therapy with Entecavir in HBe Ag negative patients. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013;3(4: 176-180

  4. Lamivudine plus adefovir combination therapy versus entecavir monotherapy for lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Peng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection represents a serious global health problem and resistance to lamivudine (LAM has become a serious clinical challenge. Previous rescue therapy for the treatment of chronic LAM-resistant hepatitis B infected patients included switching to entecavir (ETV and adding adefovir (ADV or tenofovir (TFV. At present, switching to ETV is not recommended for rescue therapy for LAM-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB. The aim of this report was to determine whether add-on ADV was a superior rescue strategy in the treatment of CHB patients with LAM resistance. Methods We searched Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane Library. Relative risks (RRs of virologic response, virologic breakthrough, normalization of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels and HBeAg seroconversion rates were studied. Factors predicting virologic response, standardized mean differences (SMD in HBV DNA levels and safety were reviewed. Results Six eligible trials (451 patients in total were included in the analysis. The rate of virologic breakthrough in the ETV group was higher than that in the LAM plus ADV group. There were no statistical differences in virologic response, ALT normalization and HBeAg seroconversion in either group 48 weeks post treatment. LAM plus ADV combination therapy produced faster and greater HBV DNA reduction rates 24 weeks post therapy compared to ETV monotherapy. HBV DNA baseline levels and the initial virologic response (IVR were predictive of the virologic response. Additionally, combination therapy or monotherapy were both well tolerated. Conclusions LAM plus ADV combination therapy was more effective and produced longer-lasting effects than switching to ETV monotherapy in treating CHB patients with LAM resistance. However, considering the practical benefits and limitations of ADV, individualized therapy will be needed in patients with prior history of LAM resistant infections.

  5. Long-term outcomes of two rescue therapies in lamivudine-refractory patients with chronic hepatitis B: combined lamivudine and adefovir, and 1-mg entecavir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EunYoung Ze

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsAdefovir (ADV and lamivudine (LAM combination therapy (ADV+LAM has been a useful option for patients with LAM-resistant (LAM-r chronic hepatitis B (CHB. However, the long-term outcomes of LAM+ADV and 1-mg entecavir (ETV rescue therapies have still been limited. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term outcomes of these two rescue therapies.MethodsSixty patients with LAM-r CHB underwent rescue therapy with LAM+ADV (n=36 or 1-mg ETV (n=24. We determined the duration of rescue therapy, timing and type of mutation, undetectable serum hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA by PCR (lower limitation of detection, < 140 copies/mL, biochemical response (alanine aminotransferase < 40 IU/mL, and the incidence of hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg seroconversion and virologic breakthrough.ResultsBaseline characteristics did not differ between the two therapy groups. The duration of rescue therapy was 56 months (range, 14-100 months in the ADV+LAM group and 42 months (range, 12-73 months in the ETV group (P=0.036. The cumulative rates of HBV DNA undetectability and HBeAg seroconversion up to 6 years were 88.6% and 43.0%, respectively, in the ADV+LAM group, and 45.8% and 31.8% in the ETV group. The rate of virologic breakthrough and resistance was 14.4% in the ADV+LAM group and 71.9% in the ETV group (P=0.001.ConclusionsCombination of LAM and ADV therapy for up to 6 years achieved modest rates of virological suppression and resistance. ETV is not an optimal therapy because the risk of viral breakthrough to ETV increases over time.

  6. Nucleoside Analog-treated Chronic Hepatitis B Patients showed Reduced Expression of PECAM-1 Gene in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Shahina; Ullah Munshi, Saif; Hossain, Marufa; Imam, Akhter

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background and aim Assessment of therapeutic response is important for monitoring the prognosis and to take decision for cessation of nucleoside analogues therapy in chronic hepatitis B patients. In addition to serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hepatitis B virus (HBV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) load and HBeAg status, identification of molecular markers associated with host immune response would be essential to assess therapeutic response. In this regard the current study was performed with the aim to detect expression of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-I gene in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) of treated chronic hepatitis B patients and also to correlate expression of this gene with serum HBV DNA load and serum ALT levels. Materials and methods The study analyzed 60 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, including 30 untreated and 30 nucleoside analogs treated and 10 healthy controls. PECAM-1 gene expression/ transcripts were detected by conventional RT-PCR. Results The expression PECAM-1 mRNA in the PBMCs of CHB patients was significantly higher in untreated (3.17 ± 0.75) than the treated patients (1.64 ± 0.29) (p Tabassum S, Munshi SU, Hossain M, Imam A. Nucleoside Analog-treated Chronic Hepatitis B Patients showed Reduced Expression of PECAM-1 Gene in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Bangladesh. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(2):87-91. PMID:29699354

  7. Deep sequencing analysis of HBV genotype shift and correlation with antiviral efficiency during adefovir dipivoxil therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Wang

    Full Text Available Viral genotype shift in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients during antiviral therapy has been reported, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive.38 CHB patients treated with ADV for one year were selected for studying genotype shift by both deep sequencing and Sanger sequencing method.Sanger sequencing method found that 7.9% patients showed mixed genotype before ADV therapy. In contrast, all 38 patients showed mixed genotype before ADV treatment by deep sequencing. 95.5% mixed genotype rate was also obtained from additional 200 treatment-naïve CHB patients. Of the 13 patients with genotype shift, the fraction of the minor genotype in 5 patients (38% increased gradually during the course of ADV treatment. Furthermore, responses to ADV and HBeAg seroconversion were associated with the high rate of genotype shift, suggesting drug and immune pressure may be key factors to induce genotype shift. Interestingly, patients with genotype C had a significantly higher rate of genotype shift than genotype B. In genotype shift group, ADV treatment induced a marked enhancement of genotype B ratio accompanied by a reduction of genotype C ratio, suggesting genotype C may be more sensitive to ADV than genotype B. Moreover, patients with dominant genotype C may have a better therapeutic effect. Finally, genotype shifts was correlated with clinical improvement in terms of ALT.Our findings provided a rational explanation for genotype shift among ADV-treated CHB patients. The genotype and genotype shift might be associated with antiviral efficiency.

  8. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate monotherapy for nucleos(tide analogue-naïve and nucleos(tide analogue-experienced chronic hepatitis B patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kyung Jung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsThis study investigated the antiviral effects of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF monotherapy in nucleos(tide analogue (NA-naive and NA-experienced chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients.MethodsCHB patients treated with TDF monotherapy (300 mg/day for ≥12 weeks between December 2012 and July 2014 at a single center were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical, biochemical, and virological parameters were assessed every 12 weeks.ResultsIn total, 136 patients (median age 49 years, 96 males, 94 HBeAg positive, and 51 with liver cirrhosis were included. Sixty-two patients were nucleos(tide (NA-naïve, and 74 patients had prior NA therapy (NA-exp group, and 31 patients in the NA-exp group had lamivudine (LAM-resistance (LAM-R group. The baseline serum hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA level was 4.9±2.3 log IU/mL (mean±SD, and was higher in the NA-naïve group than in the NA-exp and LAM-R groups (5.9±2.0 log IU/mL vs 3.9±2.0 log IU/mL vs 4.2±1.7 log IU/mL, P<0.01. The complete virological response (CVR rate at week 48 in the NA-naïve group (71.4% did not differ significantly from those in the NA-exp (71.3% and LAM-R (66.1% groups. In multivariate analysis, baseline serum HBV DNA was the only predictive factor for a CVR at week 48 (hazard ratio, 0.809; 95% confidence interval, 0.729-0.898, while the CVR rate did not differ with the NA experience.ConclusionsTDF monotherapy was effective for CHB treatment irrespective of prior NA treatment or LAM resistance. Baseline serum HBV DNA was the independent predictive factor for a CVR.

  9. Quantitative HBsAg and HBeAg predict hepatitis B seroconversion after initiation of HAART in HIV-HBV coinfected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail V Matthews

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Anti-HBe seroconversion and HBsAg loss are important therapeutic endpoints in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Quantitative measures of hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg and e antigen (qHBeAg have been identified as potentially useful indicators of therapeutic response in HBV monoinfection. The aim of this study was to examine serological change including quantitative biomarkers in HIV-HBV coinfected patients initiating HBV active antiretroviral therapy (ART. METHODS: HIV-HBV coinfected individuals from Thailand were followed for up to 168 weeks post ART. Rates and associations of qualitative serological change were determined. Longitudinal changes in qHBsAg and qHBeAg were measured and their utility as predictors of response examined. RESULTS: Forty seven patients were included of whom 27 (57% were HBeAg positive at baseline. Median CD4 count was 48 cells/mm(3. Over a median follow-up of 108 weeks 48% (13/27 lost HBeAg, 12/27 (44% achieved anti-HBe seroconversion and 13% (6/47 HBsAg loss. Anti-HBe seroconversion was associated with higher baseline ALT (p = 0.034, lower qHBsAg (p = 0.015, lower qHBeAg (p = 0.031 and greater HBV DNA decline to week 24 (p = 0.045. Sensitivity and specificity for qHBsAg and qHBeAg decline of >0.5 log at week 12 and >1.0 log at week 24 were high for both anti-HBe seroconversion and HBsAg loss. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of serological change in these HIV-HBV coinfected individuals with advanced immunodeficiency initiating HBV-active ART were high. Baseline and on treatment factors were identified that were associated with a greater likelihood of subsequent anti-HBe seroconversion, including both quantitative HBsAg and HBeAg, suggesting these biomarkers may have utility in this clinical setting.

  10. Genetic variation in STAT4 predicts response to interferon-α therapy for hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, De-Ke; Wu, Xiaopan; Qian, Ji; Ma, Xiao-Pin; Yang, Jingmin; Li, Zhuo; Wang, Runhua; Sun, Li; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Pengyin; Zhu, Xilin; Wu, Jia; Chen, Kangmei; Conran, Carly; Zheng, S Lilly; Lu, Daru; Yu, Long; Liu, Ying; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-04-01

    Interferon (IFN)-α is a first-line therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients but only initiates a response in a minority of patients. A genetic variant, rs7574865 in STAT4, was recently reported to be associated with risk of developing CHB and hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma. We aimed to determine whether this variant is associated with the response to IFNα treatment for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive CHB patients. We studied 466 HBeAg-positive CHB patients who received either IFNα-2b (n = 224) or pegylated IFNα-2a (n = 242) therapy for 48 weeks and were followed for an additional 24 weeks. The rate of sustained virologic response (SVR), defined as HBeAg seroconversion along with hepatitis B virus DNA level rs7574865. After 48 weeks of treatment and 24 weeks off treatment, the SVR rates in the IFNα-2b and pegylated IFNα-2a therapy groups were 30.4% and 28.9%, respectively. Compared to the rs7574865 GT/TT genotype, the GG genotype (a risk factor of CHB and hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma) was significantly associated with a reduced SVR rate in both patients who received IFNα-2b therapy (21.1% versus 37.2%, P = 0.01) and those who received pegylated IFNα-2a therapy (18.0% versus 41.2%, P = 9.74 × 10(-5) ). In joint analysis of the 466 patients, the GG genotype was associated with an approximately half SVR rate compared to the GT/TT genotype (19.3% versus 39.1%, P = 4.15 × 10(-6) ). A multivariate logistic regression model including rs7574865 and clinical variables showed that rs7574865 was the most significant factor for the prediction of SVR. STAT4 rs7574865 is a reliable predictor of response to IFNα therapy for HBeAg-positive CHB patients and may be used for optimizing the treatment of CHB. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  11. Value of HBsAg level in dynamic monitoring of disease progression in patients with chronic HBV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAO Teng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical value of HBsAg level in dynamic monitoring of disease progression in patients with chronic HBV infection. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 1107 patients with different clinical stages of chronic HBV infection who had not received antiviral therapy at the time of hospitalization in The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from May 2011 to December 2015, and according to the disease status, they were divided into HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB group, HBeAg-negative CHB group, compensated liver cirrhosis group (LC-C group, decompensated liver cirrhosis group (LC-D group, and primary liver cancer (PLC group. These groups were compared in terms of HBsAg expression and the association between HBsAg and clinical features. An analysis of variance was used for comparison of continuous data between multiple groups, and the least significant difference t-test was used for further comparison between any two groups; the t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between these groups. Pearson correlation analysis was also performed. ResultsThere was a significant difference in serum HBsAg level between the HBeAg-positive CHB group, HBeAg-negative CHB group, LC-C group, LC-D group, and PLC group (F=100.45, P<0.001. The HBeAg-positive CHB group had significantly higher levels of HBsAg and HBV DNA than the HBeAg-negative CHB group (t= 16.67 an 16.22, both P<0.001. There were significant differences in HBsAg and HBV DNA levels between the HBeAg-positive CHB group, LC-C group, LC-D group, and PLC group (F= 42.92 and 27.38, both P<0.001, as well as between the HBeAg-negative CHB group, LC-C group, LC-D group, and PLC group (F=6.04 and 4.10, both P<0.05. HBV DNA level was significantly different across patients with different HBsAg levels (<1000 IU/ml, 1000-20 000 IU

  12. Natural Killer p46 Controls Hepatitis B Virus Replication and Modulates Liver Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanyu Li

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells play an important role in hepatitis B virus (HBV infection control, and are regulated by a complex network of activating and inhibitory receptors. However, NK cell activity in HBV patients remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and functional characteristics of circulating NK cells in patients during different chronic hepatitis B (CHB infection stages. We investigated NK cell phenotypes, receptor expression and function in 86 CHB patients and 20 healthy controls. NK cells were purified and NK cell subsets were characterized by flow cytometry. Cytotoxic activity (CD107a and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ secretion were examined, and Natural Killer p46 (NKP46 blockade and spontaneous NK cell cytolytic activity against K562, HepG2 and HepG2.215 cell lines was studied. Activating NKp46 receptor expression was higher in inactive HBsAg carriers when compared with other groups (p = 0.008. NKp46 expression negatively correlated with HBV DNA (R = -0.253, p = 0.049 and ALT (R = -0.256, p = 0.045 levels. CD107a was higher in immune-activated groups when compared with immune-tolerant groups (p = 0.039. CD107a expression was related to viral load (p = 0.02 and HBeAg status (p = 0.024. In vitro NKp46 blockade reduced NK cell cytolytic activity against HepG2 and HepG2.215 cell lines (p = 0.02; p = 0.039. Furthermore, NK cells from high viral load CHB patients displayed significantly lower specific cytolytic activity against anti-NKp46-loaded K562 targets (p = 0.0321. No significant differences were observed in IFN-γ secretion (p > 0.05. In conclusion, NKp46 expression regulates NK cell cytolytic function. NKp46 may moderate NK cell activity during HBV replication suppression and HBV-associated liver damage and may be critical for NK cell activity during CHB infection.

  13. Custo-efetividade dos análogos de nucleosídeos/nucleotídeos para hepatite crônica B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Maciel Almeida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of drug alternatives with rescue therapy in case of relapse due to viral resistance for the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB. METHODS: Hypothetical cohort of patients with CHB, HBeAg-negative, without clinical or histological evidence of cirrhosis, detectable HBV DNA, histological diagnosis of the disease, positive serum HBsAg for longer than six months, high levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT (twice as high as the upper limit of normality and mean age of 40 years. A Markov model was developed for chronic hepatitis B (HBeAg- negative with a 40-year time horizon. Costs and benefits were discounted at 5%. Annual rates of disease progression, costs due to complications and the efficacy of medicines were obtained from the literature. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis evaluated uncertainties. RESULTS: Initiation of treatments with entecavir resulted in an increase of 0.35 discounted life-years gained compared to lamivudine. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was R$16,416.08 per life-years gained. In the sensitivity analysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was more sensitive to variation in the probability of transition from chronic hepatitis B to compensated cirrhosis, discount rate and medicine prices (± 10%. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the acceptability curve showed that beginning treatment with entecavir was the most cost-effective alternative in comparison with the use of lamivudine. CONCLUSIONS: The availability of entecavir is economically attractive as part of early treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis B without HIV co-infection.

  14. Analysis of hepatitis B virus intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA and serum viral markers in treatment-naive patients with acute and chronic HBV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the relationships of intrahepatic cccDNA with serum HBsAg and with HBV DNA in treatment-naive patients throughout acute and chronic HBV infection. METHODS: A total of 120 patients who had a liver biopsy were enrolled, including 19 with acute hepatitis B (AHB, and 101 patients with chronic HBV infection (CHB of whom were 10 in immune-tolerant (IT phase, 59 in immune-clearance (IC phase, 8 in low-replicative (LR phase, and 24 in HBeAg-negative hepatitis (ENH phase. Intrahepatic cccDNA, serum HBsAg and serum HBV DNA levels were comparatively analyzed. RESULTS: The median intrahepatic cccDNA levels were 0.18 4.80, 3.81, 0.22 and 0.97 copies/cell for patients with AHB, CHB-IT, CHB-IC, CHB-LR, and CHB-ENH, respectively. In AHB patients, intrahepatic cccDNA was positively correlated with serum HBsAg (r = 0.665, P = 0.003, as well as serum HBV DNA (r = 0.536, P = 0.022. In CHB patients, intrahepatic cccDNA was positively correlated with serum HBsAg in the IC phase (r = 0.392, P = 0.005, and with serum HBV DNA in the IC phase (r = 0.301, P = 0.036 and ENH phase (r = 0.588, P = 0.013. HBV replicative efficiency, defined as the ratio of serum HBV DNA to intrahepatic cccDNA, was obviously lower in AHB and CHB-LR patients than in CHB-IT, CHB-IC and CHB-ENH patients (0.70 and 0.53 vs. 1.12, 1.09 and 0.99, P<0.001, values were logarithmic transformed for analysis. In CHB-IC patients, HBV replicative efficiency was positively correlated with histological activity index of liver inflammation (r = 0.308, P = 0.009. CONCLUSION: Serum HBsAg and HBV DNA levels may reflect the amount of active intrahepatic cccDNA in treatment-naive AHB and CHB-IC patients. Reduced intrahepatic cccDNA and HBV replicative efficiency may imply effective immune control of HBV infection.

  15. A new model using routinely available clinical parameters to predict significant liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Kay Seto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We developed a predictive model for significant fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB based on routinely available clinical parameters. METHODS: 237 treatment-naïve CHB patients [58.4% hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg-positive] who had undergone liver biopsy were randomly divided into two cohorts: training group (n = 108 and validation group (n = 129. Liver histology was assessed for fibrosis. All common demographics, viral serology, viral load and liver biochemistry were analyzed. RESULTS: Based on 12 available clinical parameters (age, sex, HBeAg status, HBV DNA, platelet, albumin, bilirubin, ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and AFP, a model to predict significant liver fibrosis (Ishak fibrosis score ≥3 was derived using the five best parameters (age, ALP, AST, AFP and platelet. Using the formula log(index+1 = 0.025+0.0031(age+0.1483 log(ALP+0.004 log(AST+0.0908 log(AFP+1-0.028 log(platelet, the PAPAS (Platelet/Age/Phosphatase/AFP/AST index predicts significant fibrosis with an area under the receiving operating characteristics (AUROC curve of 0.776 [0.797 for patients with ALT <2×upper limit of normal (ULN] The negative predictive value to exclude significant fibrosis was 88.4%. This predictive power is superior to other non-invasive models using common parameters, including the AST/platelet/GGT/AFP (APGA index, AST/platelet ratio index (APRI, and the FIB-4 index (AUROC of 0.757, 0.708 and 0.723 respectively. Using the PAPAS index, 67.5% of liver biopsies for patients being considered for treatment with ALT <2×ULN could be avoided. CONCLUSION: The PAPAS index can predict and exclude significant fibrosis, and may reduce the need for liver biopsy in CHB patients.

  16. Efficacy and safety of entecavir versus lamivudine over 5 years of treatment: A randomized controlled trial in Korean patients with hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Sik Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims Long-term data on antiviral therapy in Korean patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB are limited. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of entecavir (ETV and lamivudine (LAM over 240 weeks. Methods Treatment-naive patients with HBeAg-negative CHB were randomized to receive ETV 0.5 mg/day or LAM 100 mg/day during the 96 week double-blind phase, followed by open-label treatment through week 240. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with virologic response (VR; hepatitis B virus [HBV] DNA16 years old were included (ETV, n=56; LAM, n=64. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups. A significantly higher proportion of ETV-treated patients achieved VR compared to LAM at week 24 (92.9% vs. 67.2%, P=0.0006, week 96 (94.6% vs. 48.4%, P<0.0001, and week 240 (95.0% vs. 47.6%, P<0.0001. At week 96, ALT normalization was observed in 87.5% and 51.6% of ETV and LAM patients, respectively (P<0.0001. Virologic breakthrough occurred in one patient (1.8% receiving ETV and 26 patients (42.6% receiving LAM (P<0.0001 up to week 96. Emergence of resistance to ETV was not detected. The incidence of serious adverse events was low and unrelated to the study medications. Conclusions Long-term ETV treatment was superior to LAM, with a significantly higher proportion of patients achieving VR. Both treatments were well tolerated.

  17. An investigation of clinical features of HBsAg and anti-HBs positive patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Jinyun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the phenomenon of coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs and its clinical features, as well as related causes. MethodsA total of 2260 persons who underwent physical examination in The Second Affiliated Hospital of Southeast University from February 2011 to February 2014 were enrolled, among whom 830 were diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B. Chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay was used to screen out 188 patients with coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs, and these patients were divided into HBeAg positive group (101 patients and HBeAg negative group (87 patients. Another 200 patients with positive HBsAg and negative anti-HBs were enrolled as controls, among whom 80 were in the HBeAg-positive group and 120 were in the HBeAg-negative group. HBV serological markers, liver function, and viral load were measured and analyzed with reference to clinical manifestations. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. ResultsThere were five patterns of HBV serological markers in patients with positive HBsAg and anti-HBs, among which positive HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, and anti-HBc and negative anti-HBe were the most common and accounted for 47.9% (90/188. The overall abnormal rate of liver function parameters was 69.1% (130/188, and the positive rate of HBV DNA was 56.9% (107/188. The two groups with positive HBeAg had a high level of HBV DNA replication, and there was no significant difference in the positive rate of HBV DNA between positive HBsAg and anti-HBs group and control group (P>0.05. In the groups with negative HBeAg, there was a significant difference in the proportion of patients with HBV DNA quantitation of >1×10^5 IU/ml between positive HBsAg and anti-HBs group and control group (P<0.05. The sequencing of the S region of HBV showed that among the 80 patients with positive HBsAg and anti-HBs, 27 had variations in this region, and the mutation rate reached 33.7%. The major variation

  18. TEMs but not DKK1 could serve as complementary biomarkers for AFP in diagnosing AFP-negative hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Liping; Wang, Yueguo; Wang, Delin; Han, Gang; Fu, Shouzhong; Wang, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is prevalent worldwide. Despite its limitations, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) remains the most widely-used biomarker for the diagnosis of HCC. This study aimed to assess whether measurement of peripheral plasma Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and Tie2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) could overcome the limitations of AFP and improve the diagnostic accuracy of HCC. Plasma DKK1 level and the percentage of TEMs in peripheral CD14+CD16+ monocytes from HCC patients (n = 82), HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC) patients (n = 29), chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infected patients (n = 28) and healthy volunteers (n = 31) were analyzed by ELISA and flow cytometry. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyze a single biomarker, or a combination of two or three biomarkers. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the significance of each marker in prediction of HCC and AFP-negative HCC from LC patients. The percentage of TEMs in peripheral CD14+CD16+ monocytes and plasma level of DKK1 in HCC group were significantly higher than those in LC, CHB and healthy control groups (all P-values TEMs alone was also significantly higher in AFP-negative HCC group than that in LC, CHB and healthy control groups (all P-values TEMs. There was no significant difference in AUC of DKK1, TEMs and AFP in HCC diagnosis between the four groups (all P>0.05). A combination of DKK1, TEMs and AFP measurements increased the AUC for HCC diagnosis as compared with either marker alone (0.833; 95%CI 0.768-0.886). The AUC for TEMs was 0.692 (95% CI 0.564-0.819) in differentiating AFP-negative HCC from LC, with a sensitivity of 80.0% and a specificity of 65.52%. Only TEMs prevailed as a significant predictor for AFP-negative HCC differentiating from LC patients in univariate and multivariate analyses (P = 0.016, P = 0.023). TEMs and DKK1 may prove to be potential complementary biomarkers for AFP in the diagnosis of HCC. TEMs

  19. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of chronic hepatitis B infection in a cohort of immigrant and Italian patients from Ferrara, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, Carlo; Badia, Lorenzo; Cultrera, Rosario; Grilli, Anastasio; De Togni, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    Italy has recently become a land of immigration. Two hundred and fifty thousand carriers are immigrants and chronic HBV infection is the prevalent form. Considering the elevated number of foreigners resident in our province and the potential risk of transmission to local people, we retrospectively investigated the patterns of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in 154 patients (76 foreigners, 78 Italians) observed in our Institution, with regard to demographic and clinical/laboratory characteristics. The immigrants were younger (mean age 31 years) compared to Italians (51.5) and mainly came from East Europe. Regarding exposure to HBV, the intra-familial risk factor was most frequently observed in foreigners, compared to Italians (p = 0.03). Foreigners also showed a higher prevalence of HBeAg positive forms, HDV co-infection (7.9%) and abnormal ALT and/or HBV-DNA values, compared to Italians. HBeAg positivity was more associated with increased ALT (OR = 36.6, p = 0.001) than with elevated HBV viremia (OR = 6.5, p = 0.049); age was a protective factor (OR = 0.1; p = 0.014). No significant association was found between increased ALT and foreign nationality. The simultaneous presence of increased ALT and viremia was more frequent among foreigners, (OR = 7.6, p = 0,014) and increased with age (OR = 1.06, p = 0.013). Antiviral therapy was given in 7.8% of foreign citizens. Immigrants constitute a vulnerable population subgroup that would benefit from a more active approach regarding doctor patient relationship for early recognition of HBV and treatment programmes.

  20. Fluorescence quantitative PCR in detection of HBV DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Zheng; Li Ming; Shen Xia

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the serum content of HBV-DNA and expression of serological markers with HBV infection patients. Methods: Serum samples from 375 hepatitis B patients with different clinical status and 70 normal persons were quantitated for HBV-DNA by FQ-PCR. Results: The average of HBV-DNA contents in the patient in the groups of HBsAg (+) and of HBeAg(+) were significantly higher than those in the group of HBsAg(-) and of HBeAg(-). Even in the group of HBeAg negative, high HBV-DNA contents might still be present in both the HBeAg(+) and HBeAg(-) groups. Conclusion: FQ-PCR can be used to monitor the real state of HBV infection, replication and the course of disease

  1. Psychometrics of chronic liver disease questionnaire in Chinese chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kai-Na; Zhang, Min; Wu, Qian; Ji, Zhen-Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Zhuang, Gui-Hua

    2013-06-14

    To evaluate psychometrics of the Chinese (mainland) chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). A cross-sectional sample of 460 Chinese patients with CHB was selected from the Outpatient Department of the Eighth Hospital of Xi'an, including CHB (CHB without cirrhosis) (n = 323) and CHB-related cirrhosis (n = 137). The psychometrics includes reliability, validity and sensitivity. Internal consistency reliability was measured using Cronbach's α. Convergent and discriminant validity was evaluated by item-scale correlation. Factorial validity was explored by principal component analysis with varimax rotation. Sensitivity was assessed using Cohen's effect size (ES), and independent sample t test between CHB and CHB-related cirrhosis groups and between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normal and abnormal groups after stratifying the disease (CHB and CHB-related cirrhosis). Internal consistency reliability of the CLDQ was 0.83 (range: 0.65-0.90). Most of the hypothesized item-scale correlations were 0.40 or over, and all of such hypothesized correlations were higher than the alternative ones, indicating satisfactory convergent and discriminant validity. Six factors were extracted after varimax rotation from the 29 items of CLDQ. The eligible Cohen's ES with statistically significant independent sample t test was found in the overall CLDQ and abdominal, systematic, activity scales (CHB vs CHB-related cirrhosis), and in the overall CLDQ and abdominal scale in the stratification of patients with CHB (ALT normal vs abnormal). The CLDQ has acceptable reliability, validity and sensitivity in Chinese (mainland) patients with CHB.

  2. Serological profile of incidentally detected asymptomatic HBsAg positive subjects (IDAHS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, N.; Gill, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the serological profile of patients with incidentally detected positive hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) and to asses the risk factors. Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad from 1999 to 2003. Patients and Methods: All patients who presented to gastroenterology clinic of Shifa Intentional Hospital, Islamabad with positive HBsAg, detected incidentally, were tested for alamine transaminase (ALT), hepatitis Beantigen (HBeAg) and in certain cases hepatitis-B virus DNA (HBV DNA) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Their risk factors for acquisition of infection were assessed with specific questions. Results: A total of 224 patients were examined. One hundred sixty-four (73.2%) were male and 60 (26.8%) female. Mean age of all the subjects was 32.45 plus minus 11.85 years. Out of 224 patients, 48 (21.4%) were positive for HBeAg and 176 (78.6%) were negative. Out of 48 subjects who were positive for HBeAg, 36 underwent HBV DNA determination and 32 (88.8%) were positive for HBV DNA. Out of 176 subjects who had negative HBeAg, 46 had elevated ALT and in those HBV DNA was performed and 14 had positive HBV DNA. Most common risk factors detected in these patients were intramuscular injections and surgery, however, in a large number, risk factors were unknown. Conclusion: Twenty-one percent asymptomatic subjects with positive HBsAg were found to be HBeAg positive. A large number of subjects with negative HBeAg had HBV DNA positive suggesting presence of precore mutants. Intramuscular injections and surgery were noted to be frequent risk factors in these subjects. (author)

  3. Prediction value of serum HBV large surface protein in different phases of HBV infection and virological response of chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Can; Wu, Wennan; Shang, Hongyan; Lin, Sheng; Xun, Zhen; Huang, Er; Lin, Jinpiao; Yang, Bin; Ou, Qishui

    2018-06-01

    Serum HBV large surface protein (HBV-LP) is an envelope protein that has a close relationship with HBV DNA level. This study is to explore the prediction value of HBV-LP in different phase of HBV infection and during antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. A retrospective study was conducted in 2033 individuals, which included 1677 HBV infected patients in different phases and 356 healthy controls. HBV-LP, HBV serum markers and HBV DNA were detected by ELISA, CMIA and qRT-PCR, respectively. 85 CHB patients receiving PegIFNα or ETV were divided into virological response (VR) and partial virological response (PVR). The dynamic changes of HBV DNA and HBV-LP were observed. The level of HBV-LP in 2033 individuals was shown as: HBeAg-positive hepatitis > HBeAg-positive infection > HBeAg-negative hepatitis > HBeAg-negative infection > healthy controls. HBV-LP was positive in all patients whose HBV DNA > 1.0E + 06 IU/ml. When HBsAg was 1000 IU/ml, HBV DNAs were all negative if HBV-LP HBV-LP with HBV DNA was 100% in case of HBV-LP > 4.0 S/CO in HBeAg-positive patients and HBV-LP > 2.0 S/CO in HBeAg-negative ones. During antiviral therapy, baseline HBV-LP was lower in VR patients than that in PVR patients. The optimal cut-off points to predict VR by baseline HBV-LP were 32.4 and 28.6 S/CO for HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative hepatitis patients, respectively. HBV-LP may be a useful marker for distinguishing the different phases of HBV infection. Moreover, baseline HBV-LP level can be used for predicting VR of CHB patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Survey of hepatitis B knowledge and stigma among chronically infected patients and uninfected persons in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaxin; Guan, Mary L; Balch, Jeremy; Wu, Elizabeth; Rao, Huiying; Lin, Andy; Wei, Lai; Lok, Anna S

    2016-11-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection carries substantial stigma in China. We surveyed HBV knowledge and stigma among chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and persons without HBV infection in Beijing, China. Four hundred and thirty five CHB patients and 801 controls at Peking University People's Hospital were surveyed. Chronic hepatitis B patients were older (mean 46 vs. 39 years) and more often men (71 vs. 48%) than controls. Mean knowledge score was 11.9/15 for CHB and 9.3/15 for control patients (P sharing meals with CHB patients (39%) and believed CHB patients should not be allowed to work in restaurants (58%) or childcare (44%). Chronic hepatitis B patients felt that they were undesirable as spouses (33 vs. 17%) and brought trouble to their families (58 vs. 34%) more often than controls. Despite legal prohibitions, 40% of CHB patients were required to undergo pre-employment HBV testing, and 29% of these individuals thought that they lost job opportunities because of their disease status. 16% of CHB patients regretted disclosing their HBV status and disclosure was inversely associated with stigma. Higher stigma was associated with older age, lower education and lower knowledge score among controls; and with lower education, younger age, having undergone pre-employment HBV testing and regret disclosing their HBV status among CHB patients. Despite high prevalence of CHB in China, our study shows knowledge is limited and there is significant societal and internalized stigma associated with HBV infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Altered Immune Profiles of Natural Killer Cells in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong-Fang Zhang

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are the main effective component of the innate immune system that responds to chronic hepatitis B (CHB infection. Although numerous studies have reported the immune profiles of NK cells in CHB patients, they are limited by inconsistent results. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to characterize reliably the immune profiles of NK cells after CHB infection, specifically frequency, phenotype, and function.A literature search of the computer databases MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane Center Register of Controlled Trails was performed and 19 studies were selected. The standard mean difference (SMD and 95% confidence interval (CI of each continuous variable was estimated with a fixed effects model when I2 < 50% for the test for heterogeneity, or the random effects model otherwise. Publication bias was evaluated using Begg's and Egger's tests.The meta-analysis of publications that reported frequency of peripheral NK cells showed that NK cell levels in CHB patients were significantly lower compared with that of healthy controls. A higher frequency of CD56bright NK subsets was found in CHB patients, but the CD56dim NK subsets of CHB patients and healthy controls were similar. CHB patients before and after antiviral therapy with nucleotide analogues (NUCs showed no statistical difference in NK frequency. The activating receptors were upregulated, whereas inhibitory receptors were comparable in the peripheral NK cells of CHB individuals and healthy controls. NK cells of CHB patients displayed higher cytotoxic potency as evidenced by CD107a protein levels and conserved potency to produce interferon-gamma (IFNγ, compared with their healthy counterparts.Our results revealed that CHB patients had a lower frequency of NK cells compared with healthy individuals not treatable with antiviral NUC therapy. With an activating phenotype, NK cells in CHB patients showed better cytotoxic potency and conserved IFNγ production.

  6. Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase to platelet ratio is not superior to APRI,FIB-4 and RPR for diagnosing liver fibrosis in CHB patients in China

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Rui; Wang, Guiyang; Tian, Chen; Liu, Yong; Jia, Bei; Wang, Jian; Yang, Yue; Li, Yang; Sun, Zhenhua; Yan, Xiaomin; Xia, Juan; Xiong, Yali; Song, Peixin; Zhang, Zhaoping; Ding, Weimao

    2017-01-01

    The gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase to platelet ratio (GPR) is a novel index to estimate liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Few studies compared diagnostic accuracy of GPR with other non-invasive fibrosis tests based on blood parameters. We analyzed diagnostic values of GPR for detecting liver fibrosis and compared diagnostic performances of GPR with APRI (aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index), FIB-4 (fibrosis index based on the four factors), NLR (neutrophil-to-lymphocy...

  7. An earthworm protease cleaving serum fibronectin and decreasing HBeAg in HepG2.2.15 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jing

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virus-binding activity is one of the important functions of fibronectin (FN. It has been reported that a high concentration of FN in blood improves the transmission frequency of hepatitis viruses. Therefore, to investigate a protease that hydrolyzes FN rapidly is useful to decrease the FN concentration in blood and HBV infection. So far, however, no specific protease digesting FN in serum has been reported. Methods We employed a purified earthworm protease to digest serum proteins. The rapidly cleaved protein (FN was identified by MALDI-TOF MS and western blotting. The cleavage sites were determined by N-terminus amino acid residues sequencing. The protease was orally administrated to rats to investigate whether serum FN in vivo became decreased. The serum FN was determined by western blotting and ELISA. In cytological studies, the protease was added to the medium in the culture of HepG2.2.15 cells and then HBsAg and HBeAg were determined by ELISA. Results The protease purified from earthworm Eisenia fetida was found to function as a fibronectinase (FNase. The cleavage sites on FN by the FNase were at R and K, exhibiting a trypsin alkaline serine-like function. The earthworm fibronectinase (EFNase cleaved FN at four sites, R259, R1005, K1557 and R2039, among which the digested fragments at R259, K1557 and R2039 were related to the virus-binding activity as reported. The serum FN was significantly decreased when the earthworm fibronectinase was orally administrated to rats. The ELISA results showed that the secretion of HBeAg from HepG2.2.15 cells was significantly inhibited in the presence of the FNase. Conclusion The earthworm fibronectinase (EFNase cleaves FN much faster than the other proteins in serum, showing a potential to inhibit HBV infection through its suppressing the level of HBeAg. This suggests that EFNase is probably used as one of the candidates for the therapeutic agents to treat hepatitis virus infection.

  8. KIR3DS1/HLA-B Bw4-80Ile Genotype Is Correlated with the IFN-α Therapy Response in hepatitis B e antigen-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To date, several on-treatment-level virological and serological indices that may predict the response to interferon alpha (IFN-α have been reported. However, no effective predictors, such as drug–response genes, that can be detected before administration of anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV therapy with IFN-α, have been found. In the diverse range of chronic viral infection, genes that affect human immunity play important roles in understanding host and viral co-evolution. Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs, which are highly polymorphic at the allele and haplotype levels, participate in the antiviral function of natural killer (NK cells via fine-tuning inhibition and activation of NK-cell responses that occur when the NK cells interact with human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I molecules on target cells. For each individual, the pairing of KIR and HLA ligand is genetically determined. To investigate whether a particular KIR and HLA repertoire influences the risk of HBV infection and response to IFN-α treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB, we genotyped the KIRs and HLA ligands of 119 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg-positive CHB patients. These patients included 43 patients who achieved sustained response (SR induced by IFN-α treatment for 48 weeks, 76 patients who achieved no response (NR, and 96 healthy subjects as controls. SR was defined as HBeAg loss with HBV DNA < 2,000 IU/ml and alanine aminotransferase normalization at 24 weeks posttreatment (week 72. In this study, we showed that activating KIR genes were less prevalent in Han Chinese, especially in Han Chinese with CHB, than in Caucasians. Furthermore, the KIR3DS1 gene, in combination with HLA-B Bw4-80Ile, strongly influenced the therapeutic outcomes for CHB patients who were treated with IFN-α. The frequency of the combination of genes encoding KIR3DS1 and HLA-B Bw4-80Ile was higher in patients who had a sustained treatment response than in patients who had NR [35

  9. Altered serum copper homeostasis suggests higher oxidative stress and lower antioxidant capability in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yansong; Zhang, Yuan; Lin, Zhexuan; Han, Ming; Cheng, Hongqiu

    2018-06-01

    Copper homeostasis can be altered by inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the alteration of serum copper homeostasis and to explore its clinical significance in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).Thirty-two patients with CHB and 10 aged- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. Analyses included serum levels of total copper (TCu), copper ions (Cu), small molecule copper (SMC), ceruloplasmin (CP), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), urinary copper, and the activities of serum CP and SOD1.The serum TCu and urinary copper levels in patients with CHB were significantly higher than the controls (P = .04 and .003), while the serum Cu was lower than the controls (P = .0002). CP and SOD1 activities in the serum were significantly lower in patients with CHB compared to controls (P = .005) despite higher serum concentrations. In addition, serum alanine aminotransferase inversely correlated with serum CP activity (P = .0318, r = -0.4065).Serum copper homeostasis was altered in this cohort of patients with CHB. The results suggest increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant capability in patients with CHB, in addition to necroinflammation. These results may provide novel insights into the diagnosis and treatment of patients with CHB.

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of entecavir versus lamivudine in the first-line treatment of Australian patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yong; Iloeje, Uchenna; Cook, Greg

    2008-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus infection is a major global healthcare problem. The recent introduction of entecavir in Australia for the treatment of CHB patients in the naive treatment setting has triggered significant optimism with regards to improved clinical outcomes for CHB patients. To estimate, from an Australian healthcare perspective, the cost effectiveness of entecavir 0.5 mg/day versus lamivudine 100 mg/day in the treatment of CHB patients naive to nucleos(t)ide therapy. A cost-utility analysis to project the clinical and economic outcomes associated with CHB disease and treatment was conducted by developing two decision-tree models specific to hepatitis B e antigen-positive (HBeAg+ve) and HBeAg-ve CHB patient subsets. This analysis was constructed using the Australian payer perspective of direct costs and outcomes, with indirect medical costs and lost productivity not being included. The study population comprised a hypothetical cohort of 1000 antiviral treatment-naive CHB patients who received either entecavir 0.5 mg/day or lamivudine 100 mg/day at model entry. The population of patients used in this analysis was representative of those patients likely to receive initial antiviral therapy in clinical practice in Australia. The long-term cost effectiveness of entecavir compared with lamivudine in the first-line treatment of CHB patients was expressed as an incremental cost per life-year gained (LYG) or QALY gained. Results revealed that the availability of entecavir 0.5 mg/day as part of the Australian hepatologist's treatment armamentarium should result in significantly lower future rates of compensated cirrhosis (CC), decompensated cirrhosis (DC), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) events (i.e. 54 fewer cases of CC, seven fewer cases of DC, and 20 fewer cases of HCC over the model's timeframe for HBeAg+ve CHB patients, and 69 fewer cases of CC, eight fewer cases of DC and 25 fewer cases of HCC over the model's timeframe for HBeAg-ve CHB patients

  11. Remission of congenital complete heart block without anti-Ro/La antibodies: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-Ro/La negative congenital heart block (CHB is uncommon. We report one such case of CHB, with no associated structural heart disease or maternal autoantibodies. The heart block reverted to sinus rhythm spontaneously at two weeks of age, and the patient remains in sinus rhythm at a one year followup. Whether patients with antibody negative complete heart block have a different clinical course is conjectural.

  12. TEMs but not DKK1 could serve as complementary biomarkers for AFP in diagnosing AFP-negative hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Mao

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is prevalent worldwide. Despite its limitations, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP remains the most widely-used biomarker for the diagnosis of HCC. This study aimed to assess whether measurement of peripheral plasma Dickkopf-1 (DKK1 and Tie2-expressing monocytes (TEMs could overcome the limitations of AFP and improve the diagnostic accuracy of HCC.Plasma DKK1 level and the percentage of TEMs in peripheral CD14+CD16+ monocytes from HCC patients (n = 82, HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC patients (n = 29, chronic hepatitis B (CHB infected patients (n = 28 and healthy volunteers (n = 31 were analyzed by ELISA and flow cytometry. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were used to analyze a single biomarker, or a combination of two or three biomarkers. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the significance of each marker in prediction of HCC and AFP-negative HCC from LC patients.The percentage of TEMs in peripheral CD14+CD16+ monocytes and plasma level of DKK1 in HCC group were significantly higher than those in LC, CHB and healthy control groups (all P-values 0.05. A combination of DKK1, TEMs and AFP measurements increased the AUC for HCC diagnosis as compared with either marker alone (0.833; 95%CI 0.768-0.886. The AUC for TEMs was 0.692 (95% CI 0.564-0.819 in differentiating AFP-negative HCC from LC, with a sensitivity of 80.0% and a specificity of 65.52%. Only TEMs prevailed as a significant predictor for AFP-negative HCC differentiating from LC patients in univariate and multivariate analyses (P = 0.016, P = 0.023.TEMs and DKK1 may prove to be potential complementary biomarkers for AFP in the diagnosis of HCC. TEMs rather than DKK1 could serve as a complementary biomarker for AFP in the differential diagnosis of AFP-negative HCC versus LC patients.

  13. Association of baseline vitamin D levels with clinical parameters and treatment outcomes in chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen; Elkhashab, Magdy; Trinh, Huy; Tak, Won Young; Ma, Xiaoli; Chuang, Wan-Long; Kim, Yoon Jun; Martins, Eduardo B; Lin, Lanjia; Dinh, Phillip; Charuworn, Prista; Foster, Graham R; Marcellin, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    The relationship between vitamin D levels and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection and treatment outcomes are poorly elucidated. We measured pre-treatment serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D3; 25[OH]D3) levels and determined their association with clinical parameters and treatment outcomes in active CHB patients without advanced liver disease enrolled in a global clinical trial. Patients were randomly assigned to either 48 weeks of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) plus peginterferon alfa-2a (PegIFN), TDF plus PegIFN for 16 weeks followed by TDF for 32 weeks, PegIFN for 48 weeks, or TDF for 120 weeks. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine associations between vitamin D, baseline factors, and week 48 clinical outcome. Of 737 patients, 35% had insufficient (⩾20 but vitamin D levels. In univariate analysis, lower vitamin D levels were significantly associated with the following baseline parameters: younger age, lower uric acid levels, HBeAg-positive status, lower calcium levels, blood draw in winter or autumn, and HBV genotype D. On multivariate analysis, only HBV genotype, season of blood draw, calcium level, and age retained their association. High baseline level of vitamin D was associated with low HBV DNA, normal ALT and HBsAg at week 48 independent of treatment groups, but the association, with the exception of ALT, became statistically insignificant after adjusting for age, gender, HBeAg and HBV genotype. Abnormally low vitamin D levels are highly prevalent among untreated, active CHB patients. Baseline vitamin D levels are not associated with treatment outcomes, but were associated with normal ALT. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term treatment with tenofovir in Asian-American chronic hepatitis B patients is associated with abnormal renal phosphate handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Connie; Xu, Jason J; Chan, Linda S; Chang, Mimi; Lim, Carolina; Lee, Sue; Huh, Brian; Shinada, Shuntaro; Bae, Ho S; Fong, Tse-Ling

    2015-02-01

    Increased risk of defective urinary phosphate reabsorption and osteoporosis has been reported in HIV and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). Goals of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of renal phosphate wasting and abnormal bone mineral density in CHB patients taking TDF compared to CHB patients treated with entecavir (ETV) and untreated CHB patients. This is a cross-sectional study of 146 consecutive Asian-American CHB patients who were treatment naïve (n = 60) or treated with either TDF (n = 42) or ETV (n = 44). Proximal tubular handling of phosphate was assessed by the maximal rate of tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TmPO4) divided by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (TmPO4/GFR). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. TmPO4/GFR was similar among CHB patients treated with TDF compared to untreated patients and patients taking ETV. However, among patients treated with ≥18 months of TDF or ETV, prevalence of abnormal TmPO4/GFR was higher among patients treated with TDF compared to ETV (48.5 % (16/33) vs. 12.5 % (3/24), p = 0.005). Overall prevalence of osteoporosis in this cohort of CHB patients was 14 %, with no significant difference between the three groups. Renal phosphate handling did not correlate with osteoporosis. Chronic hepatitis B patients treated with ≥18 months of TDF experienced an increased risk of proximal tubular dysfunction. TDF did not increase the risk of osteoporosis. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  15. Correlation between HBsAg, prothrombin time activity, and indocyanine green retention rate at 15 minutes in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic HBV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Wenhai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the correlation between HBsAg, prothrombin time activity (PTA, and indocyanine green retention rate at 15 minutes (ICG R15 in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic HBV infection. MethodsA total of 92 patients with HBeAg-positive chronic HBV infection who were admitted to The First Hospital of Lanzhou University from December 2015 to April 2016 were enrolled and divided into chronic hepatitis B (CHB group (24 patients, compensated liver cirrhosis group (38 patients, and decompensated liver cirrhosis group (30 patients. Serum HBsAg quantitation, PTA test, and liver reserve function test (ICG R15 were performed for all patients. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, an analysis of variance was used for comparison of continuous data between multiple groups, and a Pearson correlation analysis was also performed. ResultsThere were significant differences between the three groups in serum HBsAg quantitation (3.82±0.43 log10IU/ml vs 2.88±0.36 log10IU/ml vs 2.60±0.27 log10IU/ml, F=25.19, P<0.001, ICG R15 (7.51%±3.10% vs 9.57%±8.18% vs 24.13%±14.28%, F=24.00, P=0.001, and PTA (8100%±1762% vs 83.08%±9.64% vs 62.32%±16.90%, F=13.42, P=0.009. The correlation analysis showed that PTA was negatively correlated with ICG R15 in all three groups (r=-0.948, -0.602, and -0.735, all P<0.01. In the compensated liver cirrhosis group and decompensated liver cirrhosis group, HBsAg was positively correlated with PTA (r=0.410 and 0.473, both P<0.05 and negatively correlated with ICG R15 (r=-0.427 and -0.768, P<0.01. ConclusionIn HBeAg positive patients, there are certain correlations between HBsAg, PTA, and ICG R15, which, to a certain degree, reflects the liver reserve function in patients with chronic HBV infection.

  16. Virological and clinical characteristics of hepatitis delta virus in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moatter Tariq

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & Aims There is a paucity of data on the impact of hepatitis D virus (HDV in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV infection from South Asia. We studied the impact of HDV co-infection on virological and clinical characteristics. Methods We collected data of 480 patients with HBsAg positive and a detectable HBV DNA PCR, who presented to the Aga Khan University, Karachi and Isra University in Hyderabad, Pakistan in the last 5 years. HDV co-infection was diagnosed on the basis of anti-HDV. ALT, HBeAg, HBeAb and HBV DNA PCR quantitative levels were checked in all patients. We divided all patients into two groups based on anti-HDV, and compared their biochemical, serological & virological labs and clinical spectrum. Clinical spectrum of disease included asymptomatic carrier (AC, chronic active hepatitis (CAH, immuno-tolerant phase (IP, and compensated cirrhosis (CC. Results HDV co-infection was found in 169 (35.2%. There were 164 (34.6% HBeAg positive and 316 (65.4% HBeAg negative patients. Mean ALT level was 66 ± 73 IU. 233 (48.5% had raised ALT. HBV DNA level was ≥ 10e5 in 103(21.5% patients. Overall, among HBV/HDV co-infection, 146/169 (86.4% had suppressed HBV DNA PCR as compared to 231/311 (74.3% patients with HBV mono-infection; p-value = 0.002. Among HBeAg negative patients 71/128(55.5% had raised ALT levels among HBV/HDV co-infection as compared to 71/188 (37.8% with HBV mono-infection (p-value = 0.002; levels of HBV DNA were equal in two groups; there were 27/128 (21% patients with CC among HBV/HDV co-infection as compared to 23 (12% in HBV mono-infection (p-value = 0.009; there were less AC (p-value = 0.009 and more CAH (p-value = 0.009 among HBV/HDV co-infection patients. Among HBeAg positive patients, serum ALT, HBV DNA levels and the spectrum of HBV were similar in the two groups. Conclusions HBV/HDV co-infection results in the suppression of HBV DNA. A fair proportion of HBV/HDV co-infected patients with HBeAg

  17. Treatment of HBV and HDV co-infection using lamivudine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, H.; Arif, A.; Alam, E.

    2009-01-01

    To see effect of Lamivudine on sero conversion of HBeAg positive cases co infected with Delta hepatitis. Hepatitis B positive patients with deranged liver functions for 6 months were tested for HBeAg, HBV DNA and anti-Delta virus (HDV), using ELISA. Patients were divided into 2 groups, group 1: HBeAg, HBV DNA positive (wild type) but delta negative and group 2: HBeAg, HBV DNA positive (wild type) with delta positive. Lamivudine (100 mg) was advised to both groups till sero-conversion. Of 124 cases in year 1999-2005, 69 were in (Group 1), and 55 were in (Group 2). Eighty percent were males in both groups. ALT normalisation occurred in 75%, 24% cases within 6 months respectively. At the start of therapy mean HBeAg was 289+-189 in group 1 and 142+-160 in group 2. With treatment, the values did not change much till 12 months of therapy. The fall was significantly slow in delta positive cases. At 36 months 26 (38%) cases in group 1 and 9 (16.4%) cases in group 2 sero-converted. Nine cases in each group remained non-responders while 2 in each group relapsed. Wild type of HBV/HDV co-infected cases have a 16% chance of seroconversion which negates the concept that once infected with delta virus there is not much that can be done. (author)

  18. Simple serum markers for significant liver inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients with an alanine aminotransferase level lower than 2 times upper limit of normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the simple serum markers for significant liver inflammation in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients with an alanine aminotransferase (ALT level of <2 times upper limit of normal (ULN. MethodsThe clinical data of 278 CHB patients with ALT <2×ULN (ULN=40 U/L were analyzed retrospectively. Significant liver inflammation was defined as a liver inflammatory activity grade (G ≥2. The t-test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test was used for non-normally distributed continuous data; the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors for significant liver inflammation in CHB patients with ALT <2×ULN. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum markers in significant liver inflammation. ResultsOf the 278 CHB patients enrolled, 175 (62.9% had no significant liver inflammation (G0-1 group and 103 (37.1% had significant liver inflammation (G2-4 group. There were significant differences in ALT, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, albumin, globulin, prothrombin time (PT, platelet, absolute neutrophil count, hyaluronic acid (HA, glycocholic acid, precollagen Ⅲ, and collagen type Ⅳ(ⅣC between the two groups (all P<0.05. The multivariate regression analysis showed that GGT, PT, ⅣC, and HA were independent predictors for significant liver inflammation in CHB patients with ALT<2×ULN (OR=1.015, 1.600, 1.151, and 1.014, P=0.008, 0.021, 0.003, and 0.018. The areas under the ROC curve for GGT, PT, IVC, and HA to diagnose significant liver inflammation were 0.804, 0.722, 0.707, and 0.632, respectively. The cut-off value of 48.5 U/L for GGT to predict significant liver inflammation had a specificity of 90.3% and a negative

  19. Toll like receptor7 polymorphisms in relation to disease susceptibility and progression in Chinese patients with chronic HBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junping; Zhang, Tong; Cao, Lina; Li, Aixin; Zheng, Kai; Zhang, Nan; Su, Bin; Chen, Zhiyun; Chen, Ning; Wu, Hao; He, Qiushui

    2017-09-29

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in innate and adaptive immunity, protecting the host from viral pathogens. We studied the effect of TLR7 polymorphisms on disease susceptibility and progression of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection in Chinese adults. Blood samples were taken from 612 patients with confirmed CHB, hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver cirrhosis (LC) or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 293 controls. TLR7 polymorphisms (rs179010-C > T, rs2074109-T > C, and rs179009-A > G) were analyzed by PCR-based sequencing. A significantly higher frequency of TLR7 rs179010 C allele was found in male CHB patients than in controls (74.8% vs 59.5%, P = 0.002). The frequency of rs179009 G allele was markedly increased with disease progression when male patients with CHB, LC and HCC were compared (P = 0.012). The haplotype CTA was significantly associated with an increased susceptibility to CHB among male patients (P = 0.000). Frequency of the haplotype CTG was higher in male patients with HCC than CHB (P = 0.005). No such differences in these allele frequencies were found between female patients and controls. Our results indicated that TLR7 polymorphisms play an important role in disease susceptibility and the progression of CHB infections in Chinese adults, and may partly explain the high incidence of HBV related diseases in Chinese men.

  20. Hepatitis delta virus infection in a large cohort of chronic hepatitis B patients in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberra, Hanna; Gordien, Emmanuel; Desalegn, Hailemichael; Berhe, Nega; Medhin, Girmay; Mekasha, Bitsatab; Gundersen, Svein G; Gerber, Athenaïs; Stene-Johansen, Kathrine; Øverbø, Joakim; Johannessen, Asgeir

    2018-06-01

    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection is associated with a more severe outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB); however, little is known about the presence of HDV in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to determine the prevalence of HDV infection, as well as its clinical, biological and virological characteristics, in a large CHB cohort in Ethiopia. In total, 1267 HIV-negative CHB patients at St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College in Addis Ababa were screened for anti-HDV antibodies using ELISA assays. Confirmed positive samples were further tested for HDV RNA using a consensus commercial real-time RT-PCR assay. HDV genotypes were also determined for RNA-positive samples by nucleotide sequencing followed by phylogenetic analyses. Demographical, clinical and biological data from patients were recorded and compared based on HDV RNA results. Most patients (n = 748, 59.0%) were men, and the median age was 31 years (interquartile range 26-40). Anti-HDV antibodies were detected in 19 individuals (1.5%), 12 of whom were HDV RNA-positive with a viral load ranging from 8 log 10 IU/mL. All strains were genotype 1. HDV RNA-positive patients were more likely to have significant liver fibrosis (63.6% vs 24.7%, P = .007) and cirrhosis (45.5% vs 16.4%, P = .024). HDV infection is rare in Ethiopia but is associated with more advanced liver fibrosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Health-related quality of life of Southern Chinese with chronic hepatitis B infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Elegance TP

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated the health-related quality of life (HRQOL of Southern Chinese with chronic hepatitis B (CHB infection. Aim To evaluate the HRQOL of Chinese patients at different stages of CHB infection and to find out factors associated with HRQOL. Methods 520 Chinese adult CHB patients of whom 156 were uncomplicated, 102 had impaired liver function, 139 had cirrhosis and 123 had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC were interviewed with a structured questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2, and the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ. The differences in SF-6D health preference values and SF-36v2 scores between each CHB group and Hong Kong population norms were assessed by t-test. ANOVA was used to compare the mean SF-6D health preference, SF-36v2 scores, and CLDQ scores among CHB groups. Multiple linear regressions were performed to identify determinants of HRQOL. Results CHB patients had significantly lower SF-36v2 scores than the population norm. The SF-6D values of CHB patients with uncomplicated disease, impaired liver function, HCC and cirrhosis were 0.755, 0.745, 0.720 and 0.701, respectively, all significantly lower than the population norm of 0.787. Advanced stage of CHB illness, anti-viral treatment, bilirubin level, psychological co-morbidity, younger age and female were associated with poorer HRQOL. Conclusion CHB infection had a negative impact on HRQOL. There was a progressive decrease in health preference values with CHB disease progression. The results can be used for the estimation of quality adjusted life years (QALYs for CHB patients in cost effectiveness or cost utility studies. Trial Registration http://www.hkclinicaltrials.com; HKCTR-151.

