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Sample records for hb-egf disulfide analogue

  1. The significance of disulfide bonding in biological activity of HB-EGF, a mutagenesis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, J.T.; Zhou, Z.; Harding, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    A site-directed mutagenesis approach was taken to disrupt each of 3 disulfide bonds within human HB-EGF by substituting serine for both cysteine residues that contribute to disulfide bonding. Each HB-EGF disulfide analogue (HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 108/121 , HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 116/132 , and HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 134/143 ) was cloned under the regulation of the mouse metallothionein (MT) promoter and stably expressed in mouse fibroblasts. HB-EGF immunoreactive proteins with M r of 6.5, 21 and 24 kDa were observed from lysates of HB-EGF and each HB-EGF disulfide analogue. HB-EGF immunohistochemical analyses of each HB-EGF stable cell line demonstrated ubiquitous protein expression except HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 108/121 and HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 116/132 stable cell lines which exhibited accumulated expression immediately outside the nucleus. rHB-EGF, HB-EGF, and HB-EGF 134/143 proteins competed with 125 I-EGF in an A431 competitive binding assay, whereas HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 108/121 and HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 116/132 failed to compete. Each HB-EGF disulfide analogue lacked the ability to stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation of the 170 kDa EGFR. These results suggest that HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 134/143 antagonizes EGFRs

  2. The significance of disulfide bonding in biological activity of HB-EGF, a mutagenesis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hoskins, J.T.; Zhou, Z.; Harding, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    A site-directed mutagenesis approach was taken to disrupt each of 3 disulfide bonds within human HB-EGF by substituting serine for both cysteine residues that contribute to disulfide bonding. Each HB-EGF disulfide analogue (HB-EGF-Cys/Ser108/121, HB-EGF-Cys/Ser116/132, and HB-EGF-Cys/Ser134/143) was cloned under the regulation of the mouse metallothionein (MT) promoter and stably expressed in mouse fibroblasts. HB-EGF immunoreactive proteins with Mr of 6.5, 21 and 24kDa were observed from lys...

  3. Characterization of a Novel Anti-Human HB-EGF Monoclonal Antibody Applicable for Paraffin-Embedded Tissues and Diagnosis of HB-EGF-Related Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Ryo; Takagi, Mika; Akatsuka, Jun-Ichi; Ono, Ken-Ichiro; Kishi, Yoshiro; Mekada, Eisuke

    2016-04-01

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a member of the EGF family of growth factors that bind to and activate the EGF receptor (EGFR/ErbB1) and ErbB4. HB-EGF plays pivotal roles in pathophysiological processes, including cancer. Thus, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for HB-EGF detection could be an important tool in the therapeutic diagnosis of HB-EGF-related cancers and other diseases. However, few mAbs, especially those applicable for immunohistochemistry (IHC), have been established to date. In this study, we generated a clone of hybridoma-derived mAb 2-108 by immunizing mice with recombinant human HB-EGF protein expressed by human cells. The mAb 2-108 specifically bound to human HB-EGF but not to mouse HB-EGF and was successful in immunoblotting, even under reducing conditions, immunoprecipitation, and immunofluorescence for unfixed as well as paraformaldehyde-fixed cells. Notably, this mAb was effective in IHC of paraffin-embedded tumor specimens. Epitope mapping analysis showed that mAb 2-108 recognized the N-terminal prodomain in HB-EGF. These results indicate that this new anti-HB-EGF mAb 2-108 would be useful in the diagnosis of HB-EGF-related cancers and would be a strong tool in both basic and clinical research on HB-EGF.

  4. The heparin-binding domain of HB-EGF mediates localization to sites of cell-cell contact and prevents HB-EGF proteolytic release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, Robin N.; Schreiter, Eric R.; Zou, Peng; Wiley, H. S.; Ting, Alice Y.; Lee, Richard T.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2010-07-01

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a ligand for EGF receptor (EGFR) and possesses the ability to signal in juxtacrine, autocrine and/or paracrine mode, with these alternatives being governed by the degree of proteolytic release of the ligand. Although the spatial range of diffusion of released HB-EGF is restricted by binding heparan-sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in the extracellular matrix and/or cellular glycocalyx, ascertaining mechanisms governing non-released HB-EGF localization is also important for understanding its effects. We have employed a new method for independently tracking the localization of the extracellular EGFlike domain of HB-EGF and the cytoplasmic C-terminus. A striking observation was the absence of the HB-EGF transmembrane proform from the leading edge of COS-7 cells in a wound-closure assay; instead, this protein localized in regions of cell-cell contact. A battery of detailed experiments found that this localization derives from a trans interaction between extracellular HSPGs and the HBEGF heparin-binding domain, and that disruption of this interaction leads to increased release of soluble ligand and a switch in cell phenotype from juxtacrine-induced growth inhibition to autocrine-induced proliferation. Our results indicate that extracellular HSPGs serve to sequester the transmembrane pro-form of HB-EGF at the point of cell-cell contact, and that this plays a role in governing the balance between juxtacrine versus autocrine and paracrine signaling.

  5. Nuclear translocation of the cytoplasmic domain of HB-EGF induces gastric cancer invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Takaya; Yoshida, Michihiro; Fukuda, Shinji; Ebi, Masahide; Hirata, Yoshikazu; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanida, Satoshi; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Joh, Takashi

    2012-05-30

    Membrane-anchored heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) yields soluble HB-EGF, which is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand, and a carboxy-terminal fragment of HB-EGF (HB-EGF-CTF) after ectodomain shedding. We previously reported that HB-EGF-CTF and unshed proHB-EGF which has the cytoplasmic domain of proHB-EGF (HB-EGF-C), translocate from the plasma membrane to the nucleus and regulate cell cycle after shedding stimuli. However, the significance of nuclear exported HB-EGF-C in human gastric cancer is unclear. We investigated the relationship between intracellular localization of HB-EGF-C and clinical outcome in 96 gastric cancer patients treated with gastrectomy. Moreover, we established stable gastric cancer cell lines overexpressing wild-type HB-EGF (wt-HB-EGF) and mutated HB-EGF (HB-EGF-mC), which prevented HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation after shedding. Cell motility between these 2 gastric cancer cell lines was investigated using a transwell invasion assay and a wound healing assay. Of the 96 gastric cancer cases, HB-EGF-C immunoreactivity was detected in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in 19 cases (19.8 %) and in the cytoplasm only in 25 cases (26.0 %). The nuclear immunoreactivity of HB-EGF-C was significantly increased in stage pT3/4 tumors compared with pT1/2 tumors (T1/2 vs. T3/4: 11.1 % vs. 36.4 %, P Gastric cancer cell invasion obviously increased in wt-HB-EGF-expressing cells, but invasion in HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells showed a slight increase compared with control cells. Moreover, wt-HB-EGF overexpression increased the effectiveness of wound healing, but had no significant effect in HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells. Both the function of HB-EGF as an EGFR ligand and a novel signal for HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation induce gastric cancer growth, whereas HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation independently plays a critical role in gastric cancer invasion. The present study demonstrated that HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation

  6. Nuclear translocation of the cytoplasmic domain of HB-EGF induces gastric cancer invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, Takaya; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Joh, Takashi; Yoshida, Michihiro; Fukuda, Shinji; Ebi, Masahide; Hirata, Yoshikazu; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanida, Satoshi; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Membrane-anchored heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) yields soluble HB-EGF, which is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand, and a carboxy-terminal fragment of HB-EGF (HB-EGF-CTF) after ectodomain shedding. We previously reported that HB-EGF-CTF and unshed proHB-EGF which has the cytoplasmic domain of proHB-EGF (HB-EGF-C), translocate from the plasma membrane to the nucleus and regulate cell cycle after shedding stimuli. However, the significance of nuclear exported HB-EGF-C in human gastric cancer is unclear. We investigated the relationship between intracellular localization of HB-EGF-C and clinical outcome in 96 gastric cancer patients treated with gastrectomy. Moreover, we established stable gastric cancer cell lines overexpressing wild-type HB-EGF (wt-HB-EGF) and mutated HB-EGF (HB-EGF-mC), which prevented HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation after shedding. Cell motility between these 2 gastric cancer cell lines was investigated using a transwell invasion assay and a wound healing assay. Of the 96 gastric cancer cases, HB-EGF-C immunoreactivity was detected in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in 19 cases (19.8 %) and in the cytoplasm only in 25 cases (26.0 %). The nuclear immunoreactivity of HB-EGF-C was significantly increased in stage pT3/4 tumors compared with pT1/2 tumors (T1/2 vs. T3/4: 11.1 % vs. 36.4 %, P < 0.01). The growth of wt-HB-EGF- and HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells significantly increased compared with control cells, but the growth of HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells was significantly decreased compared with wt-HB-EGF-expressing cells. Gastric cancer cell invasion obviously increased in wt-HB-EGF-expressing cells, but invasion in HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells showed a slight increase compared with control cells. Moreover, wt-HB-EGF overexpression increased the effectiveness of wound healing, but had no significant effect in HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells. Both the function of HB-EGF as an EGFR ligand and a novel signal for

  7. Nuclear translocation of the cytoplasmic domain of HB-EGF induces gastric cancer invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Membrane-anchored heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) yields soluble HB-EGF, which is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand, and a carboxy-terminal fragment of HB-EGF (HB-EGF-CTF) after ectodomain shedding. We previously reported that HB-EGF-CTF and unshed proHB-EGF which has the cytoplasmic domain of proHB-EGF (HB-EGF-C), translocate from the plasma membrane to the nucleus and regulate cell cycle after shedding stimuli. However, the significance of nuclear exported HB-EGF-C in human gastric cancer is unclear. Methods We investigated the relationship between intracellular localization of HB-EGF-C and clinical outcome in 96 gastric cancer patients treated with gastrectomy. Moreover, we established stable gastric cancer cell lines overexpressing wild-type HB-EGF (wt-HB-EGF) and mutated HB-EGF (HB-EGF-mC), which prevented HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation after shedding. Cell motility between these 2 gastric cancer cell lines was investigated using a transwell invasion assay and a wound healing assay. Results Of the 96 gastric cancer cases, HB-EGF-C immunoreactivity was detected in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in 19 cases (19.8 %) and in the cytoplasm only in 25 cases (26.0 %). The nuclear immunoreactivity of HB-EGF-C was significantly increased in stage pT3/4 tumors compared with pT1/2 tumors (T1/2 vs. T3/4: 11.1 % vs. 36.4 %, P HB-EGF- and HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells significantly increased compared with control cells, but the growth of HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells was significantly decreased compared with wt-HB-EGF-expressing cells. Gastric cancer cell invasion obviously increased in wt-HB-EGF-expressing cells, but invasion in HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells showed a slight increase compared with control cells. Moreover, wt-HB-EGF overexpression increased the effectiveness of wound healing, but had no significant effect in HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells. Conclusions Both the function of HB-EGF as an EGFR ligand

  8. Stat5 phosphorylation is responsible for the excessive potency of HB-EGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jeongyeon; Kim, Jae Geun; Kim, Sunghwan; Kang, Hara

    2017-12-23

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a potent growth factor involved in wound healing and tumorigenesis. Despite the sequence similarity between HB-EGF and EGF, HB-EGF induces cellular proliferation and migration more potently than EGF. However, the differential regulation by HB-EGF and EGF has not been thoroughly elucidated. In this study, we compared signaling pathways activated by HB-EGF and EGF to understand the details of the molecular mechanism of the high potency induced by HB-EGF. HB-EGF specifically induced the phosphorylation of EGFR-Y1045 and activated Stat5, which is responsible for promoting cell proliferation, and migration. The competition of phosphorylated EGFR-Y1045 inhibited Stat5 activation and consequently lowered the effect of HB-EGF on cell proliferation, suggesting that the phosphorylation of EGFR-Y1045 is essential for the activation of Stat5. The phosphorylation of EGFR-Y1045 and Stat5 induced by HB-EGF was prevented by sequestering the heparin-binding domain, suggesting that the heparin-binding domain is critical for HB-EGF-mediated signaling and cellular responses. In conclusion, the heparin-binding domain of HB-EGF was responsible for EGFR-mediated Stat5 activation, resulting in a more potent cellular proliferation, and migration than that mediated by EGF. This molecular mechanism is useful for understanding ligand-specific EGFR signaling and developing biomedicines for wound healing or cancer therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Nuclear translocation of the cytoplasmic domain of HB-EGF induces gastric cancer invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimura Takaya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Membrane-anchored heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (proHB-EGF yields soluble HB-EGF, which is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR ligand, and a carboxy-terminal fragment of HB-EGF (HB-EGF-CTF after ectodomain shedding. We previously reported that HB-EGF-CTF and unshed proHB-EGF which has the cytoplasmic domain of proHB-EGF (HB-EGF-C, translocate from the plasma membrane to the nucleus and regulate cell cycle after shedding stimuli. However, the significance of nuclear exported HB-EGF-C in human gastric cancer is unclear. Methods We investigated the relationship between intracellular localization of HB-EGF-C and clinical outcome in 96 gastric cancer patients treated with gastrectomy. Moreover, we established stable gastric cancer cell lines overexpressing wild-type HB-EGF (wt-HB-EGF and mutated HB-EGF (HB-EGF-mC, which prevented HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation after shedding. Cell motility between these 2 gastric cancer cell lines was investigated using a transwell invasion assay and a wound healing assay. Results Of the 96 gastric cancer cases, HB-EGF-C immunoreactivity was detected in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in 19 cases (19.8 % and in the cytoplasm only in 25 cases (26.0 %. The nuclear immunoreactivity of HB-EGF-C was significantly increased in stage pT3/4 tumors compared with pT1/2 tumors (T1/2 vs. T3/4: 11.1 % vs. 36.4 %, P  Conclusions Both the function of HB-EGF as an EGFR ligand and a novel signal for HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation induce gastric cancer growth, whereas HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation independently plays a critical role in gastric cancer invasion. The present study demonstrated that HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation might be crucial in gastric cancer invasion. HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation may offer a prognostic marker and a new molecular target for gastric cancer therapy.

  10. A targetable HB-EGF-CITED4 axis controls oncogenesis in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, C-H; Chou, Y-T; Kuo, M-H; Tsai, H-P; Chang, J-L; Wu, C-W

    2017-05-25

    Aberrant epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) signaling contributes to neoplastic initiation and progression in lung. Mutated EGFR has become as an important therapeutic target in lung cancer, whereas targeted treatment is not available for wild-type EGFR or its ligands. In this study, we found that heparin-binding (HB)-EGF, a member of the EGF family, was highly expressed in a subset of lung cancer, proliferation of which was dependent on HB-EGF signaling. Silencing of HB-EGF with RNA interference inhibited cell cycle progression in lung cancer cells. We observed that, upon HB-EGF induction, CITED4 was induced through a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent pathway, regulating cell proliferation. CITED4 interacted with MYC and potentiated MYC-mediated transactivation of the CCND1 promoter, leading to cell cycle progression. Correlation analysis revealed that HB-EGF and CITED4 were significantly positively associated in primary lung tumors, and expression of HB-EGF predicted a poor survival outcome in patients. In vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that pharmacological inhibition of HB-EGF with CRM197 significantly attenuated tumor cell growth. Thus, CITED4 functions as a molecular switch in HB-EGF-induced growth control, and HB-EGF provides a novel therapeutic target for lung cancer intervention.

  11. Heparin-Binding EGF-like Growth Factor (HB-EGF) Therapy for Intestinal Injury: Application and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jixin; Su, Yanwei; Zhou, Yu; Besner, Gail E.

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the past 20 years, we have been investigating the potential therapeutic roles of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), a member of the epidermal growth factor family, in various models of intestinal injury including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, and hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HS/R). Our studies have demonstrated that HB-EGF acts as an effective mitogen, a restitution-inducing reagent, a cellular trophic factor, an anti-apoptotic protein and a vasodilator, via its effects on various cell types in the intestine. In the current paper, we have reviewed the application and therapeutic effects of HB-EGF in three classic animal models of intestinal injury, with particular emphasis on its protection of the intestines from NEC. Additionally, we have summarized the protective functions of HB-EGF on various target cells in the intestine. Lastly, we have provided a brief discussion focusing on the future development of HB-EGF clinical applications for the treatment of various forms of intestinal injury including NEC. PMID:24345808

  12. HB-EGF expression as a potential biomarker of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shumin; Wang, Xiaoli; Ren, Hongmiao; Liu, Xiaoyu; Ren, Jihao; Liu, Wei

    2017-08-01

    The heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) plays an essential role in the development and invasiveness of cholesteatoma. This study may help to realize the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma and make HB-EGF a promising target for drug intervention of cholesteatoma. To detect HB-EGF expression in human surgical specimens of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma and analyze its functional role as a regulator of epithelial keratinocytes hyperproliferation. A total of 34 patients who underwent surgical treatment for middle ear cholesteatoma were recruited in the study. The mRNA and protein expression of HB-EGF in middle ear cholesteatoma tissues and normal postauricular skin tissues was investigated by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), immunohistochemical staining, and western blot. The correlation between bone resorption degree and HB-EGF expression was also analyzed. On average, compared with normal postauricular skin, expression of HB-EGF mRNA in the cholesteatoma epithelium was significantly elevated 2.41-fold by RT-qPCR, and HB-EGF protein significantly upregulated 2.32-fold by western blot. Positive HB-EGF immunostaining observed in the basal and suprabasal layers of cholesteatoma epithelium was significantly stronger than in normal postauricular skin. Meanwhile, an obviously positive correlation between HB-EGF protein expression and bone resorption degree was discovered.

  13. Excess HB-EGF, which promotes VEGF signaling, leads to hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Joon W.; Sandlund, Johanna; Hameed, Mustafa Q.; Blazer-Yost, Bonnie; Zhou, Feng C.; Klagsbrun, Michael; Madsen, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    Heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is an angiogenic factor mediating radial migration of the developing forebrain, while vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to influence rostral migratory stream in rodents. Cell migratory defects have been identified in animal models of hydrocephalus; however, the relationship between HB-EGF and hydrocephalus is unclear. We show that mice overexpressing human HB-EGF with β-galactosidase reporter exhibit an elevated VEGF, localization of β-galactosidase outside the subventricular zone (SVZ), subarachnoid hemorrhage, and ventriculomegaly. In Wistar polycystic kidney rats with hydrocephalus, alteration of migratory trajectory is detected. Furthermore, VEGF infusions into the rats result in ventriculomegaly with an increase of SVZ neuroblast in rostral migratory stream, whereas VEGF ligand inhibition prevents it. Our results support the idea that excess HB-EGF leads to a significant elevation of VEGF and ventricular dilatation. These data suggest a potential pathophysiological mechanism that elevated HB-EGF can elicit VEGF induction and hydrocephalus. PMID:27243144

  14. Targeting hepatic heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) induces anti-hyperlipidemia leading to reduction of angiotensin II-induced aneurysm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonwook; Yang, Lihua; Kim, Seongu; Lee, Richard G; Graham, Mark J; Berliner, Judith A; Lusis, Aldons J; Cai, Lei; Temel, Ryan E; Rateri, Debra L; Lee, Sangderk

    2017-01-01

    The upregulated expression of heparin binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in the vessel and circulation is associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we tested the effects of HB-EGF targeting using HB-EGF-specific antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) on the development of aortic aneurysm in a mouse aneurysm model. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) deficient mice (male, 16 weeks of age) were injected with control and HB-EGF ASOs for 10 weeks. To induce aneurysm, the mice were fed a high fat diet (22% fat, 0.2% cholesterol; w/w) at 5 week point of ASO administration and infused with angiotensin II (AngII, 1,000ng/kg/min) for the last 4 weeks of ASO administration. We confirmed that the HB-EGF ASO administration significantly downregulated HB-EGF expression in multiple tissues including the liver. Importantly, the HB-EGF ASO administration significantly suppressed development of aortic aneurysms including thoracic and abdominal types. Interestingly, the HB-EGF ASO administration induced a remarkable anti-hyperlipidemic effect by suppressing very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) level in the blood. Mechanistically, the HB-EGF targeting suppressed hepatic VLDL secretion rate without changing heparin-releasable plasma triglyceride (TG) hydrolytic activity or fecal neutral cholesterol excretion rate. This result suggested that the HB-EGF targeting induced protection against aneurysm development through anti-hyperlipidemic effects. Suppression of hepatic VLDL production process appears to be a key mechanism for the anti-hyperlipidemic effects by the HB-EGF targeting.

  15. Both Autocrine Signaling and Paracrine Signaling of HB-EGF Enhance Ocular Neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuki; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Shinsuke; Takata, Shinsuke; Hashimoto, Yuhei; Izawa, Hiroshi; Masuda, Tomomi; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Sakaue, Tomohisa; Nakayama, Hironao; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Hara, Hideaki

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of blindness is increasing because of the increase in abnormal ocular neovascularization. Anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) therapies have led to good results, although they are not a cure for the blindness. The purpose of this study was to determine what role HB-EGF (heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor) plays in ocular angiogenesis. We examined the role played by HB-EGF in ocular neovascularization in 2 animal models of neovascularization: laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and oxygen-induced retinopathy. We also studied human retinal microvascular endothelial cells in culture. Our results showed that the neovascularization was decreased in both the CNV and oxygen-induced retinopathy models in HB-EGF conditional knockout mice compared with that in wild-type mice. Moreover, the expressions of HB-EGF and VEGF were increased after laser-induced CNV and oxygen-induced retinopathy, and their expression sites were located around the neovascular areas. Exposure of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells to HB-EGF and VEGF increased their proliferation and migration, and CRM-197 (cross-reactive material-197), an HB-EGF inhibitor, decreased the HB-EGF-induced and VEGF-induced cell proliferation and migration. VEGF increased the expression of HB-EGF mRNA. VEGF-dependent activation of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor)/ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2) signaling and cell proliferation of endothelial cells required stimulation of the ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) and ADAM12. CRM-197 decreased the grades of the fluorescein angiograms and size of the CNV areas in marmoset monkeys. These findings suggest that HB-EGF plays an important role in the development of CNV. Therefore, further investigations of HB-EGF are needed as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Cell model for the study of receptor and regulatory functions of human proHB-EGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Korotkevych

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing of new models and approaches, particularly with fluorescent techniques, for investigation of intracellular transport of proHB-EGF and its ligand-receptor complexes is strongly required. In order to create a model for studying proHB-EGF functions the genetic construction pEGFP-N1-proHB-EGF, encoding proHB-EGF-EGFP which is fluorescent-labeled form of proHB-EGF with enhanced green fluorescent protein EGFP in the cytoplasmic terminus of the molecule, was obtained. Eukaryotic cells expressing fusion protein proHB-EGF-EGFP on the cell surface were obtained by transfection with pEGFP-N1-proHB-EGF. Expressed in the Vero cells proHB-EGF-EGFP could bind fluorescent derivative of nontoxic receptor-binding subunit B of diphtheria toxin mCherry-SubB. After stimulation of transfected cells with TPA (12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, proHB-EGF-EGFP formed a fluorescentl-labeled C-terminal fragment of the molecule – CTF-EGFP. Thus, the obtained genetic construction pEGFP-N1-proHB-EGF could be helpful in visualization of molecules proHB-EGF and CTF in cells, may open new possibilities for the studying of their functions, such as receptor function of proHB-EGF for diphtheria toxin, intracellular translocation of CTF and provide possibilities for natural proHB-EGF ligands search.

  17. Heparin-Binding EGF-like Growth Factor (HB-EGF) stimulates the proliferation of Müller glia-derived progenitor cells in avian and murine retinas

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    Todd, Levi; Volkov, Leo I.; Zelinka, Chris; Squires, Natalie; Fischer, Andy J.

    2015-01-01

    Müller glia can be stimulated to de-differentiate, proliferate and form Müller glia-derived progenitor cells (MGPCs) that regenerate retinal neurons. In the zebrafish retina, Heparin-Binding EGF-like Growth Factor (HB-EGF) may be one of the key factors that stimulate the formation of proliferating MGPCs. Currently nothing is known about the influence of HB-EGF on the proliferative potential of Müller glia in retinas of birds and rodents. In the chick retina, we found that levels of both hb-egf and egf-receptor are rapidly and transiently up-regulated following NMDA-induced damage. Although intraocular injections of HB-EGF failed to stimulate cell-signaling or proliferation of Müller glia in normal retinas, HB-EGF stimulated proliferation of MGPCs in damaged retinas. By comparison, inhibition of the EGF-receptor (EGFR) decreased the proliferation of MGPCs in damaged retinas. HB-EGF failed to act synergistically with FGF2 to stimulate the formation of MGPCs in the undamaged retina and inhibition of EGF-receptor did not suppress FGF2-mediated formation of MGPCs. In the mouse retina, HB-EGF stimulated the proliferation of Müller glia following NMDA-induced damage. Furthermore, HB-EGF stimulated not only MAPK-signaling in Müller glia/MGPCs, but also activated mTor- and Jak/Stat-signaling. We propose that levels of expression of EGFR are rate-limiting to the responses of Müller glia to HB-EGF and the expression of EGFR can be induced by retinal damage, but not by FGF2-treatment. We conclude that HB-EGF is mitogenic to Müller glia in both chick and mouse retinas, and HB-EGF is an important player in the formation of MGPCs in damaged retinas. PMID:26500021

  18. Identification of diphtheria toxin R domain mutants with enhanced inhibitory activity against HB-EGF.

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    Suzuki, Keisuke; Mizushima, Hiroto; Abe, Hiroyuki; Iwamoto, Ryo; Nakamura, Haruki; Mekada, Eisuke

    2015-05-01

    Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), a ligand of EGF receptor, is involved in the growth and malignant progression of cancers. Cross-reacting material 197, CRM197, a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (DT), specifically binds to the EGF-like domain of HB-EGF and inhibits its mitogenic activity, thus CRM197 is currently under evaluation in clinical trials for cancer therapy. To develop more potent DT mutants than CRM197, we screened various mutant proteins of R domain of DT, the binding site for HB-EGF. A variety of R-domain mutant proteins fused with maltose-binding protein were produced and their inhibitory activity was evaluated in vitro. We found four R domain mutants that showed much higher inhibitory activity against HB-EGF than wild-type (WT) R domain. These R domain mutants suppressed HB-EGF-dependent cell proliferation more effectively than WT R domain. Surface plasmon resonance revealed their higher affinity to HB-EGF than WT R domain. CRM197(R460H) carrying the newly identified mutation showed increased cell proliferation inhibitory activity and affinity to HB-EGF. These results suggest that CRM197(R460H) or other recombinant proteins carrying newly identified mutation(s) in the R domain are potential therapeutics targeting HB-EGF. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  19. TGFβ induces proHB-EGF shedding and EGFR transactivation through ADAM activation in gastric cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebi, Masahide; Kataoka, Hiromi; Shimura, Takaya; Kubota, Eiji; Hirata, Yoshikazu; Mizushima, Takashi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Mamoru; Mabuchi, Motoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Tanida, Satoshi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Joh, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → TGFβ induces EGFR transactivation through proHB-EGF shedding by activated ADAM members in gastric cancer cells. → TGFβ induces nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF cleaved by ADAM members. → TGFβ enhances cell growth by EGFR transactivation and HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and ADAM inhibitors block these effects. → Silencing of ADAM17 also blocks EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and cancer cell growth by TGFβ. → ADAM17 may play a crucial role in this TGFβ-HB-EGF signal transduction. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) is known to potently inhibit cell growth. Loss of responsiveness to TGFβ inhibition on cell growth is a hallmark of many types of cancer, yet its mechanism is not fully understood. Membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) ectodomain is cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) members and is implicated in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation. Recently, nuclear translocation of the C-terminal fragment (CTF) of pro-HB-EGF was found to induce cell growth. We investigated the association between TGFβ and HB-EGF signal transduction via ADAM activation. Materials and methods: The CCK-8 assay in two gastric cancer cell lines was used to determine the effect for cell growth by TGFβ. The effect of two ADAM inhibitors was also evaluated. Induction of EGFR phosphorylation by TGFβ was analyzed and the effect of the ADAM inhibitors was also examined. Nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF by shedding through ADAM activated by TGFβ was also analyzed. EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation, and cell growth were examined under the condition of ADAM17 knockdown. Result: TGFβ-induced EGFR phosphorylation of which ADAM inhibitors were able to inhibit. TGFβ induced shedding of proHB-EGF allowing HB-EGF-CTF to translocate to the nucleus. ADAM inhibitors blocked this nuclear translocation. TGF

  20. HB-EGF is necessary and sufficient for Müller glia dedifferentiation and retina regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jin; Ramachandran, Rajesh; Goldman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Summary Müller glia (MG) dedifferentiation into a cycling population of multipotent progenitors is crucial to zebrafish retina regeneration. The mechanisms underlying MG dedifferentiation are unknown. Here we report that heparin-binding epidermal-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is rapidly induced in MG residing at the injury site and that proHB-EGF ectodomain shedding is necessary for retina regeneration. Remarkably, HB-EGF stimulates the formation of multipotent MG-derived progenitors in the uninjured retina. We show that HB-EGF mediates its effects via an EGFR/MAPK signal transduction cascade that regulates the expression of regeneration-associated genes, like ascl1a and pax6b. We also uncover an HB-EGF/Ascl1a/Notch/hb-egfa signaling loop that helps define the zone of injury-responsive MG. Finally, we show that HB-EGF acts upstream of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade that controls progenitor proliferation. These data provide a link between extracellular signaling and regeneration-associated gene expression in the injured retina and suggest strategies for stimulating retina regeneration in mammals. PMID:22340497

  1. Helicobacter pylori-Induced HB-EGF Upregulates Gastrin Expression via the EGF Receptor, C-Raf, Mek1, and Erk2 in the MAPK Pathway

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    Niluka Gunawardhana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is associated with hypergastrinemia, which has been linked to the development of gastric diseases. Although the molecular mechanism is not fully understood, H. pylori is known to modulate the Erk pathway for induction of gastrin expression. Herein we found that an epidermal growth factor (EGF receptor kinase inhibitor significantly blocked H. pylori-induced gastrin promoter activity, suggesting involvement of EGF receptor ligands. Indeed, H. pylori induced mRNA expression of EGF family members such as amphiregulin, EGF, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF, and transforming growth factor-α. Of these, specific siRNA targeting of HB-EGF significantly blocked H. pylori-induced gastrin expression. Moreover, H. pylori induced HB-EGF ectodomain shedding, which we found to be a critical process for H. pylori-induced gastrin expression. Thus, we demonstrate a novel role for human mature HB-EGF in stimulating gastrin promoter activity during H. pylori infection. Further investigation using specific siRNAs targeting each isoform of Raf, Mek, and Erk elucidated that the mechanism underlying H. pylori-induced gastrin expression can be delineated as the sequential activation of HB-EGF, the EGF receptor, C-Raf, Mek1, and the Erk2 molecules in the MAPK pathway. Surprisingly, whereas Erk2 acts as a potent activator of gastrin expression, siRNA knockdown of Erk1 induced gastrin promoter activity, suggesting that Erk1 typically acts as a repressor of gastrin expression. Elucidation of the mechanism of gastrin modulation by HB-EGF-mediated EGF receptor transactivation should facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies against H. pylori-related hypergastrinemia and consequently gastric disease development, including gastric cancers.

  2. Helicobacter pylori-Induced HB-EGF Upregulates Gastrin Expression via the EGF Receptor, C-Raf, Mek1, and Erk2 in the MAPK Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardhana, Niluka; Jang, Sungil; Choi, Yun Hui; Hong, Youngmin A; Jeon, Yeong-Eui; Kim, Aeryun; Su, Hanfu; Kim, Ji-Hye; Yoo, Yun-Jung; Merrell, D Scott; Kim, Jinmoon; Cha, Jeong-Heon

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is associated with hypergastrinemia, which has been linked to the development of gastric diseases. Although the molecular mechanism is not fully understood, H. pylori is known to modulate the Erk pathway for induction of gastrin expression. Herein we found that an epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor kinase inhibitor significantly blocked H. pylori -induced gastrin promoter activity, suggesting involvement of EGF receptor ligands. Indeed, H. pylori induced mRNA expression of EGF family members such as amphiregulin, EGF, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), and transforming growth factor-α. Of these, specific siRNA targeting of HB-EGF significantly blocked H. pylori -induced gastrin expression. Moreover, H. pylori induced HB-EGF ectodomain shedding, which we found to be a critical process for H. pylori -induced gastrin expression. Thus, we demonstrate a novel role for human mature HB-EGF in stimulating gastrin promoter activity during H. pylori infection. Further investigation using specific siRNAs targeting each isoform of Raf, Mek, and Erk elucidated that the mechanism underlying H. pylori -induced gastrin expression can be delineated as the sequential activation of HB-EGF, the EGF receptor, C-Raf, Mek1, and the Erk2 molecules in the MAPK pathway. Surprisingly, whereas Erk2 acts as a potent activator of gastrin expression, siRNA knockdown of Erk1 induced gastrin promoter activity, suggesting that Erk1 typically acts as a repressor of gastrin expression. Elucidation of the mechanism of gastrin modulation by HB-EGF-mediated EGF receptor transactivation should facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies against H. pylori -related hypergastrinemia and consequently gastric disease development, including gastric cancers.

  3. Changes in proHB-EGF expression after functional activation of the immune system cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Chudina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of proHB-EGF expression on J774, Raji, KG-1 cells derived from different types of human and mouse immune system cells under the standard in vitro culture conditions and during functional activation of these cells was investigated. Changes in the proHB-EGF expression on the cell surface were found to depend on the density of cell population, the content of fetal bovine serum in the culture medium, the effect of mitogenic factors – bacterial lipopolysaccharide, an inactive full-size form of diphtheria toxin (CRM197 and recombinant soluble HB-EGF – rsHB-EGF. The results obtained are important for the understanding of the functional role of proHB-EGF receptor on the surface of macrophage-like cells and B lymphocytes and indicate the involvement of this receptor in immune response regulation in an organism.