  2. Recognition of Core- and Polymerase-derived immunogenic peptides included in novel therapeutic vaccine by T cells from Chinese chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D; Sansas, B; Jiang, J H; Gong, Q M; Jin, G D; Calais, V; Yu, D M; Zhu, M Y; Wei, D; Zhang, D H; Inchauspé, G; Zhang, X X; Zhu, R

    2017-11-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is one of the major public health challenges in the world. Due to a strong interplay between specific T-cell immunity and elimination of hepatitis B virus (HBV), efforts to develop novel immunotherapeutics are gaining attention. TG1050, a novel immunotherapy, has shown efficacy in an animal study. To support the clinical development of TG1050 in China, specific immunity to the fusion antigens of TG1050 was assessed in Chinese patients. One hundred and thirty subjects were divided into three groups as CHB patients, HBV spontaneous resolvers, and CHB patients with HBsAg loss after antiviral treatment. HBV-specific T-cell responses to pools of HBV Core or Polymerase genotype D peptides included in TG1050 were evaluated. HBV Core- or Polymerase-specific cells were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from the different cohorts. The frequencies and intensities of HBV Core-specific immune responses were significantly lower in CHB patients than in HBsAg loss subjects. In CHB patients, a dominant pool derived from Polymerase (Pol1) was the most immunogenic. CHB patients with low viral loads (Core peptide pool. Overall, genotype D-derived peptides included in TG1050 could raise broad and functional T-cell responses in PBMCs from Chinese CHB patients infected with genotype B/C isolates. Core-specific immunogenic domains appeared as "hot spots" with the capacity to differentiate between CHB vs HBsAg loss subjects. These observations support the extended application and associated immune monitoring of TG1050 in China. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Viral Hepatitis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Serum from Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Promotes Growth and Proliferation via the IGF-II/IGF-IR/MEK/ERK Signaling Pathway in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuanyuan; Wang, Zhidong; Chen, Haiyan; Zhang, Lei; Zhuo, Fei; Yang, Qingqing

    2018-05-09

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (CHB) plays a central role in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Emerging evidence implicates insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II as a major risk factor for the growth and development of HCC. However, the relationship between HBV infection and IGF-II functions remains to be elucidated. Levels of circulating IGF-II and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) in healthy donors (HDs) and CHB patients were tested by ELISA. Human HCC cell lines (HepG-2, SMMC-7721, MHCC97-H) were incubated with serum from HDs and CHB patients at various concentrations for 24, 48, and 72 h. MTT and plate colony formation assays, BrdU ELISA, ELISA, small-interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blot were applied to assess the functional and molecular mechanisms in HCC cell lines. Serum levels of IGF-II and IGF-IR were significantly higher in CHB patients than in HDs. Additionally, serum from CHB patients directly induced cell growth, proliferation, IGF-II secretion, and HDGF-related protein-2 (HRP-2) and nuclear protein 1 (NUPR1) mRNA and protein expression in HCC cells. Moreover, serum from CHB patients increased IGF-II-induced cell growth, proliferation, and HRP-2 and NUPR1 mRNA and protein expression in HCC cells. Blockade of IGF-IR clearly inhibited the above effects. Most importantly, interference with IGF-II function markedly repressed the cell proliferation and HRP-2 and NUPR1 mRNA and protein expression induced by serum from CHB patients. Furthermore, serum from CHB patients induced ERK phosphorylation via IGF-IR, with the MEK inhibitor PD98059 significantly decreasing CHB patient serum-induced IGF-II secretion, cell proliferation, and HRP-2 and NUPR1 mRNA and protein expression. Serum from CHB patients increases cell growth and proliferation and enhances HRP-2 and NUPR1 expression in HCC cells via the IGF-II/IGF-IR/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. These findings help to explain the molecular mechanisms

  4. Safety and Efficacy of Nucleic Acid Polymers in Monotherapy and Combined with Immunotherapy in Treatment-Naive Bangladeshi Patients with HBeAg+ Chronic Hepatitis B Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamun Al-Mahtab

    Full Text Available Previous in vivo studies have suggested that nucleic acid polymers (NAPs may reduce circulating levels of HBsAg in the blood by blocking its release from infected hepatocytes and that this effect may have clinical benefit. NAP treatment, was evaluated in two clinical studies in patients with HBeAg positive chronic HBV infection. The REP 101 study examined REP 2055 monotherapy in 8 patients and the REP 102 study examined REP 2139-Ca, in monotherapy in 12 patients, 9 of which transitioned to short term combined treatment with pegylated interferon alpha 2a or thymosin alpha 1. In both studies NAP monotherapy was accompanied by 2-7 log reductions of serum HBsAg, 3-9 log reductions in serum HBV DNA and the appearance of serum anti-HBsAg antibodies (10-1712 mIU / ml. Eight of the 9 patients transitioning to combined treatment with immunotherapy (pegylated interferon or thymosin alpha 1 in the REP 102 study experienced HBsAg loss and all 9 patients experienced substantial increases in serum anti-HBsAg antibody titers before withdrawal of therapy. For 52 weeks after removal of REP 2055 therapy, rebound of serum viremia (HBV DNA > 1000 copies / ml, HBsAg > 1IU / ml was not observed in 3 / 8 patients. Suppression of serum virema was further maintained for 290 and 231 weeks in 2 of these patients. After withdrawal of all therapy in the 9 patients that transitioned to combination therapy in the REP 102 study, 8 patients achieved HBV DNA < 116 copies / ml after treatment withdrawal. Viral rebound occurred over a period of 12 to 123 weeks in 7 patients but was still absent in two patients at 135 and 137 weeks of follow-up. Administration tolerability issues observed with REP 2055 were rare with REP 2139-Ca but REP 2139-Ca therapy was accompanied by hair loss, dysphagia and dysgeusia which were considered related to heavy metal exposure endemic at the trial site. These preliminary studies suggest that NAP can elicit important antiviral responses during

  5. Safety and Efficacy of Nucleic Acid Polymers in Monotherapy and Combined with Immunotherapy in Treatment-Naive Bangladeshi Patients with HBeAg+ Chronic Hepatitis B Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahtab, Mamun; Bazinet, Michel; Vaillant, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Previous in vivo studies have suggested that nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) may reduce circulating levels of HBsAg in the blood by blocking its release from infected hepatocytes and that this effect may have clinical benefit. NAP treatment, was evaluated in two clinical studies in patients with HBeAg positive chronic HBV infection. The REP 101 study examined REP 2055 monotherapy in 8 patients and the REP 102 study examined REP 2139-Ca, in monotherapy in 12 patients, 9 of which transitioned to short term combined treatment with pegylated interferon alpha 2a or thymosin alpha 1. In both studies NAP monotherapy was accompanied by 2-7 log reductions of serum HBsAg, 3-9 log reductions in serum HBV DNA and the appearance of serum anti-HBsAg antibodies (10-1712 mIU / ml). Eight of the 9 patients transitioning to combined treatment with immunotherapy (pegylated interferon or thymosin alpha 1) in the REP 102 study experienced HBsAg loss and all 9 patients experienced substantial increases in serum anti-HBsAg antibody titers before withdrawal of therapy. For 52 weeks after removal of REP 2055 therapy, rebound of serum viremia (HBV DNA > 1000 copies / ml, HBsAg > 1IU / ml) was not observed in 3 / 8 patients. Suppression of serum virema was further maintained for 290 and 231 weeks in 2 of these patients. After withdrawal of all therapy in the 9 patients that transitioned to combination therapy in the REP 102 study, 8 patients achieved HBV DNA < 116 copies / ml after treatment withdrawal. Viral rebound occurred over a period of 12 to 123 weeks in 7 patients but was still absent in two patients at 135 and 137 weeks of follow-up. Administration tolerability issues observed with REP 2055 were rare with REP 2139-Ca but REP 2139-Ca therapy was accompanied by hair loss, dysphagia and dysgeusia which were considered related to heavy metal exposure endemic at the trial site. These preliminary studies suggest that NAP can elicit important antiviral responses during treatment which may

  6. Prevalence of steatosis and insulin resistance in patients with chronic hepatitis B compared with chronic hepatitis C and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Raluca; Rusu, Elena; Zilisteanu, Diana; Circiumaru, Alexandra; Micu, Laurentiu; Voiculescu, Mihai; Poynard, Thierry; Ratziu, Vlad

    2015-01-01

    The association of NAFLD with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) has been extensively studied but little is known about its coexistence with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). To investigate the prevalence and determinants of steatosis and insulin resistance (IR) in CHB and its consequences on liver injury compared with CHC and NAFLD. Patients with CHB (N=110), CHC (N=111) and NAFLD (N=136) were evaluated by biomarkers of steatosis (SteatoTest>0.38 as a surrogate for steatosis >5%), IR (HOMA-IR>2.7 as a surrogate for IR) and fibrosis (FibroTest>0.48 as a surrogate for significant fibrosis, ≥F2). HOMA-IR gradually increased in CHB, CHC and NAFLD: 2.3±1.8; 3±2.6 and 3.8±2.7 (p5% was 21% (CHB), 43% (CHC) and 82% (NAFLD), (p<0.001). The prevalence of fibrosis≥F2 was 10% (CHB), 42% (CHC) and 21% (NAFLD), p<0.001. In CHB, IR was related to host and not viral factors. CHB patients with steatosis had higher BMI (29±5.7kg/m(2) vs. 24±4kg/m(2), p<0.001), waist circumference (96±14cm vs. 84±11cm, p=0.001) and HOMA-IR (3.9±2.6 vs. 1.8±1.2, p<0.001) than those without steatosis. HOMA-IR independently predicted steatosis in CHB (OR=1.9, 95% CI, 1.09-3.27, p<0.05) and CHC (OR=1.38; 95% CI, 1.07-1.78, p<0.02). In CHB, metabolic risk factors and HOMA-IR were not associated with significant fibrosis. HOMA-IR was an independent predictor of fibrosis in CHC. Steatosis may co-exist in CHB patients but with a lower prevalence than in CHC and NAFLD. In CHB steatosis is related to host and not viral factors, and is not associated with the severity of fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A possible role for NKT-like cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B during telbivudine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Hongyan; He, Jianqin; Zheng, Qishi; Chen, Jianing; Cui, Guangying; Wei, Yingfeng; Ye, Ping; Kohanawa, Masashi; Li, Lanjuan

    2014-07-01

    Natural killer T-like (NKT-like) cells are a source of different pro-inflammatory cytokines and therefore may be involved in inflammatory processes. However, little is known about NKT-like cells during antiviral therapy. In this study, we observed significantly higher numbers of CD3(+)CD56(+) cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) than healthy controls. Importantly, CD3(+)CD56(+) NKT-like cells markedly decreased during telbivudine treatment in patients with CHB, and a positive correlation between NKT-like cell frequency and the serum HBV DNA level was observed during early antiviral therapy. Interestingly, NKT-like cell frequency significantly reduced in well-responders at week 12 of telbivudine therapy compared to baseline, but did not significantly change in non-responders after treatment. Previous studies have shown that interleukin (IL)-17 plays a role in the pathogenesis of CHB. Serum IL-17 levels reduced significantly during early antiviral therapy, however, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels did not change significantly. A positive correlation was observed between the NKT-like cell frequency and serum IL-17 level in CHB patients, and NKT-like cells isolated from patients with CHB secreted substantial amounts of IL-17 in vitro. These results suggest that the NKT-like cell frequency may be one of useful immunologic marker for evaluating the efficacy of anti-HBV therapy, and that NKT-like cells are also an important source of IL-17 (in addition to conventional T cells) in patients with CHB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. CXCR5+ CD8+ T Cells Indirectly Offer B Cell Help and Are Inversely Correlated with Viral Load in Chronic Hepatitis B Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hang; Li, Linhai; Han, Jiang; Sun, Zhiwei; Rong, Yihui; Jin, Yun

    2017-04-01

    Treatment options for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection are extremely limited. CXCR5 + CD8 + T cell is a novel cell subtype and could possess strong cytotoxic properties in HIV infection. In this study, we investigated the role of CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells in CHB patients. Compared to healthy individuals, both CHB patients and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected hepatocellular carcinoma patients presented significant upregulation of CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells in peripheral blood, in which CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells were negatively correlated with the frequency of CXCR5 + CD4 + T cells in CHB patients. After PMA+ionomycin stimulation, CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells from CHB patients presented significantly higher transcription level of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and IL-21, as well as higher IL-10 and IL-21 protein secretion, than CXCR5 - CD8 + T cells. Unlike CXCR5 + CD4 + T cells, when incubated with naive CD19 + CD27 - B cells, CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells alone did not upregulate IgM, IgG, and IgA secretion. However, addition of CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells in B cell-CXCR5 + CD4 + T cell coculture significantly increased the levels of secreted IgG and IgA, demonstrating that CXCR5 + CD8 + T cell could indirectly offer B cell help. Furthermore, high frequencies of CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells tended to associate with low HBV DNA load, and the frequency of CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells was negatively correlated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Together, these results suggested that CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells were involved in the antiviral immune responses in CHB and could potentially serve as a therapeutic candidate.

  9. Treatment outcome in patients of hepatitis B with hepatitis D: of 4 years at a tertiary care centre in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuberi, B.F.; Afsar, S.; Akhtar, N.; Kumar, A.; Dodani, S.K.; Quraishy, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    To determine HBV suppression in patients with dual HBV and HDV infection after 48 weeks with 10.0 MIU of interferon-a 2b. All HBsAg positive patients were screened for anti-HDV, all positives were included. Baseline investigations, liver chemistries and HBsAg; HBeAg; anti-HBcore IgM; HBV DNA quantitative PCR were done. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and decompensated cirrhosis were excluded. Patients were treated with Interferon- a 10.0 MIU sc t.i.w. for 48 weeks. HBeAg and quantitative HBV DNA was done at week 0, 24 and 48 while CBC and SGPT were done monthly. HBV suppression was defined as levels <400 copies/ml. Fifty-two patients were selected for intervention, including 34 males and 18 females. At the end of therapy after 48 weeks, HBV DNA suppression was achieved in 51.9% and HBeAg became undetectable in 53.8% of patients. Twenty -one patients with HBV suppression still had raised SGPT. HDV should be screened in all patients eligible for HBV treatment. (author)

  10. Polyarteritis nodosa og hepatitis B-infektion behandlet med lamivudin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Tine; Weis, Nina Margrethe; Krogsgaard, Kim

    2002-01-01

    A 36-year-old man was diagnosed with polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). He presented with weight loss, hypertension, and mono-neuritis. Pneumoperitoneum and septicaemia developed and laparotomy revealed necrosis of a segment of the ileum. The patient was HBsAg/HBeAg and HBV DNA positive. Liver biopsy...... showed active cirrhosis. The PAN symptoms remitted upon treatment with prednisolone and lamivudine. Seroconversion from HBeAg to anti-HBe occurred six months later. One year after the end of treatment, the patient was still HBeAg and HBV DNA negative, with normal liver enzymes and no symptoms of PAN....

  11. Associated Factors for Metabolic Syndrome in the Older Adults with Chronic Virus Hepatitis in the Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hung Kuo

    Full Text Available This study was to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS and chronic virus hepatitis elders in the community. Those subjects with positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and/or anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV screened in the community before were invited to this study and 451 responded. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements, blood tests, ultrasound and fibroscan examinations. The cut-off of liver stiffness measurement-liver cirrhosis (LSM-LC was 10 kPa for chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients and 12 kPa for chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients, respectively. Among 451 responders, 56 were excluded due to negative HBsAg or anti-HCV. Three hundreds and ninety-five subjects included 228 CHB patients, 156 CHC patients and 11 dual hepatitis patients, had a mean age of 62±12.6 years. Fifty-four (23.7% CHB patients coexisted with MetS whereas 40 (25.6% CHC patients also had MetS. Those patients with MetS had more LSM-LC cases than those without (20.4% vs 9.8%, p = 0.04 in CHB patients; 28.2% vs 13.5%, p = 0.037 in CHC patients, respectively. In multivariate logistic analysis, detectable viremia was reversely associated with MetS in CHB patients after adjustment for age, gender and body mass index (odds ratio (OR: 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.18-0.99; p = 0.047. Regarding CHC patients, higher LSM level was the only factor contributed to MetS (OR: 1.1; 95% CI: 1.02-1.19; p = 0.012. In conclusion, elder CHB patients coexisted with MetS might experience an inactive virus replication but have an advanced liver fibrosis. In elder CHC patients, only higher LSM level was associated with MetS.

  12. Medical training fails to prepare providers to care for patients with chronic hepatitis B infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Stephanie D; Wang, Bing-Mei; Chang, Ellen T; Ma, Li; So, Samuel K

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate physicians’ knowledge including chronic hepatitis B (CHB) diagnosis, screening, and management in various stages of their training. METHODS: A voluntary 20-question survey was administered in Santa Clara County, CA where Asian and Pacific Islanders (API) account for a third of the population. Among the 219 physician participants, there were 63 interns, 60 second-year residents, 26 chief residents and 70 attending physicians. The survey asked questions regarding respondents’ demographics, general hepatitis B virus knowledge questions (i.e., transmission, prevalence, diagnostic testing, prevention, and treatment options), as well as, self-reported practice behavior and confidence in knowledge. RESULTS: Knowledge about screening and managing patients with CHB was poor: only 24% identified the correct tests to screen for CHB, 13% knew the next steps for patients testing positive for CHB, 18% knew the high prevalence rate among API, and 31% knew how to screen for liver cancer. Wald chi-square analysis determined the effect of training level on knowledge; in all cases except for knowledge of liver cancer screening (P = 0.0032), knowledge did not significantly increase with length in residency training or completion of residency. CONCLUSION: Even in a high-risk region, both medical school and residency training have not adequately prepared physicians in the screening and management of CHB. PMID:26078568

  13. Low liver stiffness among cirrhotic patients with hepatitis B after prolonged treatment with nucleoside analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ellen Sloth; Weiland, Ola; Leutscher, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Case reports and short-term clinical trials have suggested that treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) may lead to improvement of cirrhosis. The aim of the present study was to measure liver stiffness in patients diagnosed with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis prior to prolonged...... treatment with nucleoside or nucleotide analogs (NUCs) for CHB. Materials and methods. Patients with CHB and advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis prior to treatment with NUCs for at least 1 year were offered inclusion in the study. We measured liver stiffness using transient elastography (TE) at follow-up. TE cut...... duration was 50.5 months. Among patients with cirrhosis prior to treatment, 26 (49%) had liver stiffness below 11.0 kPa at follow-up, suggesting regression of cirrhosis. Among patients with advanced fibrosis (F3) prior to treatment, 10 (77%) had liver stiffness below 8.1 kPa after treatment, suggesting...

  14. Differential distribution of age and HBV serological markers in liver cirrhosis and non-cirrhotic patients with primary liver cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Xiuhua

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo compare the age distributions and presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV serological markers between primary hepatic cancer (PHC patients with and without liver cirrhosis. MethodsA total of 547 PHC cases were analyzed retrospectively. After dividing into two groups according to liver cirrhosis status, the between-group differences in age and HBV serological markers, such as hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg status, were statistically compared using the Chi-squared test. ResultsThe number of cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic PHC patients was 265 and 282, respectively. HBV infection was present in 221 cirrhotic PHC patients and 256 non-cirrhotic PHC patients (834% vs. 90.8%. There was a substantial bias in the proportion of males to females in the cirrhotic PHC patients (7.83∶1. The number of PHC patients <60 years old was similar between the cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic groups, but the non-cirrhotic group had significantly more patients >60 years old (P<0.005. In cirrhotic PHC patients, the HBV infection rate was highest in the <40 years old age group (96.7% and the HBeAg serological conversion rate was highest in the 40-60 years old age group (89.5%. In non-cirrhotic PHC patients, the 40-60 years old age group showed the highest HBV infection rate (90.3% but the lowest HBeAg serological conversion rate (80.0%. ConclusionPHC with liver cirrhosis mainly occurred in males, with the HBV infection rate being higher in individuals <60 years old. Non-cirrhotic PHC patients were more often >60 years old. Many of the HBV-infected PHC patients with cirrhosis had high HBeAg serological conversion rate.

  15. The value of serum Hepatitis B surface antigen quantification in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of serum Hepatitis B surface antigen quantification in determining viralactivity in chronic Hepatitis B virus infection. ... ofCHB andalso higher in hepatitis e antigen positive patients compared to hepatitis e antigen negative patients.

  16. Chemical Properties of Dialkyl Halonium Ions (R2Hal+) and Their Neutral Analogues, Methyl Carboranes, CH3-(CHB11Hal11), Where Hal = F, Cl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Evgenii S

    2017-04-20

    Chloronium cations in their salts (C n H 2n+1 ) 2 Cl + {CHB 11 Cl 11 - }, with n = 1 to 3 and exceptionally stable carborane anions, are stable at ambient and elevated temperatures. The temperature at which they decompose to carbocations with HCl elimination (below 150 °C) decreases with the increasing n from 1 to 3 because of increasing ionicity of C-Cl bonds in the C-Cl + -C bridge. At room temperature, the salts of cations with n ≥ 4 [starting from t-Bu 2 Cl + or (cyclo-C 5 H 11 ) 2 Cl + ] are unstable and decompose. With decreasing chloronium ion stability, their ability to interact with chloroalkanes to form oligomeric cations increases. It was shown indirectly that unstable salt of fluoronium ions (CH 3 ) 2 F + (CHB 11 F 11 - ) must exist at low temperatures. The proposed (CH 3 ) 2 F + cation is much more reactive than the corresponding chloronium, showing at room temperature chemical properties expected of (CH 3 ) 2 Cl + at elevated temperatures.

  17. A new model mimicking persistent HBV e antigen-negative infection using covalently closed circular DNA in immunocompetent mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, hepatitis B virus (HBV infection remains a major health problem. HBV e antigen (HBeAg-negative strains have become prevalent. Previously, no animal model mimicked the clinical course of HBeAg-negative HBV infection. To establish an HBeAg-negative HBV infection model, the 3.2-kb full-length genome of HBeAg-negative HBV was cloned from a clinical sample and then circularized to form covalently closed circular (cccDNA. The resulting cccDNA was introduced into the liver of C57BL/6J mice through hydrodynamic injection. Persistence of the HBeAg-negative infection was monitored at predetermined time points using HBV-specific markers including HBV surface antigen (HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBV core antigen (HBcAg as well as DNA copies. Throughout the study, pAAV-HBV1.2 was used as a control. In mice injected with HBeAg-negative cccDNA, the HBV infection rate was 100% at the initial stage. HBsAg levels increased up to 1 week, at which point levels peaked and dropped quickly thereafter. In 60% of injected mice, HBsAg and HBcAg persisted for more than 10 weeks. High numbers of HBV DNA copies were detected in the serum and liver. Moreover, cccDNA persisted in the liver tissue of HBeAg-negative mice. In contrast to the pAAV-HBV 1.2 injected mice, no HBeAg was found in mice injected with HBeAg-negative HBV throughout the study period. These results demonstrate the first successful establishment of a model of HBeAg-negative HBV-persistent infection in immunocompetent mice. Compared to pAAV-HBV1.2-injected mice, the infection persistence and levels of serum virological and biochemical markers were approximately equal in the model mice. This model will be useful for mechanistic studies on HBeAg-negative HBV infection and will facilitate the evaluation of new antiviral drugs.

  18. Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) treatment of HBV, what are the unanswered questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, Mauro; Loglio, Alessandro; Grossi, Glenda; Lampertico, Pietro

    2018-02-01

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), an ester prodrug of tenofovir (TFV), is one of the recommended drugs for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. However, reduced kidney function and loss of bone mineral density have been reported in some CHB patients treated with TDF. Consequent to these safety issues, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) [Vemlidy®], a phosphonate prodrug of TFV, was developed for the treatment of CHB patients. Areas covered: The favourable pharmacological profile of TAF allows a marked reduction in dosage (25 mg/day) thus reducing systemic exposure to tenofovir and improving the bone and renal safety, keeping however the same virological efficacy, compared to TDF 300 mg/day. In two ongoing 96-week phase III trials in mainly treatment-naive HBeAg-positive or -negative patients, TAF showed similar viral suppression but was associated with significantly higher alanine aminotransferase normalization rates and more favourable renal and bone safety compared to TDF. In a 48-week TAF switch study enrolling patients treated with TDF for 96 weeks, glomerular, tubular and bone safety parameters rapidly improved while virological suppression was maintained. Expert commentary: Waiting long-term large scale clinical practice studies aimed to confirm these advantages, TAF represents an helpful treatment option for both naïve and TDF-exposed CHB patients.

  19. Cost effectiveness of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B from a Canadian public payer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Helen; Sherman, Morris; Fung, Scott; Fidler, Carrie; Bentley, Anthony

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) is the most cost-effective nucleos(t)ide treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in the UK, Spain, Italy and France. However, to our knowledge, no published studies have yet evaluated the cost effectiveness of any treatments for CHB in a Canadian setting, where relative prices and management of CHB differ from those in Europe. Our objective was to determine the cost effectiveness of tenofovir DF compared with other nucleos(t)ide therapies licensed for CHB in Canada from the perspective of publicly funded healthcare payers. A Markov model was used to calculate the costs and benefits of nucleos(t)ide therapy in three groups of patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and -negative CHB: nucleos(t)ide-naive patients without cirrhosis; nucleos(t)ide-naive patients with compensated cirrhosis; and lamivudine-resistant patients. Disease progression was modelled as annual transitions between 18 disease states. Transition probabilities, quality of life and costs were based on published studies. Health benefits were measured in QALYs. The reference year for costs was 2007 and costs and outcomes were discounted at 5% per annum. First-line tenofovir DF was the most effective nucleos(t)ide strategy for managing CHB, generating 6.85-9.39 QALYs per patient. First-line tenofovir DF was also the most cost-effective strategy in all patient subgroups investigated, costing between $Can43,758 and $Can48,015 per QALY gained compared with lamivudine then tenofovir. First-line tenofovir DF strongly dominated first-line entecavir. Giving tenofovir DF monotherapy immediately after lamivudine resistance developed was less costly and more effective than any other active treatment strategy investigated for lamivudine-resistant CHB, including second-line use of adefovir or adefovir + lamivudine. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrated 50% confidence that first-line tenofovir DF is the most cost

  20. Regulatory effect of gamma-chain cytokines on expression of TIM-3 on CD8+ T cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG Jie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo measure the expression of T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin domain-3-containing molecule 3 (TIM-3 on CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs among patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB and to investigate the effect of common gamma-chain cytokines on the expression of TIM-3 on CD8+ T cells in these patients. MethodsFifteen previously untreated patients with CHB who visited the Department of Infectious Diseases, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, from January to May, 2014, as well as 8 healthy controls, were included in the study. Blood was collected from these subjects, and PBMCs were isolated from blood by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation. PBMCs were separately stimulated with gamma-chain cytokines, interleukin (IL2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21, and anti-CD3/CD28, and the untreated cells were used as a negative control. After four days of culture, PBMCs were stained with monoclonal antibody. Flow cytometry was used to measure the expression of TIM-3 on CD8+ T cells. Comparison of continuous data was made by independent-samples t test. ResultsCompared with the untreated group, the anti-CD3/CD28, IL-2, IL-15, and IL-7 groups had significantly increased expression of TIM-3 on CD8+ T cells (9.629%±9.916%, P=0000 1; 3.817%±2.694%, P = 0.000 6; 5.772%±4.732%, P = 0.005 4; 3.560%±2.045%, P = 0.030 2, while the IL-21 group had nonsignificantly increased expression of TIM-3 on CD8+ T cells (2.503%±2.117%, P = 0.934 1. ConclusionAnti-CD3/CD28 and gamma-chain cytokines IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15 can effectively upregulate the expression of TIM-3 on CD8+ T cells in patients with CHB. It indicates that the inhibition of them can not only reduce the expression of TIM-3, but also may enhance the killing function of CD8+ T cells in patients with CHB.

  1. Combined Analysis of the Prevalence of drug Resistant Hepatitis B Virus in antiviral therapy Experienced patients in Europe (CAPRE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermans, L E; Svicher, V; Pas, S D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: European guidelines recommend treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB) with the nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) entecavir or tenofovir. However, many European CHB patients have been exposed to other NAs, which are associated with therapy failure and resistance. The CAPRE study...... was performed to gain insight in prevalence and characteristics of NA resistance in Europe. METHODS: A survey was performed on genotypic resistance testing results acquired during routine monitoring of CHB patients with detectable serum hepatitis B virus DNA in European tertiary referral centers. RESULTS: Data...... from 1568 patients were included. The majority (73.8%) were exposed to lamivudine monotherapy. Drug-resistant strains were detected in 52.7%. The most frequently encountered primary mutation was M204V/I (48.7%), followed by A181T/V (3.8%) and N236T (2.6%). In patients exposed to entecavir (n = 102...

  2. Management of Hepatitis B: Pakistan Society for the Study of Liver Diseases (PSSLD) Practice Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Z.; Hamid, S.

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan remains in the intermediate prevalence area for Hepatitis B with an estimated carrier rate of 2.5%. Chronic Hepatitis B patients should be considered for treatment if Alanine transaminase (ALT) is persistently elevated in the last 6 months and HBV DNA is > 2000 IU/ml, irrespective of HBeAg status. In case of normal ALT and HBV DNA > 2000 IU/ml, treatment should only be considered if there is advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis on liver biopsy. HBV DNA positive cirrhotic patients should receive treatment irrespective of ALT status. Medicine available for the treatment of Hepatitis B in Pakistan are lamivudine, adefovir, telbivudine, entecavir, standard and pegylated interferon and thymosin. Patients who fail to achieve primary response as evidenced by < 2 log decrease in serum HBV DNA level after 6 months of nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy should have modification of treatment. Add-on adefovir therapy is indicated in those showing resistance to lamivudine or else switch to entecavir. For lamivudine-native patients who develop drug resistance while on adefovir, add-on or switching to lamivudine, telbivudine or entecavir is indicated. Treatment should be stopped in HBeAg positive patients on oral antiviral agents who sero convert (disappearance of HBeAg and appearance of anti-HBe antibody) with undetectable HBVDNA documented on two separate occasions at least 6 months apart. In HBeAg negative patients, discontinuation may be considered if undetectable HBV-DNA has been documented on three separate occasions 6 months apart although current evidence seems to support long term therapy in this group. (author)

  3. Hepatitis B surface antigen titer is a good indicator of durable viral response after entecavir off-treatment for chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ah Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims Clear indicators for stopping antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients are not yet available. Since the level of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg is correlated with covalently closed circular DNA, the HBsAg titer might be a good indicator of the off-treatment response. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the HBsAg titer and the entecavir (ETV off-treatment response. Methods This study analyzed 44 consecutive CHB patients (age, 44.6±11.4 years, mean±SD; men, 63.6%; positive hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg at baseline, 56.8%; HBV DNA level, 6.8±1.3 log10 IU/mL treated with ETV for a sufficient duration and in whom treatment was discontinued after HBsAg levels were measured. A virological relapse was defined as an increase in serum HBV DNA level of >2000 IU/mL, and a clinical relapse was defined as a virological relapse with a biochemical flare, defined as an increase in the serum alanine aminotransferase level of >2 × upper limit of normal. Results After stopping ETV, virological relapse and clinical relapse were observed in 32 and 24 patients, respectively, during 20.8±19.9 months of follow-up. The cumulative incidence rates of virological relapse were 36.2% and 66.2%, respectively, at 6 and 12 months, and those of clinical relapse were 14.3% and 42.3%. The off-treatment HBsAg level was an independent factor associated with clinical relapse (hazard ratio, 2.251; 95% confidence interval, 1.076–4.706; P=0.031. When patients were grouped according to off-treatment HBsAg levels, clinical relapse did not occur in patients with an off-treatment HBsAg level of ≤2 log10 IU/mL (n=5, while the incidence rates of clinical relapse at 12 months after off-treatment were 28.4% and 55.7% in patients with off-treatment HBsAg levels of >2 and ≤3 log10 IU/mL (n=11 and >3 log10 IU/mL (n=28, respectively. Conclusion The off-treatment HBsAg level is closely related to clinical relapse after treatment

  4. Long-term outcome of hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients with compensated cirrhosis treated with interferon alfa. European Concerted Action on Viral Hepatitis (EUROHEP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattovich, G; Giustina, G; Realdi, G

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether interferon alfa (IFN-alpha) treatment-associated virological and biochemical remission improves survival in a cohort of 90 white patients with compensated cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B (Child A) followed for a mean period of 7 years. Inclusion...... criteria were biopsy-proven cirrhosis, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity, abnormal serum aminotransferase levels, exclusion of hepatitis delta virus, and absence of complications of cirrhosis. Of the 40 IFN-treated patients, 27 (67%) showed sustained HBeAg loss with alanine aminotransferase (ALT...

  5. Frequency of interleukin 28B rs12979860 C>T variants in Filipino patients chronically infected with hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baclig, Michael O; Reyes, Karen G; Mapua, Cynthia A; Gopez-Cervantes, Juliet; Natividad, Filipinas F

    2015-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most prevalent viral infections worldwide. Nearly 400 million individuals are chronic carriers of HBV. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of human interleukin 28B (IL28B) variants among treatment naive Filipino patients clinically diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and to compare the IL28B frequency distribution with various ethnic populations. Fifty-seven CHB patients and 43 normal controls were enrolled in this study. Real-time PCR was performed using the TaqMan genotyping assay for IL28B rs12979860. The allelic frequencies among normal controls were 0.94 and 0.06 for the IL28B rs12979860 C and T alleles, respectively. Eighty-eight percent were identified as homozygous for the IL28B C/C genotype and 12% were identified as heterozygous for the IL28B C/T genotype. Among CHB patients, the allelic frequencies were 0.90 for the IL28B C allele and 0.10 for the IL28B T allele. No IL28B T/T genotype was observed between the two groups. No significant difference in the distribution of IL28B genotypes was observed between normal controls and CHB patients. Allelic frequencies of IL28B among Filipinos were similar with other Asian populations but significantly different from Caucasians. The frequency of rs12979860 C>T variants among Filipino CHB patients has not yet been reported. These data provided new insight into the geographical frequency distribution of IL28B variants. Further studies are needed to determine the possible association between IL28B variants and response to pegylated-interferon-α plus ribavirin combination therapy among Filipino patients chronically infected with HBV.

  6. HBV Genotype B/C and Response to Lamivudine Therapy: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Li Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of nucleoside analogues such as lamivudine (LAM, actually used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B, can suppress HBV DNA replication, improve transaminase level and liver histology, and enhance the rate of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg clearance. The responses to LAM therapy involve HBeAg clearance and HBV DNA conversion of negative. However, the associations between HBV genotype B/C and response to LAM therapy remain ambiguous. The aim of this meta-analysis is to determine more precise estimations of the relationship. All the publications on the associations between HBV genotype B/C and response to LAM (HBeAg clearance and HBV DNA conversion of negative through June 2013 were collected. Relative risk (RR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI was calculated in fixed or random model, was calculated to examine heterogeneity, and funnel plots were plotted to examine small study effects with Stata 11 software. Overall, for HBeAg clearance and genotype B/C, the RR (95% CI was 1.27 (0.94–1.71, while for HBV DNA conversion of negative and genotype B/C, the RR (95% CI was 1.07 (0.98–1.17. HBV genotype B/C shows no significance associations with response to lamivudine therapy (HBeAg clearance and HBV DNA conversion of negative.

  7. Lingmao Formula Combined with Entecavir for HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Mildly Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jun Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the efficacy and safety of Lingmao Formula combined with entecavir for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT. Methods. 301 patients were randomly assigned to receive Lingmao Formula combined with entecavir (treatment group or placebo combined with entecavir (control group for 52 weeks. The outcomes of interest included the reduction of serum HBV DNA level, HBeAg loss, HBeAg seroconversion, ALT normalization, and histological improvement. Results. The mean decrease of serum HBV DNA level from baseline and the percentage of patients who had reduction in serum HBV DNA level ≥2 lg copies/mL in treatment group were significantly greater than that in control group (5.5 versus 5.4 lg copies/mL, P=0.010; 98.5% versus 92.6%, P=0.019. The percentage of HBeAg loss in treatment group was 22.8%, which was much higher than a percentage of 12.6% in control group (P=0.038. There was no significant difference between the two groups in histological improvement. Safety was similar in the two groups. Conclusions. The combination of Lingmao Formula with entecavir could result in significant decrease of serum HBV DNA and increase of HBeAg loss for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with mildly elevated ALT without any serious adverse events. Clinical trial registration number is ChiCTR-TRC-09000594.

  8. Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation After Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Patients With Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Park, Joong-Won; Kim, Tae Hyun; Koh, Dong Wook; Lee, Woo Jin; Kim, Chang-Min

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) influences hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) exacerbation in patients with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: Of the 48 HCC patients with HBV who underwent 3D-CRT to the liver, 16 underwent lamivudine therapy before and during 3D-CRT (Group 1) and 32 did not receive antiviral therapy before 3D-CRT (Group 2). To analyze spontaneous HBV reactivation, we included a control group of 43 HCC patients who did not receive any specific treatment for HCC or CHB. Results: The cumulative rate of radiation-induced liver disease for Groups 1 and 2 was 12.5% (2 of 16) and 21.8% (7 of 32), respectively (p > 0.05). The cumulative rate of HBV reactivation was significantly greater in Group 2 (21.8%, 7 of 32) than in Group 1 (0%, 0/16) or the control group (2.3%, 1 of 43; p 0.05 each). The CHB exacerbations in the 4 Group 2 patients had radiation-induced liver disease features but were differentiated by serum HBV DNA changes. Two of these patients required antiviral therapy and effectively recovered with lamivudine therapy. Conclusions: In patients with HBV-related HCC undergoing 3D-CRT, HBV reactivation and consequent CHB exacerbation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of radiation-induced liver disease, and antiviral therapy might be considered for the prevention of liver function deterioration after RT

  9. Fanconi syndrome and chronic renal failure in a chronic hepatitis B monoinfected patient treated with tenofovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Magalhães-Costa

    Full Text Available Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF is one of the first-line treatment options in chronic hepatitis B (CHB. Despite its efficacy in suppressing viral load and a high resistance barrier, long life maintenance therapy is required. Registration studies demonstrated TDF to be a safe drug. However, post-marketing experience reported cases of serious nephrotoxicity associated with hypophosphatemia, osteomalacia and, even more recently, Fanconi syndrome associated with TDF therapy in CHB monoinfected patients. Here the authors report a case of a 40 year-old male, with a CHB monoinfection, that, three years after TDF therapy, developed a progressive chronic kidney disease with a serious hypophosphatemia and a secondary osteomalacia that was manifested by bone pain and multiple bone fractures. Further investigational analyses unveiled a proximal renal tubular dysfunction, which fulfilled most of the diagnostic criteria for a Fanconi syndrome. After TDF withdrawal and oral supplementation with phosphate and calcitriol, his renal function stabilized (despite not returning to normal, proximal renal tubular dysfunction abnormalities resolved as well as osteomalacia. In conclusion, physicians should be aware that, in CHB monoinfected patients under TDF therapy, serious renal damage is possible and preventable by timely monitoring serum creatinine and phosphate.

  10. An accurate definition of the status of inactive hepatitis B virus carrier by a combination of biomarkers (FibroTest-ActiTest and viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Ngo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The combination of transaminases (ALT, biopsy, HBeAg and viral load have classically defined the inactive status of carriers of chronic hepatitis B. The use of FibroTest (FT and ActiTest (AT, biomarkers of fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity, has been previously validated as alternatives to biopsy. We compared the 4-year prognostic value of combining FT-AT and viral load for a better definition of the inactive carrier status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 1,300 consecutive CHB patients who had been prospectively followed since 2001 were pre-included. The main endpoint was the absence of liver-related complications, transplantation or death. We used the manufacturers' definitions of normal FT (< = 0.27, normal AT (< = 0.29 and 3 standard classes for viral load. The adjustment factors were age, sex, HBeAg, ethnic origin, alcohol consumption, HIV-Delta-HCV co-infections and treatment. RESULTS: 1,074 patients with baseline FT-AT and viral load were included: 41 years old, 47% African, 27% Asian, 26% Caucasian. At 4 years follow-up, 50 complications occurred (survival without complications 93.4%, 36 deaths occurred (survival 95.0%, including 27 related to HBV (survival 96.1%. The prognostic value of FT was higher than those of viral load or ALT when compared using area under the ROC curves [0.89 (95%CI 0.84-0.93 vs 0.64 (0.55-0.71 vs 0.53 (0.46-0.60 all P<0.001], survival curves and multivariate Cox model [regression coefficient 5.2 (3.5-6.9; P<0.001 vs 0.53 (0.15-0.92; P = 0.007 vs -0.001 (-0.003-0.000;P = 0.052] respectively. A new definition of inactive carriers was proposed with an algorithm combining "zero" scores for FT-AT (F0 and A0 and viral load classes. This new algorithm provides a 100% negative predictive value for the prediction of liver related complications or death. Among the 275 patients with the classic definition of inactive carrier, 62 (23% had fibrosis presumed with FT, and 3 died or had complications at 4 year

  11. Factors associated with negative T-SPOT.TB results among smear-negative tuberculosis patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wanli; Wu, Meiying; Yang, Kunyun; Ertai, A; Wu, Shucai; Geng, Shujun; Li, Zhihui; Li, Mingwu; Pang, Yu; Tang, Shenjie

    2018-03-09

    We compared the positive rates of T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture in the smear-negative PTB, and analyzed the factors affecting the results of negative T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture. Retrospective evaluation of data from smear-negative PTB patients who underwent T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture were done. The agreement and concordance were analyzed between T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to explore the factors associated with positive results of T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture in smear-negative PTB. 858 eligible smear-negative PTB patients were included in the study. The agreement rate was 25.6% (22.7~28.5%) between T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture in smear- negative PTB patients. The positive rate of T-SPOT.TB was higher than that of bacterial culture in smear-negative PTB patients (p SPOT.TB and bacterial culture (p > 0.05). Using multivariable logistic regression analysis we found that older age ≥ 60 years (OR = 0.469, 95% CI: 0.287-0.768) and decreased albumin (OR = 0.614, 95% CI: 0.380-0.992) were associated with negative diagnostic results of T-SPOT.TB in smear-negative PTB patients. Female (OR = 0.654, 95% CI: 0.431-0.992) were associated with negative diagnostic results of bacteria culture in smear-negative PTB patients. Our results indicated that the older age and decreased albumin were independently associated with negative T-SPOT.TB responses.

  12. Chimeric rabbit/human Fab antibodies against the hepatitis Be-antigen and their potential applications in assays, characterization, and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaolei; Watts, Norman R; Palmer, Ira W; Kaufman, Joshua D; Dearborn, Altaira D; Trenbeath, Joni L; Eren, Elif; Steven, Alasdair C; Rader, Christoph; Wingfield, Paul T

    2017-10-06

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection afflicts millions worldwide, causing cirrhosis and liver cancer. HBV e-antigen (HBeAg), a clinical marker for disease severity, is a soluble variant of the viral capsid protein. HBeAg is not required for viral replication but is implicated in establishing immune tolerance and chronic infection. The structure of recombinant e-antigen (rHBeAg) was recently determined, yet to date, the exact nature and quantitation of HBeAg still remain uncertain. Here, to further characterize HBeAg, we used phage display to produce a panel of chimeric rabbit/human monoclonal antibody fragments (both Fab and scFv) against rHBeAg. Several of the Fab/scFv, expressed in Escherichia coli , had unprecedentedly high binding affinities ( K d ∼10 -12 m) and high specificity. We used Fab/scFv in the context of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for HBeAg quantification, which we compared with commercially available kits and verified with seroconversion panels, the WHO HBeAg standard, rHBeAg, and patient plasma samples. We found that the specificity and sensitivity are superior to those of existing commercial assays. To identify potential fine differences between rHBeAg and HBeAg, we used these Fabs in microscale immunoaffinity chromatography to purify HBeAg from individual patient plasmas. Western blotting and MS results indicated that rHBeAg and HBeAg are essentially structurally identical, although HBeAg from different patients exhibits minor carboxyl-terminal heterogeneity. We discuss several potential applications for the humanized Fab/scFv.

  13. CLINICAL AND ANGIOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF PATIENTS WITH COMPLETE HEART BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavya Pingali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The angiographic findings and prognosis of patients with Complete Heart Block (CHB remain unclear. Thus, we aimed to study the clinical profile, risk factors, angiographic distribution and in-hospital outcomes of patients with complete heart block. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a prospective, single-centred study which included 100 patients who came to the emergency department with CHB. Routine blood investigations including serum electrolytes were done. Coronary angiogram was done and lesions were assessed. Temporary pacemaker was implanted followed by permanent pacemakers in required patients, and in-hospital complications were noted down. RESULTS Commonest age group was above 60 years (75%. The patients were predominantly males. Most common presentation was chest pain (60%; there was regional wall motion abnormality in 30% patients. Degenerative complete heart block was seen in 34% patients, diphtheric myocarditis in 15%, hypokalaemic in 15%, dilated cardiomyopathy in 2%. Of total 53 patients had AV block, 14 had bifascicular block, 23 had LBBB, 6 had RBBB, 3 had Mobitz I and 1 had Mobitz II. Inferior wall myocardial infarction (MI was pervasively present in patients. Temporary pacemakers were implanted in 6 patients and permanent pacemakers in 43 patients. In-hospital outcomes constituted of complication like cardiogenic shock (10% and death (26%. The patients who died either had 80% -90% stenosis in RCA, triple vessel disease, ostioproximal LAD occlusion or diphtheric myocarditis. CONCLUSION Complete heart block was majorly associated with advanced age and inferior wall MI, virtually caused by dominant RCA occlusion. The in-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the patients with CHB.

  14. The effect of plasma exchange on entecavir-treated chronic hepatitis B patients with hepatic de-compensation and acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue-Meng, Wan; Yang, Li-Hong; Yang, Jin-Hui; Xu, Ying; Yang, Jing; Song, Gui-Bo

    2016-05-01

    Various studies showed that entecavir (ETV) failed to improve the short-term survival in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with severe acute exacerbation (SAE) and hepatic de-compensation or acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). One study concluded that plasma exchange (PE) significantly decreased the short-term mortality of CHB patients with ACLF who were treated with lamivudine (LAM). Our study was designed to examine the effect of PE on CHB patients with ACLF who were treated with ETV. From August 2010 to January 2015, 38 (PE group) and 120 (control group) consecutive CHB-naïve patients with hepatic de-compensation and ACLF treated with PE plus ETV and ETV, respectively, were recruited. The primary endpoint was liver-related mortality at week 12. Biochemical and virological responses were also studied. At baseline, the PE group had higher serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores, and had lower albumin levels than the control group. The cumulative survival rate at week 4 and week 12 in the PE group and control group were, respectively, 37 and 18 %, and 29 and 14 % (p  0.05). Univariate analysis showed that the control group had a higher liver-related mortality (p = 0.038) at week 12 than the PE group. Multivariate analysis showed that hepatic encephalopathy, ascites, PE treatment, and MELD scores were independent factors for liver-related mortality at week 12. PE significantly improved the short-term survival of CHB patients with hepatic de-compensation and ACLF who were treated with ETV. Hepatic encephalopathy, ascites, PE treatment, and MELD scores were independent factors for liver-related mortality at week 12.

  15. Associations between prescribed Chinese herbal medicine and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tzung-Yi; Livneh, Hanoch; Hung, Tsung-Hsing; Lin, I-Hsin; Lu, Ming-Chi; Yeh, Chia-Chou

    2017-01-25

    Patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are reported to exhibit higher risk of subsequent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it remains unclear if Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), an important category of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), may lower HCC risk in this population. So this study aimed to investigate the effects of CHM on HCC risk among patients with CHB. This cohort study used the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database to identify 21 020 newly diagnosed patients with CHB from 1998 to 2007. Among them, 8640 received CHM products after CHB onset (CHM users), and the remaining 12 380 patients were designated as a control group (non-CHM users). All enrolees were followed until the end of 2012 to measure the incidence rate and HR of HCC. During 15 years of follow-up, 371 CHM users and 958 non-CHM users developed HCC, representing an incidence rate of 5.28% and 10.18% per 1000 person-years, respectively. CHM users had significantly lower HCC risk compared with non-CHM users (adjusted HR=0.63, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.72). The predominant effect was observed in those receiving CHM products for more than 180 days (adjusted HR=0.52). Some CHM products, such as Hedyotis diffusa, Scutellaria barbata, Rehmannia glutinosa, Isatis tinctoria, Yi Guan Jian, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Wu Ling San and Gan Lu Yin, were significantly associated with lower risk of HCC. The use of CHM was associated with a significantly reduced HCC risk in patients with CHB, which supports the integration of TCM with CHM into clinical practice to influence a favourable prognosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Decreased Siglec-9 Expression on Natural Killer Cell Subset Associated With Persistent HBV Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Siglec-9 is an MHC-independent inhibitory receptor selectively expressed on CD56dim NK cells. Its role in infection diseases has not been investigated yet. Here, we studied the potential regulatory roles of NK Siglec-9 in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B (CHB infection. Flow cytometry evaluated the expression of Siglec-9 and other receptors on peripheral NK cells. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect Siglec-9 ligands on liver biopsy tissues and cultured hepatocyte cell lines. Siglec-9 blocking assay was carried out and cytokine synthesis and CD107a degranulation was detected by flow cytometry. Compared to healthy donors, CHB patients had decreased Siglec-9+ NK cells, which reversely correlated with serum hepatitis B e antigen and HBV DNA titer. Siglec-9 expression on NK cells from patients achieving sustained virological response recovered to the level of normal donors. Neutralization of Siglec-9 restored cytokine synthesis and degranulation of NK cells from CHB patients. Immunofluorescence staining showed increased expression of Siglec-9 ligands in liver biopsy tissues from CHB patients and in hepatocyte cell lines infected with HBV or stimulated with inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 or TGF-β. These findings identify Siglec-9 as a negative regulator for NK cells contributing to HBV persistence and the intervention of Siglec-9 signaling might be of potentially translational significance.

  17. Application of DNA chips in the analysis of gene mutation in HBV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongzhong; Ruan Lihua; Zhou Guoping; Wu Guoxiang; Chen Min

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical applicability of DNA chips for analysis of gene mutation in HBV. Methods: Serum HBV DNA from 47 patients with viral hepatitis type B was amplified with PCR. Possible gene mutations were searched for in site 1896 of pre-C section, sites 1762,1764 of BCP section and sites 528, 552 of P section with DNA chip method based upon membrane coloration. Results: In the 32 patients without lamivudine treatment, the results were as follows: (1) 6 specimens with HBsAg + , HBeAg + , HBeAb - , no mutations observed. (2) 13 specimens with HBsAg + , HBeAg - , HBeAb + , mutations at site 1896, pre- C 4 cases, mutations at sites 1762,1764, BCP 11 cases. (3) 13 specimens with HBsAg + , HBeAg + , HBeAb + , mutations at site 1896 pre -C 4 cases, mutations at sites 1762,1764 BCP 13 cases. In the 15 patients after 48 weeks treatment with lamivudine but remained HBV DNA positive, mutations were observed at: site 1896 pre-C, 5 cases, sites 1762,1764 BCP, 6 cases, site 528 P section, 2 cases, site 552 P section, YVDD 4 cases, YIDD 7 cases. Conclusion: Mutations at sites 1896, 1762,1764 were more frequent in patients with HBeAb + and were related to the negative expression of HBeAg, Mutations at 1762,1764 BCP were closely related to the changes of HBeAg/HBeAb. P section mutations were only observed after lamivadine treatment and were related to resistance against the drug. DNA chip method based upon membrane coloration for detection of gene mutation was expedient and specific and worth popularization. (authors)

  18. Impact of FIB-4 index on hepatocellular carcinoma incidence during nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B: An analysis using time-dependent receiver operating characteristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Toshifumi; Kumada, Takashi; Toyoda, Hidenori; Tsuji, Kunihiko; Hiraoka, Atsushi; Tanaka, Junko

    2017-02-01

    Nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapy has been reported to reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, even during NA therapy, development of HCC has been observed in patients with CHB. Therefore, we clarified the predictive power of clinical factors for HCC incidence using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis that takes time dependence into account. A total of 539 patients with CHB treated with NAs were enrolled. Univariate, multivariate, and time-dependent ROC curves for clinical factors associated with the development of HCC were analyzed. Eighty-one patients developed HCC during the follow-up period (median duration, 5.9 years). α-fetoprotein (AFP) and FIB-4 index at 24 weeks from the initiation of treatment and sex were significantly associated with HCC incidence according to the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards models including the covariates of sex, hepatitis B genotype, basal core promoter mutations, AFP at 24 weeks, and FIB-4 index at 24 weeks showed that FIB-4 index >2.65 (HR, 5.03; 95% CI, 3.06-8.26; P patients with CHB receiving NA therapy is a risk factor for developing HCC. The FIB-4 index is an excellent predictor of HCC development. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Zhu Hong

    Full Text Available Liver biopsy is indispensable because liver stiffness measurement alone cannot provide information on intrahepatic inflammation. However, the presence of fibrosis highly correlates with inflammation. We constructed a noninvasive model to determine significant inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients by using liver stiffness measurement and serum markers.The training set included chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 327, and the validation set included 106 patients; liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored, and serum markers were investigated. All patients underwent liver stiffness measurement.An inflammation activity scoring system for significant inflammation was constructed. In the training set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.964, 91.9%, and 90.8% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.978, 85.0%, and 94.0% in the HBeAg(- patients, respectively. In the validation set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.971, 90.5%, and 92.5% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.977, 95.2%, and 95.8% in the HBeAg(- patients. The liver stiffness measurement-based activity score was comparable to that of the fibrosis-based activity score in both HBeAg(+ and HBeAg(- patients for recognizing significant inflammation (G ≥3.Significant inflammation can be accurately predicted by this novel method. The liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system can be used without the aid of computers and provides a noninvasive alternative for the prediction of chronic hepatitis B-related significant inflammation.

  20. Prediction of liver-related events using fibroscan in chronic hepatitis B patients showing advanced liver fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Up Kim

    Full Text Available Liver stiffness measurement (LSM using transient elastography (FibroScan® can assess liver fibrosis noninvasively. This study investigated whether LSM can predict the development of liver-related events (LREs in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients showing histologically advanced liver fibrosis.Between March 2006 and April 2010, 128 CHB patients with who underwent LSM and liver biopsy (LB before starting nucleot(side analogues and showed histologically advanced fibrosis (≥F3 with a high viral loads [HBV DNA ≥2,000 IU/mL] were enrolled. All patients were followed regularly to detect LRE development, including hepatic decompensation (variceal bleeding, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC.The mean age of the patient (72 men, 56 women was 52.2 years. During the median follow-up period [median 27.8 (12.6-61.6 months], LREs developed in 19 (14.8% patients (five with hepatic decompensation, 13 with HCC, one with both. Together with age, multivariate analysis identified LSM as an independent predictor of LRE development [P19 kPa were at significantly greater risk than those with LSM≤19 kPa for LRE development (HR, 7.176; 95% CI, 2.257-22.812; P = 0.001.LSM can be a useful predictor of LRE development in CHB patients showing histologically advanced liver fibrosis.

  1. Performance of transient elastography for the staging of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Eun Chon

    Full Text Available Transient elastography (TE, a non-invasive tool that measures liver stiffness, has been evaluated in meta-analyses for effectiveness in assessing liver fibrosis in European populations with chronic hepatitis C (CHC. However, these data cannot be extrapolated to populations in Asian countries, where chronic hepatitis B (CHB is more prevalent. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the overall performance of TE for assessing liver fibrosis in patients with CHB.Studies from the literature and international conference abstracts which enrolled only patients with CHB or performed a subgroup analysis of such patients were enrolled. Combined effects were calculated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC and diagnostic accuracy values of each study.A total of 18 studies comprising 2,772 patients were analyzed. The mean AUROCs for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis (F2, severe fibrosis (F3, and cirrhosis (F4 were 0.859 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.857-0.860, 0.887 (95% CI, 0.886-0.887, and 0.929 (95% CI, 0.928-0.929, respectively. The estimated cutoff for F2 was 7.9 (range, 6.1-11.8 kPa, with a sensitivity of 74.3% and specificity of 78.3%. For F3, the cutoff value was determined to be 8.8 (range, 8.1-9.7 kPa, with a sensitivity of 74.0% and specificity of 63.8%. The cutoff value for F4 was 11.7 (range, 7.3-17.5 kPa, with a sensitivity of 84.6% and specificity of 81.5%.TE can be performed with good diagnostic accuracy for quantifying liver fibrosis in patients with CHB.

  2. Comparison of hepatitis E virus seroprevalence between HBsAg-positive population and healthy controls in Shandong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Jiang, Zechun; Lv, Jingjing; Liu, Jiaye; Yan, Bingyu; Feng, Yi; Li, Li; Zhang, Guomin; Wang, Fuzhen; Xu, Aiqiang

    2018-02-12

    Persons with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection were reported to suffer severe disease after hepatitis E virus (HEV) superinfection, but the studies regarding HEV seroprevalence in this population were limited. A recent study in Vietnam found higher HEV seroprevalence among CHB patients compared with healthy controls. A community-based case-control study was conducted in two counties of Shandong province, China, where hepatitis E incidence was at the highest (Rushan) and lowest (Zhangqiu) in the province based on data from routine public health surveillance. Four townships were selected randomly from each county and all residents in these townships were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Those tested positive for HBsAg (CHB group) and the 1:1 age and sex-matched HBsAg-negative residents (control group) were included. Anti-HEV IgM and IgG were tested and positive rates of IgG and IgM were compared between the CHB group and the control group. In total, 2048 CHB participants and 2054 controls were included in the study. In the CHB group, HEV IgG seroprevalence was 9.16% (95% CI: 7.47-11.09) in Zhangqiue and 38.06% (95% CI: 35.07-41.19) in Rushan (P < 0.001); the corresponding rates of IgM were 0.1% (95% CI: 0.002-0.54) and 1.57% (95% CI: 0.90-2.53), respectively (P < 0.001). HEV IgG seroprevalence was similar between CHB group and the control group in both counties (P = 0.21, P = 0.47, respectively) and the same results were found for the positive rate of IgM (P = 0.103, P = 0.262, respectively). Multivariable analysis showed the status of HBsAg was not independently associated with the status of anti-HEV IgG in either Zhangqiu or Rushan [P = 0.187, OR = 1.23(95% CI: 0.90, 1.68); P = 0.609, OR = 1.05 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.26)]. The seroprevalence of HEV varies greatly in different geographic areas, but the seroprevalence is similar between populations with and without CHB. CHB patients residing in high HEV endemic areas

  3. Neurologic emergencies in HIV-negative immunosuppressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-De-Villoria, J A; Fernández-García, P; Borrego-Ruiz, P J

    HIV-negative immunosuppressed patients comprise a heterogeneous group including transplant patients, patients undergoing treatment with immunosuppressors, uremic patients, alcoholics, undernourished patients, diabetics, patients on dialysis, elderly patients, and those diagnosed with severe or neoplastic processes. Epileptic seizures, focal neurologic signs, and meningoencephalitis are neurologic syndromes that require urgent action. In most of these situations, neuroimaging tests are necessary, but the findings can be different from those observed in immunocompetent patients in function of the inflammatory response. Infectious disease is the first diagnostic suspicion, and the identification of an opportunistic pathogen should be oriented in function of the type and degree of immunosuppression. Other neurologic emergencies include ischemic stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, neoplastic processes, and pharmacological neurotoxicity. This article reviews the role of neuroimaging in HIV-negative immunodepressed patients with a neurologic complication that requires urgent management. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Negative health care experiences of immigrant patients: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stronks Karien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative events are abusive, potentially dangerous or life-threatening health care events, as perceived by the patient. Patients' perceptions of negative events are regarded as a potentially important source of information about the quality of health care. We explored negative events in hospital care as perceived by immigrant patients. Methods Semi-structured individual and group interviews were conducted with respondents about negative experiences of health care. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a framework method. A total of 22 respondents representing 7 non-Dutch ethnic origins were interviewed; each respondent reported a negative event in hospital care or treatment. Results Respondents reported negative events in relation to: 1 inadequate information exchange with care providers; 2 different expectations between respondents and care providers about medical procedures; 3 experienced prejudicial behavior on the part of care providers. Conclusions We identified three key situations in which negative events were experienced by immigrant patients. Exploring negative events from the immigrant patient perspective offers important information to help improve health care. Our results indicate that care providers need to be trained in adequately exchanging information with the immigrant patient and finding out specific patient needs and perspectives on illness and treatment.

  5. Severity of depression in hepatitis B and hepatitis C patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.O.; Khokhar, N.; Shafqat, F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the severity of depression in chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and healthy subjects. Study Design: Comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad from July 2011 to February 2012. Methodology:A total of 206 subjects were divided in three groups. Group-I (chronic hepatitis C, n = 95), group-II (chronic hepatitis B, n = 29) and group-III (healthy subjects, n = 82). They were matched for age, gender and socioeconomic status and were compared for frequency and severity of depression as measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: Some degree of depression was noted in all groups. Frequency of depression was 72.6% in group-I, 58.6% in group-II and 37.8% in group-III (p value < 0.001). Conclusion: Both CHC and CHB had high frequency of some degree of depression. Hepatitis C patients had more depressive features than CHB. It is worthwhile to do more close mental health observation in them. A multidisciplinary team including a psychiatric specialist can help in this approach. (author)

  6. Role of Shear Wave Elastography in Evaluating the Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Yoon; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Sohn, Won; Park, Chan Hyuk; Kim, Tae Yeob; Jun, Dae Won; Kim, Yongsoo; Jeong, Woo Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims To investigate the use of measurements of liver stiffness (LS) by two-dimensional real-time shear wave elastography (SWE) for predicting the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods We retrospectively collected data on 291 enrolled patients with CHB whose LS had been measured using SWE. Results The mean age of the patients was 46.8 years; males predominated (67%), and 40 of the patients (14%) had clinical cirrhosis. Among the patients, 165 (56.7%) received antiviral treatment. The median LS value was 7.4 kPa, and the median follow-up period was 35.8 months (range, 3.0 to 52.8 months). During follow-up, HCC developed in 13 patients (4.5%), and the cumulative incidence rates of HCC at 1, 2, and 4 years were 1.1%, 3.6%, and 8.4%, respectively. Based on a multivariate analysis, older age (≥50 years) and higher LS value (≥10 kPa) were independently associated with the risk of developing HCC (hazard ratio [HR], 4.53, p=0.023; and HR, 4.08, p=0.022). The cumulative incidence rate of HCC was significantly higher in patients with higher LS values (≥10 kPa) than in those with lower LS values (<10 kPa) (p=0.001). Conclusions Increased LS measured by SWE at any time point regardless of antiviral treatment is associated with an increased risk of HCC in patients with CHB. PMID:28651307

  7. Clinical impacts of hazardous alcohol use and obesity on the outcome of entecavir therapy in treatment-naïve patients with chronic hepatitis B infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Gil Chung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsThe aim of this study was to analyze the clinical impacts of obesity and hazardous alcohol use on the outcome of entecavir (ETV therapy in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients.MethodsThe medical records of 88 treatment-naïve patients who were diagnosed with CHB and received ETV between March 2007 and September 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. Body mass index (BMI values and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT scores were obtained at 6 months after the initiation of ETV (0.5 mg daily treatment.ResultsA BMI of 25 kg/m2 or more was recognized as an indicator of obesity, and a total AUDIT score of 8 or more was recognized as an indicator of hazardous alcohol use. Of the cohort, 24 patients (27.3% were obese and 17 (19.3% were hazardous alcohol users. The rate of seroconversion, alanine aminotransferase (ALT normalization, and hepatitis B virus (HBV-DNA negativity (<300 copies/mL at 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment did not differ significantly between the normal-BMI and high-BMI groups. Moreover, the rate of seroconversion and HBV-DNA negativity at 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment did not differ significantly between the nonhazardous and hazardous alcohol users. However, the frequency of ALT normalization at 12 months was significantly lower among hazardous alcohol users (91.5% vs. 70.6%; P=0.033.ConclusionsObesity and hazardous alcohol drinking have no significant impact on the outcome of ETV treatment. However, the ALT normalization rate at 12 months after initiation of ETV treatment was significantly lower among the hazardous alcohol users.

  8. Long-term hepatitis B virus (HBV response to lamivudine-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-HBV co-infected patients in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woottichai Khamduang

    Full Text Available Approximately 4 million of people are co-infected with HIV and Hepatitis B virus (HBV. In resource-limited settings, the majority of HIV-infected patients initiate first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy containing lamivudine (3TC-containing-HAART and long-term virological response of HBV to lamivudine-containing HAART in co-infected patients is not well known.HIV-HBV co-infected patients enrolled in the PHPT cohort (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00433030 and initiating a 3TC-containing-HAART regimen were included. HBV-DNA, HIV-RNA, CD4+ T-cell counts and alanine transaminase were measured at baseline, 3 months, 12 months and then every 6 months up to 5 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate the cumulative rates of patients who achieved and maintained HBV-DNA suppression. Of 30 co-infected patients, 19 were positive for HBe antigen (HBeAg. At initiation of 3TC-containing-HAART, median HBV DNA and HIV RNA levels were 7.35 log(10 IU/mL and 4.47 log(10 copies/mL, respectively. At 12 months, 67% of patients achieved HBV DNA suppression: 100% of HBeAg-negative patients and 47% of HBeAg-positive. Seventy-three percent of patients had HIV RNA below 50 copies/mL. The cumulative rates of maintained HBV-DNA suppression among the 23 patients who achieved HBV-DNA suppression were 91%, 87%, and 80% at 1, 2, and 4 years respectively. Of 17 patients who maintained HBV-DNA suppression while still on 3TC, 4 (24% lost HBsAg and 7 of 8 (88% HBeAg-positive patients lost HBeAg at their last visit (median duration, 59 months. HBV breakthrough was observed only in HBeAg-positive patients and 6 of 7 patients presenting HBV breakthrough had the rtM204I/V mutations associated with 3TC resistance along with rtL180M and/or rtV173L.All HBeAg-negative patients and 63% of HBeAg-positive HIV-HBV co-infected patients achieved long-term HBV DNA suppression while on 3TC-containing-HAART. This study provides information useful for the management of co-infected patients

  9. Economic evaluation of treatments for chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Wiens

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a cost-utility study of adefovir, entecavir, interferon alpha, pegylated interferon alpha, lamivudine and tenofovir for chronic hepatitis B in the context of Brazilian Public Health Care System. A systematic review was carried out for efficacy and safety. Another review was performed to collect utility data and transition probabilities between health states. A Markov model was developed in a time horizon of 40 years with annual cycles for three groups of: HBeAg positive, HBeAg negative, and all patients. These strategies were compared to a fourth group that received no treatment. Discount rates of 5% were applied and sensitivity analyses were performed. Tenofovir offered the best cost-utility ratio for the three evaluated models: U$397, U$385 and U$384 (per QALY, respectively, for HBeAg positive, negative, and all patients. All other strategies were completely dominated because they showed higher costs and lower effectiveness than tenofovir. The sequence of cost-utility in the three models was: tenofovir, entecavir, lamivudine, adefovir, telbivudine, pegylated interferon alpha, and interferon alpha. In the sensitivity analysis, adefovir showed lower cost-utility than telbivudine in some situations. The study has some limitations, primarily related to the creation of scenarios and modeling. In this study, tenofovir presented the best cost-utility ratio. The results obtained in this study will be valuable in decision-making and in the review of the clinical protocol, mainly involving the allocation of available resources for health care.

  10. Negative health care experiences of immigrant patients: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmond, J.; Uiters, E.; de Bruijne, M.C.; Stronks, K.; Essink-Bot, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Negative events are abusive, potentially dangerous or life-threatening health care events, as perceived by the patient. Patients' perceptions of negative events are regarded as a potentially important source of information about the quality of health care. We explored negative

  11. The Score Model Containing Chinese Medicine Syndrome Element of Blood Stasis Presented a Better Performance Compared to APRI and FIB-4 in Diagnosing Advanced Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ling Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore a useful noninvasive assessment containing TCM syndrome elements for liver fibrosis in CHB patients. The demographic, clinical, and pathological data were retrospectively collected from 709 CHB patients who had ALT less than 2 times the upper limit of normal from April 2009 to October 2012. Logistical regression and area under receiver-operator curve (AUROC were used to determine the diagnostic performances of simple tests for advanced fibrosis (Scheuer stage, F ≥ 3. Results showed that the most common TCM syndrome element observed in this CHB population was dampness and Qi stagnation, followed by blood stasis, by heat, and less by Qi deficiency and Yin deficiency. The logistical regression analysis identified AST ≥ 35 IU/L, PLT ≤ 161 × 109/L, and TCM syndrome element of blood stasis as the independent risk factors for advanced fibrosis. Therefore, a score model containing these three factors was established and tested. The score model containing blood stasis resulted in a higher AUC (AUC = 0.936 compared with APRI (AUC = 0.731 and FIB-4 (AUC = 0.709. The study suggested that the score model containing TCM syndrome element of blood stasis could be used as a useful diagnostic tool for advanced fibrosis in CHB patients and presented a better performance compared to APRI and FIB-4.

  12. [Negative symptoms in patients with non schizophrenic psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnoli, Vicente F; Moroni, María V; Cohen, Diego; Chisari Rocha, Liliana; Marleta, María; Sepich Dalmeida, Tomás; Bonani, Matías; D'Alessio, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    The presence of negative symptoms (NS) in different clinical entities other than schizophrenia, with a dimensional approach of negative symptoms, was considered in this work. Determine the presence and distribution of NS, in a population of patients with non schizophrenic psychiatric disorders attending ambulatory treatment at public hospitals. Patients with define DSM IV diagnosis criteria for different disorders; affective, alimentary, substance abuse, anxiety, personality disorders and patients with ILAE diagnoses criteria for temporal lobe epilepsy were included. All patients underwent the subscale PANNS for negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Student T test was calculated to determine the differences of frequency for NS among psychiatric disorders. 106 patients were included; 60 women, 46 men, 38 years +/- 12.1. The 90% of patients have a low score of NS. Media 11.6, Max/min 9.38 -14.29. Emotional withdrawal and passive social withdrawal were more frequent in alimentary disorders than in affective disorder and than in epilepsy. Emotional withdrawal was more frequent in substance disorders than epilepsy. According this study, negative symptoms are present in a low to moderate intensity in non schizophrenic psychiatry entities and in the temporal lobe epilepsy.

  13. Psychometrics of the chronic liver disease questionnaire for Southern Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Elegance Ting Pui; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen; Lai, Ching Lung; Yuen, Man Fung; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To test the psychometric properties of a Chinese [(Hong Kong) HK] translation of the chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ). METHODS: A Chinese (HK) translation of the CLDQ was developed by iterative translation and cognitive debriefing. It was then administered to 72 uncomplicated and 78 complicated chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in Hong Kong together with a structured questionnaire on service utilization, and the Chinese (HK) SF-36 Health Survey Version 2 (SF-36v2). RESULTS: Scaling success was ≥ 80% for all but three items. A new factor assessing sleep was found and items of two (Fatigue and Systemic Symptoms) subscales tended to load on the same factor. Internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities ranged from 0.58-0.90 for different subscales. Construct validity was confirmed by the expected correlations between the SF-36v2 Health Survey and CLDQ scores. Mean scores of CLDQ were significantly lower in complicated compared with uncomplicated CHB, supporting sensitivity in detecting differences between groups. CONCLUSION: The Chinese (HK) CLDQ is valid, reliable and sensitive for patients with CHB. Some modifications to the scaling structure might further improve its psychometric properties. PMID:19598306

  14. Reactivation of viral replication in anti-HBe positive chronic HBsAg carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, K; Aldershvile, J; Kryger, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Reactivation of hepatitis B virus replication was investigated in an unselected group of 44 HBV DNA negative, anti-HBe positive chronic HBsAg carriers. Twenty-five patients (54%) were intravenous drug addicts and 7 (16%) were male homosexuals. Sixteen patients had evidence of delta infection...... to an annual reactivation rate of 5%. Reactivation in four patients was detected by reversion to HBV DNA positivity only, whereas HBeAg/anti-HBe status remained unchanged. Two patients became both HBV DNA and HBeAg positive. None of the patients developed hepatitis-like symptoms and transaminase elevation...

  15. Current role of transient elastography in the management of chronic hepatitis B patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jung Il [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Liver fibrosis is an important prognostic factor for chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and accurate evaluation of the stage of liver fibrosis is crucial in establishing management strategies. While liver biopsy is still considered the gold standard for staging liver fibrosis or cirrhosis, transient elastography (TE), a noninvasive means of assessing liver fibrosis, has come to play an increasing role in this process. After extensive validation, TE is now regarded as a reliable surrogate maker for grading the severity of liver fibrosis in CHB patients. It can detect the extent of fibrosis in a patient and can also be used to evaluate longitudinal changes in liver fibrosis over time with or without interventional management, such as antiviral therapy. However, several confounders hinder the effective assessment of liver fibrosis using TE, such as extensive liver necroinflammation, hepatic congestion, and cholestasis. TE has limited use in obese patients or patients with ascites. Although TE has several limitations, due to its accessibility and safety, it is a valuable tool for the initial evaluation and follow-up in patients with CH.

  16. Nonresponse to 18-month Lamivudine Monotherapy in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Dual Genotype B and C Infection and Acute Exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jen Sheu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular epidemiologic studies have indicated the possible existence of mixed infection of different hepatitis B virus (HBV genotypes in chronic hepatitis B (CH-B carriers, but the effect of dual HBV genotype B and C infection on the efficacy of lamivudine therapy remains unclear. We report four CH-B patients with dual HBV genotype B and C infection and acute exacerbation who received lamivudine monotherapy for about 18 months. None of them had achieved a sustained response at the end of the 18-month trial of treatment.

  17. Veritable antiviral capacity of natural killer cells in chronic HBV infection: an argument for an earlier anti-virus treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited information on innate immunity, especially natural killer (NK cell function, in different chronic hepatitis B (CHB stages. Therefore, we examined whether the clinical staging strategy accurately reflects veritable NK cell immunity. Methods A total of 237 eligible CHB patients and 22 healthy controls were enrolled in our study. Demographic and clinical data were collected, and the CHB phases (immune active-IA, immune tolerant phase-IT, inactive CHB-IC, and grey zone-GZ were classified according to the latest American Association for the Study of Liver Disease guidelines. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients and healthy controls were tested for NK cell frequency, phenotype and function using flow cytometry. Results A significant decrease in activating receptor NKp44 and NKp46 expression and significant increase of exhaustion molecule Tim-3 expression were observed in NK cells from CHB patients. Reduced cytokine secretion and preserved or elevated cytotoxic function were also observed. Patients in the IT group exhibited comparable cytokine secretion and cytolytic capacity as age-matched IA patients. NK cell anti-viral functions were preserved in GZ patients. Some of the NK cell function in patients who were excluded from treatment by the current treatment guidelines was less compromised than patients who qualified for treatment. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence of veritable NK cell immunity during different natural history phases in treatment-naïve patients with chronic HBV Infection. Chronic HBV infection hindered NK cell function in CHB patients. However, the presumed IT and GZ statuses of CHB patients based on the clinical parameters may not accurately reflect the inner immune status of these patients and should be reconsidered. Some patients excluded from treatment by the current treatment guidelines may be able to be selected as candidates for treatment.

  18. Three types of preS1 start codon deletion variants in the natural course of chronic hepatitis B infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Won Hyeok; Kim, Hong; Lee, So-Young; Choi, Yu-Min; Kwon, So Young; Moon, Hee Won; Hur, Mina; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2017-12-12

    Naturally occurring hepatitis B virus variants carrying a deletion in the preS1 start codon region may evolve during long-lasting virus-host interactions in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The aim of this study was to determine the immune phase-specific prevalent patterns of preS1 start codon deletion variants and related factors during the natural course of CHB. A total of 399 CHB patients were enrolled. Genotypic analysis of three different preS1 start codon deletion variants (classified by deletion size: 15-base pair [bp], 18-bp, and 21-bp deletion variants) was performed. PreS1 start codon deletion variants were detected in 155 of 399 patients (38.8%). The predominant variant was a 15-bp deletion in the immune-tolerance phase (18/50, 36%) and an 18-bp deletion in the immune-clearance phase (69/183, 37.7%). A 21-bp deletion was the predominant variant in the low replicative phase (3/25, 12.0%) and reactivated hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg)-negative phase (22/141, 15.6%). The 15-bp and 18-bp deletion variants were more frequently found in HBeAg-positive patients (P start codon deletion variants changes according to the immune phases of CHB infection, and each variant type is associated with different clinical parameters. PreS1 start codon deletion variants might interact with the host immune response differently according to their variant types. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Assessment of non-invasive models for liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B virus related liver disease patients in resource limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Rakesh; Sen, Sourav; Banerji, Debabrata; Praharaj, Ashok K; Chopra, Gurvinder Singh; Gill, Satyajit Singh

    2013-01-01

    A total of 350 million individuals are affected by chronic hepatitis B virus infection world-wide. Historically, liver biopsy has been instrumental in adequately assessing patients with chronic liver disease. A number of non-invasive models have been studied world-wide. The aim of this study is to assess the utility of non-invasive mathematical models of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Indian patients in a resource limited setting using routinely performed non-invasive laboratory investigations. A cross-sectional study carried out at a tertiary care center. A total of 52 consecutive chronic liver disease patients who underwent percutaneous liver biopsy and 25 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Routine laboratory investigations included serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Gama glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total bilirubin, total cholesterol, prothrombin time and platelet count. Three non-invasive models for namely aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), Fibrosis 4 (FIB-4) and Forn's index were calculated. Outcomes were compared for the assessment of best predictor of fibrosis by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of each index. Medcalc online software and by Microsoft Excel Worksheet. Chi-square test was used for significance. P value value of all 3 indices were significantly higher in patients group as compare with the controls (P model for excluding significant liver fibrosis while FIB-4 with a PPV of 61% showed fair correlation with significant fibrosis. Thus, these two non-invasive models for predicting of liver fibrosis, namely APRI and FIB-4, can be utilized in combination as screening tools in monitoring of CHB patients, especially in resource limiting settings.

  20. Evaluation and Management of Patch Test-Negative Patients With Generalized Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen M

    Patients with generalized dermatitis are common in dermatology practices. Allergic contact dermatitis is often suspected, and patients frequently undergo patch testing. When the patch testing result is negative, further evaluation and management of these patients are challenging. The purpose of this study was to survey members of the American Contact Dermatitis Society regarding the evaluation and management of patch test-negative patients with generalized dermatitis. Generalized dermatitis was the most common term identified for patch test-negative patients with diffuse dermatitis. After having negative expanded patch testing results, most physicians proceeded with additional testing including skin biopsy, complete blood cell count with differential, and liver and renal function tests. The most commonly used systemic treatment is prednisone, followed by methotrexate. Narrow-band ultraviolet B (UVB) is the most commonly used light source. Antihistamines are frequently prescribed. Food allergy is not felt to be causative. This cohort of patients experiences significant impairment in quality of life, stress on personal relationships, and time off work. The management of patch test-negative patients with generalized dermatitis is challenging. This study provides insight into management of these complex patients. It also demonstrates practice gaps in the management of these patients, indicating a need for further studies to direct the evaluation and management of this patient population.

  1. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from patients who are nucleic acid amplification test- negative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yingda L; Cronin, Wendy A; Proschan, Michael; Oatis, Richard; Cohn, Silvia; Curry, Scott R; Golub, Jonathan E; Barry Iii, Clifton E; Dorman, Susan E

    2018-04-24

    Among adults with signs and symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), recognition of transmissible TB has implications for airborne infection isolation and public health activities. Sputum smear-negative TB patients account for around one-fifth of tuberculosis transmission. The tuberculosis transmission risk of TB patients with negative results on nucleic acid amplification (NAA) testing of respiratory specimens has not been established. We sought to estimate the tuberculosis transmission risk of NAA test-negative TB patients. We retrospectively reviewed Maryland TB program data from 2004 to 2009 during which NAA testing by the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD) was performed routinely. Patients with sputum Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) isolates having matching genotypes were assigned to clusters. Transmission sequence was approximated by collection order of individuals' first culture-positive specimens. Minimum transmission risks of NAA (MTD)-negative TB patients and of smear-negative TB patients were estimated based on individuals' positions within clusters. Among 809 patients with culture-confirmed TB, M.tb genotypes were available for 782 (96.7%). For NAA-negative TB patients the minimum transmission risk estimate was 5.1% (95% CI 0-11.4). For smear-negative TB patients the minimum transmission risk estimate was 11.2% (95% CI 7.2-15.3). Minimum transmission risk of NAA-negative TB patients was lower than that of smear-negative TB patients. However, transmission risk of NAA-negative TB patients appears to not be negligible.

  2. Impact of nucleos(tide analogues on quality of life in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHONG Chunxiu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the impact of treatment with nucleos(tide analogues on quality of life (QoL in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB, as well as proper nursing measures. MethodsA total of 102 CHB patients who were treated in Department of Infectious Diseases, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University from March 2010 to July 2014 were enrolled and divided into continuous treatment group (54 patients and drug withdrawal group (48 patients. The 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36 was used to measure QoL. The patients in the treatment group were evaluated before treatment and at 96 weeks of treatment, and those in the drug withdrawal group were evaluated at the time of drug withdrawal and at 48 weeks after drug withdrawal. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. The logistic regression analysis was performed for univariate and multivariate analyses. ResultsCompared with before treatment, the continuous treatment group had significant increases in the scores on the domains of physiological function, role physical, bodily pain, and general health after 96 weeks of antiviral therapy (physiological function: 94.91±7.11 vs 92.13±10.58, t=-2.924,P<0.05; role physical: 81.94±24.96 vs 71.76±34.01, t=-2.623,P<0.05; bodily pain: 87.72±8.64 vs 82.85±12.88, t=-3.576,P<0.05; general health: 59.63±1459 vs 53.52±16.79, t=-3.786,P<0.05. As for psychological quality, the continuous treatment group had a significant increase in the subscale of mental health (67.30±18.94 vs 75.56±15.53, t=-3.883,P<0.001, while there were no significant improvements in other subscales. At 48 weeks after drug withdrawal, the drug withdrawal group had significant increases in role physical (84.20±18.97 vs 72.49±24.38, t=-2.768,P<0.05, general health (69.28±22.94 vs 56.41±18.27, t=-3.206,P<0.05, and mental health (75.02±16.03 vs

  3. Custo-efetividade dos análogos de nucleosídeos/nucleotídeos para hepatite crônica B Costo-efectividad de los análogos de nucleósidos/nucleótidos para hepatitis crónica B Cost-effectiveness of nucleoside/nucleotide analogues in chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Maciel Almeida

    2012-12-01

    con HCB HBeAg negativo, sin evidencia clínica o histológica de cirrosis, DNA del VHB detectable, diagnóstico histológico de la enfermedad, HBsAg positivo en el suero por más de seis meses, elevados niveles de alanina transferasa (ALT (dos veces mayor que el límite superior de la normalidad [LSN] y promedio de edad de 40 años. Se desarrolló el Modelo de Markov para la hepatitis crónica B (antígeno HBeAg negativo con horizonte temporal de 40 años. Costos y beneficios se descontaron en 5%. Las tasas anuales de progresión, costos debido a complicaciones y la eficacia de los medicamentos se obtuvieron de la literatura. Las incertezas se evaluaron por análisis de sensibilidad unidireccional y probabilística. RESULTADOS: Iniciar el tratamiento con entecavir resultó en ganancia de 0,35 año/vida con relación a la lamivudina. El cociente de costo-efectividad incremental fue de R$ 16.416,08 por años de vida ganados. En el análisis de sensibilidad el cociente de costo-efectividad incremental fue más sensible a la variación en la probabilidad de transición de hepatitis crónica B para cirrosis compensada, tasa de descuento y precio de los medicamentos (±10%. En el análisis de sensibilidad probabilística, la curva de aceptación mostró que iniciar con entecavir fue la alternativa más costo-efectiva en comparación al uso de lamivudina. CONCLUSIONES: La disponibilidad del entecavir es económicamente atractiva como parte del tratamiento precoz para pacientes con hepatitis crónica B sin co-infección con el VIH.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of drug alternatives with rescue therapy in case of relapse due to viral resistance for the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB. METHODS: Hypothetical cohort of patients with CHB, HBeAg-negative, without clinical or histological evidence of cirrhosis, detectable HBV DNA, histological diagnosis of the disease, positive serum HBsAg for longer than six months, high levels of alanine

  4. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of a Novel Thermophilic Monofunctional Catalase from Geobacillus sp. CHB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xianbo; Chen, Jichen; Lin, Chenqiang; Lin, Xinjian

    2016-01-01

    Catalases are widely used in many scientific areas. A catalase gene (Kat) from Geobacillus sp. CHB1 encoding a monofunctional catalase was cloned and recombinant expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli), which was the first time to clone and express this type of catalase of genus Geobacillus strains as far as we know. This Kat gene was 1,467 bp in length and encoded a catalase with 488 amino acid residuals, which is only 81% similar to the previously studied Bacillus sp. catalase in terms of amino acid sequence. Recombinant catalase was highly soluble in E. coli and made up 30% of the total E. coli protein. Fermentation broth of the recombinant E. coli showed a high catalase activity level up to 35,831 U/mL which was only lower than recombinant Bacillus sp. WSHDZ-01 among the reported catalase production strains. The purified recombinant catalase had a specific activity of 40,526 U/mg and K m of 51.1 mM. The optimal reaction temperature of this recombinant enzyme was 60°C to 70°C, and it exhibited high activity over a wide range of reaction temperatures, ranging from 10°C to 90°C. The enzyme retained 94.7% of its residual activity after incubation at 60°C for 1 hour. High yield and excellent thermophilic properties are valuable features for this catalase in industrial applications.

  5. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of a Novel Thermophilic Monofunctional Catalase from Geobacillus sp. CHB1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Catalases are widely used in many scientific areas. A catalase gene (Kat) from Geobacillus sp. CHB1 encoding a monofunctional catalase was cloned and recombinant expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli), which was the first time to clone and express this type of catalase of genus Geobacillus strains as far as we know. This Kat gene was 1,467 bp in length and encoded a catalase with 488 amino acid residuals, which is only 81% similar to the previously studied Bacillus sp. catalase in terms of amino acid sequence. Recombinant catalase was highly soluble in E. coli and made up 30% of the total E. coli protein. Fermentation broth of the recombinant E. coli showed a high catalase activity level up to 35,831 U/mL which was only lower than recombinant Bacillus sp. WSHDZ-01 among the reported catalase production strains. The purified recombinant catalase had a specific activity of 40,526 U/mg and K m of 51.1 mM. The optimal reaction temperature of this recombinant enzyme was 60°C to 70°C, and it exhibited high activity over a wide range of reaction temperatures, ranging from 10°C to 90°C. The enzyme retained 94.7% of its residual activity after incubation at 60°C for 1 hour. High yield and excellent thermophilic properties are valuable features for this catalase in industrial applications. PMID:27579320

  6. Isolated congenital heart block in undifferentiated connective tissue disease and in primary Sjögren’s syndrome: a clinical study of 81 pregnancies in 41 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Todesco

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the incidence and the features of congenital heart block (CHB in patients with undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD and primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS. Methods: We studied 81 pregnancies of 41 women attending the Outpatients’ Clinic of the Rheumatology Unit of University Hospital of Padova from July 1989 to March 2004. Twenty five of these (61% were affected with UCTD and 16 (39% with pSS. Serologic inclusion criteria was anti-Ro/La positivity, assessed by counterimmunoelectrophoresis and ELISA. Results: CHB was found in 2 out of the 46 (4,3% pregnancies followed by our Staff and in 2 out of the 35 (5,7% included in the retrospective part of the study. In 3 cases CHB was a 3rd degree block, causing pregnancy termination in 2. The only 2nd degree block was identified in one patient at the 22nd week of gestation and treated with dexamethasone and plasma-exchange. All of the women were positive to 52 kd and 60 kd Ro autoantibodies. CHB mothers had higher titer antibodies to 52 kd Ro protein than did the mothers with healthy infants (P = 0,026. Electrocardiographic abnormalities at birth were found in 3 out of 29 asymptomatic infants. One presented sinus bradycardia, the second abnormalities of ventricular repolarization, both regressed spontaneously, while the third ventricular extrasystoles which continue even now at 5 months. Conclusion: These results showed that in UCTD and pSS there is a higher incidence of CHB than that reported in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Electrocardiographic screening in all infants born to mothers with anti-Ro/La antibodies would seem an important measure to identify those with irreversible heart conduction abnormalities.

  7. Correlation between the e-antigen, Pre-S2 antigen and DNA of hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Changhui; Liang Jinsheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg), Pre-S1 antigen (Pre-S1), Pre-S2 antigen (Pre-S2) and DNA of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Methods: The blood samples of 268 cases of viral B hepatitis were collected. The HBV DNA of all samples were tested by fluorescent-quantitating PCR method, and HBeAg were assayed by time-resolved fluoro-immunoassay method, and their Pre-S1 and Pre-S2 were assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbentassay method. Results: The positive rates of HBeAg, Pre-S1 and Pre-S2 in HBV DNA positive group were 48.2%, 76.4% and 100% respectively, and 1.6%, 36.3% and 32.3% respectively in HBV DNA negative group. There was significantly difference between the HBeAg, Pre-S1 and Pre-S2 positive rates of the two groups (Chi-square test, P<0.01). Conclusions: There was positive relationship between the HBeAg, Pre-S1, Pre-S2 and DNA which all were indicators of HBV reproduction. Comparing to HBV DNA, Pre-S2 was the most, Pre-S1 the second, and HBeAg the third sensitive indicator for evaluating HBV reproduction. Pre-S1 and Pre-S2 could be used as the supplementary indicator for the reproduction of HBV. (authors)

  8. Radioimmunoassay in the detection of the hepatitis Be antigen/antibody system in asymptomatic carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, G.; Dentico, P.; Angarano, G.; Schiraldi, O.; Zanetti, A.R.; Ferroni, P.

    1980-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for hepatitis e antigen (HBeAg) and antibody to e (anti-HBe) was developed and sera of 71 asymptomatic chronic carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), in 44 of whom liver biopsy was obtained, were tested. In addition, testing for Dane particle associated DNA polymerase activity was performed in all sera. HBeAg was detected in 14 subjects (19.7%) and anti-HBe in 46 (64.8%). The highest proportion of HBeAg positivity (40%) was found among carriers with histological evidence of chronic hepatitis, whereas anti-HBe was present in 80% of carriers with normal liver histology, in 58% of carriers with non-specific reactive hepatitis and in 60% of carriers with chronic liver lesions. DNA polymerase activity was present in 92.8% of sera positive for HBeAg, in 13% of sera positive for anti HBe, and in 9% of sera negative for both markers. Our results demonstrate that not all HBsAg carriers reactive to HBeAg show evidence of chronic hepatitis nor, conversely, that anti-HBe is invariably associated with the healthy carrier state of HBsAg. Finally, circulating Dane particles, as revealed by the presence of serum specific DNA polymerase activity, may also be present in anti-HBe positive sera other than those of some HBsAg carriers lacking both HBeAg and anti-HBe. (orig.) [de

  9. HBV-Derived Synthetic Long Peptide Can Boost CD4+ and CD8+ T-Cell Responses in Chronic HBV Patients Ex Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yingying; van Montfoort, Nadine; van den Bosch, Aniek; de Man, Robert A; Zom, Gijs G; Krebber, Willem-Jan; Melief, Cornelis J M; Buschow, Sonja I; Woltman, Andrea M

    2018-02-14

    Vaccination with synthetic long peptides (SLP) is a promising new treatment strategy for chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB). SLP can induce broad T-cell responses for all HLA types. Here we investigated the ability of a prototype HBV-core (HBc)-sequence-derived SLP to boost HBV-specific T cells in CHB patients ex vivo. HBc-SLP was used to assess cross-presentation by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) and BDCA1+ blood myeloid DC (mDC) to engineered HBV-specific CD8+ T cells. Autologous SLP-loaded and toll-like receptor (TLR)-stimulated DC were used to activate patient HBc-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. HBV-SLP was cross-presented by moDC, which was further enhanced by adjuvants. Patient-derived SLP-loaded moDC significantly increased autologous HBcAg18-27-specific CD8+ T cells and CD4+ T cells ex vivo. HBV-specific T cells were functional as they synthesized tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma. In 6/7 of patients blockade of PD-L1 further increased SLP effects. Also, importantly, patient-derived BDCA1+ mDC cross-presented and activated autologous T-cell responses ex vivo. As a proof of concept, we showed a prototype HBc-SLP can boost T-cell responses in patients ex vivo. These results pave the way for the development of a therapeutic SLP-based vaccine to induce effective HBV-specific adaptive immune responses in CHB patients. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  10. Kaposi’s sarcoma in an HIV-negative patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Georgina Garcia Lahera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi’s sarcoma is a vascular tumour of the skin, most frequently seen in men over 50 years of age, of long-term progress and low mortality. It is related to the infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; it appears in the advanced stages of the disease and with immunosuppression, affecting approximately 20 % of the people with HIV who do not take antiretroviral drugs. This is a case of an urban female patient who did not have a history of disease and who began to have squamous erythematous lesions on the right foot and on the thighs. A skin biopsy was performed and the patient was diagnosed with a Kaposi’s sarcoma. The patient was HIV-negative. This case is presented as it is a rare condition in an HIV-negative patient.

  11. Efficacy and safety on tenofovire therapy in patients with hepatitis B viral infections resistent to lamivudin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katanić N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic viral hepatitis B (CHB still represents a significant world health problem despite obligatory and worldwide immunization against infections of viral hepatitis B. In some patients with chronic viral hepatitis B infections, in the natural course of the disease, progression towards cirhossis and hepatocellular carcinoma is primarily targeted by antiviral CHB therapy stopping further progression of the disease. Today on the market there exist two classes of pharmnaceutical drugs for treatment of CHB: a immunomodulatory therapy with conventional interferon alpha (INF and PEGylated interferon alpha-2a, b and oral antiviral therapy with nucleos( tide analogues. Lamivudine was for quite a period the only medicament available on our market for the treatment of HVB and in most of our patients led to the development of resistance. As of two years ago, a new oral analogue from the group of nucleotides is being registered in Serbia for market use: tenofovir disoproxil (TDF. In our work we have analysed 69 patients with chronic viral hepatitis B treated in the Clinic for Infectious and Tropical Diseases KCS Belgrade in the period between years 2012 and 2014. All patients involved in this reasearch were previously treated with LAM, and on subsequent development of resistance to LAM, TDF was used. TDF showed an excellent efficacy, a high resistance barrier and very few unwanted side effects over several years of treatment. Our experience with the use of this drug does not pertain to and acount for its long term use, in view of its brief availability on our market.

  12. Sero markers of hepatitis B and C in patients with cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Khalil-ur-Rehman; Haider, Z.; Shafqat, F.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis. Design: It was a prospective study. Place and duration of study: This study was done at two centers, Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore and Jinnah Hospital, over a period of six months from June to December, 1997. Subjects and Methods: Ninety-four patients with liver cirrhosis were evaluated for sero markers of hepatitis B and C virus at two teaching hospitals in Lahore. Viral markers studied were anti-HCV, HBSAG, anti-HBclgG, anti-HBs, and HbeAg. Anti-HDV was done in HbsAg positive cases. Results: Twenty-two out of 94 (23%) patients were positive and 72(77%) negative for HbsAg. Anti-HCV was positive in 64 (68%) and no major sero markers for HBV or HCV were seen in 16 patients. Conclusion: It was evident from sero markers that exposure to hepatitis B and C had occurred but which one was responsible for cirrhosis, was hard to determine. Inasmuch as vaccine against hepatitis B virus is available, mass vaccination in the population may be a consideration to prevent cirrhosis due to hepatitis B virus. (author)

  13. Health-related quality of life in patients with chronic hepatitis B during antiviral treatment and off-treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue X

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiulan Xue,1,* Shaohang Cai,1–3,* Hongjie Ou,1 Caixia Zheng,1 Xiaolu Wu1 1Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian Province, 2Department of Pathology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, 3State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL has emerged as an important consideration in the care of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB. However, whether benefits from the improved HRQoL that occurs after antiviral treatment or drug discontinuation outweigh the risks of viral relapse is an unanswered question. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HRQoL among patients with CHB during antiviral treatment and withdrawal of treatment. Patients and methods: There were 102 patients who met the enrollment criteria with 54 patients in the treatment group and 48 patients in the discontinuation group. Sociodemographic information was collected. The 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were adopted to evaluate life quality and mental health. Results: In the treatment group, SF-36 showed that the physical functions were significantly increased. In the discontination group, the psychological functions showed improvement. A multivariate regression analysis indicated that baseline SF-36 score was a predictor for improvement in HRQoL (odds ratio =1.17, P=0.003 and baseline BDI score was a factor for remission of depression (odds ratio =0.75, P=0.005 after medical intervention. When the cutoff value of SF-36 score was set at 79.5, the sensitivity and specificity to predict improvement in HRQoL were 82.8% and 74.0%, respectively. When the cutoff value of BDI was found as 8.5, the sensitivity and specificity to predict

  14. Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-yan Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mismatch negativity is generated automatically, and is an early monitoring indicator of neuronal integrity impairment and functional abnormality in patients with brain injury, leading to decline of cognitive function. Antipsychotic medication cannot affect mismatch negativity. The present study aimed to explore the relationships of mismatch negativity with neurocognition, daily life and social functional outcomes in patients after brain injury. Twelve patients with traumatic brain injury and 12 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We examined neurocognition with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China, and daily and social functional outcomes with the Activity of Daily Living Scale and Social Disability Screening Schedule, respectively. Mismatch negativity was analyzed from electroencephalogram recording. The results showed that mismatch negativity amplitudes decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with healthy controls. Mismatch negativity amplitude was negatively correlated with measurements of neurocognition and positively correlated with functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. Further, the most significant positive correlations were found between mismatch negativity in the fronto-central region and measures of functional outcomes. The most significant positive correlations were also found between mismatch negativity at the FCz electrode and daily living function. Mismatch negativity amplitudes were extremely positively associated with Social Disability Screening Schedule scores at the Fz electrode in brain injury patients. These experimental findings suggest that mismatch negativity might efficiently reflect functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury.

  15. Clinical management of chronic hepatitis B infection: results from a registry at a German tertiary referral center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, M; Nigemeier, J; Kütting, F; Bowe, A; Schramm, C; Hoffmann, V; Waldschmidt, D; Goeser, T; Steffen, H-M

    2015-04-01

    We studied a cohort of adult patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection, followed at a tertiary referral liver center in Germany over 12.5 years to analyze the clinical features and impact of management on disease progression and survival of CHB patients in general and of those with CHB and HCC in particular. We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 242 adult (age ≥ 18 years) patients. CHB was defined as positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and/or HBV-DNA levels >10 IU/mL for at least 6 months. Patient demographics, HBV markers, antiviral treatment, laboratory parameters, liver imaging and histology were recorded for each visit. HCC patients were divided into two groups and separately analyzed (group 1: n = 24, HCC at first visit and group 2: n = 11, HCC during surveillance). The mean age was 44 years in CHB patients without HCC (63% male) and about 59 years in patients with HCC (77% male). Antiviral therapy was given to 59% of patients without HCC compared to only 25% in group 1 and 18% in group 2 with comparable median HBV DNA levels of approximately 36,000 IU/mL. There was no statistically significant difference concerning the HCC stages (Milan, UCSF, BCLC) at first diagnosis. Five-year survival was 19% in group 1 vs. 64% in group 2 (p = 0.019), with LTx performed in 12 vs. 45%, respectively. Surveillance of CHB patients did not result in early stage detection of HCC but in a higher likelihood to receive potentially curative treatments.

  16. Expression features of follicular helper T cells in peripheral blood in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the expression features of follicular helper T (Tfh cells in peripheral blood in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB. Methods A total of 53 CHB patients who were admitted to Department of Hepatology in Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated to Xinjiang Medical University from March 2016 to March 2017 were enrolled. Fasting venous blood samples were collected in the morning, and flow cytometry was used to measure Tfh and its subsets in peripheral blood. A total of 48 healthy individuals were enrolled as controls. The independent samples t-test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between two groups; a one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison between multiple groups, and the LSD-t test was used for further comparison between any two groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between two groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for comparison between multiple groups. The chi-square test or Fisher′s exact test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed to investigate correlation. Results The CHB group had significant higher percentages of CD4+ ICOS+, CD4+ CXCR5+, and CD4+ ICOS+ CXCR5+ Tfh cells than the control group (Z=-4.319, P<0.001; t=3.742, P<0.001; t=15.948, P<0.001. There were no significant differences in the percentages of CD4+ ICOS+, CD4+ CXCR5+, and CD4+ ICOS+ CXCR5+ Tfh cells between the CHB patients with different immune stages, i.e., low-level replication, immune tolerance, and immune clearance (all P>0.05. CD4+ ICOS+ CXCR5+ was not correlated with HBsAg quantitation or HBV DNA. Conclusion Tfh cells are involved in the immune response mediated by hepatitis B virus, and they exert an anti-HBV effect by regulating humoral immune response.

  17. Comparison between Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive and Negative Patients with Tuberculosis in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Henn

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the different characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive and negative patients treated for tuberculosis (TBC in a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil. We conducted a retrospective cohort study over a 5-year period, from January 1992 through December 1996. We reviewed medical charts of patients from our institution who received TBC treatment. We reviewed 167 medical charts of patients with confirmed TBC. HIV positivity was detected in 74 patients. There were statistically significant difference between HIV positive and negative patients in sex and age. HIV-infected patients showed significantly more signs of bacteremia than HIV-negative patients. Extra-pulmonary TBC was present respectively in 13 (17.6% and 21 (22.6% HIV positive and negative patients. There was a significant difference between chest radiograph presentation in HIV positive and negative patients. There were significantly lower hematocrit, hemoglobin, leukocyte and lymphocyte levels in HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative patients. Outcome was significantly different in the two groups with a death rate of 36.5% and 10.8% in HIV-positive and in HIV-negative patients. The difference between HIV positive and negative patients may have importance in the diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with TBC.

  18. Quantitative measurement of hepatic fibrosis with gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection: A comparative study on aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index and fibrosis-4 index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Guy Mok; Kim, Youe Ree; Cho, Eun Young; Lee, Young Hwan; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Ryu, Jong Hyun; Kim, Tae Hoon

    2017-01-01

    To quantitatively measure hepatic fibrosis on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and identify the correlations with aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) values. This study on gadoxetic acid-enhanced 3T MR imaging included 81 patients with CHB infection. To quantitatively measure hepatic fibrosis, MR images were analyzed with an aim to identify inhomogeneous signal intensities calculated from a coefficient of variation (CV) map in the liver parenchyma. We also carried out a comparative analysis between APRI and FIB-4 based on metaregression results. The diagnostic performance of the CV map was evaluated using a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. In the MR images, the mean CV values in control, groups I, II, and III based on APRI were 4.08 ± 0.92, 4.24 ± 0.80, 5.64 ± 1.11, and 5.73 ± 1.28, respectively (p < 0.001). In CHB patients grouped by FIB-4, the mean CV values of groups A, B, and C were 4.22 ± 0.95, 5.40 ± 1.19, and 5.71 ± 1.17, respectively (p < 0.001). The mean CV values correlated well with APRI (r = 0.392, p < 0.001) and FIB-4 (r = 0.294, p < 0.001). In significant fibrosis group, ROC curve analysis yielded an area under the curve of 0.875 using APRI and 0.831 using FIB-4 in HB, respectively. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging for calculating a CV map showed moderate correlation with APRI and FIB-4 values and could be employed to quantitatively measure hepatic fibrosis in patients with CHB

  19. Quantitative measurement of hepatic fibrosis with gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection: A comparative study on aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index and fibrosis-4 index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Guy Mok; Kim, Youe Ree; Cho, Eun Young; Lee, Young Hwan; Yoon, Kwon Ha [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jong Hyun; Kim, Tae Hoon [Imaging Science Research Center, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To quantitatively measure hepatic fibrosis on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and identify the correlations with aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) values. This study on gadoxetic acid-enhanced 3T MR imaging included 81 patients with CHB infection. To quantitatively measure hepatic fibrosis, MR images were analyzed with an aim to identify inhomogeneous signal intensities calculated from a coefficient of variation (CV) map in the liver parenchyma. We also carried out a comparative analysis between APRI and FIB-4 based on metaregression results. The diagnostic performance of the CV map was evaluated using a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. In the MR images, the mean CV values in control, groups I, II, and III based on APRI were 4.08 ± 0.92, 4.24 ± 0.80, 5.64 ± 1.11, and 5.73 ± 1.28, respectively (p < 0.001). In CHB patients grouped by FIB-4, the mean CV values of groups A, B, and C were 4.22 ± 0.95, 5.40 ± 1.19, and 5.71 ± 1.17, respectively (p < 0.001). The mean CV values correlated well with APRI (r = 0.392, p < 0.001) and FIB-4 (r = 0.294, p < 0.001). In significant fibrosis group, ROC curve analysis yielded an area under the curve of 0.875 using APRI and 0.831 using FIB-4 in HB, respectively. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging for calculating a CV map showed moderate correlation with APRI and FIB-4 values and could be employed to quantitatively measure hepatic fibrosis in patients with CHB.

  20. Prognostic factors in patients with node-negative gastric cancer: an Indian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganathan Rama

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The status of the regional nodes is the most important prognostic factor in gastric cancer. There are subgroups of patients with different prognosis even in node-negative patients of gastric cancer. The aim of this study is to analyze the factors influencing the prognosis in Indian patients with node-negative gastric cancer. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent radical gastrectomy in a tertiary cancer centre in India between1991 and 2007. The study group included only patients with histologically node-negative disease. Various clinical, pathological and treatment related factors in this group of patients were analyzed to determine their prognostic ability by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Among the 417 patients who underwent gastrectomy during this period, 122 patients had node-negative disease. A major proportion of the patients had advanced gastric cancer. The 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival in all node-negative gastric cancer patients was 68.2% and 67.5% respectively. The overall recurrence rate in this group was 27.3%. On univariate analysis, the factors found to significantly influence the disease-free survival were the size, location and presence or absence of serosal invasion of the primary tumor. However, on multivariate analysis, only tumor size more than 3 cm and serosal invasion were found to be independently associated with an inferior survival. Conclusion Serosal invasion and primary tumor size more than 3 cm independently predict a poor outcome in patients with node-negative gastric cancer.

  1. Contingent negative variation of mood disorder patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingzhi Lu; Wenbin Zong; Qingtao Ren; Jinyu Pu; Jun Chen; Juan Li; Xingshi Chen; Yong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Studies on brain-evoked potential and contingent negative variation (CNV) in mood disorder remain controversial. To date, no CNV difference between unipolar and bipolar depression has been reported. Brain-evoked potentials were measured in the present study to analyze CNV in three subtypes of mood disorder (mania, unipolar depression, and bipolar depression), and these results were compared with normal controls. In the mania group, CNV amplitude B was greater than in controls, and the depression group exhibited lower CNV amplitude B and smaller A-S'2 area, and prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency. The CNV comparison between unipolar and bipolar depression found that the prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency was only in unipolar depression. These results suggest that prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency is a characteristic of unipolar depression, and CNV amplitude change is a state characteristic of mood disorder patients.

  2. Oncologists' negative attitudes towards expressing emotion over patient death and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granek, Leeat; Ben-David, Merav; Nakash, Ora; Cohen, Michal; Barbera, Lisa; Ariad, Samuel; Krzyzanowska, Monika K

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between negative attitudes towards expressing emotion following patient death and burnout in oncologists and to explore oncologists' preferences for institutional interventions to deal with patient death. The participants included a convenience sample of 177 oncologists from Israel and Canada. Oncologists completed a questionnaire package that included a sociodemographic survey, a burnout measure, a survey assessing negative attitudes towards expressing emotion, and a survey assessing desired interventions to cope with patient death. To examine the association between burnout and negative attitudes while controlling for the effect of sociodemographic variables, a hierarchical linear regression was computed. Higher burnout scores were related to higher negative attitudes towards perceived expressed emotion (partial r = .25, p training) helpful in coping with patient death. Our findings suggest that high burnout scores are associated with negative attitudes towards expressing emotion and that there is a wide variation in oncologist preferences in coping with patient death. Institutions should promote interventions that are varied and that focus on the needs of oncologists in order to reduce burnout. Interventions that legitimize expression of emotion about patient death may be useful. Another way to reduce stigma would be to require oncologists to "opt out" rather than "opt in" to accessing a selection of social and/or individual interventions.

  3. Plasma homovanillic acid levels in schizophrenic patients: correlation with negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Ricardo; Zumárraga, Mercedes; Basterreche, Nieves; Arrúe, Aurora; Anguiano, Juan B

    2007-05-30

    The relation between changes in the levels of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and clinical evolution during neuroleptic treatment of schizophrenic patients has not been satisfactorily characterized, as a number of conflicting findings have been reported. Significant correlations have generally been found using the assessment of positive symptoms as an index of clinical outcome. Nevertheless, attempts to correlate pHVA concentrations with negative symptoms have yielded contradictory results. With a view to evaluating if different responses in negative symptoms are associated with distinct pHVA profiles, we examined the levels of pHVA in 46 neuroleptic-free schizophrenic patients and in these patients after neuroleptic treatment. Negative and positive symptoms were also addressed before and after treatment. Our results reveal that at least two classes of negative symptoms exist; the clinical evolution of the first class of negative symptoms parallels that of positive symptoms, and clinical improvement correlates with reduced dopaminergic activity. In contrast, in the second class, reduced dopaminergic activity is associated with a further deterioration of negative symptoms. These findings corroborate the heterogeneity of negative symptoms and may contribute to a better definition of endophenotypes in the schizophrenic syndrome.

  4. Diagnostic value of PIVKA-II and alpha-fetoprotein in hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung In; Kim, Hyoung Su; Kim, Won Jin; Shin, Woon Geon; Kim, Doo Jin; Kim, Kyung Ho; Jang, Myoung Kuk; Lee, Jin Heon; Kim, Joo Seop; Kim, Hak Yang; Kim, Dong Joon; Lee, Myung Seok; Park, Choong Kee

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the cutoff values and to compare the diagnostic role of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: A total of 1255 patients with CHB, including 157 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 879 with non-cirrhotic CHB and 219 with cirrhosis without HCC, were retrospectively enrolled. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves of PIVKA-II, AFP and their combination were calculated and compared. RESULTS: The optimal cutoff values for PIVKA-II and AFP were 40 mAU/mL and 10 ng/mL, respectively, for the differentiation of HCC from nonmalignant CHB. The sensitivity and specificity were 73.9% and 89.7%, respectively, for PIVKA-II and 67.5% and 90.3% for AFP, respectively. The AUROC curves of both PIVKA-II and AFP were not significantly different (0.854 vs 0.853, P = 0.965) for the differentiation of HCC from nonmalignant CHB, whereas the AUROC of PIVKA-II was significantly better than that of AFP in patients with cirrhosis (0.870 vs 0.812, P = 0.042). When PIVKA-II and AFP were combined, the diagnostic power improved significantly compared to either AFP or PIVKA-II alone for the differentiation of HCC from nonmalignant CHB (P < 0.05), especially when cirrhosis was present (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Serum PIVKA-II might be a better tumor marker than AFP, and its combination with AFP may enhance the early detection of HCC in patients with CHB. PMID:25852278

  5. Low liver stiffness among cirrhotic patients with hepatitis B after prolonged treatment with nucleoside analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ellen Sloth; Weiland, Ola; Leutscher, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Case reports and short-term clinical trials have suggested that treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) may lead to improvement of cirrhosis. The aim of the present study was to measure liver stiffness in patients diagnosed with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis prior to prolonged treatment...

  6. Clinical and neurophysiological findings in oligoclonal band negative multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesaroš Šarlota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides magnetic resonance imaging, the presence of locally produced oligoclonal IgG bands (OCB in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is the most consistent laboratory abnormality in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. The most sensitive method for the detection of CSF OCB is isoelectric focusing (IEF [6]. Occasional patients with clinically definite MS lack evidence for intrathecal IgG synthesis [7, 8]. This study was designed to compare clinical data and evoked potential (EP findings between CSF OCB positive and OCB negative MS patients. The study comprised 22 OCB negative patients with clinically definite MS [11] and 22 OCB positive controls matched for age, disease duration, activity and course of MS. In both groups clinical assessment was performed by using Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score [12] and progression rate (PR. All patients underwent multimodal EP: visual (VEPs, brainstem auditory (BAEPs and median somatosensory (mSEPs. The VEPa were considered abnormal if the P100 latency exceeded 117 ms or inter-ocular difference greater than 8 ms was detected. The BAEPs were considered abnormal if waves III or V were absent or the interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, or I-V were increased. The mSEPs were considerd abnormal when N9, N13 and N20 potentials were absent or when increased interpeak latencies were recorded. The severity of the neurophysiological abnormalities was scored for each modality as follows normal EP score 0; every other EP abnormality except the absence of one of the main waves, score 1; absence of one or more of the main waves, score 2 [13]. Both mean EDSS score (4.0 vs. 3.5 and PR (0.6 vs. 0.5 were similar in OCB positive and OCB negative group, (p>0.05. In the first group males were predominant, but without statistical significance (Table 1. Disease started more often with the brainstem symptoms in the OCB positive than in OCB negative MS group (p=0.028, while there was no differences in other initial symptoms between

  7. High false-negative rate of anti-HCV among Egyptian patients on regular hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherif, Assem; Elbahrawy, Ashraf; Aboelfotoh, Atef; Abdelkarim, Magdy; Saied Mohammad, Abdel-Gawad; Abdallah, Abdallah Mahmoud; Mostafa, Sadek; Elmestikawy, Amr; Elwassief, Ahmed; Salah, Mohamed; Abdelbaseer, Mohamed Ali; Abdelwahab, Kouka Saadeldin

    2012-07-01

    Routine serological testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among hemodialysis (HD) patients is currently recommended. A dilemma existed on the value of serology because some investigators reported a high rate of false-negative serologic testing. In this study, we aimed to detect the false-negative rate of anti-HCV among Egyptian HD patients. Seventy-eight HD patients, negative for anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and hepatitis B surface antigen, were tested for HCV RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the next step, the viral load was quantified by real-time PCR in RT-PCR-positive patients. Risk factors for HCV infection, as well as clinical and biochemical indicators of liver disease, were compared between false-negative and true-negative anti-HCV HD patients. The frequency of false-negative anti-HCV was 17.9%. Frequency of blood transfusion, duration of HD, dialysis at multiple centers, and diabetes mellitus were not identified as risk factors for HCV infection. The frequency of false-negative results had a linear relation to the prevalence of HCV infection in the HD units. Timely identification of HCV within dialysis units is needed in order to lower the risk of HCV spread within the HD units. The high false-negative rate of anti-HCV among HD patients in our study justifies testing of a large scale of patients for precious assessment of effectiveness of nucleic acid amplification technology testing in screening HD patient. © 2012 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2012 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  8. Serum γ-glutamyl transferase levels, insulin resistance and liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Petta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Serum levels of γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase(γ-GT were associated with liver disease severity and metabolic alterations, which in turn are able to affect hepatic damage. In patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C (G1CHC and chronic hepatitis B (CHB, we assessed the link between liver fibrosis and γ-GT serum levels, and we evaluated if normal or high γ-GT serum levels affect the association between insulin resistance (IR and severity of liver fibrosis. METHODS: 843 consecutive patients with chronic liver disease (CLD(193 NAFLD, 481 G1CHC, 169 CHB were evaluated by liver biopsy (Kleiner and Scheuer scores and clinical and metabolic measurements. IR was diagnosed if HOMA>3. A serum γ-GT concentration of >36 IU/L in females and >61 IU/L in males was considered the threshold value for identifying high levels of γ-GT. RESULTS: By multivariate logistic regression analysis, abnormal γ-GT serum levels were independently linked to severe liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD (OR2.711,CI1.120-6.564,p = 0.02, G1CHC (OR3.461,CI2.138-5.603,p80%. Interestingly, among patients with high or normal γ-GT values, even if IR prevalence was significantly higher in patients with severe fibrosis compared to those without, IR remained significantly associated with severe fibrosis in patients with abnormal γ-GT values only (OR4.150,CI1.079-15.970,p = 0.03 for NAFLD; OR2.250,CI1.211-4.181,p = 0.01 for G1CHC; OR3.096,CI2.050-34.220,p = 0.01 for CHB. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CLD, IR is independently linked to liver fibrosis only in patients with abnormal γ-GT values, without differences according to liver disease etiology, and suggesting a role of γ-GT as a marker of metabolic-induced liver damage. These data could be useful for the clinical and pharmacologic management of patients with CLD.

  9. Serum adiponectin is increased in advancing liver fibrosis and declines with reduction in fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chee-Kin; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Lee, Nikki P; Chan, Weng; Yueng, Yui-Hung; Leung, Kar-Wai; Lu, Lei; Leung, Nancy; Lo, Chung-Mau; Fan, Sheung-Tat; Luk, John M; Xu, Aimin; Lam, Karen S; Kwong, Yok-Lam; Lau, George K K

    2007-08-01

    Despite the possible role of adiponectin in the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis, few data have been collected from patients in different stages of liver fibrosis. We studied the role of adiponectin in 2 chronic hepatitis B (CHB)-patient cohorts. Serum adiponectin was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. One-hundred liver biopsy specimens from CHB patients with different stages of fibrosis and 38 paired liver biopsies from hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients randomized to lamivudine (n=15), pegylated interferon alfa-2a (n=15) or pegylated interferon alfa-2a plus lamivudine (n=8) therapy for 48 weeks were assessed. Serum adiponectin was detected at levels ranging over fourfold magnitude with advancing fibrosis stage and correlated positively with fibrosis stage [r=0.45, p<0.001]. CHB patients with stage 0-1 fibrosis had higher composition of high molecular weight (HMW) form of adiponectin when compared with CHB patients with liver cirrhosis [mean+/-SEM 51.2+/-2.1% vs. 40.9+/-1.7%, respectively, p=0.001]. After antiviral therapy, patients with fibrosis reduction had marked decline in serum adiponectin level and increase in HMW form of adiponectin [mean+/-SEM 43.5+/-1.2% vs. 37.0+/-3.0%, respectively, p=0.04]. Serum adiponectin may have a role in fibrosis progression in CHB infection. A marked decline in serum adiponectin after antiviral therapy is associated with fibrosis reduction.

  10. [Phenotypic and functional features of NK and NKT cells in chronic hepatitis B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaofei; Li, Man; Sun, Xuehua; Zhou, Zhenhua; Zhu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xin; Gao, Yueqiu

    2015-06-01

    To detect the ratio of natural killer (NK)/natural killer T (NKT) cells in peripheral blood, the levels of NKG2D/NKG2A, interferon γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were harvested from CHB patients. The ratio of NK/NKT cells in PBMCs and the levels of NKG2D and NKG2A were detected by flow cytometry. The expressions of intracellular IFN-γ and TNF-α were analyzed by flow cytometry after the treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), brefeldin A (BFA) or ionomycin in vitro. The comparison between two groups was performed by independent sample t-test. The relationship of each index to hepatitis B virus load and serum alanine aminotransferase was analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. Compared with healthy controls, CHB patients presented with significantly decreased peripheral blood NK/NKT cell ratio and significantly elevated proportions of NKG2A+ NK and NKG2A+NKT cells, and after the treatment with PMA/BFA/ionomycin, IFN-γ+ NK and IFN-γ+ NKT cells were significantly reduced in CHB patients. NK and NKT cells showed a reduced ratio, disordered receptor expressions and decreased cytokine secretion capacity in CHB patients.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness and Cost Thresholds of Generic and Brand Drugs in a National Chronic Hepatitis B Treatment Program in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehlika Toy

    Full Text Available Chronic liver disease and liver cancer associated with chronic hepatitis B (CHB are leading causes of death among adults in China. Although newborn hepatitis B immunization has successfully reduced the prevalence of CHB in children, about 100 million Chinese adults remain chronically infected. If left unmanaged, 15-25% will die from liver cancer or liver cirrhosis. Antiviral treatment is not necessary for all patients with CHB, but when it is indicated, good response to treatment would prevent disease progression and reduce disease mortality and morbidity, and costly complications. The aim of this study is to analyze the cost-effectiveness of generic and brand antiviral drugs for CHB treatment in China, and assessing various thresholds at which a highly potent, low resistance antiviral drug would be cost-saving and/or cost-effective to introduce in a national treatment program. We developed a Markov simulation model of disease progression using effectiveness and cost data from the medical literature. We measured life-time costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs, and clinical outcomes. The no treatment strategy incurred the highest health care costs ($12,932-$25,293 per patient, and the worst health outcomes, compared to the antiviral treatment strategies. Monotherapy with either entecavir or tenofovir yielded the most QALYs (14.10-19.02 for both HBeAg-positive and negative patients, with or without cirrhosis. Threshold analysis showed entercavir or tenofovir treatment would be cost saving if the drug price is $32-75 (195-460 RMB per month, highly cost-effective at $62-110 (379-670 RMB per month and cost-effective at $63-120 (384-734 RMB per month. This study can support policy decisions regarding the implementation of a national health program for chronic hepatitis B treatment in China at the population level.

  12. MR imaging of multiple sclerosis in patients with negative cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooms, G.C.; Mathurin, P.; Cornelis, G.; Laterre, E.C.; Demeure, R.