  4. TGF{beta} induces proHB-EGF shedding and EGFR transactivation through ADAM activation in gastric cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebi, Masahide [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Hiromi, E-mail: hkataoka@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Shimura, Takaya; Kubota, Eiji; Hirata, Yoshikazu; Mizushima, Takashi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Mamoru; Mabuchi, Motoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Tanida, Satoshi; Kamiya, Takeshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Higashiyama, Shigeki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime (Japan); Joh, Takashi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan)

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} TGF{beta} induces EGFR transactivation through proHB-EGF shedding by activated ADAM members in gastric cancer cells. {yields} TGF{beta} induces nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF cleaved by ADAM members. {yields} TGF{beta} enhances cell growth by EGFR transactivation and HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and ADAM inhibitors block these effects. {yields} Silencing of ADAM17 also blocks EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and cancer cell growth by TGF{beta}. {yields} ADAM17 may play a crucial role in this TGF{beta}-HB-EGF signal transduction. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF{beta}) is known to potently inhibit cell growth. Loss of responsiveness to TGF{beta} inhibition on cell growth is a hallmark of many types of cancer, yet its mechanism is not fully understood. Membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) ectodomain is cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) members and is implicated in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation. Recently, nuclear translocation of the C-terminal fragment (CTF) of pro-HB-EGF was found to induce cell growth. We investigated the association between TGF{beta} and HB-EGF signal transduction via ADAM activation. Materials and methods: The CCK-8 assay in two gastric cancer cell lines was used to determine the effect for cell growth by TGF{beta}. The effect of two ADAM inhibitors was also evaluated. Induction of EGFR phosphorylation by TGF{beta} was analyzed and the effect of the ADAM inhibitors was also examined. Nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF by shedding through ADAM activated by TGF{beta} was also analyzed. EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation, and cell growth were examined under the condition of ADAM17 knockdown. Result: TGF{beta}-induced EGFR phosphorylation of which ADAM inhibitors were able to inhibit. TGF{beta} induced shedding of proHB-EGF allowing HB-EGF-CTF to

  5. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-induced impairment of Aβ clearance requires HB-EGF-dependent sequential activation of HIF1α and MMP9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Anushruti; Rai, Nagendra Kumar; Raza, Waseem; Pandey, Rukmani; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra

    2016-11-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) manifests Alzheimer's Disease (AD) neuropathology, marked by increased amyloid beta (Aβ). Besides, hypoxia stimulates Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) mRNA expression in the hippocampus. However, involvement of HB-EGF in CCH-induced Aβ pathology remains unidentified. Here, using Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion mouse model, we explored the mechanism of HB-EGF regulated Aβ induction in CCH. We found that HB-EGF inhibition suppressed, while exogenous-HB-EGF triggered hippocampal Aβ, proving HB-EGF-dependent Aβ increase. We also detected that HB-EGF affected the expression of primary Aβ transporters, receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1), indicating impaired Aβ clearance across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). An HB-EGF-dependent loss in BBB integrity supported impaired Aβ clearance. The effect of HB-EGF on Amyloid Precursor Protein pathway was relatively insignificant, suggesting a lesser effect on Aβ generation. Delving into BBB disruption mechanism demonstrated HB-EGF-mediated stimulation of Matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP9), which affected BBB via HB-EGF-ectodomain shedding and epidermal growth factor receptor activation. Examining the intersection of HB-EGF-regulated pathway and hypoxia revealed HB-EGF-dependent increase in transcription factor, Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF1α). Further, via binding to hypoxia-responsive elements in MMP9 gene, HIF1α stimulated MMP9 expression, and therefore appeared as a prominent intermediary in HB-EGF-induced BBB damage. Overall, our study reveals the essential role of HB-EGF in triggering CCH-mediated Aβ accumulation. The proposed mechanism involves an HB-EGF-dependent HIF1α increase, generating MMP9 that stimulates soluble-HB-EGF/EGFR-induced BBB disintegration. Consequently, CCH-mediated hippocampal RAGE and LRP-1 deregulation together with BBB damage impair Aβ transport and clearance

  6. Serum Heparin-binding Epidermal Growth Factor-like Growth Factor (HB-EGF) as a Biomarker for Primary Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kohei; Yotsumoto, Fusanori; Fukagawa, Satoshi; Kiyoshima, Chihiro; Ouk, Nam Sung; Urushiyama, Daichi; Ito, Tomohiro; Katsuda, Takahiro; Kurakazu, Masamitsu; Araki, Ryota; Sanui, Ayako; Miyahara, Daisuke; Murata, Masaharu; Shirota, Kyoko; Yagi, Hiroshi; Takono, Tadao; Kato, Kiyoko; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Akazawa, Kohei; Kuroki, Masahide; Yasunaga, Shin'ichiro; Miyamoto, Shingo

    2017-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal malignancy among gynaecological cancers. Although many anticancer agents have been developed for the treatment of ovarian cancer, it continues to have an extremely poor prognosis. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like grown factor (HB-EGF) has been reported to be a rational therapeutic target for ovarian cancer. Here, we evaluated the clinical significance of serum HB-EGF by examining the association between prognosis and serum HB-EGF levels in patients with primary ovarian cancer. We found that high serum HB-EGF concentrations were significantly associated with poor prognosis in a combined cohort of patients with all stages of ovarian cancer, as well as in a subset of patients with advanced disease. In addition, serum HB-EGF levels increased as the cancer advanced. These data suggest that serum HB-EGF may be a target for the design of novel therapies for ovarian cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is increased in osteoarthritis and regulates chondrocyte catabolic and anabolic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, D.L.; Ulici, V.; Chubinskaya, S.; Loeser, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We determined if the epidermal growth factor receptor ligand HB-EGF is produced in cartilage and if it regulates chondrocyte anabolic or catabolic activity. Methods HB-EGF expression was measured by quantitative PCR using RNA isolated from mouse knee joint tissues and from normal and OA human chondrocytes. Immunohistochemistry was performed on normal and OA human cartilage and meniscus sections. Cultured chondrocytes were treated with fibronectin fragments (FN-f) as a catabolic stimulus and osteogenic protein 1 (OP-1) as an anabolic stimulus. Effects of HB-EGF on cell signaling were analyzed by immunoblotting of selected signaling proteins. MMP-13 was measured in conditioned media, proteoglycan synthesis was measured by sulfate incorporation, and matrix gene expression by quantitative PCR. Results HB-EGF expression was increased in 12-month old mice at 8 weeks after surgery to induce OA and increased amounts of HB-EGF were noted in human articular cartilage from OA knees. FN-f stimulated chondrocyte HB-EGF expression and HB-EGF stimulated chondrocyte MMP-13 production. However, HB-EGF was not required for FN-f stimulation of MMP-13 production. HB-EGF activated the ERK and p38 MAP kinases and stimulated phosphorylation of Smad1 at an inhibitory serine site which was associated with inhibition of OP-1 mediated proteoglycan synthesis and reduced aggrecan (ACAN) but not COL2A1 expression. Conclusion HB-EGF is a new factor identified in OA cartilage that promotes chondrocyte catabolic activity while inhibiting anabolic activity suggesting it could contribute to the catabolic-anabolic imbalance seen in OA cartilage. PMID:25937027

  8. Serous carcinomatous component championed by heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) predisposing to metastasis and recurrence in stage I uterine malignant mixed mullerian tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Shimizu, David; Killeen, Jeffrey L; Honda, Stacey A; Lu, Di; Stanoyevitch, Alexander; Lin, Fritz; Wang, Beverly; Monuki, Edwin S; Carbone, Michele

    2016-07-01

    The stage I uterine malignant mixed mullerian tumor (MMMT) shows different potential for progression. We reason that MMMTs with high-grade carcinomatous component and positivity for HB-EGF are prone to recurrence/metastasis in the early stage. A retrospective clinical and histopathologic review with immunohistochemical staining for HB-EGF, EGFR, and integrin-α5 was performed for 62 surgically staged MMMT cases. Recurrence/metastasis (RM) is 6/18 (33%) in stage I disease. Of all the clinicopathologic variables and biomarkers analyzed for stage I MMMT, serous carcinomatous component (83% [5/6] versus 17% [1/12], P = .0015) and HB-EGF expression (100% [6/6] versus 50% [6/12], P=.0339) were significantly different between groups with RM and without RM. The presence of serous carcinoma in all stages was 83% (5/6) in stage I with RM, 8% (1/12) in stage I without RM, 20% (1/5) in stage II, 36.4% (8/22) in stage III and 64.7% (11/17) in stage IV; this was paralleled by HB-EGF expression of 100% (6/6), 50% (6/12), 40% (2/5), 50% (11/22) and 71% (12/17) with a correlation coefficient r=0.9131 (P=.027). HB-EGF and integrin-α5 were highly expressed in MMMTs bearing serous carcinoma component, compared to endometrioid and unclassifiable/miscellaneous subtypes (84.6%/47.6%/33.3%, P=.025 for HB-EGF; and 61.5%/42.9%/20.0%, P=.021 for integrin-α5). The EGFR positivity was comparable among the three subtypes (48.1%, 47.6% and 26.7%, P=.326). This study indicates that serous carcinomatous component championed by expression of HB-EGF predisposes to recurrence/metastasis in stage I MMMT. This process might involve integrin-α5 and does not seem to require overexpression of EGFR. Further study is required. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Up-regulation of HB-EGF by the COX-2/PGE2 signaling associates with the cisplatin resistance and tumor recurrence of advanced HNSCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Chieh; Tu, Hsi-Feng; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Chang, Hsiu-Chuan; Chiang, Wei-Fan; Shih, Nai-Chia; Lee, Yong-Syu; Kao, Shou-Yen; Chang, Kuo-Wei

    2016-05-01

    When treating advanced HNSCC, a cisplatin-based systemic regimen benefit patient survival. However, chemoresistance will greatly reduce the effectiveness of this approach. The identification of molecules that contribute to cisplatin resistance may potentially improve the survival. Both HB-EGF and COX-2 have been reported to increase cisplatin-resistance. Here, we have focused on the regulation of HB-EGF/COX-2 and their roles in cisplatin resistance. IHC staining was used to measure the expression levels of HB-EGF and COX-2 on the tissue microarray from 43 tissue samples of patients with advanced HNSCC. siRNA, western blot and qRT-PCR were used to dissect the regulation between EGF, Akt, COX-2, PGE2, and cisplatin sensitivity. The correlation between HB-EGF, COX2 and HNSCC progression was analyzed by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Kaplan-Meier disease free survival. Patients of advanced HNSCC patients with increased HB-EGF and COX-2 expression have higher tumor recurrent rates that was related to cisplatin resistance. The resistance was mediated via an increased expression of HB-EGF and COX-2. The activation of Akt by either EGF or areca nut extract were able to upregulate COX-2, which would increase the expression of HB-EGF in a PGE2 dependent manner. Inhibition and knockdown of COX-2 resulted in a decrease in HB-EGF. In the tissue samples from HNSCC patients, there was a significant positive correlation between the expression of COX-2 and HB-EGF. Our results suggested that COX-2 and HB-EGF are important in development of HNSCC cisplatin resistance. These findings may help the development of new strategies for overcoming cisplatin resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. ST6Gal1, Cox-2 and HB-EGF mRNA Expression in Breast Cancer

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    Aliakbar Taherian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: ST6Gal1, Cox-2 and HB-EGF genes are involved in different tumors and their enhanced expressions often correlate with poor prognosis. In this study we assay the expressions of these genes by reverse transcriptase-PCR in 54 breast cancer samples. Methods: Tissue samples were either formalin-fixed for histopathological examination or frozen for reverse transcriptase-PCR. Image program was used for the densitometry of the image of the gels and the expression of different genes was normalized with beta actin expression. The student's t-test and correlation matrix were used for data analyses. Results: We observed significantly higher expressions of ST6Gal1 (P= 0.040, Cox- 2 (P= 0.001 and HB-EGF (P= 0.009 in the tumor region compared to the margin samples. A significant correlation was found between HB-EGF and Cox-2 expression (P= 0.001. There was a positive correlation between total score, tumor size, histology grade and nuclear grade but there was a reverse correlation between age and tumor size, histology grade and total score. Conclusion: Expressions of ST6Gal1, Cox-2 and HB-EGF in breast tumor samples in this and a number of other studies emphasize their role as important markers in breast cancer. The use of medications to inhibit either their individual expressions or the possible inhibition of all three genes may improve patient survival and prevent metastasis.

  11. Contribution of transcription factor, SP1, to the promotion of HB-EGF expression in defense mechanism against the treatment of irinotecan in ovarian clear cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Kohei; Yotsumoto, Fusanori; Nam, Sung Ouk; Odawara, Takashi; Manabe, Sadao; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Itamochi, Hiroaki; Kigawa, Junzo; Takada, Shuji; Asahara, Hiroshi; Kuroki, Masahide; Miyamoto, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is a worst histological subtype than other ovarian malignant tumor. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a promising target for ovarian cancer therapy. The aims of this study were to validate the efficacy of HB-EGF–targeted therapy for OCCC and to identify the transcription factor that contributed to the induction of HB-EGF by SN38 treatment in OCCC cells. HB-EGF was highly expressed in OCCC cells, and an increase of HB-EGF was induced by SN38 which had only antitumor effect among conventional anticancer agents on OCCC. A specific inhibitor of HB-EGF, a cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197), led to a synergistic increase in the number of apoptotic OCCC cells with the treatment of SN38. The luciferase assay with 5′-deletion promoter constructs identified a GC-rich element between −125 and −178 (the distal transcription start site was denoted +1) as a cis-regulatory region, and the treatment of SN38 induced luciferase activity in this region. An in silico and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis estimated that SP1 bound to the cis-regulatory region of HB-EGF in OCCC cells. Real-time PCR and cell viability assays showed that the transfection of a small interfering RNA targeting SP1 suppressed the expression of HB-EGF induced by SN38, resulting in the enhanced sensitivity of SN38. Taken together, these results indicate that induction of HB-EGF expression contributed to defense mechanism against treatment of SN38 through the transcriptional activity of SP1 in OCCC cells

  12. A mouse model of otitis media identifies HB-EGF as a mediator of inflammation-induced mucosal proliferation.

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    Keigo Suzukawa

    Full Text Available Otitis media is one of the most common pediatric infections. While it is usually treated without difficulty, up to 20% of children may progress to long-term complications that include hearing loss, impaired speech and language development, academic underachievement, and irreversible disease. Hyperplasia of middle ear mucosa contributes to the sequelae of acute otitis media and is of important clinical significance. Understanding the role of growth factors in the mediation of mucosal hyperplasia could lead to the development of new therapeutic interventions for this disease and its sequelae.From a whole genome gene array analysis of mRNA expression during acute otitis media, we identified growth factors with expression kinetics temporally related to hyperplasia. We then tested these factors for their ability to stimulate mucosal epithelial growth in vitro, and determined protein levels and histological distribution in vivo for active factors.From the gene array, we identified seven candidate growth factors with upregulation of mRNA expression kinetics related to mucosal hyperplasia. Of the seven, only HB-EGF (heparin-binding-epidermal growth factor induced significant mucosal epithelial hyperplasia in vitro. Subsequent quantification of HB-EGF protein expression in vivo via Western blot analysis confirmed that the protein is highly expressed from 6 hours to 24 hours after bacterial inoculation, while immunohistochemistry revealed production by middle ear epithelial cells and infiltrating lymphocytes.Our data suggest an active role for HB-EGF in the hyperplasia of the middle ear mucosal epithelium during otitis media. These results imply that therapies targeting HB-EGF could ameliorate mucosal growth during otitis media, and thereby reduce detrimental sequelae of this childhood disease.

  13. [Effect of total flavones from Cuscuta chinensis on expression of Fas/FasL, PCNA and HB-EGF in SD rats model with bromocriptine-induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Xia; You, Zhao-Ling; Wang, Xiao-Yun

    2008-11-01

    To explore the effect of total flavones from cuscuta chinensis (TFCC) on expression of Fas, PCNA and HB-EGF in SD rats model with bromocriptine-induced abortion. The model rats of bromocriptine during 6-8 d of pregnancy induced early abortion was established, adopting respectively herbs in high and low dosage and progesterone affect model rat and after 12 d, Immunohistochemical was applied to determine Fas, HB-EGF and PCNA in deciduas and placenta. Expression of PCNA on trophoblast and deciduas, HB-EGF on trophoblast, PR on deciduas in the model used Semen cuscutae flavonoid, proesterone and normal pregnacy, were significantlly higher than those of the pure model. Expression of Fas on trophoblast and deciduas in above four groups, were significantlly lower than those of the pure model. There were no expression of HB-EGF on deciduas. TFCC regulates the proliferation and apoptosis of the deciduas and cytotrophoblasts and prevents spontaneous abortions.

  14. Insulin induces a transcriptional activation of epiregulin, HB-EGF and amphiregulin, by a PI3K-dependent mechanism: Identification of a specific insulin-responsive promoter element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornskov, Dorthe; Nexo, Ebba; Sorensen, Boe S.

    2007-01-01

    Previously we have shown that insulin-stimulation of RT4 bladder cancer cells leads to increased proliferation, which require HER1 activation, and is accompanied by increased mRNA expression of the EGF-ligands heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), amphiregulin (AR), and epiregulin (EPI) [D. Ornskov, E. Nexo, B.S. Sorensen, Insulin-induced proliferation of bladder cancer cells is mediated through activation of the epidermal growth factor system, FEBS J. 273 (2006) 5479-5489]. In the present paper, we have investigated the molecular mechanism leading to this insulin-induced expression. We monitored the decay of mRNA after inhibiting transcription with Actinomycin D and demonstrated that the insulin-mediated increase was not caused by enhanced mRNA stability. In untreated cells, HB-EGF mRNA was the least stable, whereas AR and EPI mRNA decayed with slower kinetics. However, promoter analysis of HB-EGF and EPI demonstrated that insulin stimulated transcription. Studies on the EPI promoter identified the insulin-responsive element to be located in the region -564 to -365 bp. This region contains potential binding sites for the transcription factors SP1, AP1, and NF-κB. Interestingly, all three transcription factors can be activated by PI3K. We demonstrate that the insulin-induced expression of HB-EGF, AR, and EPI mRNA is completely prevented by the specific PI3K inhibitor Wortmannin, suggesting an involvement of the PI3K

  15. Annexin A2 and its downstream IL-6 and HB-EGF as secretory biomarkers in the differential diagnosis of Her-2 negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Praveenkumar; Patil, Vidya S; Mohan, Rajashekar; D'souza, Leonard Clinton; Bargale, Anil; Patil, Basavaraj R; Dinesh, U S; Haridas, Vikram; Kulkarni, Shrirang P

    2017-07-01

    Background AnnexinA2 (AnxA2) membrane deposition has a critical role in HB-EGF shedding as well as IL-6 secretion in breast cancer cells. This autocrine cycle has a major role in cancer cell proliferation, migration and metastasis. The objective of the study is to demonstrate annexinA2-mediated autocrine regulation via HB-EGF and IL-6 in Her-2 negative breast cancer progression. Methods Secretory annexinA2, HB-EGF and IL-6 were analysed in the peripheral blood sample of Her-2 negative ( n = 20) and positive breast cancer patients ( n = 16). Simultaneously, tissue expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry. The membrane deposition of these secretory ligands and their autocrine regulation was demonstrated using triple-negative breast cancer cell line model. Results Annexina2 and HB-EGF expression are inversely correlated with Her-2, whereas IL-6 expression is seen in both Her-2 negative and positive breast cancer cells. RNA interference studies and upregulation of annexinA2 proved that annexinA2 is the upstream of this autocrine pathway. Abundant soluble serum annexinA2 is secreted in Her-2 negative breast cancer (359.28 ± 63.73 ng/mL) compared with normal (286.10 ± 70.04 ng/mL, P breast cancer phenotypes as compared with normal ( P breast cancer tissues, increased secretion compared with normal cells, and their major role in the regulation of EGFR downstream signalling makes these molecules as a potential tissue and serum biomarker and an excellent therapeutic target in Her-2 negative breast cancer.

  16. Additional disulfide bonds in insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N; Pettersson, Ingrid; Huus, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The structure of insulin, a glucose homeostasis-controlling hormone, is highly conserved in all vertebrates and stabilized by three disulfide bonds. Recently, we designed a novel insulin analogue containing a fourth disulfide bond located between positions A10-B4. The N-terminus of insulin's B......-chain is flexible and can adapt multiple conformations. We examined how well disulfide bond predictions algorithms could identify disulfide bonds in this region of insulin. In order to identify stable insulin analogues with additional disulfide bonds, which could be expressed, the Cβ cut-off distance had...... in comparison to analogues with additional disulfide bonds that were more difficult to predict. In contrast, addition of the fourth disulfide bond rendered all analogues resistant to fibrillation under stress conditions and all stable analogues bound to the insulin receptor with picomolar affinities. Thus...

  17. Conditional loss of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor results in enhanced liver fibrosis after bile duct ligation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemura, Takayo; Yoshida, Yuichi [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kiso, Shinichi, E-mail: kiso@gh.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kizu, Takashi; Furuta, Kunimaro; Ezaki, Hisao; Hamano, Mina; Egawa, Mayumi; Chatani, Norihiro; Kamada, Yoshihiro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Imai, Yasuharu [Department of Gastroenterology, Ikeda Municipal Hospital, Ikeda, Osaka (Japan); Higashiyama, Shigeki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Ehime University, Graduate School of Medicine and Department of Cell Growth and Tumor Regulation, Proteo-Medicine Research Center (ProMRes), Ehime University, Shitsukawa, Toon, Ehime (Japan); Iwamoto, Ryo; Mekada, Eisuke [Department of Cell Biology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Takehara, Tetsuo [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan)

    2013-07-26

    Highlights: •HB-EGF expression was increased during the development of liver fibrosis. •Conditional HB-EGF knockout mouse showed enhanced experimental liver fibrosis. •HB-EGF antagonized TGF-β-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells. •We report a possible protective role of HB-EGF in cholestatic liver fibrosis. -- Abstract: Our aims were to evaluate the involvement of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in liver fibrogenesis of humans and mice and to elucidate the effect of HB-EGF deficiency on cholestatic liver fibrosis using conditional HB-EGF knockout (KO) mice. We first demonstrated that gene expression of HB-EGF had a positive significant correlation with that of collagen in human fibrotic livers, and was increased in bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced fibrotic livers in mouse. We then generated conditional HB-EGF knockout (KO) mice using the interferon inducible Mx-1 promoter driven Cre recombinase transgene and wild type (WT) and KO mice were subjected to BDL. After BDL, KO mice exhibited enhanced liver fibrosis with increased expression of collagen, compared with WT mice. Finally, we used mouse hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to examine the role of HB-EGF in the activation of these cells and showed that HB-EGF antagonized TGF-β-induced gene expression of collagen in mouse primary HSCs. Interestingly, HB-EGF did not prevent the TGF-β-induced nuclear accumulation of Smad3, but did lead to stabilization of the Smad transcriptional co-repressor TG-interacting factor. In conclusion, our data suggest a possible protective role of HB-EGF in cholestatic liver fibrosis.

  18. Conditional loss of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor results in enhanced liver fibrosis after bile duct ligation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, Takayo; Yoshida, Yuichi; Kiso, Shinichi; Kizu, Takashi; Furuta, Kunimaro; Ezaki, Hisao; Hamano, Mina; Egawa, Mayumi; Chatani, Norihiro; Kamada, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yasuharu; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Iwamoto, Ryo; Mekada, Eisuke; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •HB-EGF expression was increased during the development of liver fibrosis. •Conditional HB-EGF knockout mouse showed enhanced experimental liver fibrosis. •HB-EGF antagonized TGF-β-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells. •We report a possible protective role of HB-EGF in cholestatic liver fibrosis. -- Abstract: Our aims were to evaluate the involvement of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in liver fibrogenesis of humans and mice and to elucidate the effect of HB-EGF deficiency on cholestatic liver fibrosis using conditional HB-EGF knockout (KO) mice. We first demonstrated that gene expression of HB-EGF had a positive significant correlation with that of collagen in human fibrotic livers, and was increased in bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced fibrotic livers in mouse. We then generated conditional HB-EGF knockout (KO) mice using the interferon inducible Mx-1 promoter driven Cre recombinase transgene and wild type (WT) and KO mice were subjected to BDL. After BDL, KO mice exhibited enhanced liver fibrosis with increased expression of collagen, compared with WT mice. Finally, we used mouse hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to examine the role of HB-EGF in the activation of these cells and showed that HB-EGF antagonized TGF-β-induced gene expression of collagen in mouse primary HSCs. Interestingly, HB-EGF did not prevent the TGF-β-induced nuclear accumulation of Smad3, but did lead to stabilization of the Smad transcriptional co-repressor TG-interacting factor. In conclusion, our data suggest a possible protective role of HB-EGF in cholestatic liver fibrosis

  19. Use of SLAM and PVRL4 and identification of pro-HB-EGF as cell entry receptors for wild type phocine distemper virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M Melia

    Full Text Available Signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM has been identified as an immune cell receptor for the morbilliviruses, measles (MV, canine distemper (CDV, rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants (PPRV viruses, while CD46 is a receptor for vaccine strains of MV. More recently poliovirus like receptor 4 (PVRL4, also known as nectin 4, has been identified as a receptor for MV, CDV and PPRV on the basolateral surface of polarised epithelial cells. PVRL4 is also up-regulated by MV in human brain endothelial cells. Utilisation of PVRL4 as a receptor by phocine distemper virus (PDV remains to be demonstrated as well as confirmation of use of SLAM. We have observed that unlike wild type (wt MV or wtCDV, wtPDV strains replicate in African green monkey kidney Vero cells without prior adaptation, suggesting the use of a further receptor. We therefore examined candidate molecules, glycosaminoglycans (GAG and the tetraspan proteins, integrin β and the membrane bound form of heparin binding epithelial growth factor (proHB-EGF,for receptor usage by wtPDV in Vero cells. We show that wtPDV replicates in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells expressing SLAM and PVRL4. Similar wtPDV titres are produced in Vero and VeroSLAM cells but more limited fusion occurs in the latter. Infection of Vero cells was not inhibited by anti-CD46 antibody. Removal/disruption of GAG decreased fusion but not the titre of virus. Treatment with anti-integrin β antibody increased rather than decreased infection of Vero cells by wtPDV. However, infection was inhibited by antibody to HB-EGF and the virus replicated in CHO-proHB-EGF cells, indicating use of this molecule as a receptor. Common use of SLAM and PVRL4 by morbilliviruses increases the possibility of cross-species infection. Lack of a requirement for wtPDV adaptation to Vero cells raises the possibility of usage of proHB-EGF as a receptor in vivo but requires further investigation.

  20. Cellular senescence of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) is associated with an altered MMP-7/HB-EGF signaling and increased formation of elastin-like structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Catharina; Hass, Ralf

    2009-10-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) and a complex interplay of cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix (ECM) interactions provide important platforms to determine cellular senescence and a potentially tumorigenic transformation of normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). An enhanced formation of extracellular filaments, consisting of elastin-like structures, in senescent post-selection HMEC populations was paralleled by a significantly increased expression of its precursor protein tropoelastin and matched with a markedly elevated activity of the cross-linking enzyme family of lysyl oxidases (LOX). RNAi experiments revealed both the ECM metalloproteinase MMP-7 and the growth factor HB-EGF as potential effectors of an increased tropoelastin expression. Moreover, co-localization of MMP-7 and HB-EGF as well as a concomittant downstream signaling via Fra-1 indicated a possible association between the reduced MMP-7 enzyme activity and an impaired HB-EGF processing, resulting in an enhanced tropoelastin synthesis during senescence of HMEC. In agreement with previous work, these findings suggested an important influence of the extracellular proteinase MMP-7 on the aging process of HMEC, affecting both extracellular remodeling as well as intracellular signaling pathways.

  1. Pharmacological inhibition of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor promotes peritoneal angiogenesis in a peritoneal dialysis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenyuan; Yan, Hao; Yuan, Jiangzi; Cao, Liou; Lin, Aiwu; Dai, Huili; Ni, Zhaohui; Qian, Jiaqi; Fang, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Molecular mechanisms of peritoneal dialysis (PD) ultrafiltration failure, peritoneal neo-angiogenesis, and fibrosis remain to be determined. We aimed to determine the role of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) inhibition on angiogenesis of peritoneal membrane in a PD rat model. 32 male Wistar rats were assigned into (1) control group; (2) uremic non-PD group: subtotal nephrectomy-induced uremic rats without PD; (3) uremic rats subjected to PD: uremic rats that were dialyzed with Dianeal ® for 4 weeks; (4) CRM 197 group: dialyzed uremic rats were supplemented with CRM197, a specific HB-EGF inhibitor. Peritoneal transport function was examined by peritoneal equilibration test. Expression of HB-EGF and EGFR in peritoneal samples were examined by real-time PCR, immunohistochemical staining, and western blot. Progressive angiogenesis and fibrosis were observed in uremic PD rats, and there were associated with decreased net ultrafiltration (nUF), increased permeability of peritoneal membrane, and reduced expression of HB-EGF and EGFR protein and mRNA in uremic PD rats compared to uremic non-PD or control groups (both p CRM197 significantly induced peritoneal membrane permeability, decreased nUF, increased higher vessel density, and reduced pericyte count compared to that of uremic PD rats. The levels of HB-EGF and EGFR expression negatively correlated with vessel density in peritoneal membrane (both p < 0.001). PD therapy was associated with peritoneal angiogenesis, functional deterioration, and downregulation of HB-EGF/EGFR. Pharmacological inhibition of HB-EGF promoted PD-induced peritoneal angiogenesis and fibrosis and ultrafiltration decline, suggesting that HB-EGF downregulation contributes to peritoneal functional deterioration in the uremic PD rat model.

  2. The heparin-binding domain of HB-EGF as an efficient cell-penetrating peptide for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhao; Cao, Xue-Wei; Li, Chen; Wu, Miao-Dan; Yang, Xu-Zhong; Zhao, Jian; Wang, Fu-Jun

    2016-11-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been shown to be potential drug carriers for cancer therapy. The inherently low immunogenicity and cytotoxicity of human-derived CPPs make them more suitable for intracellular drug delivery compared to other delivery vehicles. In this work, the protein transduction ability of a novel CPP (termed HBP) derived from the heparin-binding domain of HB-EGF was evaluated. Our data shows, for the first time, that HBP possesses similar properties to typical CPPs and is a potent drug delivery vector for improving the antitumor activity of impermeable MAP30. The intrinsic bioactivities of recombinant MAP30-HBP were well preserved compared to those of free MAP30. Furthermore, HBP conjugated to the C-terminus of MAP30 promoted the cellular uptake of recombinant MAP30-HBP. Moreover, the fusion of HBP to MAP30 gave rise to significantly enhanced cytotoxic effects in all of the tumor cell lines tested. In HeLa cells, this cytotoxicity was mainly caused by the induction of cell apoptosis. Further investigation revealed that HBP enhanced MAP30-induced apoptosis through the activation of the mitochondrial- and death receptor-mediated signaling pathways. In addition, the MAP30-HBP fusion protein caused more HeLa cells to become arrested in S phase compared to MAP30 alone. These results highlight the MAP30-HBP fusion protein as a promising drug candidate for cancer therapy and demonstrate HBP, a novel CPP derived from human HB-EGF, as a new potential vector for antitumor drug delivery. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Increased expression of heparin binding EGF (HB-EGF), amphiregulin, TGF alpha and epiregulin in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Niels; Sørensen, Boe Sandahl; Nexø, Ebba

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The proliferation of androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines has previously been shown to be influenced by an autocrine loop of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) system. This observation has alerted us to study the expression of ligands and receptors from the EGF......-system in prostate cell lines. METHODS: The expression of the EGF system was determined by quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA in the normal prostate epithelial cell line (PNT1A), in the androgen sensitive-(LNCaP), and the androgen-independent (DU145 and PC3) prostate cancer cell lines. RESULTS: The expression of m...... which exhibit low expression of HER1. Similar results were obtained by ELISA. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicates a selective up-regulation of a subclass of ligands of the EGF-system in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines. We suggest this could be a mechanism to escape androgen dependence...

  4. Conformational analysis and design of cross-strand disulfides in antiparallel β-sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indu, S; Kochat, V; Thakurela, S; Ramakrishnan, C; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2011-01-01

    Cross-strand disulfides bridge two cysteines in a registered pair of antiparallel β-strands. A nonredundant data set comprising 5025 polypeptides containing 2311 disulfides was used to study cross-strand disulfides. Seventy-six cross-strand disulfides were found of which 75 and 1 occurred at non-hydrogen-bonded (NHB) and hydrogen-bonded (HB) registered pairs, respectively. Conformational analysis and modeling studies demonstrated that disulfide formation at HB pairs necessarily requires an extremely rare and positive χ¹ value for at least one of the cysteine residues. Disulfides at HB positions also have more unfavorable steric repulsion with the main chain. Thirteen pairs of disulfides were introduced in NHB and HB pairs in four model proteins: leucine binding protein (LBP), leucine, isoleucine, valine binding protein (LIVBP), maltose binding protein (MBP), and Top7. All mutants LIVBP T247C V331C showed disulfide formation either on purification, or on treatment with oxidants. Protein stability in both oxidized and reduced states of all mutants was measured. Relative to wild type, LBP and MBP mutants were destabilized with respect to chemical denaturation, although the sole exposed NHB LBP mutant showed an increase of 3.1°C in T(m). All Top7 mutants were characterized for stability through guanidinium thiocyanate chemical denaturation. Both exposed and two of the three buried NHB mutants were appreciably stabilized. All four HB Top7 mutants were destabilized (ΔΔG⁰ = -3.3 to -6.7 kcal/mol). The data demonstrate that introduction of cross-strand disulfides at exposed NHB pairs is a robust method of improving protein stability. All four exposed Top7 disulfide mutants showed mild redox activity. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Hypoxia changes the expression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) system in human hearts and cultured cardiomyocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Mathias; Memon, Ashfaque Ahmed; Goetze, Jens Peter

    2012-01-01

    by treatment with trastuzumab (20 nM). This resulted in inhibition of cardiomyocyte proliferation, but interestingly only in hypoxic cells. Co-treatment of HL-1 cells with HB-EGF (10 nM) but not with NRG-1 (5 ng/ml) rescued the cardiomyocytes from HER2 inhibition. HL-1 cardiomyocytes exposed to hypoxia...... revealed nuclear translocation of activated MAPK and the activity of this downstream signaling molecule was decreased by HER2 inhibition (20 nM trastuzumab), and re-established by HB-EGF (10 nM). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hypoxia in the human heart alters the expression of the EGF system. Mimicking the HER...

  6. The cell-penetrating peptide domain from human heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) has anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jue-Yeon; Seo, Yoo-Na; Park, Hyun-Jung; Park, Yoon-Jeong; Chung, Chong-Pyoung

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► HBP sequence identified from HB-EGF has cell penetration activity. ► HBP inhibits the NF-κB dependent inflammatory responses. ► HBP directly blocks phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. ► HBP inhibits nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit. -- Abstract: A heparin-binding peptide (HBP) sequence from human heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) was identified and was shown to exhibit cell penetration activity. This cell penetration induced an anti-inflammatory reaction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. HBP penetrated the cell membrane during the 10 min treatment and reduced the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, HBP inhibited the LPS-induced upregulation of cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-6, and decreased the interstitial infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in a lung inflammation model. HBP inhibited NF-κB-dependent inflammatory responses by directly blocking the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα and by subsequently inhibiting the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB. Taken together, this novel HBP may be potentially useful candidate for anti-inflammatory treatments and can be combined with other drugs of interest to transport attached molecules into cells.

  7. HOMA-S is associated with greater HbA1c reduction with a GLP-1 analogue in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, A H; Narayanan, R P; Lowes, D; Jarman, E; Onyekwelu, E; Qureshi, Z; Laing, I; Anderson, S G

    2012-07-01

    Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, is an effective glucoregulator for treating overweight individuals, not at target HbA1 c. This prospective study aimed to determine whether estimates of beta cell function (HOMA-B) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S) predict response to Exenatide treatment.Prospective data on 43 type 2 diabetes patients were collected for up to 2.8 years in UK primary care. HOMA-B and HOMA-S were estimated prior to initiating Exenatide, with monitoring of cardio-metabolic risk factors.Mean (SD) age and BMI pre-treatment were 54.1±10.5 years and 35.7±7.5 kg/m2 respectively. HbA1c decreased (mean reduction 0.9%, p=0.04; p for trend=0.01) in 61% of patients. In univariate analyses, HOMA-S as a measure of insulin sensitivity was inversely (β=- 0.41, p 0.009) related to change in HbA1c, with no relation for HOMA-B.In a random effects regression model that included age at baseline, weight, LDL-C, HDL-C and triglycerides, change in HbA1c (β= - 0.14, pHOMA-S were 45% more likely to have a fall in HbA1c with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.55 (95% CI 0.47-0.66) p<0.0001 (log likelihood ratio for the model χ2=71.6, p<0.0001).Patients with greater measured insulin sensitivity achieve greater reduction in HbA1c with Exenatide. Determination of insulin sensitivity may assist in guiding outcome expectation in overweight patients treated with GLP-1 analogues. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. In vitro structure-activity relationship of Re-cyclized octreotide analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannoon, Shorouk F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Bigott-Hennkens, Heather M. [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Ma Lixin [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); International Institute of Nano and Molecular Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Service, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Gallazzi, Fabio [Structural Biology Core, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Lewis, Michael R., E-mail: lewismic@missouri.ed [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Service, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Jurisson, Silvia S., E-mail: jurissons@missouri.ed [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Introduction: Development of radiolabeled octreotide analogues is of interest for targeting somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-positive tumors for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We are investigating a direct labeling approach for incorporation of a Re ion into octreotide analogues, where the peptide sequences are cyclized via coordination to Re rather than through a disulfide bridge. Methods: Various octreotide analogue sequences and coordination systems (e.g., S{sub 2}N{sub 2} and S{sub 3}N) were synthesized and cyclized with nonradioactive Re. In vitro competitive binding assays with {sup 111}In-DOTA-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide in AR42J rat pancreatic tumor cells yielded IC{sub 50} values as a measure of SSTR affinity of the Re-cyclized analogues. Three-dimensional structures of Re-cyclized Tyr{sup 3}-octreotate and its disulfide-bridged analogue were calculated from two-dimensional NMR experiments to visualize the effect of metal cyclization on the analogue's pharmacophore. Results: Only two of the 11 Re-cyclized analogues investigated showed moderate in vitro binding affinity toward somatostatin subtype 2 receptors. Three-dimensional molecular structures of Re- and disulfide-cyclized Tyr{sup 3}-octreotate were calculated, and both of their pharmacophore turns appear to be very similar with minor differences due to metal coordination to the amide nitrogen of one of the pharmacophore amino acids. Conclusions: Various Re-cyclized analogues were developed and analogue 4 had moderate affinity toward somatostatin subtype 2 receptors. In vitro stable studies that are in progress showed stable radiometal cyclization of octreotide analogues via NS{sub 3} and N{sub 2}S{sub 2} coordination forming five- and six-membered chelate rings. In vivo biodistribution studies are underway of {sup 99m}Tc-cyclized analogue 4.

  9. Endogenous EGF as a potential renotrophic factor in ischemia-induced acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaudies, R P; Nonclercq, D; Nelson, L; Toubeau, G; Zanen, J; Heuson-Stiennon, J A; Laurent, G

    1993-09-01

    The time course for the increases in soluble renal epidermal growth factor (EGF) after ischemia has been established. These elevated levels of EGF have been compared with the degree of tissue injury as well as the extent of cell proliferation in the recovering tissue. Levels of soluble immunoreactive EGF (irEGF) in control animals were 9.74 +/- 1.1 ng/g wet wt (n = 4-8 for all values) and rose to 83.9 +/- 30 ng/g within 12 h after injury. Soluble irEGF content peaked at 88.8 +/- 15 ng/g at 24 h postinjury and returned to control values by 72 h. We previously reported that trypsin digestion of crude renal membranes (CRM) generates rat EGF that is indistinguishable from that isolated from the submandibular gland. Initial levels of trypsin-releasable membrane-associated irEGF were 439 +/- 26 ng/g. These levels fell to 46.6 +/- 9.6 ng/g at 48 h after injury. The total renal EGF demonstrated an 80% decline 48 h after injury but returned to 50% of the initial values after 72 h representing significant new synthesis of EGF-containing proteins between 48 and 72 h postinjury. Immunohistochemical staining of kidney paraffin sections for EGF immunoreactivity demonstrated staining intensities that paralleled the amount of irEGF in the trypsin-digested CRM fraction, suggesting that the membrane-associated irEGF is the predominant form detected by this technique. Regenerative hyperplasia subsequent to tubular insult was monitored by immunostaining nuclei of S phase cells after pulse labeling with the thymidine analogue 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine. Cell proliferation was particularly prominent in the outer stripe of outer medulla of kidneys exposed to ischemia and reached a maximum (19-fold higher than the baseline value) 48 h after reperfusion. Renal cell turnover returned to control values by day 7. The observation that the peak in soluble EGF levels (24 h) precedes the peak in tubular regeneration (48 h) by 24 h is consistent with the hypothesis that EGF is one of the mitogenic

  10. New analogues of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III (CMTI III) with simplified structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolka, K; Kupryszewski, G; Rózycki, J; Ragnarsson, U; Zbyryt, T; Otlewski, J

    1992-10-01

    Seven new analogues of trypsin inhibitor CMTI III were obtained by solid-phase peptide synthesis. Three analogues contained only two, instead of three, disulfide bridges, whereas the molecules of the next four analogues were shortened at the N- and/or C-terminus. The elimination of one disulfide bridge in CMTI III induces a decrease in the association equilibrium constants by 6-7 orders of magnitude, whereas the removal of one, two or three amino-acid residues at the N- and/or C-terminus does not significantly affect the activity.

  11. Gene Expression of the EGF System-a Prognostic Model in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Without Activating EGFR Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld-Paulsen, Birgitte; Folkersen, Birgitte Holst; Rasmussen, Torben Riis

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Contradicting results have been demonstrated for the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as a prognostic marker in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The complexity of the EGF system with four interacting receptors and more than a dozen activating ligands is a l.......17-6.47], P model that takes the complexity of the EGF system into account and shows that this model is a strong prognostic marker in NSCLC patients.......OBJECTIVES: Contradicting results have been demonstrated for the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as a prognostic marker in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The complexity of the EGF system with four interacting receptors and more than a dozen activating ligands...... is a likely explanation. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that the combined network of receptors and ligands from the EGF system is a prognostic marker. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Gene expression of the receptors EGFR, HER2, HER3, HER4, and the ligands AREG, HB-EGF, EPI, TGF-α, and EGF was measured...

  12. Intradomain Confinement of Disulfides in the Folding of Two Consecutive Modules of the LDL Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Martínez-Oliván

    Full Text Available The LDL receptor internalizes circulating LDL and VLDL particles for degradation. Its extracellular binding domain contains ten (seven LA and three EGF cysteine-rich modules, each bearing three disulfide bonds. Despite the enormous number of disulfide combinations possible, LDLR oxidative folding leads to a single native species with 30 unique intradomain disulfides. Previous folding studies of the LDLR have shown that non native disulfides are initially formed that lead to compact species. Accordingly, the folding of the LDLR has been described as a "coordinated nonvectorial" reaction, and it has been proposed that early compaction funnels the reaction toward the native structure. Here we analyze the oxidative folding of LA4 and LA5, the modules critical for ApoE binding, isolated and in the LA45 tandem. Compared to LA5, LA4 folding is slow and inefficient, resembling that of LA5 disease-linked mutants. Without Ca++, it leads to a mixture of many two-disulfide scrambled species and, with Ca++, to the native form plus two three-disulfide intermediates. The folding of the LA45 tandem seems to recapitulate that of the individual repeats. Importantly, although the folding of the LA45 tandem takes place through formation of scrambled isomers, no interdomain disulfides are detected, i.e. the two adjacent modules fold independently without the assistance of interdomain covalent interactions. Reduction of incredibly large disulfide combinatorial spaces, such as that in the LDLR, by intradomain confinement of disulfide bond formation might be also essential for the efficient folding of other homologous disulfide-rich receptors.

  13. INTERACTION OF RECOMBINANT DIPHTHERIA TOXOIDS WITH CELLULAR RECEPTORS in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Manoilov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to compare in vitro characteristics of reception of the natural diphtheria toxin — DT and its nontoxic recombinant analogs — toxoids. For assessing ligand-receptor interaction the method of immunoenzyme analysis and ELISA was used, where the bonding layer recombinant analogues of diphtheria toxin cell receptor HB-EGF from sensitive and resistant to the toxin of the organisms were served. According to the results of ELISA the natural diphtheria toxin, in contrast to recombinant toxoids — CRM197, and B subunit, interacted with mouse HB-EGF with a very low affinity. While human HB-EGF with an equally high affinity connected as toxoids as native diphtheria toxin. Therefore, the analyzed recombinant analogs of toxin obtained in E. coli cells did not reproduce in full measure the receptor specificity of the natural toxin, which should be considered in the case of using these proteins as biotech products.

  14. Vasopressin up-regulates the expression of growth-related immediate-early genes via two distinct EGF receptor transactivation pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Lida Q.; Reyes, Carlos E.; Sarmiento, José M.; Villanueva, Carolina I.; Figueroa, Carlos D.; Navarro, Javier; González, Carlos B.

    2008-01-01

    Activation of V1a receptor triggers the expression of growth-related immediate-early genes (IEGs), including c-Fos and Egr-1. Here we found that pre-treatment of rat vascular smooth muscle A-10 cell line with the EGF receptor inhibitor AG1478 or the over-expression of an EGFR dominant negative mutant (HEBCD533) blocked the vasopressin-induced expression of IEGs, suggesting that activation of these early genes mediated by V1a receptor is via transactivation of the EGF receptor. Importantly, the inhibition of the metalloproteinases, which catalyzed the shedding of the EGF receptor agonist HB-EGF, selectively blocked the vasopressin-induced expression c-Fos. On the other hand, the inhibition of c-Src selectively blocked the vasopressin-induced expression of Egr-1. Interestingly, in contrast to the expression of c-Fos, the expression of Egr-1 was mediated via the Ras/MEK/MAPK-dependent signalling pathway. Vasopressin-triggered expression of both genes required the release of intracellular calcium, activation of PKC and β-arrestin 2. These findings demonstrated that vasopressin up-regulated the expression of c-Fos and Erg-1 via transactivation of two distinct EGF receptor-dependent signalling pathways. PMID:18571897

  15. EGF-induced stimualtion of EGF-receptor synthesis in human cytotrophoblasts and A431 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePalo, L.; Basu, A.; Das, M.

    1987-01-01

    EGF-receptor is a transmembrane glycoprotein whose intracellular degradation is known to be enhanced by EGF. The authors tested whether the receptor is replenished during this process by an enhanced rate of synthesis. Human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells, and primary cultures of human placental cytotrophoblasts were used in these studies. Cells were labeled with 35 S-methionine, and EGF-receptor biosynthesis was quantitated by immunoprecipitation using a monoclonal anti-EGF-receptor antibody. EGF stimulated receptor biosynthesis at concentrations of 0.1-1 nM. The effect was seen within 2 h of EGF addition. The maximal stimulatory effect was modest in A431 (∼ 2-fold), but marked in the cytotrophoblasts (>5-fold). At EGF concentrations higher than 3 nM, the stimulatory effect was abolished. In contrast, the effect of EGF on receptor degradation is negligible at low subnanomolar concentrations, and is pronounced only at saturating concentrations. These results show that occupation of the cell surface EGF-receptor by its ligand can lead to production of more receptor protein, thus counterbalancing the negative effect on receptor degradation. At low subnanomolar (mitogenic) concentrations of EGF the stimulator effect on receptor synthesis is likely to predominate over the effect on receptor degradation

  16. Steric effects in peptide and protein exchange with activated disulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jason; Schlosser, Jessica L; Griffin, Donald R; Wong, Darice Y; Kasko, Andrea M

    2013-08-12

    Disulfide exchange is an important bioconjugation tool, enabling chemical modification of peptides and proteins containing free cysteines. We previously reported the synthesis of a macromer bearing an activated disulfide and its incorporation into hydrogels. Despite their ability to diffuse freely into hydrogels, larger proteins were unable to undergo in-gel disulfide exchange. In order to understand this phenomenon, we synthesized four different activated disulfide-bearing model compounds (Mn = 300 Da to 10 kDa) and quantified their rate of disulfide exchange with a small peptide (glutathione), a moderate-sized protein (β-lactoglobulin), and a large protein (bovine serum albumin) in four different pH solutions (6.0, 7.0, 7.4, and 8.0) to mimic biological systems. Rate constants of exchange depend significantly on the size and accessibility of the thiolate. pH also significantly affects the rate of reaction, with the faster reactions occurring at higher pH. Surprisingly, little difference in exchange rates is seen between macromolecular disulfides of varying size (Mn = 2 kDa - 10 kDa), although all undergo exchange more slowly than their small molecule analogue (MW = 300 g/mol). The maximum exchange efficiencies (% disulfides exchanged after 24 h) are not siginificantly affected by thiol size or pH, but somewhat affected by disulfide size. Therefore, while all three factors investigated (pH, disulfide size, and thiolate size) can influence the exchange kinetics and extent of reaction, the size of the thiolate and its accessibility plays the most significant role.

  17. Probing the diphosphoglycerate binding pocket of HbA and HbPresbyterian (beta 108Asn --> Lys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, D S; Manjula, B N; Malavalli, A; Acharya, A S; Friedman, J M

    1999-08-31

    HbPresbyterian (beta 108Asn --> Lys, HbP) contains an additional positive charge (per alpha beta dimer) in the middle of the central cavity and exhibits a lower oxygen affinity than wild-type HbA in the presence of chloride. However, very little is known about the molecular origins of its altered functional properties. In this study, we have focused on the beta beta cleft of the Hb tetramer. Recently, we developed an approach for quantifying the ligand binding affinity to the beta-end of the Hb central cavity using fluorescent analogues of the natural allosteric effector 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) [Gottfried, D. S., et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 1571-1578]. Time-correlated single-photon counting fluorescence lifetime studies were used to assess the binding of pyrenetetrasulfonate to both HbA and HbP in the deoxy and CO ligation states under acidic and neutral pH conditions. Both the native and mutant proteins bind the probe at a weak binding site and a strong binding site; in all cases, the binding to HbP was stronger than to HbA. The most striking finding was that for HbA the binding affinity varies as follows: deoxy (pH 6.35) > deoxy (pH 7.20) > CO (pH 6.35); however, the binding to HbP is independent of ligation or pH. The mutant oxy protein also hydrolyzes p-nitrophenyl acetate, through a reversible acyl-imidazole pathway linked to the His residues of the beta beta cleft, at a considerably higher rate than does HbA. This implies a perturbation of the microenvironment of these residues at the DPG binding pocket. Structural consequences due to the presence of the new positive charge in the middle of the central cavity have been transmitted to the beta beta cleft of the protein, even in its liganded conformation. This is consistent with a newly described quaternary state (B) for liganded HbPresbyterian and an associated change in the allosteric control mechanism.

  18. Autocrine production of TGF-β confers resistance to apoptosis after an epithelial-mesenchymal transition process in hepatocytes: Role of EGF receptor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Gaelle del; Murillo, Miguel M.; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Bertran, Esther; Fernandez, Margarita; Sanchez, Aranzazu; Fabregat, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) induces apoptosis in fetal rat hepatocytes. However, a subpopulation of these cells survives, concomitant with changes in phenotype, reminiscent of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We have previously suggested that EMT might confer cell resistance to apoptosis (Valdes et al., Mol. Cancer Res., 1: 68-78, 2002). However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this resistance are not explored yet. In this work, we have isolated and subcultured the population of hepatocytes that suffered the EMT process and are resistant to apoptosis (TGF-β-treated fetal hepatocytes: TβT-FH). We prove that they secrete mitogenic and survival factors, as analyzed by the proliferative and survival capacity of conditioned medium. Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) sensitizes TβT-FH to die after serum withdrawal. TβT-FH expresses high levels of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α) and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and shows constitutive activation of the EGFR pathway. A blocking anti-TGF-α antibody restores the capacity of cells to die. TGF-β, which is expressed by TβT-FH, mediates up-regulation of TGF-α and HB-EGF expression in those cells. In summary, results suggest that an autocrine loop of TGF-β confers resistance to apoptosis after an EMT process in hepatocytes, through the increase in the expression of EGFR ligands

  19. PET imaging of EGF receptors using [{sup 18}F]FBEM-EGF in a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weihua [Harbin Medical University, Department of Medical Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Fourth Affiliated Hospital, Harbin (China); National Institutes of Health (NIH), Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), Bethesda, MD (United States); Niu, Gang; Lang, Lixin; Guo, Ning; Ma, Ying; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Chen, Xiaoyuan [National Institutes of Health (NIH), Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), Bethesda, MD (United States); Backer, Joseph M. [SibTech Inc., Brookfield, CT (United States); Shen, Baozhong [Harbin Medical University, Department of Medical Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Fourth Affiliated Hospital, Harbin (China)

    2012-02-15

    To prepare and evaluate a new radiotracer for molecular imaging of cell surface receptors for epidermal growth factor (EGF). Cys-tagged EGF (cEGF) was labeled with {sup 18}F by coupling the free thiol group of the Cys tag with N-[2-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzamido)ethyl]maleimide ([{sup 18}F]FBEM) to form [{sup 18}F]FBEM-cEGF. Cell uptake, internalization and efflux of [{sup 18}F]FBEM-cEGF were tested in human head and neck squamous carcinoma UM-SCC1 cells. In vivo tumor targeting and pharmacokinetics of the radiotracers were evaluated in UM-SCC1 tumor-bearing athymic nude mice by static and dynamic microPET imaging. Ex vivo biodistribution assays were performed to confirm the noninvasive imaging results. The radiolabeling yield for [{sup 18}F]FBEM-cEGF was over 60%, based on starting [{sup 18}F]FBEM. [{sup 18}F]FBEM-cEGF exhibited rapid blood clearance through both hepatobiliary and renal excretion. UM-SCC1 tumors were clearly visualized and showed modest tracer uptake of 2.60 {+-} 0.59 %ID/g at 30 min after injection. Significantly higher tumor uptake of [{sup 18}F]FBEM-cEGF (5.99 {+-} 1.61%ID/g at 30 min after injection, p < 0.01) and tumor/nontumor ratio were achieved by coinjection of 50 {mu}g of unlabeled EGF. Decreased liver uptake of [{sup 18}F]FBEM-cEGF was observed when unlabeled EGF was coadministered. With optimized liver blocking, [{sup 18}F]FBEM-cEGF has the potential to be used in a noninvasive and quantitative manner for detection of malignant lesions and evaluation of EGFR activity. (orig.)

  20. Overexpression of Heparin-Binding Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Growth Factor Mediates Liver Fibrosis in Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongze; Ding, Qian; Chen, Lei; Ji, Chenguang; Hao, Huiyao; Wang, Jia; Qi, Wei; Xie, Xiaoli; Ma, Junji; Li, Aidi; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Li, Xiaotian; Jiang, Huiqing

    2017-08-01

    The role of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in liver fibrosis is not clear and is sometimes even contradictory. To clarify this role, a HB-EGF transgenic (Tg) mouse model was, for the first time, used to evaluate the functions of HB-EGF in liver fibrosis. For the in vivo study, carbon tetrachloride injection and bile duct ligation treatment were used to induce liver fibrosis in HB-EGF Tg mice and wild-type (WT) mice, respectively. Primary hepatic satellite cells (HSCs) were isolated from HB-EGF Tg and WT mice for the in vitro study. Compared with the WT mice, HB-EGF Tg mice were shown to develop more severe liver fibrosis when treated with carbon tetrachloride or bile duct ligation, with increased matrix metalloproteinases 13 activity and enhanced expression of fibrogenic genes including α-smooth muscle actin and collagen I. HB-EGF gene transfer led to an increase in proliferation and a decrease in apoptosis in primary HSCs. The ERK signaling pathway was more highly activated in primary HSCs from HB-EGF Tg mice than in those from WT mice. Our investigation confirmed the profibrotic effect of HB-EGF on the liver using a Tg mouse model. This result may contribute to the elucidation of HB-EGF as a therapeutic target in liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Improved expression of recombinant plant-made hEGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David Rhys; Walmsley, Amanda Maree

    2014-11-01

    The yield of recombinant hEGF was increased approximately tenfold through a range of optimisations. Further, the recombinant protein was found to have biological activity comparable to commercial hEGF. Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) is a powerful mitogen that can enhance the healing of a wide range of injuries, including burns, cuts, diabetic ulcers and gastric ulcers. However, despite its clinical value, hEGF is only consistently used for the treatment of chronic diabetic ulcers due to its high cost. In this study, hEGF was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and targeted to the apoplast, ER and vacuole. Several other approaches were also included in a stepwise fashion to identify the optimal conditions for the expression of recombinant hEGF. Expression was found to be highest in the vacuole, while targeting hEGF to the ER caused a decrease in total soluble protein (TSP). Using a codon optimised sequence was found to increase vacuolar targeted hEGF yield by ~34 %, while it was unable to increase the yield of ER targeted hEGF. The use of the P19 silencing inhibitor was able to further increase expression by over threefold, and using 5-week-old plants significantly increased expression compared to 4- or 6-week-old-plants. The combined effect of these optimisations increased expression tenfold over the initial apoplast targeted construct to an average yield of 6.24 % of TSP. The plant-made hEGF was then shown to be equivalent to commercial E. coli derived hEGF in its ability to promote the proliferation of mouse keratinocytes. This study supports the potential for plants to be used for the commercial production of hEGF, and identifies a potential limitation for the further improvement of recombinant protein yields.

  2. EGF Functionalized Polymer-Coated Gold Nanoparticles Promote EGF Photostability and EGFR Internalization for Photothermal Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Oliveira Silva

    Full Text Available The application of functionalized nanocarriers on photothermal therapy for cancer ablation has wide interest. The success of this application depends on the therapeutic efficiency and biocompatibility of the system, but also on the stability and biorecognition of the conjugated protein. This study aims at investigating the hypothesis that EGF functionalized polymer-coated gold nanoparticles promote EGF photostability and EGFR internalization, making these conjugated particles suitable for photothermal therapy. The conjugated gold nanoparticles (100-200 nm showed a plasmon absorption band located within the near-infrared range (650-900 nm, optimal for photothermal therapy applications. The effects of temperature, of polymer-coated gold nanoparticles and of UVB light (295nm on the fluorescence properties of EGF have been investigated with steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence properties of EGF, including the formation of Trp and Tyr photoproducts, is modulated by temperature and by the intensity of the excitation light. The presence of polymeric-coated gold nanoparticles reduced or even avoided the formation of Trp and Tyr photoproducts when EGF is exposed to UVB light, protecting this way the structure and function of EGF. Cytotoxicity studies of conjugated nanoparticles carried out in normal-like human keratinocytes showed small, concentration dependent decreases in cell viability (0-25%. Moreover, conjugated nanoparticles could activate and induce the internalization of overexpressed Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in human lung carcinoma cells. In conclusion, the gold nanoparticles conjugated with Epidermal Growth Factor and coated with biopolymers developed in this work, show a potential application for near infrared photothermal therapy, which may efficiently destroy solid tumours, reducing the damage of the healthy tissue.

  3. EGF Functionalized Polymer-Coated Gold Nanoparticles Promote EGF Photostability and EGFR Internalization for Photothermal Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Catarina Oliveira; Petersen, Steffen B.; Reis, Catarina Pinto; Rijo, Patrícia; Molpeceres, Jesús; Fernandes, Ana Sofia; Gonçalves, Odete; Gomes, Andreia C.; Correia, Isabel; Vorum, Henrik; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The application of functionalized nanocarriers on photothermal therapy for cancer ablation has wide interest. The success of this application depends on the therapeutic efficiency and biocompatibility of the system, but also on the stability and biorecognition of the conjugated protein. This study aims at investigating the hypothesis that EGF functionalized polymer-coated gold nanoparticles promote EGF photostability and EGFR internalization, making these conjugated particles suitable for photothermal therapy. The conjugated gold nanoparticles (100–200 nm) showed a plasmon absorption band located within the near-infrared range (650–900 nm), optimal for photothermal therapy applications. The effects of temperature, of polymer-coated gold nanoparticles and of UVB light (295nm) on the fluorescence properties of EGF have been investigated with steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence properties of EGF, including the formation of Trp and Tyr photoproducts, is modulated by temperature and by the intensity of the excitation light. The presence of polymeric-coated gold nanoparticles reduced or even avoided the formation of Trp and Tyr photoproducts when EGF is exposed to UVB light, protecting this way the structure and function of EGF. Cytotoxicity studies of conjugated nanoparticles carried out in normal-like human keratinocytes showed small, concentration dependent decreases in cell viability (0–25%). Moreover, conjugated nanoparticles could activate and induce the internalization of overexpressed Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in human lung carcinoma cells. In conclusion, the gold nanoparticles conjugated with Epidermal Growth Factor and coated with biopolymers developed in this work, show a potential application for near infrared photothermal therapy, which may efficiently destroy solid tumours, reducing the damage of the healthy tissue. PMID:27788212

  4. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) A61G polymorphism and EGF gene expression in normal colon tissue from patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Karen-Lise G; Nielsen, Jens N; Ornskov, Dorthe

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. EGF/EGFR interactions are important mechanisms behind colorectal tumour development and growth. Recently a single nucleotide polymorphism in the EGF gene has been identified (EGF A61G). It may be a potential predictor for survival of patients receiving EGFR-inhibitor cetuximab...

  5. Glutathione Redox System in β-Thalassemia/Hb E Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchaneekorn W. Kalpravidh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available β-thalassemia/Hb E is known to cause oxidative stress induced by iron overload. The glutathione system is the major endogenous antioxidant that protects animal cells from oxidative damage. This study aimed to determine the effect of disease state and splenectomy on redox status expressed by whole blood glutathione (GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG and also to evaluate glutathione-related responses to oxidation in β-thalassemia/Hb E patients. Twenty-seven normal subjects and 25 β-thalassemia/Hb E patients were recruited and blood was collected. The GSH/GSSG ratio, activities of glutathione-related enzymes, hematological parameters, and serum ferritin levels were determined in individuals. Patients had high iron-induced oxidative stress, shown as significantly increased serum ferritin, a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio, and increased activities of glutathione-related enzymes. Splenectomy increased serum ferritin levels and decreased GSH levels concomitant with unchanged glutathione-related enzyme activities. The redox ratio had a positive correlation with hemoglobin levels and negative correlation with levels of serum ferritin. The glutathione system may be the body’s first-line defense used against oxidative stress and to maintain redox homeostasis in thalassemic patients based on the significant correlations between the GSH/GSSH ratio and degree of anemia or body iron stores.

  6. SNP analyses of growth factor genes EGF, TGFβ-1, and HGF reveal haplotypic association of EGF with autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Takao; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Kazuo; Thanseem, Ismail; Anitha, Ayyappan; Suda, Shiro; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Hattori, Eiji; Toyota, Tomoko; Miyachi, Taishi; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Kawai, Masayoshi; Sekine, Yoshimoto; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Sugihara, Gen-ichi; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Takei, Nori; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Mori, Norio

    2007-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed in early childhood. Growth factors have been found to play a key role in the cellular differentiation and proliferation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is detected in several regions of the developing and adult brain, where, it enhances the differentiation, maturation, and survival of a variety of neurons. Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) isoforms play an important role in neuronal survival, and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to exhibit neurotrophic activity. We examined the association of EGF, TGFβ1, and HGF genes with autism, in a trio association study, using DNA samples from families recruited to the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange; 252 trios with a male offspring scored for autism were selected for the study. Transmission disequilibrium test revealed significant haplotypic association of EGF with autism. No significant SNP or haplotypic associations were observed for TGFβ1 or HGF. Given the role of EGF in brain and neuronal development, we suggest a possible role of EGF in the pathogenesis of autism

  7. Developmental defects in zebrafish for classification of EGF pathway inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvot, Benoist; Curé, Yoann; Djiotsa, Joachim; Voncken, Audrey; Muller, Marc, E-mail: m.muller@ulg.ac.be

    2014-01-15

    One of the major challenges when testing drug candidates targeted at a specific pathway in whole animals is the discrimination between specific effects and unwanted, off-target effects. Here we used the zebrafish to define several developmental defects caused by impairment of Egf signaling, a major pathway of interest in tumor biology. We inactivated Egf signaling by genetically blocking Egf expression or using specific inhibitors of the Egf receptor function. We show that the combined occurrence of defects in cartilage formation, disturbance of blood flow in the trunk and a decrease of myelin basic protein expression represent good indicators for impairment of Egf signaling. Finally, we present a classification of known tyrosine kinase inhibitors according to their specificity for the Egf pathway. In conclusion, we show that developmental indicators can help to discriminate between specific effects on the target pathway from off-target effects in molecularly targeted drug screening experiments in whole animal systems. - Highlights: • We analyze the functions of Egf signaling on zebrafish development. • Genetic blocking of Egf expression causes cartilage, myelin and circulatory defects. • Chemical inhibition of Egf receptor function causes similar defects. • Developmental defects can reveal the specificity of Egf pathway inhibitors.

  8. Developmental defects in zebrafish for classification of EGF pathway inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruvot, Benoist; Curé, Yoann; Djiotsa, Joachim; Voncken, Audrey; Muller, Marc

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges when testing drug candidates targeted at a specific pathway in whole animals is the discrimination between specific effects and unwanted, off-target effects. Here we used the zebrafish to define several developmental defects caused by impairment of Egf signaling, a major pathway of interest in tumor biology. We inactivated Egf signaling by genetically blocking Egf expression or using specific inhibitors of the Egf receptor function. We show that the combined occurrence of defects in cartilage formation, disturbance of blood flow in the trunk and a decrease of myelin basic protein expression represent good indicators for impairment of Egf signaling. Finally, we present a classification of known tyrosine kinase inhibitors according to their specificity for the Egf pathway. In conclusion, we show that developmental indicators can help to discriminate between specific effects on the target pathway from off-target effects in molecularly targeted drug screening experiments in whole animal systems. - Highlights: • We analyze the functions of Egf signaling on zebrafish development. • Genetic blocking of Egf expression causes cartilage, myelin and circulatory defects. • Chemical inhibition of Egf receptor function causes similar defects. • Developmental defects can reveal the specificity of Egf pathway inhibitors

  9. Inhibition of EGF processing in responsive and nonresponsive human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudies, R.P.; Wray, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    We have examined the proteolytic processing of radiolabeled epidermal growth factor (EGF) in EGF growth-responsive human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) versus EGF nonresponsive human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL). Previous studies have shown that both cell lines demonstrate similar binding affinities and numbers of binding sites, as well as similar rates of internalization and degradation of the bound, radiolabeled hormone. We have used nondenaturing electrophoresis to compare how these two cell lines process EGF at its carboxy terminus. EGF lacking either one [des-(53)-EGF] or six [des (48-53)-EGF] carboxy terminal amino acids could be distinguished by this method. Chloroquine or leupeptin were added to the incubation system in an attempt to accentuate potential differences in hormonal processing between the responsive and nonresponsive cell lines. In the absence of inhibitors, the responsive and nonresponsive cells generated similar distributions of processed forms of EGF after 30-minutes incubation. However, after 4-hours incubation in the constant presence of 125I-EGF, the electrophoretic profiles of extracted hormone were substantially different. The radiolabel within the responsive cells, as well as that released from them, migrated predominantly at the dye front, indicating complete degradation of EGF. In contrast, the majority of the radiolabel within the nonresponsive cells migrated as partially processed forms of hormone, while the released radiolabel migrated at the dye front. Addition of chloroquine to either cell line inhibited processing of EGF beyond removal of the carboxyl terminal arginine residue. Both intact 125I-EGF, and 125I-EGF lacking the carboxyl terminal arginine were released from chloroquine-treated cells in a ratio equal to that present in the intact cells

  10. Effects of different ligands on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nuclear translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Jerusa A.Q.A.; Andrade, Carolina de; Goes, Alfredo M.; Rodrigues, Michele A.; Gomes, Dawidson A.

    2016-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated through binding to specific ligands and generates signals for proliferation, differentiation, migration, and cell survival. Recent data show the role of nuclear EGFR in tumors. Although many EGFR ligands are upregulated in cancers, little is known about their effects on EGFR nuclear translocation. We have compared the effects of six EGFR ligands (EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α, β-Cellulin, amphiregulin, and epiregulin) on nuclear translocation of EGFR, receptor phosphorylation, migration, and proliferation. Cell fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence detected EGFR in the nucleus after EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, amphiregulin and epiregulin did not generate nuclear translocation of EGFR. EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin showed correlations between a higher rate of wound closure and increased phosphorylation of residues in the carboxy-terminus of EGFR, compared to amphiregulin and epiregulin. The data indicate that EGFR is translocated to the nucleus after stimulation with EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin, and that these ligands are related to increased phosphorylation of EGFR tyrosine residues, inducing migration of SkHep-1 cells. - Highlights: • EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α, β-Cellulin are involved in the EGFR nuclear translocation. • Amphiregulin and epiregulin did not promote nuclear translocation of EGFR. • EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin have a role in SkHep-1 cells migration. • EGFR ligands associated with better prognosis don't stimulate EGFR translocation.

  11. Effects of different ligands on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nuclear translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Jerusa A.Q.A.; Andrade, Carolina de; Goes, Alfredo M. [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Rodrigues, Michele A. [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Department of General Pathology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Gomes, Dawidson A., E-mail: dawidson@ufmg.br [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil)

    2016-09-09

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated through binding to specific ligands and generates signals for proliferation, differentiation, migration, and cell survival. Recent data show the role of nuclear EGFR in tumors. Although many EGFR ligands are upregulated in cancers, little is known about their effects on EGFR nuclear translocation. We have compared the effects of six EGFR ligands (EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α, β-Cellulin, amphiregulin, and epiregulin) on nuclear translocation of EGFR, receptor phosphorylation, migration, and proliferation. Cell fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence detected EGFR in the nucleus after EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, amphiregulin and epiregulin did not generate nuclear translocation of EGFR. EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin showed correlations between a higher rate of wound closure and increased phosphorylation of residues in the carboxy-terminus of EGFR, compared to amphiregulin and epiregulin. The data indicate that EGFR is translocated to the nucleus after stimulation with EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin, and that these ligands are related to increased phosphorylation of EGFR tyrosine residues, inducing migration of SkHep-1 cells. - Highlights: • EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α, β-Cellulin are involved in the EGFR nuclear translocation. • Amphiregulin and epiregulin did not promote nuclear translocation of EGFR. • EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin have a role in SkHep-1 cells migration. • EGFR ligands associated with better prognosis don't stimulate EGFR translocation.

  12. SNP analyses of growth factor genes EGF, TGF{beta}-1, and HGF reveal haplotypic association of EGF with autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Takao; Thanseem, Ismail; Kawai, Masayoshi; Sekine, Yoshimoto [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Anitha, Ayyappan; Suda, Shiro [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Yamada, Kazuo [Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama (Japan); Tsujii, Masatsugu [Faculty of Sociology, Chukyo University, Toyota, Aichi (Japan); [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Iwayama, Yoshimi; Hattori, Eiji; Toyota, Tomoko; Yoshikawa, Takeo [Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama (Japan); Miyachi, Taishi; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Sugihara, Gen-ichi; Matsuzaki, Hideo [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Mori, Norio [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University (Japan); Ouchi, Yasuomi [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); [The Positron Medical Center, Hamamatsu Medical Center, Hamamatsu (Japan); Sugiyama, Toshiro [Aichi Children' s Health and Medical Center, Obu, Aichi (Japan); Takei, Nori [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan)

    2007-09-07

    Autism is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed in early childhood. Growth factors have been found to play a key role in the cellular differentiation and proliferation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is detected in several regions of the developing and adult brain, where, it enhances the differentiation, maturation, and survival of a variety of neurons. Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF{beta}) isoforms play an important role in neuronal survival, and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to exhibit neurotrophic activity. We examined the association of EGF, TGF{beta}1, and HGF genes with autism, in a trio association study, using DNA samples from families recruited to the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange; 252 trios with a male offspring scored for autism were selected for the study. Transmission disequilibrium test revealed significant haplotypic association of EGF with autism. No significant SNP or haplotypic associations were observed for TGF{beta}1 or HGF. Given the role of EGF in brain and neuronal development, we suggest a possible role of EGF in the pathogenesis of autism.

  13. EGF stimulates the activation of EGF receptors and the selective activation of major signaling pathways during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Ping; Shi, Huaiping; Jiang, Jennifer; Wang, Yuluan; Wang, Zhixiang

    2015-03-01

    Mitosis and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) are both targets for cancer therapy. The role of EGFR signaling in mitosis has been rarely studied and poorly understood. The limited studies indicate that the activation of EGFR and downstream signaling pathways is mostly inhibited during mitosis. However, we recently showed that EGFR is phosphorylated in response to EGF stimulation in mitosis. Here we studied EGF-induced EGFR activation and the activation of major signaling pathways downstream of EGFR during mitosis. We showed that EGFR was strongly activated by EGF during mitosis as all the five major tyrosine residues including Y992, Y1045, Y1068, Y1086, and Y1173 were phosphorylated to a level similar to that in the interphase. We further showed that the activated EGFR is able to selectively activate some downstream signaling pathways while avoiding others. Activated EGFR is able to activate PI3K and AKT2, but not AKT1, which may be responsible for the observed effects of EGF against nocodazole-induced cell death. Activated EGFR is also able to activate c-Src, c-Cbl and PLC-γ1 during mitosis. However, activated EGFR is unable to activate ERK1/2 and their downstream substrates RSK and Elk-1. While it activated Ras, EGFR failed to fully activate Raf-1 in mitosis due to the lack of phosphorylation at Y341 and the lack of dephosphorylation at pS259. We conclude that contrary to the dogma, EGFR is activated by EGF during mitosis. Moreover, EGFR-mediated cell signaling is regulated differently from the interphase to specifically serve the needs of the cell in mitosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Conformational stability of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor as influenced by glycosylation, dimerization and EGF hormone binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric S; Pol-Fachin, Laercio; Lins, Roberto D; Lower, Steven K

    2017-04-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important transmembrane glycoprotein kinase involved the initiation or perpetuation of signal transduction cascades within cells. These processes occur after EGFR binds to a ligand [epidermal growth factor (EGF)], thus inducing its dimerization and tyrosine autophosphorylation. Previous publications have highlighted the importance of glycosylation and dimerization for promoting proper function of the receptor and conformation in membranes; however, the effects of these associations on the protein conformational stability have not yet been described. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to characterize the conformational preferences of the monomeric and dimeric forms of the EGFR extracellular domain upon binding to EGF in the presence and absence of N-glycan moieties. Structural stability analyses revealed that EGF provides the most conformational stability to EGFR, followed by glycosylation and dimerization, respectively. The findings also support that EGF-EGFR binding takes place through a large-scale induced-fitting mechanism. Proteins 2017; 85:561-570. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING REQUIRES SRC-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EGF RECEPTOR ON TYROSINE 845 (Y845)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING REQUIRES Src-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EGF RECEPTOR ON TYROSINE 845 (Y845)Weidong Wu1, Lee M. Graves2, Gordon N. Gill3 and James M. Samet4 1Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology; 2Department of Pharmacology, University o...

  16. EGF receptor targeted tumor imaging with biotin-PEG-EGF linked to 99mTc-HYNIC labeled avidin and streptavidin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyung-Ho; Park, Jin Won; Paik, Jin-Young; Quach, Cung Hoa Thien; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: As direct radiolabeled peptides suffer limitations for in vivo imaging, we investigated the usefulness of radioloabeled avidin and streptavidin as cores to link peptide ligands for targeted tumor imaging. Methods: Human epidermal growth factor (EGF) was site specifically conjugated with a single PEG-biotin molecule and linked to 99m Tc-HYNIC labeled avidin-FITC (Av) or streptavidin-Cy5.5 (Sav). Receptor targeting was verified in vitro, and in vivo pharmacokinetic and biodistribution profiles were studied in normal mice. Scintigraphic imaging was performed in MDA-MB-468 breast tumor xenografted nude mice. Results: Whereas both 99m Tc-Av-EGF and 99m Tc-Sav-EGF retained receptor-specific binding in vitro, the two probes substantially diverged in pharmacokinetic and biodistribution behavior in vivo. 99m Tc-Av-EGF was rapidly eliminated from the circulation with a T1/2 of 4.3 min, and showed intense hepatic accumulation but poor tumor uptake (0.6%ID/gm at 4 h). 99m Tc-Sav-EGF displayed favorable in vivo profiles of longer circulation (T1/2β, 51.5 min) and lower nonspecific uptake that resulted in higher tumor uptake (3.8 %ID/gm) and clear tumor visualization at 15 h. Conclusion: 99m Tc-HYNIC labeled streptavidin linked with growth factor peptides may be useful as a protein-ligand complex for targeted imaging of tumor receptors.

  17. Quantification of thiols and disulfides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Jakob R.; Thorpe, Colin

    2014-01-01

    lengths to regulate thiol-disulfide bond homeostasis, typically with several, apparently redundant, systems working in parallel. Dissecting the extent of oxidation and reduction of disulfides is an ongoing challenge due, in part, to the facility of thiol/disulfide exchange reactions.......Disulfide bond formation is a key posttranslational modification, with implications for structure, function and stability of numerous proteins. While disulfide bond formation is a necessary and essential process for many proteins, it is deleterious and disruptive for others. Cells go to great...