    1986-01-01

    A prospective study was performed to assess the value of MR imaging for detecting demyelinating disease of the brain in 50 patients with clinically suspected multiple sclerosis but negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The MR imaging examinations were performed with a superconducting magnet (Philips Gyroscan S15) operating at 0.5T. A multisection, double spin-echo technique was used in all cases (TR = 2,100 msec, TE = 50 and 100 msec). No abnormality was demonstrated in eight patients. In the others, lesions were usually located in the periventricular white matter (rounded masses and/or high signal intensity bands along the lateral ventricles), the brain stem and thalami (12 patients), and the cerebellum (6 patients). In conclusion, MR imaging appears to be an exquisite imaging modality for confirmation of clinically suspected multiple sclerosis in patients with negative CSF. However, it must include examination of the spinal cord when the brain examination is negative

  13. Information Framing Reduces Initial Negative Attitudes in Cancer Patients' Decisions About Hospice Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Ilona; Glare, Paul A; Stabler, Stacy M; Epstein, Andrew S; Wiesenthal, Alison; Leblanc, Thomas W; Higgins, E Tory

    2018-06-01

    Negative attitudes toward hospice care might prevent patients with cancer from discussing and choosing hospice as they approach end of life. When making a decision, people often naturally focus on either expected benefits or the avoidance of harm. Behavioral research has demonstrated that framing information in an incongruent manner with patients' underlying motivational focus reduces their negative attitudes toward a disliked option. Our study tests this communication technique with cancer patients, aiming to reduce negative attitudes toward a potentially beneficial but often-disliked option, that is, hospice care. Patients (n = 42) with active cancer of different types and/or stages completed a paper survey. Participants read a vignette about a patient with advanced cancer and a limited prognosis. In the vignette, the physician's advice to enroll in a hospice program was randomized, creating a congruent message or an incongruent message with patients' underlying motivational focus (e.g., a congruent message for someone most interested in benefits focuses on the benefits of hospice, whereas an incongruent message for this patient focuses on avoiding harm). Patients' attitudes toward hospice were measured before and after receiving the physician's advice. Regression analyses indicated that information framing significantly influenced patients with strong initial negative attitudes. Patients were more likely to reduce intensity of their initial negative attitude about hospice when receiving an incongruent message (b = -0.23; P negative reactions toward hospice care. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk factors for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infection in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Mark L; Dulhunty, Joel M; Ballard, Emma; Chapman, Paul; Muller, Michael; Roberts, Jason A; Cotta, Menino O

    2018-05-01

    Infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative organisms leads to poorer outcomes in the critically ill burn patient. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for MDR Gram-negative pathogen infection in critically ill burn patients admitted to a major tertiary referral intensive care unit (ICU) in Australia. A retrospective case-control study of all adult burn patients admitted over a 7-year period was conducted. Twenty-one cases that cultured an MDR Gram-negative organism were matched with 21 controls of similar age, gender, burn size and ICU stay. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to individually assess risk factors after adjusting for Acute Burn Severity Index. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were reported. P-values negative infection included superficial partial thickness burn size (OR: 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.16; P-value: 0.034), prior meropenem exposure (OR: 10.39; 95% CI: 0.96-112.00; P-value: 0.054), Gram-negative colonization on admission (OR: 9.23; 95% CI: 0.65-130.15; P-value: 0.10) and escharotomy (OR: 2.66; 95% CI: 0.52-13.65; P-value: 0.24). For cases, mean age was 41 (SD: 13) years, mean total body surface area burned was 47% (SD: 18) and mean days in ICU until MDR specimen collection was 17 (SD: 10) days. Prior meropenem exposure, Gram-negative colonization on admission, escharotomy and superficial partial thickness burn size may be potentially important factors for increasing the risk of MDR Gram-negative infection in the critically ill burn patient. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  15. MPL mutation profile in JAK2 mutation-negative patients with myeloproliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wanlong; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Xiuqiang; Zhang, Zhong; Yeh, Chen-Hsiung; Uyeji, Jennifer; Albitar, Maher

    2011-03-01

    Mutations in the thrombopoietin receptor gene (myeloproliferative leukemia, MPL) have been reported in patients with JAK2 V617F-negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs). We evaluated the prevalence of MPL mutations relative to JAK2 mutations in patients with suspected MPDs. A total of 2790 patient samples submitted for JAK2 mutation analysis were tested using real-time polymerase chain reaction and bidirectional sequencing of plasma RNA. JAK2 V617F-negative samples were tested for JAK2 exons 12 to 14 mutations, and those with negative results were then tested for mutations in MPL exons 10 and 11. Of the 2790 patients, 529 (18.96%) had V617F, 12 (0.43%) had small insertions or deletions in exon 12, and 7 (0.25%) had other JAK2 mutations in exons 12 to 14. Of the 2242 JAK2 mutation-negative patients, 68 (3.03%) had MPL mutations. W515L was the predominant MPL mutation (n=46; 68%), and 10 (15%) patients had other W515 variants. The remaining MPL mutations (n=12, 17%) were detected at other locations in exons 10 and 11 and included 3 insertion/deletion mutations. The S505N mutation, associated with familial MPD, was detected in 3 patients. Overall, for every 100 V617F mutations in patients with suspected MPDs, there were 12.9 MPL mutations, 2.3 JAK2 exon 12 mutations, and 1.3 JAK2 exons 13 to 14 mutations. These findings suggest that MPL mutation screening should be performed before JAK2 exons 12 to 14 testing in JAK2 V617F-negative patients with suspected MPDs.

  16. Strong and multi-antigen specific immunity by hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)-based vaccines in a murine model of chronic hepatitis B: HBcAg is a candidate for a therapeutic vaccine against hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Sheikh Mohammad Fazle; Chen, Shiyi; Al-Mahtab, Mamun; Abe, Masanori; Hiasa, Yoichi; Onji, Morikazu

    2012-10-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are essential for the control of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and prevention of liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, most immune therapeutic approaches in CHB patients have been accomplished with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-based prophylactic vaccines with unsatisfactory clinical outcomes. In this study, we prepared HBsAg-pulsed dendritic cells (DC) and HBcAg-pulsed DC by culturing spleen DC from HBV transgenic mice (HBV TM) and evaluated the immunomodulatory capabilities of these antigens, which may serve as a better therapy for CHB. The kinetics of HBsAg, antibody levels against HBsAg (anti-HBs), proliferation of HBsAg- and HBcAg-specific lymphocytes, production of antigen-specific CTL, and activation of endogenous DC were compared between HBV TM vaccinated with either HBsAg- or HBcAg-pulsed DC. Vaccination with HBsAg-pulsed DC induced HBsAg-specific immunity, but failed to induce HBcAg-specific immunity in HBV TM. However, immunization of HBV TM with HBcAg-pulsed DC resulted in: (1) HBsAg negativity, (2) production of anti-HBs, and (3) development of HBsAg- and HBcAg-specific T cells and CTL in the spleen and the liver. Additionally, significantly higher levels of activated endogenous DC were detected in HBV TM immunized with HBcAg-pulsed DC compared to HBsAg-pulsed DC (pdamage suggests that HBcAg should be an integral component of the therapeutic vaccine against CHB. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Positive and Negative Perfectionism in Migrainus Patients Compaired with Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Afshar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: The positive and negative effects of perfectionism on human cognition, affection and behavior have been emphasized. Perfectionism has been conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, with both adaptive and maladaptive aspects, which is one of the common personality traits that cause lifelong stress in human and results in anxiety, depression and physical and mental distress.The aim of this study was to assess the positive and negative perfectionism in migrainus patients in comparison with control group. Materials & Methods: This is an analytical (Case-control study which was performed on 91 migraine patients and 88 healthy individuals. The pqtients and controls completed a standard 40 item questionnaire for perfectionism – PANPS (20 for positive and 20 for negative perfectionism . The patients in both groups were matched for gender and age. Mean of positive and negative perfectionism scores for two groups was statistically analysed using SPSS software. Results: Mean positive perfectionism score was 83.47±8.5 for migraine group and 65.47±7.54 for control group (p=0.0001. The difference between two groups was significant. Mean of negative perfectionism score was 74.12±10.6 for migraine group and 51.79±7.8 for control group(p=0.0001. Conclusion: The results show that migraine patients have higher mean of perfectionism scores than healthy individuals. Based on this study and other clinical experiences more attention to psychotherapy is necessary for better management of migraine and recognition of personality profile in migraine patient helps to reduce patient’s complaints.

  18. Patients' Positive and Negative Responses to Reading Mental Health Clinical Notes Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denneson, Lauren M; Chen, Jason I; Pisciotta, Maura; Tuepker, Anais; Dobscha, Steven K

    2018-05-01

    This study describes responses to OpenNotes, clinical notes available online, among patients receiving mental health care and explores whether responses vary by patient demographic or clinical characteristics. Survey data from 178 veterans receiving mental health treatment at a large Veterans Affairs medical center included patient-reported health self-efficacy, health knowledge, alliance with clinicians, and negative emotional responses after reading OpenNotes. Health care data were extracted from the patient care database. Reading OpenNotes helped many participants feel in control of their health care (49%) and have more trust in clinicians (45%), although a few (8%) frequently felt upset after reading their notes. In multivariate models, posttraumatic stress disorder was associated with increased patient-clinician alliance (p=.046) but also with negative emotional responses (p<.01). Patients receiving mental health care frequently reported benefits from reading OpenNotes, yet some experienced negative responses.

  19. The clinical significance of detection of serum Pre-S1 antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xuehua; Huang Zhuqing; Han Yi; Gong Shoujun

    2003-01-01

    To study the clinical significance of detection of serum Pre-S 1 Ag, the serum Pre-S 1 Ag, HBV-marks and HBV-DNA were detected in 338 patients with hepatitis B. The positive rate and the relationship between them were analyzed and compared. In 338 patients, the positive rate of serum Pre-S 1 Ag, HBeAg, HBV-DNA was 63.02%, 48.52%, 68.05% respectively, and the co-positive rate of Pre-S 1 Ag with HBV-DNA, HBeAg was 78.56%, 81.17% respectively. There was a significant correlation between Pre-S 1 Ag, HBeAg and HBV-DNA (P 1 Ag could well reflect the reproductive status of hepatitis B virus, and so it could be used as the clinical marker of the reproductive status of hepatitis B virus

  20. Role of the Aspartate Transaminase and Platelet Ratio Index in Assessing Hepatic Fibrosis and Liver Inflammation in Adolescent Patients with HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study described an index of aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI to assess hepatic fibrosis with limited expense and widespread availability compared to the liver biopsy in adolescent patients with CHB.

  1. Correlation of oxidative stress in patients with HBV-induced liver disease with HBV genotypes and drug resistance mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianyu, Jianbo; Feng, Jiafu; Yang, Yuwei; Tang, Jie; Xie, Gang; Fan, Lingying

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to explore the correlation of oxidative stress (OxS) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and the disease severity with HBV genotypes and drug resistance mutations. A total of 296 patients with CHB were enrolled into the study. PCR-reverse dot-blot hybridization was used to detect the HBV genotypes (B, C, and D) and the drug resistance-causing HBV mutant genes. In addition, the total oxidative stress (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were determined, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated and compared. Serum levels of TOS and OSI, the B/C ratio, and drug resistance mutation rate were increased along with the elevated disease severity degree (CHBHBV mutation had higher serum TOS and OSI levels, while lower serum TAS levels (P HBV-induced liver disease, and the damage degree is correlated with the HBV genotype and drug resistance mutation. Oxidative stress might be a useful indicator of the progression of HBV-induced liver disease in patients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Use of alternative product in patients with chronic viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Dulger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Some of the patients with chronic hepatitis use both alternative product and/or antiviral treatment. These herbal products sometimes lead to clinical deterioration. In this study we aimed to determine the purpose of alternative product utilization and rate among the chronic hepatitis B (CHB and C (CHC patients. Methods: This prospective cohort study included 200 consecutive adult patients with chronic hepatitis B and C at the Department of Infectious Diseases, Ondokuz Mayis University, between 1 March 2012 and 30 July 2012. At enrollment, clinical information, demographics, laboratory variables and knowledge about alternative products were recorded. Results: Of the patients 150 had CHB, 50 had CHC. 54% of patients were male. Use of alternative products was 26%. Antiviral treatment rate was 48.5% for all patients. The most used alternative products were artichoke extract and honey. 67.3% of patients were using single alternative product whereas the others were using two or more alternative products. 46.2% of patients who use alternative product provided information about the alternative product usage, but the others did not. Conclusions: Majority of patients used alternative products. More than half of these patients did not give information to their physicians about their use of alternative medicine. Use of alternative product should be asked in all patients with chronic hepatitis. Herbal product usage was detected in majority of patients and also approximately half of these patients did not give information to their doctors about taking alternative medicine. In conclusion, it is necessary to take detailed information about herbal product usage in patients with chronic hepatitis. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014; 4(3: 102-106

  3. The value of an elimination diet in the management of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reproduced consistently on reintroduction of a particular food, pork in 1 case and yellow cheese in another. S Atr Med J 1995; 85; 1176-1179. Gastro-intestinal Clinic, Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur. Hospital and University of Cape Town. S. Candy. B.SC.• M.B. CH.B. J. P. Wrighl M.B. CH.B., ERC.P., PHD.

  4. Serum DHCR24 Auto-antibody as a new Biomarker for Progression of Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzikouri, Sayeh; Kimura, Kiminori; Sunagozaka, Hajime; Kaneko, Shuichi; Inoue, Kazuaki; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Kohara, Michinori; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko

    2015-01-01

    Background New biomarkers are needed to identify the stage of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected diseases in order to reduce the mortality rates. Herein, we investigated whether serum 3β-hydroxysterol Δ24-reductase antibody (DHCR24 Ab) may serve as a prognostic marker for hepatitis C infection progression to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods Serum DHCR24 Abs from 395 HCV-positive patients, including 133 chronic hepatitis (CHC), 85 liver cirrhosis (LCC), and 177 HCC (HCC-C) patients; 232 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive patients, including 103 chronic hepatitis (CHB), 56 liver cirrhosis (LCB), and 73 HCC (HCC-B) patients; and 24 healthy controls, were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results The serum DHCR24 Ab levels were significantly higher in patients with CHC than in healthy controls, in LCC than in CHC, and in LCC than in HCC-C (P < 0.0001 for all). The concentration of serum DHCR24 Ab in HCC-B patients showed no significant difference compared to CHB and LCB patients (P = 0.1247). The DHCR24 Ab levels were significantly higher in early HCC-C than CHC or LCC patients and in late HCC-C compared to early HCC-C patients. The sensitivity of the DHCR24 Ab for HCC-C detection (70.6%) was higher than that of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP; 54.8%) and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II; 42 · 5%). Moreover, DHCR24 was up-regulated in HCV-positive, but not HBV-positive tissues or HBV-negative, HCV-negative HCC specimens. Conclusions DHCR24 auto-antibody represents a potential noninvasive biomarker for HCV-related liver disease and may facilitate the diagnosis of PIVKA-II and AFP-negative HCC. PMID:26288822

  5. Prevalence of Germline Mutations in Genes Engaged in DNA Damage Repair by Homologous Recombination in Patients with Triple-Negative and Hereditary Non-Triple-Negative Breast Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Domagala

    Full Text Available This study sought to assess the prevalence of common germline mutations in several genes engaged in the repair of DNA double-strand break by homologous recombination in patients with triple-negative breast cancers and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers. Tumors deficient in this type of DNA damage repair are known to be especially sensitive to DNA cross-linking agents (e.g., platinum drugs and to poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors.Genetic testing was performed for 36 common germline mutations in genes engaged in the repair of DNA by homologous recombination, i.e., BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, NBN, ATM, PALB2, BARD1, and RAD51D, in 202 consecutive patients with triple-negative breast cancers and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers.Thirty five (22.2% of 158 patients in the triple-negative group carried mutations in genes involved in DNA repair by homologous recombination, while 10 (22.7% of the 44 patients in the hereditary non-triple-negative group carried such mutations. Mutations in BRCA1 were most frequent in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (18.4%, and mutations in CHEK2 were most frequent in patients with hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers (15.9%. In addition, in the triple-negative group, mutations in CHEK2, NBN, and ATM (3.8% combined were found, while mutations in BRCA1, NBN, and PALB2 (6.8% combined were identified in the hereditary non-triple-negative group.Identifying mutations in genes engaged in DNA damage repair by homologous recombination other than BRCA1/2 can substantially increase the proportion of patients with triple-negative breast cancer and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancer who may be eligible for therapy using PARP inhibitors and platinum drugs.

  6. Hodgkin's disease: correlation of clinical characteristics with probabilities for negative lymphangiogram vs. negative laparotomy findings in patients with stage I supradiaphragmatic presentations vs. those in patients with stage II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, Lillian M.; Mirza, Nadeem Q.; Palmer, J. Lynn; Davis, Barry R.; Ha, Chul S.; Rodriguez, M. Alma; Hagemeister, Fredrick B.; Cabanillas, Fernando; McLaughlin, Peter; Butler, James J.; North, Luceil B.; Martin, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: At a time both when late complications and second malignancies have become a growing concern and when staging laparotomy has been largely abandoned and comparative studies for staging Hodgkin's disease by state of the art computed tomography (CT) vs. lymphangiography have revealed minimal differences in results for these procedures, our purpose for undertaking this study was twofold. Our initial reason was to determine and compare probabilities for negative abdominal findings for patients with Stage I presentations with those for patients with Stage II as determined by lymphangiography and subsequently by laparotomy for those patients who had negative lymphangiograms. Our second reason, being an extension of the first, was to create a resource that can be used in conjunction with other information for arriving at appropriate treatment decisions including giving either more or particularly less than standard institutional therapy and especially with respect to the abdomen. Methods and Materials: Data on 714 patients with prelymphangiogram Stage I-II upper torso presentations of Hodgkin's disease were entered prospectively in our database between 1968 and 1987. Twenty-eight with lymphocyte predominant disease, who had both negative lymphangiogram and negative laparotomy findings and 17 with questionable diagnoses of lymphocyte-depleted or unclassified disease were excluded from subsequent analyses of 669 patients with nodular sclerosis (NS) and mixed cellularity (MC) diagnoses. Results: Stage I: in final logistic models, negative lymphangiogram findings were associated strongly with a combination of no constitutional symptoms and nodular sclerosis histology, whereas negative laparotomy findings correlated strongly with a combination of no constitutional symptoms and female sex. Predicted probabilities depended on the ratios of favorable to unfavorable characteristics. Stage II: in final logistic models, negative lymphangiogram findings were associated

  7. Plasmablastic lymphoma of the upper gingiva in an HIV-negative elderly patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Yamada, DDS, PhD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL is a highly aggressive variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and is usually treated by chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP or CHOP-like regimens. However, elderly patients tend to have difficulty with the chemotherapy. We successfully treated an HIV-negative elderly PBL patient with surgery alone. An 87-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital because of gingival swelling of the left maxilla. After several examinations, a multilobular 3-cm tumor of the left maxilla and lymph node swelling on the left side of the neck were revealed. The patient was HIV negative and human T-cell leukemia virus negative. He was diagnosed with PBL, or undifferentiated carcinoma/sarcoma, and we performed surgical therapy, radical neck dissection, and a partial maxillectomy. The surgical margin of the resected specimen was negative for tumor cells, and 6 of 27 lymph nodes contained tumor cells. Histologically, the tumor consisted of basophilic large cells with deviated nuclei. Together with the immunohistochemical findings, the final diagnosis was PBL. The patient and his family did not agree to chemotherapy. Nineteen months after surgery, he is fine and no signs of recurrence were observed. Surgery-only therapy may be a reasonable alternative for elderly PBL patients.

  8. Novel HBV recombinants between genotypes B and C in 3'-terminal reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences are associated with enhanced viral DNA load, higher RT point mutation rates and place of birth among Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoming; Yang, Jing-Xian; Yan, Ling; Zhuang, Hui; Li, Tong

    2018-01-01

    As one of the major global public health concerns, hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be divided into at least eight genotypes, which may be related to disease severity and treatment response. We previously demonstrated that genotypes B and C HBV, with distinct geographical distribution in China, had divergent genotype-dependent amino acid polymorphisms and variations in reverse transcriptase (RT) gene region, a target of antiviral therapy using nucleos(t)ide analogues. Recently recombination between HBV genotypes B and C was reported to occur in the RT region. However, their frequency and clinical significance is poorly understood. Here full-length HBV RT sequences from 201 Chinese chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients were amplified and sequenced, among which 31.34% (63/201) were genotype B whereas 68.66% (138/201) genotype C. Although no intergenotypic recombination was detected among C-genotype HBV, 38.10% (24/63) of B-genotype HBV had recombination with genotype C in the 3'-terminal RT sequences. The patients with B/C intergenotypic recombinants had significantly (Pdistribution feature in China. Our findings provide novel insight into the virological, clinical and epidemiological features of new HBV B/C intergenotypic recombinants at the 3' end of RT sequences among Chinese CHB patients. The highly complex genetic background of the novel recombinant HBV carrying new mutations affecting RT protein may contribute to an enhanced heterogeneity in treatment response or prognosis among CHB patients. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Clinical features of HBV-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure induced by discontinuation of nucleoside analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Xiaoyan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical features of patients with HBV-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF induced by the discontinuation of necleos(tide analogues. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for 698 patients with a definite diagnosis of HBV-ACLF in The 302 Hospital of PLA from January 2014 to April 2016, and among these patients, 150 (discontinuation group had acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF induced by discontinuation, 396 (previously untreated group had not received antiviral therapy when they developed this disease for the first time, and the other 152 patients with ACLF caused by other reasons were enrolled as controls. The causative factors, underlying diseases, family history, serum hepatitis B markers, prognosis, and initial onset were summarized, and the drugs used and discontinuation time were recorded for patients who stopped taking necleos(tide analogues. The chi-square test was used for the comparison of categorical data between groups. Results Among the 698 patients, 355(50.86% had a family history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB, and 93 patients (62.00% in the discontinuation group had a family history of CHB. Among the 150 patients in the discontinuation group, 27 (18.00% had an underlying disease of chronic hepatitis, among whom 12 (44.44% had a family history of CHB, which was significantly lower than the overall level (χ2=2.57, P=0.07; 123 (82.00% had an underlying disease of liver cirrhosis (compensated, among whom 81 (65.85% had a family history of CHB, which was significantly higher than the overall level (χ2=48.77, P<0.001. Of all the patients in the discontinuation group, 77.33% (116/150 developed the disease within 1 year after discontinuation, and 21.33% (32/150developed the disease during the second year after discontinuation. The HBeAg-negative patients accounted for 47.33% (71/150. In the discontinuation group and previously untreated group, the patients with an underlying disease

  10. Clinical value of hemoglobin and its association with hepatocyte steatosis in chronic hepatitis B patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Peng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available :ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical value of hemoglobin and its association with hepatocyte steatosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical and pathological data of 1580 CHB patients who were hospitalized in The First People′s Hospital of Shunde from January 2006 to December 2014 and underwent liver biopsy, among whom 216 (13.67% had hepatocyte steatosis (hepatocyte steatosis group and 1364 had no hepatocyte steatosis (non-hepatocyte steatosis group. The patients were divided into groups 1, 2, and 3 according to hemoglobin level, and the clinical and pathological features were analyzed and compared between the three groups. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between group; a one-way analysis of variance was used for comparision between multiple groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for ranked data between groups. The Kruskal-wallis H test was used for ranked data between multiple groups; the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Spearman correlation analysis was also performed to determine the correlation between two variables. Univariate logistic regression analysis and multivariate stepwise regression analysis were used to identify the influencing factors for hepatocyte steatosis. ResultsBody mass index (BMI, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, uric acid, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and HBV DNA load increased with the increase in hemoglobin level (F=12718,3024,4026,4624,38276,28108,7358, all P<0.05. The incidence rates of hepatocyte steatosis in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 7.59%, 1176%,and 21.67%, respectively (χ2=44.23, P<0.05. Hemoglobin was positively correlated with hepatic steatosis (rs=0.211, P<0001. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that hemoglobin (odds ratio [OR]=1.066, P<0.05, BMI (OR=1576, P<005, age (OR=1.041, P<0.05, sex

  11. Diagnostic value of real-time tissue elastography for liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Guosheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the diagnostic value of real-time tissue elastography (RTE in evaluating liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB. MethodsEighty-six patients with CHB, who visited Beijing Tiantan Hospital and Beijing You′an Hospital from March to August, 2013, were grouped according to the pathological stages of liver fibrosis. They were examined by RTE, biochemical tests, and liver biopsy. Then, liver fibrosis index (LFI and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI were calculated. Comparison between groups was made by one-way analysis of variance, followed by LSD t-test for multiple comparisons. The correlation between LFI and pathological stage of liver fibrosis was analyzed by Spearman correlation test. The sensitivity and specificity of LFI for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis were calculated. Regarding S≥2 (significant liver fibrosis and S≥4 (early liver cirrhosis as the positive standards, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was drawn and compared with APRI. ResultsLFI differed significantly across the groups (P=0.000, except the comparison between S0 and S1 (P=0.298. LFI was significantly correlated with pathological stage (r=0.831, P<0.001. The areas under the ROC curve of LFI in diagnosing significant liver fibrosis and early liver cirrhosis were 0873 (P<0.001 and 0.923 (P=0002, respectively; the diagnostic thresholds were 2.74 and 3.61, respectively; the sensitivity and specificity were 0.766/0.872 and 0.833/0.878, respectively. LFI was significantly superior to APRI. ConclusionRTE has high diagnostic values for significant liver fibrosis and early liver cirrhosis and is an important noninvasive diagnostic method for liver fibrosis in patients with CHB.

  12. Negative effects of internet interventions: a qualitative content analysis of patients' experiences with treatments delivered online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, Alexander; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Schmidt, Brad; Carlbring, Per

    2015-01-01

    Internet interventions are defined as the delivery of health care-related treatments via an online or a smartphone interface, and have been shown to be a viable alternative to face-to-face treatments. However, not all patients benefit from such treatments, and it is possible that some may experience negative effects. Investigations of face-to-face treatments indicate that deterioration occurs in 5-10% of all patients. The nature and scope of other negative effects of Internet interventions is, however, largely unknown. Hence, the current study explored patients' reported negative experiences while undergoing treatments delivered via the Internet. Data from four large clinical trials (total N = 558) revealed that 9.3% of patients reported some type of negative effects. Qualitative content analysis was used to explore the patients' responses to open-ended questions regarding their negative experiences. Results yielded two broad categories and four subcategories of negative effects: patient-related negative effects (insight and symptom) and treatment-related negative effects (implementation and format). Results emphasize the importance of always considering negative effects in Internet-based interventions, and point to several ways of preventing such experiences, including regular assessment of negative events, increasing the flexibility of treatment schedules and therapist contact, as well as prolonging the treatment duration.

  13. HCV viraemia in anti-HCV-negative haemodialysis patients: Do we need HCV RNA detection test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Griveas, Ioannis; Sveroni, Eirini; Argiana, Vasiliki; Kalliaropoulos, Antonios; Martinez-Gonzalez, Beatriz; Deutsch, Melanie

    2018-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still common among dialysis patients, but the natural history of HCV in this group is not completely understood. The KDIGO HCV guidelines of 2009 recommend that chronic haemodialysis patients be screened for HCV antibody upon admission to the dialysis clinic and every 6 months thereafter if susceptible to HCV infection. However, previous studies have shown the presence of HCV viraemia in anti-HCV-negative haemodialysis patients as up to 22%. To evaluate the presence of HCV viraemia, using HCV RNA detection, among anti-HCV-negative haemodialysis patients from a tertiary dialysis unit in Athens. We enrolled 41 anti-HCV-negative haemodialysis patients diagnosed with third-generation enzyme immunoassay. HCV viraemia was evaluated using a sensitive (cut-off: 12 IU/mL) reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (COBAS AmpliPrep/TaqMan system) for HCV RNA. None of the 41 anti-HCV-negative haemodialysis patients were shown to be viraemic. Routine HCV RNA testing appears not to be necessary in anti-HCV-negative haemodialysis patients.

  14. Patients' experiences of negative pressure wound therapy for the treatment of wounds: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, D; Stephens, D; Andrews, A

    2013-01-01

    To review the research on patients' experiences of undergoing negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). A literature search was carried out using the following databases: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, PsychINFO, MEDLINE, PubMed and PsyARTICLES. The search covered the period from 2001 to 2012, using the key words: ['negative pressure wound therapy' OR 'vacuum-assisted closure' OR 'topical negative therapy'] AND ['patients' experiences' OR 'psychological' OR 'stress' OR 'anxiety' OR 'wellbeing' OR 'pain' OR 'quality of life' OR 'physical']. Twenty-five relevant articles were included. NPWT is generally considered to be successful in reducing wound depth and facilitating healing. However, studies have highlighted a number of issues that need to be considered. For example, the type of dressing used during treatment can have a significant effect on patients' experience of pain. Furthermore, the NPWT system can cause patients to feel anxious due to both the patient and the health professional being unfamiliar with this form of treatment. It can also restrict patients' daily care and wider social life, which may result in a negative self-image and low self-esteem. Despite this, some studies have reported positive improvements to patients' quality of life. Additionally, since NPWT can lead to faster healing, any detrimental impact upon patients' wellbeing may be short-term and less prolonged than that of other treatments. Compared with other treatments, there is evidence to show that NPWT can lead to faster wound healing, and a reduced frequency of dressing changes and other treatments. However, there are a number of challenges with the use of NPWT, which need to be explored further so that improvements can be made. Specifically, certain aspects of NPWT may impact negatively on patients' wellbeing, albeit short-term. Therefore, research needs to explore patients' experience of NPWT throughout the treatment process and to consider how this can be improved to minimise any

  15. Primary immunization-like response without hepatitis following transfusion of HBeAg-positive blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Aldershvile, J; Kryger, P

    1983-01-01

    An accidental transfusion of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive whole blood was given to a 19-yr-old male, bleeding after tonsillectomy. Serum obtained from the patient before the transfusion revealed no hepatitis B antigens or antibodies. After...... the transfusion the patient became HBsAg-positive, cleared this antigen and developed antibodies to both HBsAg and HBeAg. The transfusion blood was positive for total antibody and IgM antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg). The patient's blood became positive for these antibodies after the transfusion...

  16. Non-invasive coronary angiography for patients with acute atypical chest pain discharged after negative screening including maximal negative treadmill stress test. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonello, L; Armero, S; Jacquier, A; Com, O; Sarran, A; Sbragia, P; Panuel, M; Arques, S; Paganelli, F

    2009-05-01

    Among patients admitted in the emergency department for acute atypical chest pain those with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who are mistakenly discharged home have high mortality. A recent retrospective study has demonstrated that multislice computed tomography (MSCT) coronary angiography could improve triage of these patients. We aimed to prospectively confirm these data on patients with a negative screening including maximal treadmill stress. 30 patients discharged from the emergency department after negative screening for an ACS were included. All patients underwent MSCT angiography of the coronary artery. Patients with coronary atheroma on MSCT had an invasive coronary angiography to confirm these findings. Seven patients (23%) had obstructive coronary artery disease on MSCT. Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) confirmed the diagnosis in all patients. In patients with no previously known coronary artery disease admitted to the emergency department with atypical acute chest pain and discharged after negative screening, including maximal treadmill stress test, MSCT coronary angiography is useful for the diagnosis of obstructive coronary artery disease.

  17. Impact of a new reimbursement program on hepatitis B antiviral medication cost and utilization in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a significant clinical and financial burden for chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients. In Beijing, China, partial reimbursement on antiviral agents was first implemented for the treatment of CHB patients in July 1, 2011. AIMS: In this study, we describe the medical cost and utilization rates of antiviral therapy for CHB patients to explore the impact of the new partial reimbursement policy on the medical care cost, the composition, and antivirals utilization. METHODS: Clinical and claims data of a retrospective cohort of 92,776 outpatients and 2,774 inpatients with non-cirrhotic CHB were retrieved and analyzed from You'an Hospital, Beijing between February 14, 2008 and December 31, 2012. The propensity score matching was used to adjust factors associated with the annual total cost, including age, gender, medical insurance type and treatment indicator. RESULTS: Compared to patients who paid out-of-pocket, medical cost, especially antiviral costs increased greater among patients with medical insurance after July 1, 2011, the start date of reimbursement policy. Outpatients with medical insurance had 16% more antiviral utilization; usage increased 3% among those who paid out-of-pocket after the new partial reimbursement policy was implemented. CONCLUSIONS: Direct medical costs and antiviral utilization rates of CHB patients with medical insurance were higher than those from paid out-of-pocket payments, even after adjusting for inflation and other factors. Thus, a new partial reimbursement program may positively optimize the cost and standardization of antiviral treatment.

  18. Outcomes following negative prostate biopsy for patients with persistent disease after radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob H. Cohen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: When faced with biochemical recurrence after definitive radiotherapy for prostate cancer, clinicians must determine whether the recurrence is local or systemic. Post radiotherapy prostate biopsies to detect persistent local disease are difficult to interpret histopathologically and are subject to sampling error. Our study examines outcomes for patients with a negative prostate biopsy performed for rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels after prostate radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 238 prostate cancer patients with a negative biopsy following definitive radiotherapy. Seventy-five of these patients had biochemical recurrence at the time of biopsy. A negative biopsy was defined as the absence of prostate cancer without radiation-treatment effect in the specimen. RESULTS: Patients underwent biopsy at a mean of 41 months after the completion of radiation. They had a mean PSA of 6. Patients were followed for an average of 63 months. Thirty-two patients (43% developed metastasis, and 11 (15% died of prostate cancer despite a negative post-radiation biopsy. Five of nine patients (56% with sequential biopsies had a positive second biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PSA recurrence and a negative post-radiation biopsy have a high chance of persistent local disease, progression, and death from prostate cancer. Furthermore, an initial negative biopsy does not rule-out local recurrence. Patients with biochemical recurrence after radiotherapy for prostate cancer need to be evaluated earlier for local recurrence.

  19. Factors Related to Significant Improvement of Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rates in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Receiving Telbivudine Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Fu Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. The improvement of estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients receiving telbivudine therapy is well known. The aim of this study was to clarify the kinetics of eGFRs and to identify the significant factors related to the improvement of eGFRs in telbivudine-treated CHB patients in a real-world setting. Methods. Serial eGFRs were calculated every 3 months using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation. The patients were classified as CKD-1, -2, or -3 according to a baseline eGFR of ≥90, 60–89, or <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. A significant improvement of eGFR was defined as a more than 10% increase from the baseline. Results. A total of 129 patients were enrolled, of whom 36% had significantly improved eGFRs. According to a multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus (DM (p=0.028 and CKD-3 (p=0.043 were both significantly related to such improvement. The rates of significant improvement of eGFR were about 73% and 77% in patients with DM and CKD-3, respectively. Conclusions. Telbivudine is an alternative drug of choice for the treatment of hepatitis B patients for whom renal safety is a concern, especially patients with DM and CKD-3.

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma in children and young patients with chronic HBV infection and the usefulness of alpha-fetoprotein assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajiri, Hitoshi; Takano, Tomoko; Tanaka, Hideo; Ushijima, Kosuke; Inui, Ayano; Miyoshi, Yoko; Ozono, Keiichi; Abukawa, Daiki; Endo, Takeshi; Brooks, Stephen; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2016-11-01

    The aims of the study were to elucidate the clinical characteristics of patients who developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) related to persistent HBV infection since childhood and to investigate usefulness of assessing alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in this population. A nationwide multicenter survey of children with chronic HBV infection was performed. Among 548 patients, 15 patients developed HCC at the median age of 15 years (range 9-36), including 13 males and 2 females. A case-control comparison showed that HBeAg seroconversion and liver cirrhosis were associated with the occurrence of HCC. Of the 15 HCC patients, 5 were treated with interferon and none of them responded to interferon therapy as compared with 12 of the 17 responders in the control group. Of the 15 patients, 10 died and 9 of the 10 who died never visited any medical facilities until diagnosis of HCC, while the remaining 5 surviving patients never stopped their clinic visits. The usefulness of AFP assessment was shown by the findings that AFP levels were elevated in all HCC cases, that elevations in AFP levels were detected prior to the diagnosis in the surviving patients, and that sensitivity of AFP as a diagnostic test for HCC was very high among 40 patients including our 14 and an additional 26 collected from the literature. HBeAg seroconversion and liver cirrhosis are associated with the occurrence of HCC. Regular measurement of AFP might be helpful to watch for the occurrence of HCC when following children and young patients with chronic HBV infection since childhood. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Patients with a negative cystoscopy and negative Nmp22® Bladderchek® test are at low risk of missed transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: a prospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Terrell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Urine based tumor markers have uncertain utility in diagnosis or surveillance of patients with bladder cancer while cytology is commonly used. We evaluated whether cytology provides additional diagnostic information in patients with a negative NMP22® BladderChek® test (BladderChek and negative cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed subset analyses of 2 large prospective multi-center databases evaluating BladderChek for UCB detection and surveillance. These cohorts were analyzed for presence of cancer and result of urine cytology in setting of a negative cystoscopy and negative BladderChek. Subsequently, we prospectively performed cystoscopy, cytology and BladderChek on 434 patients at our institution being evaluated for UCB. RESULTS: In the detection database (n = 1331, 1065 patients had a negative cystoscopy and BladderChek. There were 3 cancers (stages Ta, Tis and T1 and cytology was atypical in one and reactive in two. In the surveillance cohort (n = 668 patients, 437 patients had negative cystoscopy and BladderChek. Cancer was found in 2 patients (stages Tis and Ta. The patient with Tis has dysplastic cytology and Ta tumor had reactive cytology. In our cohort of 434 patients, 288 pts had negative cystoscopy and BladderChek. One cancer was missed, a Ta ureteral urothelial carcinoma with a reactive cytology. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with negative cystoscopy and BladderChek, very few cancers are missed and cytology was not effective in detection. Use of a point-of-care test in conjunction with cystoscopy in lieu of cytology could decrease cost, provide immediate results, improve negative predictive value and reduce the uncertainty that results from inconclusive cytologic results.

  2. Patients with liver FNH and HCC patients with negative AFP: plain and dynamic enhanced MRI and CT findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Mingtong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate plain and dynamic enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computed tomography (CT findings in patients with focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients with negative alpha-fetoprotein (AFP. MethodsA statistical analysis was performed on the clinical data of 124 cases of liver tumor admitted to Beijing Miyun County Hospital from April 2012 to April 2014. ResultsFifty-five of the 74 patients with FNH underwent CT examination, among whom 38 patients received three-phase dynamic enhanced scan and 16 received only plain scan; 62 cases had plain and enhanced MRI with the application of contrast agent Gd-BOPTA in 42 patients. Among the 50 HCC patients with negative AFP, CT examination was performed in 40 and 10 only had plain scan; 46 patients received plain and enhanced MRI with the use of contrast agent Gd-BOPTA in 30. Delayed scan after 1-2 h demonstrated low signal in 30 lesions of the 30 cases. ConclusionFor patients with liver FNH and AFP-negative HCC patients, their plain and dynamic enhanced MRI and CT scan have respective characteristics. A combination of multiple examination methods can significantly improve diagnostic yield of the two diseases.

  3. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is indicated for patients with thick clinically lymph node-negative melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Maki; Fisher, Kate J; Wong, Joyce Y; Koscso, Jonathan M; Konstantinovic, Monique A; Govsyeyev, Nicholas; Messina, Jane L; Sarnaik, Amod A; Cruse, C Wayne; Gonzalez, Ricardo J; Sondak, Vernon K; Zager, Jonathan S

    2015-05-15

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is indicated for the staging of clinically lymph node-negative melanoma of intermediate thickness, but its use is controversial in patients with thick melanoma. From 2002 to 2012, patients with melanoma measuring ≥4 mm in thickness were evaluated at a single institution. Associations between survival and clinicopathologic characteristics were explored. Of 571 patients with melanomas measuring ≥4 mm in thickness and no distant metastases, the median age was 66 years and 401 patients (70.2%) were male. The median Breslow thickness was 6.2 mm; the predominant subtype was nodular (45.4%). SLNB was performed in 412 patients (72%) whereas 46 patients (8.1%) presented with clinically lymph node-positive disease and 113 patients (20%) did not undergo SLNB. A positive SLN was found in 161 of 412 patients (39.1%). For SLNB performed at the study institution, 14 patients with a negative SLNB developed disease recurrence in the mapped lymph node basin (false-negative rate, 12.3%). The median disease-specific survival (DSS), overall survival (OS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) for the entire cohort were 62.1 months, 42.5 months, and 21.2 months, respectively. The DSS and OS for patients with a negative SLNB were 82.4 months and 53.4 months, respectively; 41.2 months and 34.7 months, respectively, for patients with positive SLNB; and 26.8 months and 22 months, respectively, for patients with clinically lymph node-positive disease (Pthick melanoma and a negative SLNB appear to have significantly prolonged RFS, DSS, and OS compared with those with a positive SLNB. Therefore, SLNB should be considered as indicated for patients with thick, clinically lymph node-negative melanoma. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  4. Can patients at risk for persistent negative symptoms be identified during their first episode of psychosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, Ashok K; Norman, Ross M G; Takhar, Jatinder; Manchanda, Rahul; Townsend, Laurel; Scholten, Derek; Haricharan, Raj

    2004-07-01

    Patients with schizophrenia who show persistent negative symptoms are an important subgroup, but they are difficult to identify early in the course of illness. The objective of this study was to examine characteristics that discriminate between first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients in whom primary negative symptoms did or did not persist after 1 year of treatment. Patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of FEP whose primary negative symptoms did (N = 36) or did not (N = 35) persist at 1 year were contrasted on their baseline and 1-year characteristics. Results showed that patients with persistent primary negative symptoms (N = 36) had a significantly longer duration of untreated psychosis (p < .005), worse premorbid adjustment during early (p < .001) and late adolescence (p < .01), and a higher level of affective flattening (p < .01) at initial presentation compared with patients with transitory primary negative symptoms. The former group also showed significantly lower remission rates at 1 year (p < .001). Multiple regression analysis confirmed the independent contribution of duration of untreated psychosis, premorbid adjustment, and affective flattening at baseline to the patients' likelihood of developing persistent negative symptoms. It may therefore be possible to distinguish a subgroup of FEP patients whose primary negative symptoms are likely to persist on the basis of characteristics shown at initial presentation for treatment.

  5. Overexpression of an Outer Membrane Protein Associated with Decreased Susceptibility to Carbapenems in Proteus mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Lin; Wang, Min-Cheng; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Liu, Ming-Che; Hu, Rouh-Mei; Wu, Yue-Jin; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis isolates commonly have decreased susceptibility to imipenem. Previously, we found P. mirabilis hfq mutant was more resistant to imipenem and an outer membrane protein (OMP) could be involved. Therefore, we investigated the role of this OMP in carbapenem susceptibility. By SDS-PAGE we found this OMP (named ImpR) was increased in hfq mutant and LC-MS/MS revealed it to be the homologue of Salmonella YbfM, which is a porin for chitobiose and subject to MicM (a small RNA) regulation. We demonstrated that ImpR overexpression resulted in increased carbapenem MICs in the laboratory strain and clinical isolates. Chitobiose induced expression of chb (a chitobiose utilization operon). Real-time RT-PCR and SDS-PAGE were performed to elucidate the relationship of hfq, impR, chb and MicM in P. mirabilis. We found MicM RNA was decreased in hfq mutant and chbBC-intergenic region (chbBC-IGR) overexpression strain (chbIGRov), while impR mRNA was increased in hfq mutant, micM mutant and chbIGRov strain. In addition, mutation of hfq or micM and overexpression of chbBC-IGR increased ImpR protein level. Accordingly, chitobiose made wild-type have higher levels of ImpR protein and are more resistant to carbapenems. Hfq- and MicM-complemented strains restored wild-type MICs. Mutation of both impR and hfq eliminated the increase in carbapenem MICs observed in hfq mutant and ImpR-complementation of hfq/impR double mutant resulted in MICs as hfq mutant, indicating that the ImpR-dependent decreased carbapenem susceptibility of hfq mutant. These indicate MicM was antisense to impR mRNA and was negatively-regulated by chbBC-IGR. Together, overexpression of ImpR contributed to the decreased carbapenem susceptibility in P. mirabilis. PMID:25756370

  6. Differences of Excess and Deficiency Zheng in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B by Urinary Metabonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujun Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM physicians stratify patients with the same disease into different subtypes in order to guide the appropriate treatment, which is called Zheng (TCM syndrome classification. Excess and deficiency ZHENG is a couple of basic ZHENGs of maladjusted body nature, reflecting the struggling state of human body and pathogenic factor and is important and prevalently exists in the ZHENG classification of many diseases. The present work using chronic hepatitis B (CHB as an entry point explored the substance connotation of excess and deficiency ZHENG with the metabonomic technology based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The different substantial basis of two ZHENGs suggested that CHB patients could be categorized into two groups with diverse pathogenesis. The differential metabolites and disturbed pathways compared to not-obvious ZHENG characters patients (without ZHENG group/WZ were selected in both of the two ZHENGs. The ROC analysis demonstrated that five metabolites had a greater potential to be the clinic biomarkers of EZ or DZ. And excess ZHENG revealed a higher level of immune function than deficiency ZHENG. We are eager to transform the concept of traditional excess and deficiency ZHENGs to modern therapeutic approaches, with the prospect to help to promote personalized medicine.

  7. Assessment of non-invasive models for liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B virus related liver disease patients in resource limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Shrivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A total of 350 million individuals are affected by chronic hepatitis B virus infection world-wide. Historically, liver biopsy has been instrumental in adequately assessing patients with chronic liver disease. A number of non-invasive models have been studied world-wide. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the utility of non-invasive mathematical models of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB. Indian patients in a resource limited setting using routinely performed non-invasive laboratory investigations. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study carried out at a tertiary care center. Subjects and Methods: A total of 52 consecutive chronic liver disease patients who underwent percutaneous liver biopsy and 25 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Routine laboratory investigations included serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Gama glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, prothrombin time and platelet count. Three non-invasive models for namely aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI, Fibrosis 4 (FIB-4 and Forn′s index were calculated. Outcomes were compared for the assessment of best predictor of fibrosis by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of each index. Statistical Analysis Used: Medcalc online software and by Microsoft Excel Worksheet. Chi-square test was used for significance. P value < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: While the serum levels of AST, ALT and GGT were significantly higher in patients group as compare with the healthy controls (P < 0.01, the platelet counts were significantly lower in patient group as compared to the control group (P < 0.01. Mean value of all 3 indices were significantly higher in patients group as compare with the controls (P < 0.01. Conclusions: Out of the three indices, APRI index with a NPV of 95% appeared to be a better model

  8. Survival among patients with HIV infection and smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis - United States, 1993-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sean Cavanaugh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In patients with HIV and tuberculosis (TB in resource-constrained settings, smear-negative disease has been associated with higher mortality than smear-positive disease. Higher reported mortality may be due to misdiagnosis, diagnostic delays, or because smear-negative disease indicates more advanced immune suppression. METHODS: We analyzed culture-confirmed, pulmonary TB among patients with TB and HIV in the United States from 1993-2008 to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs for smear-negative disease by demographic and clinical characteristics. Allowing two years for treatment outcome to be reported, we determined hazard ratios (HRs for survival by smear status, adjusted for significant covariates on patients before 2006. RESULTS: Among 16,710 cases with sputum smear results, 6,739 (39% were sputum smear-negative and 9,971 (58% were sputum smear-positive. The prevalence of smear-negative disease was lower in male patients (PR: 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86-0.93 and in those who were homeless (PR: 0.92, CI: 0.87-0.97 or used alcohol excessively (PR: 0.91, CI: 0.87-0.95, and higher in persons diagnosed while incarcerated (PR: 1.20, CI: 1.13-1.27. Patients with smear-negative disease had better survival compared to patients with smear-positive disease, both before (HR: 0.82, CI: 0.75-0.90 and after (HR: 0.81, CI: 0.71-0.92 the introduction of combination anti-retroviral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In the United States, smear-negative pulmonary TB in patients with HIV was not associated with higher mortality, in contrast to what has been documented in high TB burden settings. Smear-negative TB can be routinely and definitively diagnosed in the United States, whereas high-burden countries often rely solely on AFB-smear microscopy. This difference could contribute to diagnostic and treatment delays in high-burden countries, possibly resulting in higher mortality.

  9. Common mutations of hepatitis B virus and their clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Airong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV tends to mutate easily due to its special structure and life cycle. Mutation changes the biological behavior of HBV and its sensitivity to antiviral drugs and even affects therapeutic effect and accelerate disease progression. The point mutations are commonly see in the pre-S/S open reading frame (ORF, which may be associated with immune escape and occult HBV infection. The G1896A mutation is often observed in the pre-C/C-ORF and is associated with the development of HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, and severe chronic hepatitis (liver failure. The mutations in P-ORF mainly occur in the reverse transcriptase (RT domain and are closely related to the resistance to nucleos(tide analogues. The A1762T and G1764A mutations occur in the basal core promoter (BCP, which overlaps with X-ORF, and may be associated with HBeAg-negative CHB, HCC, and severe chronic hepatitis (liver failure. Clarification of the association between these mutations and diseases helps to develop tailor-made diagnostic and therapeutic regimens for patients with HBV infection.

  10. Clinico-pathological profile and treatment outcome in smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients at a teaching hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabir, I.; Iqbal, R.; Khan, S.U.; Munir, K.; Nazir, A.

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains the single highest contributor to the world's morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is essential to prevent its transmission. To see the treatment response of anti tuberculosis drugs in smear negative patients and study the predictors of culture positive among smear negative tuberculosis patients. Ninety four sputum smear negative patients clinically and radiologically suggestive of tuberculosis were selected. These patients were put on anti tuberculosis drugs without waiting for their culture results. They were then followed for 8 months to see their treatment outcome. A total of 94 smear negative patients were selected and given anti tuberculosis treatment. Of these 37(39%) were culture positive and 57(61%) were culture negative. Of the 37 culture positive patients 36(97%) showed clinical or radiological improvement as compared to 46(81%) out of 57 in culture negative cases. Symptoms of cough with sputum production was significantly associated with culture positivity. On x-ray chest moderate lesion with diffuse infiltration was more common finding in 64% while extensive and cavitatory lesion was seen in 24% of all cases. Association of extensive and cavitatory lesion were seen in culture positive group. Response to anti tuberculosis drugs in sputum smear negative tubercolosis suspects was found to be effective in majority of the patients. Cough, sputum and extensive cavitatory lung lesion were the predictors of culture positive cases. There is need to train physicians on the use of anti tuberculosis therapy in smear negative suspected pulmonary tuberculosis cases, especially if they have productive cough and cavitatory lung lesions. (author)

  11. Antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in febrile neutropenic patients with cancer: current epidemiology and clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trecarichi, Enrico M; Tumbarello, Mario

    2014-04-01

    In the recent years, several studies involving cancer patients have demonstrated a clear trend in the epidemiology of bacterial infections showing a shift in the prevalence from Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacteria and the extensive emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains among Gram-negatives isolated from the blood. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the recent trends in epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negatives recovered from neutropenic cancer patients, with particular emphasis on the impact of antimicrobial resistance on the clinical outcome of severe infections caused by such microorganisms. Overall, from 2007 to date, the rate of Gram-negative bacteria recovery ranged from 24.7 to 75.8% (mean 51.3%) in cancer patient cohorts. Escherichia coli represented the most common species (mean frequency of isolation 32.1%) among the Gram-negatives, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (mean frequency of isolation 20.1%). An increasing frequency of Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was also reported. Increased rates of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative strains have been highlighted among Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenting Gram-negative rods, despite discontinuation of fluoroquinolone-based antibacterial prophylaxis for neutropenic patients. In addition, antimicrobial resistance and/or the inadequacy of empirical antibiotic treatment have been frequently linked to a worse outcome in cancer patients with bloodstream infections caused by Gram-negative isolates. Sound knowledge of the local distribution of pathogens and their susceptibility patterns and prompt initiation of effective antimicrobial treatment for severe infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria are essential in cancer patients.

  12. The relationship between positive or negative phrasing and patients' coping with lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Oh; Gong, Hyun Sik; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Rhee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Young Ho; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2014-04-01

    Research suggests that phrases with negative content can affect patients' response to medical procedures and how they cope with medical illnesses. We hypothesized that patients with lateral epicondylitis who describe their condition in positive phrases cope better than those who do not. We prospectively followed up 91 patients with lateral epicondylitis for 12 months. The patients indicated their baseline coping status based on the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) and were discharged with a wait-and-see policy. During follow-up interviews, the patients described the nature of their condition in their own words and were then categorized into either positive or negative phrasing groups. We compared these two groups regarding current coping status and whether they had sought additional treatment. We also analyzed for the factors associated with these outcomes. There were no significant differences in baseline PCS scores between the two groups. At follow-up, patients in the positive phrasing group (n = 62) had significantly lower PCS scores and were less likely to seek additional treatment than those in the negative phrasing group (n = 29). Multivariable analyses showed that positive phrasing and low pain levels were independently associated with improvement in PCS scores and that negative phrasing and depression were independently associated with patients' seeking additional treatment. Patients' positive phrasing about their condition are associated with improvement in their coping status and with less use of medical resources in the case of lateral epicondylitis. This study suggests that patients with more positive attitudes toward their illness cope and comply better when a wait-and-see treatment is recommended by their physicians. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Aberrant interference of auditory negative words on attention in patients with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norichika Iwashiro

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that deficits in attention-emotion interaction are implicated in schizophrenia symptoms. Although disruption in auditory processing is crucial in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, deficits in interaction between emotional processing of auditorily presented language stimuli and auditory attention have not yet been clarified. To address this issue, the current study used a dichotic listening task to examine 22 patients with schizophrenia and 24 age-, sex-, parental socioeconomic background-, handedness-, dexterous ear-, and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls. The participants completed a word recognition task on the attended side in which a word with emotionally valenced content (negative/positive/neutral was presented to one ear and a different neutral word was presented to the other ear. Participants selectively attended to either ear. In the control subjects, presentation of negative but not positive word stimuli provoked a significantly prolonged reaction time compared with presentation of neutral word stimuli. This interference effect for negative words existed whether or not subjects directed attention to the negative words. This interference effect was significantly smaller in the patients with schizophrenia than in the healthy controls. Furthermore, the smaller interference effect was significantly correlated with severe positive symptoms and delusional behavior in the patients with schizophrenia. The present findings suggest that aberrant interaction between semantic processing of negative emotional content and auditory attention plays a role in production of positive symptoms in schizophrenia. (224 words.

  14. Validation and comparison of seventeen noninvasive models for evaluating liver fibrosis in Chinese hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Minhui; Wu, Jingwen; Yu, Xueping; Li, Jing; Yang, Sisi; Qi, Xun; Mao, Richeng; Zhang, Yongmei; Yu, Jie; Zhu, Haoxiang; Yang, Feifei; Qin, Yanli; Zhang, Jiming

    2018-01-03

    To avoid liver biopsy, many noninvasive models comprised of serum markers for liver fibrosis assessment have been developed. Given that most of them were developed in hepatitis C cohorts and few of them have been validated in Chinese hepatitis B patients, we aim to conduct this validation and compare their diagnostic accuracies in such a population. A total of 937 HBV-infected patients who underwent liver biopsy were included in this single-centre retrospective study. The diagnostic accuracies of the 17 noninvasive models were assessed by areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROCs), using histologically evaluated fibrotic stages of the biopsy specimens as standards. To compare efficiencies of the models, a grading system based on AUROC levels was developed. For discriminating significant fibrosis in all patients, the best three noninvasive models were King's score (AUROC = 0.756), Virahep-C model (AUROC = 0.756) and GPR (AUROC = 0.744); and for diagnosing cirrhosis, Lok index (AUROC = 0.832), FI (AUROC = 0.820) and FIB-4 (AUROC = 0.818) got the first three places. AUROCs in HBeAg-positive group were generally higher than those in HBeAg-negative group. In addition, based on the grading system, Virahep-C and GPR outstood others in evaluating liver fibrosis in all patients. In Chinese HBV-infected patients, Virahep-C models and GPR had high accuracies in diagnosing liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, while the most discussed models like APRI and FIB-4 did not outstand. Assessment should take into account the HBeAg sero-status, since these noninvasive models were more appropriate for HBeAg-positive patients than HBeAg-negative ones. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Diagnostic Usefulness of Real-Time Elastography for Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Viral Hepatitis B and C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Woon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic usefulness of real-time elastography (RTE for liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis B (CHB and C (CHC. Fifty-one and thirty-two of the patients were diagnosed with CHB and CHC, respectively. Enrolled patients underwent liver biopsy and RTE. The FIB-4 index and aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI were also measured. The liver fibrosis index (LFI by RTE increased significantly with the Knodell fibrosis stage: 3.14±0.62 for F0, 3.28 ± 0.42 for F1, 3.43 ± 0.53 for F3, and 4.09 ± 1.03 for F4 (P=0.000. LFI as well as APRI, FIB-4, platelet, albumin, and prothrombin time showed the difference in patients with advanced fibrosis (≥F3 and those with mild fibrosis (≤F1. In addition, RTE had better discrimination power between ≥F3 and F4 than between FIB-4 and APRI. In CHC patients, the area under receiver operating characteristic curves of RTE for advanced fibrosis was higher than that in CHB patients (0.795 versus 0.641. RTE is useful for the assessment of advanced fibrosis in patients with CHB and CHC and has better discrimination power than other serologic markers.

  16. The Growing Threat of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Infections in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas M.; Satlin, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged neutropenia and chemotherapy-induced mucositis render patients with hematologic malignancies highly vulnerable to Gram-negative bacteremia. Unfortunately, multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria are increasingly encountered globally, and current guidelines for empirical antibiotic coverage in these patients may not adequately treat these bacteria. This expansion of resistance, coupled with traditional culturing techniques requiring 2-4 days for bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility results, have grave implications for these immunocompromised hosts. This review characterizes the epidemiology, risk factors, resistance mechanisms, recommended treatments, and outcomes of the MDR Gram-negative bacteria that commonly cause infections in patients with hematologic malignancies. We also examine infection prevention strategies in hematology patients, such as infection control practices, antimicrobial stewardship, and targeted decolonization. Finally, we assess strategies to improve outcomes of infected patients, including gastrointestinal screening to guide empirical antibiotic therapy, new rapid diagnostic tools for expeditious identification of MDR pathogens, and use of two new antimicrobial agents, ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam. PMID:27339405

  17. The utility of repeat sestamibi scans in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism after an initial negative scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Vikram D; Sound, Sara; Okoh, Alexis K; Yazici, Pinar; Yigitbas, Hakan; Neumann, Donald; Doshi, Krupa; Berber, Eren

    2017-06-01

    We analyzed the utility of repeated sestambi scans in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and its effects on operative referral. We carried out a retrospective review of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent repeated sestambi scans exclusively within our health system between 1996-2015. Patient demographic, presentation, laboratory, imaging, operative, and pathologic data were reviewed. Univariate analysis with JMP Pro v12 was used to identify factors associated with conversion from an initial negative to a subsequent positive scan. After exclusion criteria (including reoperations), we identified 49 patients in whom 59% (n = 29) of subsequent scans remained negative and 41% (n = 20) converted to positive. Factors associated with an initial negative to a subsequent positive scan included classic presentation and second scans with iodine subtraction (P = .04). Nonsurgeons were less likely to order an iodine-subtraction scan (P < .05). Fewer patients with negative imaging were referred to surgery (33% vs 100%, P = .005), and median time to operation after the first negative scan was 25 months (range 1.4-119). Surgeon-performed ultrasonography had greater sensitivity and positive predictive value than repeated sestamibi scans. Negative sestambi scans decreased and delayed operative referral. Consequently, we identified several process improvement initiatives, including education regarding superior institutional imaging. Combining all findings, we created an algorithm for evaluating patients with primary hyperparathyroidism after initially negative sestamibi scans, which incorporates surgeon-performed ultrasonography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Surgery for patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and negative sestamibi scintigraphy--a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thier, Mark; Nordenström, Erik; Bergenfelz, Anders; Westerdahl, Johan

    2009-09-01

    We report the surgical treatment of a consecutive series of scan negative patients with the intention of unilateral parathyroid exploration with the aid of intraoperative quick PTH (qPTH). The study included 35 consecutive sestamibi scan negative patients (27 women, eight men) with sporadic pHPT subjected to first time surgery. Median age was 70 years and median preoperative calcium level 2.8 mmol/L. Thirty-three patients had a histological diagnosis of a parathyroid adenoma (median weight 0.48 g [range 0.12 g-2.5 g]). Nineteen patients were explored bilaterally and 16 patients (46%) were operated unilaterally. The median operation time was 40 min in the unilateral group and 95 min in the bilateral group (p < 0.001). Three patients were treated for postoperative hypocalcemia after bilateral exploration versus none in the unilateral group (p = 0.23). With a minimum of 12 months of follow-up, 33 patients (94.3%) were cured. One case of recurrent HPT presented after bilateral exploration with visualization of four glands. One case of persistent HPT was observed after unilateral exploration. qPTH was predictive of operative failure in both patients. Forty-six percent of the patients in our study could be operated unilaterally with a total cure rate of 94%. Patients in the unilateral group had a significant shorter operation time and a lower incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia. In conclusion our investigation shows that limited parathyroid exploration can safely be performed on patients with negative sestamibi scintigraphy by the aid of qPTH.

  19. Study of Preoperative Antiviral Treatment of Patients with HCC Negative for HBV-DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Tong; Tang, Kun; Sui, Lu-Lu; Xu, Gang; Liu, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    To study preoperative HBV-DNA negative HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which was reactivated after surgery and could influence liver function and HCC recurrence. Patients were divided into two groups according to preoperative antiviral therapy status. The control group comprised of 102 preoperative HBV-DNA-negative patients who had not undergone antiviral therapy before surgery. In the treatment group, all HBV-DNA-negative patients (n=63) received entecavir 3-5 days before surgery and for 12 months after surgery. Patients were followed-up regularly, during the preoperative period, and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months postoperatively. The data for the two groups were analyzed including the level of HBV-DNA and HBV-DNA activation; liver function; 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rate; cumulative survival time; and tumor recurrence. Liver function in the treatment group was better than that of the control group12 months after surgery. Compared to the control group, total bilirubin in the treatment group was significantly better at 6 and 12 months after surgery (pHBV-DNA activation while there were 13 cases (12.75%) with HBV-DNA activation in the control group (pHBV-related HCC with negative HBV-DNA is beneficial to liver function, coagulation function, disease control, prevention of tumor recurrence, improvement of patient quality of life, reduces the death rate and prolongs survival duration. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  20. [Detection and the production mechanism of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-liver/kidney microsomal tpe 1 antibodies (anti-LKM1) in patients with chronic hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li; Lu, Hai-Ying; Feng, Zhen-Ru; Yu, Min; Li, Wen-Gang; Gong, Wei-Bo; Zhao, Nu-en-ji-ya; Xu, Xiao-Yuan

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-liver/ kidney microsomal type 1 antibodies (anti-LKM1) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC)and to explore the mechanism of production of these autoantibodies. Serum samples were collected from 360 patients with CHC (case group), 69 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 69 patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) (control group). Serum ANA and anti-LKM1 were detected by indirect immunofluorescence (HF) technique and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Multi-factor analysis was performed to explore the correlations of the production of autoantibodies with some factors such as age, sex, viral loads, HCV genotype, biochemical parameters and clinical characteristics. Fifty-four (15%) of 360 patients infected with HCV were positive in autoantibodies. The prevalence of ANA and anti-LKM1 were 12.5% (45/360) and 2.5% (9/ 360), respectively. The positive rate of autoantibodies in patients with CHC was significantly higher than that in patients with CHB (15% vs 2.9%, P = 0.006), but significantly lower than that in patients with AIH (15% vs 47.9%, P 0.05). Autoantibodies related to AIH can be detected in CHC patients; interferon may not induce the production of autoantibodies; it is very likely that HCV infection induces the autoimmune reaction and the production of autoantibodies.