  18. Effects of hemoglobin variants HbJ Bangkok, HbE, HbG Taipei, and HbH on analysis of glycated hemoglobin via ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Ming; Wen, Dong-Mei; Xu, Sheng-Nan; Suo, Ming-Huan; Chen, Ya-Qiong

    2018-01-01

    To explore the effects of HbJ Bangkok, HbE, HbG Taipei, and α-thalassemia HbH on the results of HbA1c assessment using ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (IE-HPLC). We enrolled five patients in which the results of the IE-HPLC HbA1c assay were inconsistent with the average levels of FBG. We performed hemoglobin capillary (Hb) electrophoresis using whole-blood samples. We also sequenced the genes encoding Hb using dideoxy-mediated chain termination and analyzed HbA1c using borate affinity HPLC (BA-HPLC) and turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay (TINIA). Two patients had the HbJ Bangkok variant. Hb genotypes of these patients were β 41-42 /β J Bangkok and β N /β J Bangkok , and the content of HbJ Bangkok was 93.9% and 52.4%, respectively. The remaining three patients had the following: HbE (β N /β E Hb genotype, 23.6% HbE content), HbG Taipei (β N /β G Taipei Hb genotype, 39.4% HbG Taipei content), and α-thalassemia HbH (6.1% HbH content, 2.8% Hb Bart's content). In the patients with β-thalassemia and HbJ Bangkok variants, the presence of the variants interfered with the results of HbA1c analyses using IE-HPLC and TINIA; in the remaining four patients, there was interference with the results of HbA1c IE-HPLC but not with the TINIA assay. There was no interference with BA-HPLC HbA1c results. HbJ Bangkok, HbE, HbG Taipei Hb, and α-thalassemia HbH disease cause varying degrees of interference with the analysis of HbA1c using IE-HPLC. In these patients, we suggest using methods free from such interference for the analysis of HbA1c and other indicators to monitor blood glucose levels. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Decreased autophosphorylation of EGF receptor in insulin-deficient diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, M.; Kahn, C.R.; Maron, R.; White, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that despite an increase in receptor concentration, there is a decrease in autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor in insulin-deficient diabetic rats. To determine if other tyrosine kinases might be altered, they have studied the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor kinase in wheat germ agglutinin-purified, Triton X-100-solubilized liver membranes from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the insulin-deficient BB rat. They find that autophosphorylation of EGF receptor is decreased in proportion to the severity of the diabetic state in STZ rats with a maximal decrease of 67%. A similar decrease in autophosphorylation was observed in diabetic BB rats that was partially normalized by insulin treatment. Separation of tryptic phosphopeptides by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed a decrease in labeling at all sites of autophosphorylation. A parallel decrease in EGF receptor phosphorylation was also found by immunoblotting with an antiphosphotyrosine antibody. EGF receptor concentration, determined by Scatchard analysis of 125 I-labeled EGF binding, was decreased by 39% in the STZ rat and 27% in the diabetic BB rat. Thus autophosphorylation of EGF receptor, like that of the insulin receptor, is decreased in insulin-deficient rat liver. In the case of EGF receptor, this is due in part to a decrease in receptor number and in part to a decrease in the specific activity of the kinase

  20. Molecular analysis of Hb Q-H disease and Hb Q-Hb E in a Singaporean family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J; Tay, J S; Wong, Y C; Kham, S K; Bte Abd Aziz, N; Teo, S H; Wong, H B

    1995-01-01

    Hb Q (alpha 74Asp-His) results from a mutation in the alpha-gene such that abnormal alpha Q-chains are synthesized. The alpha Q-chains combine with the normal Beta A-chains to form abnormal Hb alpha 2Q beta 2A (Hb Q). Hb Q-H disease is rare, and has been reported only in the Chinese. We report here a Chinese family, were the mother diagnosed with Hb Q-H disease and the father with Hb E heterozygosity and a child with Hb Q-E-thalassemia. Thalassemia screening of the mother's blood revealed a Hb level of 6.8g/dl with low MCV and MCH. Her blood film was indicative of thalassemia. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis showed Hb H and Hb Q with the absence of Hb A. Globin chain biosynthesis was carried out and alpha Q- and beta-chains were detected. Normal alpha- chains were absent. Digestion of the mother's DNA with Bam HI and Bgl II followed by hybridization with the 1.5 kb alpha-Pst probe showed a two alpha-gene deletion on one chromosome and the -alpha Q chain mutant with the -alpha 4.2 defect on the other chromosome. DNA amplification studies indicated the two-gene deletion to be of the -SEA/ defect. The patient was concluded to possess Hb Q-H disease (--SEA/-alpha 4.2Q). Cellulose acetate electrophoresis of the father's blood showed the presence of Hb A, F and E. Molecular analysis of the father's DNA confirmed an intact set of alpha-genes (alpha alpha/alpha alpha). Globin chain biosynthesis of fetal blood of their child showed gamma, beta A, beta E, alpha A and alpha Q-chains. Molecular analysis of the child's DNA showed one alpha-gene deletion, thus giving a genotype of alpha alpha/-alpha 4.2Q beta beta E.

  1. Disulfide Linkage Characterization of Disulfide Bond-Containing Proteins and Peptides by Reducing Electrochemistry and Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Christian N; Haselmann, Kim F; Olsen, Jesper V

    2016-01-01

    in protein sequencing by tandem MS (MS/MS). Electrochemical (EC) reduction of disulfide bonds has recently been demonstrated to provide efficient reduction efficiencies, significantly enhancing sequence coverages in online coupling with MS characterization. In this study, the potential use of EC disulfide...... link between parent disulfide-linked fragments and free reduced peptides in an LC-EC-MS platform of nonreduced proteolytic protein digestions. Here we report the successful use of EC as a partial reduction approach in mapping of disulfide bonds of intact human insulin (HI) and lysozyme. In addition, we...... established a LC-EC-MS platform advantageous in disulfide characterization of complex and highly disulfide-bonded proteins such as human serum albumin (HSA) by online EC reduction of nonreduced proteolytic digestions....

  2. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibits stimulated thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahren, B.

    1987-01-01

    It is known that epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibits iodide uptake in the thyroid follicular cells and lowers plasma levels of thyroid hormones upon infusion into sheep and ewes. In this study, the effects of EGF on basal and stimulated thyroid hormone secretion were investigated in the mouse. Mice were pretreated with 125 I and thyroxine; the subsequent release of 125 I is an estimation of thyroid hormone secretion. It was found that basal radioiodine secretion was not altered by intravenous injection of EGF (5 micrograms/animal). However, the radioiodine secretion stimulated by both TSH (120 microU/animal) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP; 5 micrograms/animal) were inhibited by EGF (5 micrograms/animal). At a lower dose level (0.5 microgram/animal), EGF had no influence on stimulated radioiodine secretion. In conclusion, EGF inhibits stimulated thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse

  3. Analogues of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III (CMTI-III) with elastase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rózycki, J; Kupryszewski, G; Rolka, K; Ragnarsson, U; Zbyryt, T; Krokoszyńska, I; Wilusz, T

    1994-04-01

    Three new CMTI-III analogues containing the Val residue in the reactive site (position 5) were synthesized by the solid-phase method. The analogues displayed an elastase inhibitory activity. It is shown that the removal of the N-terminal Arg residue and the introduction of the Gly-Pro-Gln tripeptide in the region 23-25 decreases the antielastase activity by two orders of magnitude. The removal of the disulfide bridge in positions 16-28 and the substitution of Ala for Cys16 and Gly for Cys28 decreases the activity (measured as Ka with HLE) by five orders of magnitude as compared with [Val5]CMTI-III.

  4. Ticagrelor Improves Endothelial Function by Decreasing Circulating Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Vieceli Dalla Sega

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ticagrelor is one of the most powerful P2Y12 inhibitor. We have recently reported that, in patients with concomitant Stable Coronary Artery Disease (SCAD and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, treatment with ticagrelor, as compared to clopidogrel, is associated with an improvement of the endothelial function (Clinical Trial NCT02519608. In the present study, we showed that, in the same population, after 1 month treatment with ticagrelor, but not with clopidogrel, there is a decrease of the circulating levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF and that these changes in circulating levels of EGF correlate with on-treatment platelet reactivity. Furthermore, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC incubated with sera of the patients treated with ticagrelor, but not with clopidogrel there is an increase of p-eNOS levels. Finally, analyzing the changes in EGF and p-eNOS levels after treatment, we observed an inverse correlation between p-eNOS and EGF changes only in the ticagrelor group. Causality between EGF and eNOS activation was assessed in vitro in HUVEC where we showed that EGF decreases eNOS activity in a dose dependent manner. Taken together our data indicate that ticagrelor improves endothelial function by lowering circulating EGF that results in the activation of eNOS in the vascular endothelium.

  5. Amino Acid Patterns around Disulfide Bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Drury

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Disulfide bonds provide an inexhaustible source of information on molecular evolution and biological specificity. In this work, we described the amino acid composition around disulfide bonds in a set of disulfide-rich proteins using appropriate descriptors, based on ANOVA (for all twenty natural amino acids or classes of amino acids clustered according to their chemical similarities and Scheffé (for the disulfide-rich proteins superfamilies statistics. We found that weakly hydrophilic and aromatic amino acids are quite abundant in the regions around disulfide bonds, contrary to aliphatic and hydrophobic amino acids. The density distributions (as a function of the distance to the center of the disulfide bonds for all defined entities presented an overall unimodal behavior: the densities are null at short distances, have maxima at intermediate distances and decrease for long distances. In the end, the amino acid environment around the disulfide bonds was found to be different for different superfamilies, allowing the clustering of proteins in a biologically relevant way, suggesting that this type of chemical information might be used as a tool to assess the relationship between very divergent sets of disulfide-rich proteins.

  6. Erroneous HbA1c results in a patient with elevated HbC and HbF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekanmbi, Joy; Higgins, Trefor; Rodriguez-Capote, Karina; Thomas, Dylan; Winterstein, Jeffrey; Dixon, Tara; Gifford, Jessica L; Krause, Richard; Venner, Allison A; Clarke, Gwen; Estey, Mathew P

    2016-11-01

    HbA1c is used in the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus (DM). Interference from hemoglobin variants is a well-described phenomenon, particularly with HPLC-based methods. While immunoassays may generate more reliable HbA1c results in the presence of some variants, these methods are susceptible to negative interference from high concentrations of HbF. We report a case where an accurate HbA1c result could not be obtained by any available method due to the presence of a compound hemoglobinopathy. HbA1c was measured by HPLC, immunoassay, and capillary electrophoresis. Hemoglobinopathy investigation consisted of a CBC, hemoglobin fractionation by HPLC and electrophoresis, and molecular analysis. HbA1c analysis by HPLC and capillary electrophoresis gave no result. Analysis by immunoassay yielded HbA1c results of 5.9% (Siemens DCA 2000+) and 5.1% (Roche Integra), which were inconsistent with other markers of glycemic control. Hemoglobinopathy investigation showed HbC with the hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin-2 Ghana deletion. Reliable HbA1c results may be unobtainable in the presence of some hemoglobinopathies. HPLC and capillary electrophoresis alerted the laboratory to the presence of an unusual hemoglobinopathy. Immunoassays generated falsely low results without warning, which could lead to missed diagnoses and under treatment of patients with DM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel double heterozygous Hb Fontainebleau/HbD Punjab hemoglobinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Capote, Karina; Estey, Mathew P; Barakauskas, Vilte; Bordeleau, Pierre; Christensen, Cathie-Lou; Zuberbuhler, Peter; Higgins, Trefor N

    2015-09-01

    To report the finding of a novel double heterozygous hemoglobinopathy, the coinheritance of Hb Fontainebleau (α-chain variant) with HbD-Punjab (β-chain variant) discovered upon investigation of unexplained microcytosis in an infant. Hemoglobinopathy investigation was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using the β-thalassemia Short Program on the Bio-Rad Variant II(TM) followed by gel electrophoresis at alkaline and acid pH (Sebia Hydrasys 2 Electrophoresis System) and molecular diagnostic testing. This study complied with our institutional board ethics requirements. HPLC and electrophoresis suggested a complex α- and β-chain hemoglobinopathy with presumptive identification of the beta Hb variant as Hb D-Punjab. DNA sequencing analysis revealed the presence of a double heterozygous status for Hb Fontainebleau/Hb D-Punjab. In this paper we report the coinheritance of Hb Fontainebleau with Hb D-Punjab. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cellular retention of radioactivity and increased radiation dose. Model experiments with EGF-dextran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Aasa Liljegren; Blomquist, Erik; Carlsson, Joergen; Steffen, Ann-Charlott; Gedda, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Targeting of tumor cells with radiolabeled biomolecules is a possible approach to inactivate disseminated tumor cells. However, rapid degradation of the biomolecules after cellular internalization and subsequent excretion of the radioactivity is a problem. We studied the possibility of using dextran as a carrier of radionuclides to improve the intracellular retention. An EGF-dextran conjugate, aimed for targeting of tumor cells overexpressing the EGF-receptor, was used as model. Retention tests were performed with 125 I on different parts: [ 125 I]-EGF-dextran-[ 125 I], [ 125 I]-EGF-dextran and EGF-dextran-[ 125 I]. Comparisons were made with [ 125 I]-EGF. The radiolabeled compounds were incubated with cultured glioma cells for different times. The cellular retention of radioactivity was then measured for up to 24 h. Expected radiation doses at the cellular level were calculated assuming that 131 I, instead of 125 I, was coupled to EGF and EGF-dextran. The results indicated that the EGF-part of the conjugate was degraded and the EGF-attached radioactivity was rapidly excreted, whereas radioactivity on dextran was retained intracellularly to a high degree, i.e. 70-80% of the radioactivity bound to dextran was still cell-associated after 24 h. The retention after 24 h was significantly higher (p < 0.001) when the radioactivity was on the dextran instead of the EGF-part. The radiolabeled EGF-dextran had a notably high specific radioactivity; up to 11 MBq/μg. There was potential for at least hundred times increased radiation dose per receptor interaction when the radioactivity was on the dextran part. The advantage with radioactivity on the dextran part was the high cellular retention and the high specific radioactivity (higher than previously reported for other residualizing labels) without severe loss of receptor specific binding. Thus, dextran seems suitable as a carrier of radionuclides aimed for therapy and gives potential for a highly increased radiation dose

  9. Comparison of the characteristics of two hemoglobin variants, Hb D-Iran and Hb E, eluting in the Hb A2 window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Jasmita; Gupta, Aastha; Mittal, Suchi; Saraf, Amrita; Langer, Sabina; Bhargava, Manorama

    2017-06-01

    Cation exchange-high performance liquid chromatography (CE-HPLC) is most commonly used to evaluate hemoglobin (Hb) variants, which elute in the Hb A2 window. This study aimed to assess prevalence of an uncommon Hb variant, Hb D-Iran, and compare its red cell parameters and peak characteristics with those of Hb E that commonly elutes in the Hb A2 window. Generally, we assess abnormal Hb using CE-HPLC as the primary technique along with alkaline and acid electrophoresis. All cases with Hb A2 window >9%, as assessed by CE-HPLCs during 2009-2013, were selected. Twenty-nine cases with Hb D-Iran variant were identified-25 heterozygous, 2 homozygous, 1 compound heterozygous Hb D-Iran/β-thalassemia, and 1 Hb D-Iran/Hb D-Punjab. Overall prevalence of Hb D-Iran was 0.23%. Compared to patients with Hb E, those with Hb D-Iran had significantly higher Hb (12.1 vs. 11.3 g/dL, P =0.03), MCV (82.4 vs. 76.4 fL, P =0.0044), MCH (27.9 vs. 25.45 pg, P =0.0006), and MCHC (33.9 vs. 33.3 g/dL, P =0.0005). Amount of abnormal Hb (40.7 vs. 26.4%, P =0.0001) was significantly higher while retention time (3.56 vs. 3.70 min, P =0.0001) was significantly lower in Hb D-Iran than in Hb E. Hb D-Iran peak can be easily missed if area and retention time of the Hb A2 window are not carefully analyzed. To distinguish between variants, careful analysis of peak area and retention time is sufficient in most cases and may be further confirmed by the second technique-alkaline electrophoresis.

  10. Dihydrotestosterone Potentiates EGF-Induced ERK Activation by Inducing SRC in Fetal Lung Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan M.; Murray, Sandy; Pham, Lucia D.; Minoo, Parviz; Nielsen, Heber C.

    2014-01-01

    Lung maturation is regulated by interactions between mesenchymal and epithelial cells, and is delayed by androgens. Fibroblast–Type II cell communications are dependent on extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 activation by the ErbB receptor ligands epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-α, and neuregulin (Nrg). In other tissues, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) has been shown to activate SRC by a novel nontranscriptional mechanism, which phosphorylates EGF receptors to potentiate EGF-induced ERK1/2 activation. This study sought to determine if DHT potentiates EGFR signaling by a nontranscriptional mechanism. Embryonic day (E)17 fetal lung cells were isolated from dams treated with or without DHT since E12. Cells were exposed to 30 ng/ml DHT for periods of 30 minutes to 3 days before being stimulated with 100 ng/ml EGF, TGF-α, or Nrg for up to 30 minutes. Lysates were immunoblotted for ErbB and SRC pathway signaling intermediates. DHT increased ERK1/2 activation by EGF, TGF-α, and Nrg in fibroblasts and Type II cells. Characterization in fibroblasts showed that potentiation of the EGF pathway was significant after 60 minutes of DHT exposure and persisted in the presence of the translational inhibitor cycloheximide. SRC and EGF receptor phosphorylation was increased by DHT, as was EGF-induced SHC1 phosphorylation and subsequent association with GRB2. Finally, SRC silencing, SRC inhibition with PP2, and overexpression of a dominant-negative SRC each prevented DHT from increasing EGF-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These results suggest that DHT activates SRC to potentiate the signaling pathway leading from the EGF receptor to ERK activation in primary fetal lung fibroblasts. PMID:24484548

  11. Brief study about the distribution of recombinant human Epidermic Growth Factor (rh-EGF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Garcia, J.C.; De Dios D Espaux, R.; Bello Garciga, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes results of the study about biodistribution of I-125 recombinant human Epidermic Growth Factor (rhEGF). The radiolabelled product was administrated to Sprague Dawley rats in three different ways: intramuscular, subcutaneous and epidermic; the highest concentration of EGF in blood was found 4 hours after rhEGF administration, with a greater distribution in the plasma with regard to cellular pellet. The slowest plasma clearance corresponded to the intramuscular administration. The highest concentration of radiolabelled rhEGF was found in liver, kidney and intestine. It was found that radiolabelled EGF is excreted mainly throughout urine and faeces although other excretion pathways could exist

  12. Lefty Blocks a Subset of TGFβ Signals by Antagonizing EGF-CFC Coreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Simon K; Olale, Felix; Brivanlou, Ali H

    2004-01-01

    Members of the EGF-CFC family play essential roles in embryonic development and have been implicated in tumorigenesis. The TGFβ signals Nodal and Vg1/GDF1, but not Activin, require EGF-CFC coreceptors to activate Activin receptors. We report that the TGFβ signaling antagonist Lefty also acts through an EGF-CFC-dependent mechanism. Lefty inhibits Nodal and Vg1 signaling, but not Activin signaling. Lefty genetically interacts with EGF-CFC proteins and competes with Nodal for binding to these coreceptors. Chimeras between Activin and Nodal or Vg1 identify a 14 amino acid region that confers independence from EGF-CFC coreceptors and resistance to Lefty. These results indicate that coreceptors are targets for both TGFβ agonists and antagonists and suggest that subtle sequence variations in TGFβ signals result in greater ligand diversity. PMID:14966532

  13. The effects of chronic administration of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to rats on the levels of endogenous EGF in the submandibular glands and kidneys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Jøgensen, P E; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1996-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is mainly produced in the submandibular glands (SMG) and in the kidneys. It has recently been reported that EGF-related ligands may induce their own biosynthesis (autoinduction) in vitro. In the present paper, we investigated whether chronic systemic treatment with E...

  14. HbD Punjab/HbQ India compound heterozygosity: An unusual association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Colaco

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Haemoglobinopathies are the commonest hereditary disorders in India and pose a major health problem. Both beta thalassaemia and structural haemoglobin variants are relatively common in north western India. Here we report a 29 year old Sindhi female who was referred to us for a haemoglobinopathy work up and genetic counseling since her spouse was a classical beta thalassaemia carrier. Method: A complete blood count was done on an automated cell counter. Haemoglobin analysis was carried out using HPLC Variant Haemoglobin Testing System.  The cellulose acetate electrophoresis was carried out [pH 8.9]. Confirmation of mutations was done by automated DNA sequencing. Results: HPLC analysis showed four major peaks, HbA0, a peak in the HbD window, an unknown peak [retention time 4.74 minutes] and a peak in the HbC window. The HbA2 level was 2.2% and the HbF level was 0.7%.Cellulose acetate electrophoresis at alkaline pH, a slow moving band was seen at the HbS/D position along with a prominent band at the HbA2 position. DNA sequencing of the β and α genes showed presence of the 2 hemoglobin variants :Hb D [b 121GAA à CAA] and Hb Q [a 64 AAG à GAG]. The δ globin gene was normal. The additional peak in the HbC window was due to the formation of a heterodimer hybrid. Conclusion: Both HbD Punjab and HbQ India are relatively common in India but their co-inheritance has not been described in the country. This is the second report of compound heterozygosity for HbQ India/HbD Punjab haemoglobinopathy globally, and the first one from India.

  15. The Properties of Red Blood Cells from Patients Heterozygous for HbS and HbC (HbSC Genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hannemann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is one of the commonest severe inherited disorders, but specific treatments are lacking and the pathophysiology remains unclear. Affected individuals account for well over 250,000 births yearly, mostly in the Tropics, the USA, and the Caribbean, also in Northern Europe as well. Incidence in the UK amounts to around 12–15,000 individuals and is increasing, with approximately 300 SCD babies born each year as well as with arrival of new immigrants. About two thirds of SCD patients are homozygous HbSS individuals. Patients heterozygous for HbS and HbC (HbSC constitute about a third of SCD cases, making this the second most common form of SCD, with approximately 80,000 births per year worldwide. Disease in these patients shows differences from that in homozygous HbSS individuals. Their red blood cells (RBCs, containing approximately equal amounts of HbS and HbC, are also likely to show differences in properties which may contribute to disease outcome. Nevertheless, little is known about the behaviour of RBCs from HbSC heterozygotes. This paper reviews what is known about SCD in HbSC individuals and will compare the properties of their RBCs with those from homozygous HbSS patients. Important areas of similarity and potential differences will be emphasised.

  16. EGF signalling pathway regulates colon cancer stem cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Y; Dai, X; Li, X; Wang, H; Liu, J; Zhang, J; Du, Y; Xia, L

    2012-10-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) compose a subpopulation of cells within a tumour that can self-renew and proliferate. Growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) promote cancer stem cell proliferation in many solid tumours. This study assesses whether EGF, bFGF and IGF signalling pathways are essential for colon CSC proliferation and self-renewal. Colon CSCs were cultured in serum-free medium (SFM) with one of the following growth factors: EGF, bFGF or IGF. Characteristics of CSC gene expression were evaluated by real time PCR. Tumourigenicity of CSCs was determined using a xenograft model in vivo. Effects of EGF receptor inhibitors, Gefitinib and PD153035, on CSC proliferation, apoptosis and signalling were evaluated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting and western blotting. Colon cancer cell HCT116 transformed to CSCs in SFM. Compared to other growth factors, EGF was essential to support proliferation of CSCs that expressed higher levels of progenitor genes (Musashi-1, LGR5) and lower levels of differential genes (CK20). CSCs promoted more rapid tumour growth than regular cancer cells in xenografts. EGFR inhibitors suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis of CSCs by inhibiting autophosphorylation of EGFR and downstream signalling proteins, such as Akt kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2). This study indicates that EGF signalling was essential for formation and maintenance of colon CSCs. Inhibition of the EGF signalling pathway may provide a useful strategy for treatment of colon cancer. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Development of Cu-64 labeled EGF for In Vivo PET Imaging of EGFR Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backer, Joseph M.

    2009-07-12

    In this project we proposed to establish feasibility of the development of targeted tracers for radionuclide imaging of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in cancer patients. The significance and impact of the proposed radiotracers are determined by the crucial role that EGFR plays in many cancers and by the rapid entrance of EGFR-inhibiting drugs into clinic. Clinical experience, however, revealed that only 10-25% of patients that are defined as EGFR-positive by immunohistochemical analysis respond to EGFR-directed therapeutics and there is poor correlation between EGFR immunohistochemistry and treatment. Therefore, for more efficacious use of EGFR-targeting therapeutics, there is a need for information about EGFR activity in patients. We hypothesized that radionuclide imaging of functionally active EGFR will provide such information and would allow for 1) rational patient stratification, 2) rapid monitoring of responses to therapy, and 3) development of personalized treatment regimens. We hypothesized that tracers based epidermal growth factor (EGF), a natural EGFR ligand, as a targeting vector would be particularly advantageous. First, only functionally active and therefore critical for disease progression EGFRs will bind and internalize an EGF-based tracer. Second, continuous internalization of EGF-based tracers by recyclable EGFR would lead to intracellular accumulation of radionuclide and improved signal-to-background ratio. Third, small size of EGF relative to antibodies would facilitate tumor penetration with vastly better non-specific soft tissue and blood clearance rates. Fourth, as a human protein, EGF is not expected to be immunogenic. Finally, at the beginning of this project, we have already engineered and expressed functionally active EGF with an N-terminal Cys-tag for site-specific conjugation of various payloads, including radionuclide chelators. In the Phase I of this project, in collaboration with Dr. Blankenberg’s group at Stanford

  18. Development of Cu-64 labeled EGF for In Vivo PET Imaging of EGFR Expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backer, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    In this project we proposed to establish feasibility of the development of targeted tracers for radionuclide imaging of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in cancer patients. The significance and impact of the proposed radiotracers are determined by the crucial role that EGFR plays in many cancers and by the rapid entrance of EGFR-inhibiting drugs into clinic. Clinical experience, however, revealed that only 10-25% of patients that are defined as EGFR-positive by immunohistochemical analysis respond to EGFR-directed therapeutics and there is poor correlation between EGFR immunohistochemistry and treatment. Therefore, for more efficacious use of EGFR-targeting therapeutics, there is a need for information about EGFR activity in patients. We hypothesized that radionuclide imaging of functionally active EGFR will provide such information and would allow for (1) rational patient stratification, (2) rapid monitoring of responses to therapy, and (3) development of personalized treatment regimens. We hypothesized that tracers based epidermal growth factor (EGF), a natural EGFR ligand, as a targeting vector would be particularly advantageous. First, only functionally active and therefore critical for disease progression EGFRs will bind and internalize an EGF-based tracer. Second, continuous internalization of EGF-based tracers by recyclable EGFR would lead to intracellular accumulation of radionuclide and improved signal-to-background ratio. Third, small size of EGF relative to antibodies would facilitate tumor penetration with vastly better non-specific soft tissue and blood clearance rates. Fourth, as a human protein, EGF is not expected to be immunogenic. Finally, at the beginning of this project, we have already engineered and expressed functionally active EGF with an N-terminal Cys-tag for site-specific conjugation of various payloads, including radionuclide chelators. In the Phase I of this project, in collaboration with Dr. Blankenberg's group at Stanford

  19. Stability study for magnetic reagent assaying Hb and HbA1c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin; Chieh, J.J.; Yang, C.C.; Yang, S.Y.; Chen, Po-Yu; Huang, Yu-Hao; Hong, Y.W.; Horng, H.E.

    2013-01-01

    Reagents for magnetically labeled immunoassay on human Hb and human HbA1c have been synthesized. The reagents consist of Fe 3 O 4 magnetic particles biofunctionalized with antibodies against Hb and HbA1c. It has been demonstrated that the reagents can be applied to quantitatively detect Hb and HbA1c by using immunomagnetic reduction assay. In addition to characterizing the assay properties, such as the standard curve and the low-detection limit, the stability of reagents is investigated. To do this, the temporal dependence of particle sizes and the bio-activity of reagents are monitored. The results show that the reagents are highly stable when stored at 2–8 °C. This means that the reagents synthesized in this work are promising for practical applications. - Highlights: ► The properties of assaying Hb and HbA1c using immunomagnetic reduction are studied. ► The magnetic nanoparticles with antibodies are highly stable in solutions. ► No significant mutual interference between Hb and HbA1c in assays is observed. ► High-sensitivity assays on Hb and HbA1c using immunomagnetic reduction are achieved.

  20. Augmenter of liver regeneration causes different kinetics of ERK1/2 and Akt/PKB phosphorylation than EGF and induces hepatocyte proliferation in an EGF receptor independent and liver specific manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilowski, Maren; Putz, Christine [Department of Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Hospital Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Weiss, Thomas S. [Department of Surgery, University of Regensburg Hospital, Regensburg (Germany); Brand, Stephan [Department of Internal Medicine II, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Hospital Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Jauch, Karl-Walter [Department of Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Hospital Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Hengstler, Jan G. [Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, TU Dortmund University, Dortmund (Germany); Thasler, Wolfgang Erwin, E-mail: wolfgang.thasler@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Hospital Grosshadern, Munich (Germany)

    2010-04-16

    Background/Aim: Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) is a potent growth factor which supports liver regeneration in experimental animals. The aim of this study was to compare proliferation as well as the kinetics of ERK1/2 and Akt/PKB phosphorylation by recombinant human ALR (rhALR) and EGF in human hepatocytes and extrahepatic cells. Methods: Kinetics of ERK1/2 and Akt/PKB phosphorylation were determined in primary human hepatocytes (phh) after stimulation with rhALR and EGF. Induction of proliferation was analyzed in phh and several cell lines of hepatic and extrahepatic origin by the MTT and [{sup 3}H]-thymidine assay. Results: The kinetics of ERK phosphorylation showed clear differences, whereby rhALR caused a transient and EGF a permanent increase during the observation period of 60 min. For both, Akt and ERK phosphorylation, EGF caused a faster effect with maximal levels observed already after 2 min, whereas rhALR caused maximal phosphorylation between 10 and 15 min. Using the EGF receptor inhibitor AG1478 we provide evidence of an EGF receptor independent induction of proliferation by rhALR. Furthermore, rhALR induced proliferation only in phh and the human liver derived cell lines HepG2 and Chang. In contrast, EGF enhanced proliferation in all analyzed cell types including cell lines of colon, bronchial, pancreatic and gastric origin (SW480, BC1, L36PL and GC1). Conclusion: rhALR and EGF induce different kinetics of ERK and Akt phosphorylation in human hepatocytes. The mitogenic effect of rhALR is liver specific and seems to be at least partially independent from EGF receptor mediated signaling.

  1. Lefty blocks a subset of TGFbeta signals by antagonizing EGF-CFC coreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon K Cheng

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of the EGF-CFC family play essential roles in embryonic development and have been implicated in tumorigenesis. The TGFbeta signals Nodal and Vg1/GDF1, but not Activin, require EGF-CFC coreceptors to activate Activin receptors. We report that the TGFbeta signaling antagonist Lefty also acts through an EGF-CFC-dependent mechanism. Lefty inhibits Nodal and Vg1 signaling, but not Activin signaling. Lefty genetically interacts with EGF-CFC proteins and competes with Nodal for binding to these coreceptors. Chimeras between Activin and Nodal or Vg1 identify a 14 amino acid region that confers independence from EGF-CFC coreceptors and resistance to Lefty. These results indicate that coreceptors are targets for both TGFbeta agonists and antagonists and suggest that subtle sequence variations in TGFbeta signals result in greater ligand diversity.

  2. iRhom2 promotes lupus nephritis through TNF-α and EGFR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xiaoping; Chinenov, Yurii; Redecha, Patricia; Madaio, Michael; Roelofs, Joris Jth; Farber, Gregory; Issuree, Priya D; Donlin, Laura; Mcllwain, David R; Mak, Tak W; Blobel, Carl P; Salmon, Jane E

    2018-04-02

    Lupus nephritis (LN) often results in progressive renal dysfunction. The inactive rhomboid 2 (iRhom2) is a newly identified key regulator of A disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17), whose substrates, such as TNF-α and heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney diseases. Here, we demonstrate that deficiency of iRhom2 protects the lupus-prone Fcgr2b-/- mice from developing severe kidney damage without altering anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) Ab production by simultaneously blocking HB-EGF/EGFR and TNF-α signaling in the kidney tissues. Unbiased transcriptome profiling of kidneys and kidney macrophages revealed that TNF-α and HB-EGF/EGFR signaling pathways are highly upregulated in Fcgr2b-/- mice, alterations that were diminished in the absence of iRhom2. Pharmacological blockade of either TNF-α or EGFR signaling protected Fcgr2b-/- mice from severe renal damage. Finally, kidneys from LN patients showed increased iRhom2 and HB-EGF expression, with interstitial HB-EGF expression significantly associated with chronicity indices. Our data suggest that activation of iRhom2/ADAM17-dependent TNF-α and EGFR signaling plays a crucial role in mediating irreversible kidney damage in LN, thereby uncovering a target for selective and simultaneous dual inhibition of 2 major pathological pathways in the effector arm of the disease.

  3. Arf6 regulates EGF-induced internalization of E-cadherin in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Zhang, Yujie; Gu, Luo; Zheng, Jianchao; Cui, Jie; Dong, Jing; Du, Jun

    2015-01-01

    E-cadherin internalization facilitates dissolution of adherens junctions and promotes tumor cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration. Our previous results have shown that Arf6 exerts pro-migratory action in breast cancer cells after EGF stimulation. Despite the fact that EGF signaling stimulates EMT of breast cancer cells, the effect of Arf6 on internalization of E-cadherin of breast cancer cells under EGF treatment remains to be determined. Here, we showed that EGF dose-dependently stimulated E-cadherin internalization by MCF-7 cells with the maximal effect at 50 ng/ml. Meanwhile, EGF treatment markedly increased Arf6 activation. Arf6 was involved in complexes of E-cadherin, and more E-cadherin was pulled down with Arf6 when the activity of the latter was increased. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays showed that transfection breast cancer cells with Arf6-T27N or Arf6 siRNA suppressed EGF-induced E-cadherin internalization. Taken together, our study demonstrated that Arf6 activation plays a potential role in EGF-induced E-cadherin internalization, providing new mechanism underlying the effect of Arf6 on promoting breast cancer cell metastasis.

  4. Stability study for magnetic reagent assaying Hb and HbA1c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin [Actherm Inc., Hsinchu 200, Taiwan (China); Chieh, J.J.; Yang, C.C. [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Yang, S.Y. [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); MagQu Co., Ltd., Sindian Dist., New Taipei City 231, Taiwan (China); Chen, Po-Yu; Huang, Yu-Hao [Actherm Inc., Hsinchu 200, Taiwan (China); Hong, Y.W. [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Horng, H.E., E-mail: phyfv001@ntnu.edu.tw [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China)

    2013-01-15

    Reagents for magnetically labeled immunoassay on human Hb and human HbA1c have been synthesized. The reagents consist of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic particles biofunctionalized with antibodies against Hb and HbA1c. It has been demonstrated that the reagents can be applied to quantitatively detect Hb and HbA1c by using immunomagnetic reduction assay. In addition to characterizing the assay properties, such as the standard curve and the low-detection limit, the stability of reagents is investigated. To do this, the temporal dependence of particle sizes and the bio-activity of reagents are monitored. The results show that the reagents are highly stable when stored at 2-8 Degree-Sign C. This means that the reagents synthesized in this work are promising for practical applications. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of assaying Hb and HbA1c using immunomagnetic reduction are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic nanoparticles with antibodies are highly stable in solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant mutual interference between Hb and HbA1c in assays is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-sensitivity assays on Hb and HbA1c using immunomagnetic reduction are achieved.

  5. Extension arm facilitated pegylation of alphaalpha-hemoglobin with modifications targeted exclusively to amino groups: functional and structural advantages of free Cys-93(beta) in the PEG-Hb adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongxia; Hu, Tao; Manjula, Belur N; Acharya, Seetharama A

    2009-11-01

    Cys-93(beta) of hemoglobin (Hb) was reversibly protected as a mixed disulfide with thiopyridine during extension arm facilitated (EAF) PEGylation and its influence on the structural and functional properties of the EAF-PEG-Hb has been investigated. Avoiding PEGylation of Cys-93(beta) in the EAF-PEG-Hb lowers the level of perturbation of heme pocket, alpha1beta2 interface, autoxidation, heme loss, and the O(2) affinity, as compared to the EAF-PEG-Hb with PEGylation of Cys-93(beta).The structural and functional advantages of reversible protection of Cys-93(beta) during EAF PEGylation of oxy-Hb has been compared with Euro PEG-Hb generated by EAF PEGylation of deoxy Hb where Cys-93(beta) is free in the final product. The alphaalpha-fumaryl cross-linking and EAF PEGylation targeted exclusively to Lys residues has been combined together for generation of second-generation EAF-PEG-Hb with lower oxygen affinity. The PEG chains engineered on Lys as well as PEGylation of Cys-93(beta) independently contribute to the stabilization of oxy conformation of Hb and hence increase the oxygen affinity of Hb. However, oxygen affinity of the EAF-PEG-alphaalpha-Hb is more sensitive to the presence of PEGylation on Cys-93(beta) than that of the EAF-PEG-Hb. The present modified EAF PEGylation platform is expected to facilitate the design of novel versions of the EAF-PEG-Hbs that can now integrate the advantages of avoiding PEGylation of Cys-93(beta).

  6. Combined immunotherapy of breast cancer with EGF and VEGF vaccines from DNA shuffling in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Dong; Yu, Xin; Chen, Bing; Li, Zhitao; Ding, Jia; Zhao, Xiuyun; Qi, Gaofu

    2017-06-01

    Development of EGF and VEGF vaccines with high antigenicity for combined immunotherapy of EGF-EGFR signaling-dependent epithelial tumors such as breast cancer. EGF genes from mouse, human and chicken were randomly assembled to chimeric genes by DNA shuffling, then a chimeric EGF was selected out by PCR, SDS-PAGE and immunization for combined immunotherapy of breast cancer with a previously constructed chimeric VEGF vaccine from shuffling. Combined vaccination with chimeric EGF and VEGF from shuffling could induce high titer of antibodies against EGF and VEGF to inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis, and improve the survival rate of mice with breast cancer. Combined vaccination with EGF and VEGF from shuffling showed better immunotherapy on EGF-EGFR signaling-dependent epithelial tumors such as breast cancer than the single-agent EGF vaccination.

  7. Diagnosis of Compound Heterozygous Hb Tak/β-Thalassemia and HbD-Punjab/β-Thalassemia by HbA2 Levels on Capillary Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyasai, Sitthichai; Sakkhachornphop, Supachai; Pornprasert, Sakorn

    2018-01-01

    A misdiagnosis of β-thalassemia carrier in samples with Hb Tak and HbD-Punjab, the β-variants, can be a cause of inappropriate genetic counseling thus having a new case of β-thalassemia major. A capillary electrophoresis (CE) is very efficient in separating and quantifying HbA 2 . In this study, HbA 2 levels of samples which were doubted for compound heterozygous Hb Tak/β-thalassemia or heterozygous HbD-Punjab/β-thalassemia were measured and compared between CE and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The molecular confirmation for Hb Tak, HbD-Punjab and β-thalassemia codons 17 (A > T), 41/42 (-TCTT), 71/72 (+A) and IVSI-nt1 (G > T) mutations and 3.4 kb deletion were also performed. Based on DNA analysis, 3 cases were diagnosed as compound heterozygous Hb Tak/β-thalassemia and one for HbD-Punjab/β-thalassemia. The elevated HbA 2 levels were found in all 4 samples with rages of 4.6-7.3% on CE while those were not found on HPLC. Thus, the elevated HbA 2 measured by CE can be used as a screening parameter for differentiating the homozygote of Hb Tak and HbD-Punjab from the compound heterozygote of these hemoglobinopathies and β-thalassemia.