  1. Risk factors and short-term outcome in patients with angiographically negative subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbjerg, Sara Maria; Larsen, Carl Christian; Romner, Bertil

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify prognostic factors for clinical outcome in patients with non-traumatic, angiographically negative subarachnoid hemorrhage. Furthermore, the aim was to investigate if patients on anticoagulant therapy may have a more unfavorable outcome than patients...

  2. Physicians' responses to patients' expressions of negative emotions in hospital consultations: a video-based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjaaland, Trond A; Finset, Arnstein; Jensen, Bård Fossli; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2011-09-01

    Patients express their negative emotions in medical consultations either implicitly as cue to an underlying unpleasant emotion or explicitly as a clear, unambiguous concern. The health provider's response to such cues and concerns is important for the outcome of consultations. Yet, physicians often neglect patient's negative emotions. Most studies of this subject are from primary health care. We aimed to describe how physicians in a hospital respond to negative emotions in an outpatient setting. Ninety six consultations were videotaped in a general teaching hospital. The Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences was used to identify patients' expression of negative emotions in terms of cue and concern and to code physicians' subsequent responses. Cohen's kappa was used as interrater reliability measure. Acceptable kappa level was set to .60. We observed 163 expressions of negative emotions. In general, the physician responses to patients' cues and concerns did not include follow up or exploration. Concerns more often than cues led to lack of emotional exploration. When patients expressed negative emotions or cues to such, hospital physicians tended to move away from emotional communication, particularly if the emotion was expressed as an explicit concern. Medical training should enable physicians' to explore the patients' emotions in situations where it will improve the medical treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Usefulness of the Negative Multidetector CT Angiography in Patients with Suspected Pulmonary Embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holguin Holguin, Alfonso Jose; Lombana, Milton; Collazos, Giovanny; Bravo, Hector; Abella Calle, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to evaluate alternative findings in pulmonary CT angiography using MDCT reported as negative in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Material and method: Cross sectional study with 178 patients. We recognized other findings reported in pulmonary CT angiography using MDCT whose result was negative. Subsequently these findings were classified into six different categories of clinical relevance and their association with clinical scenario was analyzed. Results: from November 2004 to June 2007 we requested 231 pulmonary CT angiography using MDCT in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. 217 patients were included in the final analysis. Of these, 39 (185) were positive for pulmonary embolism. The 178 remaining negative studies, 8.43% were normal, 53.37% were classified as category A, 20.79% category B, 14.04% category C; category D 1.12% and 2.25% were not interpretable. The most frequent diagnoses were pneumonia, interstitial lung disease and cardiogenic pulmonary edema. It was less likely to find a normal report whether the study was requested in the hospital department in emergency patients (OR = 0.38 95% 0.16 to 0.88, p = 0.0007). No differences were found in other categories or between patients younger or older than 65 years (p = 0.436). Conclusion: Pulmonary CT angiography as first line imaging tool in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism is useful, offering alternative diagnoses in hospitalized and emergency room patients, regardless of their age and clinical findings.

  4. Recent negative life events increase hair cortisol concentrations in patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Koenders, Manja A; Giltay, Erik J; Elzinga, Bernet M; Manenschijn, Laura; Hoencamp, Erik; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Spijker, Anne T

    2014-12-01

    Life events induce stress, which is considered to negatively impact the course of disease in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), its effects being predominantly mediated by cortisol. Cortisol in scalp hair has been identified as a biomarker for assessing long-term cortisol levels, and allows clarifying the relation between life events, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), and clinical course over time. In 71 BD patients, we analyzed the proximal 3 cm of hair, reflecting 3 months of cortisol production, and investigated the association between HCC, the number of life events, the amount of social support, and mood in the 3 months prior to the hair assessment and between HCC and mood in the subsequent 3 months. Although the total number of life events was not associated with HCC (p > 0.05), the number of negative life events was associated with increased HCC (r(2)( )= 0.04, p = 0.02). Social support showed an inverse association with HCC in patients reporting negative life events (r(2)( )= 0.07, p = 0.03). HCC and mood were not associated in the 3 months prior to hair sampling or in the subsequent 3 months. This study indicates that patients who experienced recent negative life events have increased hair cortisol levels, which seem to be attenuated by social support.

  5. Use of buffy coat thick films in detecting malaria parasites in patients with negative conventional thick films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangdee, Chatnapa; Tangpukdee, Noppadon; Krudsood, Srivicha; Wilairatana, Polrat

    2012-04-01

    To determine the frequency of malaria parasite detection from the buffy coat blood films by using capillary tube in falciparum malaria patients with negative conventional thick films. Thirty six uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients confirmed by conventional thick and thin films were included in the study. The patients were treated with artemisinin combination therapy at Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Bangkok, Thailand for 28 day. Fingerpricks for conventional blood films were conducted every 6 hours until negative parasitemia, then daily fingerpricks for parasite checks were conducted until the patients were discharged from hospital. Blood samples were also concurrently collected in 3 heparinized capillary tubes at the same time of fingerpricks for conventional blood films when the prior parasitemia was negative on thin films and parasitemia was lower than 50 parasites/200 white blood cells by thick film. The first negative conventional thick films were compared with buffy coat thick films for parasite identification. Out of 36 patients with thick films showing negative for asexual forms of parasites, buffy coat films could detect remaining 10 patients (27.8%) with asexual forms of Plasmodium falciparum. The study shows that buffy coat thick films are useful and can detect malarial parasites in 27.8% of patients whose conventional thick films show negative parasitemia.

  6. CALR, JAK2 and MPL mutation status in Argentinean patients with BCR-ABL1- negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Mara Jorgelina; Bragós, Irma Margarita; Calvo, Karina Lucrecia; Williams, Gladis Marcela; Carbonell, María Magdalena; Pratti, Arianna Flavia

    2018-05-01

    To establish the frequency of JAK2, MPL and CALR mutations in Argentinean patients with BCR-ABL1-negative  myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) and to compare their clinical and haematological features. Mutations of JAK2V617F, JAK2 exon 12, MPL W515L/K and CALR were analysed in 439 Argentinean patients with BCR-ABL1-negative MPN, including 176 polycythemia vera (PV), 214 essential thrombocythemia (ET) and 49 primary myelofibrosis (PMF). In 94.9% of PV, 85.5% ET and 85.2% PMF, we found mutations in JAK2, MPL or CALR. 74.9% carried JAK2V617F, 12.3% CALR mutations, 2.1% MPL mutations and 10.7% were triple negative. In ET, nine types of CALR mutations were identified, four of which were novel. PMF patients were limited to types 1 and 2, type 2 being more frequent. In ET, patients with CALR mutation were younger and had higher platelet counts than those with JAK2V617F and triple negative. In addition, JAK2V617F patients had high leucocyte and haemoglobin values compared with CALR-mutated and triple-negative patients. In PMF, patients with mutant CALR were associated with higher platelet counts. Our study underscores the importance of JAK2, MPL and CALR genotyping for accurate diagnosis of patients with BCR-ABL1-negative MPN.

  7. Research progress of therapeutic vaccines for treating chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqiang; Bao, Mengru; Ge, Jun; Ren, Sulin; Zhou, Tong; Qi, Fengchun; Pu, Xiuying; Dou, Jia

    2017-05-04

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of Hepadnavirus family, which leads to chronic infection in around 5% of patients with a high risk of developing liver cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. 1 Despite the availability of prophylactic vaccines against hepatitis B for over 3 decades, there are still more than 2 billion people have been infected and 240 million of them were chronic. Antiviral therapies currently used in the treatment of CHB (chronic hepatitis B) infection include peg-interferon, standard α-interferon and nucleos/tide analogs (NAs), but none of them can provide sustained control of viral replication. As an alternative strategy, therapeutic vaccines for CHB patients have been widely studied and showed some promising efficacies in dozens of preclinical and clinical trials. In this article, we review current research progress in several types of therapeutic vaccines for CHB treatment, including protein-based vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, live vector-based vaccines, peptide-based vaccines and cell-based therapies. These researches may provide some clues for developing new treatments in CHB infection.

  8. Negative attitude towards medication is associated with working memory impairment in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Craig; Knoll, Gabriella; Isakov, Victoria; Silver, Henry

    2005-03-01

    A lack of insight into illness and negative attitudes towards medication are common among individuals with schizophrenia and impact clinical outcomes. This study aimed to examine the relationships between attitudes towards medication and cognitive function in schizophrenia patients. Thirty-five male forensic inpatients who were suffering from chronic schizophrenia participated in the study. A drug attitude inventory was used to evaluate the attitudes of the patients towards medication. Neuropsychological function was assessed with a comprehensive battery of tests. Patients with positive attitudes towards medication performed significantly better than those with negative attitudes on tests of verbal working memory (digit span forwards and backwards), inhibition and set shifting (Penn Inhibition test), delayed object memory and overall mental status (Mini Mental State Examination). There were no differences in age, education, hospitalizations or clinical symptoms between the groups. Our findings support an association between negative attitudes towards medication and poor cognitive performance, particularly of working memory.

  9. Genetic mutation analysis of HBV covalently closed circular DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from chronic hepatitis B patients with nucleos(tide analog-resistant mutations in serum virions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-bin LI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To analyze the characteristics of genetic mutations in reverse-transcriptase (RT domain of HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs obtained from chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients with drug-resistant mutations in serum virions during nucleoside/nucleotide analog (NA therapy. Methods  A total of 30 CHB patients admitted to 302 Hospital of PLA from July 2010 to August 2011 were included in this study. All the patients were confirmed to harbor the drug-resistant mutations in serum virions during an NA therapy longer than 6 months. Total DNA was extracted from PBMCs isolated from 30 whole blood samples at the same time point as that of serum analysis. Plasmid-safe ATP-dependent DNase (PSAD digestion in combination with rolling circle amplification and gap-spanning semi-nested PCR were used to amplify the RT region of HBV cccDNA. NA-resistant-associated mutations were analyzed at nine sites. Results  HBV cccDNA was efficiently amplified in 16 out of 30 (53.3% PBMC samples, and the detection rate was not correlated with HBeAg-positive rate, serum ALT level or HBV DNA load. Five of 16 (31.3% patients were sustained to have genotype B HBV infection, and 11 of 16 (68.8% were of genotype C HBV infection, and the result was consistent with the genotyping results using serum HBV. Different from drug-resistant mutations detected in the serum virions, the viruses detected in HBV cccDNA of 16 PBMC samples were all wild-type viruses without NA-resistant-associated mutations in RT region. Conclusions  During NA antiviral treatment, if drug-resistant mutations occur in serum HBV DNA of CHB patients, the dominant species of HBV cccDNA in PBMCs from the same patient is still the original wild-type strains. It is speculated that PBMCs might be the potential "repository" of HBV wild-type strain in vivo.

  10. Application of 13C-urea breath test in patients diagnosed as H. pylori-negative by gastroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Long; Liu Changjiang; Gao Jianqing; Xu Sumei; Chen Linna; Zhou Jianming

    2006-01-01

    13 C-urea breath test( 13 C-UBT)was used to evaluate infection rate of H. pylori(HP) and effect of HP eradication in patients diagnosed as HP-negative by histology and rapid urease test. Patiens without gastrointestinal disorders were set as control group. Within 640 patients diagnosed as HP-negative by histology and rapid urease test, there were 389 patients showed HP-positive by 13 C-UBT. The positive rate of HP was 60.8%. 389 patients diagnosed as HP- positive by 13 C-UBT were treated with PPI-based triple therapy, PPI-based double therapy and single PPI therapy, respectively. After treatment, the negative rate of 13 C-UBT was 83.8%, 18.4% and 3.3%, respectively. The results showed significant difference between three kinds of therapy (P 13 C-UBT could improve the diagnostic rate of HP to patients who diagnosed as HP-negative by histology and rapid urease test. (authors)

  11. Gram negative wound infection in hospitalised adult burn patients--systematic review and metanalysis-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Ernest A; Azzopardi, Elayne; Camilleri, Liberato; Villapalos, Jorge; Boyce, Dean E; Dziewulski, Peter; Dickson, William A; Whitaker, Iain S

    2014-01-01

    Gram negative infection is a major determinant of morbidity and survival. Traditional teaching suggests that burn wound infections in different centres are caused by differing sets of causative organisms. This study established whether Gram-negative burn wound isolates associated to clinical wound infection differ between burn centres. Studies investigating adult hospitalised patients (2000-2010) were critically appraised and qualified to a levels of evidence hierarchy. The contribution of bacterial pathogen type, and burn centre to the variance in standardised incidence of Gram-negative burn wound infection was analysed using two-way analysis of variance. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanni, Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp. and Escherichia coli emerged as the commonest Gram-negative burn wound pathogens. Individual pathogens' incidence did not differ significantly between burn centres (F (4, 20) = 1.1, p = 0.3797; r2 = 9.84). Gram-negative infections predominate in burn surgery. This study is the first to establish that burn wound infections do not differ significantly between burn centres. It is the first study to report the pathogens responsible for the majority of Gram-negative infections in these patients. Whilst burn wound infection is not exclusive to these bacteria, it is hoped that reporting the presence of this group of common Gram-negative "target organisms" facilitate clinical practice and target research towards a defined clinical demand.

  12. Mucositis and oral infections secondary to gram negative rods in patients with prolonged neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindy M. Sampson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with prolonged neutropenia are at risk for a variety of complications and infections including the development of mucositis and oral ulcers. The changes in oral flora during chemotherapy and its effects on the development of infections of the oral cavity have been studied with inconsistent results. However, there is evidence that supports the colonization of gram negative rods in patients undergoing chemotherapy. In this report, we present two leukemic patients who developed oral ulcers secondary to multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is important to suspect multi-drug resistant gram negative rods in patients with prolonged neutropenia who develop gum infections despite appropriate antibiotic coverage.

  13. Learning from Negative Feedback in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder is Attenuated by SSRI Antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Herzallah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One barrier to interpreting past studies of cognition and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD has been the failure in many studies to adequately dissociate the effects of MDD from the potential cognitive side effects of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI use. To better understand how remediation of depressive symptoms affects cognitive function in MDD, we evaluated three groups of subjects: medication-naïve patients with MDD, medicated patients with MDD receiving the SSRI paroxetine and healthy control subjects. All were administered a category-learning task that allows for dissociation between learning from positive feedback (reward versus learning from negative feedback (punishment. Healthy subjects learned significantly better from positive feedback than medication-naïve and medicated MDD groups, whose learning accuracy did not differ significantly. In contrast, medicated patients with MDD learned significantly less from negative feedback than medication-naïve patients with MDD and healthy subjects, whose learning accuracy was comparable. A comparison of subject’s relative sensitivity to positive versus negative feedback showed that both the medicated MDD and healthy control groups conform to Kahneman and Tversky’s (1979 Prospect Theory, which expects losses (negative feedback to loom psychologically slightly larger than gains (positive feedback. However, medicated MDD and HC profiles are not similar, which indicates that the state of medicated MDD is not ‘normal’ when compared to HC, but rather balanced with less learning from both positive and negative feedback. On the other hand, medication-naïve patients with MDD violate Prospect Theory by having significantly exaggerated learning from negative feedback. This suggests that SSRI antidepressants impair learning from negative feedback, while having negligible effect on learning from positive feedback. Overall, these findings shed light on the importance of dissociating the

  14. Mismatch Negativity in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Urban

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficit is considered to be a part of core dysfuncions in schizophrenia. It is associated with social impairment and influences the long-term course of the disorder. In addition to neuropsychological methods, event-related potentials can be used to study cognitive functions. In patients with schizophrenia an association was found between amplitude changes in slow negative component of evoked responses and infrequent deviations in a series of uniform stimuli. This amplitude change is known as „mismatch negativity“ (MMN. It is supposed to be independent of the focused attention and effort that otherwise interfere with neuropsychological testing. Recently accumulated knowledge on MMN as a possible preattentive measure of cognition supports its potential significance for neuropsychological assessment. It may be helpful in more precise diagnosis and functional evaluation of schizophrenia.

  15. Difficulties in emotion regulation mediate negative and positive affects and craving in alcoholic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravani, Vahid; Sharifi Bastan, Farangis; Ghorbani, Fatemeh; Kamali, Zoleikha

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mediating effects of difficulties in emotion regulation (DER) on the relations of negative and positive affects to craving in alcoholic patients. 205 treatment-seeking alcoholic outpatients were included. DER, positive and negative affects as well as craving were evaluated by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Positive/Negative Affect Scales, and the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) respectively. Clinical factors including depression and severity of alcohol dependence were investigated by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) respectively. Results revealed that both increased negative affect and decreased positive affect indirectly influenced craving through limited access to emotion regulation strategies. It was concluded that limited access to emotion regulation strategies may be important in predicting craving for alcoholics who experience both increased negative affect and decreased positive affect. This suggests that treatment and prevention efforts focused on increasing positive affect, decreasing negative affect and teaching effective regulation strategies may be critical in reducing craving in alcoholic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Conduction disturbances after TAVR: Electrophysiological studies and pacemaker dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Nader; Dollery, Jenn; Jones, Danielle; Crestanello, Juan; Lilly, Scott

    Permanent pacemaker (PPM) placement occurs in 5-20% of patients after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Although predictors of pacemaker implantation have been established, features that predispose patients to pacemaker utilization on follow up have not been widely reported. We performed a retrospective review of patients undergoing commercial TAVR between 2011 and 2016. We collated patients that underwent in-hospital PPM implantation and had a follow up of at least 3months. Data abstraction was performed for electrophysiological studies (EPS), pacemaker indication, timing, and device interrogation for pacemaker dependency on follow up. A total of 24 patients received in-hospital PPM post-TAVR (14% of total cohort), and mean follow up was 22months. Indications for PPM included resting complete heart block (CHB; 15/24, 63%), left bundle branch block and abnormal electrophysiological study (EPS; 7/24, 29%), alternating bundle branch block (1/24, 4%) and tachy-brady syndrome (1/24, 4%). Pacemaker dependency (underlying ventricular asystole, complete heart block, or >50% pacing) occurred in 8/24 patients (33%) during follow-up, 7 of whom had resting CHB, and one with CHB invoked during EPS. Pacemaker dependency after TAVR is common among those that exhibited CHB, but not among those with a prolonged HV delay during EPS. Although preliminary, these observations are relevant to management of rhythm disturbances after TAVR, and may inform the practice of EPS-based PPM implantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anti-tuberculosis therapy-induced hepatotoxicity among Ethiopian HIV-positive and negative patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getnet Yimer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available To assess and compare the prevalence, severity and prognosis of anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity (DIH in HIV positive and HIV negative tuberculosis (TB patients in Ethiopia.In this study, 103 HIV positive and 94 HIV negative TB patients were enrolled. All patients were evaluated for different risk factors and monitored biochemically and clinically for development of DIH. Sub-clinical hepatotoxicity was observed in 17.3% of the patients and 8 out of the 197 (4.1% developed clinical hepatotoxicity. Seven of the 8 were HIV positive and 2 were positive for HBsAg.Sub-clinical hepatotoxicity was significantly associated with HIV co-infection (p = 0.002, concomitant drug intake (p = 0.008, and decrease in CD4 count (p = 0.001. Stepwise restarting of anti TB treatment was also successful in almost all the patients who developed clinical DIH. We therefore conclude that anti-TB DIH is a major problem in HIV-associated TB with a decline in immune status and that there is a need for a regular biochemical and clinical follow up for those patients who are at risk.

  18. [Study on the correlation of the effect of entecavir on Th1/Th2 cytokines level in the treatment of chronic hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Jing, Y B; Liu, J; Wang, C L; Liu, B

    2017-08-20

    Objective: To explore the expression level of peripheral blood Th1/Th2 type cytokines of chronic hepatitis b (CHB) patients in the entecavir (ETV) antiviral treatment, analyze the relationship between various cytokines, and the correlation among of cytokines and HBV DNA loads. Methods: Luminex Liquid Chip Technology was applied to detect the peripheral blood Th1/Th2 type cytokines expression level of CHB patients; At the same time, liver function was detected by Fully Automatic Biochemical Analyzer; HBV DNA loads were detected by PCR Method; Hepatitis b virology markers were detected by Chemiluminescence Method. F-test and Pearson correlation analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results: Before ETV antiviral treatment, peripheral blood Th1 cytokines IFN gamma expression level in patients with CHB increased significantly ( P = 0.010) compared with the healthy control group while TNF alpha expression level having no statistically significant difference ( P = 0.095); Th2 type cytokines IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 levels decreased obviously ( P = 0.039, P = 0.014, P = 0.026) compared with those in the control group. After 48 weeks of treatment, Th1 cytokines IFN gamma and TNF alpha expression levels were reduced significantly (19.2±5.03 pg/ml vs 24.69±6.51 pg/ml, and 6.09±4.99 pg/ml vs 9.50±7.34 pg/ml, P Th1/Th2 type cytokines. And there was no correlation between the various cytokines and HBV DNA loads in patients with CHB. Conclusion: ETV can not only inhibit HBV DNA replication, reducing HBV DNA loads, but also contribute to regulate Th1/Th2 type cytokines expression level in patients with CHB, but there was no correlation between the levels of various cytokines, various cytokines and HBV DNA loads.

  19. Diagnostic role of capsule endoscopy in patients of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding after negative CT enterography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaswinder Singh Sodhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Computed tomographic enterography (CT-EG has emerged a useful tool for the evaluation of small bowel in patients of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB. However, CT-EG may be negative in about 50-60% of patients. We aimed to see the efficacy of capsule endoscopy (CE in patients of OGIB, who had initial negative CT-EG. Materials and Methods: All consecutive patients of OGIB after initial hemodynamic stabilization were subjected to CT-EG. Those having negative CT-EG were further evaluated with CE. Results: Fifty-five patients of OGIB with mean standard deviation age, 52.7 (19.0, range 18-75 years, women 31/55 (56.4% were subjected to CT-EG. Nine (17.6% patients had positive findings on CT-EG, which included mass lesions in six, thickened wall of distal ileal loops, narrowing, and wall enhancement in two and jejunal wall thickening with wall hyperenhancement in one patient. Forty-two patients had negative CT-EG of which 25 underwent CE for further evaluation. CE detected positive findings in 11 of 25 (48% patients which included vascular malformations in three, ulcers in seven, and fresh blood without identifiable source in one. The diagnostic yield of CE in overt OGIB was more compared to occult OGIB ((7/14, 50% vs (4/11, 36.4% P = 0.2 and was higher if performed within 2 weeks of active gastrointestinal (GI bleed (P = 0.08. Conclusions: In conclusion, CE is an additional tool in the evaluation of obscure GI bleed, especially mucosal lesions which can be missed by CT-EG.

  20. The Role of Perceived Social Support in Explanation of Positive and Negative Syndrome in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    akbar Atadokht

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Chronic psychiatric patients not only become inactive members of community but also the heavy costs of their maintenance and rehabilitation burden on society and their family. According to importance of subject, this study aimed to investigate the role of percieved social support in predicting positive and negative syndrome in patients with schizophrenia.   Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 124 patients have been selected among patients with schizophrenia hospitalized in Issar Psychiatric Hospital and Rehabilitation Centers in first 3 mounths of 2014 in Ardabil, Iran and completed Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS and a researcher made demographic checklist. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate regression analysis on SPSS-16 software and P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.   Results: The mean age of participants was 36.34±9.09 and their education level was mostly (58% primary or illiterate. Results showed that there is a negative relationship between patients positive symptoms index and their family, some others and total social support (p<0.01 and also between negative symptoms index and patients friends, some others and total social support (p<0.05. Results of multivariate regression analysis showed that 11% of positive and negative symptom syndrome are explained by percieved social support in patients with schizophrenia (p<0.01.   Conclusion: Percieved social support has relationship with positive and negative syndrome of patients with schizophrenia and measures to increase resources of social support and promotion of patients percieved social support can be used as an effective intervention by clinicians, patients and their family.

  1. Perceived health in lung cancer patients: the role of positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jameson K; Floyd, Andrea R; Duberstein, Paul R

    2012-03-01

    To examine the association of affective experience and health-related quality of life in lung cancer patients, we hypothesized that negative affect would be positively, and positive affect would be negatively, associated with perceived health. A sample of 133 English-speaking lung cancer patients (33% female; mean age = 63.68 years old, SD = 9.37) completed a battery of self-report surveys. Results of our secondary analysis indicate that trait negative affect was significantly associated with poor physical and social functioning, greater role limitations due to emotional problems, greater bodily pain, and poor general health. Positive affect was significantly associated with adaptive social functioning, fewer emotion-based role limitations, and less severe bodily pain. In a full model, positive affect was significantly associated with greater levels of social functioning and general health, over and above the effects of negative affect. Reduction of negative affect is an important therapeutic goal, but the ability to maintain positive affect may result in greater perceived health. Indeed, engagement in behaviors that result in greater state positive affect may, over time, result in dispositional changes and enhancement of quality of life.

  2. EFFECTIVENESS OF MINDFULNESS BASED COGNITIVE THERAPY ON REDUCTION OF NEGATIVE AUTOMATIC THOUGHTS OF DEPRESSIVE PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Farokhzad, Pegah; Yazdanfar, Tahmineh

    2018-01-01

    AbstractThe present research is aimed to study the effectiveness of mindfulness based cognitive therapy on reduction of negative automatic thoughts of depressive patients. It was a semi-experimental research, using pre-test post-test with control group design. The statistical population consists of 20-40 year old patients who were referred to Tehran Psychiatric Institute for depression in 2015. Out of them, on the basis of Cohen’s table, 30 patients who had negative automatic thoughts were sc...

  3. Negative predictors for satisfaction in patients seeking facial cosmetic surgery: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herruer, J.M.; Prins, J.B.; Heerbeek, N. van; Verhage-Damen, G.W.; Ingels, K.J.A.O.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Facial cosmetic surgery is becoming more popular. Patients generally indicate they are satisfied with the results. Certain patient characteristics, however, have been described as negative predictors for satisfaction. Psychopathology such as body dysmorphic disorder and personality

  4. First-Line Cetuximab Monotherapy in KRAS/NRAS/BRAF Mutation-Negative Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseyenko, Vladimir M; Moiseyenko, Fedor V; Yanus, Grigoriy A; Kuligina, Ekatherina Sh; Sokolenko, Anna P; Bizin, Ilya V; Kudriavtsev, Alexey A; Aleksakhina, Svetlana N; Volkov, Nikita M; Chubenko, Vyacheslav A; Kozyreva, Kseniya S; Kramchaninov, Mikhail M; Zhuravlev, Alexandr S; Shelekhova, Kseniya V; Pashkov, Denis V; Ivantsov, Alexandr O; Venina, Aigul R; Sokolova, Tatyana N; Preobrazhenskaya, Elena V; Mitiushkina, Natalia V; Togo, Alexandr V; Iyevleva, Aglaya G; Imyanitov, Evgeny N

    2018-06-01

    Colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) are sensitive to treatment by anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies only if they do not carry activating mutations in down-stream EGFR targets (KRAS/NRAS/BRAF). Most clinical trials for chemo-naive CRC patients involved combination of targeted agents and chemotherapy, while single-agent cetuximab or panitumumab studies included either heavily pretreated patients or subjects who were not selected on the basis of molecular tests. We hypothesized that anti-EGFR therapy would have significant efficacy in chemo-naive patients with KRAS/NRAS/BRAF mutation-negative CRC. Nineteen patients were prospectively included in the study. Two (11%) patients experienced partial response (PR) and 11 (58%) subjects showed stable disease (SD). Median time to progression approached 6.1 months (range 1.6-15.0 months). Cetuximab efficacy did not correlate with RNA expression of EGFR and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2). Only one tumor carried PIK3CA mutation, and this CRC responded to cetuximab. Exome analysis of patients with progressive disease (PD) revealed 1 CRC with high-level microsatellite instability and 1 instance of HER2 oncogene amplification; 3 of 4 remaining patients with PD had allergic reactions to cetuximab, while none of the subjects with PR or SD had this complication. Comparison with 19 retrospective KRAS/NRAS/BRAF mutation-negative patients receiving first-line fluoropyrimidines revealed no advantages or disadvantages of cetuximab therapy. Cetuximab demonstrates only modest efficacy when given as a first-line monotherapy to KRAS/NRAS/BRAF mutation-negative CRC patients. It is of question, why meticulous patient selection, which was undertaken in the current study, did not result in the improvement of outcomes of single-agent cetuximab treatment.

  5. Treatment with escitalopram improves the attentional bias toward negative facial expressions in patients with major depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenhe; Cao, Suxia; Li, Hengfen; Li, Youhui

    2015-10-01

    We hypothesized that treatment with escitalopram would improve cognitive bias and contribute to the recovery process for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Many previous studies have established that patients with MDD tend to pay selective attention to negative stimuli. The assessment of the level of cognitive bias is regarded as a crucial dimension of treatment outcomes for MDD. To our knowledge, no prior studies have been reported on the effects of treatment with escitalopram on attentional bias in MDD, employing a dot probe task of facial expression. We studied 25 patients with MDD and 25 controls, and used a dot probe task of facial expression to measure cognitive bias. The patients' psychopathologies were rated using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment with escitalopram. All participants performed the facial expression dot probe task. The results revealed that the 8 week escitalopram treatment decreased the HAMD scores. The patients with MDD at baseline exhibited an attentional bias towards negative faces, however, no significant bias toward either negative or happy faces were observed in the controls. After the 8 week escitalopram treatment, no significant bias toward negative faces was observed in the patient group. In conclusion, patients with MDD pay more attention to negative facial expressions, and treatment with escitalopram improves this attentional bias toward negative facial expressions. This is the first study, to our knowledge, on the effects of treatment with escitalopram on attentional bias in patients with MDD that has employed a dot probe task of facial expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lymph Node Micrometastases are Associated with Worse Survival in Patients with Otherwise Node-Negative Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel, Hendrik T J; Wiggers, Jim K; Verheij, Joanne; Doff, Jan J; Sieders, Egbert; van Gulik, Thomas M; Gouw, Annette S H; Porte, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Lymph node metastases on routine histology are a strong negative predictor for survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Additional immunohistochemistry can detect lymph node micrometastases in patients who are otherwise node negative, but the prognostic value is unsure. The objective of this study was to assess the effect on survival of immunohistochemically detected lymph node micrometastases in patients with node-negative (pN0) hilar cholangiocarcinoma on routine histology. Between 1990 and 2010, a total of 146 patients underwent curative-intent resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with regional lymphadenectomy at two university medical centers in the Netherlands. Ninety-one patients (62 %) without lymph node metastases at routine histology were included. Micrometastases were identified by multiple sectioning of all lymph nodes and additional immunostaining with an antibody against cytokeratin 19 (K19). The association with overall survival was assessed in univariable and multivariable analysis. Median follow-up was 48 months. Micrometastases were identified in 16 (5 %) of 324 lymph nodes, corresponding to 11 (12 %) of 91 patients. There were no differences in clinical variables between K19 lymph node-positive and -negative patients. Five-year survival rates in patients with lymph node micrometastases were significantly lower compared to patients without micrometastases (27 vs. 54 %, P = 0.01). Multivariable analysis confirmed micrometastases as an independent prognostic factor for survival (adjusted Hazard ratio 2.4, P = 0.02). Lymph node micrometastases are associated with worse survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical detection of lymph node micrometastases leads to better staging of patients who were initially diagnosed with node-negative (pN0) hilar cholangiocarcinoma on routine histology.

  7. Low frequency of c-MPL gene mutations in Iranian patients with Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotaslou, A; Nadali, F; Chahardouli, B; Alizad Ghandforosh, N; Rostami, S H; Alimoghaddam, K; Ghavamzadeh, A

    2015-01-01

    Myeloproliferative disorders are a group of diseases characterized by increased proliferation of myeloid lineage. In addition to JAK2V617F mutation, several mutations in the c-MPL gene have been reported in patients with philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders that could be important in the pathogenesis of diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of c-MPL and JAK2V617F mutations in Iranian patients with Philadelphia-negativemyeloproliferative disorders. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 60 patients with Philadelphia-negative MPD) Subgroups ET and PMF) and 25 healthy subjects as control group. The mutation status of c-MPL and Jak2V617F were investigated by using Amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS) and Allele-Specific PCR (AS-PCR), respectively. The results were confirmed by sequencing. Among 60 patients, 34 (56.6%) and 1(1.7%) had Jak2V617F and c-MPL mutation, respectively. Patients with Jak2V617F mutation had higher WBC counts and hemoglobin concentration than those without the mutation (p= 0.005, p=0.003). In addition, for all healthy subjects in control group, mutations were negative. The present study revealed that the c-MPL mutations unlike the Jak2V617F mutations are rare in Iranian patients with Ph-negative MPNs and the low mutation rate should be considered in the design of screening strategies of MPD patients.

  8. Gram negative wound infection in hospitalised adult burn patients--systematic review and metanalysis-.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest A Azzopardi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gram negative infection is a major determinant of morbidity and survival. Traditional teaching suggests that burn wound infections in different centres are caused by differing sets of causative organisms. This study established whether Gram-negative burn wound isolates associated to clinical wound infection differ between burn centres. METHODS: Studies investigating adult hospitalised patients (2000-2010 were critically appraised and qualified to a levels of evidence hierarchy. The contribution of bacterial pathogen type, and burn centre to the variance in standardised incidence of Gram-negative burn wound infection was analysed using two-way analysis of variance. PRIMARY FINDINGS: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanni, Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp. and Escherichia coli emerged as the commonest Gram-negative burn wound pathogens. Individual pathogens' incidence did not differ significantly between burn centres (F (4, 20 = 1.1, p = 0.3797; r2 = 9.84. INTERPRETATION: Gram-negative infections predominate in burn surgery. This study is the first to establish that burn wound infections do not differ significantly between burn centres. It is the first study to report the pathogens responsible for the majority of Gram-negative infections in these patients. Whilst burn wound infection is not exclusive to these bacteria, it is hoped that reporting the presence of this group of common Gram-negative "target organisms" facilitate clinical practice and target research towards a defined clinical demand.

  9. História natural da hepatite crônica B Natural history of chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Ferraz da Fonseca

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que existam 350 milhões de portadores crônicos do VHB distribuídos ao redor do mundo. Três fases de infecção crônica pelo VHB são reconhecidas: fase de imunotolerância (HBsAg e HBeAg positivos, altos títulos de HBV-DNA, ALT normal e não evidência de doença hepática ativa; fase imunoativa ou de hepatite crônica B (HBsAg e HBeAg positivos, altos títulos de HBV-DNA, ALT elevada e evidência de doença hepática ativa; fase de portador inativo do VHB ou assintomático (HBsAg no soro sem o HBeAg , títulos do HBV-DNA An estimated 350 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV. Three phases of chronic hepatitis B virus infection is are recognized: the immune tolerant phase (HBeAg-positive, high levels of serum HBV-DNA, normal ALT, and no evidence of active liver diseases, the immune clearance phase or chronic hepatitis phase (HBeAg-positive, high levels of serum HBV-DNA, elevated ALT, and active liver disease , and the inactive carrier state or asymptomatic phase (HBsAg-positive in serum without HBeAg, HBV-DNA levels than < 10(5 copies/mL, and normal ALT levels. Chronic hepatitis B is classified into 2 major forms: HBeAg-positive disease (wild-type HBV and HBeAg negative disease (pre-core/core promoter HBV variant. Both forms can lead to liver cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation and liver cancer. The purpose of this article is to review the principal aspects of natural history of chronic hepatitis B.

  10. Hepatitis B virus e antigen induces activation of rat hepatic stellate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zan, Yanlu; Zhang, Yuxia; Tien, Po

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •HBeAg expression in HSCs induced production of ECM protein and liver fibrotic markers. •The activation and proliferation of HSCs were mediated by TGF-β. •HBeAg protein purified from cell medium directly activated HSCs. -- Abstract: Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a major cause of hepatic fibrosis, leading to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) is an accessory protein of HBV, not required for viral replication but important for natural infection in vivo. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major producers of excessive extracellular matrix during liver fibrogenesis. Therefore, we examined the influence of HBeAg on HSCs. The rat HSC line HSC-T6 was transfected with HBeAg plasmids, and expression of α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. The proliferation of HSCs was determined by MTS analysis. HBeAg transduction induced up-regulation of these fibrogenic genes and proliferation of HSCs. We found that HBeAg induced TGF-β secretion in HSCs, and the activation of HSCs was prevented by a neutralizing anti-TGF-β antibody. Depletion and addition of HBeAg protein in conditioned medium from HSC-T6 cells transduced with HBeAg indicated that HBeAg directly induced the activation and proliferation of rat primary HSCs. Taken together, HBeAg induces the activation and proliferation of HSCs, mainly mediated by TGF-β, and HBeAg protein purified from cell medium can directly activate HSCs

  11. Hepatitis B virus e antigen induces activation of rat hepatic stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zan, Yanlu [Center for Molecular Virology, CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Yuxia, E-mail: yzhang@wehi.edu.au [Center for Molecular Virology, CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Tien, Po, E-mail: tienpo@sun.im.ac.cn [Center for Molecular Virology, CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •HBeAg expression in HSCs induced production of ECM protein and liver fibrotic markers. •The activation and proliferation of HSCs were mediated by TGF-β. •HBeAg protein purified from cell medium directly activated HSCs. -- Abstract: Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a major cause of hepatic fibrosis, leading to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) is an accessory protein of HBV, not required for viral replication but important for natural infection in vivo. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major producers of excessive extracellular matrix during liver fibrogenesis. Therefore, we examined the influence of HBeAg on HSCs. The rat HSC line HSC-T6 was transfected with HBeAg plasmids, and expression of α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. The proliferation of HSCs was determined by MTS analysis. HBeAg transduction induced up-regulation of these fibrogenic genes and proliferation of HSCs. We found that HBeAg induced TGF-β secretion in HSCs, and the activation of HSCs was prevented by a neutralizing anti-TGF-β antibody. Depletion and addition of HBeAg protein in conditioned medium from HSC-T6 cells transduced with HBeAg indicated that HBeAg directly induced the activation and proliferation of rat primary HSCs. Taken together, HBeAg induces the activation and proliferation of HSCs, mainly mediated by TGF-β, and HBeAg protein purified from cell medium can directly activate HSCs.

  12. Wolman disease in patients with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL negative mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solaf Elsayed

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Wolman disease should be excluded in patients with clinical and laboratory characteristics of FHL and negative molecular testing especially if the fever is not prominent and is associated with relatively huge hepatomegaly and/or severe failure to thrive.

  13. Screen Shots: When Patients and Families Publish Negative Health Care Narratives Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijkholt, Marleen; Jankowski, Jane; Fisher, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    Social media sites and their relationship to health care is a subject of intense debate. Common discussions regarding social media address patient privacy, or e-professionalism. This case study explores the tensions that arise for health care providers when negative patient statements surface in social media and blog forums. Recognizing that patients and families often find relief in sharing personal illness narratives, we contemplate if, and how, individual health care professionals and institutions should address complaints aired in public, unmoderated media. Our discussion begins by presenting a case of a family blogging on the Internet to share grievances (to deidentify the case, we have changed some details). Next, we offer an exploration of the impact on health care delivery when professionals become aware of specific criticisms published online. Strategies for managing electronic criticisms are then proposed. We conclude by proposing a novel E-THICS approach to address negative patient expressions via electronic word of mouth (eWOM). Our examination of this evolving issue focuses on maintaining satisfactory relationships between health care providers and patients/families when dealing with health care narratives published in open online media.

  14. Clinical and laboratory peculiarities of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in patients with hiv-negative status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Леонидовна Панасюк

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research: to study the clinical, ummunologic, pathomorphologic peculiarities of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in patients with HIV-negative status. Materials and methods: there were examined and treated 9 patients (5 women and 5 men 23-65 years old with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CME with HIV-negative status. In this group of patients in 3 (33,3 % mycotic injure of nervous system developed on the background of pathology of ENT-organs (2 – larynx cancer, 1 – nasopharynx tumour, in 2 (22,2 % – endocrinopathy (decompensated diabetes mellitus type 11, chronic suprarenal insufficiency, in 1 case tuberculous meningoencephalitis, chronic suprarenal insufficiency connected with chronic pyelonephritis, polypous cystitis, hemolytic anemia, colloid cyst of the 111 ventricle of brain. Among persons with pathology of ENT-organs three patients entered into intensive care department (ICD after operative treatment and repeated courses of chemo- and radial therapy, 1 – after palliative operative treatment. Results: Primary clinical manifestations of cryptococcal menongoencephalitis depended on premorbid background and character of previous medical manipulations. Typical gradual development of CME was noticed only in patients with decompensated somatic pathology. In single cases initial manifestations of CME can flow acutely, violently imitating an image of an acute disorder of brain blood circulation or feebly, inertly on the background of already present neuroinfection. It was set the separate group of patients whose development of CME had a temporal connection with previous operative interventions. Most patients were transferred to IEID (Public Institution “Institute of Epidemiology and infectious diseases L.V. Gromashevsky National Academy of Medical sciences of Ukraine’ at the mean on 18±2,1 day of disease in the grave condition, in all cases the late diagnostics of disease was observed. At admission in 8 cases were

  15. Negative role of malnutrition in cell-mediated immune response: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in a severely malnourished, HIV-negative patient with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanachi, Mouna; Bohem, Vanessa; Bemer, Pauline; Kayser, Nadja; de Truchis, Pierre; Melchior, Jean-Claude

    2018-06-01

    It is generally acknowledged that malnutrition is a propensity factor for secondary infections in different clinical situations (malnutrition-associated infections in hospitalized patients and malnourished children in developing countries). However, it is not clear how malnutrition might facilitate the development of opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients without a definite etiology (disease or treatment) of impaired cell-mediated immune response. We report here on a case of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in an HIV-negative patient suffering from anorexia nervosa with extreme malnutrition, which had a favorable outcome despite the severity of her respiratory failure. This report indicates the need for the early screening of nutritional status and rapid treatment initiation in patients with malnutrition, as well as the determination of opportunistic infections in the event of a low lymphocyte count. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Neither dichotomous nor split, but schema-related negative interpersonal evaluations characterize borderline patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieswerda, Simkje; Barnow, Sven; Verheul, Roel; Arntz, Arnoud

    2013-02-01

    Cognitive models explain extreme thoughts, affects, and behaviors of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) by specific mal-adaptive schemas and dichotomous thinking. Psychodynamic theories ascribe these to splitting. This study expanded the study of Veen and Arntz (2000) and investigated whether extreme evaluations in BPD are (1) dichotomous, negativistic, or split; (2) limited to specific (schema-related) interpersonal situations; and (3) related to traumatic childhood experiences. BPD (n = 18), cluster C personality disorder (n = 16), and nonpatient (n = 17) groups were asked to judge 16 characters portrayed in film fragments in a specific or nonspecific context and with negative, positive, or neutral roles on visual analogue scales. These scales were divided in negative-positive trait opposites related to BPD schemas, negative-positive trait opposites unrelated to BPD schemas, and neutral trait opposites. Interpersonal evaluations of patients with BPD were (1) negativistic; (2) schema related; and (3) partially related to traumatic childhood experiences. Negative evaluations of caring characters in an intimate context particularly characterized BPD. No evidence was found for dichotomous thinking or splitting in BPD.

  17. In vivo imaging of cerebral hemodynamics and tissue scattering in rat brain using a surgical microscope camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Kanie, Takuya; Mustari, Afrina; Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Sato, Manabu; Kokubo, Yasuaki

    2018-02-01

    We investigated a rapid imaging method to monitor the spatial distribution of total hemoglobin concentration (CHbT), the tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), and the scattering power b in the expression of musp=a(lambda)^-b as the scattering parameters in cerebral cortex using a digital red-green-blue camera. In the method, Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) for light transport in brain tissue is used to specify a relation among the RGB-values and the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (CHbO), that of deoxygenated hemoglobin (CHbR), and the scattering power b. In the present study, we performed sequential recordings of RGB images of in vivo exposed brain of rats while changing the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), using a surgical microscope camera system. The time courses of CHbO, CHbR, CHbT, and StO2 indicated the well-known physiological responses in cerebral cortex. On the other hand, a fast decrease in the scattering power b was observed immediately after the respiratory arrest, which is similar to the negative deflection of the extracellular DC potential so-called anoxic depolarization. It is said that the DC shift coincident with a rise in extracellular potassium and can evoke cell deformation generated by water movement between intracellular and extracellular compartments, and hence the light scattering by tissue. Therefore, the decrease in the scattering power b after the respiratory arrest is indicative of changes in light scattering by tissue. The results in this study indicate potential of the method to evaluate the pathophysiological conditions and loss of tissue viability in brain tissue.

  18. MiRNA-548ah, a Potential Molecule Associated with Transition from Immune Tolerance to Immune Activation of Chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Jing Xing

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aims to identify the differently expressed microRNA (miRNA molecules and target genes of miRNA in the immune tolerance (IT and immune activation (IA stages of chronic hepatitis B (CHB. Methods: miRNA expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs at the IT and IA stages of CHB were screened using miRNA microarrays and authenticated using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Gene ontology (GO and the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG were used to analyze the significant functions and pathways of possible target genes of miRNAs. Assays of the gain and loss of function of the miRNAs were performed to verify the target genes in THP-1 cell lines. The luciferase reporter test was used on 293T cells as direct targets. Results: Significantly upregulated miR-548 and miR-4804 were observed in the miRNA microarrays and confirmed by RT-PCR in PBMCs at the IT and IA stages of CHB. GO and KEGG analysis revealed that MiR-548 and miR-4804 could be involved in numerous signaling pathways and protein binding activity. IFNγR1 was predicted as a target gene and validated as the direct gene of MiR-548. Significant negative correlation was found between the miR-548ah and mRNA levels of IFN-γR1 in CHB patients. Conclusions: The abnormal expression profiles of miRNA in PBMCs could be closely associated with immune activation of chronic HBV infection. miR-548, by targeting IFN-γR1, may represent a mechanism that can facilitate viral pathogenesis and help determine new therapeutic molecular targets.

  19. Role of HLA-B Alleles and Clinical Presentation of B27 Negative Spondyloarthritis Patients from Mumbai, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devaraj J. Parasannanavar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seronegative spondyloarthritis (SpA are variably associated with HLA-B*27 antigen. HLA-B*27 negative SpA has also been reported from different parts of the world. There is paucity of data on this entity from Indian subcontinent. We studied 100 consecutively diagnosed HLA-B27 negative spondyloarthritis patients from a tertiary care center in India. Modified New York Criteria for ankylosing spondylitis (AS and ESSG criteria for SpA were used for diagnosing patients. HLA-B*27 typing was done by an in-house PCR-SSP technique in SpA patients to exclude B*27 positive patients and PCR-SSOP technique was used to type 100 B*27 negative SpA patients and 100 controls from the same ethnicity. Frequency of B*07 was significantly increased (B*07: % PF 54 versus 18; OR 5.348; 95% CI 2.808–10.186; P value 1.14E − 07, whereas frequency of B*40 was significantly decreased (B*40: % PF 17 versus 32; OR 0.435; 95% CI 0.222–0.850; P value 0.013 when compared with B*27 negative controls. Among 100 SpA patients, 47 were undifferentiated spondyloarthritis and 33 patients were reactive arthritis patients. 40% of the patients were suffering from polyarticular arthritis, 35% had pauciarticular arthritis with knee joint, hip joint, ankle joint, and SI joint involvement. We conclude that B*07 was significantly associated with B27 negative spondyloarthropathy from Western India and majority of B*27 negative patients were uSpA.

  20. MEN1 redefined, a clinical comparison of mutation-positive and mutation-negative patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Joanne M.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Pieterman, Carolina R. C.; Oostveen, Maria P.; Hermus, Ad R.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; de Herder, Wouter W.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N.; Drent, Madeleine L.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; Vriens, Menno R.; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is diagnosed when two out of the three primary MEN1-associated endocrine tumors occur in a patient. Up to 10-30 % of those patients have no mutation in the MEN1 gene. It is unclear if the phenotype and course of the disease of mutation-negative patients is

  1. Negative and positive affect are independently associated with patient-reported health status following percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Pedersen, Susanne S; Erdman, Ruud A M; van Nierop, Josephine W I; de Jaegere, Peter; van Domburg, Ron T

    2009-10-01

    We examined the association between negative and positive affect and 12-month health status in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents. Consecutive PCI patients (n = 562) completed the Global Mood Scale at baseline to assess affect and the EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) at baseline and 12-month follow-up to assess health status. Negative affect [F(1, 522) = 17.14, P positive affect [F(1, 522) = 5.11, P = .02] at baseline were independent associates of overall health status at 12-month follow-up, adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Moreover, there was a significant interaction for negative by positive affect [F(1, 522) = 6.11, P = .01]. In domain-specific analyses, high negative affect was associated with problems in mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression with the risk being two to fivefold. Low positive affect was only associated with problems in self-care (OR: 8.14; 95% CI: 1.85-35.9; P = .006) and usual activities (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.17-3.00; P = .009). Baseline negative and positive affect contribute independently to patient-reported health status 12 months post PCI. Positive affect moderated the detrimental effects of negative affect on overall health status. Enhancing positive affect might be an important target to improve patient-centered outcomes in coronary artery disease.

  2. Addressing small sample size bias in multiple-biomarker trials: Inclusion of biomarker-negative patients and Firth correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermehl, Christina; Benner, Axel; Kopp-Schneider, Annette

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, numerous approaches for biomarker-based clinical trials have been developed. One of these developments are multiple-biomarker trials, which aim to investigate multiple biomarkers simultaneously in independent subtrials. For low-prevalence biomarkers, small sample sizes within the subtrials have to be expected, as well as many biomarker-negative patients at the screening stage. The small sample sizes may make it unfeasible to analyze the subtrials individually. This imposes the need to develop new approaches for the analysis of such trials. With an expected large group of biomarker-negative patients, it seems reasonable to explore options to benefit from including them in such trials. We consider advantages and disadvantages of the inclusion of biomarker-negative patients in a multiple-biomarker trial with a survival endpoint. We discuss design options that include biomarker-negative patients in the study and address the issue of small sample size bias in such trials. We carry out a simulation study for a design where biomarker-negative patients are kept in the study and are treated with standard of care. We compare three different analysis approaches based on the Cox model to examine if the inclusion of biomarker-negative patients can provide a benefit with respect to bias and variance of the treatment effect estimates. We apply the Firth correction to reduce the small sample size bias. The results of the simulation study suggest that for small sample situations, the Firth correction should be applied to adjust for the small sample size bias. Additional to the Firth penalty, the inclusion of biomarker-negative patients in the analysis can lead to further but small improvements in bias and standard deviation of the estimates. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Pre-existing anti-HLA antibodies negatively impact survival of pediatric aplastic anemia patients undergoing HSCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; He, Jun; Cai, Junchao; Yuan, Xiaoni; Jiang, Hua; Luo, Changying; Wang, Jianmin; Luo, Chengjuan; Pan, Zhijuan; Terasaki, Paul I; Ding, Lixia; Chen, Jing

    2014-11-01

    Graft failure and survival are the major problems for patients with aplastic anemia undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Previous studies showed that anti-HLA antibodies negatively impact engraftment in HSCT. This retrospective study of 51 pediatric patients with acquired aplastic anemia who underwent allogeneic HSCT at a single institution between 2006 and 2012 investigated the influence of anti-HLA antibodies on the outcome of HSCT. Serum samples collected before HSCT were tested for the presence of anti-HLA antibodies. Pre-existing anti-HLA antibodies were detected in 54.9% (28/51) of patients, among whom 39.2% (20/51) had anti-HLA class I antibodies. Anti-HLA antibodies were associated with worse five-yr survival (78.6% vs. 100%, p = 0.021) and higher treatment-related mortality (21.4% vs. 0%, p = 0.028) compared with antibody-negative patients. Anti-HLA class I antibody-positive patients had poorer five-yr survival (75.0%) than anti-HLA class I&II antibody-positive and antibody-negative patients (87.5% and 100.0%, respectively, p = 0.039). Presence of anti-HLA class I antibodies (p = 0.024) and older age (10 yr or more; p = 0.027) significantly increased the risk of post-HSCT mortality. Pre-existing anti-HLA antibodies negatively affect the outcome of HSCT in pediatric patients with aplastic anemia. Routine testing for anti-HLA antibodies concurrent with efficient treatment should be conducted prior to HSCT. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Negative and positive affect are independently associated with patient-reported health status following percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Erdman, Ruud A M

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association between negative and positive affect and 12-month health status in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents.......We examined the association between negative and positive affect and 12-month health status in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents....

  5. Correlation of regional cerebral blood flow and positive/negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients: covariate SPM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ki Chun; Kim, J. S.; Kim, C. Y.; Lee, H. K.; Moon, D. H. [Ulsan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    We investigated the relations between rCBF and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients using a SPM99. Thirty-two patients(M/F:22/10, 25{+-}5,6yr) with active symptoms of schizophrenia and 15 age matched normal controls underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. Psychopathology of all patients were also assessed according to PANSS (positive and negative syndrome scale in schizophrenia). By covariate SPM analysis, specific areas where rCBF correlated with sum scores of positive/negative synptoms were identified. Regional CBF of schizophrenics was different in several cortical regions from normal controls. Sum scores of positive symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both rectal and inferior frontal gyri and right transverse temporal gyrus, and negatively correlated with rCBF of left lingual and right middle temporal gyri (p<0.01). Sum scores of negative symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both middle temporal gyri and negatively correlated with rCBF of right superior parietal lobule and medial frontal gyrus (p<0.01). Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were correlated with rCBF change in different regions of cerebral association cortex.

  6. Correlation of regional cerebral blood flow and positive/negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients: covariate SPM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ki Chun; Kim, J. S.; Kim, C. Y.; Lee, H. K.; Moon, D. H.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the relations between rCBF and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients using a SPM99. Thirty-two patients(M/F:22/10, 25±5,6yr) with active symptoms of schizophrenia and 15 age matched normal controls underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. Psychopathology of all patients were also assessed according to PANSS (positive and negative syndrome scale in schizophrenia). By covariate SPM analysis, specific areas where rCBF correlated with sum scores of positive/negative synptoms were identified. Regional CBF of schizophrenics was different in several cortical regions from normal controls. Sum scores of positive symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both rectal and inferior frontal gyri and right transverse temporal gyrus, and negatively correlated with rCBF of left lingual and right middle temporal gyri (p<0.01). Sum scores of negative symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both middle temporal gyri and negatively correlated with rCBF of right superior parietal lobule and medial frontal gyrus (p<0.01). Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were correlated with rCBF change in different regions of cerebral association cortex

  7. Integrating rapid diagnostics and antimicrobial stewardship improves outcomes in patients with antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Katherine K; Olsen, Randall J; Musick, William L; Cernoch, Patricia L; Davis, James R; Peterson, Leif E; Musser, James M

    2014-09-01

    An intervention for Gram-negative bloodstream infections that integrated mass spectrometry technology for rapid diagnosis with antimicrobial stewardship oversight significantly improved patient outcomes and reduced hospital costs. As antibiotic resistance rates continue to grow at an alarming speed, the current study was undertaken to assess the impact of this intervention in a challenging patient population with bloodstream infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. A total of 153 patients with antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia hospitalized prior to the study intervention were compared to 112 patients treated post-implementation. Outcomes assessed included time to optimal antibiotic therapy, time to active treatment when inactive, hospital and intensive care unit length of stay, all-cause 30-day mortality, and total hospital expenditures. Integrating rapid diagnostics with antimicrobial stewardship improved time to optimal antibiotic therapy (80.9 h in the pre-intervention period versus 23.2 h in the intervention period, P Gram-negatives. The intervention decreased hospital and intensive care unit length of stay, total hospital costs, and reduced all-cause 30-day mortality. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. [JAK2 V617F and exon 12 genetic variations in Korean patients with BCR/ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Tae; Cho, Yong Gon; Choi, Sam Im; Lee, Young Jin; Kim, Hye Ran; Jang, Sook Jin; Moon, Dae Soo; Park, Young Jin; Park, Geon

    2010-12-01

    JAK2 genetic variations have been described in a high proportion of patients with BCR/ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). This study was designed to analyze the frequencies of JAK2 V617F and exon 12 variations, and their correlations with clinical characteristics of Korean patients with BCR/ABL1-negative MPN. We examined a total of 154 patients with BCR/ABL1-negative MPN that included 24, 26, 89, and 15 patients with polycythemia vera (PV), primary myelofibrosis (PMF), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and unclassified myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNU), respectively. We performed allele-specific PCR to detect V617F in all BCR/ABL1-negative patients, and performed direct sequencing to detect exon 12 variations in 47 V617F-negative MPN patients. JAK2 c.1641+179_183del5 variation was detected by restriction fragment length polymorphism assay in 176 healthy subjects. JAK2 V617F was detected in 91 patients (59.1%): PV (91.6%), PMF (46.2%), ET (52.8%), and MPNU (66.7%). In V617F-negative MPN patients, no mutations were found in exon 12. The c.1641+179_183del5 was detected in 68.1% of V617F-negative MPN patients and 45.4% of healthy subjects (P=0.008). JAK2 V617F was closely correlated with age and leukocytosis in BCR/ABL1-negative MPN patients (P<0.05). However, c.1641+179_183del5 was not related to age, sex, or complete blood cell count parameters in V617F-negative MPN patients and healthy subjects. The c.1641+179_183del5 was associated with an increased odds ratio for MPN (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidences interval, 1.3-5.1; P=0.007). Frequencies of V617F are similar to reported results. JAK2 exon 12 mutations may be rare and c.1641+179_183del5 may influence the occurrence of MPN in Korean patients with V6 17F-negative MPN.

  9. MRI based thrombolysis for FLAIR-negative stroke patients within 4.5-6h after symptom onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao-Er; Zhou, Jia; Li, Wen-Bin; Zhao, Yu-Wu; Li, Ming-Hua; Li, Yue-Hua

    2017-01-15

    To investigate the feasibility of DWI-FLAIR mismatch in identifying patients who might benefit from thrombolytic therapy within 4.5-6h, we analyzed the data of 105 ischemic stroke patients with known time of symptom onset who underwent MRI within 6h of stroke and thrombolysis between December 2006 and December 2013. They were divided into three groups: symptom onset within 4.5h (n=66); 4.5-6h and FLAIR images negative (n=9); and 4.5-6h and FLAIR images positive (n=30). Outcome of thrombolysis was assessed for each group by recanalization rate, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores. The results showed that mismatch between positive DWI and negative FLAIR images identified patients within 4.5h of symptom onset with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 40.9%, 76.9%, and 75% and 43.5%. Recanalization rate, NIHSS score and mRS score were all better in both the 0-4.5h and 4.5-6h FLAIR-negative groups than in the 4.5-6h FLAIR-positive group (psymptom onset, patients with negative FLAIR images may benefit from thrombolysis therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mismatch Negativity in Han Chinese Patients with Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yanbing; Ll, Xianbin; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Chuanyue

    2017-10-25

    Previous meta-analysis revealed that mismatch negativity(MMN) amplitude decreased in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls (Cohen's d, d about 1), leading to the possibility of mismatch negativity being used as a biomarker for schizophrenia. However, it is unknown whether MMN is reliably changed in Chinese patients. It is necessary to carry out a meta-analysis on MMN of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. To investigate whether MMN could be used as a biomarker for Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. A literature search was conducted to identify clinical trials on MMN in Han Chinese schizophrenia patients published before May 8, 2017, by searching the Chinese language databases CNKI, WanFang Data, VIP Data and PubMed. The effects of MMN deficits were evaluated for MMN amplitude by calculating standard mean difference (SMDs) between schizophrenia patient groups and healthy control groups. A total of 11 studies were included in the analysis. The total quality of all the studies were more than 6 as evaluated by Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Meta-analysis of data from these studies had a pooled sample of 432 patients with schizophrenia and 392 healthy controls. There exists significant MMN deficit in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls (Cohen's d =1.004). When studies were excluded due to heterogeneity, the pooled effect size of the MMN differences between the patient group and healthy controls dropped to 0.79 (Cohen's d =0.79). Subgroup analysis showed that MMN amplitude deficits of schizophrenia over three years had the pooled effect size of 0.95, and less than three years had the pooled effect size of 0.77. Publication bias conducted via Egger regression test ( t = 1.83; p = 0.101), suggested that there was no publication bias. The effect size of MMN amplitude between Chinese patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls is consistent with other meta-analyses published on this topic, suggesting that Han Chinese

  11. The Relationship Between Brain-Behavioral Systems and Negative and Positive Affect in Patients With Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovharifard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Migraine is a chronic headache disorder that affects approximately 12% of the general population. Migraine is known as recurrent headache, pulsating, moderate with severe power, which lasts for 4 to 72 hours, aggravated by daily physical activity along with nausea, vomiting, photophobia or photophobia. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between brain-behavioral systems and negative and positive affects in patients with migraine. Patients and Methods The research population included patients, who had referred to neurology clinics. One hundred and twenty cases were selected by accessible sampling based on the neurologist’s diagnosis of migraine headaches. They completed the Gray-Wilson (1989 Personality Questionnaire as well as Watson, Clark and Telligent (1988 positive and negative affect scale. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 19 software, correlation and stepwise regression. Results The results showed that positive affect had a significant positive correlation with active avoidance parameters and negative significant correlation with passive avoidance and extinction parameters. The findings also indicated that negative affect had a positive and significant relationship with passive avoidance and extinction. Conclusions It can be concluded that brain-behavioral systems may be the foundation of behavioral and emotional tendencies in patients with migraine headaches.

  12. Assessment of Growth and Development in Children With Hepatitis B Positivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Tugba; Eren, Erdal; Koruk, Suda Tekin

    2014-12-01

    Chronic infections and liver diseases may influence the growth and development of children by leading to malnutrition. In this study, demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements and laboratory findings for children with hepatitis B positivity were analyzed. A total of 43 cases were admitted to our clinic between January 2012 and February 2013 and detected to have HBsAg positivity. Malnutrition was detected in 11 cases (25.6%) and obesity in three cases (6.9%). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were significantly higher in malnourished patients compared to those without malnutrition. The weight to height was significantly higher in patients with positive HBeAg compared to children with negative HBeAg. We found that the weight standard deviation scores (SDS) ratios dropped as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and AST levels increased and height SDS ratios decreased. In addition, body mass index (BMI) decreased as AST and alpha feto protein (AFP) values increased. While a significant relationship was not detected between insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and ALT, a significantly negative correlation was detected between IGFBP-3 and IGF-1 and AST. We found a malnutrition rate of 25.6% in children with HBsAg positivity. We also found that weight and height SDS rates decreased as ALT and AST levels increased. In addition, we detected that BMI decreased as AST and AFP values increased. We consider that hepatic inflammation is the factor that affects growth. Monitoring of growth and development during follow-up of children who are detected to have HBsAg positivity would be beneficial to determine the mechanism and causes of growth retardation.

  13. Negative pressure wound therapy in patients with diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusal, Ali Engin; Sahin, M Sükrü; Ulusal, Betül; Cakmak, Gökhan; Tuncay, Cengiz

    2011-01-01

    In this study our aim was to compare the results of standard dressing treatment to negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) performed with a vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. We assessed the results of 35 patients treated for diabetic foot ulcer between 2006 and 2008. Of these cases, 20 (4 women and 16 men; mean age: 66 years; range: 52-90 years) were treated with standard wet dressings and 16 feet in 15 patients (10 men, 5 women; mean age: 58.9 years; range: 42-83 years) with VAC therapy. The success of treatment was evaluated in terms of hospitalization length and rate of limb salvation. The average hospitalization period with VAC treatment was 32 days compared to 59 days with standard dressing treatment. All patients treated with standard dressings eventually had to undergo amputation. However, the amputation rate was 37% in the VAC treated group and 88% of patients had a functional extremity at the end of treatment. VAC therapy, together with debridement and appropriate antibiotic therapy, enables a higher rate of limb salvage, especially in Wagner Grade 3 and Grade 4 ulcers.

  14. Breast cancer patients' narratives about positive and negative communication experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe K; Pedersen, Anette F; Johansen, Mikael B

    2007-01-01

    . Thus, qualitative studies of communication are also needed. Fifteen breast cancer patients were interviewed 3 months after finishing adjuvant treatment. They were asked to tell a 10 minute narrative and recall five experiences from treatment. Themes were extracted using categories derived from previous...... research while at the same time being sensitive to new elaborations and categories. The participants reported both positive and negative communication-related experiences from a wide range of treatment situations. Two major themes emerged: Information giving as professional care-giving and meeting......Health staff-patient communication is increasingly considered an important issue in cancer research. However, questionnaires addressing satisfaction with communication limit the issues patients can raise, do not address the context of communication and often show a strong positive skew in responses...

  15. Negative and positive childhood experiences across developmental periods in psychiatric patients with different diagnoses – an explorative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schauer Margarete

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high frequency of childhood abuse has often been reported in adult psychiatric patients. The present survey explores the relationship between psychiatric diagnoses and positive and negative life events during childhood and adulthood in psychiatric samples. Methods A total of 192 patients with diagnoses of alcohol-related disorders (n = 45, schizophrenic disorders (n = 52, affective disorders (n = 54, and personality disorders (n = 41 completed a 42-item self-rating scale (Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire, TAQ. The TAQ assesses personal positive experiences (competence and safety and negative experiences (neglect, separation, secrets, emotional, physical and sexual abuse, trauma witnessing, other traumas, and alcohol and drugs abuse during four developmental periods, beginning from early childhood to adulthood. Patients were recruited from four Psychiatric hospitals in Germany, Switzerland, and Romania; 63 subjects without any history of mental illness served as controls. Results The amount of positive experiences did not differ significantly among groups, except for safety scores that were lower in patients with personality disorders as compared to the other groups. On the other side, negative experiences appeared more frequently in patients than in controls. Emotional neglect and abuse were reported in patients more frequently than physical and sexual abuse, with negative experiences encountered more often in late childhood and adolescence than in early childhood. The patients with alcohol-related and personality disorders reported more negative events than the ones with schizophrenic and affective disorders. Conclusions The present findings add evidence to the relationship between retrospectively reported childhood experiences and psychiatric diagnoses, and emphasize the fact that a emotional neglect and abuse are the most prominent negative experiences, b adolescence is a more 'sensitive' period for negative

  16. Clinical Characteristics in Patients with Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Yeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast the clinical characteristics of the triple negative breast cancer (TNBC and non-TNBC patients, with a particular focus on genetic susceptibility and risk factors prior to diagnosis. Methods. Our institutional database was queried for all patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between January 2010 and May 2016. Results. Out of a total of 1964 patients, 190 (10% patients had TNBC. The median age for both TNBC and non-TNBC was 59 years. There was a significantly higher proportion of African American and Asian patients with TNBC (p=0.0003 compared to patients with non-TNBC. BRCA1 and BRCA2 were significantly associated with TNBC (p<0.0001, p=0.0007. A prior history of breast cancer was significantly associated with TNBC (p=0.0003. There was no relationship observed between TNBC and a history of chemoprevention or patients who had a history of AH or LCIS. Conclusions. We found that having Asian ancestry, a prior history of breast cancer, and a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation all appear to be positively associated with TNBC. In order to develop more effective treatments, better surveillance, and improved prevention strategies, it is necessary to improve our understanding of the population at risk for TNBC.

  17. Hypophosphatemic osteomalacia and renal Fanconi syndrome induced by low-dose adefovir dipivoxil: a case report and literature review suggesting ethnic predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Zhang, H; Qian, Y; Wang, L; Gu, X; Dai, Z

    2013-08-01

    Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) is one of the commonly used antiviral agents in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. Safety of a daily dose of 10 mg ADV is advocated by the registration trials. We report a case of severe hypophosphatemic osteomalacia and renal Fanconi syndrome induced by low-dose ADV in a CHB-related cirrhosis patient, and discuss the case through a thorough review of other cases reported in the literature. A 48-yr-old Chinese man with CHB-related cirrhosis developed severe progressive generalized bone pain and muscle weakness after receiving ADV 10 mg daily for 54 months. The laboratory results showed severe hypophosphatemia and features of proximal renal tubule dysfunction. Imaging studies were consistent with osteomalacia. After discontinuation of ADV, his symptoms resolved, laboratory abnormalities normalized and imaging studies showed improvement. In addition to our case, 12 other patients have been reported to have developed hypophosphatemic osteomalacia induced by low-dose ADV. Most of the reported cases were of subjects of East-Asian ethnicity. After discontinuation or reduction of ADV, serum phosphate level increased and clinical symptoms significantly improved in all cases. Hypophosphatemic osteomalacia and renal Fanconi syndrome can be associated with low-dose ADV. Clinicians treating CHB patients with ADV 10 mg daily over long periods of time should be aware of this infrequent but serious complication. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Role of antiviral therapy in the natural history of hepatitis B virus-related chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Francesco Paolo; Rodríguez-Castro, Kryssia; Scribano, Laura; Gottardo, Giorgia; Vanin, Veronica; Farinati, Fabio

    2015-05-18

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a dynamic state of interactions among HBV, hepatocytes, and the host immune system. Natural history studies of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection have shown an association between active viral replication and adverse clinical outcomes such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The goal of therapy for CHB is to improve quality of life and survival by preventing progression of the disease to cirrhosis, decompensation, end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and death. This goal can be achieved if HBV replication is suppressed in a sustained manner. The accompanying reduction in histological activity of CHB lessens the risk of cirrhosis and of HCC, particularly in non-cirrhotic patients. However, CHB infection cannot be completely eradicated, due to the persistence of covalently closed circular DNA in the nucleus of infected hepatocytes, which may explain HBV reactivation. Moreover, the integration of the HBV genome into the host genome may favour oncogenesis, development of HCC and may also contribute to HBV reactivation.

  19. Metastases in patients with malignant melanoma despite of negative sentinel lymph node: has the concept to be changed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.; Dresel, S.; Tatsch, K.; Hahn, K.; Konz, B.; Schmid-Wendtner, M.H.; Sander, C.; Volkenandt, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to prove the prognostic value of the SLN-concept in these patients. Methods: So far the clinical follow-up of 162 patients with histologically proven malignant melanoma and metastatically uninvolved (negative) SLN was investigated. Histological examination included standard methods (HE-Test) and special histochemical techniques (S-100, HMB-45). All patients underwent clinical examination, ultrasonic diagnosis of the regional lymph nodes, and X-ray of the chest every 3 months. Results: Despite of negative SLN-findings in 8/162 patients metastases of the malignant melanoma were found after a time period of 5-27 months. Three patients presented with recurrence in the previously mapped (negative) SLN-basin. In another case the scintigraphically visualized SLN could not be identified intraoperatively by means of the hand-held gamma probe. One patient showed intransit-metastases or skin-metastases, respectively; another patient recurred in the scar area. One patient showed hematogenic dissemination (liver) which is not detectable by lymphoscintigraphy; in another patient metastases were found outside the primary lymphatic basin (cervical). Conclusion: In our patient group 4,9% presented with metastases despite negative SLN while published data report up to 11% (observation period 35 months), among them only 3 patients (1,9%) being real concept failures. Our results underline that there is no evidence to change this concept in patients with clinically early stage. (orig.) [de

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging DTI-FT study on schizophrenic patients with typical negative first symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chengyu; Zhang, Ying; Wei, Fuquan; Cheng, Yougen; Cao, Yulin; Hou, Hongtao

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) together with a white matter fiber tracking (FT) technique was used to assess different brain white matter structures and functionalities in schizophrenic patients with typical first negative symptoms. In total, 30 schizophrenic patients with typical first negative symptoms, comprising an observation group were paired 1:1 according to gender, age, right-handedness, and education, with 30 healthy individuals in a control group. Individuals in each group underwent routine MRI and DTI examination of the brain, and diffusion-tensor tractography (DTT) data were obtained through whole brain analysis based on voxel and tractography. The results were expressed by fractional anisotropy (FA) values. The schizophrenic patients were evaluated using a positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) as well as a Global Assessment Scale (GAS). The results of the study showed that routine MRIs identified no differences between the two groups. However, compared with the control group, the FA values obtained by DTT from the deep left prefrontal cortex, the right deep temporal lobe, the white matter of the inferior frontal gyrus and part of the corpus callosum were significantly lower in the observation group (Pscale value in the observation group averaged 7.7±1.5, and the negative scale averaged 46.6±5.9, while the general psychopathology scale averaged 65.4±10.3, and GAS averaged 53.8±19.2. The Pearson statistical analysis, the left deep prefrontal cortex, the right deep temporal lobe, the white matter of the inferior frontal gyrus and the FA value of part of the corpus callosum in the observation group was negatively correlated with the negative scale (Pnegative symptoms and the application of MRI DTI-FT can improve diagnostic accuracy.

  1. Comparison of QOL between patients with different degenerative dementias, focusing especially on positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurisu, Kairi; Terada, Seishi; Oshima, Etsuko; Horiuchi, Makiko; Imai, Nao; Yabe, Mayumi; Yokota, Osamu; Ishihara, Takeshi; Yamada, Norihito

    2016-08-01

    Quality of life (QOL) has become an important outcome measure in the care of dementia patients. However, there have been few studies focusing on the difference in QOL between different dementias. Two-hundred seventy-nine consecutive outpatients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) or frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were recruited. The QOL was evaluated objectively using the QOL Questionnaire for Dementia (QOL-D).The QOL-D comprises six domains: positive affect, negative affect and actions, communication, restlessness, attachment to others, and spontaneity. General cognition, daily activities, and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were also evaluated. The scores of positive affect of QOL-D of AD patients were significantly higher than those of patients with DLB or FTD (AD 3.1 ± 0.8, DLB 2.6 ± 0.9, FTD 2.6 ± 0.7). The scores of negative affect and action of QOL-D of FTD patients were significantly higher than those of patients with AD or DLB (FTD 2.0 ± 0.8, AD 1.4 ± 0.5, DLB 1.5 ± 0.6). The apathy scores of FTD and DLB patients were significantly higher than those of patients with AD. The disinhibition scores of FTD patients were significantly higher than those of patients with AD or DLB. The apathy of FTD and DLB patients and depression of DLB patients might affect the lower positive affect of FTD and DLB patients compared to AD patients. The disinhibition of FTD patients might affect the abundance of negative affect & actions in FTD patients compared to AD and DLB patients.

  2. MEN1 redefined, a clinical comparison of mutation-positive and mutation-negative patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Joanne M; van der Luijt, Rob B; Pieterman, Carolina R C; Oostveen, Maria P; Hermus, Ad R; Dekkers, Olaf M; de Herder, Wouter W; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N; Drent, Madeleine L; Bisschop, Peter H; Havekes, Bas; Vriens, Menno R; Valk, Gerlof D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is diagnosed when two out of the three primary MEN1-associated endocrine tumors occur in a patient. Up to 10-30 % of those patients have no mutation in the MEN1 gene. It is unclear if the phenotype and course of the disease of mutation-negative

  3. MEN1 redefined, a clinical comparison of mutation-positive and mutation-negative patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Joanne M.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Pieterman, Carolina R. C.; Oostveen, Maria P.; Hermus, Ad R.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; de Herder, Wouter W.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N.; Drent, Madeleine L.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; Vriens, Menno R.; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is diagnosed when two out of the three primary MEN1-associated endocrine tumors occur in a patient. Up to 10-30 % of those patients have no mutation in the MEN1 gene. It is unclear if the phenotype and course of the disease of mutation-negative

  4. HCV and HBV coexist in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia; possibility of coinfection in these patients must be considered in HBV-high endemic area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Soon [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is highly associated with HBV infection in Korea. It has been suggested that HCV core protein may impair the polymerase activity of HBV in vitro, potentially lowering HBV titre in coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to confirm the coexistence of HBV viremia in HCV infected patients HCC who have apparent HBsAg seronegativity. The serological profiles of HBV and HCV in 616 patients with HCC were analysed and coinfection rate of HBV and HCV investigated. Sera were obtained from 16 patients who were both anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive but HbsAg negative, and tested for HBV BY PCR. As a control group, sera were obtained from 15 patients with HCC and 30 non-A abd non-B chronic hepatitis patients without HCC; both were anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, and HBsAg negative and tested for HBV PCR. Of 616 patients with HCC, 450 (73.1 %) had current HBV infection, 48 (7.8 %) had anti-HCV antibodies, and nine (1.5 %) had viral markers of both HCV abd HBV by serological profiles. Of 27 the patients with HCV viremia and HBsAg seronegativity, 14 (51.9 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. In contrast, of the 75 patients in the control group who were both HCV PCR negative and HBsAg negative, five (11.1 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. The PCR for HBV revealed coexistent HBV viremia in HCV viremia patients, despite HBsAg negativity by EIA. In HBV-endemic areas, the possibility of coinfection of HBV in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia should be considered and molecular analysis for HBV-DNA performed. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. HCV and HBV coexist in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia; possibility of coinfection in these patients must be considered in HBV-high endemic area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soon

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is highly associated with HBV infection in Korea. It has been suggested that HCV core protein may impair the polymerase activity of HBV in vitro, potentially lowering HBV titre in coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to confirm the coexistence of HBV viremia in HCV infected patients HCC who have apparent HBsAg seronegativity. The serological profiles of HBV and HCV in 616 patients with HCC were analysed and coinfection rate of HBV and HCV investigated. Sera were obtained from 16 patients who were both anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive but HbsAg negative, and tested for HBV BY PCR. As a control group, sera were obtained from 15 patients with HCC and 30 non-A abd non-B chronic hepatitis patients without HCC; both were anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, and HBsAg negative and tested for HBV PCR. Of 616 patients with HCC, 450 (73.1 %) had current HBV infection, 48 (7.8 %) had anti-HCV antibodies, and nine (1.5 %) had viral markers of both HCV abd HBV by serological profiles. Of 27 the patients with HCV viremia and HBsAg seronegativity, 14 (51.9 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. In contrast, of the 75 patients in the control group who were both HCV PCR negative and HBsAg negative, five (11.1 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. The PCR for HBV revealed coexistent HBV viremia in HCV viremia patients, despite HBsAg negativity by EIA. In HBV-endemic areas, the possibility of coinfection of HBV in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia should be considered and molecular analysis for HBV-DNA performed. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs

  6. [Fundamental and clinical evaluation of hepatitis B virus core-related antigen assay by LUMIPULSE f].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhito; Takagi, Kazumi; Hiramatsu, Kumiko; Naganuma, Hatsue; Iida, Takayasu; Takasaka, Yoshimitsu; Mizokami, Masashi

    2006-07-01

    A sensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) has been developed for hepatitis B virus (HBV) core-related antigens (HBcrAg) detection. The HBcrAg is designated as the precore/core gene products including HBeAg. The aim of this study is to evaluate reproducibility of HBcrAg and correlation with HBV-DNA in serum using the automatic LUMIPULSE f to estimate an assay suitable for general laboratory use. In this study, we demonstrated that HBcrAg assay had highly intra-assay reproducible [coefficients of variation(CVs); 2.8-5.2%] and inter-assay reproducible [CVs; 3.9-9.1%]. When the cutoff value was tentatively set at 1 kU/ml, all healthy controls (HBsAg/HBV-DNA negative; n=100) and anti-HCV antibody-positive (n=50) sera were identified as negative. The assay showed a detection limit of 0.5 kU/ml using four serially diluted HBV high-titer sera, indicating higher sensitivity than HBV-DNA (transcription-mediated amplification). The HBcrAg concentration correlated positively with serum HBV-DNA (n=125, r = 0.860, p < 0.0001) regardless of HBeAg, although the HBcrAg levels were higher in HBeAg-positive group than in HBeAg-negative group. In the natural course of HBV infection, the HBcrAg concentration usually changed in accordance with HBV-DNA levels, however during lamivudine therapy the change of HBcrAg was more gradual than that of HBV-DNA. In conclusion, HBcrAg concentration provides a reflection of HBV virus load equivalent to HBV-DNA level, and the assay therefore offers a simple method for monitoring hepatitis B patients.

  7. Comparison of Chest X-Ray Findings of Smear Positive and Smear Negative Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Azadeh; Mohammadifard, Mahyar; Naseh, Godratallah

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a chronic pulmonary infectious disease that has affected one-third of the people in the world. It causes nine million new cases and two million deaths per year. Chest radiography associated with Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining procedure significantly helps the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Chest radiography can help the diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with a negative smear sample result that is mainly diagnosed with delay. In this study, chest X-ray findings of PTB were compared in two groups of smear positive and smear negative patients. In this retrospective descriptive-analytical study, 376 patients who had been confirmed with PTB were referred to Birjand Health Care Center from 2001 to 2006. Out of the 376 patients, 100 patients with a positive smear based on WHO criteria were selected. In addition, among negative smear patients, 100 were selected in whom similar demographic characteristics with positive smear patients were seen. All of them had undergone chest radiographies that were then interpreted by two expert radiologists independently. Moreover, all patients’ sputa were examined by an expert laboratory technician at the reference laboratory of the health center. The obtained data were analyzed by means of frequency distribution table and descriptive statistics using SPSS (version 15) and Chi-square statistical test. Except reticulo-nodular infiltration, the relative frequency of other radiographic findings in positive smear patients were more than negative smear patients; and only differences in calcification variables, mediastinal widening, patchy infiltration and hilar adenopathy were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Based on the results of this study, although radiographic findings are not diagnostic in PTB, they are helpful if the assessment associates with the view of clinical manifestations and sputum smears

  8. MiR-34b is associated with clinical outcome in triple-negative breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svoboda Marek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common malignancy with the highest incidence rates among women worldwide. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC represents the major phenotype of basal-like molecular subtype of breast cancer, characterized by higher incidence in young women and a very poor prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs playing significant role in the pathogenesis of many cancers including breast cancer. Therefore, miRNAs are also potential prognostic and/or predictive biomarkers in triple-negative breast cancer patients. Methods Thirty-nine TNBC patients with available formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues were enrolled in the study. MiR-34a, miR-34b, and miR-34c were analyzed using qRT-PCR and correlated to clinico-pathological features of TNBC patients. Results Expression levels of miR-34b significantly correlate with disease free survival (DFS (p = 0.0020, log-rank test and overall survival (OS (p = 0.0008, log-rank test of TNBC patients. No other significant associations between miR-34a, miR-34b, and miR-34c with available clinical pathological data were observed. Conclusions MiR-34b expression negatively correlates with disease free survival and overall survival in TNBC patients. Thus, miR-34b may present a new promising prognostic biomarker in TNBC patients, but independent validations are necessary.

  9. Utility of MRI for cervical spine clearance in blunt trauma patients after a negative CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Ajay; Durand, David; Wu, Xiao; Geng, Bertie; Abbed, Khalid; Nunez, Diego B; Sanelli, Pina

    2018-07-01

    To determine the utility of cervical spine MRI in blunt trauma evaluation for instability after a negative non-contrast cervical spine CT. A review of medical records identified all adult patients with blunt trauma who underwent CT cervical spine followed by MRI within 48 h over a 33-month period. Utility of subsequent MRI was assessed in terms of findings and impact on outcome. A total of 1,271 patients with blunt cervical spine trauma underwent both cervical spine CT and MRI within 48 h; 1,080 patients were included in the study analysis. Sixty-six percent of patients with a CT cervical spine study had a negative study. Of these, the subsequent cervical spine MRI had positive findings in 20.9%; 92.6% had stable ligamentous or osseous injuries, 6.0% had unstable injuries and 1.3% had potentially unstable injuries. For unstable injury, the NPV for CT was 98.5%. In all 712 patients undergoing both CT and MRI, only 1.5% had unstable injuries, and only 0.42% had significant change in management. MRI for blunt trauma evaluation remains not infrequent at our institution. MRI may have utility only in certain patients with persistent abnormal neurological examination. • MRI has limited utility after negative cervical CT in blunt trauma. • MRI is frequently positive for non-specific soft-tissue injury. • Unstable injury missed on CT is infrequent.

  10. Impact of skin capsular distance on the performance of controlled attenuation parameter in patients with chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Feng; Zheng, Rui-Dan; Shi, Jun-Ping; Mi, Yu-Qiang; Chen, Guo-Feng; Hu, Xiqi; Liu, Yong-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Pan, Qin; Chen, Guang-Yu; Chen, Jian-Neng; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Rui-Nan; Xu, Lei-Ming; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2015-11-01

    Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is a non-invasive method for evaluating hepatic steatosis. However, larger skin capsular distance (SCD) can affect the accuracy. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of SCD on the diagnostic performance of CAP and liver stiffness measurement (LSM). Of 101 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and 280 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who underwent liver biopsy were prospectively recruited. CAP, LSM and SCD were performed using FibroScan with M probe. The areas under receiver operating characteristics curves (AUROCs) were calculated to determine the diagnostic efficacy. The optimal thresholds were defined by the maximum Youden index. SCD (B 30.34, P 33% (0.90 vs. 0.85) and >66% (0.84 vs. 0.72). For SCD 33% and >66% were 255.0 dB/m, 283.5 dB/m and 293.5 dB/m. However, cut-offs were elevated by approximately 60-70 dB/m for SCD ≥25 mm. When stratified by fibrosis grade, LSM was significantly affected by SCD ≥25 mm for advanced fibrosis (≥F3) in NAFLD, but not in CHB. CAP is a promising tool for detecting and quantifying hepatic steatosis. SCD ≥25 mm may cause overestimation of steatosis. Similarly, SCD ≥25 mm affects the detection of advanced fibrosis by LSM in NAFLD patients. © 2015 The Authors. Liver International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Circulating microRNAs as a Fingerprint for Liver Cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jie Chen

    Full Text Available Sensitive and specific detection of liver cirrhosis is an urgent need for optimal individualized management of disease activity. Substantial studies have identified circulation miRNAs as biomarkers for diverse diseases including chronic liver diseases. In this study, we investigated the plasma miRNA signature to serve as a potential diagnostic biomarker for silent liver cirrhosis.A genome-wide miRNA microarray was first performed in 80 plasma specimens. Six candidate miRNAs were selected and then trained in CHB-related cirrhosis and controls by qPCR. A classifier, miR-106b and miR-181b, was validated finally in two independent cohorts including CHB-related silent cirrhosis and controls, as well as non-CHB-related cirrhosis and controls as validation sets, respectively.A profile of 2 miRNAs (miR-106b and miR-181b was identified as liver cirrhosis biomarkers irrespective of etiology. The classifier constructed by the two miRNAs provided a high diagnostic accuracy for cirrhosis (AUC = 0.882 for CHB-related cirrhosis in the training set, 0.774 for CHB-related silent cirrhosis in one validation set, and 0.915 for non-CHB-related cirrhosis in another validation set.Our study demonstrated that the combined detection of miR-106b and miR-181b has a considerable clinical value to diagnose patients with liver cirrhosis, especially those at early stage.

  12. Causes of discordant or negative ultrasound of parathyroid glands in treatment naïve patients with primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandramohan, Anuradha; Sathyakumar, Kirthi; Irodi, Aparna; Abraham, Deepak; Paul, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe causes of discordant or negative parathyroid ultrasound and to assess factors influencing them. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of patients who underwent parathyroidectomy between 2000 and 2012 was done. Imaging findings were compared with operative findings and pathology to identify discrepant (n = 60; 32 negative, 28 incorrect) parathyroid ultrasounds. Results: Fifty (83.3%) patients had parathyroid adenoma, of which 10 (16.6%) were ectopic and three were double adenomas; 8 (13.3%) had multigland hyperplasia and two had parathyroid carcinoma. Discrepant reports were due to incorrect localisation in 8 (13.3%); difficulty in differentiating thyroid from parathyroid lesion in 12 (20%); large and small size in two and three patients, respectively; overcall in 5 (8.3%) and satisfaction of search in 7 (11.7%) patients. There was significant correlation between presence of multi-nodular goitre and incorrect reports (χ 2 = 4.112, p = 0.04). Experience of ultrasound operators performing initial and second look ultrasound was significantly different (p < 0.0001). Second look ultrasound was concordant with surgical findings in 39(65%) patients; 21 (66%) patients with initially negative ultrasound and four out of five extra-mediastinal ectopic lesions. Ten patients with negative initial ultrasound had elongated parathyroid lesion. Scintigraphy was concordant in 44 (73.3%) patients and nine were ectopic. Conclusion: Second look ultrasound performed by experienced operator for negative or discordant initial ultrasound of parathyroid is a useful strategy which will improve the accuracy of parathyroid ultrasound. Being able to differentiate thyroid from parathyroid lesion is a factor which will influence performance of parathyroid ultrasound.

  13. Causes of discordant or negative ultrasound of parathyroid glands in treatment naïve patients with primary hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandramohan, Anuradha, E-mail: anuradhachandramohan@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632004 (India); Sathyakumar, Kirthi, E-mail: kirthi86s@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632004 (India); Irodi, Aparna, E-mail: aparnashyam@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632004 (India); Abraham, Deepak, E-mail: abrahamdt@gmail.com [Department of Endocrine Surgery, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632004 (India); Paul, M.J., E-mail: mjpaul@cmcvellore.ac.in [Department of Endocrine Surgery, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632004 (India)

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: To describe causes of discordant or negative parathyroid ultrasound and to assess factors influencing them. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of patients who underwent parathyroidectomy between 2000 and 2012 was done. Imaging findings were compared with operative findings and pathology to identify discrepant (n = 60; 32 negative, 28 incorrect) parathyroid ultrasounds. Results: Fifty (83.3%) patients had parathyroid adenoma, of which 10 (16.6%) were ectopic and three were double adenomas; 8 (13.3%) had multigland hyperplasia and two had parathyroid carcinoma. Discrepant reports were due to incorrect localisation in 8 (13.3%); difficulty in differentiating thyroid from parathyroid lesion in 12 (20%); large and small size in two and three patients, respectively; overcall in 5 (8.3%) and satisfaction of search in 7 (11.7%) patients. There was significant correlation between presence of multi-nodular goitre and incorrect reports (χ{sup 2} = 4.112, p = 0.04). Experience of ultrasound operators performing initial and second look ultrasound was significantly different (p < 0.0001). Second look ultrasound was concordant with surgical findings in 39(65%) patients; 21 (66%) patients with initially negative ultrasound and four out of five extra-mediastinal ectopic lesions. Ten patients with negative initial ultrasound had elongated parathyroid lesion. Scintigraphy was concordant in 44 (73.3%) patients and nine were ectopic. Conclusion: Second look ultrasound performed by experienced operator for negative or discordant initial ultrasound of parathyroid is a useful strategy which will improve the accuracy of parathyroid ultrasound. Being able to differentiate thyroid from parathyroid lesion is a factor which will influence performance of parathyroid ultrasound.

  14. Negative pressure therapy (vacuum for wound bed preparation among diabetic patients: case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Castro Ferreira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Complications from diabetes mellitus affecting the lower limbs occur in 40 to 70% of such patients. Neuropathy is the main cause of ulceration and may be associated with vascular impairment. The wound evolves with necrosis and infection, and if not properly treated, amputation may be the end result. Surgical treatment is preferred in complex wounds without spontaneous healing. After debridement of the necrotic tissue, the wound bed needs to be prepared to receive a transplant of either a graft or a flap. Dressings can be used to prepare the wound bed, but this usually leads to longer duration of hospitalization. Negative pressure using a vacuum system has been proposed for speeding up the treatment. This paper had the objective of analyzing the effects of this therapy on wound bed preparation among diabetic patients. CASE SERIES: Eighty-four diabetic patients with wounds in their lower limbs were studied. A commercially available vacuum system was used for all patients after adequate debridement of necrotic tissues. For 65 patients, skin grafts completed the treatment and for the other 19, skin flaps were used. Wound bed preparation was achieved over an average time of 7.51 days for 65 patients and 10 days for 12 patients, and in only one case was not achieved. CONCLUSIONS: This experience suggests that negative pressure therapy may have an important role in wound bed preparation and as part of the treatment for wounds in the lower limbs of diabetic patients.

  15. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B e antigen (HBe antigen and B core antibodies (IgG anti-HBcore and IgM anti-HBcore among hepatitis B surface antigen positive blood donors at a Tertiary Centre in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbami Akinsegun A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV is a common cause of liver disease throughout the world. HBV is transmitted through blood and other body fluids, including semen and saliva. Chronic replication of HBV virons is characterized by persistence circulation of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA; usually with anti-HBc and occasionally with anti-HBs. Aim: To determine the prevalence of HBeAg, IgG anti-HBcore and IgM anti-HBcore amongst HBsAg positive blood donors. These parameters are reflective of transmissibility and active hepatitis B infection. A cross sectional study was carried out at the blood donor clinics of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital Ikeja and Lagos University Teaching Hospital Idiaraba. A total of 267 donors were recruited to determine HBe antigen, IgG and IgM anti-HBcore antibodies amongst hepatitis BsAg positive donors. Five milliliters of blood was collected from those who tested positive to HBsAg screen during donation. The sera were subjected to enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Pearson chi-squared test was used for the analytical assessment. Findings A total number of 267 HBsAg positive blood donors were studied. A seroprevalence of 8.2% (22 of 267 HBeAg was obtained, 4 of 267 (1.5% were indeterminate while 241 (90.3% tested negative. Only 27 out of 267 donors (10.1% tested positive to IgM anti-HBcore, 234(87.6% tested negative, while 6(2.2% were indeterminate. A higher percentage of 60.7% (162 of 267 tested positive to IgG anti-HBcore, while 39.3% (105 of 267 tested negative. Conclusion There is a low seroprevalence rate of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis and relatively high IgG anti-HBcore and IgM anti-HBcore rates in South West Nigeria.

  16. Time-dependent post-imperative negative variation indicates adaptation and problem solving in migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Peter; Brecht, Ines-Beatrice; Niederberger, Uwe; Kowalski, Jens; Schröder, Dietmar; Thome, Johannes; Meyer, Wolfgang; Wallasch, Thomas-Martin; Hilgendorf, Inken; Gerber, Wolf-Dieter

    2012-10-01

    According to the Seligman theory of learned helplessness, depression is caused by a repetitive experience of loss of control resulting in internal, stable and global attributional styles for negative events. In depressed patients and healthy controls experiencing such events, an increased amplitude of the post-imperative negative variation (PINV) has been described. The aim of the study was to investigate a possible correlation between migraine, depression, learned helplessness and PINV. 24 patients suffering from migraine without aura and 24 healthy controls were exposed to a situation of loss of control whilst the contingent negative variation (CNV) from C3, C4 and Cz were recorded. Before conducting the experiment, the subjects were asked to answer the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the German attributional style questionnaire (GASQ). Amplitudes of total CNV, early and late component and PINV were calculated in eight blocks of four recordings each. The results confirm findings of a pronounced PINV in situations of loss of control, though high amplitudes were not correlated with low values in the GASQ and therefore with learned helplessness. High PINV in migraine patients correlated with high scores in the BDI and the list of the complaints questionnaire. However, this was not the case in healthy controls. In this experimental situation, PINV in migraine patients can be interpreted as an expectancy potential in order to avoid failure and helplessness.

  17. HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility gene KIF1B is not associated with development of chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhong

    Full Text Available A recent genome-wide association study has identified a new susceptibility locus, kinesin family member 1B gene (KIF1B, strongly associated with progression from chronic hepatitis B (CHB to hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in Chinese population, this study was carried out to explore the role of the genetic variants in KIF1B in the development of chronic hepatitis B.Three KIF1B polymorphisms (rs8019, rs17401924, and rs17401966 were selected and genotyped in 473 CHB patients and 580 controls with no history of CHB. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated by logistic regression model. None of these three SNPs showed association with CHBs after adjusting for age and gender. Equivalence-based method analysis confirmed the absence of association. In the further haplotype analysis, three common haplotypes were observed in this study population, but no significant effect was also found for haplotypes in the progression to CHB.This study showed the new locus identified for HCC, KIF1B, was not associated with progression to CHB, implying distinct genetic susceptibility factor contributes to the progression from hepatitis B virus infection to HCC. Nevertheless, further comprehensive analyses are warranted to dissect the mechanism.

  18. The Role of Monitoring Gentamicin Levels in Patients with Gram-Negative Peritoneal Dialysis-Associated Peritonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen; Cho, Yeoungjee; Hawley, Carmel M.; Badve, Sunil V.; Johnson, David W.

    2014-01-01

    ♦ Background: There is limited available evidence regarding the role of monitoring serum gentamicin concentrations in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients receiving this antimicrobial agent in gram-negative PD-associated peritonitis. ♦ Methods: Using data collected in all patients receiving PD at a single center who experienced a gram-negative peritonitis episode between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2011, we investigated the relationship between measured serum gentamicin levels on day 2 following initial empiric antibiotic therapy and subsequent clinical outcomes of confirmed gram-negative peritonitis. ♦ Results: Serum gentamicin levels were performed on day 2 in 51 (77%) of 66 first gram-negative peritonitis episodes. Average serum gentamicin levels on day 2 were 1.83 ± 0.84 mg/L with levels exceeding 2 mg/L in 22 (43%) cases. The overall cure rate was 64%. No cases of ototoxicity were observed. Day-2 gentamicin levels were not significantly different between patients who did and did not have a complication or cure. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, failure to cure peritonitis was not associated with either day-2 gentamicin level (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25 - 3.73) or continuation of gentamicin therapy beyond day 2 (OR 0.28, 0.02 - 3.56). The only exception was polymicrobial peritonitis, where day-2 gentamicin levels were significantly higher in episodes that were cured (2.06 ± 0.41 vs 1.29 ± 0.71, p = 0.01). In 17 (26%) patients receiving extended gentamicin therapy, day-5 gentamicin levels were not significantly related to peritonitis cure. ♦ Conclusion: Day-2 gentamicin levels did not predict gentamicin-related harm or efficacy during short-course gentamicin therapy for gram-negative PD-related peritonitis, except in cases of polymicrobial peritonitis, where higher levels were associated with cure. PMID:24385334

  19. Human hepatitis B viral e antigen and its precursor P20 inhibit T lymphocyte proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvina, Maija; Hoste, Astrid; Rossignol, Jean-Michel; Lagaudrière-Gesbert, Cécile

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► P20, precursor of the HBeAg, interacts with the cellular protein gC1qR. ► HBeAg and P20 bind to T cell surface and inhibit mitogen-induced T cell division. ► HBeAg and P20 inhibition of T cell proliferation is gC1qR and IL-1RAcP-independent. -- Abstract: The hepatitis B virus (HBV) Precore protein is processed through the secretory pathway directly as HBeAg or with the generation of an intermediate (P20). Precore gene has been shown to be implicated in viral persistence, but the functions of HBeAg and its precursors have not been fully elucidated. We show that the secreted proteins HBeAg and P20 interact with T cell surface and alter Kit-225 and primary T cells proliferation, a process which may facilitate the establishment of HBV persistence. Our data indicate that the N-terminal end of Precore is important for these inhibitory effects and exclude that they are dependent on the association of HBeAg and P20 with two characterized cell surface ligands, the Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein and gC1qR (present study).

  20. Human hepatitis B viral e antigen and its precursor P20 inhibit T lymphocyte proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvina, Maija; Hoste, Astrid; Rossignol, Jean-Michel [Universite de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Laboratoire de Genetique et Biologie Cellulaire, EA 4589, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Lagaudriere-Gesbert, Cecile, E-mail: cecile.lagaudriere-gesbert@u-psud.fr [Universite de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Laboratoire de Genetique et Biologie Cellulaire, EA 4589, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P20, precursor of the HBeAg, interacts with the cellular protein gC1qR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBeAg and P20 bind to T cell surface and inhibit mitogen-induced T cell division. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBeAg and P20 inhibition of T cell proliferation is gC1qR and IL-1RAcP-independent. -- Abstract: The hepatitis B virus (HBV) Precore protein is processed through the secretory pathway directly as HBeAg or with the generation of an intermediate (P20). Precore gene has been shown to be implicated in viral persistence, but the functions of HBeAg and its precursors have not been fully elucidated. We show that the secreted proteins HBeAg and P20 interact with T cell surface and alter Kit-225 and primary T cells proliferation, a process which may facilitate the establishment of HBV persistence. Our data indicate that the N-terminal end of Precore is important for these inhibitory effects and exclude that they are dependent on the association of HBeAg and P20 with two characterized cell surface ligands, the Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein and gC1qR (present study).

  1. Lymph Node Micrometastases are Associated with Worse Survival in Patients with Otherwise Node-Negative Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantel, Hendrik T. J.; Wiggers, Jim K.; Verheij, Joanne; Doff, Jan J.; Sieders, Egbert; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Porte, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lymph node metastases on routine histology are a strong negative predictor for survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Additional immunohistochemistry can detect lymph node micrometastases in patients who are otherwise node negative, but the prognostic value is unsure. The

  2. Lymph Node Micrometastases are Associated with Worse Survival in Patients with Otherwise Node-Negative Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantel, Hendrik T. J.; Wiggers, Jim K.; Verheij, Joanne; Doff, Jan J.; Sieders, Egbert; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Porte, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Lymph node metastases on routine histology are a strong negative predictor for survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Additional immunohistochemistry can detect lymph node micrometastases in patients who are otherwise node negative, but the prognostic value is unsure. The objective of

  3. Anticipation and experience of emotions in patients with schizophrenia and negative symptoms. An experimental study in a social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Maike; Fritzsche, Anja; Lincoln, Tania M

    2016-01-01

    Negative symptoms play a central role in the impairment of social functioning in schizophrenia. Healthy individuals use anticipated emotions to guide their decisions to seek out social interactions. It is unknown whether social withdrawal in negative symptoms is related to a biased anticipation of emotions that will arise in social situations. This study thus examined differences between patients with negative symptoms of schizophrenia and healthy controls in the anticipation and experience of positive and negative emotions related to a social interaction. In a between-subject factorial design, participants were instructed to either predict or to experience emotions related to a simulated social inclusion and exclusion interaction. Overall, patients anticipated more intense negative emotions than controls. Divided by the type of social situation, however, patients reported less intense positive emotions than controls with regard to social inclusion, but not with regard to social exclusion. The lack of an overall deficit in anticipation of positive emotions speaks against the assumption that anticipation abnormalities in negative symptoms are due to a neurocognitive deficit. Rather, the findings seem to reflect negative beliefs about potentially rewarding social situations in people with negative symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Can breast cancer patients with HER2 dual-equivocal tumours be managed as HER2-negative disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yiwei; Chen, Xiaosong; Fei, Xiaochun; Lin, Lin; Wu, Jiayi; Huang, Ou; He, Jianrong; Zhu, Li; Chen, Weiguo; Li, Yafen; Shen, Kunwei

    2018-01-01

    Increasing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) immunohistochemistry (IHC)/fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) dual-equivocal breast tumours are reported after the 2013 American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) guideline update. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinico-pathologic characteristics, treatment patterns and disease outcome of these patients with HER2 dual-equivocal tumours. Patients with HER2 IHC 2+ and available FISH results were retrospectively analysed from the Comprehensive Breast Health Center, Shanghai Ruijin Hospital. The 2013 ASCO/CAP guideline was applied to define HER2-positive, dual-equivocal and -negative groups. Patient characteristics, systemic treatment patterns and survival were compared among these groups. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-based assays were applied to test HER2 mRNA expression level. Among 691 patients included, 133 (19.25%) were HER2 positive, 25 (3.62%) were HER2 dual-equivocal and 533 (77.13%) were HER2 negative. Univariate and multivariate analyses stated that HER2 dual-equivocal tumours shared more similarity with HER2-negative tumours, whereas HER2-positive tumours had rather different clinico-pathologic features. HER2 dual-equivocal tumours had similar HER2 mRNA levels compared with HER2-negative tumours (P = 0.26), which were much less compared with HER2-positive breast cancer. Besides, adjuvant systemic treatment patterns were comparable between HER2-negative and dual-equivocal tumours, and none of HER2 dual-equivocal patients received anti-HER2 treatment. There was no survival difference among these three groups (P = 0.43). HER2 dual-equivocal tumours share more similarity with HER2-negative disease in terms of clinico-pathologic features, HER2 mRNA levels, adjuvant systemic treatment patterns and disease outcome, which deserves further clinical evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in spinal tuberculosis: Comparison of HIV positive and negative patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Michael Anley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increasing incidence of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and tuberculosis (TB co-infection. This has led to an increasing number of atypical features on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We postulated that the type 4 hypersensitivity response causing granulomatous inflammation may be disrupted by the HIV resulting in less vertebral body destruction. This study compares the MRI features of spinal tuberculosis in HIV positive and negative patients. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with confirmed spinal tuberculosis, HIV status and available MRI scans at a single institution from 2003-2009 were identified. HIV status was positive in 20 and negative in 30. Females were predominant (34:16. The HIV positive group was younger at 32.4 versus 46 years (P=0.008. Blood parameters (WCC, ESR, Hb, Lymphocyte count were not significantly different between the HIV groups. MRI scans were reviewed by a radiologist who was blinded to the HIV status. Site, extent of disease, body collapse, abscess location and volume, kyphotic deformity and cord signal were reported. Results: There was no difference between the number of vertebral bodies affection with TB involvement, presence of cord signal or incidence of non-contiguous lesions. The HIV negative group had significantly more total vertebral collapse (P=0.036 and greater kyphosis (P=0.002. The HIV positive group had a trend to larger anterior epidural pus collection (P=0.2. Conclusion: HIV negative patients demonstrate greater tuberculous destruction in terms of total percentage body collapse and resultant kyphosis. There is no difference in the incidence of cord signal or presence of non-contiguous lesions. HIV positive patients show a trend to a greater epidural abscess volume. This difference may be explained by the reduced autoimmune response of the type 4 hypersensitivity reaction caused by the HIV infection.

  6. Viral and host factors related with histopathologyc activity in patients with chronic hepatitis B and moderate or intermittently elevated alanine aminotransferase levels Influencia de factores virales y del huésped en la actividad histológica en pacientes con hepatitis crónica por virus de la hepatitis B y elevación moderada o intermitente de alanina aminotransferasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Molina Pérez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: viral and host factors are related with progression of pathological lesion in chronic hepatitis B. We analyzed these factors in patients with moderate or intermittently elevated ALT levels, and its threshold that determinate significant histological activity. Patients and methods: retrospective analyses of viral and host parameters in 89 consecutive chronic hepatitis B patients biopsied because of moderate or intermittently elevated ALT levels [1-2 x ULN (ULN = 39 IU/mL] and/or DNA-HBV > 2 x 10³ IU/mL in AntiHBe+ patients. It was analyzed age, gender, ALT levels, HBeAg, viral load and genotype. It was considered advanced histological lesion a Knodell Score (KS > 7 and histological lesion indicating treatment, lobular inflammation ≥ 2 or fibrosis ≥ 2 according to Scheuer Classification. Results: KS > 7 and histological lesion indicating treatment was found in 47.8 and 60.7% respectively. It was observed relationship between age, male gender, ALT levels and viral load with histological damage (p ULN (69.1 vs. 47.1%, p = 0.04. There were not significant upper frequencies of advanced lesion when a cut-off of 40 years or DNA-HBV > 2 x 10³ IU/mL viral load or serological status HBeAg was considerate. Histological activity was lesser in genotype D patients than those infected with others genotypes (p Objetivo: analizar factores virales y del huésped relacionados con actividad histológica en un subgrupo de pacientes con hepatitis crónica B y elevación intermitente o moderada de alanina aminotransferasa (ALT, y el umbral que determine daño histológico indicativo de tratamiento. Pacientes y métodos: análisis retrospectivo de parámetros virales y del huésped en 89 pacientes con hepatitis crónica B biopsiados consecutivamente por elevación intermitente o moderada de ALT [1-2 x USN (USN = 39 UI/mL]. Fueron analizados edad, sexo, ALT, HBeAg, carga viral y genotipo. Se consideró como lesion histologica avanzada un Índice de

  7. Individual white matter fractional anisotropy analysis on patients with MRI negative partial epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duning, Thomas; Kellinghaus, Christoph; Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Schiffbauer, Hagen; Keller, Simon; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Knecht, Stefan; Deppe, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Conventional structural MRI fails to identify a cerebral lesion in 25% of patients with cryptogenic partial epilepsy (CPE). Diffusion tensor imaging is an MRI technique sensitive to microstructural abnormalities of cerebral white matter (WM) by quantification of fractional anisotropy (FA). The objectives of the present study were to identify focal FA abnormalities in patients with CPE who were deemed MRI negative during routine presurgical evaluation. Diffusion tensor imaging at 3 T was performed in 12 patients with CPE and normal conventional MRI and in 67 age matched healthy volunteers. WM integrity was compared between groups on the basis of automated voxel-wise statistics of FA maps using an analysis of covariance. Volumetric measurements from high resolution T1-weighted images were also performed. Significant FA reductions in WM regions encompassing diffuse areas of the brain were observed when all patients as a group were compared with controls. On an individual basis, voxel based analyses revealed widespread symmetrical FA reduction in CPE patients. Furthermore, asymmetrical temporal lobe FA reduction was consistently ipsilateral to the electroclinical focus. No significant correlations were found between FA alterations and clinical data. There were no differences in brain volumes of CPE patients compared with controls. Despite normal conventional MRI, WM integrity abnormalities in CPE patients extend far beyond the epileptogenic zone. Given that unilateral temporal lobe FA abnormalities were consistently observed ipsilateral to the seizure focus, analysis of temporal FA may provide an informative in vivo investigation into the localisation of the epileptogenic zone in MRI negative patients.

  8. Correlations among Psychological Resilience, Self-Efficacy, and Negative Emotion in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Neng; Liu, Shaohui; Yu, Nan; Peng, Yunhua; Wen, Yumei; Tang, Jie; Kong, Lingyu

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the influencing factors of the psychological resilience and self-efficacy of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the relationships of psychological resilience and self-efficacy with negative emotion. Eighty-eight participants were enrolled. Psychological resilience, self-efficacy, and negative emotion were assessed with the Psychological Resilience Scale, Self-Efficacy Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), respectively. Furthermore, the relationships of psychological resilience and self-efficacy with negative emotion were investigated. The average scores of psychological resilience, self-efficacy, anxiety, and depression were 70.08 ± 13.26, 21.56 ± 9.66, 53.68 ± 13.10, and 56.12 ± 12.37, respectively. The incidences of anxiety and depression were 23.90% (21/88) and 28.40% (25/88), respectively. The psychological resilience and self-efficacy scores of AMI patients after PCI varied significantly with age and economic status. SAS scores and SDS scores were significantly negatively correlated with psychological resilience and self-efficacy. Negative emotions in AMI patients after PCI are closely related to psychological resilience and self-efficacy. Therefore, anxiety and depression could be alleviated by improving the psychological resilience and self-efficacy of patients undergoing PCI, thus improving patients' quality of life.

  9. Effects of continued psychological care toward brain tumor patients and their family members' negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ning; Zhu, Dan; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have confirmed that brain tumor patients and their family members frequently exhibit negative emotional reactions, such as anxiety and depression, during diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Family members experience increasing pressure as the year of survival of patient progress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the continued psychological care (CPC) toward the brain tumor patients and their family members' emotions. The asynchronous clinical control trial was performed, and 162 brain tumor patients and their family members were divided into the control group and the intervention group. The control group was only performed the telephone follow-up toward the patients. Beside this way, the intervention group was performed the CPC toward the patients and their family member. The self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and the self-rating depression scale (SDS) were used to measure the negative emotions of the patients and their family members, and the patients' treatment compliance and the incidence of seizures were compared. The SAS and SDS scores of the intervention group on the 14 days, 28 days and 3 months of the CPC were significantly lower than the control group (P family members.

  10. Clinical characteristics differentiating bacteriologically positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients from negative ones in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, M; Yasuda, N; Koda, S; Ohara, H; Enkhbat, S; Tsogt, G

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study is to clarify clinical characteristics which differentiate bacteriologically positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients from negative ones in Mongolia. The subjects include 338 patients aged 16 years and older who had undergone bacteriological examinations. Of them, 107 patients (31.7%) were confirmed bacteriologically. The proportion of bacteriological positive results increased significantly among patients who had cavities in the roentgenographic examination, cough at diagnosis and the family history of tuberculosis. Addressing these clinical characteristics will contribute to raising not only the sensitivity of the sputum examination, but also the specificity of the roentgenographic examination in the diagnostic process of tuberculosis.

  11. Residual Negative Symptoms Differentiate Cognitive Performance in Clinically Stable Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Krishnadas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits in various domains have been shown in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to examine if residual psychopathology explained the difference in cognitive function between clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We compared the performance on tests of attention, visual and verbal memory, and executive function of 25 patients with schizophrenia in remission and 25 euthymic bipolar disorder patients with that of 25 healthy controls. Mediation analysis was used to see if residual psychopathology could explain the difference in cognitive function between the patient groups. Both patient groups performed significantly worse than healthy controls on most cognitive tests. Patients with bipolar disorder displayed cognitive deficits that were milder but qualitatively similar to those of patients with schizophrenia. Residual negative symptoms mediated the difference in performance on cognitive tests between the two groups. Neither residual general psychotic symptoms nor greater antipsychotic doses explained this relationship. The shared variance explained by the residual negative and cognitive deficits that the difference between patient groups may be explained by greater frontal cortical neurophysiological deficits in patients with schizophrenia, compared to bipolar disorder. Further longitudinal work may provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie these deficits.

  12. Evaluation of arterial oxygen saturation using RGB camera-based remote photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Nakano, Kazuya; McDuff, Daniel; Niizeki, Kyuichi; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2018-02-01

    Plethysmogram is the periodic variation in blood volume due to the cardiac pulse traveling through the body. Photo-plethysmograph (PPG) has been widely used to assess the cardiovascular system such as heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, vascular compliance. We have previously proposed a non-contact PPG imaging method using a digital red-green-blue camera. In the method, the Monte Carlo simulation for light transport is used to specify a relationship among the RGB-values and the concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin (CHbO) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (CHbR). The total hemoglobin concentration (CHbT) can be calculated as a sum of CHbO and CHbR. Applying the fast Fourier transform (FFT) band pass filters to each pixel of the sequential images for CHbT along the time line, two-dimentional plethysmogram can be reconstructed. In this study, we further extend the method to imaging the arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2). The PPG signals for both CHbO and CHbR are extracted by the FFT band pass filter and the pulse wave amplitudes (PWAs) of CHbO and CHbR are calculated. We assume that the PWA for CHbO and that for CHbR are decreased and increased as SaO2 is decreased. The ratio of PWA for CHbO and that for CHbR are associated to the reference value of SaO2 measured by a commercially available pulse oximeter, which provide an empirical formula to estimate SaO2 from the PPG signal at each pixel of RGB image. In vivo animal experiments with rats during varying the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method.

  13. Dechlorination of the dietary nona-chlorinated toxaphene congeners 62 and 50 into the octa-chlorinated toxaphene congeners 44 and 40 in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntssen, M.H.G., E-mail: marc.berntssen@nifes.no [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), Postbox 2029 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway); Lundebye, A.-K.; Hop-Johannessen, L.; Lock, E.-J. [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), Postbox 2029 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2012-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: The relative feed-to-fish accumulation and possible biotransformation of the nona-chlorinated toxaphene congeners currently included in EU-legislation (CHB-50 and -62) and the octa-chlorinated congeners recommended by the European Food Safety Authority to be included in future surveillance of fish samples (CHB-40, 41, and 44) were investigated in the present study. Model fish Danio rerio were fed either (a) diets spiked with a combination as well as the pure individual toxaphene congeners CHB-50 or 62 or (b) diets spiked with the combination of CHB N-Ary-Summation 50 + 62 and/or CHB N-Ary-Summation 40 + 41 + 44. In addition, seawater adapted Atlantic salmon smolts were fed technical toxaphene enriched feeds for 62 days. Zebrafish fed a diet containing CHB-50 and CHB-62 accumulated newly formed CHB-40 and 41 and CHB-44, respectively. The biomagnifications factors (BMF) of the toxaphene congeners in Atlantic salmon muscle from the feeds spiked with technical toxaphene were significantly correlated with their relative lipophilicity (expressed as log K{sub ow}). An exception was CHB-44 which had a higher BMF than could be expected from its specific log K{sub ow}, reflecting that CHB-44 is a metabolite formed under dietary exposure to CHB-62. This paper reports the in vivo dechlorination of nona-chlorinated toxaphene congeners into octa-chlorinated congeners in feeding trials with a model fish (zebrafish) and an oily food fish (Atlantic salmon).

  14. Dechlorination of the dietary nona-chlorinated toxaphene congeners 62 and 50 into the octa-chlorinated toxaphene congeners 44 and 40 in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntssen, M.H.G.; Lundebye, A.-K.; Hop-Johannessen, L.; Lock, E.-J.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: The relative feed-to-fish accumulation and possible biotransformation of the nona-chlorinated toxaphene congeners currently included in EU-legislation (CHB-50 and -62) and the octa-chlorinated congeners recommended by the European Food Safety Authority to be included in future surveillance of fish samples (CHB-40, 41, and 44) were investigated in the present study. Model fish Danio rerio were fed either (a) diets spiked with a combination as well as the pure individual toxaphene congeners CHB-50 or 62 or (b) diets spiked with the combination of CHB ∑50 + 62 and/or CHB ∑40 + 41 + 44. In addition, seawater adapted Atlantic salmon smolts were fed technical toxaphene enriched feeds for 62 days. Zebrafish fed a diet containing CHB-50 and CHB-62 accumulated newly formed CHB-40 and 41 and CHB-44, respectively. The biomagnifications factors (BMF) of the toxaphene congeners in Atlantic salmon muscle from the feeds spiked with technical toxaphene were significantly correlated with their relative lipophilicity (expressed as log K ow ). An exception was CHB-44 which had a higher BMF than could be expected from its specific log K ow , reflecting that CHB-44 is a metabolite formed under dietary exposure to CHB-62. This paper reports the in vivo dechlorination of nona-chlorinated toxaphene congeners into octa-chlorinated congeners in feeding trials with a model fish (zebrafish) and an oily food fish (Atlantic salmon).

  15. Colonization of long term care facility patients with MDR-Gram-negatives during an Acinetobacter baumannii outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Zechner, Elisabeth; Ullrich, Elisabeth; Luxner, Josefa; Pux, Christian; Pichler, Gerald; Schippinger, Walter; Krause, Robert; Leitner, Eva

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of colonization by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria including ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii at two wards caring long term for patients with disorder of consciousness at the Geriatric Health Centers Graz, Austria. During our study we detected two A. baumannii outbreaks. In August 2015, we conducted a point-prevalence study. Inguinal and perianal swabs were taken from 38 patients and screened for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative rods using standard procedures. Six months after the initial investigation all patients were sampled again and use of antibiotics during the past 6 months and mortality was registered. Genetic relatedness of bacteria was evaluated by DiversiLab system. Fifty percent of patients were colonized by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative isolates. Five patients harboured ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae. No carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae were detected. 13/38 patients were colonized by A. baumannii isolates (resistant to ciprofloxacin but susceptible to carbapenems). There was a significant difference in the prevalence of colonization by A. baumannii between ward 2 and ward 1 (60% vs. 5.6%, p  < 0.001). Two clusters of A. baumannii isolates were identified including one isolate detected on a chair in a patient's room. We detected a high prevalence of two multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains in patients with disorder of consciousness at a LTCF in Graz, Austria. Our findings strongly suggest nosocomial cross-transmission between patients. An active surveillance strategy is warranted to avoid missing newly emerging pathogens.

  16. Chronic Hepatitis B with Spontaneous Severe Acute Exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lun Tsai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a major global health problem with an estimated 400 million HBV carriers worldwide. In the natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB, spontaneous acute exacerbation (AE is not uncommon, with a cumulative incidence of 10%–30% every year. While exacerbations can be mild, some patients may develop hepatic decompensation and even die. The underlying pathogenesis is possibly related to the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated immune response against HBV. An upsurge of serum HBV DNA usually precedes the rise of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and bilirubin. Whether antiviral treatment can benefit CHB with severe AE remains controversial, but early nucleos(tide analogues treatment seemed to be associated with an improved outcome. There has been no randomized study that compared the effects of different nucleos(tide analogues (NA in the setting of CHB with severe AE. However, potent NAs with good resistance profiles are recommended. In this review, we summarized current knowledge regarding the natural history, pathogenetic mechanisms, and therapeutic options of CHB with severe AE.