  8. SMOC Binds to Pro-EGF, but Does Not Induce Erk Phosphorylation via the EGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J Terrig; Chhuy-Hy, Lina; Andrykovich, Kristin R; Moos, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to identify the cell-associated protein(s) through which SMOC (Secreted Modular Calcium binding protein) induces mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) became a candidate. However, although in 32D/EGFR cells, the EGFR was phosphorylated in the presence of a commercially available human SMOC-1 (hSMOC-1), only minimal phosphorylation was observed in the presence of Xenopus SMOC-1 (XSMOC-1) or human SMOC-2. Analysis of the commercial hSMOC-1 product demonstrated the presence of pro-EGF as an impurity. When the pro-EGF was removed, only minimal EGFR activation was observed, indicating that SMOC does not signal primarily through EGFR and its receptor remains unidentified. Investigation of SMOC/pro-EGF binding affinity revealed a strong interaction that does not require the C-terminal extracellular calcium-binding (EC) domain of SMOC or the EGF domain of pro-EGF. SMOC does not appear to potentiate or inhibit MAPK signaling in response to pro-EGF, but the interaction could provide a mechanism for retaining soluble pro-EGF at the cell surface.

  9. DNA methylation dynamics in the rat EGF gene promoter after partial hepatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deming Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor (EGF, a multifunctional growth factor, is a regulator in a wide variety of physiological processes. EGF plays an important role in the regulation of liver regeneration. This study was aimed at investigating the methylation level of EGF gene throughout liver regeneration. DNA of liver tissue from control rats and partial hepatectomy (PH rats at 10 time points was extracted and a 354 bp fragment including 10 CpG sites from the transcription start was amplified after DNA was modified by sodium bisulfate. The result of sequencing suggested that methylation ratio of four CpG sites was found to be significantly changed when PH group was compared to control group, in particular two of them were extremely striking. mRNA expression of EGF was down-regulated in total during liver regeneration. We think that the rat EGF promoter region is regulated by variation in DNA methylation during liver regeneration.

  10. Elevated EGF Levels in the Blood Serum of Dogs with Periodontal Diseases and Oral Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczyńska-Rak, Aleksandra; Żylińska, Beata; Polkowska, Izabela; Szponder, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Paradontopathy and neoplasms of the oral cavity represent one of the greatest challenges in human and animal dentistry. EGF plays a key role in maintaining the integrity and proper rate of cell proliferation in normal oral epithelium. The aim of the present study was to study serum levels of EGF in dogs diagnosed with periodontal diseases and oral cavity tumours. The samples comprised of cancerous tissue sections and serum obtained from dogs of various breeds, aged between 5-13 years. Serum EGF concentrations were measured by an immunoenzymatic method. The median for EGF concentration in serum of dogs suffered from severe periodontal diseases was greater when compared to the control group. EGF concentration in dogs with malignant tumours was significantly higher than in those with non-malignant growths. A positive correlation between EGF concentration and tumour size was also observed. EGF level in dogs diagnosed with benign tumours was comparable to the control group. The blood serum level of EGF increases significantly in patients with malignant oral tumours and advanced periodontal disease. In malignant tumours, the high level of EGF correlates with the size and invasiveness of the neoplasm. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. Glycaemic control and prevalence of hypoglycaemic events in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus treated with insulin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavšić, Ljiljana; Mitrović, Katarina; Todorović, Sladjana; Vuković, Rade; Milenković, Tatjana; Zdravković, Dragan

    2014-09-01

    An ideal insulin regimen for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) should be physiological, flexibile and predictable, protecting against hypoglycaemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of insulin analogues on glycaemic control and the occurance of hypoglycaemic episodes in children and adolescents with T1DM. The study group consisted of 151 children and adolescents (90 boys, 61 girls) treated with human insulins for at least 12 months before introducing insulin analogues. All the patients were divided into two groups: the group I consisted of 72 (47.7%) patients treated with three injections of regular human insulin before meals and long-acting analogue (RHI/LA), and the group II of 79 (52.30%) patients treated with a combination of rapid-acting and long-acting analogue (RA/LA). The levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and the number of hypoglycaemic episodes were assessed at the beginning of therapy with insulin analogues, and after 6 and 12 months. The mean HbA1c was significantly lower in the group I (RHI/LA) after 6 months (9.15% vs 8.20%, p < 0.001) and after 12 months (9.15% vs 8.13%, p < 0.001) as well as in the group II (RA/LA) after 6 months (9.40% vs 8.240%, p < 0.001) and after 12 months of insulin analogues treatment (9.40% vs 8.38%, p < 0.001). The frequency of severe hypoglycaemia was significantly lower in both groups after 6 months (in the group I from 61.1% to 4.2% and in the group II from 54.4% to 1.3%, p < 0.001), and after 12 months (in the group I from 61.1% to 1.4% and in the group II from 54.4% to 1.3%, p < 0.001). Significantly better HbA1c values and lower risk of severe hypoglycaemia were established in children and adolescents with T1DM treated with insulin analogues.

  12. Immunohistochemical and quantitative changes in salivary EGF, amylase and haptocorrin following radiotherapy for oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M E; Hansen, H S; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1996-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), amylase and haptocorrin are molecules produced in the salivary glands. The aim of the present study was to determine immunohistochemical and quantitative alterations in EGF as compared with haptocorrin and amylase following radiotherapy for oral cancer. Changes in t...... a reduction in the mitogenic peptide EGF both immunohistochemically and quantitatively following irradiation for oral cancer, results which may contribute to the understanding of the clinical signs of mucositis.......Epidermal growth factor (EGF), amylase and haptocorrin are molecules produced in the salivary glands. The aim of the present study was to determine immunohistochemical and quantitative alterations in EGF as compared with haptocorrin and amylase following radiotherapy for oral cancer. Changes....... The concentration of EGF in saliva before treatment was significantly higher in patients than in the control group (p oral tumors contribute with EGF to the saliva. In conclusion we have demonstrated...

  13. TGFβ loss activates ADAMTS-1-mediated EGF-dependent invasion in a model of esophageal cell invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bras, Grégoire F.; Taylor, Chase; Koumangoye, Rainelli B. [Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Revetta, Frank [Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Loomans, Holli A. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Andl, Claudia D., E-mail: claudia.andl@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Department of Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The TGFβ signaling pathway is essential to epithelial homeostasis and is often inhibited during progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Recently, an important role for TGFβ signaling has been described in the crosstalk between epithelial and stromal cells regulating squamous tumor cell invasion in mouse models of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Loss of TGFβ signaling, in either compartment, leads to HNSCC however, the mechanisms involved are not well understood. Using organotypic reconstruct cultures (OTC) to model the interaction between epithelial and stromal cells that occur in dysplastic lesions, we show that loss of TGFβ signaling promotes an invasive phenotype in both fibroblast and epithelial compartments. Employing immortalized esophageal keratinocytes established to reproduce common mutations of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, we show that treatment of OTC with inhibitors of TGFβ signaling (A83-01 or SB431542) enhances invasion of epithelial cells into a fibroblast-embedded Matrigel/collagen I matrix. Invasion induced by A83-01 is independent of proliferation but relies on protease activity and expression of ADAMTS-1 and can be altered by matrix density. This invasion was associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL1 and EGFR ligands HB-EGF and TGFα. Altering EGF signaling prevented or induced epithelial cell invasion in this model. Loss of expression of the TGFβ target gene ROBO1 suggested that chemorepulsion may regulate keratinocyte invasion. Taken together, our data show increased invasion through inhibition of TGFβ signaling altered epithelial-fibroblasts interactions, repressing markers of activated fibroblasts, and altering integrin-fibronectin interactions. These results suggest that inhibition of TGFβ signaling modulates an array of pathways that combined promote multiple aspects of tumor invasion. - Highlights: • Chemical inhibition of TGFβ signaling advances collective invasion

  14. Nitric oxide generated by ionizing radiation and EGF is implicated in EGF receptor phosphorylation in A549 lung carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In Chul; Lee, Hyung Chahn; Rhee, Chang Hun; Hong, Seok Il

    2004-01-01

    Although it has been demonstrated that ionizing radiation (IR) control various cell functions in a different cell types, the mechanisms of its action via NO are not well understood. NO may potentially affect every type of mammalian cells, owing to its ubiquitous production and participate in the control of cell proliferation in a great variety of cell types. The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is a transmembrane glycoprotein of Mr 170,000. When EGF binds to its receptor, the receptor is dimerized and autophosphorylated at the carboxyl-terminal tyrosine 992, 1608, 1086, 1148 and 1173. This phosphorylated receptor initiates a series of signal tranduction events through interacting proteins of SH2 family including Shc, Grb2 and Sos, which in turn trigger ativation of MAPK cascades. Although the number of signaling events mediated by IR-induced NO is growing, it is still unclear how NO activate cellular signaling events. Thus, we examined the effect of NO on cellular phosphorylation and found that NO was produced by ionizing radiation in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells and enhances the unique tyrosine phosphorylation on EGF receptor

  15. A functional EGF+61 polymorphism is associated with severity of obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qunli; Cao, Chao; Chen, Zhongbo; Tabusi, Mahebali; Chen, Li; Deng, Zaichun

    2015-05-01

    Involvement of epidermal growth factor (EGF) is reported in diseases caused by hypoxia. Its functional polymorphism may alter its transcription, affecting EGF expression, contributing to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this study was to investigate associations of EGF+61 polymorphism and risk of OSA. Two hundred two participants were enrolled in this case-control study. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, and EGF 61A/G polymorphism was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. No significant association between EGF 61 A/G polymorphism and risk of OSA was observed in any of the gene models tested (AA vs. GG: OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.37-2.55; P = 0.95). However, compared with GG genotype, AG genotype associated with decreased risk of severe OSA (AG vs. GG: OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.11-0.94). Our study showed that AG genotype has a protective effect on OSA patients against severe disease, although EGF 61A/G polymorphisms have no role on the risk of the disease. Additional large studies should further validate our findings.

  16. Secretion of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) in autotrophic culture by a recombinant hydrogen-utilizing bacterium, Pseudomonas pseudoflava, carrying broad-host-range EGF secretion vector pKSEGF2.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayase, N; Ishiyama, A; Niwano, M

    1994-01-01

    We constructed the broad-host-range human epidermal growth factor (EGF) secretion plasmid pKSEGF2 by inserting the Escherichia coli tac promoter, the signal sequence of Pseudomonas stutzeri amylase, and the synthesized EGF gene into the broad-host-range vector pKT230. E. coli JM109 carrying pKSEGF2 secreted EGF into the periplasm and the culture medium under the control of the tac promoter. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1161 carrying pKSEGF2 and Pseudomonas putida AC10 carrying pKSEGF2 secreted E...

  17. Cation Homeostasis in Red Cells From Patients With Sickle Cell Disease Heterologous for HbS and HbC (HbSC Genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hannemann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD in patients of HbSC genotype is considered similar, albeit milder, to that in homozygous HbSS individuals — but with little justification. In SCD, elevated red cell cation permeability is critical as increased solute loss causes dehydration and encourages sickling. Recently, we showed that the KCl cotransporter (KCC activity in red cells from HbSC patients correlated significantly with disease severity, but that in HbSS patients did not. Two transporters involved in red cell dehydration, the conductive channels Psickle and the Gardos channel, behaved similarly in red cells from the two genotypes, but were significantly less active in HbSC patients. By contrast, KCC activity was quantitatively greater in HbSC red cells. Results suggest that KCC is likely to have greater involvement in red cell dehydration in HbSC patients, which could explain its association with disease severity in this genotype. This work supports the hypothesis that SCD in HbSC patients is a distinct disease entity to that in HbSS patients. Results suggest the possibility of designing specific treatments of particular benefit to HbSC patients and a rationale for the development of prognostic markers, to inform early treatment of children likely to develop more severe complications of the disease.

  18. Thiol-Disulfide Exchange between Glutaredoxin and Glutathione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Rasmus; Andersen, Peter Anders; Jensen, Kristine Steen

    2010-01-01

    Glutaredoxins are ubiquitous thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases which catalyze the reduction of glutathione-protein mixed disulfides. Belonging to the thioredoxin family, they contain a conserved active site CXXC motif. The N-proximal active site cysteine can form a mixed disulfide with glutathione ...... has been replaced with serine. The exchange reaction between the reduced protein and oxidized glutathione leading to formation of the mixed disulfide could readily be monitored by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) due to the enthalpic contributions from the noncovalent interactions...

  19. Differences in human skin between the epidermal growth factor receptor distribution detected by EGF binding and monoclonal antibody recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, M R; Couchman, J R

    1985-01-01

    , the eccrine sweat glands, capillary system, and the hair follicle outer root sheath, generally similar in pattern to that previously reported for full-thickness rat skin and human epidermis. The same areas also bound EGF-R1 but in addition the monoclonal antibody recognized a cone of melanin containing......Two methods have been used to examine epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor distribution in human scalp and foreskin. The first employed [125I]EGF viable explants and autoradiography to determine the EGF binding pattern while the second used a monoclonal antibody to the human EGF receptor to map...... whether EGF-R1 could recognize molecules unrelated to the EGF receptor, the EGF binding and EGF-R1 recognition profiles were compared on cultures of SVK14 cells, a SV40 transformed human keratinocyte cell line. EGF binding and EGF-R1 monoclonal antibody distribution on these cells was found to be similar...

  20. Multiple ways to make disulfides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulleid, Neil J; Ellgaard, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Our concept of how disulfides form in proteins entering the secretory pathway has changed dramatically in recent years. The discovery of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) oxidoreductin 1 (ERO1) was followed by the demonstration that this enzyme couples oxygen reduction to de novo formation of disulfides...

  1. Hb variants in Korea: effect on HbA1c using five routine methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yeo-Min; Ji, Misuk; Ko, Dae-Hyun; Chun, Sail; Kwon, Gye Cheol; Lee, Kyunghoon; Song, Sang Hoon; Seong, Moon Woo; Park, Sung Sup; Song, Junghan

    2017-07-26

    Quantification of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a challenge in patients with hemoglobin (Hb) variants. We evaluated the impact of various Hb variants on five routine HbA1c assays by comparing with the IFCC reference measurement procedure (RMP). Whole blood samples showing warning flags or no results on routine HPLC HbA1c assays were confirmed for Hb variants and were submitted to HbA1c quantification using Sebia Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing, Roche Tina-quant HbA1c Gen. 2, Bio-Rad Variant II Turbo 2.0, ADAMS HA-8180, Tosoh G8 standard mode, and IFCC RMP using LC-MS. Among 114 samples, the most common variants were Hb G-Coushatta (n=47), Queens (n=41), Ube-4 (n=11), Chad (n=4), Yamagata (n=4), G-His-Tsou (n=2), G-Taipei (n=1), Fort de France (n=1), Hoshida (n=1), and two novel variants (Hb α-globin, HBA 52 Gly>Cys and Hb β-globin, HBB 146 His>Asn). In terms of control samples, all the result of HbA1c were "acceptable", within the criteria of ±7% compared to IFCC RMP target values. However, percentage of "unacceptable" results of samples with Hb variants were 16% for Capillarys 2, 7% for Tina-quant, 51% for Variant II Turbo 2.0, 95% for G8 standard mode, and 89% for HA-8180. The Capillarys 2 and HA-8180 assay did not provide the results in 5 and 40 samples with Hb variants, respectively. HbA1c results from five routine assays in patients with relatively common Hb variants in Korea showed various degrees of bias compared to those of IFCC RMP. Therefore, laboratories should be aware of the limitation of their methods with respect to interference from Hb variants found commonly in their local population and suggest an alternative HbA1c quantification method.

  2. Changes of serum and chorion-villi contents of EGF in early pregnant women undergone artificial abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Suping; Wu Xiaohua; Li Hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum and chorion-villi contents of EGF in pregnant women undergone artificial abortion with drug (mifepristone) or surgery (curettage). Methods: Serum epidermal growth factor (EGF), E 2 , progesterone levels changes as well as chorion-villi EGF contents were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with drug abortion (before and after mifepristone 25mg bid x 3 days), 30 pregnant women undergone curettage (determined twice, 3 days apart) and 32 controls (serum only). Results: Serum EGF, E 2 , and progesterone contents in all pregnant women were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). The chorion-villi contents of EGF in patients undergone drug abortion were significantly lower than those in patients undergone curettage (P<0.05). Both serum EGF and progesterone contents dropped after 3 days treatment with mifepristone (vs those in curettage group, P<0.05). Conclusion: Mifepristone might exert the effect of abortion through decrease of EGF levels, which was detrimental to fetus growth. (authors)

  3. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a potential targeting agent for delivery of boron to malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capala, J.; Barth, R.F.; Adams, D.M.; Bailey, M.Q.; Soloway, A.H.; Carlsson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The majority of high grade gliomas express an amplified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, and this often is associated with an increase in cell surface receptor expression. The rapid internalization and degradation of EGF-EGFR complexes, as well as their high affinity make EGF a potential targeting agent for delivery of 10 B to tumor cells with an amplified number of EGFR. Human glioma cells can expresses as many as 10 5 -10 6 EGF receptors per cell, and if these could be saturated with boronated EGF, then > 10 8 boron atoms would be delivered per cell. Since EGF has a comparatively low molecular weight (∼ 6 kD), this has allowed us to construct relatively small bioconjugates containing ∼ 900 boron atoms per EGF molecule 3 , which also had high affinity for EGFR on tumor cells. In the present study, the feasibility of using EGF receptors as a potential target for therapy of gliomas was investigated by in vivo scintigraphic studies using 131 I- or 99m T c -labeled EGF in a rat brain tumor model. Our results indicate that intratumorally delivered boron- EGF conjugates might be useful for targeting EGFR on glioma cells if the boron containing moiety of the conjugates persisted intracellularly. Further studies are required, however, to determine if this approach can be used for BNCT of the rat glioma

  4. Widespread Disulfide Bonding in Proteins from Thermophilic Archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Jorda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Disulfide bonds are generally not used to stabilize proteins in the cytosolic compartments of bacteria or eukaryotic cells, owing to the chemically reducing nature of those environments. In contrast, certain thermophilic archaea use disulfide bonding as a major mechanism for protein stabilization. Here, we provide a current survey of completely sequenced genomes, applying computational methods to estimate the use of disulfide bonding across the Archaea. Microbes belonging to the Crenarchaeal branch, which are essentially all hyperthermophilic, are universally rich in disulfide bonding while lesser degrees of disulfide bonding are found among the thermophilic Euryarchaea, excluding those that are methanogenic. The results help clarify which parts of the archaeal lineage are likely to yield more examples and additional specific data on protein disulfide bonding, as increasing genomic sequencing efforts are brought to bear.

  5. Widespread disulfide bonding in proteins from thermophilic archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorda, Julien; Yeates, Todd O

    2011-01-01

    Disulfide bonds are generally not used to stabilize proteins in the cytosolic compartments of bacteria or eukaryotic cells, owing to the chemically reducing nature of those environments. In contrast, certain thermophilic archaea use disulfide bonding as a major mechanism for protein stabilization. Here, we provide a current survey of completely sequenced genomes, applying computational methods to estimate the use of disulfide bonding across the Archaea. Microbes belonging to the Crenarchaeal branch, which are essentially all hyperthermophilic, are universally rich in disulfide bonding while lesser degrees of disulfide bonding are found among the thermophilic Euryarchaea, excluding those that are methanogenic. The results help clarify which parts of the archaeal lineage are likely to yield more examples and additional specific data on protein disulfide bonding, as increasing genomic sequencing efforts are brought to bear.

  6. Identification of a novel EGF-sensitive cell cycle checkpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Francesca; Zhang Huihua; Burgess, Antony W.

    2007-01-01

    The site of action of growth factors on mammalian cell cycle has been assigned to the boundary between the G1 and S phases. We show here that Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is also required for mitosis. BaF/3 cells expressing the EGFR (BaF/wtEGFR) synthesize DNA in response to EGF, but arrest in S-phase. We have generated a cell line (BaF/ERX) with defective downregulation of the EGFR and sustained activation of EGFR signalling pathways: these cells undergo mitosis in an EGF-dependent manner. The transit of BaF/ERX cells through G2/M strictly requires activation of EGFR and is abolished by AG1478. This phenotype is mimicked by co-expression of ErbB2 in BaF/wtEGFR cells, and abolished by inhibition of the EGFR kinase, suggesting that sustained signalling of the EGFR, through impaired downregulation of the EGFR or heterodimerization, is required for completion of the cycle. We have confirmed the role of EGFR signalling in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle using a human tumor cell line which overexpresses the EGFR and is dependent on EGFR signalling for growth. These findings unmask an EGF-sensitive checkpoint, helping to understand the link between sustained EGFR signalling, proliferation and the acquisition of a radioresistant phenotype in cancer cells

  7. Hb Melusine and Hb Athens-Georgia: potentially underreported in the Belgian population? Four cases demonstrating the lack of detection using common CE-HPLC methods either for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) analysis or Hb variant screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Bart; Brandt, Inger; Desmet, Koenraad; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Kieffer, Davy

    2016-12-01

    Suspected hemoglobin (Hb) variants, detected during HbA 1C measurements should be further investigated, determining the extent of the interference with each method. This is the first report of Hb Melusine and Hb Athens-Georgia in Caucasian Belgian patients. Intervention & Technique: Since common CE-HPLC methods for HbA 1C analysis or Hb variant screening are apparently unable to detect these Hb variants, their presence might be underestimated. HbA 1C analysis using CZE, however, alerted for their presence. Moreover, in case of Hb Melusine, even Hb variant screening using CZE was unsuccessful in its detection. Fortunately, carriage of Hb Melusine or Hb Athens-Georgia variants has no clinical implications and, as shown in this report, no apparent difference in HbA 1C should be expected.

  8. M2 macrophages induce ovarian cancer cell proliferation via a heparin binding epidermal growth factor/matrix metalloproteinase 9 intercellular feedback loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Molly J; Kapur, Arvinder; Felder, Mildred; Patankar, Manish S; Kreeger, Pamela K

    2016-12-27

    In ovarian cancer, a high ratio of anti-inflammatory M2 to pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages correlates with poor patient prognosis. The mechanisms driving poor tumor outcome as a result of the presence of M2 macrophages in the tumor microenvironment remain unclear and are challenging to study with current techniques. Therefore, in this study we utilized a micro-culture device previously developed by our lab to model concentrated paracrine signaling in order to address our hypothesis that interactions between M2 macrophages and ovarian cancer cells induce tumor cell proliferation. Using the micro-culture device, we determined that co-culture with M2-differentiated primary macrophages or THP-1 increased OVCA433 proliferation by 10-12%. This effect was eliminated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or heparin-bound epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) neutralizing antibodies and HBEGF expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from ovarian cancer patients was 9-fold higher than healthy individuals, suggesting a role for HB-EGF in tumor progression. However, addition of HB-EGF at levels secreted by macrophages or macrophage-conditioned media did not induce proliferation to the same extent, indicating a role for other factors in this process. Matrix metalloproteinase-9, MMP-9, which cleaves membrane-bound HB-EGF, was elevated in co-culture and its inhibition decreased proliferation. Utilizing inhibitors and siRNA against MMP9 in each population, we determined that macrophage-secreted MMP-9 released HB-EGF from macrophages, which increased MMP9 in OVCA433, resulting in a positive feedback loop to drive HB-EGF release and increase proliferation in co-culture. Identification of multi-cellular interactions such as this may provide insight into how to most effectively control ovarian cancer progression.

  9. Expression of polyhedrin-hEGF fusion protein in cultured cells and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For mass production of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), silkworm baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) was adopted in this study. hEGF gene was in-frame fused with polyhedrin (Ph) gene under the control of Ph promoter and was used to co-transfect BmN cell with the modified. Bombyx mori baculovirus ...

  10. Coordinated Regulation Among Progesterone, Prostaglandins, and EGF-Like Factors in Human Ovulatory Follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yohan; Wilson, Kalin; Hannon, Patrick R; Rosewell, Katherine L; Brännström, Mats; Akin, James W; Curry, Thomas E; Jo, Misung

    2017-06-01

    In animal models, the luteinizing hormone surge increases progesterone (P4) and progesterone receptor (PGR), prostaglandins (PTGs), and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like factors that play essential roles in ovulation. However, little is known about the expression, regulation, and function of these key ovulatory mediators in humans. To determine when and how these key ovulatory mediators are induced after the luteinizing hormone surge in human ovaries. Timed periovulatory follicles were obtained from cycling women. Granulosa/lutein cells were collected from in vitro fertilization patients. The in vivo and in vitro expression of PGR, PTG synthases and transporters, and EGF-like factors were examined at the level of messenger RNA and protein. PGR binding to specific genes was assessed. P4 and PTGs in conditioned media were measured. PGR, PTGS2, and AREG expressions dramatically increased in ovulatory follicles at 12 to 18 hours after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). In human granulosa/lutein cell cultures, hCG increased P4 and PTG production and the expression of PGR, specific PTG synthases and transporters, and EGF-like factors, mimicking in vivo expression patterns. Inhibitors for P4/PGR and EGF-signaling pathways reduced hCG-induced increases in PTG production and the expression of EGF-like factors. PGR bound to the PTGS2, PTGES, and SLCO2A1 genes. This report demonstrated the time-dependent induction of PGR, AREG, and PTGS2 in human periovulatory follicles. In vitro studies indicated that collaborative actions of P4/PGR and EGF signaling are required for hCG-induced increases in PTG production and potentiation of EGF signaling in human periovulatory granulosa cells. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  11. Autocrine EGF receptor activation mediates endothelial cell migration and vascular morphogenesis induced by VEGF under interstitial flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semino, Carlos E.; Kamm, Roger D.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2006-01-01

    We show here that autocrine ligand activation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in combination with interstitial flow is critically involved in the morphogenetic response of endothelial cells to VEGF stimulation. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers cultured on a collagen gel and exposed to low interstitial flow in the absence of EGF and VEGF remained viable and mitotic but exhibited little evidence of vascular morphogenesis. Addition of VEGF produced a flow-dependent morphogenetic response within 48 to 72 h, characterized by branched capillary-like structures. The response was substantially abolished by inhibitors related to the autocrine EGF receptor pathway including Galardin, AG1478, PD98059, and an EGF receptor-blocking antibody, indicating that regulation of the morphogenetic process operates via autocrine EGF receptor activation. Moreover, we observed that in our system the EGF receptor was always activated independently of the interstitial flow, and, in addition, the EGF receptor inhibitors used above reduced the phosphorylation state of the receptor, correlating with inhibition of capillary morphogenesis. Finally, 5'bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling identified dividing cells at the monolayer but not in the extending capillary-like structures. EGF pathway inhibitors Galardin and AG1478 did not reduce BrdU incorporation in the monolayer, indicating that the EGF-receptor-mediated morphogenetic behavior is mainly due to cell migration rather than proliferation. Based on these results, we propose a two-step model for in vitro capillary morphogenesis in response to VEGF stimulation with interstitial fluid flow: monolayer maintenance by mitotic activity independent of EGF receptors and a migratory response mediated by autocrine EGF receptor activation wherein cells establish capillary-like structures

  12. Both sides of the same coin: Rac1 splicing regulating by EGF signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiang-Dong

    2017-04-01

    EGF, a well-studied mitogen for cancer cells, is revealed to induce an E3 ubiquitin ligase adaptor SPSB1, which recruits the Elongin B/C-Collin complex to trigger ubiquitylation of the negative splicing regulator hnRNP A1. This event is synergized with EGF-activated SR proteins to alter alternative splicing of a key small GTPase Rac1 to enhance cell migration, highlighting converging EGF signals on both negative and positive splicing regulators to jointly promote a key cancer pathway.

  13. Beta Cell Mass Restoration in Alloxan-Diabetic Mice Treated with EGF and Gastrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane Song

    Full Text Available One week of treatment with EGF and gastrin (EGF/G was shown to restore normoglycemia and to induce islet regeneration in mice treated with the diabetogenic agent alloxan. The mechanisms underlying this regeneration are not fully understood. We performed genetic lineage tracing experiments to evaluate the contribution of beta cell neogenesis in this model. One day after alloxan administration, mice received EGF/G treatment for one week. The treatment could not prevent the initial alloxan-induced beta cell mass destruction, however it did reverse glycemia to control levels within one day, suggesting improved peripheral glucose uptake. In vitro experiments with C2C12 cell line showed that EGF could stimulate glucose uptake with an efficacy comparable to that of insulin. Subsequently, EGF/G treatment stimulated a 3-fold increase in beta cell mass, which was partially driven by neogenesis and beta cell proliferation as assessed by beta cell lineage tracing and BrdU-labeling experiments, respectively. Acinar cell lineage tracing failed to show an important contribution of acinar cells to the newly formed beta cells. No appearance of transitional cells co-expressing insulin and glucagon, a hallmark for alpha-to-beta cell conversion, was found, suggesting that alpha cells did not significantly contribute to the regeneration. An important fraction of the beta cells significantly lost insulin positivity after alloxan administration, which was restored to normal after one week of EGF/G treatment. Alloxan-only mice showed more pronounced beta cell neogenesis and proliferation, even though beta cell mass remained significantly depleted, suggesting ongoing beta cell death in that group. After one week, macrophage infiltration was significantly reduced in EGF/G-treated group compared to the alloxan-only group. Our results suggest that EGF/G-induced beta cell regeneration in alloxan-diabetic mice is driven by beta cell neogenesis, proliferation and recovery of

  14. CuI-Catalyzed: One-Pot Synthesis of Diaryl Disulfides from Aryl Halides and Carbon Disulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Soleiman-Beigi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new application of carbon disulfide in the presence of KF/Al2O3 is reported for the synthesis of organic symmetrical diaryl disulfides. These products were synthesized by one-pot reaction of aryl halides with the in situ generated trithiocarbonate ion in the presence of copper under air atmosphere.

  15. 9-Hydroxystearic acid interferes with EGF signalling in a human colon adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calonghi, Natalia; Pagnotta, Eleonora; Parolin, Carola; Tognoli, Cristina; Boga, Carla; Masotti, Lanfranco

    2006-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor has long been known to be strictly correlated with the highly proliferating activities of cancer cells and primary tumors. Moreover, in the nucleus, the epidermal growth factor/epidermal growth factor receptor complex (EGF/EGFR) functions as a transcriptional regulator that activates the cyclin D1 gene. 9-hydroxystearic acid (9-HSA) induces cell proliferation arrest and differentiation in HT29 colon cancer cells by inhibiting histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). 9-HSA-treated HT29, when stimulated with EGF, are not responsive and surprisingly undergo a further arrest. In order to understand the mechanisms of this effect, we analyzed the degree of internalization of the EGF/EGFR complex and its interactions with HDAC1. It appears that HDAC1, as modified by 9-HSA, is unable to associate with cyclin D1, interfering with the cell proliferation program, and sequesters the EGF/EGFR complex interrupting the transduction of the mitogenic signal

  16. Restoration of CpG Methylation in The Egf Promoter Region during Rat Liver Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Li; Ziwei, Li; Xueqiang, Guo; Cunshuan, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important factor for healing after tissue damage in diverse experimental models. It plays an important role in liver regeneration (LR). The objective of this experiment is to investigate the methylation variation of 10 CpG sites in the Egf promoter region and their relevance to Egf expression during rat liver regenera- tion. As a follow up of our previous study, rat liver tissue was collected after rat 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PH) during the re-organization phase (from days 14 to days 28). Liver DNA was extracted and modified by sodium bisulfate. The methylation status of 10 CpG sites in Egf promoter region was determined using bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as BSP method. The results showed that 3 (sites 3, 4 and 9) out of 10 CpG sites have strikingly methylation changes during the re-organization phase compared to the regeneration phase (from 2 hours to 168 hours, P=0.002, 0.048 and 0.018, respectively). Our results showed that methylation modification of CpGs in the Egf promoter region could be restored to the status before PH operation and changes of methylation didn’t affect Egf mRNA expression during the re-organization phase. PMID:26464832

  17. The role of sialoadenectomy and epıdermal growth factor (EGF) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... result, epidermal growth factor was concluded to have an important role in skin development. Key words: Epidermal growth factor, ... sialoadenectomy on epiderm and the role of EGF and antiserum EGF in prevention of .... remarkable finding in skin healing of sialoadenectomy and normal rats. According to ...

  18. The preventive effect of recombinant human growth factor (rhEGF) on the recurrence of radiodermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Seung-Hee; Kim, Yeun-Hwa; Lee, Sang-Wook; Hong, Joon-Pio

    2010-01-01

    The effects of topical application of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) on wound healing and the recurrence of radiodermatitis were assessed in the irradiated skin of BALB/c Nu/Nu mice. Mice irradiated with 45 Gy of radiation were divided into 5 groups and treated with 10, 50, and 100 μg/g rhEGF ointment, vehicle alone, or no treatment (control) for 6 months. Wounds were observed initially in all groups and complete healing time (HT 100 ) for initial wound repair did not differ significantly among groups. However, the rate of recurrence over 6 months was significantly lower in the EGF-treated groups than in the control group (p<0.05). Histological examination showed that treatment with the optimum dose of EGF (50 μg/g) accelerated normal wound healing when compared with the higher dose of EGF (100 μg/g), vehicle alone, or no treatment, with the latter group showing irregular epidermal thickness, poor definition of epidermis and dermis, and unstable dermal structure. Collagen distribution was also significantly increased in mice treated with 50 μg/g rhEGF (p<0.05) compared with the control or vehicle-treated group. Taken together, these results indicate that treatment with exogenous EGF (50 μg/g dose) can enhance radiation-induced wound repair while preserving structural tissue stability and preventing the recurrence of radiodermatitis. (author)

  19. How thioredoxin dissociates its mixed disulfide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedele Roos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The dissociation mechanism of the thioredoxin (Trx mixed disulfide complexes is unknown and has been debated for more than twenty years. Specifically, opposing arguments for the activation of the nucleophilic cysteine as a thiolate during the dissociation of the complex have been put forward. As a key model, the complex between Trx and its endogenous substrate, arsenate reductase (ArsC, was used. In this structure, a Cys29(Trx-Cys89(ArsC intermediate disulfide is formed by the nucleophilic attack of Cys29(Trx on the exposed Cys82(ArsC-Cys89(ArsC in oxidized ArsC. With theoretical reactivity analysis, molecular dynamics simulations, and biochemical complex formation experiments with Cys-mutants, Trx mixed disulfide dissociation was studied. We observed that the conformational changes around the intermediate disulfide bring Cys32(Trx in contact with Cys29(Trx. Cys32(Trx is activated for its nucleophilic attack by hydrogen bonds, and Cys32(Trx is found to be more reactive than Cys82(ArsC. Additionally, Cys32(Trx directs its nucleophilic attack on the more susceptible Cys29(Trx and not on Cys89(ArsC. This multidisciplinary approach provides fresh insights into a universal thiol/disulfide exchange reaction mechanism that results in reduced substrate and oxidized Trx.

  20. Radioiodine-labeled disulfide: a novel radiotracer for evaluation of tumor uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, E. K.; Choi, Y. S.; Byun, S. S.; Baek, J. Y.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, S. E.; Choi, Y.; Kim, B. T. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Diallyl disulfide found in garlic has been known to inhibit the growth of various cancer cells. In this study, iodine-substituted disulfides were synthesized and their growth inhibitory effects on cancer cells (SUN C5 and MCF-7) were investigated. Dibenzyl disulfide was labeled with {sup 123}I/{sup 125}I for evaluation of tumor uptake. Halogen-substituted disulfides were synthesized using 2,2'-dithiobis(benzothiazole) and one equivalent each of the corresponding thiols. Growth inhibition studies were performed on cancer cells that were grown at 37 .deg. C for 48 hr prior to exposure to the disulfides. Radioiodine-labeled disulfide was prepared by halogen exchange reaction on the 4-bromodibenzyl disulfide in the presence of Na{sup 123}I/{sup 125}I and CuCl at 150 .deg. C for 60 min, followed by HPLC purification. Uptake of the radioactivity to SUN C5 cells was measured as a function of time, and inhibition studies were performed in the presence of either S-methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS) or diallyl disulfide. Disulfides were synthesized in the high yields (90%). Tumor growth inhibition studies by the 3 iododisulfides showed the inhibition (>95%) comparable to diallyl disulfide (100%). Cu(I)-assisted radioiodination gave 4-{sup 123}I/{sup 125}I-iododibenzyl disulfide in overall 30-40% radiochemical yield and with high specific activity. Cell uptake studies of the radiolabeled disulfide showed a time-dependent increase of the uptake (4-fold increase from 15 min to 2 hr). Both MMTS, a glutathione depleting agent, and diallyl disulfide reduced the uptake of the radioactivity in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition studies suggest that uptake of disulfide to the tumor cells could be mediated by thiol-disulfide exchange. This study demonstrates that radioiodine-labeled dibenzyl disulfide may be useful for evaluation of tumor uptake.

  1. Co-inheritance of α0 -thalassemia elevates Hb A2 level in homozygous Hb E: Diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, K; Srivorakun, H; Fucharoen, G; Fucharoen, S

    2017-10-01

    Differentiation of homozygous hemoglobin (Hb) E with and without α 0 -thalassemia is subtle on routine hematological ground. We examined in a large cohort of homozygous Hb E if the level of Hb A 2 is helpful. A total of 592 subjects with homozygous Hb E were recruited from ongoing thalassemia screening program. Additionally, five couples at risk of having fetuses with Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis who were homozygous Hb E were also investigated. Hb analysis was performed using capillary electrophoresis system. Globin genotypes were defined by DNA analysis. Subjects were classified into four groups including pure homozygous Hb E (n=532), homozygous Hb E/α 0 -thalassemia (n=48), Hb Constant Spring EE Bart's disease (n=8), and Hb EE Bart's disease (n=4). The levels of Hb A 2 were found, respectively, to be 4.97±0.69, 6.64±1.02, 4.86±0.87, and 7.60±1.04%. Among five couples at risk, α 0 -thalassemia was identified in three subjects with Hb A 2 >6.0%. Increased Hb A 2 level is a useful marker for differentiation of homozygous Hb E with and without α 0 -thalassemia. This should lead to a significant reduction in number of referral cases of homozygous Hb E for molecular testing of α 0 -thalassemia in routine practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Pretreatment with oleic acid accelerates the entrance into the mitotic cycle of EGF-stimulated fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugaza, J L; Casabiell, X A; Bokser, L; Eiras, A; Beiras, A; Casanueva, F F

    1995-07-01

    We have previously demonstrated that pretreatment of several cell lines with cis-unsaturated fatty acids, like oleic acid, blocks epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced early ionic signals, and in particular the [Ca2+]i rise. In the present work we show that this blockade does not alter EGF-stimulated cellular proliferation evaluated by direct cell counting, but induces a powerful enhancement in the pulsed thymidine incorporation assay. The lack of effect of oleic acid on EGF-stimulated cellular proliferation was confirmed by repeated cell counts, cumulative thymidine incorporation, and protein synthesis, but a clear synergistic effect between oleic acid and EGF was again obtained by means of time course experiments with pulsed thymidine. Combined flow cytometry analysis and cell counts at earlier times in EGF-stimulated cells showed that oleic acids accelerates the entrance of cells into the replicative cycle leading to an earlier cell division. Afterward, these oleic acid-pretreated cells became delayed by an unknown compensatory mechanism in such a way that at 48 h post-EGF, the cell count in control and oleic acid-pretreated cells was equal. In conclusion (a) oleic acid accelerates or enhances the EGF mitogenic action and (b) in the long term cells compensate the initial perturbation with respect to untreated cells. As a side observation, the widely employed pulsed thymidine incorporation method as a measure of cell division could be extremely misleading unless experimental conditions are well controlled.

  3. Diagnosis of a rare double heterozygous Hb D Punjab/Hb Q India hemoglobinopathy using Sebia capillary zone electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama Parab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, hemoglobinopathies constitute a major genetic disorder and hemoglobin variants such as Hb S, Hb D Punjab, and Hb E are the most common ones. Other variants include Hb Q India, Hb Lepore, Hb J Meerut, Hb D Iran, etc. These variants show heterozygous state along with beta thalassemia. However, compound heterozygosities among these variants are very rare. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid whole blood sample received for routine thalassemia screening was subjected to alkaline electrophoresis using automated capillary zone electrophoresis. Suspecting the presence of rare variants, further analysis was carried out using Bio-Rad D10 and Tosoh G8 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC systems. Capillary zone electrophoretograms showed the presence of peaks in zone Hb A, Hb D, a fused peak in Hb A2, and a small peak in Z1 zone. Bio-Rad and Tosoh chromatograms also indicated the presence of four peaks which are identified as Hb A, Hb D Punjab, Hb Q India, and hybrid of Hb D Punjab/Hb Q India. A peak in Hb D zone of capillary was due to co-migration of Hb D Punjab and Hb Q India variants. Small peak in Z1 zone indicated the presence of alpha chain variant Hb Q India. The findings were further confirmed by HPLC results and molecular genetic studies. The present study reports for the 1 st time a rare hemoglobinopathy of double heterozygosity for Hb D Punjab, Hb Q India on Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing analyzer and is forth reported case for this rare hemoglobinopathy.

  4. Odin (ANKS1A modulates EGF receptor recycling and stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefei Tong

    Full Text Available The ANKS1A gene product, also known as Odin, was first identified as a tyrosine-phosphorylated component of the epidermal growth factor receptor network. Here we show that Odin functions as an effector of EGFR recycling. In EGF-stimulated HEK293 cells tyrosine phosphorylation of Odin was induced prior to EGFR internalization and independent of EGFR-to-ERK signaling. Over-expression of Odin increased EGF-induced EGFR trafficking to recycling endosomes and recycling back to the cell surface, and decreased trafficking to lysosomes and degradation. Conversely, Odin knockdown in both HEK293 and the non-small cell lung carcinoma line RVH6849, which expresses roughly 10-fold more EGF receptors than HEK293, caused decreased EGFR recycling and accelerated trafficking to the lysosome and degradation. By governing the endocytic fate of internalized receptors, Odin may provide a layer of regulation that enables cells to contend with receptor cell densities and ligand concentration gradients that are physiologically and pathologically highly variable.

  5. Domain architecture of protein-disulfide isomerase facilitates its dual role as an oxidase and an isomerase in Ero1p-mediated disulfide formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulp, M. S.; Frickel, E. M.; Ellgaard, Lars

    2006-01-01

    reduction/rearrangement of non-native disulfides is poorly understood. We analyzed the role of individual PDI domains in disulfide bond formation in a reaction driven by their natural oxidant, Ero1p. We found that Ero1p oxidizes the isolated PDI catalytic thioredoxin domains, A and A' at the same rate......Native disulfide bond formation in eukaryotes is dependent on protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) and its homologs, which contain varying combinations of catalytically active and inactive thioredoxin domains. However, the specific contribution of PDI to the formation of new disulfides versus...... catalytic (A) domain. The specific order of thioredoxin domains in PDI is important in establishing the asymmetry in the rate of oxidation of the two active sites thus allowing A and A', two thioredoxin domains that are similar in sequence and structure, to serve opposing functional roles as a disulfide...

  6. EGF increases expression and activity of PAs in preimplantation rat embryos and their implantation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Har-Vardi Iris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Embryo implantation plays a major role in embryogenesis and the outcome of pregnancy. Plasminogen activators (PAs have been implicated in mammalian fertilization, early stages of development and embryo implantation. As in-vitro developing embryos resulted in lower implantation rate than those developed in-vivo we assume that a reduced PAs activity may be involved. In the present work we studied the effect of EGF on PAs activity, quantity and embryo implantation. Methods Zygotes were flushed from rat oviducts on day one of pregnancy and grown in-vitro in R1ECM supplemented with EGF (10 ng/ml and were grown up to the blastocyst stage. The control groups were grown in the same medium without EGF. The distribution and quantity of the PAs were examined using fluorescence immunohistochemistry followed by measurement of PAs activity using the chromogenic assay. Implantation rate was studied using the embryo donation model. Results PAs distribution in the embryos was the same in EGF treated and untreated embryos. Both PAs were localized in the blastocysts' trophectoderm, supporting the assumption that PAs play a role in the implantation process in rats. EGF increased the quantity of uPA at all stages studied but the 8-cell stage as compared with controls. The tissue type PA (tPA content was unaffected except the 8-cell stage, which was increased. The activity of uPA increased gradually towards the blastocyst stage and more so due to the presence of EGF. The activity of tPA did not vary with the advancing developmental stages although it was also increased by EGF. The presence of EGF during the preimplantation development doubled the rate of implantation of the treated group as compared with controls.

  7. Detection of Co-inheritance of Hb Hope and Hb Constant Spring in Three Thai Samples by Capillary Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyasai, Sitthichai; Pornprasert, Sakorn

    2016-06-01

    The diagnosis of co-inheritance of Hb Hope [β136(H14)Gly → Asp, GGT > GAT] and Hb constant spring [Hb CS; α142, Term → Gln (TAA > CAA IN α2)] by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is difficult because Hb Hope has a HPLC elution pattern similar to that of Hb Pyrgos, Hb New York, Hb Kodaira, and Hb Phimai. Moreover, the Hb CS mRNA, as well as the gene product, are unstable and present at a low level in peripheral blood. We report the use of a capillary electrophoresis (CE) for diagnosis of co-inheritance of Hb Hope and Hb CS in 3 Thai females who had mild anemia with Hb and Hct varying from 91-114 g/L to 0.28-0.36 L/L, respectively. Hb Hope eluted with a retention time of 125-140 s (Zone 10) of CE electrophoregram. Furthermore, the peak of Hb CS at the retention time of 245-250 s (Zone 2) was observed in these samples. In addition, the manual analysis by taking the non-black area under both peaks of HbA and Hb Hope (inverted V) into account provided the corrected Hb CS levels which are useful in screening of heterozygote or homozygote for Hb CS. Thus, the CE method provides an accurate diagnosis of Hb Hope and Hb CS which is useful in genetic counseling, prevention and control programs for these hemoglobinopathies.

  8. Dynamic combinatorial chemistry with diselenides and disulfides in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Brian; Sørensen, Anne; Gotfredsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Diselenide exchange is introduced as a reversible reaction in dynamic combinatorial chemistry in water. At neutral pH, diselenides are found to mix with disulfides and form dynamic combinatorial libraries of diselenides, disulfides, and selenenylsulfides. This journal is......Diselenide exchange is introduced as a reversible reaction in dynamic combinatorial chemistry in water. At neutral pH, diselenides are found to mix with disulfides and form dynamic combinatorial libraries of diselenides, disulfides, and selenenylsulfides. This journal is...

  9. Measurement of HbA1c and HbA2 by Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing HbA1c programme for simultaneous management of diabetes and screening for thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Peifeng; Liu, Jiawei; Chao, Yan; Wu, Xiaobin; Xiong, Yujuan; Lin, Li; Wan, Zemin; Wu, Xinzhong; Xu, Jianhua; Zhuang, Junhua; Huang, Xianzhang

    2017-10-01

    Thalassemia could interfere with some assays for haemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) measurement, therefore, it is useful to be able to screen for thalassemia while measuring HbA 1c . We used Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing (Capillarys 2FP) HbA 1c programme to simultaneously measure HbA 1c and screen for thalassemia. Samples from 498 normal controls and 175 thalassemia patients were analysed by Capillarys 2FP HbA 1c programme (Sebia, France). For method comparison, HbA 1c was quantified by Premier Hb9210 (Trinity Biotech, Ireland) in 98 thalassaemia patients samples. For verification, HbA 1c from eight thalassaemia patients was confirmed by IFCC reference method. Among 98 thalassaemia samples, Capillarys 2FP did not provide an HbA 1c result in three samples with HbH due to the overlapping of HbBart's with HbA 1c fraction; for the remaining 95 thalassaemia samples, Bland-Altman plot showed 0.00 ± 0.35% absolute bias between two systems, and a significant positive bias above 7% was observed only in two HbH samples. The HbA 1c values obtained by Capillarys 2FP were consistent with the IFCC targets (relative bias below ± 6%) in all of the eight samples tested by both methods. For screening samples with alpha (α-) thalassaemia silent/trait or beta (β-) thalassemia trait, the optimal HbA 2 cut-off values were ≤ 2.2% and > 2.8%, respectively. Our results demonstrated the Capillarys 2FP HbA 1c system could report an accurate HbA 1c value in thalassemia silent/trait, and HbA 2 value (≤ 2.2% for α-thalassaemia silent/trait and > 2.8% for β-thalassemia trait) and abnormal bands (HbH and/or HbBart's for HbH disease, HbF for β-thalassemia) may provide valuable information for screening.

  10. Role of EGFR transactivation in preventing apoptosis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected human corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Hui; Wang, Jinzhao; Dong, Zheng; Mian, Shahzad; Yu, Fu-Shin X

    2004-08-01

    To determine the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling pathways in preventing infection-induced apoptosis in human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). Epithelial monolayers of a telomerase-immortalized HCEC line, HUCL, and primary culture of HCECs were infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of the EGFR inhibitor tyrphostin AG1478, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor U0126, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, the heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) antagonist CRM197, the HB-EGF neutralizing antibody, or the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001. The activation of EGFR was analyzed by immunoprecipitation using EGFR antibodies, followed by Western blot analysis with phosphotyrosine antibody. Phosphorylation of ERK and Akt, a major substrate of PI3K, and generation of cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were determined by Western blot analysis. Apoptotic cells were characterized by positive staining of active caspase-3, loss of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and condensation of chromosomes. Apoptosis was also confirmed by measuring caspase-3 activity and assessing the generation of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP. P. aeruginosa infection of HUCL cells resulted in EGFR activation and EGFR-dependent ERK1/2 and PI3K phosphorylation. Inhibition of EGFR, ERK1/2, and PI3K activities with kinase-specific inhibitors (AG1478, U0126, and LY294002, respectively) resulted in an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, in elevated cellular caspase-3 activity, and/or in increased cleaved PARP in P. aeruginosa-infected HUCL cells or primary culture of HCECs. Blocking HB-EGF ectodomain shedding by inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-mediated proteolysis, downregulation of HB-EGF, or neutralization of its activity retarded infection-induced EGFR transactivation and, as a consequence, increased infection-induced HUCL apoptosis. Bacterial infection of HCECs induces

  11. Role of EGFR Transactivation in Preventing Apoptosis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa–Infected Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Hui; Wang, Jinzhao; Dong, Zheng; Mian, Shahzad; Yu, Fu-Shin X.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR)–mediated signaling pathways in preventing infection-induced apoptosis in human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). METHODS Epithelial monolayers of a telomerase-immortalized HCEC line, HUCL, and primary culture of HCECs were infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of the EGFR inhibitor tyrphostin AG1478, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor U0126, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, the heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) antagonist CRM197, the HB-EGF neutralizing antibody, or the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001. The activation of EGFR was analyzed by immunoprecipitation using EGFR antibodies, followed by Western blot analysis with phosphotyrosine antibody. Phosphorylation of ERK and Akt, a major substrate of PI3K, and generation of cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were determined by Western blot analysis. Apoptotic cells were characterized by positive staining of active caspase-3, loss of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and condensation of chromosomes. Apoptosis was also confirmed by measuring caspase-3 activity and assessing the generation of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP. RESULTS P. aeruginosa infection of HUCL cells resulted in EGFR activation and EGFR-dependent ERK1/2 and PI3K phosphorylation. Inhibition of EGFR, ERK1/2, and PI3K activities with kinase-specific inhibitors (AG1478, U0126, and LY294002, respectively) resulted in an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, in elevated cellular caspase-3 activity, and/or in increased cleaved PARP in P. aeruginosa–infected HUCL cells or primary culture of HCECs. Blocking HB-EGF ectodomain shedding by inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase–mediated proteolysis, downregulation of HB-EGF, or neutralization of its activity retarded infection-induced EGFR transactivation and, as a consequence, increased infection-induced HUCL apoptosis

  12. Rational design of an EGF-IL18 fusion protein: Implication for developing tumor therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jianxin; Peng Ying; Meng Zhefeng; Jin Liqin; Lu Yongsui; Guan Minxin

    2005-01-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a proinflammatory cytokine. This protein has a role in regulating immune responses and exhibits significant anti-tumor activities. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important growth factor that plays a central role in the regulation of cell cycle and differentiation. It was proposed that a targeted delivery of IL-18 by generation of IL-18-EGF fusion protein might decrease adverse effects and result in enhancing cytotoxic and antitumor activities. In the present study, a fusion protein, consisting of EGFR binding domain fused to human IL-18 mature peptide via a linker peptide of (Gly 4 Ser) 3, was constructed and expressed in the insect cell line Sf9 using Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. We showed that the purified recombinant fusion protein induced similar levels of IFN-γ to that of native IL-18 protein in human PBMC in the presence of ConA. Furthermore, EGF receptor competitive test in human epithelial cancer A431 cell line showed that EGF-IL18 fusion protein can specifically bind with EGFR by competing with native EGF protein. These suggest that this rationally designed protein can be further developed as novel tumor therapeutics

  13. Soft Computing Methods for Disulfide Connectivity Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Chamorro, Alfonso E; Aguilar-Ruiz, Jesús S

    2015-01-01

    The problem of protein structure prediction (PSP) is one of the main challenges in structural bioinformatics. To tackle this problem, PSP can be divided into several subproblems. One of these subproblems is the prediction of disulfide bonds. The disulfide connectivity prediction problem consists in identifying which nonadjacent cysteines would be cross-linked from all possible candidates. Determining the disulfide bond connectivity between the cysteines of a protein is desirable as a previous step of the 3D PSP, as the protein conformational search space is highly reduced. The most representative soft computing approaches for the disulfide bonds connectivity prediction problem of the last decade are summarized in this paper. Certain aspects, such as the different methodologies based on soft computing approaches (artificial neural network or support vector machine) or features of the algorithms, are used for the classification of these methods.

  14. Effects of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) on experimental radiation-induced oral mucositis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kwon Il; Kim, Sun Hee; Moon, Soo Young; Kim, Yeon Wha; Hong, Joon Pio; Lee, Sang Wook; Kim, Hyun Sook

    2006-01-01

    Oral mucositis is a common toxicity of radiation or chemotherapy, which is used a treatment for head and neck cancer. We investigated effects of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) on radiation-induced oral mucositis in rat model. Spraque-Dawley rats (7 per group) exposed to a single dose of 25 Gy (day 0) on their head, except for one group, were randomly divided into un-treated, vehicle-treated, and two rhEGF-treated groups. Rats were topically applied with rhEGF (15 or 30 μ g/oral cavity/day) or vehicle to their oral mucosa. Survival rate of rats, weight changes, and food intakes were examined from day 0 to 18 after radiation. Histology study was performed from oral mucosa of rats at day 7 and 18 after radiation. rhEGF-treated groups (15 or 30 μ g/day) showed all survival rate 33%, whereas un-treated and vehicle-treated groups showed all survival rate 0% at the end of experiment. rhEGF-treated groups statistically had less weight loss compared to vehicle-treated group from day 2 to 7 after radiation. Food intake of rats with rhEGF treatment turned to increase at day 14 after radiation. At 7 day after radiation, un-treated and vehicle-treated groups showed severe pseudomembraneous of ulcerative oral mucositis. On the other hand, rhEGF-treated groups had no more than cellular swelling and degeneration of epidermal cells in oral mucosa of rats. These results suggest that rhEGF has significantly positive effects on radiation-induced oral mucositis in rats. rhEGF display a therapeutic potential on a clinical level

  15. The synthesis of unsymmetric disulfides for use as radio-protectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.H.H.

    1988-01-01

    Unsymmetric disulfides with radioprotective potential were synthesized by linking biomolecules, and related substances, to known radio-protective aminothiols via a disulfide bond. The biomolecules used in this research include mercaptoalcohols, mercaptopyridines and mercaptophenothiazines. Unsymmetric disulfides were synthesized by reacting two thiols with diethyl azodicarboxylate sequentially at low temperature. The reactions of thiols with thiosulfinate were studied as an alternative for synthesizing disulfides. A cross-linked polystyrene was thiolated by different reagents. The thiolation of polymers is part of a methodological study using solid phase synthesis to synthesize unsymmetric disulfides

  16. The critical role of EGF-β-catenin signaling in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang X

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Xingqiang Wang, Shanshi Wang, Xiaolong Li, Shigang Jin, Feng Xiong, Xin Wang Department of Neurosurgery, People’s Hospital of Rizhao, Jining Medical University, Rizhao, China Abstract: To date, β-catenin has been reported to be implicated in mediating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in a variety of human cancers, which can be triggered by EGF. However, the mechanisms underlying EGF-β-catenin pathway-induced EMT of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM have not been reported previously. In the present study, immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot were applied to investigate the effect of EGF-β-catenin pathway on EMT of GBM. Here, we identified that β-catenin mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in GBM tissues and four kinds of glioblastoma cell lines, including T98G, A172, U87, and U251 cells, compared with normal brain tissue and astrocytes. In U87 cell line, inhibition of β-catenin by siRNA suppressed EGF-induced proliferation, migration, invasiveness, and the expression of EMT activators (Snail and Slug. In addition, the expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin was up-regulated and the expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and MMP9 was down-regulated. Finally, inhibitor of PI3K/Akt signaling pathways inactivated the EGF-β-catenin-induced EMT. In conclusion, β-catenin-EMT pathway induced by EGF is important for GBM progression by the PI3K/Akt pathways. Inhibition of β-catenin leads to suppression of EGF pathway-induced EMT, which provides a new way to treat GBM patients. Keywords: EGF, β-catenin, EMT, GBM

  17. A single disulfide bond disruption in the β3 integrin subunit promotes thiol/disulfide exchange, a molecular dynamics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihie Levin

    Full Text Available The integrins are a family of membrane receptors that attach a cell to its surrounding and play a crucial function in cell signaling. The combination of internal and external stimuli alters a folded non-active state of these proteins to an extended active configuration. The β3 subunit of the platelet αIIbβ3 integrin is made of well-structured domains rich in disulfide bonds. During the activation process some of the disulfides are re-shuffled by a mechanism requiring partial reduction of some of these bonds; any disruption in this mechanism can lead to inherent blood clotting diseases. In the present study we employed Molecular Dynamics simulations for tracing the sequence of structural fluctuations initiated by a single cysteine mutation in the β3 subunit of the receptor. These simulations showed that in-silico protein mutants exhibit major conformational deformations leading to possible disulfide exchange reactions. We suggest that any mutation that prevents Cys560 from reacting with one of the Cys(567-Cys(581 bonded pair, thus disrupting its ability to participate in a disulfide exchange reaction, will damage the activation mechanism of the integrin. This suggestion is in full agreement with previously published experiments. Furthermore, we suggest that rearrangement of disulfide bonds could be a part of a natural cascade of thiol/disulfide exchange reactions in the αIIbβ3 integrin, which are essential for the native activation process.

  18. Widespread Disulfide Bonding in Proteins from Thermophilic Archaea

    OpenAIRE

    Jorda, Julien; Yeates, Todd O.

    2011-01-01

    Disulfide bonds are generally not used to stabilize proteins in the cytosolic compartments of bacteria or eukaryotic cells, owing to the chemically reducing nature of those environments. In contrast, certain thermophilic archaea use disulfide bonding as a major mechanism for protein stabilization. Here, we provide a current survey of completely sequenced genomes, applying computational methods to estimate the use of disulfide bonding across the Archaea. Microbes belonging to the Crenarchaea...

  19. Novel nanofibrous dressings containing rhEGF and Aloe vera for wound healing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Orue, Itxaso; Gainza, Garazi; Gutierrez, Franciso Borja; Aguirre, Jose Javier; Evora, Carmen; Pedraz, Jose Luis; Hernandez, Rosa Maria; Delgado, Araceli; Igartua, Manoli

    2017-05-25

    Nanofibrous membranes produced by electrospinning possess a large surface area-to-volume ratio, which mimics the three-dimensional structure of the extracellular matrix. Thus, nanofibrous dressings are a promising alternative for chronic wound healing, since they can replace the natural ECM until it is repaired. Therefore, in this study we have developed a PLGA nanofibrous membrane that contains recombinant human Epidermal Growth Factor (rhEGF) and Aloe vera (AV) extract. Both of them promote wound healing, as EGF is a wound healing mediator and AV stimulates the proliferation and activity of fibroblast. The obtained membranes were composed of uniform and randomly oriented fibers with an average diameter of 356.03±112.05nm, they presented a porosity of 87.92±11.96% and the amount of rhEGF was 9.76±1.75μg/mg. The in vitro viability assay demonstrated that the membranes containing rhEGF and AV improved fibroblast proliferation, revealing the beneficial effect of the combination. Furthermore, these membranes accelerated significantly wound closure and reepithelisation in an in vivo full thickness wound healing assay carried out in db/db mice. Overall, these findings demonstrated the potential of PLGA nanofibers containing rhEGF and AV for the treatment of chronic wounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Thiol-disulfide exchange in peptides derived from human growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Saradha; Epling, Daniel E; Sophocleous, Andreas M; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2014-04-01

    Disulfide bonds stabilize proteins by cross-linking distant regions into a compact three-dimensional structure. They can also participate in hydrolytic and oxidative pathways to form nonnative disulfide bonds and other reactive species. Such covalent modifications can contribute to protein aggregation. Here, we present experimental data for the mechanism of thiol-disulfide exchange in tryptic peptides derived from human growth hormone in aqueous solution. Reaction kinetics was monitored to investigate the effect of pH (6.0-10.0), temperature (4-50°C), oxidation suppressants [ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and N2 sparging], and peptide secondary structure (amide cyclized vs. open form). The concentrations of free thiol containing peptides, scrambled disulfides, and native disulfide-linked peptides generated via thiol-disulfide exchange and oxidation reactions were determined using reverse-phase HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Concentration versus time data were fitted to a mathematical model using nonlinear least squares regression analysis. At all pH values, the model was able to fit the data with R(2) ≥ 0.95. Excluding oxidation suppressants (EDTA and N2 sparging) resulted in an increase in the formation of scrambled disulfides via oxidative pathways but did not influence the intrinsic rate of thiol-disulfide exchange. In addition, peptide secondary structure was found to influence the rate of thiol-disulfide exchange. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  1. Dietary determinants for Hb-acrylamide and Hb-glycidamide adducts in Danish non-smoking women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Malene; Egeberg, Rikke; Dragsted, Lars

    2011-01-01

    in erythrocytes were analysed by liquid chromatography/MS/MS. Dietary determinants were evaluated by multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age and smoking behaviour among ex-smokers. The median for Hb-AA was 35 pmol/g globin (5th percentile 17, 95th percentile 89) and for Hb-GA 21 pmol/g globin (5th......Acrylamide (AA) is a probable human carcinogen that is formed in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods. The validity of FFQ to assess AA exposure has been questioned. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate dietary determinants of Hb-AA and Hb-glycidamide (GA) adducts....... The study included 537 non-smoking women aged 50–65 years who participated in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (1993–97). At study baseline, blood samples and information on dietary and lifestyle variables obtained from self-administered questionnaires were collected. From blood samples, Hb-AA and Hb-GA...

  2. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Aspects of Cellular Thiol-Disulfide Redox Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristine Steen; Hansen, Rosa Erritzøe; Winther, Jakob R

    2009-01-01

    . In the cytosol regulatory disulfide bonds are typically formed in spite of the prevailing reducing conditions and may thereby function as redox switches. Such disulfide bonds are protected from enzymatic reduction by kinetic barriers and are thus allowed to exist long enough to elicit the signal. Factors......Regulation of intracellular thiol-disulfide redox status is an essential part of cellular homeostasis. This involves the regulation of both oxidative and reductive pathways, production of oxidant scavengers and, importantly, the ability of cells to respond to changes in the redox environment...... that affect the rate of thiol-disulfide exchange and stability of disulfide bonds are discussed within the framework of the underlying chemical foundations. This includes the effect of thiol acidity (pKa), the local electrostatic environment, molecular strain and entropy. Even though a thiol-disulfide...

  3. A Novel Double Heterozygous Hb D-Punjab/Hb J-Meerut Hemoglobinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Dinesh; Tyagi, Seema; Deka, Roopam; Chauhan, Richa; Seth, Tulika; Saxena, Renu; Pati, H P

    2017-12-01

    A comprehensive laboratory diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies forms an integral part in workup of disorders of globin chain synthesis. Clinical findings, complete blood counts, peripheral smear examination along with hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis and/or cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography findings and parental study helps to clinch a final diagnosis. Compound heterozygous hemoglobinopathy presents with variable clinical findings and some of them are picked up on screening tests done as part of routine antenatal workup. Here we report a rare double heterozygous hemoglobinopathy of Hb D-Punjab and Hb J-Meerut in a 35 year antenatal female.

  4. EGF-CFC proteins are essential coreceptors for the TGF-β signals Vg1 and GDF1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Simon K.; Olale, Felix; Bennett, James T.; Brivanlou, Ali H.; Schier, Alexander F.

    2003-01-01

    The TGF-β signals Nodal, Activin, GDF1, and Vg1 have been implicated in mesoderm induction and left-right patterning. Nodal and Activin both activate Activin receptors, but only Nodal requires EGF-CFC coreceptors for signaling. We report that Vg1 and GDF1 signaling in zebrafish also depends on EGF-CFC proteins, but not on Nodal signals. Correspondingly, we find that in Xenopus Vg1 and GDF1 bind to and signal through Activin receptors only in the presence of EGF-CFC proteins. These results establish that multiple TGF-β signals converge on Activin receptor/EGF-CFC complexes and suggest a more widespread requirement for coreceptors in TGF-β signaling than anticipated previously. PMID:12514096

  5. Chemoreactomic analysis of thiamine disulfide, thiamine hydrochloride, and benfotiamine molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gromova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the interactions that could indicate the potential pharmacological properties of the molecules of thiamin, thiamine disulfide, and others.Material and methods. The investigators simulated the properties of thiamine disulfide (bistiamin versus those of the reference molecules of thiamin hydrochloride and benfotiamine. The study was performed using chemoreactomic simulation that is the newest area in post-genome pharmacology.Results and discussion. Chemoreactomic analysis has shown that thiamine disulfide can inhibit the molecular receptors involved in blood pressure regulation: adrenoceptors, vasopressin receptor, and angiotensin receptor. Thiamine disulfide can inhibit the reuptake of serotonin, increase its levels, inhibit benzodiazepine receptor and dopamine reuptake, and enhance neuronal acetylcholine release to a large extent than benfotiamine. These molecular effects are consistent with the sedative and anticonvulsant action profile of thiamine disulfide. Simulation has indicated that thiamine disulfide has neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, normolipidemic, and antitumor activities.Conclusion. The simulation results are confirmed by the available clinical and experimental findings and indicate the virtually unstudied molecular mechanisms of action of thiamine disulfide, benfotiamine, and thiamin hydrochloride. 

  6. Impaired Thiol-Disulfide Balance in Acute Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolgelier, Servet; Ergin, Merve; Demir, Lutfi Saltuk; Inkaya, Ahmet Cagkan; Aktug Demir, Nazlim; Alisik, Murat; Erel, Ozcan

    2017-05-24

    The objective of this study was to examine a novel profile: thiol-disulfide homeostasis in acute brucellosis. The study included 90 patients with acute brucellosis, and 27 healthy controls. Thiol-disulfide profile tests were analyzed by a recently developed method, and ceruloplasmin levels were determined. Native thiol levels were 256.72 ± 48.20 μmol/L in the acute brucellosis group and 461.13 ± 45.37 μmol/L in the healthy group, and total thiol levels were 298.58 ± 51.78 μmol/L in the acute brucellosis group and 504.83 ± 51.05 μmol/L in the healthy group (p brucellosis than in the healthy controls (p brucellosis. The strong associations between thiol-disulfide parameters and a positive acute-phase reactant reflected the disruption of the balance between the antioxidant and oxidant systems. Since thiol groups act as anti-inflammatory mediators, the alteration in the thiol-disulfide homeostasis may be involved in brucellosis.

  7. Quantitative Trait Loci Influencing Hb F Levels in Southern Thai Hb E (HBB: c.79G>A) Heterozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesornsit, Aumpika; Jeenduang, Nutjaree; Horpet, Dararat; Plyduang, Thunyaluk; Nuinoon, Manit

    2018-01-01

    Variation of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) expression in heterozygous Hb E (HBB: c.79G>A) individuals is associated with several genetic modifiers and not well understood. This study was undertaken in order to determine the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including XmnI G γ (rs7482144), rs766432 on the BCL11A gene and rs9376074 on the HBS1L gene, on Hb F levels in Southern Thai heterozygous Hb E individuals. A total of 97 Southern Thai subjects carrying heterozygous Hb E were selected for the hematological study. After excluding the samples with α-thalassemia (α-thal) interaction or moderate anemia, because both conditions can affect the hematological parameters, the remaining 74 samples were submitted to SNP analysis. Hematological parameters were measured using an automated hematology analyzer and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that rs766432 was strongly associated with increased Hb F levels and rs7482144 was associated with Hb F levels in each subgroup (genotype) of rs766432. This study suggested that the BCL11A locus has a major effect on Hb F levels compared with the XmnI polymorphism in Hb E heterozygotes. This association of Hb F levels with SNPs is useful for the interpretation of hemoglobin (Hb) typing in heterozygous Hb E samples with high Hb F levels. Future research will need to address the better understanding of the mechanisms of the SNPs that regulate Hb F production without stress erythropoiesis in Hb E heterozygotes.

  8. Monocytes/macrophages support mammary tumor invasivity by co-secreting lineage-specific EGFR ligands and a STAT3 activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlaicu, Philip; Mertins, Philipp; Mayr, Thomas; Widschwendter, Peter; Ataseven, Beyhan; Högel, Bernhard; Eiermann, Wolfgang; Knyazev, Pjotr; Ullrich, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) promote malignant progression, yet the repertoire of oncogenic factors secreted by TAM has not been clearly defined. We sought to analyze which EGFR- and STAT3-activating factors are secreted by monocytes/macrophages exposed to tumor cell-secreted factors. Following exposure of primary human monocytes and macrophages to supernatants of a variety of tumor cell lines, we have analyzed transcript and secreted protein levels of EGFR family ligands and of STAT3 activators. To validate our findings, we have analyzed TAM infiltration levels, systemic and local protein levels as well as clinical data of primary breast cancer patients. Primary human monocytes and macrophages respond to tumor cell-derived factors by secreting EGFR- and STAT3-activating ligands, thus inducing two important oncogenic pathways in carcinoma cells. Tumor cell-secreted factors trigger two stereotype secretory profiles in peripheral blood monocytes and differentiated macrophages: monocytes secrete epiregulin (EREG) and oncostatin-M (OSM), while macrophages secrete heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and OSM. HB-EGF and OSM cooperatively induce tumor cell chemotaxis. HB-EGF and OSM are co-expressed by TAM in breast carcinoma patients, and plasma levels of both ligands correlate strongly. Elevated HB-EGF levels accompany TAM infiltration, tumor growth and dissemination in patients with invasive disease. Our work identifies systemic markers for TAM involvement in cancer progression, with the potential to be developed into molecular targets in cancer therapy

  9. Technetium-99m direct radiolabeling of monoclonal antibody ior egf/r3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, Alejo A. Morales; Crespo, Francisco Zayas; Gandolff, Gilda Nunez; Escobar, Normando Iznaga; Perez, Niuvis Perez; Hernandez, Juan C. Izquierdo

    1998-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are being widely used for imaging studies, coupled mainly with {sup 99m}Tc. The antibody ior egf/r3 is a MAb against human epidermal growth factor receptor (hEGF-r), and we have developed a method for optimum labeling of this MAb with {sup 99m}Tc. The reduction was performed with 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) at a molar ratio of 2000:1 (2-ME:MAb) and methylene diphosphonate as transchelant. The integrity of reduced MAb was checked by mean of native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and gel filtration chromatography on Superose 12 (purity >99%). Radio colloids remained lower than 2%, and the labeling efficiency was 98.5%. The number of sulfhydryl groups generated was quantified using Ellman's reagent and was found to be 6.65 {+-} 0.69 per antibody molecule. In vitro stability studies in several challenging conditions (DTPA, human serum albumin and human serum) were performed, and no significant loss in binding percentage was seen. Radio receptor assay was used to test immunoreactivity of the reduced MAb. Both labeled and unlabeled MAbs were able to compete for binding to the hEGF-r with radioiodinated EGF. Biodistribution studies in BALB/c mice are reported.

  10. Technetium-99m direct radiolabeling of monoclonal antibody ior egf/r3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Alejo A. Morales; Crespo, Francisco Zayas; Gandolff, Gilda Nunez; Escobar, Normando Iznaga; Perez, Niuvis Perez; Hernandez, Juan C. Izquierdo

    1998-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are being widely used for imaging studies, coupled mainly with 99m Tc. The antibody ior egf/r3 is a MAb against human epidermal growth factor receptor (hEGF-r), and we have developed a method for optimum labeling of this MAb with 99m Tc. The reduction was performed with 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) at a molar ratio of 2000:1 (2-ME:MAb) and methylene diphosphonate as transchelant. The integrity of reduced MAb was checked by mean of native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and gel filtration chromatography on Superose 12 (purity >99%). Radio colloids remained lower than 2%, and the labeling efficiency was 98.5%. The number of sulfhydryl groups generated was quantified using Ellman's reagent and was found to be 6.65 ± 0.69 per antibody molecule. In vitro stability studies in several challenging conditions (DTPA, human serum albumin and human serum) were performed, and no significant loss in binding percentage was seen. Radio receptor assay was used to test immunoreactivity of the reduced MAb. Both labeled and unlabeled MAbs were able to compete for binding to the hEGF-r with radioiodinated EGF. Biodistribution studies in BALB/c mice are reported

  11. On the photostability of the disulfide bond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Anne Boutrup; Larsen, Martin Alex Bjørn; Klein, Liv Bærenholdt

    2014-01-01

    Photostability is an essential property of molecular building blocks of nature. Disulfides are central in the structure determination of proteins, which is in striking contradiction to the result that the S-S bond is a photochemically labile structural entity that cleaves to form free radicals upon...... on a sub 50 fs timescale without further ado. In a cyclic motif resembling the cysteine-disulfide bond in proteins, light can perturb the S-S bond to generate short-lived diradicaloid species, but the sulfur atoms are conformationally restricted by the ring that prevents the sulfur atoms from flying apart...... the photostability of disulfide-bonds must be ascribed a cyclic structural arrangement....