  17. Negative pressure pulmonary edema after nasal fracture reduction in an obese female patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi EK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eunkyung Choi,1 Junggu Yi,1 Younghoon Jeon,2 1Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea Abstract: Postoperative negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE is a rare, but well-known life-threatening complication of acute upper airway obstruction (UAO which develops after general anesthesia. The pronounced inspiratory efforts following UAO lead to excessive negative inspiratory pressure, which may cause acute pulmonary edema. Early recognition and prompt treatment of NPPE is necessary to prevent patient morbidity and mortality. In addition, the physician should carefully manage the patient who has risk factors of UAO to prevent this situation. We experienced a case of NPPE following laryngospasm after tracheal extubation in an obese patient who underwent open reduction of orbital wall and nasal bone surgery. Keywords: airway obstruction, negative pressure pulmonary edema, laryngospasm, nasal surgery, obese

  18. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merican, I; Guan, R; Amarapuka, D; Alexander, M J; Chutaputti, A; Chien, R N; Hasnian, S S; Leung, N; Lesmana, L; Phiet, P H; Sjalfoellah Noer, H M; Sollano, J; Sun, H S; Xu, D Z

    2000-12-01

    time. The outcome after anti-HBe seroconversion depends on the degree of pre-existing liver damage and any subsequent HBV reactivation. Without pre-existing cirrhosis, there may be only slight fibrosis or mild chronic hepatitis, but with pre-existing cirrhosis, further complications may ensue. HBsAg-negative chronic hepatitis B is a phase of chronic HBV infection during which a mutation arises resulting in the inability of the virus to produce HBeAg. Such patients tend to have more severe liver disease and run a more rapidly progressive course. The annual probability of developing cirrhosis varies from 0.1 to 1.0% depending on the duration of HBV replication, the severity of disease and the presence of concomitant infections or drugs. The annual incidence of hepatic decompensation in HBV-related cirrhosis varies from 2 to 10% and in these patients the 5-year survival rate drops dramatically to 14-35%. The annual risk of developing HCC in patients with cirrhosis varies between 1 and 6%; the overall reported annual detection rate of HCC in surveillance studies, which included individuals with chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis, is 0.8-4.1%. Chronic hepatitis B is not a static disease and the natural history of the disease is affected by both viral and host factors. The prognosis is poor with decompensated cirrhosis and effective treatment options are limited. Prevention of HBV infection thorough vaccination is still, therefore, the best strategy for decreasing the incidence of hepatitis B-associated cirrhosis and HCC.

  19. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity of 1-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-butene and 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one, two alternative metabolites of 1,3-butadiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin-Jie; Zeng, Fang-Mao; An, Jing; Yu, Ying-Xin [Institute of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Zhang, Xin-Yu, E-mail: xyzhang999@shu.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Elfarra, Adnan A., E-mail: elfarra@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity of 1-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB), a known in vitro metabolite of the human carcinogen 1,3-butadiene, have not previously been investigated. Because CHB can be bioactivated by alcohol dehydrogenases to yield 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one (CBO), a bifunctional alkylating agent that caused globin-chain cross-links in erythrocytes, in the present study we investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of CHB and CBO in human normal hepatocyte L02 cells using the MTT assay, the relative cloning efficiency assay and the comet assay. We also investigated the mutagenic potential of these compounds with the Ames test using Salmonella strains TA1535 and TA1537. The results provide clear evidence for CHB and CBO being both cytotoxic and genotoxic with CBO being approximately 100-fold more potent than CHB. Interestingly, CHB generated both single-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites on DNA, whereas CBO produced only alkali-labile sites. CHB did not directly result in DNA breaks, whereas CBO was capable of directly generating breaks on DNA. Interestingly, both compounds did not induce DNA cross-links as examined by the comet assay. The Ames test results showed that CHB induced point mutation but not frameshift mutation, whereas the toxic effects of CBO made it difficult to reliably assess the mutagenic potential of CBO in the two strains. Collectively, the results suggest that CHB and CBO may play a role in the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene. - Highlights: • 1-Chloro-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB) is cytotoxic and genotoxic in human liver cells. • The CHB metabolite, 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one (CBO) is ∼ 100-fold more toxic than CHB. • CHB and CBO cause DNA alkali-labile sites, but only CBO directly causes DNA breaks. • CHB is mutagenic in the Ames test, but CBO is too toxic in the assay. • The results suggest a role for CHB in 1,3-butadiene genotoxicity and mutagenicity.

  20. Evaluation of Sentinel Node Biopsy in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Patients Who Become Clinically Node-Negative after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Sh.; Prakash, A.; Goyal, V.; Agarwal, Sh.; Choudhury, M.; Popli, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Controversy continues over the appropriate timing of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of SLN biopsy in LABC patients with cytology-proven axillary nodal metastasis who become clinically node-negative after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Materials. 30 consecutive patients with LABC, who had become clinically node-negative after 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, were included in the study. They were then subjected to SLN biopsy, axillary lymph node dissection, and breast surgery. Results. Sentinel nodes were successfully identified in 26 of the 30 patients, resulting in an identification rate of 86.67%, sensitivity of 83.33%, false negative rate of 20%, negative predictive value of 72.73%, and an overall accuracy of 88.46%. No complications were observed as a result of dye injection. Conclusions. SLN biopsy is feasible and safe in LABC patients with cytology-positive nodes who become clinically node-negative after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Our accuracy rate, identification rate, and false negative rate are comparable to those in node-negative LABC patients. SLN biopsy as a therapeutic option in LABC after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a promising option which should be further investigated

  1. Harmonic analysis and FPGA implementation of SHE controlled three phase CHB 11-level inverter in MV drives using deterministic and stochastic optimization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesapogu, Joshi Manohar; Peddakotla, Sujatha; Kuppa, Seetha Rama Anjaneyulu

    2013-01-01

    With the advancements in semiconductor technology, high power medium voltage (MV) Drives are extensively used in numerous industrial applications. Challenging technical requirements of MV Drives is to control multilevel inverter (MLI) with less Total harmonic distortion (%THD) which satisfies IEEE standard 519-1992 harmonic guidelines and less switching losses. Among all modulation control strategies for MLI, Selective harmonic elimination (SHE) technique is one of the traditionally preferred modulation control technique at fundamental switching frequency with better harmonic profile. On the other hand, the equations which are formed by SHE technique are highly non-linear in nature, may exist multiple, single or even no solution at particular modulation index (MI). However, in some MV Drive applications, it is required to operate over a range of MI. Providing analytical solutions for SHE equations during the whole range of MI from 0 to 1, has been a challenging task for researchers. In this paper, an attempt is made to solve SHE equations by using deterministic and stochastic optimization methods and comparative harmonic analysis has been carried out. An effective algorithm which minimizes %THD with less computational effort among all optimization algorithms has been presented. To validate the effectiveness of proposed MPSO technique, an experiment is carried out on a low power proto type of three phase CHB 11- level Inverter using FPGA based Xilinx's Spartan -3A DSP Controller. The experimental results proved that MPSO technique has successfully solved SHE equations over all range of MI from 0 to 1, the %THD obtained over major range of MI also satisfies IEEE 519-1992 harmonic guidelines too.

  2. Analysis of HBV basal core promoter/precore gene variability in patients with HBV drug resistance and HIV co-infection in Northwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshambel Belyhun

    -infected blood donors and CLD patients since none of them developed the YMDD RT motif associated 3TC/ETV resistance mutations. However, HBV mono-infected blood donors and CLD patients who had no any drug resistance gene variants developed comparable G1862T (60.6% vs. 65.1% and G1896A (24.2% vs. 11.6% PC gene mutations.No correlation observed between the BCP/PC genome variability and the YMDD RT motif associated HBV drug resistance gene variants during HIV co-infection. Nevertheless, irrespective of HIV co-infection status, the higher records of the BCP/PC gene variability in this study setting indicate a high risk of potential HBeAg negative chronic HBV infection in Northwest Ethiopia.

  3. Prevalence and clinical features of celiac disease in patients with hepatitis B virus infection in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Luciana Nau

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that involves gluten intolerance and can be triggered by environmental factors including hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of celiac disease in individuals with HBV infection and to describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of celiac disease associated with HBV. Methods This cross-sectional study included 50 hepatitis B patients tested for IgA anti-endomysial antibodies (EMAs and tissue anti-transglutaminase (TTG between August 2011 and September 2012. Results Fifty patients were included with a mean age of 46.0 ± 12.6 (46.0 years; 46% were female and 13% were HBeAg+. Six patients had positive serology for celiac disease, four were EMA+, and five were TTG+. When individuals with positive serology for celiac disease were compared to those with negative serology, they demonstrated a higher prevalence of abdominal pain (100% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.008, lower median creatinine (0.7mg/dL vs. 0.9mg/dL, p = 0.007 and lower mean albumin (3.6 ± 0.4g/L vs. 3.9 ± 0.3g/L, p = 0.022. All individuals with positive serology for celiac disease underwent upper digestive endoscopy, and three of the patients exhibited a macroscopic pattern suggestive of celiac disease. Histologically, five patients demonstrated an intra-epithelial lymphocytic infiltrate level > 30%, and four patients showed villous atrophy associated with crypt hyperplasia on duodenal biopsy. Conclusions An increased prevalence of celiac disease was observed among hepatitis B patients. These patients were symptomatic and had significant laboratory abnormalities. These results indicate that active screening for celiac disease among HBV-infected adults is warranted.

  4. The Prognostic Value of Lymph Nodes Dissection Number on Survival of Patients with Lymph Node-Negative Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The study was designed to explore the prognostic value of examined lymph node (LN number on survival of gastric cancer patients without LN metastasis. Methods. Between August 1995 and January 2011, 300 patients who underwent gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy for LN-negative gastric cancer were reviewed. Patients were assigned to various groups according to LN dissection number or tumor invasion depth. Some clinical outcomes, such as overall survival, operation time, length of stay, and postoperative complications, were compared among all groups. Results. The overall survival time of LN-negative GC patients was 50.2±30.5 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that LN dissection number (P30. Besides, it was not correlated with operation time, transfusion volume, length of postoperative stay, or postoperative complication incidence (P>0.05. Conclusions. The number of examined lymph nodes is an independent prognostic factor of survival for patients with lymph node-negative gastric cancer. Sufficient dissection of lymph nodes is recommended during surgery for such population.

  5. Effect of pegylated interferon α-2a combined with thymosin α1 on quality of life in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Jianguo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of pegylated interferon α-2a (PEG-IFN α-2a combined with thymosin α1 (Tα1 on the quality of life (QOL in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB. MethodsA total of 148 patients with CHB who were admitted to our department from October 2008 to October 2012 were selected and randomly divided into observation group (n=74 and control group (n=74. The control group was treated with PEG-IFN α-2a, while the observation group was treated with PEG-IFN α-2a plus Tα1. The hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA load, QOL, Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire scores, and adverse reactions were compared between the two groups at months 3, 6, and 12 of treatment. Comparisons between groups were made by independent-samples t test; comparisons between variables before and after treatment were made by paired t test; categorical data were analyzed by chi-square test. ResultsCompared with the control group, the observation group had significantly higher decrease in HBV DNA load and virological response rate at months 3 (t=2.281, P=0.02; χ2=3.950, P=0.04, 6 (t=3.237, P=0.00;χ2=4.022, P=0.04, and 12 (t=3.197, P=0.00; χ2=4.028, P=0.04, significantly higher overall QOL, physiological, social relation, fatigue, and anxiety scores at month 6 (t=2.039-3.472, P<0.05, and significantly higher overall QOL, general health status, physiological, psychological, social relation, fatigue, systemic symptom, activity, anxiety, and environment scores at month 12 (t=2.020-3.201, P<0.05. ConclusionPEG-IFN α-2a combined with Tα1 can improve immunity and antiviral ability and promote HBV clearance in the treatment of CHB, thus leading to the improvement in patients’ QOL. This therapy holds promise for clinical application.

  6. Colonization of long term care facility patients with MDR-Gram-negatives during an Acinetobacter baumannii outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Zollner-Schwetz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to determine the prevalence of colonization by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria including ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii at two wards caring long term for patients with disorder of consciousness at the Geriatric Health Centers Graz, Austria. During our study we detected two A. baumannii outbreaks. Methods In August 2015, we conducted a point-prevalence study. Inguinal and perianal swabs were taken from 38 patients and screened for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative rods using standard procedures. Six months after the initial investigation all patients were sampled again and use of antibiotics during the past 6 months and mortality was registered. Genetic relatedness of bacteria was evaluated by DiversiLab system. Results Fifty percent of patients were colonized by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative isolates. Five patients harboured ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae. No carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae were detected. 13/38 patients were colonized by A. baumannii isolates (resistant to ciprofloxacin but susceptible to carbapenems. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of colonization by A. baumannii between ward 2 and ward 1 (60% vs. 5.6%, p < 0.001. Two clusters of A. baumannii isolates were identified including one isolate detected on a chair in a patient’s room. Conclusions We detected a high prevalence of two multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains in patients with disorder of consciousness at a LTCF in Graz, Austria. Our findings strongly suggest nosocomial cross-transmission between patients. An active surveillance strategy is warranted to avoid missing newly emerging pathogens.

  7. Brain Oscillatory Correlates of Altered Executive Functioning in Positive and Negative Symptomatic Schizophrenia Patients and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Barbara; Minarik, Tamas; Griesmayr, Birgit; Stelzig-Schoeler, Renate; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Sauseng, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Working Memory and executive functioning deficits are core characteristics of patients suffering from schizophrenia. Electrophysiological research indicates that altered patterns of neural oscillatory mechanisms underpinning executive functioning are associated with the psychiatric disorder. Such brain oscillatory changes have been found in local amplitude differences at gamma and theta frequencies in task-specific cortical areas. Moreover, interregional interactions are also disrupted as signified by decreased phase coherence of fronto-posterior theta activity in schizophrenia patients. However, schizophrenia is not a one-dimensional psychiatric disorder but has various forms and expressions. A common distinction is between positive and negative symptomatology but most patients have both negative and positive symptoms to some extent. Here, we examined three groups-healthy controls, predominantly negative, and predominantly positive symptomatic schizophrenia patients-when performing a working memory task with increasing cognitive demand and increasing need for executive control. We analyzed brain oscillatory activity in the three groups separately and investigated how predominant symptomatology might explain differences in brain oscillatory patterns. Our results indicate that differences in task specific fronto-posterior network activity (i.e., executive control network) expressed by interregional phase synchronization are able to account for working memory dysfunctions between groups. Local changes in the theta and gamma frequency range also show differences between patients and healthy controls, and more importantly, between the two patient groups. We conclude that differences in oscillatory brain activation patterns related to executive processing can be an indicator for positive and negative symptomatology in schizophrenia. Furthermore, changes in cognitive and especially executive functioning in patients are expressed by alterations in a task-specific fronto

  8. Clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of syphilitic uveitis in HIV-negative patients in China: A retrospective case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Jiang, Yuan; Shi, Yewen; Zheng, Bo; Xu, Zhiguo; Jia, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Syphilitic chorioretinitis should be included in differential diagnosis of any form of ocular inflammation. A significantly higher proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with ocular syphilis as compared to HIV-negative cases have been reported in published studies. However, the clinical signs and symptoms are more insidious in HIV-negative patients who are easily misdiagnosed. We report a series of cases of ocular syphilis and describe the clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of syphilitic chorioretinitis in HIV-negative patients in China.This was a retrospective case series study. The clinical records of patients with syphilis chorioretinitis were reviewed. Demographic information and findings of fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were analyzed. All patients received the standard treatment. Ophthalmology examination and laboratory evaluation were repeated every 3 months. All changes were recorded. The treatment was considered successful if the patients had no inflammation in both eyes and rapid plasma reagin titer was negative after therapy.The study examined 41 eyes of 28 HIV-negative patients. The main complaints were blurry vision, floaters, and visual field defect. Twenty-seven eyes presented with panuveitis, and all had posterior involvement, including uveitis, vasculitis, chorioretinitis, and optic neuritis. The most common manifestations were uveitis and retinal vasculitis. Disc hyperfluorescence and persistent dark spots were the most common findings on FFA and ICGA. The ill-defined inner segment/outer segment junction was the most frequent manifestation on SD-OCT. Patients were diagnosed with syphilitic uveitis based on positive serological tests. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was improved in 34 eyes after treatment. Eleven patients were misdiagnosed before serological tests were performed. The delay in treatment

  9. High rates of chronic HBV genotype E infection in a group of migrants in Italy from West Africa: Virological characteristics associated with poor immune clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagnino, Vincenzo; Salpini, Romina; Maffongelli, Gaetano; Battisti, Arianna; Fabeni, Lavinia; Piermatteo, Lorenzo; Colagrossi, Luna; Fini, Vanessa; Ricciardi, Alessandra; Sarrecchia, Cesare; Perno, Carlo Federico; Andreoni, Massimo; Svicher, Valentina; Sarmati, Loredana

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype E almost exclusively occurs in African people, and its presence is more commonly associated with the development of chronic HBV (CHB) infection. Moreover, an epidemiological link has been found between the distribution of HBV genotype E infection and African countries with high incidences of hepatocellular carcinoma. As part of a programme for the health assessment of migrants, we evaluated 358 young African subjects for HBV infection; 58.1% (208/358) were positive for an HBV marker, and 54 (25.5%) had CHB. Eighty-one percent of the CHB subjects were infected with HBV genotype E, with a median serum HBV-DNA of 3.2 (IQR: 2.7-3.6) logIU/ml. All patients had high serum HBsAg titres (10,899 [range 5,359-20,272] IU/ml), and no correlation was found between HBsAg titres and HBV-DNA plasma levels. RT sequence analysis showed the presence of a number of immune escape mutations: strains from all of the patients had a serine at HBsAg position 140; 3 also had T116N, Y100C, and P142L+S143L substitutions; and 1 had a G112R substitution. Six (18%) patients had stop-codons at position 216. In 5 of the 9 (26.5%) CHB patients, ultrasound liver biopsy, quantification of total intrahepatic HBV-DNA and cccDNA, and RT/HBsAg sequencing were performed. The median (IQR) total intrahepatic HBV-DNA was 766 (753-1139) copies/1000 cells, and the median (IQR) cccDNA was 17 (10-27) copies/1000 cells. Correlations were observed for both total intrahepatic HBV-DNA and cccDNA with serum HBV-DNA, while no correlation was found for the HBsAg titres. A difference of 2.5/1,000 nucleotides was found in the HBsAg sequences obtained from plasma and from liver tissue, with 3 cases of possible viral anatomical compartmentalization. In conclusion, a high rate of CHB infection due to the E genotype was demonstrated in a group of immigrants from Western Africa. An analysis of the viral strains obtained showed the virological characteristics of immune escape, which may be the

  10. A predictive tool to estimate the risk of axillary metastases in breast cancer patients with negative axillary ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meretoja, T J; Heikkilä, P S; Mansfield, A S

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for axillary metastases in breast cancer patients with negative preoperative axillary ultrasound. METHODS: A total of 1,395 consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer and SNB formed the original patient series. A univariate analysis was conducted to assess...... risk factors for axillary metastases. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to form a predictive model based on the risk factors. The predictive model was first validated internally in a patient series of 566 further patients and then externally in a patient series of 2,463 patients from......BACKGROUND: Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is the "gold standard" in axillary staging in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. However, axillary treatment is undergoing a paradigm shift and studies are being conducted on whether SNB may be omitted in low-risk patients. The purpose...

  11. No histologic evidence of foetal cardiotoxicity following exposure to maternal hydroxychloroquine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Deborah; Lovig, Leif; Halushka, Marc; Clancy, Robert M; Izmirly, Peter M; Buyon, Jill P

    2017-01-01

    It is currently recommended that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) be maintained during pregnancy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Recent data suggest that this Toll-like receptor inhibitor may also reduce the recurrence rate of anti-SSA/Ro associated congenital heart block (CHB). This case report describes a unique situation in which a CHB-afflicted, HCQ-exposed pregnancy was electively terminated. The heart did not reveal any characteristic features of cardiotoxicity, providing further evidence supporting the safety of foetal exposure to HCQ.

  12. NMR findings in patients after wrist trauma with a negative plain radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markuszewski, Maciej; Kraus, Alexandra; Studniarek, Michał; Zawadzka, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose was to assess the prevalence and location of the injuries of the carpal bones and soft tissue of the wrist on NMR in patients with negative radiographs. A total of 89 patients (9–81years) were consecutively examined after wrist trauma. Radiograms were performed in four projections: AP, PA, oblique and lateral. In 63 cases of negative radiographs and persistent clinical problem, simplified NMR (T1,T2, STIR; in coronal plane) was conducted with a 1.5 Tesla magnet. Results were evaluated by two independent observers. A positive X-ray result was stated when at least one observer suggested bone fracture. The MR images were viewed for detection of possible bone fracture, bone edema and soft tissue injuries. Cohen’s kappa coefficient was calculated to assess the quality of chosen criteria by means of agreement between both observers and both methods. As many as 26 X-ray studies were classified as positive. Substantial agreement between independent observers was found (kappa=0.63). In 17 cases out of 63 with two negative wrist radiogram, the NMR result was positive (19%). The most frequently fractured or injured bone was scaphoid (10 cases) and distal radius (5 cases). Fair agreement was found between X-ray and NMR studies (kappa=0.37) due to different diagnostic information received in both methods. Simplified NMR imaging of the wrist proved to be strongly efficient in the detection of pathological changes in injured wrists

  13. Sputum smear examination and time to diagnosis in patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viney, K; Bissell, K; Tabutoa, K; Kienene, T; Linh, N N; Briand, K; Harries, A D

    2012-12-21

    National tuberculosis programmes (NTPs) in Kiribati and the Marshall Islands, 2006-2010. To determine the proportion of all tuberculosis (TB) cases that were pulmonary smear-negative, and for these patients to determine how many sputum smears were examined and the time from sputum smear examination to registration. A retrospective cross-sectional study involving a record review of national TB and laboratory registers. Of 2420 TB cases identified, 709 (29%) were registered as smear-negative pulmonary TB. Of the 695 (98%) with information on smear examination, 222 (32%) had no smear recorded, 61 (9%) had one smear, 86 (12%) two smears and 326 (47%) three smears. Among the 473 patients who had at least one smear, 238 (50%) were registered before sputum examination, 131 (28%) within 1 week, 72 (15%) between 1 and 4 weeks, and 34 (7%) >4 weeks after sputum examination. NTPs in Kiribati and the Marshall Islands are diagnosing 29% of all TB patients as smear-negative pulmonary TB. Many patients do not have smears done or are registered before undergoing smear examination. Corrective measures are needed.

  14. Presenting symptoms and clinical findings in HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpén, Timo; Sjöblom, Anni; Lundberg, Marie; Haglund, Caj; Markkola, Antti; Syrjänen, Stina; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Mäkitie, Antti; Hagström, Jaana; Mattila, Petri

    2018-05-01

    Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is divided in two different disease entities depending on HPV involvement. We investigated differences in presenting symptoms and clinical findings in patients with HPV-positive and -negative OPSCC tumors. Altogether 118 consecutive patients diagnosed with primary OPSCC between 2012 and 2014 at the Helsinki University Hospital were included. HPV-status of the tumors was assessed by PCR detection of HPV DNA and immunostaining with p16-INK4a antibody. Fifty-one (47.7%) of the patients had HPV-positive and 56 (52.3%) HPV-negative tumors. Forty-nine (49/51, 96.1%) of the HPV+ tumors were also p16+ showing high concordance. The most common presenting symptom among HPV+/p16+ patients was a neck mass (53.1%), whereas any sort of pain in the head and neck area was more frequently related to the HPV-/p16- (60.0%) group. HPV+/p16+ tumors had a tendency to locate in the tonsillar complex and more likely had already spread into regional lymph nodes compared with HPV-/p16- tumors. Smoking and heavy alcohol consumption were significantly more common among HPV-/p16- patients but also rather common among HPV+/p16+ patients. This analysis of symptoms and signs confirm that OPSCC can be dichotomized in two distinct disease entities as defined by HPV status.

  15. Impact of etiology of chronic liver disease on hepatocellular carcinoma biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricco, Gabriele; Cavallone, Daniela; Cosma, Chiara; Caviglia, Gian Paolo; Oliveri, Filippo; Biasiolo, Alessandra; Abate, Maria Lorena; Plebani, Mario; Smedile, Antonina; Bonino, Ferruccio; Pontisso, Patrizia; Brunetto, Maurizia Rossana

    2018-02-14

    The role of serum biomarkers in the surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is controversial. We assessed the diagnostic performances of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and protein-induced by vitamin-K-absence/antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) in 388 cirrhotic patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). Biomarkers were quantified by automated chemiluminescent-enzyme-immunoassays (Fujirebio, Tokyo, Japan) at HCC diagnosis in 258 patients (204 males; median age 66.9 years) and in 130 cirrhotics without HCC (104 males; median-age 60.6 years). CLD etiology in HCC/non-HCC was CHB in 48/35, CHC in 126/56 and Non-Viral in 84/39. Overall AUROC values for AFP and PIVKA-II were 0.698 (95%CI = 0.642-0.753, PCLD. AFP/PIVKA-II diagnostic accuracy was 40.5-59.8%/62.7-73.5% and combining both markers 78.2% for CHB, 77% for Non-Viral-CLD and 75% for CHC. AFP correlated with ALT in HCC patients with CHC (ρ= 0.463/PCLD (ρ= 0.359/P= 0.047), but not in CHB (treated with antivirals). PIVKA-II correlated with tumour size independently of CLD-etiology (PCLD; their combination provides a better diagnostic accuracy.

  16. Discordance between liver biopsy and Fibroscan® in assessing liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis b: risk factors and influence of necroinflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Up Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated predictors of discordance between liver biopsy (LB and liver stiffness measurement (LSM using FibroScan®. We assessed predictors of discordance between LB and LSM in chronic hepatitis B (CHB and investigated the effects of necroinflammatory activity. METHODS: In total, 150 patients (107 men, 43 women were prospectively enrolled. Only LSM with ≥ 10 valid measurements was considered reliable. Liver fibrosis was evaluated using the Laennec system. LB specimens <15 mm in length were considered ineligible. Reference cutoff LSM values to determine discordance were calculated from our cohort (6.0 kPa for ≥ F2, 7.5 kPa for ≥ F3, and 9.4 kPa for F4. RESULTS: A discordance, defined as a discordance of at least two stages between LB and LSM, was identified in 21 (14.0% patients. In multivariate analyses, fibrosis stages F3-4 and F4 showed independent negative associations with discordance (P = 0.002; hazard ratio [HR], 0.073; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.014-0.390 for F3-4 and P = 0.014; HR, 0.067; 95% CI, 0.008-0.574 for F4. LSM values were not significantly different between maximal activity grades 1-2 and 3-4 in F1 and F2 fibrosis stages, whereas LSM values were significantly higher in maximal activity grade 3-4 than 1-2 in F3 and F4 fibrosis stage (median 8.6 vs. 11.3 kPa in F3, P = 0.049; median 11.9 vs. 19.2 kPa in F4, P = 0.009. CONCLUSION: Advanced fibrosis stage (F3-4 or cirrhosis (F4 showed a negative correlation with discordance between LB and LSM in patients with CHB, and maximal activity grade 3-4 significantly influenced LSM values in F3 and F4.

  17. Urine-Based Nested PCR for the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A Comparative Study Between HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi Makiani, Mahin; Davoodian, Parivash; Baghershiroodi, Mahnaz; Nejatizadeh, Abdol Azim; Fakkhar, Farideh; Zangeneh, Mehrangiz; Jahangiri, Nadia

    2016-08-01

    While tuberculosis (TB) can be diagnosed by microscopy and culture, the sensitivity of Ziehl-Neelsen staining is variable and culture results require 4 - 8 weeks to be determined. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its modifications, including nested PCR, might be promising methods for the rapid diagnosis of TB. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of nested PCR on urine samples of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and -negative patients with different manifestations of clinical TB. In a prospective study, three early-morning urine samples from 100 patients with pulmonary TB (PTB) or extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) were evaluated using a molecular target with insertion element IS6110, specific to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, and nested PCR was performed. The results were analyzed with SPSS version 22. A total of 100 patients, including 74 (74%) with PTB and 26 (26%) with EPTB, were enrolled. Positive smears were seen in 38 patients (38%). Lymph nodes were the most commonly involved organ in 14 of the 26 (53.8%) EPTB patients (13.5%). Seven (23.1%) of the EPTB patients were HIV-positive. Urine PCR was positive in only 28 patients (28%). Seven HIV-positive patients with PTB showed positive urine PCR results. Moreover, PCR results were positive in only one of the seven HIV-positive subjects with EPTB. Positive PCR results were found in 20 of the 73 HIV-negative patients (27.4%) and in 8 of the 27 HIV-positive patients (29.6%). Therefore, there was no significant difference between the HIV-negative and HIV-positive patients for urine PCR (sensitivity 29.6%, specificity 72.6%; positive and negative predictive values 28% and 72%, respectively; P = 0.138). Nested PCR showed the same sensitivity in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. It can be applied as a rapid technique for the diagnosis of TB.

  18. Safety of Intravenous Thrombolysis within 4.5 h of symptom onset in patients with negative post-treatment stroke imaging for cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Elias A; Khalid, Aisha; Zand, Ramin

    2011-08-01

    Patients with stroke symptoms but negative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) might have transient ischemic attacks (TIA) or stroke mimics. Brain DWI is important for the diagnosis of cerebral infarction but it is not available before thrombolysis for most patients to avoid treatment delay. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of IV thrombolysis in patients with a negative post-treatment DWI for cerebral infarction. We conducted a retrospective study of 89 patients treated with IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) within 4.5 h after stroke symptom onset. The patients were identified in our acute stroke registry from January 2009 to September 2010. Information on patients' demographics, clinical characteristics, neuroimaging, treatment complications, and outcomes was obtained and analyzed. Out of 89 patients, 23 patients (26%) had a negative DWI on follow-up stroke imaging. Fourteen patients had a TIA and nine patients had a stroke mimic, including Todd's paralysis, complicated migraine, and somatoform disorder. We found significant differences between patients with a positive and a negative DWI in mean age (62 years vs. 52 years; P scale score (11 points versus 6 points; P negative DWI had symptomatic or asymptomatic ICH. Our results suggest that the administration of IV rt-PA within the first 4.5 h of symptom onset in patients with suspected ischemic stroke is safe even when post-treatment DWI does not demonstrate cerebral infarction.

  19. Intra-Arterial Treatment in Patients with Acute Massive Gastrointestinal Bleeding after Endoscopic Failure: Comparisons between Positive versus Negative Contrast Extravasation Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Wei Chou; Liu, Chang Hsien; Hsu, Hsian He; Huang, Guo Shu; Hsieh, Tasi Yuan; Tsai, Shin Hung; Hsieh, Chung Bao; Yu, Chin Yung; Tung, Ho Jui

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether treatment outcome is associated with visualization of contrast extravasation in patients with acute massive gastrointestinal bleeding after endoscopic failure. From January 2007 to December 2009, patients that experienced a first attack of acute gastrointestinal bleeding after failure of initial endoscopy were referred to our interventional department for intra-arterial treatment. We enrolled 79 patients and divided them into two groups: positive and negative extravasation. For positive extravasation, patients were treated by coil embolization; and in negative extravasation, patients were treated with intra-arterial vasopressin infusion. The two groups were compared for clinical parameters, hemodynamics, laboratory findings, endoscopic characteristics, and mortality rates. Forty-eight patients had detectable contrast extravasation (positive extravasation), while 31 patients did not (negative extravasation). Fifty-six patients survived from this bleeding episode (overall clinical success rate, 71%). An elevation of hemoglobin level was observed in the both two groups; significantly greater in the positive extravasation group compared to the negative extravasation group. Although these patients were all at high risk of dying, the 90-day mortality rate was significantly lower in the positive extravasation than in the negative extravasation (20% versus 42%, p < 0.05). A multivariate analysis suggested that successful hemo stasis (odds ratio [OR] = 28.66) is the most important predictor affecting the mortality in the two groups of patients. Visualization of contrast extravasation on angiography usually can target the bleeding artery directly, resulting in a higher success rate to control of hemorrhage.

  20. Severity of psychosis syndrome and change of metabolic abnormality in chronic schizophrenia patients: severe negative syndrome may be related to a distinct lipid pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S-F; Hu, T-M; Lan, T-H; Chiu, H-J; Sheen, L-Y; Loh, E-W

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic abnormality is common among schizophrenia patients. Some metabolic traits were found associated with subgroups of schizophrenia patients. We examined a possible relationship between metabolic abnormality and psychosis profile in schizophrenia patients. Three hundred and seventy-two chronic schizophrenia patients treated with antipsychotics for more than 2 years were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. A set of metabolic traits was measured at scheduled checkpoints between October 2004 and September 2006. Multiple regressions adjusted for sex showed negative correlations between body mass index (BMI) and total score and all subscales; triglycerides (TG) was negatively correlated with total score and negative syndrome, while HDLC was positively correlated with negative syndrome. When sex interaction was concerned, total score was negatively correlated with BMI but not with others; negative syndrome was negatively correlated with BMI and positively with HDLC. No metabolic traits were correlated with positive syndrome or general psychopathology. Loss of body weight is a serious health problem in schizophrenia patients with severe psychosis syndrome, especially the negative syndrome. Schizophrenia patients with severe negative syndrome may have a distinct lipid pathophysiology in comparison with those who were less severe in the domain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Likelihood of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in patients with normal unenhanced CT, CSF xanthochromia on spectrophotometry and negative CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, A K; Turner, H E; Deans, K A

    2013-01-01

    Patients with suspected subarachnoid haemorrhage, a normal noncontrast computed tomography (CT) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evidence of haemoglobin breakdown products often undergo CT angiography (CTA). If this is normal, then invasive catheter angiography may be offered. In current clinical practice, haemoglobin breakdown products are detected by spectrophotometry rather than visible xanthochromia, and CTA is performed on multidetector scanners. The aim of this study was to determine if such patients should still have a catheter angiography, given the associated risks. Patients positive for CSF spectrophotometry (n=26) were retrospectively identified from the clinical biochemistry information system and imaging data from the electronic radiology records were reviewed. Discharge letters were consulted to relate the biochemistry and radiology results to the final diagnosis. 15 patients with CT angiography were found. Nine patients had normal CT angiography. No causative aneurysms had been missed. One patient had small, coincidental aneurysms missed on initial reading of the CTA. The likelihood of a clinically significant aneurysm in a patient who is CT negative, lumbar puncture positive and CTA negative is low. Double reporting of negative CT angiograms may be advisable.

  2. HBeAg and not genotypes predicts viral load in patients with hepatitis B in Denmark: A nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Henrik; Andersen, Stig; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    To explore the influence of HBV genotype on viral load in patients with HBV infection, and to investigate the relation to gender, age and country of origin or antibodies against hepatitis Be antigen (anti-HBe).......To explore the influence of HBV genotype on viral load in patients with HBV infection, and to investigate the relation to gender, age and country of origin or antibodies against hepatitis Be antigen (anti-HBe)....

  3. HBeAg and not genotypes predicts viral load in patients with hepatitis B in Denmark: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Andersen, Stig; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    To explore the influence of HBV genotype on viral load in patients with HBV infection, and to investigate the relation to gender, age and country of origin or antibodies against hepatitis Be antigen (anti-HBe).......To explore the influence of HBV genotype on viral load in patients with HBV infection, and to investigate the relation to gender, age and country of origin or antibodies against hepatitis Be antigen (anti-HBe)....

  4. Diagnostic performance of a biomarker panel as a negative predictor for acute appendicitis in adult ED patients with abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckins, David S; Copeland, Karen; Self, Wesley; Vance, Cheryl; Hendry, Phyllis; Borg, Keith; Gogain, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the APPY1TM biomarker panel, previously described for use in pediatric patients, for identifying adult ED patients with abdominal pain who are at low risk of acute appendicitis. This study prospectively enrolled subjects >18years of age presenting to seven U.S. emergency departments with pain suggesting possible acute appendicitis. The APPY1 panel was performed on blood samples drawn from each patient at the time of initial evaluation and results were correlated with the final diagnosis either positive or negative for acute appendicitis. 431 patients were enrolled with 422 completing all aspects of the study. The APPY1 biomarker panel exhibited a sensitivity of 97.5% (95% CI, 91.3-99.3%), a negative predictive value of 98.4% (95% CI, 94.4-99.6%), a negative likelihood ratio of 0.07 (95% CI, 0.02-0.27), with a specificity of 36.5% (95% CI, 31.6-41.8%) for acute appendicitis. The panel correctly identified 125 of 342 (36.6%) patients who did not have appendicitis with 2 (2.5%) false negatives. The CT utilization rate in this population was 72.7% (307/422). Of 307 CT scans, 232 were done for patients who did not have appendicitis and 79 (34%) of these patients were correctly identified as negative with "low risk" biomarker panel results, representing 26% (79/307) of all CT scans performed. This biomarker panel exhibited high sensitivity and negative predictive value for acute appendicitis in this prospective adult cohort, thereby potentially reducing the dependence on CT for the evaluation of possible acute appendicitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gram-negative bacteria account for main differences between faecal microbiota from patients with ulcerative colitis and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Brynskov, J.; Steenholdt, C.

    2012-01-01

    process of the gut mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the faecal microbiota in patients either with UC in remission (n=6) or with active disease (n=6), and in healthy controls (n=6). The composition of Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria was examined. Antigenic structures...... of Gram-negative bacteria such as lipopolysaccharides have been related to the inflammatory responses and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Dice cluster analysis and principal component analysis of faecal microbiota profiles obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative...... PCR, respectively, revealed that the composition of faecal bacteria from UC patients with active disease differed from the healthy controls and that this difference should be ascribed to Gram-negative bacteria. The analysis did not show any clear grouping of UC patients in remission. Even...

  6. More negative self-esteem and inferior coping strategies among patients diagnosed with IBS compared with patients without IBS--a case-control study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzinsky, Ewa; Walter, Susanna; Viktorsson, Lisa; Carlsson, Ann-Kristin; Jones, Michael P; Faresjö, Åshild

    2015-01-28

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, relapsing gastrointestinal disorder, that affects approximately 10% of the general population and the majority are diagnosed in primary care. IBS has been reported to be associated with altered psychological and cognitive functioning such as mood disturbances, somatization, catastrophizing or altered visceral interoception by negative emotions and stress. The aim was to investigate the psychosocial constructs of self-esteem and sense of coherence among IBS patients compared to non-IBS patients in primary care. A case-control study in primary care setting among IBS patients meeting the ROME III criteria (n = 140) compared to controls i.e. non-IBS patients (n = 213) without any present or previous gastrointestinal complaints. The data were collected through self-reported questionnaires of psychosocial factors. IBS-patients reported significantly more negative self-esteem (p IBS-cases were also less likely to report 'good' health status (p IBS patients remained statistically significant (p = 0.02), as did the lower scores for sense of coherence among IBS cases (p = 0.04). The more frequently reported negative self-esteem and inferior coping strategies among IBS patients found in this study suggest the possibility that psychological therapies might be helpful for these patients. However these data do not indicate the causal direction of the observed associations. More research is therefore warranted to determine whether these psychosocial constructs are more frequent in IBS patients.

  7. A comparison of hepatic steatosis index, controlled attenuation parameter and ultrasound as noninvasive diagnostic tools for steatosis in chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Lu, Wei; Li, Ping; Shen, Feng; Mi, Yu-Qiang; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the value of noninvasive tools for diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Consecutive treatment-naïve patients with CHB with body mass index less than 30kg/m 2 who underwent liver biopsy, ultrasound and FibroScan ® were enrolled. The diagnostic performance of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP), hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and ultrasound for hepatic steatosis compared with liver biopsy was assessed. The areas under receiver operating characteristics curves (AUROCs) were calculated to determine the diagnostic efficacy, with comparisons using the DeLong test. CAP and HSI accuracies were significantly higher than that of ultrasound to detect patients with biopsy-proven mild steatosis (S1, 65.3%, 56.5%, respectively, vs. 17.7%, χ 2 =46.305, 31.736, both Psteatosis (92.3%, 100%, respectively, vs. 53.8%, χ 2 =4.887, 7.800, P=0.037, 0.007, respectively). Both CAP and HSI had lower underestimation rates of steatosis grade than ultrasound (12%, 14.8%, respectively, vs. 29.5%, χ 2 =9.765, 6.452; Phepatic steatosis than HSI and ultrasound in patients with CHB, but further studies are needed to reduce the overestimation rates. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synergistic effect of 5-HT2A receptor gene and MAOA gene on the negative emotion of patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huirong; Ren, Yuming; Zhao, Ning; Wang, Yali; Li, Shuying; Cui, He; Zhang, Sijia; Zhang, Jianhua

    2014-07-01

    To analyse the synergistic effect of polymorphism of the tandem repeat sequence u-VNTR of 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT2A) receptor gene and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene on the negative emotion in frontal lobe of patients with depression through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning was performed for 72 patients with depression and 70 gender, age-matched healthy people with physical examination under negative emotion recognition task. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was adopted to analyse genotype. The superior, middle and inferior gyrus of bilateral frontal lobe was regarded as the brain region of interest, and then the difference of activation intensity in frontal lobe subregion between control groups and patient groups with different genotypes, and the interaction between the two kinds of polymorphism were compared. The activation intensity in right frontal middle gyrus of patients with CC genotype increased obviously compared with TT and TC genotype patient groups and TT genotype control group (Peffect of the two genotypes on the activation abnormality of negative emotion recognition in right frontal middle gyrus (F = 6·18, P = 0·029). The negative activation in right frontal middle gyrus of patients with CC+H genotypes increased most obviously (Peffect on the activity abnormality when recognizing negative emotion in right frontal middle gyrus of patients with depression. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. D2-40 negative pyogenic granuloma-like Kaposi's sarcoma: Diagnostic features and histogenetic hypothesis of an uncommon skin tumor in HIV-negative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabibi, D; Giannone, A G; Guarnotta, C; Schillaci, O; Franco, V

    2015-07-01

    Pyogenic granuloma-like Kaposi's sarcoma (PGLKS) is a recently described skin tumor showing features both of pyogenic granuloma (PG) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). The differential diagnosis is often challenging. We reviewed a series of 50 PG and 23 Ks located on distal extremities with the aid of an immunohistochemical panel comprising CD34, CD31, FVIII, SMA, D2-40, HHV8. After revision, 6/50 PG lesions previously diagnosed as PG, showed positive immunostaining for LNA1-HHV8 and focal positivity for CD31 and FVIII in the endothelial cells of the proliferating vessels, with some SMA positive pericytes. D2-40, a marker of lymphatic endothelium positive in KS, stained negatively. These lesions were renamed PGLKS. Of note, in our series, PGLKS represented the only form of KS localized in the hand; all the patients were HIV-negative, older than PG patients, with a prevalence for male gender. PGLKS and PG need a different management and a follow-up is advisable for PGLKS, as for the other variants of KS. To date, D2-40 negative immunostaining has not yet been reported in PGLKS and should not lead to a misdiagnosis of PG. The morphological similarities with PG and the immunohistochemical findings, showing a defective phenotype of the neoplastic cells, suggest a histogenetic hypothesis in which D2-40 negative PGLKS could represent an early stage of HHV8 infection of a pre-existing PG, whose vessels loose progressively their blood vascular markers but have not still acquired the lymphatic ones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for CTX-M gram-negative bacteria in hospitalized patients at a tertiary care hospital in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonda, Tolbert; Kumburu, Happiness; van Zwetselaar, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Emergence and spread of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing gram-negative bacteria, mainly due to CTX-M, is a major global public health problem. Patients infected with ESBL-producing gram-negative bacteria have an increased risk of treatment failure and death. We investigated...... 2015 were fully genome sequenced. The prevalence of ESBL-producing gram-negative bacteria was determined based on the presence of blaCTX-M. The odds ratio (OR) and risk factors for ESBL-producing gram-negative bacteria due to CTX-M were assessed using logistic regression models. The overall CTX......-M prevalence (95% CI) was 13.6% (10.1–18.1). Adjusted for other factors, the OR of CTX-M gram-negative bacteria for patients previously hospitalized was 0.26 (0.08–0.88), p = 0.031; the OR for patients currently on antibiotics was 4.02 (1.29–12.58), p = 0.017; the OR for patients currently on ceftriaxone was 0...

  11. Effects of handedness (left vs right) and cannabis abuse on intermanual coordination and negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients of the paranoid type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorynia, Inge; Schwaiger, Markus

    2011-09-01

    Intermanual coordination as an index of interhemispheric transfer and negative symptoms were investigated in 50 left- and 42 right-handed schizophrenic inpatients of the paranoid type, also including drug abusers. The primary objective was to show that there were higher values in intermanual coordination and fewer manifestations of negative symptoms in the left-handed compared to the right-handed patients. This assumption was based on previous studies. Most importantly, right- and left-handed patients showed a different behaviour in intermanual coordination, when the duration of illness was taken into consideration. Thus, long-term left-handed paranoid patients performed better in intermanual coordination and showed fewer manifestations of negative symptoms than did long-term right-handed patients. These results were true for the large group of all patients, and among them for the subgroup of patients without drug abuse. Consequently, higher scores in intermanual coordination in left-handed patients may be related to a better interhemispheric crosstalk resulting in less pronounced negative symptoms. Secondary objectives assessed by explorative data analysis included the effects of cannabis abuse. While cannabis abuse may be more prevalent in left-handed patients, its effects may be more pronounced in right-handed patients, scoring higher in intermanual coordination and lower in manifestations of negative symptoms.

  12. Detection of MPL exon10 mutations in 103 Chinese patients with JAK2V617F-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuhua; Qi, Xiling; Tan, Yanhong; Xu, Zhifang; Xu, Aining; Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Hongwei

    2011-06-15

    JAK2V617F mutation has been reported in 90% of patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and about 50% of patients with essential thromobocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Recently, acquired mutations in the transmembrane-juxtamembrane region of MPL (MPLW515 mutations) have been reported in approximately 5% of JAK2V617F-negative PMF and about 1% of all cases of ET. MPL is the receptor for thrombopoietin that regulates the production of platelets by bone marrow. It is likely that some mutations more closely related to ET in MPL exon10 may have been missed by current assays. We inferred that there might be other mutations in MPL exon10 for MPN patients in addition to MPLW515 mutations. To investigate its mutation types and prevalence in Chinese patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), we performed mutation detection on MPL exon10 in 103 JAK2V617F-negative MPN patients by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) combined with sequencing. As a result, one previously unrecognized MPL mutation (12-bp in-frame insertion) was identified in one patient with ET in addition to an MPLW515K mutation identified in one PMF patient. This confirms our hypothesis that BCR/ABL negative and JAK2V617F-negative MPN patients have other mutations besides W515 mutation in MPL exon10 and mutations other than single nucleotide exchange also exist. In addition, MPL mutation was associated with Chinese MPN patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Negative and positive affect are independently associated with patient-reported health status following percutaneous coronary intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Versteeg (Henneke); S.S. Pedersen (Susanne); R.A.M. Erdman (Ruud); J.W.I. van Nierop; P.P.T. de Jaegere (Peter); R.T. van Domburg (Ron)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: We examined the association between negative and positive affect and 12-month health status in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents. Methods: Consecutive PCI patients (n = 562) completed the Global Mood Scale at baseline to

  14. Relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism of chemokine CXCL10 G-210A and the chronicity and severity of HBV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ming LIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP in the promoter of chemokine CXCL10 G-201A,and explore the relationship between the SNP and the chronicity and severity of hepatitis B virus(HBV infection.Methods Blood samples were collected from 792 patients with HBV infection,including 200 with acute hepatitis B(AHB,200 with mild/moderate chronic hepatitis B(CHB-M,192 with severe chronic hepatitis B(CHB-S and 200 with acute liver failure of chronic hepatitis(ACLF,and 300 healthy people were enrolled as normal control(NC.DNA were extracted and subjected to PCR amplification of fragment containing C-1596 site that links with G-201 variation,followed by restriction fragment length polymerase(RFLP analysis.Simultaneously,400 samples were randomly extracted from various groups for direct sequencing of G-201 variation.The consistency of SNP typing results of the two methods was analyzed.Results Variation rates of G-201A were 17.77% for AHB group,25.26% for CHB-M group,26.59% for CHB-S group,21.28% for ACLF group,and 13.82% for NC group.The overall P value obtained from the general χ2 test among the 5 groups was 0.0037.The correlation test(P=0.0015 demonstrated that the variation rate was related to different disease status,and the linear trend test(P=0.0029,Z=-2.9748 indicated an increasing trend of variation rate with the disease progression.Paired comparison showed that the differences in variation rate between CHB-M and NC(P=0.0024,CHB-S and NC(P=0.0007,ACLF and NC(P=0.0428,as well as CHB-S and CHB(P=0.0488 were statistically significant.Direct PCR sequencing showed 98.68% identity with the results from PCR-RFLP.Kappa test(U=58.425,P < 0.05 indicated that the consistency of the two assays met the statistical requirements.Conclusion The G-201A variation in CXCL10 promoter is related to chronicity of HBV infection,and the relations between the variation and the severity of HBV infection remains to be further clarified.

  15. The loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP as an indicator of serotonergic dysfunction in patients with predominant schizophrenic negative symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wyss

    Full Text Available Besides the influence of dopaminergic neurotransmission on negative symptoms in schizophrenia, there is evidence that alterations of serotonin (5-HT system functioning also play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of these disabling symptoms. From post mortem and genetic studies on patients with negative symptoms a 5-HT dysfunction is documented. In addition atypical neuroleptics and some antidepressants improve negative symptoms via serotonergic action. So far no research has been done to directly clarify the association between the serotonergic functioning and the extent of negative symptoms. Therefore, we examined the status of brain 5-HT level in negative symptoms in schizophrenia by means of the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP. The LDAEP provides a well established and non-invasive in vivo marker of the central 5-HT activity. We investigated 13 patients with schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms treated with atypical neuroleptics and 13 healthy age and gender matched controls with a 32-channel EEG. The LDAEP of the N1/P2 component was evaluated by dipole source analysis and single electrode estimation at Cz. Psychopathological parameters, nicotine use and medication were assessed to control for additional influencing factors. Schizophrenic patients showed significantly higher LDAEP in both hemispheres than controls. Furthermore, the LDAEP in the right hemisphere in patients was related to higher scores in scales assessing negative symptoms. A relationship with positive symptoms was not found. These data might suggest a diminished central serotonergic neurotransmission in patients with predominant negative symptoms.

  16. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis B Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Known As HBV Tests Hep B anti-HBs Hepatitis B Surface Antibody HBsAg Hepatitis B Surface Antigen HBeAg ...

  17. A comparison of alcohol positive and alcohol negative trauma patients requiring an emergency laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Cedric; Weinberg, Janice; Narsule, Chaitan K; Brahmbhatt, Tejal S

    2018-07-01

    The effect of alcohol exposure on patients undergoing a laparotomy for trauma is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of morbidity and mortality between alcohol positive and alcohol negative trauma patients who required emergent laparotomies using the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). A retrospective database analysis was performed using 28,354 NTDB incident trauma cases, from 2007 through 2012, who had been tested for alcohol and who required abdominal operations (using ICD-9-CM procedure codes) within 24h of presentation. Variables used: age, gender, admission year, alcohol presence, ISS, GCS, injury type & mechanism, discharge status, hospital LOS, ICU stay, ventilator use, and hospital complications. In adjusted analyses, there were no statistically significant differences between the alcohol positive and alcohol negative cohorts when evaluating in-hospital mortality (OR, 0.93; 95% CI: 0.84-1.03), likelihood of earlier hospital discharge (HR, 1.02; 95% CI: 0.99-1.05), and the all-inclusive category of in-hospital complications (OR, 1.04; 95% CI: 0.97-1.12). After adjusting for age, gender, admission year, ISS, GCS, and injury mechanism, there were no major differences between the alcohol positive and alcohol negative cohorts when it came to in-hospital mortality, likelihood of earlier hospital discharge, and most of the in-hospital complications measured among adult trauma patients requiring emergency laparotomies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hemolysis During Open-Heart Surgery With Vacuum-Assisted Venous Drainage at Different Negative Pressures in Pediatric Patients Weighing Less Than 10 kilograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jae Gun; Lee, Jinkwon; Park, Minkyoung; Seo, Yu-Jin; Lee, Chang-Ha

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the degree of hemolysis during vacuum-assisted venous drainage at different negative pressures to identify an adequate negative pressure that provides effective venous drainage without significant hemolysis in open-heart surgery in children weighing less than 10 kg. Patients weighing less than 10 kg who underwent surgery for ventricular septal defect or atrial septal defect from 2011 to 2014 were enrolled. We used one of four negative pressures (20, 30, 40, or 60 mm Hg) for each patient. We measured haptoglobin, plasma hemoglobin, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels in the patients' blood three times perioperatively and determined the potential correlation between the change in each parameter with the level of negative pressure. Forty-six patients were enrolled in this study (mean age: 7.1 ± 7.0 months, mean body weight: 6.1 ± 1.8 kg). There were no significant differences according to the degree of negative pressure with respect to patient age, body weight, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time, aorta cross-clamping time, blood flow during CPB, or lowest body temperature. All parameters that we measured reflected progression of hemolysis during CPB; however, the degree of change in the parameters did not correlate with negative pressure. In pediatric patients weighing less than 10 kg, the change in the degree of hemolysis did not differ with the amount of negative pressure. We may apply negative pressures up to 60 mm Hg without increasing the risk of hemolysis, with almost same the level of hemolysis using negative pressures of 20, 30, and 40 mm Hg for effective venous drainage and an ideal operative field during open-heart surgery.

  19. The impact of chronic hepatitis B on quality of life: a multinational study of utilities from infected and uninfected persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Adrian R; Kowdley, Kris V; Iloeje, Uchenna; Tafesse, Eskinder; Mukherjee, Jayanti; Gish, Robert; Bzowej, Natalie; Briggs, Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a condition that results in substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide because of progressive liver damage. Investigators undertaking economic evaluations of new therapeutic agents require estimates of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Recently, evidence has begun to accumulate that differences in cultural backgrounds have a quantifiable impact on perceptions of health. The objective was to elicit utilities for six health states that occur after infection with the hepatitis B virus from infected and uninfected respondents living in jurisdictions with low and with high CHB endemicity. Standard gamble utilities were elicited from hepatitis patients and uninfected respondents using an interviewer-administered survey in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Spain, Hong Kong, and mainland China. Generalized linear models were used to the effect on utilities of current health, age and sex, jurisdiction and, for infected respondents, current disease state. The sample included 534 CHB-infected patients and 600 uninfected respondents. CHB and compensated cirrhosis had a moderate impact on HRQOL with utilities ranging from 0.68 to 0.80. Decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma had a stronger impact with utilities ranging from 0.35 to 0.41. Significant variation was observed between countries, with both types of respondents in mainland China and Hong Kong reporting systematically lower utilities. Health states related to CHB infection have substantial reductions in HRQOL and the utilities reported in this study provide valuable information for comparing new treatment options. The observed intercountry differences suggest that economic evaluations may benefit from country-specific utility estimates. The extent that systematic intercountry differences in utilities hold true for other infectious and chronic diseases remains an open question and has considerable implications for the proper conduct and interpretation of

  20. Peginterferon lambda for the treatment of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B: A randomized phase 2b study (LIRA-B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Henry L Y; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Chang, Ting-Tsung; Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Wong, David; Coffin, Carla S; Lim, Seng Gee; Chen, Pei-Jer; Janssen, Harry L A; Marcellin, Patrick; Serfaty, Lawrence; Zeuzem, Stefan; Cohen, David; Critelli, Linda; Xu, Dong; Wind-Rotolo, Megan; Cooney, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Peginterferon lambda-1a (lambda) is a Type-III interferon, which, like alfa interferons, has antiviral activity in vitro against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV); however, lambda has a more limited extra-hepatic receptor distribution. This phase 2b study (LIRA-B) evaluated lambda in patients with chronic HBV infection. Adult HBeAg+ interferon-naive patients were randomized (1:1) to weekly lambda (180 μg) or peginterferon alfa-2a (alfa) for 48 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was HBeAg seroconversion at week 24 post-treatment; lambda non-inferiority was demonstrated if the 80% confidence interval (80% CI) lower bound was >-15%. Baseline characteristics were balanced across groups (lambda N=80; alfa N=83). Early on-treatment declines in HBV-DNA and qHBsAg through week 24 were greater with lambda. HBeAg seroconversion rates were comparable for lambda and alfa at week 48 (17.5% vs. 16.9%, respectively); however lambda non-inferiority was not met at week 24 post-treatment (13.8% vs. 30.1%, respectively; lambda vs. alfa 80% CI lower bound -24%). Results for other key secondary endpoints (virologic, serologic, biochemical) and post hoc combined endpoints (HBV-DNA lambda). Most on-treatment flares occurred early (weeks 4-12), associated with HBV-DNA decline; all post-treatment flares were preceded by HBV-DNA rise. On-treatment, lambda showed greater early effects on HBV-DNA and qHBsAg, and comparable serologic/virologic responses at end-of-treatment. However, post-treatment, alfa-associated HBeAg seroconversion rates were higher, and key secondary results mostly favored alfa. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01204762. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Communication subjective assessments of patients undergoing compulsory treatment with the severity of negative symptoms and cognitive functioning level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabanov T.N.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the relationship of subjective assessments of the mentally ill with the severity of negative symptoms and cognitive functioning level. The features of patients perception of various aspects of compulsory treatment and subjective satisfaction with treatment. In a study of 94 male patients with a diagnosis of organic mental disorder and schizophrenia was used diagnostic system, consisting of patopsihologicheskogo study, formal survey map, the scale of assessment of negative symptoms SANS, questionnaire symptom levels SCL-90, self-existing problems, as well as - in Test authoring tool sheet to treatment and hospital stay (VG Bulygin, Kabanov, TN, 2011. The differences in subjective assessments of aspects of compulsory treatment and social functioning of patients with varying degrees of severity of negative symptoms and dependence of subjective assessments of the level of cognitive functioning.

  2. Tuberculosis transmission by patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in a large cohort in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tostmann, Alma; Kik, Sandra V.; Kalisvaart, Nico A.; Sebek, Maruschka M.; Verver, Suzanne; Boeree, Martin J.; van Soolingen, Dick

    2008-01-01

    Background. Sputum smear microscopy is commonly used for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). Although patients with sputum smear-negative TB are less infectious than patients with smear-positive TB, they also contribute to TB transmission. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of TB

  3. Tuberculosis transmission by patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in a large cohort in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tostmann, A.; Kik, S.V.; Kalisvaart, N.A.; Sebek, M.M.; Verver, S.; Boeree, M.J.; Soolingen, D. van

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sputum smear microscopy is commonly used for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). Although patients with sputum smear-negative TB are less infectious than patients with smear-positive TB, they also contribute to TB transmission. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of TB

  4. Antibodies to P450IID6, SLA, PDH-E2 and BCKD-E2 in Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, M; Morshed, S A; Parveen, S; Kono, K; Matsuoka, H; Manns, M P

    1997-12-01

    Auto-antibodies specific to various antigens in chronic hepatitis (CH) have been detected but their specificities and implications were uncertain. The aims of the present study were to investigate the frequency and the significance of seropositivity of antibodies to P450IID6 or liver/kidney microsome 1 (LKM1), soluble liver antigen (SLA), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) in 188 Japanese patients with different forms of CH by western blot or enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Anti-LKM1 was also measured by indirect immunofluorescent test. Anti-P450IID6 was found in 6/188 (3.2%) CH patients including 5/104 (4.8%) with hepatitis C virus (C) infection and 1/12 (8.3%) CH-C patients with antibodies to nuclear and smooth muscle antigens and hypergammaglobulinaemia (> 2.5 g/dL). This patient was the only one diagnosed with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). All CH patients with hepatitis B (B), hepatitis non-B non-C (NBNC) and AIH were seronegative for anti-LKM1. Antibodies to soluble liver antigen were found in two of 188 (1%) patients, one with AIH and one with CH-B. Anti-BCKD-E2 but not anti-PDH-E2 was found in four patients (2.5%), one with AIH, two with CH-C, and one with NBNC. There was no obvious difference in age, sex ratio and laboratory findings in patients with or without anti-SLA and anti-BCKD-E2. Antibodies to P450IID6, SLA, PDH-E2 and BCKD-E2 are uncommon in adult CH-C, CH-B, CH-NBNC and AIH patients in Japan. Some of these patients positive for auto-antibodies appear to have autoimmune features and might require a careful follow up. The heterogeneity of these antibodies in CH preclude further justification for subtyping of AIH by the presence of the distinct auto-antibodies.