  12. Hemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CS) Missed by HPLC in an Hb E Trait Pregnancy Resulting in Hb H-CS Disease in a Thai Girl: Utility of Capillary Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornprasert, Sakorn; Saoboontan, Supansa; Wiengkum, Thanatcha

    2016-06-01

    Hemoglobin Constant Spring [Hb CS; α142, Term→Gln (TAA>CAA IN α2)] is often missed by routine laboratory testing, especially in subjects with co-inheritance of β-thalassemia or β-variants. We reported the case of a 1-year-old female with Hb H-CS disease who was born from a father with heterozygous of α-thalassemia-1 Southeast Asian type deletion and a mother with the combination of Hb CS and Hb E [β26 (B8) Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG] trait. A very tiny peak of Hb CS of the mother was easily ignored on the high performance liquid chromatography chromatogram while it was clearly seen on the capillary electrophoresis (CE) electrophoregram. Therefore, the CE is useful in screening for heterozygous Hb CS in a person with Hb E trait. This is of potential benefit for prevention of new cases of Hb H-CS disease.

  13. Effects of structurally stabilized EGF and bFGF on wound healing in type I and type II diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seong Mi; Lee, Kyoung-Mi; Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, Ik Kyu; Kang, Hwi Ju; Shin, Hang-Cheol; Baek, Dawoon; Choi, Yoorim; Park, Kwang Hwan; Lee, Jin Woo

    2018-01-15

    Diabetes mellitus comprises a multiple metabolic disorder that affects millions of people worldwide and consequentially poses challenges for clinical treatment. Among the various complications, diabetic ulcer constitutes the most prevalent associated disorder and leads to delayed wound healing. To enhance wound healing capacity, we developed structurally stabilized epidermal growth factor (ST-EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (ST-bFGF) to overcome limitations of commercially available EGF (CA-EGF) and bFGF (CA-bFGF), such as short half-life and loss of activity after loading onto a matrix. Neither ST-EGF nor ST-bFGF was toxic, and both were more stable at higher temperatures than CA-EGF and CA-bFGF. We loaded ST-EGF and ST-bFGF onto a hyaluronate-collagen dressing (HCD) matrix, a biocompatible carrier, and tested the effectiveness of this system in promoting wound healing in a mouse model of diabetes. Wounds treated with HCD matrix loaded with 0.3 μg/cm 2 ST-EGF or 1 μg/cm 2 ST-bFGF showed a more rapid rate of tissue repair as compared to the control in type I and II diabetes models. Our results indicate that an HDC matrix loaded with 0.3 μg/cm 2 ST-EGF or 1 μg/cm 2 ST-bFGF can promote wound healing in diabetic ulcers and are suitable for use in wound dressings owing to their stability for long periods at room temperature. Various types of dressing materials loaded with growth factors, such as VEGF, EGF, and bFGF, are widely used to effect wound repair. However, such growth factor-loaded materials have several limitations for use as therapeutic agents in healing-impaired diabetic wounds. To overcome these limitations, we have developed new materials containing structurally stabilized EGF (ST-EGF) and bFGF (ST-bFGF). To confirm the wound healing capacity of newly developed materials (ST-EGF and ST-bFGF-loaded hyaluronate-collagen dressing [HCD] matrix), we applied these matrices in type I and type II diabetic wounds. Notably, these matrices were

  14. Time-dependent changes of levels of endogenous epidermal growth factor in submandibular glands, in kidneys, and in urine in rats during systemic treatment with EGF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Jørgensen, P E; Thulesen, J

    1998-01-01

    Exogenous EGF influences the levels of endogenous EGF differently in the submandibular glands (SMG) and the kidneys. The aim of the present study was to examine the time-dependent changes in levels of endogenous EGF during 1-4 weeks of EGF treatment.......Exogenous EGF influences the levels of endogenous EGF differently in the submandibular glands (SMG) and the kidneys. The aim of the present study was to examine the time-dependent changes in levels of endogenous EGF during 1-4 weeks of EGF treatment....

  15. The super sickling haemoglobin HbS-Oman: a study of red cell sickling, K+ permeability and associations with disease severity in patients heterozygous for HbA and HbS-Oman (HbA/S-Oman genotype).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Balushi, Halima W M; Wali, Yasser; Al Awadi, Maha; Al-Subhi, Taimoora; Rees, David C; Brewin, John N; Hannemann, Anke; Gibson, John S

    2017-10-01

    Studying different sickle cell genotypes may throw light on the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease (SCD). Here, the clinical profile, red cell sickling and K + permeability in 29 SCD patients (15 patients with severe disease and 14 with a milder form) of HbA/S-Oman genotype were analysed. The super sickling nature of this Hb variant was confirmed. The red cell membrane permeability to K + was markedly abnormal with elevated activities of P sickle , Gardos channel and KCl cotransporter (KCC). Results were consistent with Ca 2+ entry and Mg 2+ loss via P sickle stimulating Gardos channel and KCC activities. The abnormal red cell behaviour was similar to that in the commonest genotype of SCD, HbSS, in which the level of mutated Hb is considerably higher. Although activities of all three K + transporters also correlated with the level of HbS-Oman, there was no association between transport phenotype and disease severity. The super sickling behaviour of HbS-Oman may obviate the need for solute loss and red cell dehydration to encourage Hb polymerisation, required in other SCD genotypes. Disease severity was reduced by concurrent α thalassaemia, as observed in other SCD genotypes, and represents an obvious genetic marker for prognostic tests of severity in young SCD patients of the HbA/S-Oman genotype. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Lead perturbs epidermal growth factor (EGF) modulation of intracellular calcium metabolism in clonal rat osteoblastic (ROS 17/2.8) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, G.J.; Rosen, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    EGF, a single chain polypeptide growth factor important for many cellular functions including glycolysis and protein phophorylation, is known to modulate calcium metabolism in several cell systems. It has been shown that EGF causes an increase in Ca 2+ influx and accumulation of inositol triphosphate, and probably exhibits many, if not all, of its effects via the calcium messenger system. Lead is known to interact with and perturb normal calcium signaling pathways; hence, the purpose of this work was to determine if lead perturbs EGF modulation of calcium metabolism in ROS 17/2.8 cells and if cell functions controlled by EGF were impaired. Cells were labelled with 45 Ca (1.87 mM Ca) for 20 hr in the presence of 5 μM Pb, 50 ng/ml EGF or μM Pb and 50 ng/ml EGF. Following an EGTA rinse, kinetic parameters were determined from 45 Ca efflux curves. Three kinetic compartments described the intracellular metabolism of 45 Ca. 5 μM Pb significantly altered the effect of EGF on intracellular calcium metabolism. Calcium distribution was shifted from the fast exchanging, quantitatively small calcium pools, S 1 and S 2 to the slow exchanging, quantitatively large S 2 . There was also a 50% increase in total cell calcium in cells treated with 5 μM Pb and 50 ng/ml EGF over cells treated with 50 ng/ml EGF alone. There was also a 25% decrease in the half-time for calcium exchange from S 3 to S 1 was also decreased. These data show that Pb impairs the normal modulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis by EGF and may therefore perturb functions that are modulated by EGF via the calcium messenger system

  17. Regulation of interleukin-4 signaling by extracellular reduction of intramolecular disulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curbo, Sophie; Gaudin, Raphael; Carlsten, Mattias; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Ahlborg, Niklas; Karlsson, Anna; Johansson, Magnus; Lundberg, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) contains three structurally important intramolecular disulfides that are required for the bioactivity of the cytokine. We show that the cell surface of HeLa cells and endotoxin-activated monocytes can reduce IL-4 intramolecular disulfides in the extracellular space and inhibit binding of IL-4 to the IL-4Rα receptor. IL-4 disulfides were in vitro reduced by thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). Reduction of IL-4 disulfides by the cell surface of HeLa cells was inhibited by auranofin, an inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase that is an electron donor to both Trx1 and PDI. Both Trx1 and PDI have been shown to be located at the cell surface and our data suggests that these enzymes are involved in catalyzing reduction of IL-4 disulfides. The pro-drug N-acetylcysteine (NAC) that promotes T-helper type 1 responses was also shown to mediate the reduction of IL-4 disulfides. Our data provides evidence for a novel redox dependent pathway for regulation of cytokine activity by extracellular reduction of intramolecular disulfides at the cell surface by members of the thioredoxin enzyme family.

  18. Incidence of hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias in Northern Alberta. Establishment of reference intervals for HbF and HbA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Capote, Karina; Higgins, Trefor N

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the incidence of hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias in Northern Alberta and calculate the reference intervals (RI) for hemoglobin (Hb) HbF and HbA2. A retrospective ad-hoc analysis of the structural Hb variants and thalassemias identified on patients who had a hemoglobinopathy/thalassemia investigation performed between February 1 to December 31, 2013. Results were extracted from the Laboratory Information System. Statistical analysis was performed using MedCalc® version 11.4.2.0 for Windows software. 6616 hemoglobinopathy/thalassemia investigations and HbS screens were physician requested and 602 Hb variants were fortuitously found during HbA1c analysis. 3438 were interpreted as "normal" and 532 were classified as iron deficient. 3306 individuals, with age ranging from 3 to 92 years were included in the RI calculation. HbA2 RI was 2.3% to 3.4% and HbF 0.0% to 1.8%. 524 and 423 α and β thalassemia traits respectively were identified. Additionally ten δβ thalassemia traits and twelve cases of HbH disease were identified. Regarding hemoglobinopathies, 7% were classified as α-chain variants and 93% as β-chain variants with HbS (46%), HbE (16%), HbD Punjab (8%) and HbC (7%) traits being the most prevalent. We also documented 20 homozygous hemoglobinopathies and 36 compound/double heterozygous hemoglobinopathies. A wide diversity of hemoglobinopathies is found in the Northern Alberta population, 80% of the hemoglobinopathies were found as a reflex to HbA1c testing. Reference intervals for HbF and HbA2 were established. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis and Anti-HIV-1 Evaluation of New Sonogashira-Modified Emivirine (MKC-442) Analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danel, Krzystof; Jørgensen, Per Trolle; La Colla, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The MKC-442 analogue 6-(3,5-dimethylbenzyl)-5-ethyluracil substituted with a (propargyloxo)methyl group at N(1) has previously been found highly active against HIV-1. The C C bond in the substituent at N(1) is here utilized in a series of chemical reactions in order to develop new agents with hig......The MKC-442 analogue 6-(3,5-dimethylbenzyl)-5-ethyluracil substituted with a (propargyloxo)methyl group at N(1) has previously been found highly active against HIV-1. The C C bond in the substituent at N(1) is here utilized in a series of chemical reactions in order to develop new agents...... with higher activity against HIV-1-resistant mutants. The syntheses involved Pd-catalyzed C,C-coupling reactions, addition of disulfides, and click chemistry on the terminal C C bond as well as addition of bromine to the so formed internal C C bonds. Sonogashira coupling were performed with silyl...

  20. Brain MRI findings of carbon disulfide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Mi Jung; Yim, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Sam Soo; Han, Heon; Kim, Rok Ho

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the findings of brain MRI in patients with carbon disulfide poisoning. Ninety-one patients who had suffered carbon disulfide poisoning [male:female=87:4; age, 32-74 (mean 53.3) years] were included in this study. To determine the extent of white matter hyperintensity (Grade 0-V) and lacunar infarction, T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain was performed. T2-weighted images depicted white matter hyperintensity in 70 patients (76.9%) and lacunar infarcts in 27 (29.7%). In these patients, the prevalent findings at T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain were white matter hyperintensity and lacunar infarcts. Disturbance of the cardiovascular system by carbon disulfide might account for these results

  1. Detection of compound heterozygous of hb constant spring and hb q-Thailand by capillary electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornprasert, Sakorn; Punyamung, Manoo

    2015-06-01

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) has proven to be superior to a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the detection of hemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CS). Thus the aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of CE and HPLC for the detection of Hb CS in samples with compound heterozygous of Hb CS and Hb Q-Thailand. Hemoglobin analysis was performed in blood samples of 2 patients with compound heterozygous of Hb CS and Hb Q-Thailand by using HPLC and CE. The HPLC chromatogram and CE electrophoregram of the two techniques were compared. Hb CS was not found on HPLC chromatogram while Hb QA2 (α2 (QT)δ2), a derivative of Hb Q-Thailand, was presented at the retention time of 4.70-4.80 min and it was close to the retention time of Hb CS. On CE electrophoregram, Hb CS was presented at zone 2 (Z2) and it was distinctly separated from Hb QA2 which was presented at Z1. Therefore, CE was more efficient to the HPLC for diagnosis of compound heterozygous of Hb CS and Hb Q-Thailand.

  2. Immuno-modulatory effect of local rhEGF treatment during tissue repair in diabetic ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Honduvilla, Natalio; Cifuentes, Alberto; Ortega, Miguel A; Pastor, Marta; Gainza, Garazi; Gainza, Eusebio; Buján, Julia; Álvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2018-04-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that can be severely impaired due to pathological situations such as diabetes mellitus. Diabetic foot ulcers are a common complication of this pathology and are characterized by an excessive inflammatory response. In this work, the effects of local treatment with recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) were studied using a full-thickness wound healing model in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Wound healing process was assessed with different concentrations of rhEGF (0.1, 0.5, 2.0 and 8.0 µg/mL), placebo and both diabetic and non-diabetic controls ( n  = 53). The macroscopic healing observed in treated diabetic rats was affected by rhEGF concentration. Histologically, we also observed an improvement in the epithelialization, granulation tissue formation and maturation in treated groups, finding again the best response at doses of 0.5 and 2.0 µg/mL. Afterwards, the tissue immune response over time was assessed in diabetic rats using the most effective concentrations of rhEGF (0.5 and 2.0 µg/mL), compared to controls. The presence of macrophages, CD4 + T lymphocytes and CD8 + T lymphocytes, in the reparative tissue was quantified, and cytokine expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. rhEGF treatment caused a reduction in the number of infiltrating macrophages in the healing tissue of diabetic, as well as diminished activation of these leukocytes. These findings show that local administration of rhEGF improves the healing process of excisional wounds and the quality of the neoformed tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, this treatment reduces the local inflammation associated with diabetic healing, indicating immuno-modulatory properties. © 2018 The authors.

  3. HB Puerta del Sol [HBA1:c.148A>C], HB Valdecilla [HBA2:c.3G>T], HB Gran Vía [HBA2:c.98T>G], HB Macarena [HBA2:c.358C>T] and HB El Retiro [HBA2:c.364_366dupGTG]: description of five new hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente-Gonzalo, Félix; Nieto, Jorge M; Velasco, Diego; Cela, Elena; Pérez, Germán; Fernández-Teijeiro, Ana; Escudero, Antonio; Villegas, Ana; González-Fernández, Fernando A; Ropero, Paloma

    2016-04-01

    Structural hemoglobinopathies do not usually have a clinical impact, but they can interfere with the analytical determination of some parameters, such as the glycated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. Thalassemias represent a serious health problem in areas where their incidence is high. The defects in the post-translational modifications produce hyper-unstable hemoglobin that is not detected by most of electrophoretic or chromatographic methods that are available so far. We studied seven patients who belong to six unrelated families. The first two families were studied because they had peak abnormal hemoglobin (Hb) during routine analytical assays. The other four families were studied because they had microcytosis and hypochromia with normal HbA2 and HbF without iron deficiency. HbA2 and F quantification and abnormal Hb separation were performed by chromatographic and electrophoretic methods. The molecular characterization was performed using specific sequencing. The Hb Puerta del Sol presents electrophoretic mobility and elution in HPLC that is different from HbA and similar to HbS. The electrophoretic and chromatographic profiles of the four other variants are normal and do not show any anomalies, and their identification was only possible with sequencing. Some variants, such as Hb Valdecilla, Hb Gran Vía, Hb Macarena and Hb El Retiro, have significant clinical impact when they are associated with other forms of α-thalassemia, which could lead to more serious forms of this group of pathologies as for HbH disease. Therefore, it is important to maintain an adequate program for screening these diseases in countries where the prevalence is high to prevent the occurrence of severe forms.

  4. Repeated dose intramuscular injection of the CIMAvax-EGF vaccine in Sprague Dawley rats induces local and systemic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, A; Casacó, A; González, B; Ledón, N; Sorlozabal, J; León, A; Gómez, D; González, Y; Bada, A M; González, C; Arteaga, M E; Ramírez, H; Fuentes, D

    2012-05-09

    CIMAvax-EGF consists of a human recombinant epidermal growth factor (EGF), coupled to P64k, a recombinant carrier protein from N. meningitis, and Montanide ISA 51 as adjuvant. The vaccine immunization induces a specific antibody production, inhibiting the EGF/EGF-R interaction through EGF deprivation. The objective of this study was to assess the CIMAvax-EGF toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats after intramuscular administration of repeated doses (6 months) and at the same time to determine if rat is a relevant species for studying CIMAvax-EGF vaccine. Rats were randomly distributed into four groups: control, Montanide ISA 51, treated with 1× and 15× of human total dose of the antigen. Animals were immunized weekly during 9 weeks, plus 9 immunizations every 14 days. Rats were inspected daily for clinical signs. Body weight, food consumption, and rectal temperature were measured during the administration of doses. Blood samples were collected for hematological, serum biochemical determinations and EGF titles at the beginning, three months and at the end of experimentation. Gross necropsy and histological examination of tissues were performed on animals at the end of the assay. Vaccine provoked the apparition of antibodies against EGF in the rats, demonstrating rat species relevance in these studies. Body weight gain, food and water consumption were not affected. CIMAvax-EGF and Montanide ISA 51 produced local damage at the administration site, showing multiple cysts and granulomas. Both vaccine-treated groups showed neutrophil elevation, besides an AST increase probably related to the damage at the administration site. Rectal temperature was found to be significantly higher in 15× treated group after immunizations, probably induced by the inflammatory process at the injection site. In summary, the clinical pathology findings together with the body temperature results, appear to be caused by the inflammatory reaction at the administration site of the vaccine, mainly

  5. Recent mass spectrometry-based techniques and considerations for disulfide bond characterization in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakbub, Jude C; Shipman, Joshua T; Desaire, Heather

    2018-04-01

    Disulfide bonds are important structural moieties of proteins: they ensure proper folding, provide stability, and ensure proper function. With the increasing use of proteins for biotherapeutics, particularly monoclonal antibodies, which are highly disulfide bonded, it is now important to confirm the correct disulfide bond connectivity and to verify the presence, or absence, of disulfide bond variants in the protein therapeutics. These studies help to ensure safety and efficacy. Hence, disulfide bonds are among the critical quality attributes of proteins that have to be monitored closely during the development of biotherapeutics. However, disulfide bond analysis is challenging because of the complexity of the biomolecules. Mass spectrometry (MS) has been the go-to analytical tool for the characterization of such complex biomolecules, and several methods have been reported to meet the challenging task of mapping disulfide bonds in proteins. In this review, we describe the relevant, recent MS-based techniques and provide important considerations needed for efficient disulfide bond analysis in proteins. The review focuses on methods for proper sample preparation, fragmentation techniques for disulfide bond analysis, recent disulfide bond mapping methods based on the fragmentation techniques, and automated algorithms designed for rapid analysis of disulfide bonds from liquid chromatography-MS/MS data. Researchers involved in method development for protein characterization can use the information herein to facilitate development of new MS-based methods for protein disulfide bond analysis. In addition, individuals characterizing biotherapeutics, especially by disulfide bond mapping in antibodies, can use this review to choose the best strategies for disulfide bond assignment of their biologic products. Graphical Abstract This review, describing characterization methods for disulfide bonds in proteins, focuses on three critical components: sample preparation, mass

  6. Iron deficiency anemia interfering the diagnosis of compound heterozygosity for Hb constant spring and Hb Paksé: The first case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasakul, Thita; Uaprasert, Noppacharn

    2018-01-01

    Diagnosis of thalassemia or hemoglobinopathy concomitant with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is challenging. We report a case of 43-year-old female whose diagnosis of compound heterozygosity for hemoglobin Constant Spring (HbCS) and Hb Paksé became apparent after the treatment of IDA. Prior to treatment, Hb analysis using isoelectric focusing (IEF) showed HbA 95.6%, HbA 2 2.7%, and HbCS 1.7% compatible with heterozygous HbCS. After 4 months of oral iron therapy resulting in an improved Hb level, her HbCS level was substantially increased to 8.7% on IEF suggesting homozygous HbCS. Subsequent DNA analysis using multiplex amplification refractory mutation system analysis revealed compound heterozygosity for HbCS and Hb Paksé. This case demonstrated that IDA can significantly reduce HbCS/Hb Paksé levels and probably mask the diagnosis of homozygous HbCS, homozygous Hb Paksé or the compound heterozygosity for both hemoglobinopathies by hemoblogin analysis. The test should be repeated after resolution of IDA, or molecular testing should be performed to confirm the diagnosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A Mena invasion isoform potentiates EGF-induced carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippar, Ulrike; Roussos, Evanthia T; Oser, Matthew; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Kim, Hyung-Do; Giampieri, Silvia; Wang, Yarong; Goswami, Sumanta; Wyckoff, Jeffrey B; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Sahai, Erik; Condeelis, John S; Gertler, Frank B

    2008-12-01

    The spread of cancer during metastatic disease requires that tumor cells subvert normal regulatory networks governing cell motility to invade surrounding tissues and migrate toward blood and lymphatic vessels. Enabled (Ena)/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) proteins regulate cell motility by controlling the geometry of assembling actin networks. Mena, an Ena/VASP protein, is upregulated in the invasive subpopulation of breast cancer cells. In addition, Mena is alternately spliced to produce an invasion isoform, Mena(INV). Here we show that Mena and Mena(INV) promote carcinoma cell motility and invasiveness in vivo and in vitro, and increase lung metastasis. Mena and Mena(INV) potentiate epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced membrane protrusion and increase the matrix degradation activity of tumor cells. Interestingly, Mena(INV) is significantly more effective than Mena in driving metastases and sensitizing cells to EGF-dependent invasion and protrusion. Upregulation of Mena(INV) could therefore enable tumor cells to invade in response to otherwise benign EGF stimulus levels.

  8. Measurement of glutathione-protein mixed disulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a sensitive and highly specific assay for the presence of mixed disulfides between protein thiol groups and endogenous thiols has been undertaken. Previous investigations on the concentrations of glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and protein glutathione mixed disulfides (ProSSG) have been of limited usefulness because of the poor specificity of the assays used. Our assay for these forms of glutathione is based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and is an extension of an earlier method. After perchloric acid precipitation, the protein sample is washed with an organic solvent to fully denature the protein. Up to a 10-fold increase in GSH released from fetal bovine serum (FBS) protein has been found when the protein precipitate is washed with ethanol rather than ether, as earlier suggested. Similar effects have been observed with an as yet unidentified thiol which elutes in the chromatography system with a retention volume similar to cysteine

  9. The tumor suppressor PTEN inhibits EGF-induced TSP-1 and TIMP-1 expression in FTC-133 thyroid carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soula-Rothhut, Mahdhia; Coissard, Cyrille; Sartelet, Herve; Boudot, Cedric; Bellon, Georges; Martiny, Laurent; Rothhut, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a multidomain extracellular macromolecule that was first identified as natural modulator of angiogenesis and tumor growth. In the present study, we found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) up-regulated TSP-1 expression in FTC-133 (primary tumor) but not in FTC-238 (lung metastasis) thyroid cancer cells. Both EGF and TSP-1 induced expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in a mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-dependent manner. In FTC-133 cells, EGF induced proliferation in a TSP-1- and TIMP-1-dependent manner. In addition, we determined that re-expression of the tumor suppressor protein PTEN induced cell death, an effect that correlated with a block of Akt kinase phosphorylation. EGF-induced TSP-1 and TIMP-1 promoter activity and protein expression were inhibited in FTC-133 cells stably expressing wtPTEN but not in cells expressing mutant PTEN. Furthermore, we found that wtPTEN inhibited EGF-but not TSP-1-stimulated FTC-133 cell migration and also inhibited invasion induced by EGF and by TSP-1. Finally, an antibody against TSP-1 reversed EGF-stimulated FTC-133 cell invasion as well as the constitutive invasive potential of FTC-238 cells. Overall, our results suggest that PTEN can function as an important modulator of extracellular matrix proteins in thyroid cancer. Therefore, analyzing differential regulation of TSP-1 by growth factors such as EGF can be helpful in understanding thyroid cancer development

  10. Structures and related properties of helical, disulfide-stabilized peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagel, Mark D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-11-01

    The three dimensional structure of several peptides were determined by NMR spectroscopy and distance geometry calculations. Each peptide formed a predictable, rigid structure, consisting of an α-helix, a "scaffold" region which packed along one face of the helix, and two disulfide bridges which covalently connect the helix and scaffold regions. The peptide Apa-M5 was designed to constrain the M5 peptide from MLCK in a helical geometry using the apamin disulfide scaffold. This scaffold constrains the N- terminal end of the helix with two disulfide bridges and a reverse turn. Like the M5 peptide, Apa-M5 was found to bind calmodulin in a Ca2+-dependent 1:1 stoichiometry. However, the dissociation constant of the (Apa-M5)-calmodulin complex, 107 nM, was 100-fold higher than the dissociation constant of the M5-calmodulin complex. This difference was due to a putative steric overlap between the Apa-M5 scaffold and calmodulin. The peptide Apa-Cro was designed to replace the large structural protein matrix of λ Cro with the apamin disulfide scaffold. However, Apa-Cro did not bind the consensus DNA operator half-site of λ Cro, probably due to a steric overlap between the Apa-Cro disulfide framework and the DNA. The amino acid sequence of the scaffold-disulfide bridge arrangement of the peptide Max was derived from the core sequence of scyllatoxin, which contains an α-helix constrained at the C-terminal end by two disulfide bridges and a two-stranded βsheet scaffold. Max was shown to fold with >84% yield to form a predictable, stable structure that is similar to scyllatoxin. The folding and stability properties of Max make this scaffold and disulfide bridge arrangement an ideal candidate for the development of hybrid sequence peptides. The dynamics of a fraying C-terminal end of the helix of the peptide Apa-AlaN was determined by analysis of 15N NMR relaxation properties.

  11. 131I-Recombinant human EGF has anti-tumor effects against MCF-7 human breast cancer xenografts with low levels of EGFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yunchun; Tan Tianzhi; Xu Weiyun; He Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the inhibitory action of 131 I-recombinant human EGF ( 131 I-rhEGF) on MCF-7 human breast cancer tumor development in nude mice. Methods: The activity and tumor uptake of 131 I-rhEGF was measured by tissue distribution assay, and its effect on tumor growth was measured by monitoring tumor size after treatment with 131 I-rhEGF, Changes in tumor cell ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and pathological changes in tumor tissue were observed by light microscopy. Results: The tissue distribution assay revealed that 131 I-rhEGF was markedly absorbed by the tumor and reached its maximal uptake rate (16.73% ID·g-l) at 120 h, at which point the drug concentration in the tumor was 11.1-fold, 8.1-fold, 6.6-fold higher than that in blood, liver, kidneys, respectively. The tumor size measurements showed that tumor development was significantly inhibited by intravenously and intratumorally injected 131 I-rhEGF. The extent of tumor inhibition rates (82.0% and 80.7%, respectively) were significantly higher than those of tumors treated with 131 I (7.49%) and 131 I-HSA (6.91%; P 131 I-rhEGF could significantly damage and ultimately kill tumor cells. Conclusions: Our results suggest that 131 I-rhEGF suppresses development of xenografted breast cancer cells in nude mice, providing a novel candidate for receptor-mediated targeted radiotherapy. Key words. Iodine-131 rhEGF Breast cancer Therapy. (authors)

  12. 131I-recombinant human EGF has antitumor effects against MCF-7 human breast cancer xenografts with low levels of EGFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Y.-C.; Xu, W.-Y.; Tan, T.-Z.; He Sheng

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory action of 131 I-recombinant human EGF ( 131 I-rhEGF) on MCF-7 human breast cancer tumor development in nude mice. The activity and tumor uptake of 131 I-rhEGF was measured by tissue distribution assay, and its effect on tumor growth was measured by monitoring tumor size after treatment with 131 I-rhEGF. Changes in tumor cell ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and pathological changes in tumor tissue were observed by light microscopy. The tissue distribution assay revealed that 131 I-rhEGF was markedly absorbed by the tumor and reached its maximal uptake rate (16.73%ID · g -1 ) at 120 hours at which point the drug concentration in the tumor was 11.1-fold, 8.1-fold, and 6.6-fold higher than that in blood, liver, and kidneys, respectively. Tumor size measurements showed that tumor development was significantly inhibited by intravenously and intratumorally injected 131 I-rhEGF. Tumor inhibition rates (82.0% and 80.7%, respectively) were significantly higher than those of tumors treated with 131 I (7.49%) and 131 I-HSA (6.91%; P 131 I-rhEGF could significantly damage and ultimately kill tumor cells. Our results suggest that 131 I-rhEGF suppresses development of xenografted breast cancer cells in nude mice, providing a novel candidate for receptor-mediated targeted radiotherapy

  13. EGF-induced expansion of migratory cells in the rostral migratory stream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olle R Lindberg

    Full Text Available The presence of neural stem cells in the adult brain is currently widely accepted and efforts are made to harness the regenerative potential of these cells. The dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation, and the subventricular zone (SVZ of the anterior lateral ventricles, are considered the main loci of adult neurogenesis. The rostral migratory stream (RMS is the structure funneling SVZ progenitor cells through the forebrain to their final destination in the olfactory bulb. Moreover, extensive proliferation occurs in the RMS. Some evidence suggest the presence of stem cells in the RMS, but these cells are few and possibly of limited differentiation potential. We have recently demonstrated the specific expression of the cytoskeleton linker protein radixin in neuroblasts in the RMS and in oligodendrocyte progenitors throughout the brain. These cell populations are greatly altered after intracerebroventricular infusion of epidermal growth factor (EGF. In the current study we investigate the effect of EGF infusion on the rat RMS. We describe a specific increase of radixin(+/Olig2(+ cells in the RMS. Negative for NG2 and CNPase, these radixin(+/Olig2(+ cells are distinct from typical oligodendrocyte progenitors. The expanded Olig2(+ population responds rapidly to EGF and proliferates after only 24 hours along the entire RMS, suggesting local activation by EGF throughout the RMS rather than migration from the SVZ. In addition, the radixin(+/Olig2(+ progenitors assemble in chains in vivo and migrate in chains in explant cultures, suggesting that they possess migratory properties within the RMS. In summary, these results provide insight into the adaptive capacity of the RMS and point to an additional stem cell source for future brain repair strategies.

  14. Thiol/disulfide redox states in signaling and sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Young-Mi; Jones, Dean P.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in redox systems biology are creating new opportunities to understand complexities of human disease and contributions of environmental exposures. New understanding of thiol-disulfide systems have occurred during the past decade as a consequence of the discoveries that thiol and disulfide systems are maintained in kinetically controlled steady-states displaced from thermodynamic equilibrium, that a widely distributed family of NADPH oxidases produces oxidants that function in cell signaling, and that a family of peroxiredoxins utilize thioredoxin as a reductant to complement the well-studied glutathione antioxidant system for peroxide elimination and redox regulation. This review focuses on thiol/disulfide redox state in biologic systems and the knowledge base available to support development of integrated redox systems biology models to better understand the function and dysfunction of thiol-disulfide redox systems. In particular, central principles have emerged concerning redox compartmentalization and utility of thiol/disulfide redox measures as indicators of physiologic function. Advances in redox proteomics show that, in addition to functioning in protein active sites and cell signaling, cysteine residues also serve as redox sensors to integrate biologic functions. These advances provide a framework for translation of redox systems biology concepts to practical use in understanding and treating human disease. Biological responses to cadmium, a widespread environmental agent, are used to illustrate the utility of these advances to the understanding of complex pleiotropic toxicities. PMID:23356510

  15. EFFECTS OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF), TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR- (TGF), AND 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN ON FUSION OF EMBRYONIC PALATES IN SERUM-FREE ORGAN CULTURE USING WILD-TYPE, EGF KNOCKOUT, AND TGF KNOCKOUT MOUSE STRAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backround: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is teratogenic in mice, producing cleft palate (CP). TCDD exposure disrupts expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, EGF, and transforming growth factor- (TGF) in the palate and affects proliferation and different...

  16. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum TNF-α and EGF levels after chemotherapy in patients with malignant hydatidiform mole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaochao; Zhou Dongxia; Zhang Liming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum TNF-α and EGF levels after chemotherapy in patients with malignant hydatidiform mole. Methods: Serum TNF-α, EGF levels (with RIA) were measured both before and after chemotherapy in 32 patients with malignant hydatidiform mole as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy, serum TNF- α and EGF levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01). Six months after chemotherapy, serum TNF-α and EGF levels, though dropped markedly, remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Development of malignant hydatidiform mole in patients was closely related to the serum TNF-α and EGF levels. (authors)

  17. EGF Prevents the Neuroendocrine Differentiation of LNCaP Cells Induced By Serum Deprivation: The Modulator Role of P13K/Akt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Martín-Orozco

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus of this investigation was to study the relationship between neuroendocrine (NE differentiation, epidermal growth factor (EGF because both have been implicated in the progression of prostate cancer. For this purpose, we used gefitinib, trastuzumab, which are inhibitors of EGF receptor (EGFR, ErbB2, respectively. EGF prevents NE differentiation induced by androgen depletion. This effect is prevented by gefitinib, which blocks the activation of EGFR, ErbB2, stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, cell proliferation induced by EGF. Conversely, trastuzumab does not inhibit the effect of EGF on EGFR phosphorylation, MAPK activity, cell proliferation, NE differentiation, although it reduces ErbB2 levels specifically, suggesting that ErbB2 is not necessary to inhibit NE differentiation. Prevention of NE differentiation by EGF is mediated by a MAPK-dependent mechanism, requires constitutive Akt activation. The abrogation of the PI3K/Akt pathway changes the role of EGF from inhibitor to inductor of NE differentiation. We show that EGFR tyrosine kinase, MAPK, PI3K inhibitors inhibit the cell proliferation stimulated by EGF but induce the acquisition of NE phenotype. Altogether, the present data should be borne in mind when designing new clinical schedules for the treatment of prostate cancer, including the use of ErbB receptors, associated signaling pathway inhibitors.

  18. Relationship between Hb and HbA1c in Japanese adults: an analysis of the 2009 Japan Society of Ningen Dock database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Eiko; Moriyama, Kengo; Yamakado, Minoru

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of Hb on HbA1c levels in 265,427 Japanese individuals. The divergence between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c levels increased with lower Hb, resulting in HbA1c levels that were higher in relation to than the FPG levels. Similarly, the correlation between FPG and HbA1c levels, stratified by Hb, weakened as Hb decreased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Phenotypic Diversity of Sickle Cell Disease in Patients with a Double Heterozygosity for Hb S and Hb D-Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lidiane S; Okumura, Jéssika V; Belini-Júnior, Édis; Oliveira, Renan G; Nascimento, Patrícia P; Silva, Danilo G H; Lobo, Clarisse L C; Oliani, Sonia M; Bonini-Domingos, Claudia R

    2016-09-01

    Phenotypic heterogeneity for sickle cell disease is associated to several genetic factors such as genotype for sickle cell disease, β-globin gene cluster haplotypes and Hb F levels. The coinheritance of Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T) and Hb D-Punjab (HBB: c.364G > C) results in a double heterozygosity, which constitutes one of the genotypic causes of sickle cell disease. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic diversity of sickle cell disease presented by carriers of the Hb S/Hb D-Punjab genotype and the Bantu [- + - - - -] haplotype. We evaluated medical records from 12 patients with sickle cell disease whose Hb S/Hb D-Punjab genotype and Bantu haplotype were confirmed by molecular analysis. Hb S and Hb D-Punjab levels were quantified by chromatographic analysis. Mean concentrations of Hb S and Hb D-Punjab were 44.8 ± 2.3% and 43.3 ± 1.8%, respectively. Painful crises were present in eight (66.7%) patients evaluated, representing the most common clinical event. Acute chest syndrome (ACS) was the second most prevalent manifestation, occurring in two individuals (16.7%). Three patients were asymptomatic, while another two exhibited greater diversity of severe clinical manifestations. Medical records here analyzed reported a significant clinical diversity in sickle cell disease ranging from the absence of symptoms to wide phenotypic variety. The sickle cell disease genotype, Bantu haplotype and hemoglobin (Hb) levels did not influence the clinical diversity. Thus, we concluded that the phenotypic variation in sickle cell disease was present within a specific genotype for disease regardless of the β-globin gene cluster haplotypes.

  20. First Case of a Compound Heterozygosity for Two Nondeletional α-Thalassemia mutations, Hb Constant Spring and Hb Quong Sze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-Ying; Yan, Jin-Mei; Li, Jian; Li, Dong-Zhi

    2016-06-01

    Nondeletional α-thalassemia (α-thal) is the result of point mutations in critical regions of the α-globin genes, affecting mRNA processing, mRNA translation, or α-globin stability. Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS, HBA2: c.427T > C) is the most common nondeletional α-thal that results from a nucleotide substitution at the termination codon of the α2-globin gene. Hb Quong Sze (Hb QS, HBA2: c.377T > C) is another nondeletional α-thal in South China with the missense mutation at codon 125 of the α2-globin gene making this hemoglobin (Hb) variant highly unstable. Although homozygosity for Hb CS (α(CS)α/α(CS)α) or Hb QS (α(QS)α/α(QS)α) has been reported, clinical pictures vary from severe hemolysis that developed early in life to only mild anemia, no clinical phenotypic data of compound heterozygosity for Hb CS/Hb QS (α(CS)α/α(QS)α) has been described. In this report we describe an adult case with such a compound heterozygosity who presented with a mild α-thal.