  5. Reviewing the Dissociative Symptoms in Patients With Schizophreniaand their Association With Positive and Negative Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoreishi, Abolfazl; Shajari, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to clarify dissociative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and its association with negative and positive symptom of schizophrenia. Methods: Based on the 4th edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria, 80 schizophrenic subjects were randomly selected from patients who referred to the clinics of psychiatry hospital in Kerman, Iran. Eighty non-schizophrenic patients were chosen as the control group. Both groups were...

  6. Negative captopril renography on patients with renin mediated hypertension due to page kidney and reninoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung, B.C.K.; Wong, K.W.; Fan, W.C.; Chan, J.C.S.; Lo, S.S.S.

    1999-01-01

    Through a mechanism similar to renal artery stenosis, patients with reninoma and page kidney also suffered from renin mediated hypertension. Captopril renograms performed on our patients with the latter two conditions, however, did not yield diagnostic findings. Therefore, equivocal or negative captopril renography cannot serve to rule out conditions with elevated renin other than renal artery stenosis

  7. Effects of negative T wave in electrocardiography on prognosis of post-myocardial infarction patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Karbasi-Afshar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Negative T (NT wave in electrocardiography (ECG is one of the important factors in determining short- and long-term outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI. In this study, we compared clinical and paraclinical findings in post-MI patients according to presence or absence of NT wave. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on patients with acute ST elevation MI who presented to Shahid Modares Hospital (Tehran, Iran during 2009-10. After undergoing streptokinase therapy, demographic characteristics and ECG and exercise test findings of the subjects were compared based on the presence or absence of NT wave. RESULTS: Overall, 116 patients including 69 cases with NT wave (NT group and 47 cases without NT wave (PT group were enrolled (mean age: 53.7 ± 7.1 vs. 54.1 ± 6.8 years old. Mortality rate during the first five days was 13% in the NT group and 29% in the PT group (P < 0.05. Ejection fraction values of the NT group were significantly higher than the PT group (P = 0.005. However, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter of the NT group was significantly less than the PT group (P = 0.005. Moreover, ST segment depression was significantly less frequent in the NT group compared to the PT group. CONCLUSION: Patients with ST elevation MI accompanying with NT wave in ECG versus have better prognosis and myocardial function than similar patients without NT wave. Therefore, invasive procedures should be recommended for patients without NT wave.   Keywords: Echocardiography, Exercise Test, Myocardial Infarction, Negative T Wave, Echocardiography

  8. MDR-TB Outbreak among HIV-Negative Tunisian Patients followed during 11 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira Dekhil

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB outbreaks that evolve, from the outset, in a context strictly negative for HIV infection deserve special consideration since they reflect the true intrinsic epidemic potential of the causative strain. To our knowledge, the long-term evolution of such exceptional outbreaks and the treatment outcomes for the involved patients has never been reported hitherto. Here we provide a thorough description, over an 11-year period, of an MDR-TB outbreak that emerged and expanded in an HIV-negative context, Northern Tunisia.From October 2001 to June 2011, the MDR-TB outbreak involved 48 HIV-negative individuals that are mainly young (mean age 31.09 yrs; 89.6% male and noninstitutionalized. Drug susceptibility testing coupled to mutational analysis revealed that initial transmission involved an isolate that was simultaneously resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and streptomycin. The causative Haarlem3-ST50 outbreak strain expanded mainly as an 11-banded IS6110 RFLP profile (77.1%, from which a 12-banded subclone evolved. After undergoing a 2-year treatment with second-line drugs, 22 (45.8% patients were cured and 3 (6.2% completed treatment, thus yielding an overall treatment success rate of 52.1%. Among the patients that experienced unfavorable treatment outcomes, 10 (20.8% failed treatment, 3 (6.2% were lost to follow-up, 5 (10.4% died, and 5 (10.4% could not be evaluated. Poor adherence to treatment was found to be the main independent predictor of unfavorable outcomes (HR: 9.15; 95% CI 1.72-48.73; P = 0.014. Intriguingly, the evolved 12-banded subclone proved significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes (HR: 4.90; 95% CI 1.04-23.04, P = 0.044. High rate of fatality and relapse was further demonstrated at the long-term, since 70% of those whose treatment failed have died, and 24% among those deemed successfully treated have relapsed.Taken together, the data obtained in this study indicate that MDR

  9. Impact of hepatitis B virus co-infection on response to highly active antiretroviral treatment and outcome in HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, L H; Weis, N; Skinhøj, P

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on viral suppression, immune recovery and mortality in HIV-1 infected patients on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) is a matter of debate. The impact of HBeAg status is unknown. METHODS: This prospective cohort study.......6%). Study endpoints were viral load, CD4 cell count and mortality. RESULTS: HBV co-infection had no impact on response to HAART regarding viral suppression or immune recovery. HBV co-infection was associated with several outcomes: overall mortality [mortality rate ratio (MRR) 1.5; 95% confidence interval...... (CI) 1.1-2.1], liver-related mortality (MRR 4.0; 95% CI 1.6-9.9) and AIDS-related deaths (MRR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0-3.0). The presence of HBeAg did not influence patients' response to HAART. CONCLUSIONS: In HIV patients, chronic HBV infection has no impact on response to HAART concerning viral load...

  10. ethambutol in the treatment of patients with chronic pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-02-13

    Feb 13, 1971 ... (RAND), E. BEHYNA, M.D. (BUDAPEST), AND E. GLATTHAA~, M.B.~ CH.B.,. D.P.H.. (PRET.), Medical Research Council Tuberculosi~ Research Group, Onderstepoon; Rletfontem /fosPltal,. Johannesburg; Zondenvater Hospital, Cullman; and Tshepong SANTA Settlement, Pretolla associated and usually ...

  11. Molecular characterization of subgenotype A1 (subgroup Aa) of hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramvis, Anna; Kew, Michael C

    2007-07-01

    Subgenotypes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) were first recognized after a unique segment of genotype A was identified when sequencing the preS2/S region of southern African HBV isolates. Originally named subgroup A', subsequently called subgroup Aa (for Africa) or subgenotype A1, this subgenotype is found in South Africa, Malawi, Uganda, Tanzania, Somalia, Yemen, India, Nepal, the Philippines and Brazil. The relatively higher mean nucleotide divergence of subgenotype A1 suggests that it has been endemic and has a long evolutionary history in the populations where it prevails. Distinctive sequence characteristics could account for the high hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) negativity and low HBV DNA levels in carriers of this subgenotype. Substitutions or mutations can reduce HBeAg expression at three levels: (i) 1762T1764A atthe transcriptional level; (ii) substitutions at nt 1809-1812 at the translational level; and (iii) 1862T at the post-translational level. Co-existence of 1762T1764A and nt 1809-1812 mutations reduces HBeAg expression in an additive manner. In addition, subgenotype A1 has unique sequence alterations in the transcriptional regulatory elements and the polymerase coding region. The distinct sequence characteristics of subgenotype A1 may contribute to the 4.5-fold increased risk of heptocellular carcinoma in HBV carriers infected with genotype A, which is entirely attributable to subgenotype A1.

  12. Success/failure condition influences attribution of control, negative affect, and shame among patients with depression in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Si-Ning; Zainal, Hani; Tang, Catherine S; Tong, Eddie M; Ho, Cyrus S; Ho, Roger C

    2017-08-02

    There remains a paucity of research on control attribution and depression within Asian populations. This study examines: (1) Success/Failure condition as a moderator between depression and negative affect or shame, and (2) differences in control attribution between patients with depression and healthy controls in Singapore. Seventy one patients with depression and 71 healthy controls went through a digit-span memory task where they were randomized into either the Success or Failure condition. Participants in the Success condition had to memorize and recall 5-digit strings, while participants in the Failure condition did the same for 12-digit strings. They then completed self-report measures of negative affect, shame, and attribution of control. One-way ANCOVA was performed to examine task condition as a moderator of association between mental health status and post-task negative affect or shame. Test of simple effects was carried out on significant interactions. Sign test and Mann-Whitney U test were employed to investigate differences in attribution of control. Mental health status and Success/Failure condition had significant effects on reported negative affect and shame. Healthy controls reported less post-task negative affect and shame in the Success than in the Failure condition while patients with depression reported similar levels of post-task negative affect and shame in both conditions. However, these differences were not significant in the test of simple effects. In addition, healthy controls felt a stronger sense of personal control in success than in failure and were more likely to blame external factors in failure than in success. Conversely, patients with depression were more inclined to credit external factors in success than in failure and ascribed greater personal control in failure than in success. The results suggest that successful conditions may not necessitate the reduction of negative affect in Asians with depression, indicating possible

  13. Spanish validation of the Negative Symptom Assessment-16 (NSA-16) in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alvarez, Leticia; Garcia-Portilla, María Paz; Saiz, Pilar Alejandra; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Bobes-Bascaran, María Teresa; Gomar, Jesús; Muñiz, José; Bobes, Julio

    2018-04-05

    Negative symptoms are prevalent in schizophrenia and associated with a poorer outcome. Validated newer psychometric instruments could contribute to better assessment and improved treatment of negative symptoms. The Negative Symptom Assessment-16 (NSA-16) has been shown to have strong psychometric properties, but there is a need for validation in non-English languages. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the NSA-16 (Sp-NSA-16). Observational, cross-sectional validation study in a sample of 123 outpatients with schizophrenia. NSA-16, PANSS, HDRS, CGI-SCH and PSP. The results indicate appropriate psychometric properties, high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.86), convergent validity (PANSS negative scale, PANSS Marder Negative Factor and CGI-negative symptoms r values between 0.81 and 0.94) and divergent validity (PANSS positive scale and the HDRS r values between 0.10 and 0.34). In addition, the NSA-16 also exhibited discriminant validity (ROC curve=0.97, 95% CI=0.94 to 1.00; 94.3% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity). The Sp-NSA-16 is reliable and valid for measuring negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. This provides Spanish clinicians with a new tool for clinical practice and research. However, it is necessary to provide further information about its inter-rater reliability. Copyright © 2018 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. The Chances of Subsequent Cancer Detection in Patients with a PSA > 20 ng/ml and an Initial Negative Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Shaida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS–guided prostate biopsy is known to carry a significant false-negative rate, leading some patients to have multiple biopsies. We investigated cancer detection rates in patients with a PSA >20 ng/ml and a negative initial biopsy. We reviewed our database of 2396 TRUS-guided biopsies done between 1997 and 2002 in order to give a follow-up of at least 6 years. PSA, PSA density (PSAD, PSA velocity (PSAV, prostate volume, and DRE findings were analysed in relation to cancer status. Of the patients, 388 (16% had a PSA >20 ng/ml, including 99 (26% with benign biopsies. Of those, 67 were rebiopsied, including 19 (28% with cancer on the first rebiopsy and four (6% on further biopsies. PSAD, DRE, and volume significantly differed between rebiopsied patients with and without cancer (p 20 ng/ml and have an initial negative biopsy have a high chance of malignancy being detected on a second biopsy. However, if a second biopsy is also negative, then the chances of subsequent biopsies showing signs of cancer are very low if the DRE is normal and particularly if the PSAD is >0.35 ng/ml/cm3.

  15. Why should I talk about emotion? Communication patterns associated with physician discussion of patient expressions of negative emotion in hospital admission encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kristen; Cimino, Jenica E W; Arnold, Robert M; Anderson, Wendy G

    2012-10-01

    To describe hospital-based physicians' responses to patients' verbal expressions of negative emotion and identify patterns of further communication associated with different responses. Qualitative analysis of physician-patient admission encounters audio-recorded between August 2008 and March 2009 at two hospitals within a university system. A codebook was iteratively developed to identify patients' verbal expressions of negative emotion. We categorized physicians' responses by their immediate effect on further discussion of emotion - focused away (away), focused neither toward nor away (neutral), and focused toward (toward) - and examined further communication patterns following each response type. In 79 patients' encounters with 27 physicians, the median expression of negative emotion was 1, range 0-14. Physician responses were 25% away, 43% neutral, and 32% toward. Neutral and toward responses elicited patient perspectives, concerns, social and spiritual issues, and goals for care. Toward responses demonstrated physicians' support, contributing to physician-patient alignment and agreement about treatment. Responding to expressions of negative emotion neutrally or with statements that focus toward emotion elicits clinically relevant information and is associated with positive physician-patient relationship and care outcomes. Providers should respond to expressions of negative emotion with statements that allow for or explicitly encourage further discussion of emotion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The association of suicide risk with negative life events and social support according to gender in Asian patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Hatim Sulaiman, Ahmad; Srisurapanont, Manit; Chang, Sung-man; Liu, Chia-Yih; Bautista, Dianne; Ge, Lan; Choon Chua, Hong; Pyo Hong, Jin

    2015-08-30

    We investigated the associations between negative life events, social support, depressive and hostile symptoms, and suicide risk according to gender in multinational Asian patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). A total of 547 outpatients with MDD (352 women and 195 men, mean age of 39.58±13.21 years) were recruited in China, South Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and Taiwan. All patients were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the List of Threatening Experiences. Negative life events, social support, depressive symptoms, and hostility were all significantly associated with suicidality in female MDD patients. However, only depressive symptoms and hostility were significantly associated with suicidality in male patients. Depression severity and hostility only partially mediated the association of negative life events and poor social support with suicidality in female patients. In contrast, hostility fully mediated the association of negative life events and poor social support with suicidality in male patients. Our results highlight the need of in-depth assessment of suicide risk for depressed female patients who report a number of negative life events and poor social supports, even if they do not show severe psychopathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transmission of hepatitis D virus between spouses: A longitudinal study of the first reported Canadian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Osiowy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In chronic hepatitis B (CHB, hepatitis D virus (HDV superinfection can lead to acute liver failure. The incidence of HDV superinfection is unknown, but is often detected in immigrants from HDV endemic countries. In this report, we characterize long-term clinical and virological outcomes in a hepatitis B virus (HBV infected carrier before and after HDV superinfection, acquired from their spouse having HBV/HDV co-infection. A 38 year-old Mongolian male with CHB on anti-HBV therapy developed acute liver failure following HDV superinfection. Although he recovered, avoiding the need for liver transplant, HDV serological and molecular markers of infection persisted for the subsequent 16-month follow-up period, suggesting the development of CHB/HDV co-infection. The source of his HDV was from his wife of 10 years, a 34-year old Mongolian female known to have inactive CHB/HDV co-infection but who was not on anti-HBV therapy. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete HDV genome from the couple showed >99% similarity, with post-transmission longitudinal sequence revealing specific nucleotide substitutions between both spouse’s HDV genome sequences. This study highlights the ongoing risk of HDV superinfection due to long-term co-habitation or sexual transmission in CHB patients. The fact that transmission occurred after almost a decade of marriage may be due to host immune or environmental factors that created a more favorable condition for transmission.

  18. Effects of yoga on negative emotions in patients with breast cancer: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lin Zuo

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Yoga is valuable in improving negative moods in patients with breast cancer. We also concluded five key mechanisms of yoga therapy in improving negative moods. Further well-designed RCTs with large sample size and long-term follow-up are needed.

  19. Outcomes of Breast Cancer Patients With Triple Negative Receptor Status Treated With Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, J. Ben; Reid, Robert E.; Shaitelman, Simona F.; Chen, Peter Y.; Mitchell, Christine K.; Wallace, Michelle F.; Marvin, Kimberly S.; Grills, Inga S.; Margolis, Jeffrey M.; Vicini, Frank A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Triple negative receptor status (TNRS) of patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy treated with whole-breast irradiation has been associated with increased distant metastasis and decreased disease-free and overall survival. This paper reports the outcomes of TNRS patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: We studied 455 patients who received APBI at our institution, using interstitial, intracavitary, and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. TNRS was assigned if a patient tested negative for all three (ER [estrogen receptor], PR [progesterone receptor], and HER2/neu) receptors. Of 202 patients with all receptor results available, 20 patients were designated TNRS, and 182 patients had at least one receptor positive (RP). We analyzed ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional nodal failure (RNF), distant metastasis (DM), and overall survival (OS). Results: Mean follow-up was 4.1 years for the TNRS group and 5.1 years for the RP cohort (p = 0.11). TNRS patients had a higher histologic grade (59% TNRS vs. 13% RP; p 0.52). OS for the RP cohort was 93% at 5 years (p > 0.28). Conclusions: In our patient population, TNRS conferred a clinical outcome similar to that of patients with RP disease treated with APBI. Further investigation with larger patient populations and longer follow-up periods is warranted to confirm that APBI is a safe and effective treatment for patients with localized TNRS breast cancer.

  20. Outcomes of breast cancer patients with triple negative receptor status treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, J Ben; Reid, Robert E; Shaitelman, Simona F; Chen, Peter Y; Mitchell, Christine K; Wallace, Michelle F; Marvin, Kimberly S; Grills, Inga S; Margolis, Jeffrey M; Vicini, Frank A

    2011-11-01

    Triple negative receptor status (TNRS) of patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy treated with whole-breast irradiation has been associated with increased distant metastasis and decreased disease-free and overall survival. This paper reports the outcomes of TNRS patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). We studied 455 patients who received APBI at our institution, using interstitial, intracavitary, and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. TNRS was assigned if a patient tested negative for all three (ER [estrogen receptor], PR [progesterone receptor], and HER2/neu) receptors. Of 202 patients with all receptor results available, 20 patients were designated TNRS, and 182 patients had at least one receptor positive (RP). We analyzed ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional nodal failure (RNF), distant metastasis (DM), and overall survival (OS). Mean follow-up was 4.1 years for the TNRS group and 5.1 years for the RP cohort (p = 0.11). TNRS patients had a higher histologic grade (59% TNRS vs. 13% RP; p 0.52). OS for the RP cohort was 93% at 5 years (p > 0.28). In our patient population, TNRS conferred a clinical outcome similar to that of patients with RP disease treated with APBI. Further investigation with larger patient populations and longer follow-up periods is warranted to confirm that APBI is a safe and effective treatment for patients with localized TNRS breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High resistance rate against 15 different antibiotics in aerobic gram-negative bacteria isolates of cardiology intensive care unit patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Küçükates E

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic gram negative bacteria were isolated and examined microbiologically from various clinical samples of 602 patients hospitalized between January 1997 and December 2000 in surgical and coronary intensive care units (ICUs. A total of 827 isolates were obtained from 602 patients. The majority of microorganisms were isolated from the respiratory tract (50.3% and blood (39.9%. Pseudomonas spp. were the most frequently isolated gram negative species (32.7%, followed by Acinetobacter spp. (24.0% and Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.4%. High resistance rates to all antibiotics studied were observed. Imipenem and meropenem were the most effective antibiotics against gram negatives.

  2. Success of benznidazole chemotherapy in chronic Trypanosoma cruzi-infected patients with a sustained negative PCR result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, L; Carrilero, B; Ferrer, F; Roig, M; Franco, F; Segovia, M

    2016-11-01

    Cure assessment in chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection is controversial, mainly because of the lack of reliable tests to ensure parasite elimination. Here, we assess the impact of benznidazole therapy on the conventional serology and parasitaemia in chronic Chagas disease. A total of 455 patients with long-term Trypanosoma cruzi infection underwent specific chemotherapy with benznidazole. Their parasitological status was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of T. cruzi DNA. Drops in the titres of antibody levels were serially measured by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFI) and chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). Patients were monitored during the treatment period and for a further 90, 150 and 240 days. Controls were repeated yearly during the 7-year follow-up. The PCR result was negative in all patients between 60-day (n = 22) and 90-day (n = 294) controls. Treatment failure was detected in 45 patients and was significantly more frequent in those who did not complete the therapy [12 out of 13 (92 %) vs. 33 out of 442 (7 %)] (p = 0.0001). A significant drop in serum titres was detected after the first follow-up year in patients with sustained negative PCR results: 2nd year (p = 0.029 by IFI; p = 0.002 by CMIA), 5th year (p = 0.036 by IFI; p = 0.039 by CMIA) and 6th year (p = 0.028 by IFI; p = 0.019 by CMIA). The results point to a beneficial effect of benznidazole and may be the cure of chronic patients who had a consistently negative PCR result throughout the follow-up period.

  3. "Food Addiction" in Patients with Eating Disorders is Associated with Negative Urgency and Difficulties to Focus on Long-Term Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz, Ines; Hilker, Ines; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Dieguez, Carlos; Casanueva, Felipe F; Crujeiras, Ana B; Menchón, José M; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate if eating disorder patients differ in specific personality traits depending on a positive screening of food addiction (FA) and to find a model to predict FA in eating disorder patients using measures of personality and impulsivity. Two hundred seventy eight patients, having an eating disorder, self-reported on FA, impulsivity, personality, eating and general psychopathology. Patients were then split into two groups, depending on a positive or negative result on the FA screening. Analysis of variance was used to compare means between the two groups. Stepwise binary logistic regression was used to obtain a predictive model for the presence of FA. Patients with FA had lower self-directedness, and more negative urgency and lack of perseverance than patients not reporting addictive eating. The probability of FA can be predicted by high negative urgency, high reward dependence, and low lack of premeditation. Eating disorder patients who have more problems to pursue tasks to the end and to focus on long-term goals seem to be more likely to develop addictive eating patterns.

  4. Expression of aurora kinase A is associated with metastasis-free survival in node-negative breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siggelkow Wulf

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibitors targeting the cell cycle-regulated aurora kinase A (AURKA are currently being developed. Here, we examine the prognostic impact of AURKA in node-negative breast cancer patients without adjuvant systemic therapy (n = 766. Methods AURKA was analyzed using microarray-based gene-expression data from three independent cohorts of node-negative breast cancer patients. In multivariate Cox analyses, the prognostic impact of age, histological grade, tumor size, estrogen receptor (ER, and HER2 were considered. Results Patients with higher AURKA expression had a shorter metastasis-free survival (MFS in the Mainz (HR 1.93; 95% CI 1.34 – 2.78; P Conclusions AURKA is associated with worse prognosis in estrogen receptor positive breast carcinomas. Patients with the highest AURKA expression (>75% percentile have a particularly bad prognosis and may profit from therapy with AURKA inhibitors.

  5. Clinical value of whole-blood interferon-gamma assay in patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis and AFB smear- and polymerase chain reaction-negative bronchial aspirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehee; Lee, Shin Yup; Yoo, Seung Soo; Cha, Seung Ick; Won, Dong Il; Park, Jae Yong; Lee, Won-Kil; Kim, Chang Ho

    2012-07-01

    Combining a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test with bronchoscopy is frequently performed to allow a rapid diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). However, limited data are available concerning clinical judgment in patients with suspected PTB and AFB smear- and PCR-negative bronchial aspirates (BA). The present study evaluated the usefulness of whole-blood QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) testing in these patients. Of 166 patients with suspected PTB who had undergone bronchoscopy because of smear-negative sputum or inadequate sputum production, 93 (56%) were diagnosed with culture-positive PTB. Seventy-four patients were either AFB smear- or PCR-positive. In the 75 patients whose BA AFB smear and PCR results were both negative, 19 were finally diagnosed with PTB by culture. The QFT test had a negative predictive value of 91% for PTB. The QFT test may be useful for excluding PTB in patients with suspected PTB whose BA AFB smear and PCR results are both negative. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The evaluation of FDG-PET imaging for epileptogenic focus localization in patients with MRI positive and MRI negative temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gok, Beril; Jallo, George; Hayeri, Reza; Wahl, Richard; Aygun, Nafi

    2013-01-01

    We studied the contribution of interictal FDG-PET ([18 F] fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography) in epileptic focus identification in temporal lobe epilepsy patients with positive, equivocal and negative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ninety-eight patients who underwent surgical treatment for drug resistant temporal lobe epilepsy after neuropsychological evaluation, scalp video EEG monitoring, FDG-PET, MRI and/or long-term intracranial EEG and with >12 months clinical follow-up were included in this study. FDG-PET findings were compared to MRI, histopathology, scalp video EEG and long-term intracranial EEG monitoring. FDG-PET lateralized the seizure focus in 95 % of MRI positive, 69 % of MRI equivocal and 84 % of MRI negative patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the surgical outcomes among the groups with Engel class I and II outcomes achieved in 86 %, 86 %, 84 % of MRI positive, equivocal and negative temporal lobe epilepsy patients, respectively. The patients with positive unilateral FDG-PET demonstrated excellent postsurgical outcomes, with 96 % Engel class I and II. Histopathology revealed focal lesions in 75 % of MRI equivocal, 84 % of MRI positive, and 23 % of MRI negative temporal lobe epilepsy cases. FDG-PET is an accurate noninvasive method in lateralizing the epileptogenic focus in temporal lobe epilepsy, especially in patients with normal or equivocal MRIs, or non-lateralized EEG monitoring. Very subtle findings in MRI are often associated with histopathological lesions and should be described in MRI reports. The patients with negative or equivocal MRI temporal lobe epilepsy are good surgical candidates with comparable postsurgical outcomes to patients with MRI positive temporal lobe epilepsy. (orig.)

  7. The evaluation of FDG-PET imaging for epileptogenic focus localization in patients with MRI positive and MRI negative temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gok, Beril [Drexel University, Department of Radiology, Mercy Catholic Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jallo, George [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Neurosurgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Hayeri, Reza [Drexel University, Department of Radiology, Mercy Catholic Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wahl, Richard [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Aygun, Nafi [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2013-05-15

    We studied the contribution of interictal FDG-PET ([18 F] fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography) in epileptic focus identification in temporal lobe epilepsy patients with positive, equivocal and negative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ninety-eight patients who underwent surgical treatment for drug resistant temporal lobe epilepsy after neuropsychological evaluation, scalp video EEG monitoring, FDG-PET, MRI and/or long-term intracranial EEG and with >12 months clinical follow-up were included in this study. FDG-PET findings were compared to MRI, histopathology, scalp video EEG and long-term intracranial EEG monitoring. FDG-PET lateralized the seizure focus in 95 % of MRI positive, 69 % of MRI equivocal and 84 % of MRI negative patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the surgical outcomes among the groups with Engel class I and II outcomes achieved in 86 %, 86 %, 84 % of MRI positive, equivocal and negative temporal lobe epilepsy patients, respectively. The patients with positive unilateral FDG-PET demonstrated excellent postsurgical outcomes, with 96 % Engel class I and II. Histopathology revealed focal lesions in 75 % of MRI equivocal, 84 % of MRI positive, and 23 % of MRI negative temporal lobe epilepsy cases. FDG-PET is an accurate noninvasive method in lateralizing the epileptogenic focus in temporal lobe epilepsy, especially in patients with normal or equivocal MRIs, or non-lateralized EEG monitoring. Very subtle findings in MRI are often associated with histopathological lesions and should be described in MRI reports. The patients with negative or equivocal MRI temporal lobe epilepsy are good surgical candidates with comparable postsurgical outcomes to patients with MRI positive temporal lobe epilepsy. (orig.)

  8. Clinical Manifestations of Helicobacter pylori-Negative Gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Seiji; Thrift, Aaron P; Green, Linda; Shah, Rajesh; Verstovsek, Gordana; Rugge, Massimo; Graham, David Y; El-Serag, Hashem B

    2017-07-01

    There are data to suggest the existence of non-Helicobacter pylori gastritis. However, the risk factors and clinical course for H pylori-negative gastritis remain unclear. We aimed to examine the prevalence and determinants of H pylori-negative gastritis in a large multiethnic clinical population. We conducted a cross-sectional study among patents scheduled for an elective esophagastroduodenoscopy or attending selected primary care clinics and eligible for screening colonoscopy at a single Veterans Affairs medical center. We identified cases of H pylor-negative gastritis, H pylori-positive gastritis, and H pylori-negative nongastritis, where gastritis was defined by the presence of neutrophils and/or mononuclear cells. Risk factors for H pylori-negative gastritis were analyzed in logistic regression models. A total of 1240 patients had information from all biopsy sites, of whom 695 (56.0%) had gastritis. H pylori-negative gastritis was present in 123 patients (9.9% of all study subjects and 17.7% of all patients with gastritis). Among all patients with gastritis, African Americans were statistically significantly less likely than non-Hispanic whites to have H pylori-negative gastritis (odds ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.43). Conversely, PPI users were more likely to have H pylori-negative gastritis than H pylori-positive gastritis compared with nonusers (odds ratio, 2.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-3.49). The cumulative incidence of gastric erosions and ulcers were higher in patients with H pylori-negative gastritis than H pylori-negative nongastritis. We found that H pylori-negative gastritis was present in approximately 18% of patients with gastritis. The potential for H pylori-negative gastritis to progress or the risk of gastric cancer of those with gastric mucosal atrophy/intestinal metaplasia remains unclear. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Value of non-invasive models of liver fibrosis in judgment of treatment timing in chronic hepatitis B patients with ALT < 2×upper limit of normal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q Q; Hu, Y B; Zhou, K; Zhang, W W; Li, M H; Dong, P; Di, J G; Hong, L; Du, Q W; Xie, Y; Sun, Q F

    2016-09-20

    Objective: To investigate the value of non-invasive liver fibrosis models, FIB-4, S index, aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index(APRI), globulin-platelet(GP)model, aspartate aminotransferase/platelet/gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase/alpha-fetoprotein(APGA), and platelet/age/phosphatase/alpha-fetoprotein/aspartate aminotransferase(PAPAS), in the diagnosis of marked liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B(CHB)patients with ALT liver biopsy was performed to obtain pathological results, and routine serological tests were performed, including routine blood test, serum biochemical parameters, hepatitis B virus(HBV)markers, and HBV DNA. According to liver pathology, the patients were divided into non-marked liver fibrosis group(S liver fibrosis group(S≥2)with 65 patients. The non-invasive models for predicting liver fibrosis was established with reference to original articles. SPSS 19.0 software was used for statistical analysis, and the receiver operating characteristic(ROC)curve was used to compare the value of different non-invasive models in predicting marked liver fibrosis in this population. Results: All the non-invasive models had a certain diagnostic value for liver fibrosis degree in these patients, and the areas under the ROC curve for APRI, FIB-4, APGA, S index, PAPAS, and GP model were 0.718, 0.691, 0.758, 0.729, 0.673, and 0.691, respectively. APGA had the largest area under the ROC curve(0.758, 95% CI 0.673-0.844), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase was significantly positively correlated with liver fibrosis degree. Conclusion: The non-invasive models of liver fibrosis can identify marked liver fibrosis in CHB patients with ALT liver biopsy to the certain degree.

  10. Replication of genome wide association studies on hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility loci of STAT4 and HLA-DQ in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Namgoong, Suhg; Kim, Ji On; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Park, Byung Lae; Cho, Sung Won; Park, Neung Hwa; Cheong, Jae Youn; Koh, InSong; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Kim, Yoon-Jun

    2015-07-01

    A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) identified two loci (rs7574865 in STAT4 and rs9275319 in HLA-DQ) in a Chinese population. We attempted to replicate the associations between the two SNP loci and the risk of HCC in a Korean population. The rs7574865 in STAT4 and rs9275319 in HLA-DQ were genotyped in a total of 3838 Korean subjects composed of 287 HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma patients, 671 chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) patients, and 2880 population controls using TaqMan genotyping assay. Gene expression was measured by microarray. A logistic regression analysis revealed that rs7574865 in STAT4 and rs9275319 in HLA-DQ were associated with the risk of CHB (OR = 1.25, P = 0.0002 and OR = 1.57, P= 1.44 × 10(-10), respectively). However, these loci were no association with the risk of HBV-related HCC among CHB patients. In the gene expression analyses, although no significant differences in mRNA expression of nearby genes according to genotypes were detected, a significantly decreased mRNA expression in HCC subjects was observed in STAT4, HLA-DQA1, and HLA-DQB1. Although the genetic effects of two HCC susceptibility loci were not replicated, the two loci were found to exert susceptibility effects on the risk of CHB in a Korean population. In addition, the decreased mRNA expression of STAT4, HLA-DQA1, and HLA-DQB1 in HCC tissue might provide a clue to understanding their role in the progression to HCC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of human Papilloma Virus in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in the State of Bahia: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Queiroz

    Full Text Available Human Papilloma Virus (HPV plays a central role in the development of cervical cancer. However, other coexisting factors, such as HIV infection, must be present for this to occur. We evaluated the prevalence of HPV in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in the city of Salvador , Bahia, Brazil, and determined the most prevalent types of HPV in these patients. Fifty-five cases were selected from among patients attending three institutions providing cervical pathology services in the city of Salvador. HIV testing (Elisa/WB, HPV-DNA testing by PCR, colposcopy, cytology and biopsy were carried out in all patients. The histopathological results were classified as follows: 11 cases were normal/negative for neoplasia, 15 were diagnosed as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN 1, 10 were CIN 2, 15 cases were CIN 3 and there were four cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Among the 55 patients studied, 43 tested positive for HPV-DNA and 20 for HIV. All HIV-positive patients were positive for HPV-DNA. The most prevalent types of HPV were HPV 16, 52, 58, 53, 54, 33 and 51, and there was little difference between the groups of HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients with respect to the type of HPV encountered. The HIV-positive patients were found to be infected with a greater number of types of HPV than the HIV-negative patients. This study corroborates the existence of regional variations in the distribution of certain types of HPV, which is probably due to the particular ethnic constitution found in this region of Brazil.

  12. DISSEMINATED FUNGAL INFECTION WITH ADRENAL INVOLVEMENT: REPORT OF TWO HIV NEGATIVE BRAZILIAN PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Hanna PEREIRA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis are systemic fungal infections endemic in Brazil. Disseminated clinical forms are uncommon in immunocompetent individuals. We describe two HIV-negative patients with disseminated fungal infections, paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis, who were diagnosed by biopsies of suprarenal lesions. Both were treated for a prolonged period with oral antifungal agents, and both showed favorable outcomes.

  13. Presence of atypical thrombopoietin receptor (MPL) mutations in triple-negative essential thrombocythemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabagnols, Xénia; Favale, Fabrizia; Pasquier, Florence; Messaoudi, Kahia; Defour, Jean Philippe; Ianotto, Jean Christophe; Marzac, Christophe; Le Couédic, Jean Pierre; Droin, Nathalie; Chachoua, Ilyas; Favier, Remi; Diop, M'boyba Khadija; Ugo, Valérie; Casadevall, Nicole; Debili, Najet; Raslova, Hana; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Constantinescu, Stefan N; Bluteau, Olivier; Plo, Isabelle; Vainchenker, William

    2016-01-21

    Mutations in signaling molecules of the cytokine receptor axis play a central role in myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) pathogenesis. Polycythemia vera is mainly related to JAK2 mutations, whereas a wider mutational spectrum is detected in essential thrombocythemia (ET) with mutations in JAK2, the thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor (MPL), and the calreticulin (CALR) genes. Here, we studied the mutational profile of 17 ET patients negative for JAK2V617F, MPLW515K/L, and CALR mutations, using whole-exome sequencing and next-generation sequencing (NGS) targeted on JAK2 and MPL. We found several signaling mutations including JAK2V617F at very low allele frequency, 1 homozygous SH2B3 mutation, 1 MPLS505N, 1 MPLW515R, and 2 MPLS204P mutations. In the remaining patients, 4 presented a clonal and 7 a polyclonal hematopoiesis, suggesting that certain triple-negative ETs are not MPNs. NGS on 26 additional triple-negative ETs detected only 1 MPLY591N mutation. Functional studies on MPLS204P and MPLY591N revealed that they are weak gain-of-function mutants increasing MPL signaling and conferring either TPO hypersensitivity or independence to expressing cells, but with a low efficiency. Further studies should be performed to precisely determine the frequency of MPLS204 and MPLY591 mutants in a bigger cohort of MPN. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  14. Epidemiological, virological and clinical characteristics of HBV infection in 223 HIV co-infected patients: a French multi-centre collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Vincent; Gaudy-Graffin, Catherine; Colson, Philippe; Gozlan, Joël; Schnepf, Nathalie; Trimoulet, Pascale; Pallier, Coralie; Saune, Karine; Branger, Michel; Coste, Marianne; Thoraval, Francoise Roudot

    2013-03-15

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a clinical concern in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals due to substantial prevalence, difficulties to treat, and severe liver disease outcome. A large nationwide cross-sectional multicentre analysis of HIV-HBV co-infected patients was designed to describe and identify parameters associated with virological and clinical outcome of CHB in HIV-infected individuals with detectable HBV viremia. A multicenter collaborative cross-sectional study was launched in 19 French University hospitals distributed through the country. From January to December 2007, HBV load, genotype, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 223 HBV-HIV co-infected patients with an HBV replication over 1000 IU/mL were investigated. Patients were mostly male (82%, mean age 42 years). Genotype distribution (A 52%; E 23.3%; D 16.1%) was linked to risk factors, geographic origin, and co-infection with other hepatitis viruses. This genotypic pattern highlights divergent contamination event timelines by HIV and HBV viruses. Most patients (74.7%) under antiretroviral treatment were receiving a drug with anti-HBV activity, including 47% receiving TDF. Genotypic lamivudine-resistance detected in 26% of the patients was linked to duration of lamivudine exposure, age, CD4 count and HIV load. Resistance to adefovir (rtA181T/V) was detected in 2.7% of patients. Advanced liver lesions were observed in 54% of cases and were associated with an older age and lower CD4 counts but not with viral load or genotype. Immune escape HBsAg variants were seldom detected. Despite the detection of advanced liver lesions in most patients, few were not receiving anti-HBV drugs and for those treated with the most potent anti-HBV drugs, persistent replication suggested non-optimal adherence. Heterogeneity in HBV strains reflects epidemiological differences that may impact liver disease progression. These findings are strong arguments to further optimize clinical management

  15. How do non-physician clinicians respond to advanced cancer patients' negative expressions of emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Stewart C; Pollak, Kathryn I; Morgan, Perri A; Strand, Justine; Abernethy, Amy P; Jeffreys, Amy S; Arnold, Robert M; Olsen, Maren; Rodriguez, Keri L; Garrigues, Sarah K; Manusov, Justin R E; Tulsky, James A

    2011-01-01

    Patients with advanced cancer often experience negative emotion; clinicians' empathic responses can alleviate patient distress. Much is known about how physicians respond to patient emotion; less is known about non-physician clinicians. Given that oncology care is increasingly provided by an interdisciplinary team, it is important to know more about how patients with advanced cancer express emotions to non-physician clinicians (NPCs) and how NPCs respond to those empathic opportunities. We audio recorded conversations between non-physician clinicians and patients with advanced cancer. We analyzed 45 conversations between patients and oncology physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurse clinicians in which patients or their loved ones expressed at least one negative emotion to the NPC (i.e., an empathic opportunity). Empathic opportunities were coded three ways: type of emotion (anger, sadness, or fear), severity of emotion (least, moderate, or most severe), and NPC response to emotion (not empathic, on-topic medical response, and empathic response). We identified 103 empathic opportunities presented to 25 different NPCs during 45 visits. Approximately half of the empathic opportunities contained anger (53%), followed by sadness (25%) and fear (21%). The majority of emotions expressed were moderately severe (73%), followed by most severe (16%), and least severe (12%). The severity of emotions presented was not found to be statistically different between types of NPCs. NPCs responded to empathic opportunities with empathic statements 30% of the time. Additionally, 40% of the time, NPCs responded to empathic opportunities with on-topic, medical explanations and 30% of the responses were not empathic. Patients expressed emotional concerns to NPCs typically in the form of anger; most emotions were moderately severe, with no statistical differences among types of NPC. On average, NPCs responded to patient emotion with empathic language only 30% of the time. A

  16. Healthcare provider counseling to quit smoking and patient desire to quit: The role of negative smoking outcome expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Stucky, Brian D; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Shadel, William G; Klein, David J

    2018-05-21

    The U.S. Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline on treating tobacco use and dependence recommends providing advice to quit to every tobacco user seen in a healthcare setting. However, the mechanism through which counseling encourages patients to quit has not been adequately studied. This study tests whether the association between receiving healthcare provider counseling and desire to quit is accounted for by negative health and psychosocial outcome expectancies of smoking. Data were collected online from 721 adult smokers who had seen a healthcare provider in the past 12 months. Associations between counseling to quit, negative outcome expectancies of smoking, and desire to quit were tested, as well as whether outcome expectancies and desire to quit differed by type of counseling (counseling only vs. counseling plus assistance) and level of smoking. Bivariate associations indicated a stronger desire to quit among patients receiving counseling, particularly when it included healthcare provider assistance to quit. SEM results indicated that the association between counseling and desire to quit was fully accounted for by patients' negative health and psychosocial outcome expectancies for smoking. These associations were found across levels of smoking in the case of health expectancies, but were limited to moderate and heavy smokers in the case of psychosocial expectancies. Results suggest that the time devoted to counseling patients about smoking should include providing some assistance to quit, such as recommending a product, prescription or program. Regardless of smoking level, this counseling should incorporate techniques to elicit patients' negative health and psychosocial expectancies of smoking. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Dicty_cDB: SLG376 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 572Q) /CSM/SS/SSD5-C/SSD572Q.Seq.d/ 555 e-157 CHB571 (CHB571Q) /CSM/CH/CHB5-C/CHB571Q.Seq.d/ 494 e-139 CFD492 (CFD492...Q) /CSM/CF/CFD4-D/CFD492Q.Seq.d/ 474 e-133 own update 2003.10.30 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences

  18. Kaposi’s sarcoma: An unusual penile lesion in a HIV negative patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Franco De Rose

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma (KS of the penis is a very rare lesion and it is usually observed in HIV-infected patients. We introduce a case of KS of the penis in a 75 years old HIV negative patient with a peripheral T-cell lymphoma. He came to our attention with a painful ulcerated red lesion on the glans that stretched from the urethral meatus to the coronal skin. This lesion was found to be a KS balanopreputial in the classical variant. Penile KS must be included in the differential diagnosis of genital diseases especially when the clinical features of the lesion are aspecific and diagnosis can be made histologically by performing a biopsy.

  19. Clinical characteristics of Helicobacter pylori-negative drug-negative peptic ulcer bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woo Chul; Jeon, Eun Jung; Kim, Dae Bum; Sung, Hea Jung; Kim, Yeon-Ji; Lim, Eun Sun; Kim, Min-Ah; Oh, Jung Hwan

    2015-07-28

    To investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of idiopathic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-negative and drug-negative] peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). A consecutive series of patients who experienced PUB between 2006 and 2012 was retrospectively analyzed. A total of 232 patients were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into four groups according to the etiologies of PUB: idiopathic, H. pylori-associated, drug-induced and combined (H. pylori-associated and drug-induced) types. We compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes between the groups. When the silver stain or rapid urease tests were H. pylori-negative, we obtained an additional biopsy specimen by endoscopic re-examination and performed an H. pylori antibody test 6-8 wk after the initial endoscopic examination. For a diagnosis of idiopathic PUB, a negative result of an H. pylori antibody test was confirmed. In all cases, re-bleeding was confirmed by endoscopic examination. For the risk assessment, the Blatchford and the Rockall scores were calculated for all patients. For PUB, the frequency of H. pylori infection was 59.5% (138/232), whereas the frequency of idiopathic cases was 8.6% (20/232). When idiopathic PUB was compared to H. pylori-associated PUB, the idiopathic PUB group showed a higher rate of re-bleeding after initial hemostasis during the hospital stay (30% vs 7.4%, P = 0.02). When idiopathic PUB was compared to drug-induced PUB, the patients in the idiopathic PUB group showed a higher rate of re-bleeding after initial hemostasis upon admission (30% vs 2.7%, P ulcer (77% vs 49%, P < 0.01). However, the Blatchford and the Rockall scores were not significantly different between the two groups. Among the patients who experienced drug-induced PUB, no significant differences were found with respect to clinical characteristics, irrespective of H. pylori infection. Idiopathic PUB has unique clinical characteristics such as re-bleeding after initial hemostasis upon admission

  20. Association between social contact frequency and negative symptoms, psychosocial functioning and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Karin; Millier, Aurelie; Amri, Ikbal; Aballéa, Samuel; Toumi, Mondher

    2015-12-30

    The lack of social contacts may be an important element in the presumed vicious circle aggravating, or at least stabilising negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. A European 2-year cohort study collected negative symptom scores, psychosocial functioning scores, objective social contact frequency scores and quality of life scores every 6 months. Bivariate analyses, correlation analyses, multivariate regressions and random effects regressions were conducted to describe relations between social contact and outcomes of interest and to gain a better understanding of this relation over time. Using data from 1208 patients with schizophrenia, a link between social contact frequency and negative symptom scores, functioning and quality of life at baseline was established. Regression models confirmed the significant association between social contact and negative symptoms as well as psychosocial functioning. This study aimed at demonstrating the importance of social contact for deficient behavioural aspects of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular Characterization of HBV Strains Circulating among the Treatment-Naive HIV/HBV Co-Infected Patients of Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Debraj; Pal, Ananya; Biswas, Avik; Panigrahi, Rajesh; Sarkar, Neelakshi; Das, Dipanwita; Sarkar, Jayeeta; Guha, Subhasish Kamal; Saha, Bibhuti; Chakrabarti, Sekhar; Chakravarty, Runu

    2014-01-01

    Previously we reported that the exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection serves as a major threat among the treatment naive HIV infected population of eastern India. Hence, molecular characterization of these strains is of utmost importance in order to identify clinically significant HBV mutations. A total of 85 treatment naive HIV/HBV co-infected participants were included of whom the complete basal core promoter/precore region, the core and the whole envelope gene could be successfully sequenced for 59, 57 and 39 isolates respectively. Following phylogenetic analysis, it was found that HBV/D was the predominant genotype with HBV/D2 (38.5%) being the most prevalent subgenotype followed by HBV/A1. The major mutations affecting HBeAg expression includes the A1762T/G1764A (13.6%), G1896A (22%) and G1862T mutation (33.9%) which was predominantly associated with HBV/A1. Moreover, the prevalence of G1896A was considerably high among the HBeAg negative HIV/HBV co-infected subjects compared to HBV mono-infection. The main amino acid substitutions within the MHC class II restricted T-cell epitope of HBcAg includes the T12S (15.8%) and T67N (12.3%) mutation and the V27I (10.5%) mutation in the MHC class I restricted T-cell epitope. PreS1/S2 deletion was detected in 3 isolates with all harboring the BCP double mutation. Furthermore, the frequently occurring mutations in the major hydrophilic loop of the S gene include the T125M, A128V and M133I/L. Therefore, this study is the first from India to report useful information on the molecular heterogeneity of the HBV strains circulating among the treatment naive HIV/HBV co-infected population and is thus clinically relevant. PMID:24587360

  2. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: is it possible to reduce false negative rates by excluding patients with nodular melanoma?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corrigan, M A

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the outcome of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with melanoma and to delineate whether patients with nodular melanoma are more likely to develop nodal recurrence despite negative SLNB. METHODS: Consecutive patients with cutaneous melanoma undergoing SLNB were identified from a departmental database between 1997 and 2005. Factors including demographic data, site, histological subtype, depth and outcome were examined. RESULTS: Of 131 patients, 103 were node negative and eligible for study. The median age was 53 (16-82) years with 46 patients being male (45%) and 57 female (55%). Primary melanoma sites included lower limb (49; 48%), upper limb (29; 28%), head (12; 11%), trunk (7; 7%) and back (6; 6%). The median Breslow thickness was 2mm. Superficial spreading accounted for 43% of melanoma with nodular accounting for 42%. Median follow-up was 40 (3-90) months. Of 20 relapses, seven recurred in the same nodal basin, three were satellite recurrences, one recurred with both satellite and nodal lesions simultaneously, and nine experienced haematogenous spread. Of the eight patients who developed recurrence in the same nodal basin, four were of nodular histological subtype (p=NS). All of the three patients with satellite lesions had nodular melanoma histologically (p=0.02). When nodal and satellite recurrences were combined, eight of 11 were histologically nodular (p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that lymphatic recurrence occurs more often in SLNB negative patients with nodular melanoma. Further evaluation of the inclusion criteria for sentinel node biopsy is warranted.

  3. "Food addiction" in patients with eating disorders is associated with negative urgency and difficulties to focus on long-term goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines eWolz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate if eating disorder patients differ in specific personality traits depending on a positive screening of food addiction and to find a model to predict food addiction in eating disorder patients using measures of personality and impulsivity. Methods: 278 patients having an eating disorder self-reported on food addiction, impulsivity, personality, eating and general psychopathology. Patients were then split into two groups, depending on a positive or negative result on the food addiction screening. Analysis of variance was used to compare means between the two groups. Stepwise binary logistic regression was used to obtain a predictive model for the presence of food addiction. Results: Patients with food addiction had lower self-directedness, and more negative urgency and lack of perseverance than patients not reporting addictive eating. The probability of food addiction can be predicted by high negative urgency, high reward dependence, and low lack of premeditation. Conclusions: Eating disorder patients who have more problems to pursue tasks to the end and to focus on long-term goals seem to be more likely to develop addictive eating patterns.

  4. Antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptides identify adult coeliac disease patients negative for antibodies against endomysium and tissue transglutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, C; Hagman, A; Ignatova, S; Ström, M

    2010-07-01

    This study was done to evaluate the diagnostic utility of antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptides compared to traditional markers for coeliac disease. To evaluate diagnostic utility of antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP). Sera from 176 adults, referred for endoscopy without previous analysis of antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (tTG) or endomysium (EmA), were retrospectively analysed by ELISAs detecting IgA/IgG antibodies against DGP or a mixture of DGP and tTG, and compared with IgA-tTG and EmA. Seventy-nine individuals were diagnosed with coeliac disease. Receiver operating characteristic analyses verified the manufacturers' cut-off limits except for IgA/IgG-DGP/tTG. In sera without IgA deficiency, the sensitivity was higher for IgA/IgG-DGP (0.85-0.87) compared with IgA-tTg (0.76) and EmA (0.61). All tests showed high specificity (0.95-1.00). Eighteen coeliac disease-sera were negative regarding IgA-tTG, nine of which were positive for IgA/IgG-DGP. Sera from coeliac disease-patients >70 years were more often negative for IgA-tTG (50%) and IgA/IgG-DGP (36%) than younger patients (15% and 8% respectively) (P adult coeliac disease patients negative for antibodies against endomysium and tissue transglutaminase. Serology is often negative in elderly patients with coeliac disease; a small bowel biopsy should therefore be performed generously before coeliac disease is excluded.

  5. A patient with Graves’ disease showing only psychiatric symptoms and negativity for both TSH receptor autoantibody and thyroid stimulating antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamasaki Hidetaka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb negative Graves’s disease (GD is extremely rare. Here we present such a patient. Case presentation The patient was a 76-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having schizophrenia forty years ago. She did not show characteristic symptoms for hyperthyroidism, such as swelling of thyroid, exophthalmos, tachycardia and tremor, however, she showed only psychomotor agitation. Serum free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels were elevated and TSH level was suppressed, suggesting the existence of hyperthyroidism. However, both the first generation TSH receptor autoantibody (TRAb1 and the thyroid stimulating autoantibody (TSAb were negative. Slightly increased blood flow and swelling was detected by thyroid echography. Thyroid scintigraphy demonstrated diffuse and remarkably elevated uptake of 123I uptake. Finally, we diagnosed her as having GD. She was treated by using methimazole, and hyperthyroidism and her psychiatric symptoms were promptly ameliorated. Discussion We experienced a patient with GD who did not show characteristic symptoms except for psychiatric symptoms, and also showed negativity for both TRAb1 and TSAb. Thyroid autoantibody-negative GD is extremely rare. Thyroid scintigraphy was useful to diagnose such a patient.

  6. Molecular and Serological Assessment of Chronic HBV Carriers and Additional Burden of Applying Updated Guidelines in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A. B.; Ghani, E.; Rathore, M. A.; Khan, F. A.; Ali, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the additional burden of the patients eligible for treatment, based on recommendations on viral load, in the light of 2009 version of AASLD guidelines, as compared to 2004 guidelines and to determine the frequency of HBeAg in chronic HBV carriers. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Virology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from November 2010 to January 2012. Methodology: Persons with chronic HBV infection, reporting for HBV DNA PCR test, were included in the study and blood samples were collected. HBV DNA load was determined by Real Time PCR. HBsAg and HBeAg were tested by ELISA. Results: Out of the 801 subjects positive for HBsAg, 74 (9.24%) were positive for HBeAg. Out of them, 113 (14.1%) had HBV DNA load > 100,000 copies/ml and were eligible for treatment according to AASLD 2004 guidelines. Forty one (5.1%) had HBV load between 10,000 and 100,000 copies/ml, and were additionally eligible for treatment as per AASLD 2009 guidelines. The 5.1% of 4.5 million estimated HBV carries in Pakistan comes to 229500. Conclusion: There was a low HBeAg positivity and HBV DNA positivity in our chronic HBV infected persons. Moreover, there is an increase of 229500 potential candidates for HBV treatment in Pakistan based on viral load testing, according to the AASLD 2009 guidelines when compared with 2004 guidelines. The increase in the number of candidates for treatment may require an additional expenditure of tens of billions of rupees. (author)

  7. Prevalence of iodine- and thyroglobulin-negative findings in differentiated thyroid cancer. A retrospective analysis of patients treated from 1961 to 1998 in a university hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klutmann, S.; Jenicke, L.; Geiss-Toenshoff, M.; Bohuslavizki, K.H.; Mester, J.; Clausen, M.

    2001-01-01

    Aim: The prevalence of iodine- and thyroglobulin-negative findings was evaluated in all patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) treated from 1961 until 1998 at the Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf. Methods: A total of 490 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PCA) and 242 patients with follicular thyroid cancer (FCA) were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into four groups: 1: no recurrence, 2: recurrent disease, 3: primary metastatic/progressive disease and 4: inconclusive follow-up. Results of iodine scan, serum-TG, and additional imaging modalities as well as histology were compared in all patients. Results: 21/490 (4,3%) of patients with PCA and 16/242 (6,6%) with FCA suffered from recurrent disease. 62/490 (12,7%) of patients with PCA and 59/242 (24,4%) with FCA had primary metastatic/progressive disease. 12/21 patients with PCA and 12/16 with FCA showing up with recurrent disease had a negative iodinescan. 11/21 of patients with PCA and 4/16 with FCA and tumor recurrence had negative serum-TG levels. 14/62 patients with PCA and 14/59 with FCA presenting with primary metastatic/progressive disease had negative iodinescan. 14/62 patients with PCA and 6/59 with FCA had negative serum-TG. Conclusion: The prevalence of iodine-negative recurrent/metastatic disease is in accordance to the literature, whereas the prevalence of TG-negative recurrent/metastatic was noted higher than reported previously. Thus, the commonly used follow-up scheme of DTC is confirmed. However, iodine scan should be regularly performed in patients with high risk of recurrence. (orig.) [de

  8. Are concurrent systematic cores needed at the time of targeted biopsy in patients with prior negative prostate biopsies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albisinni, S; Aoun, F; Noel, A; El Rassy, E; Lemort, M; Paesmans, M; van Velthoven, R; Roumeguère, T; Peltier, A

    2018-01-01

    MRI-guided targeted biopsies are advised in patients who have undergone an initial series of negative systematic biopsies, in whom prostate cancer (PCa) suspicion remains elevated. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether, in men with prior negative prostate biopsies, systematic cores are also warranted at the time of an MRI-targeted repeat biopsy. We enrolled patients with prior negative biopsy undergoing real time MRI/TRUS fusion guided prostate biopsy at our institute between 2014 and 2016. Patients with at least one index lesion on multiparametric MRI were included. All eligible patients underwent both systematic random biopsies (12-14 cores) and targeted biopsies (2-4 cores). The study included 74 men with a median age of 65 years, PSA level of 9.27ng/mL, and prostatic volume of 45ml. The overall PCa detection rate and the clinically significant cancer detection rate were 56.7% and 39.2%, respectively. Targeted cores demonstrated similar clinically significant PCa detection rate compared to systematic cores (33.8% vs. 28.4%, P=0.38) with significantly less tissue sampling. Indeed, a combination approach was significantly superior to a targeted-only in overall PCa detection (+16.7% overall detection rate, P=0.007). Although differences in clinically significant PCa detection were statistically non-significant (P=0.13), a combination approach did allow detecting 7 extra clinically significant PCas (+13.8%). In patients with elevated PSA and prior negative biopsies, concurrent systematic sampling may be needed at the time of targeted biopsy in order to maximize PCa detection rate. Larger studies are needed to validate our findings. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Natural History of Tuberculosis: Duration and Fatality of Untreated Pulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV Negative Patients: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemersma, Edine W.; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Borgdorff, Martien W.; Williams, Brian G.; Nagelkerke, Nico J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The prognosis, specifically the case fatality and duration, of untreated tuberculosis is important as many patients are not correctly diagnosed and therefore receive inadequate or no treatment. Furthermore, duration and case fatality of tuberculosis are key parameters in interpreting epidemiological data. Methodology and Principal Findings To estimate the duration and case fatality of untreated pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV negative patients we reviewed studies from the pre-chemotherapy era. Untreated smear-positive tuberculosis among HIV negative individuals has a 10-year case fatality variously reported between 53% and 86%, with a weighted mean of 70%. Ten-year case fatality of culture-positive smear-negative tuberculosis was nowhere reported directly but can be indirectly estimated to be approximately 20%. The duration of tuberculosis from onset to cure or death is approximately 3 years and appears to be similar for smear-positive and smear-negative tuberculosis. Conclusions Current models of untreated tuberculosis that assume a total duration of 2 years until self-cure or death underestimate the duration of disease by about one year, but their case fatality estimates of 70% for smear-positive and 20% for culture-positive smear-negative tuberculosis appear to be satisfactory. PMID:21483732

  10. Assessment of sputum smear-positive but culture-negative results among newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnyambwa NP

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicholaus Peter Mnyambwa,1,2 Esther S Ngadaya,2 Godfather Kimaro,2 Dong-Jin Kim,1 Rudovick Kazwala,3 Pammla Petrucka,1,4 Sayoki G Mfinanga2 1School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania; 2National Institute for Medical Research, Muhimbili Medical Research Center, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 3Department of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; 4College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada Abstract: Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB in technology-limited countries is widely achieved by smear microscopy, which has limited sensitivity and specificity. The frequency and clinical implication of smear-positive but culture-negative among presumptive TB patients remains unclear. A cross-sectional substudy was conducted which aimed to identify the proportion of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM infections among 94 “smear-positive culture-negative” patients diagnosed between January 2013 and June 2016 in selected health facilities in Tanzania. Out of 94 sputa, 25 (26.60% were GeneXpert® mycobacteria TB positive and 11/94 (11.70% repeat-culture positive; 5 were Capilia TB-Neo positive and confirmed by GenoType MTBC to be Mycobacterium tuberculosis/Mycobacterium canettii. The remaining 6 Capilia TB-Neo negative samples were genotyped by GenoType® CM/AS, identifying 3 (3.19% NTM, 2 Gram positive bacteria, and 1 isolate testing negative, together, making a total of 6/94 (6.38% confirmed false smear-positives. Twenty-eight (29.79% were confirmed TB cases, while 60 (63.83% remained unconfirmed cases. Out of 6 (6.38% patients who were HIV positive, 2 patients were possibly coinfected with mycobacteria. The isolation of NTM and other bacteria among smear-positive culture-negative samples and the presence of over two third of unconfirmed TB cases emphasize the need of both advanced differential TB diagnostic techniques and

  11. [EEG frequency and regional properties in patients with paranoid schizophrenia: effects of positive and negative symptomatology prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkarev, V K; Kirenskaya, A V; Tkachenko, A A; Samylkin, D V; Novototsky-Vlasov, V Yu; Kovaleva, M E

    2015-01-01

    EEG changes in schizophrenic patients are caused by a multitude of factors related to clinical heterogeneity of the disease, current state of patients, and conducted therapy. EEG spectral analysis remains an actual methodical approach for the investigation of the neurophysiological mechanisms of the disease. The goal of the investigation was the study of frequency and regional EEG correlating with the intensity of productive and negative disorders. Models of summary prevalence of positive/negative disorders and evidence of concrete clinical indices of the PANSS scale were used. Spectral characteristics of background EEG in the frequency range of 1-60 Hz were studied in 35 patients with paranoid schizophrenia free from psychoactive medication and in 19 healthy volunteers. It was established that the main index of negative symptomatology in summary assessment was diffuse increase of spectral power of gamma and delta ranges. Deficient states with the predominance of volitional disorders were characterized by a lateralized increase of spectral power of beta-gamma ranges in the left hemisphere, and of delta range - in frontal areas of this hemisphere. Positive symptomatology was noticeably less reflected in EEG changes than negative ones. An analysis of psychopathological symptom complexes revealed the significance of spatially structured EEG patterns in the beta range: for the delusion disturbances with psychic automatism phenomena - in frontal areas of the left hemisphere, and for the paranoid syndrome with primary interpretative delusion - in cortical areas of the right hemisphere.

  12. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients and response to 5-fluorouracil in Angola

    Directory of Open Access Jo