  1. Comparative haematological parameters of HbAA and HbAS genotype children infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiti, Anisa H; Nsiah, Kwabena

    2014-04-01

    Sickle haemoglobin (HbS) is known to offer considerable protection against falciparum malaria. However, the mechanism of protection is not yet completely understood. In this study, we investigate how the presence of the sickle cell trait affects the haematological profile of AS persons with malaria, in comparison with similarly infected persons with HbAA. This study is based on the hypothesis that the sickle cell trait plays a protective role against malaria. Children from an endemic malaria transmission area in Yemen were enrolled in this study. Hematological parameters were estimated using manual methods, the percentage of parasite density on stained thin smear was calculated, haemoglobin genotypes were determined on paper electrophoresis, ferritin was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, serum iron and TIBC were assayed using spectrophotometer, transferrin saturation index was calculated by dividing serum iron by TIBC and expressing the result as a percentage. Haematological parameters were compared in HbAA- and HbAS-infected children. Falciparum malaria parasitaemia was confirmed in the blood smears of 62 children, 44 (55.7%) of AA and 18 (37.5%) AS, so there was higher prevalence in HbAA children (P = 0.047). Parasite density was lower in HbAS- than HbAA-infected children (P = 0.003). Anaemia was prominent in malaria-infected children, with high proportions of moderate and severe forms in HbAA (P = 0.001). The mean levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, reticulocyte count, platelets count, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and serum iron were significantly lower while total leukocytes, immature granulocytes, monocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin were significantly higher in HbAA-infected children than HbAS-infected children. Infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria caused more significant haematological alterations of HbAA children than HbAS. This study supports the observation that sickle cell trait

  2. A structural model of pestivirus E(rns) based on disulfide bond connectivity and homology modeling reveals an extremely rare vicinal disulfide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langedijk, J.P.M.; Veelen, van P.A.; Schaaper, W.M.M.; Ru, de A.H.; Meloen, R.H.; Hulst, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Erns is a pestivirus envelope glycoprotein and is the only known viral surface protein with RNase activity. Erns is a disulfide-linked homodimer of 100 kDa; it is found on the surface of pestivirus-infected cells and is secreted into the medium. In this study, the disulfide arrangement of the nine

  3. Quantifying the global cellular thiol-disulfide status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rosa E; Roth, Doris; Winther, Jakob R

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the redox status of protein thiols is of central importance to protein structure and folding and that glutathione is an important low-molecular-mass redox regulator. However, the total cellular pools of thiols and disulfides and their relative abundance have never been...... determined. In this study, we have assembled a global picture of the cellular thiol-disulfide status in cultured mammalian cells. We have quantified the absolute levels of protein thiols, protein disulfides, and glutathionylated protein (PSSG) in all cellular protein, including membrane proteins. These data...... cell types. However, when cells are exposed to a sublethal dose of the thiol-specific oxidant diamide, PSSG levels increase to >15% of all protein cysteine. Glutathione is typically characterized as the "cellular redox buffer"; nevertheless, our data show that protein thiols represent a larger active...

  4. EGF does not induce Msx-1 and Msx-2 in dental mesenchyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y H; Kollar, E J; Upholt, W B; Mina, M

    1998-01-01

    Previous heterospecific tissue recombinations indicate that mandibular epithelium exerts the first known inductive signal for odontogenesis in mouse embryos. BMP-4 and EGF are two growth factors implicated as signaling molecules mediating the initial inductive epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during odontogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the effects of these growth factors and mouse mandibular epithelium on expression of Msx-1 and Msx-2 genes in molar-forming mesenchyme. Agarose beads soaked in growth factors or pieces of mouse mandibular epithelium (E11) were placed in contact with E11 molar-forming mesenchyme and cultured for 24 h. Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis revealed that, in contrast to mouse mandibular epithelium and BMP-4-releasing beads, EGF-releasing beads did not induce the expression of Msx-1 and Msx-2 in E11 molar-forming mesenchyme. These observations suggest that whereas BMP-4 may be involved in activation of Msx-1 and Msx-2 in the underlying mesenchyme, EGF may regulate events involved in the formation of dental lamina.

  5. Nonpolar interactions between trans-membrane helical EGF peptide and phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and cholesterol. Molecular dynamics simulation studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Róg, T.; Murzyn, K.; Karttunen, M.E.J.; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, M.

    2008-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation study of four lipid bilayers with inserted trans-membrane helical fragment of epithelial growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGF peptide) was performed. The lipid bilayers differ in their lipid composition and consist of (i) unsaturated phosphatidylcholine

  6. Calcium regulation of EGF-induced ERK5 activation: role of Lad1-MEKK2 interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Yao

    Full Text Available The ERK5 cascade is a MAPK pathway that transmits both mitogenic and stress signals, yet its mechanism of activation is not fully understood. Using intracellular calcium modifiers, we found that ERK5 activation by EGF is inhibited both by the depletion and elevation of intracellular calcium levels. This calcium effect was found to occur upstream of MEKK2, which is the MAP3K of the ERK5 cascade. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that EGF increases MEKK2 binding to the adaptor protein Lad1, and this interaction was reduced by the intracellular calcium modifiers, indicating that a proper calcium concentration is required for the interactions and transmission of EGF signals to ERK5. In vitro binding assays revealed that the proper calcium concentration is required for a direct binding of MEKK2 to Lad1. The binding of these proteins is not affected by c-Src-mediated phosphorylation on Lad1, but slightly affects the Tyr phosphorylation of MEKK2, suggesting that the interaction with Lad1 is necessary for full Tyr phosphorylation of MEKK2. In addition, we found that changes in calcium levels affect the EGF-induced nuclear translocation of MEKK2 and thereby its effect on the nuclear ERK5 activity. Taken together, these findings suggest that calcium is required for EGF-induced ERK5 activation, and this effect is probably mediated by securing proper interaction of MEKK2 with the upstream adaptor protein Lad1.

  7. A molybdenum disulfide/carbon nanotube heterogeneous complementary inverter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Busnaina, Ahmed

    2012-08-24

    We report a simple, bottom-up/top-down approach for integrating drastically different nanoscale building blocks to form a heterogeneous complementary inverter circuit based on layered molybdenum disulfide and carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles. The fabricated CNT/MoS(2) inverter is composed of n-type molybdenum disulfide (MOS(2)) and p-type CNT transistors, with a high voltage gain of 1.3. The CNT channels are fabricated using directed assembly while the layered molybdenum disulfide channels are fabricated by mechanical exfoliation. This bottom-up fabrication approach for integrating various nanoscale elements with unique characteristics provides an alternative cost-effective methodology to complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors, laying the foundation for the realization of high performance logic circuits.

  8. Overcoming acquired drug resistance in colorectal cancer cells by targeted delivery of 5-FU with EGF grafted hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijue; She, Xiaodong; Wang, Tao; He, Li; Shigdar, Sarah; Duan, Wei; Kong, Lingxue

    2015-08-01

    Acquired drug resistance (ADR) can be developed in colorectal cancer cells after 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment and diminish the effectiveness of chemotherapy. In this work, acquired 5-FU resistance in the colorectal cancer cell line SW480 was obtained with the up-regulation of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) gene expression which can convert 5-FU to its inactive metabolite. To overcome ADR in colorectal cancer, hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) grafted with epidermal growth factor (EGF) were used as nanocarriers to deliver 5-FU to colorectal cancer cells with acquired drug resistance. The effect and mechanism of 5-FU loaded EGF grafted HMSNs (EGF-HMSNs-5-FU) in overcoming acquired drug resistance in SW480/ADR cells were studied. The EGF-HMSNs were demonstrated to be specifically internalized in EGFR overexpressed SW480/ADR cells via a receptor-mediated endocytosis and can escape from endo-lysosomes. The EGF-HMSNs-5-FU exhibited much higher cytotoxicity on SW480/ADR cells than HMSNs-5-FU and free 5-FU while the plain HMSNs did not show significant cytotoxicity. The mechanism of EGF-HMSNs-5-FU in overcoming drug resistance in SW480/ADR cells could be attributed to the specific internalization of EGF-HMSNs-5-FU in EGFR overexpressed cells which can lead to high intracellular drug accumulation and cause cell death through S phase arrest.Acquired drug resistance (ADR) can be developed in colorectal cancer cells after 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment and diminish the effectiveness of chemotherapy. In this work, acquired 5-FU resistance in the colorectal cancer cell line SW480 was obtained with the up-regulation of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) gene expression which can convert 5-FU to its inactive metabolite. To overcome ADR in colorectal cancer, hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) grafted with epidermal growth factor (EGF) were used as nanocarriers to deliver 5-FU to colorectal cancer cells with acquired drug resistance. The

  9. Ezrin/NF-kB activation regulates epithelial- mesenchymal transition induced by EGF and promotes metastasis of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingru; Lin, Zhaoyu; Chen, Bin; Chen, Shuang; Jiang, Zhipeng; Zhou, Taicheng; Hou, Zehui; Wang, Youyuan

    2017-08-01

    There is growing evidence that epithelial mesenchymal-transition (EMT) plays significant roles in terms of tumor metastasis. There are a lot of cytokines inducing EMT of tumor cells, EGF is one of the important cytokines.Ezrin is a connexin between the cytoskeleton and the cell membrane, which is closely related to the morphological movement and metastasis of tumor cells.EGF can activate Ezrin and affects cell motility. In recent years, many studies have shown that NF-kB acts as an important transcription factor, involving in the process of EMT. However, does Ezrin participate in the regulation of EGF-induced EMT through the NF-kB pathway? This question needs us to discuss.In the present study, we found that EGF could induce colorectal cancer cells to develop EMT,enhance their ability to invade and migrate and promotes phosphorylation of Ezrin Tyr353.On the other hand, inhibition of Ezrin could reverse EGF-induced EMT and inhibit NF-kB P65 translocating into the nucleus. Finally, knockout of Ezrin inhibited EGF-induced lung metastasis of colorectal cancer xenografts and abnormal activation of Ezrin and NF-kB were related with colorectal cancer metastasis and poor prognosis. Our present results suggest that Ezrin/NF-kB pathway may provide experimental evidence for new targeted drugs for colorectal cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Conferring specificity in redox pathways by enzymatic thiol/disulfide exchange reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Luis Eduardo S; de Oliveira, Marcos Antonio; Tairum, Carlos A; da Silva Neto, José Freire

    2016-01-01

    Thiol-disulfide exchange reactions are highly reversible, displaying nucleophilic substitutions mechanism (S(N)2 type). For aliphatic, low molecular thiols, these reactions are slow, but can attain million times faster rates in enzymatic processes. Thioredoxin (Trx) proteins were the first enzymes described to accelerate thiol-disulfide exchange reactions and their high reactivity is related to the high nucleophilicity of the attacking thiol. Substrate specificity in Trx is achieved by several factors, including polar, hydrophobic, and topological interactions through a groove in the active site. Glutaredoxin (Grx) enzymes also contain the Trx fold, but they do not share amino acid sequence similarity with Trx. A conserved glutathione binding site is a typical feature of Grx that can reduce substrates by two mechanisms (mono and dithiol). The high reactivity of Grx enzymes is related to the very acid pK(a) values of reactive Cys that plays roles as good leaving groups. Therefore, although distinct oxidoreductases catalyze similar thiol–disulfide exchange reactions, their enzymatic mechanisms vary. PDI and DsbA are two other oxidoreductases, but they are involved in disulfide bond formation, instead of disulfide reduction, which is related to the oxidative environment where they are found. PDI enzymes and DsbC are endowed with disulfide isomerase activity, which is related with their tetra-domain architecture. As illustrative description of specificity in thiol-disulfide exchange, redox aspects of transcription activation in bacteria, yeast, and mammals are presented in an evolutionary perspective. Therefore, thiol-disulfide exchange reactions play important roles in conferring specificity to pathways, a required feature for signaling.

  11. Regulation of EGF receptor signaling by the MARVEL domain-containing protein CKLFSF8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Caining; Ding, Peiguo; Wang, Ying; Ma, Dalong

    2005-11-21

    It is known that chemokine-like factor superfamily 8 (CKLFSF8), a member of the CKLF superfamily, has four putative transmembrane regions and a MARVEL domain. Its structure is similar to TM4SF11 (plasmolipin) and widely distributed in normal tissue. However, its function is not yet known. We show here that CKLFSF8 is associated with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and that ectopic expression of CKLFSF8 in several cell lines suppresses EGF-induced cell proliferation, whereas knockdown of CKLFSF8 by siRNA promotes cell proliferation. In cells overexpressing CKLFSF8, the initial activation of EGFR was not affected, but subsequent desensitization of EGF-induced signaling occurred rapidly. This attenuation was correlated with an increased rate of receptor endocytosis. In contrast, knockdown of CKLFSF8 by siCKLFSF8 delayed EGFR endocytosis. These results identify CKLFSF8 as a novel regulator of EGF-induced signaling and indicate that the association of EGFR with four transmembrane proteins is critical for EGFR desensitization.

  12. Synthesis and antimalarial activity of new chloroquine analogues carrying a multifunctional linear side chain

    OpenAIRE

    Iwaniuk, Daniel P.; Whetmore, Eric D.; Rosa, Nicholas; Ekoue-Kovi, Kekeli; Alumasa, John; de Dios, Angel C.; Roepe, Paul D.; Wolf, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We report the synthesis and in vitro antimalarial activity of several new 4-amino-and 4-alkoxy-7-chloroquinolines carrying a linear dibasic side chain. Many of these chloroquine analogues have submicromolar antimalarial activity versus HB3 (chloroquine sensitive) and Dd2 (chloroquine resistant strain of P. falciparum) and low resistance indices were obtained in most cases. Importantly, compounds 11–15 and 24 proved to be more potent against Dd2 than chloroquine. Branching of the side chain st...

  13. Hydroxyurea decreases hospitalizations in pediatric patients with Hb SC and Hb SB+ thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebensburger JD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey D Lebensburger, Rakeshkumar J Patel, Prasannalaxmi Palabindela, Christina J Bemrich-Stolz, Thomas H Howard, Lee M HilliardDivision of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAPurpose: Patients with hemoglobin SC (Hb SC and hemoglobin SB+ (Hb SB+ thalassemia suffer from frequent hospitalizations yet strong evidence of a clinical benefit of hydroxyurea (HU in this population is lacking. Patients with recurrent hospitalizations for pain crisis are offered HU at our institution based on small cohort data and anecdotal benefit. This study identifies outcomes from a large cohort of patients with Hb SC and SB+ thalassemia who were treated with HU for 2 years.Materials and methods: A retrospective review was conducted of 32 patients with Hb SC and SB+ thalassemia who were treated with HU. We reviewed the number, and reasons for hospitalization in the 2 years prior to, and 2 years post-HU treatment as well as laboratory changes from baseline, over 1 year.Results: Patients with Hb SC and SB+ thalassemia started on HU for frequent pain, had a significant reduction in hospitalizations over 2 years as compared to the 2 years prior to HU initiation (mean total hospitalizations/year: pre-HU: 1.6 vs post-HU 0.4 hospitalizations, P<0.001; mean pain hospitalizations/year: pre-HU 1.5 vs post-HU 0.3 hospitalizations, P<0.001. Patients demonstrated hematologic changes including an increase in percent fetal hemoglobin (%HbF pre–post HU (4.5% to 7.7%, P=0.002, mean corpuscular volume (74 to 86 fL, P<0,0001, and decrease in absolute neutrophil count (5.0 to 3.2×109/L, P=0.007. Patients with higher doses of HU demonstrated the greatest reduction in hospitalizations but this was unrelated to absolute neutrophil count.Conclusion: This cohort of patients with Hb SC and SB+ thalassemia provides additional support for using HU in patients with recurrent hospitalizations for pain. A large randomized multicenter trial of

  14. Effects of metformin on body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,receiving insulin analogue treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T I Romantsova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To study the dynamics of body weight, waist circumference, blood lipid and insulin demand in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM during first year of combined treatment with metformin and insulin analogues, compared with insulin analogue monotherapy.Materials and Methods. We examined 78 patients with T2DM on newly initiated insulin therapy, including 54 females and 24 males. Median age was 56 [51.0; 64.0] years, median disease duration – 9 [6.8;14.0] years. Participants were subdivided in two groups. First group was comprised of 48 subjects (33 females and 15 males, who received monotherapy with insulin analogues (glargine, de- temir, biphasic Aspart 30 and Humalog Mix 25 or rapid-acting lispro and aspart. Second group included 30 patients (18 females and12 males, who were treated with combined therapy (insulin analogues plus metformin. We measured HbA1c, plasma lipid composition, BMI, waist circumference and insulin demand initially and after one year of follow-up.Results. We showed that combined therapy vs. insulin monotherapy allows better glycemic compensation while reducing insulin demand and lowering risks for weight gain.Conclusions. Combined insulin analogue plus metformin treatment delivers better metabolic control in patients with T2DM and is as- sociated with lower risks for body weight gain and increase in insulin demand against monotherapy with insulin analogues.

  15. Effects of metformin on body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,receiving insulin analogue treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ivanovna Romantsova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To study the dynamics of body weight, waist circumference, blood lipid and insulin demand in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM during first year of combined treatment with metformin and insulin analogues, compared with insulin analogue monotherapy. Materials and Methods. We examined 78 patients with T2DM on newly initiated insulin therapy, including 54 females and 24 males. Median age was 56 [51.0; 64.0] years, median disease duration ? 9 [6.8;14.0] years. Participants were subdivided in two groups. First group was comprised of 48 subjects (33 females and 15 males, who received monotherapy with insulin analogues (glargine, de- temir, biphasic Aspart 30 and Humalog Mix 25 or rapid-acting lispro and aspart. Second group included 30 patients (18 females and12 males, who were treated with combined therapy (insulin analogues plus metformin. We measured HbA1c, plasma lipid composition, BMI, waist circumference and insulin demand initially and after one year of follow-up. Results. We showed that combined therapy vs. insulin monotherapy allows better glycemic compensation while reducing insulin demand and lowering risks for weight gain. Conclusions. Combined insulin analogue plus metformin treatment delivers better metabolic control in patients with T2DM and is as- sociated with lower risks for body weight gain and increase in insulin demand against monotherapy with insulin analogues.

  16. UV Photofragmentation Dynamics of Protonated Cystine: Disulfide Bond Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soorkia, Satchin; Dehon, Christophe; Kumar, S Sunil; Pedrazzani, Mélanie; Frantzen, Emilie; Lucas, Bruno; Barat, Michel; Fayeton, Jacqueline A; Jouvet, Christophe

    2014-04-03

    Disulfide bonds (S-S) play a central role in stabilizing the native structure of proteins against denaturation. Experimentally, identification of these linkages in peptide and protein structure characterization remains challenging. UV photodissociation (UVPD) can be a valuable tool in identifying disulfide linkages. Here, the S-S bond acts as a UV chromophore and absorption of one UV photon corresponds to a σ-σ* transition. We have investigated the photodissociation dynamics of protonated cystine, which is a dimer of two cysteines linked by a disulfide bridge, at 263 nm (4.7 eV) using a multicoincidence technique in which fragments coming from the same fragmentation event are detected. Two types of bond cleavages are observed corresponding to the disulfide (S-S) and adjacent C-S bond ruptures. We show that the S-S cleavage leads to three different fragment ions via three different fragmentation mechanisms. The UVPD results are compared to collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron-induced dissociation (EID) studies.

  17. The human protein disulfide isomerase gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galligan James J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enzyme-mediated disulfide bond formation is a highly conserved process affecting over one-third of all eukaryotic proteins. The enzymes primarily responsible for facilitating thiol-disulfide exchange are members of an expanding family of proteins known as protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs. These proteins are part of a larger superfamily of proteins known as the thioredoxin protein family (TRX. As members of the PDI family of proteins, all proteins contain a TRX-like structural domain and are predominantly expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum. Subcellular localization and the presence of a TRX domain, however, comprise the short list of distinguishing features required for gene family classification. To date, the PDI gene family contains 21 members, varying in domain composition, molecular weight, tissue expression, and cellular processing. Given their vital role in protein-folding, loss of PDI activity has been associated with the pathogenesis of numerous disease states, most commonly related to the unfolded protein response (UPR. Over the past decade, UPR has become a very attractive therapeutic target for multiple pathologies including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease, and type-2 diabetes. Understanding the mechanisms of protein-folding, specifically thiol-disulfide exchange, may lead to development of a novel class of therapeutics that would help alleviate a wide range of diseases by targeting the UPR.

  18. Modification of molybdenum disulfide in methanol solvent for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyitanga, Theophile; Jeong, Hae Kyung

    2018-05-01

    Molybdenum disulfide is a promising catalyst to replace the expensive platinum as an electrocatalyst but needs to be modified to present excellent electrocatalytic properties. Herein, we successfully modify molybdenum disulfide in methanol solvent for hydrogen evolution reaction by using a simple hydrothermal method. Overpotential reduced to -0.6 V from -1.5 V, and energy band gap decreased from 1.73 eV to 1.58 eV after the modification. The modified molybdenum disulfide also demonstrated lower resistance (42 Ω) at high frequency (1000 kHz) compared with that (240 Ω) of the precursor, showing that conductivity of the modified molybdenum disulfide has improved.

  19. Identification of Thioredoxin Target Disulfides Using Isotope-Coded Affinity Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Maeda, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Thioredoxins (Trx) are small redox proteins that reduce disulfide bonds in various target proteins and maintain cellular thiol redox control. Here, a thiol-specific labeling and affinity enrichment approach for identification and relative quantification of Trx target disulfides in complex protein...... reduction is determined by LC-MS/MS-based quantification of tryptic peptides labeled with "light" (12C) and "heavy" (13C) ICAT reagents. The methodology can be adapted to monitor the effect of different reductants or oxidants on the redox status of thiol/disulfide proteomes in biological systems....... extracts is described. The procedure utilizes the isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) reagents containing a thiol reactive iodoacetamide group and a biotin affinity tag to target peptides containing reduced cysteine residues. The identification of substrates for Trx and the extent of target disulfide...

  20. SNT-2 interacts with ERK2 and negatively regulates ERK2 signaling in response to EGF stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Lin; Gotoh, Noriko; Zhang Shengliang; Shibuya, Masabumi; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Tsuchida, Nobuo

    2004-01-01

    The control of cellular responses with fibroblast growth factors and neurotrophins is mediated through membrane-linked docking proteins, SNT (suc1-binding neurotrophic target)-1/FRS2α and SNT-2/FRS2β. ERK1/2 are members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family that regulate diverse cellular activities in response to various stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that SNT-2 does not become tyrosine phosphorylated significantly in response to EGF but forms a complex with ERK2 via the region of 186-252 amino acid residues, and the complex formation is enhanced upon EGF stimulation. SNT-2 downregulates ERK2 phosphorylation, suppresses and delays ERK2 nuclear accumulation which occurs following EGF stimulation. In contrast, the mutant SNT-2 which carries deletion of 186-252 amino acids and lacks ERK2 binding does not have these effects. These observations suggest that SNT-2 negatively regulates ERK2 signaling activated via EGF stimulation through direct binding to ERK2

  1. Optimal doses of EGF and GDNF act as biological response modifiers to improve porcine oocyte maturation and quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valleh, Mehdi Vafaye; Zandi, Nahid Karimi; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech

    2017-01-01

    It is well documented that both epidermal growth factor (EGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) are critical for porcine oocyte maturation, however, little information is known about their mechanism of action in vitro. To gain insight into the mechanisms of action of the opti......It is well documented that both epidermal growth factor (EGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) are critical for porcine oocyte maturation, however, little information is known about their mechanism of action in vitro. To gain insight into the mechanisms of action...... of the optimum doses of EGF and GDNF on porcine oocyte maturation, porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in defined porcine oocyte medium supplemented with EGF, GDNF or a combination of both at varying concentrations (0-100 ng/ml) for 44 h. Nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation were determined...

  2. Mobility of tethering factor EEA1 on endosomes is decreased upon stimulation of EGF receptor endocytosis in HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosheverova, Vera V., E-mail: kosheverova_vera@incras.ru [Institute of Cytology of RAS, 4, Tikhoretsky Ave, St. Petersburg, 194064 (Russian Federation); Kamentseva, Rimma S., E-mail: rkamentseva@yandex.ru [Institute of Cytology of RAS, 4, Tikhoretsky Ave, St. Petersburg, 194064 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg State University, 7-9, Universitetskaya nab, St. Petersburg, 199034 (Russian Federation); Gonchar, Ilya V., E-mail: ample@mail.ru [Institute of Cytology of RAS, 4, Tikhoretsky Ave, St. Petersburg, 194064 (Russian Federation); Kharchenko, Marianna V., E-mail: mariannakharchenko@gmail.com [Institute of Cytology of RAS, 4, Tikhoretsky Ave, St. Petersburg, 194064 (Russian Federation); Kornilova, Elena S., E-mail: lenkor@mail.cytspb.rssi.ru [Institute of Cytology of RAS, 4, Tikhoretsky Ave, St. Petersburg, 194064 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg State University, 7-9, Universitetskaya nab, St. Petersburg, 199034 (Russian Federation); Department of Medical Physics, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, 29, Polytechnicheskaya, St.Petersburg, 195251 (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-22

    Tethering factor EEA1, mediating homotypic fusion of early endosomes, was shown to be localized in membrane-bound state both in serum-deprived and stimulated for EGF receptor endocytosis cells. However, it is not known whether dynamics behavior of EEA1 is affected by EGF stimulation. We investigated EEA1 cytosol-to-membrane exchange rate in interphase HeLa cells by FRAP analysis. The data obtained fitted two-states binding model, with the bulk of membrane-associated EEA1 protein represented by the mobile fraction both in serum-starved and EGF-stimulated cells. Fast recovery state had similar half-times in the two cases: about 1.6 s and 2.8 s, respectively. However, the recovery half-time of slowly cycled EEA1 fraction significantly increased in EGF-stimulated comparing to serum-starved cells (from 21 to 99 s). We suppose that the retardation of EEA1 fluorescence recovery upon EGF-stimulation may be due to the increase of activated Rab5 on endosomal membranes, the growth of the number of tethering events between EEA1-positive vesicles and their clustering. - Highlights: • EEA1 mobility was compared in serum-starved and EGF-stimulated interphase HeLa cells. • FRAP analysis revealed fast and slow components of EEA1 recovery in both cases. • Stimulation of EGFR endocytosis did not affect fast EEA1 turnover. • EGF stimulation significantly increased half-time of slowly exchanged EEA1 fraction.

  3. Mobility of tethering factor EEA1 on endosomes is decreased upon stimulation of EGF receptor endocytosis in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosheverova, Vera V.; Kamentseva, Rimma S.; Gonchar, Ilya V.; Kharchenko, Marianna V.; Kornilova, Elena S.

    2016-01-01

    Tethering factor EEA1, mediating homotypic fusion of early endosomes, was shown to be localized in membrane-bound state both in serum-deprived and stimulated for EGF receptor endocytosis cells. However, it is not known whether dynamics behavior of EEA1 is affected by EGF stimulation. We investigated EEA1 cytosol-to-membrane exchange rate in interphase HeLa cells by FRAP analysis. The data obtained fitted two-states binding model, with the bulk of membrane-associated EEA1 protein represented by the mobile fraction both in serum-starved and EGF-stimulated cells. Fast recovery state had similar half-times in the two cases: about 1.6 s and 2.8 s, respectively. However, the recovery half-time of slowly cycled EEA1 fraction significantly increased in EGF-stimulated comparing to serum-starved cells (from 21 to 99 s). We suppose that the retardation of EEA1 fluorescence recovery upon EGF-stimulation may be due to the increase of activated Rab5 on endosomal membranes, the growth of the number of tethering events between EEA1-positive vesicles and their clustering. - Highlights: • EEA1 mobility was compared in serum-starved and EGF-stimulated interphase HeLa cells. • FRAP analysis revealed fast and slow components of EEA1 recovery in both cases. • Stimulation of EGFR endocytosis did not affect fast EEA1 turnover. • EGF stimulation significantly increased half-time of slowly exchanged EEA1 fraction.

  4. Thermodynamic and mechanical effects of disulfide bonds in CXCLl7 chemokine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Christopher

    Chemokines are a family of signaling proteins mainly responsible for the chemotaxis of leukocytes, where their biological activity is modulated by their oligomerization state. Here, the dynamics and thermodynamic stability are characterized in monomer and homodimer structures of CXCL7, one of the most abundant platelet chemokines. The effects of dimerization and disulfide bond formation are investigated using computational methods that include molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and the Distance Constraint Model (DCM). A consistent picture emerges for the effect of dimerization and role of the Cys5-Cys31 and Cys7- Cys47 disulfide bonds. Surprisingly, neither disulfide bond is critical for maintaining structural stability in the monomer or dimer, although the monomer is destabilized more than the dimer upon removal of disulfide bonds. Instead, it is found that disulfide bonds influence the native state dynamics as well as modulates the relative stability between monomer and dimer. The combined analysis elucidates how CXCL7 is mechanically stable as a monomer, and how upon dimerization flexibly correlated motions are induced between the 30s and 50s loop within each monomer and across the dimer interface. Interestingly, the greatest gain in flexibility upon dimerization occurs when both disulfide bonds are present in each domain, and the homodimer is least stable relative to its two monomers. These results suggest the highly conserved disulfide bonds in chemokines facilitate a structural mechanism for distinguishing functional characteristics between monomer and dimer.

  5. Effect of water deprivation, desmopressin (DDAVP) infusion, and oral loads of water, Na+ and NH4+ on urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P E; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1993-01-01

    for urinary EGF we examined the effects of changes in the oral loads of water, Na+ and NH4+ as well as the effect of infusion of the vasopressin analogue, desmopressin (DDAVP) on the endogenous urinary EGF excretion in the rat. Water deprivation for 48 h reduced the urinary excretion of EGF by 25...

  6. Therapeutically interchangeable? A study of real-world outcomes associated with switching basal insulin analogues among US patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using electronic medical records data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, P; Wei, W; Miao, R; Ye, F; Xie, L; Baser, O; Gill, J

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate real-world clinical outcomes for switching basal insulin analogues [insulin glargine (GLA) and insulin detemir (DET)] among US patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Using the GE Centricity Electronic Medical Records database, this retrospective study examined two cohorts: cohort 1, comprising patients previously on GLA and then either switching to DET (DET-S) or continuing with GLA (GLA-C); and cohort 2, comprising patients previously on DET and then either switching to GLA (GLA-S) or continuing with DET (DET-C). Within each cohort, treatment groups were propensity-score-matched on baseline characteristics. At 1-year follow-up, insulin treatment patterns, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, hypoglycaemic events, weight and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. The analysis included 13 942 patients: cohort 1: n = 10 657 (DET-S, n = 1797 matched to GLA-C, n = 8860) and cohort 2: n = 3285 (GLA-S, n = 858 matched to DET-C, n = 2427). Baseline characteristics were similar between the treatment groups in each cohort. At 1-year follow-up, in cohort 1, patients in the DET-S subgroup were significantly less persistent with treatment, more likely to use a rapid-acting insulin analogue, had higher HbA1c values, lower HbA1c reductions and lower proportions of patients achieving HbA1c Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Protein disulfide bond generation in Escherichia coli DsbB–DsbA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    The crystal structure of the DsbB–DsbA–ubiquinone ternary complex has revealed a mechanism of protein disulfide bond generation in Escherichia coli. Protein disulfide bond formation is catalyzed by a series of Dsb enzymes present in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. The crystal structure of the DsbB–DsbA–ubiquinone ternary complex provided important insights into mechanisms of the de novo disulfide bond generation cooperated by DsbB and ubiquinone and of the disulfide bond shuttle from DsbB to DsbA. The structural basis for prevention of the crosstalk between the DsbA–DsbB oxidative and the DsbC–DsbD reductive pathways has also been proposed

  8. Effect of MUC1 Expression on EGFR Endocytosis and Degradation in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    AR), heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF), betacellulin (BTC), epiregulin ( EPR ), and epigen [reviewed in (Schroeder & Lee, 1997) and (Strachan et al., 2001...of erbB1, it also promotes its internalization. This apparent paradox may be explained by one of two non-exclusive hypotheses. The first is that

  9. First Report of a Chinese Family Carrying a Double Heterozygosity for Hb Q-Thailand and Hb J-Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Yan, Jin-Mei; Lu, Yue-Cheng; Li, Dong-Zhi

    2016-11-01

    The double heterozygosity for α and β chain variants leads to the formation of abnormal heterodimer hybrids, which could render laboratory diagnostics in a routine setting difficult. The following is the first report of a double heterozygosity for Hb Q-Thailand [α74(EF3)Asp→His; HBA1: c.223G>C] with α + -thalassemia (α + -thal) and Hb J-Bangkok [β56(D7)Gly→Asp; HBB: c.170G>A] found in a Chinese family. Both subjects were healthy with normal or borderline hematological parameters. Hemoglobin (Hb) analyses showed a novel variant, Hb Q-Thailand and Hb J-Bangkok. Family studies helped in the initial recognition and in making presumptive diagnoses, but definitive diagnoses of these cases with complex α and β chain variants could only be obtained after DNA analysis.

  10. Influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hydrocortisone on the co-culture of mature adipocytes and endothelial cells for vascularized adipose tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Birgit; Czaja, Alina Maria; Kluger, Petra Juliane

    2016-05-01

    The composition of vascularized adipose tissue is still an ongoing challenge as no culture medium is available to supply adipocytes and endothelial cells appropriately. Endothelial cell medium is typically supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF) as well as hydrocortisone (HC). The effect of EGF on adipocytes is discussed controversially. Some studies say it inhibits adipocyte differentiation while others reported of improved adipocyte lipogenesis. HC is known to have lipolytic activities, which might result in mature adipocyte dedifferentiation. In this study, we evaluated the influence of EGF and HC on the co-culture of endothelial cells and mature adipocytes regarding their cell morphology and functionality. We showed in mono-culture that high levels of HC promoted dedifferentiation and proliferation of mature adipocytes, whereas EGF seemed to have no negative influence. Endothelial cells kept their typical cobblestone morphology and showed a proliferation rate comparable to the control independent of EGF and HC concentration. In co-culture, HC promoted dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, which was shown by a higher glycerol release. EGF had no negative impact on adipocyte morphology. No negative impact on endothelial cell morphology and functionality could be seen with reduced EGF and HC supplementation in co-culture with mature adipocytes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that reduced levels of HC are needed for co-culturing mature adipocytes and endothelial cells. In co-culture, EGF had no influence on mature adipocytes. Therefore, for the composition of vascularized adipose tissue constructs, the media with low levels of HC and high or low levels of EGF can be used. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  11. Preventing disulfide bond formation weakens non-covalent forces among lysozyme aggregates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Ravi

    Full Text Available Nonnative disulfide bonds have been observed among protein aggregates in several diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cataract and so on. The molecular mechanism by which formation of such bonds promotes protein aggregation is poorly understood. Here in this work we employ previously well characterized aggregation of hen eggwhite lysozyme (HEWL at alkaline pH to dissect the molecular role of nonnative disulfide bonds on growth of HEWL aggregates. We employed time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy, atomic force microscopy and single-molecule force spectroscopy to quantify the size, morphology and non-covalent interaction forces among the aggregates, respectively. These measurements were performed under conditions when disulfide bond formation was allowed (control and alternatively when it was prevented by alkylation of free thiols using iodoacetamide. Blocking disulfide bond formation affected growth but not growth kinetics of aggregates which were ∼50% reduced in volume, flatter in vertical dimension and non-fibrillar in comparison to control. Interestingly, single-molecule force spectroscopy data revealed that preventing disulfide bond formation weakened the non-covalent interaction forces among monomers in the aggregate by at least ten fold, thereby stalling their growth and yielding smaller aggregates in comparison to control. We conclude that while constrained protein chain dynamics in correctly disulfide bonded amyloidogenic proteins may protect them from venturing into partial folded conformations that can trigger entry into aggregation pathways, aberrant disulfide bonds in non-amyloidogenic proteins (like HEWL on the other hand, may strengthen non-covalent intermolecular forces among monomers and promote their aggregation.

  12. The effect of tensile stress on the conformational free energy landscape of disulfide bonds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmesh Anjukandi

    Full Text Available Disulfide bridges are no longer considered to merely stabilize protein structure, but are increasingly recognized to play a functional role in many regulatory biomolecular processes. Recent studies have uncovered that the redox activity of native disulfides depends on their C-C-S-S dihedrals, χ2 and χ'2. Moreover, the interplay of chemical reactivity and mechanical stress of disulfide switches has been recently elucidated using force-clamp spectroscopy and computer simulation. The χ2 and χ'2 angles have been found to change from conformations that are open to nucleophilic attack to sterically hindered, so-called closed states upon exerting tensile stress. In view of the growing evidence of the importance of C-C-S-S dihedrals in tuning the reactivity of disulfides, here we present a systematic study of the conformational diversity of disulfides as a function of tensile stress. With the help of force-clamp metadynamics simulations, we show that tensile stress brings about a large stabilization of the closed conformers, thereby giving rise to drastic changes in the conformational free energy landscape of disulfides. Statistical analysis shows that native TDi, DO and interchain Ig protein disulfides prefer open conformations, whereas the intrachain disulfide bridges in Ig proteins favor closed conformations. Correlating mechanical stress with the distance between the two a-carbons of the disulfide moiety reveals that the strain of intrachain Ig protein disulfides corresponds to a mechanical activation of about 100 pN. Such mechanical activation leads to a severalfold increase of the rate of the elementary redox S(N2 reaction step. All these findings constitute a step forward towards achieving a full understanding of functional disulfides.

  13. Stress analysis of the HFIR HB-2 and HB-3 beam tube nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.T.

    1998-08-01

    The results of three-dimensional linear elastic stress analyses of the HFIR HB-2 and HB-3 nozzles are presented in this report. Finite element models were developed using the PATRAN pre-processing code and translated into ABAQUS input file format. A scoping analysis using simple geometries with internal pressure loading was carried out to assess the capabilities of the ABAQUS/Standard code to calculate maximum principal stress distributions within cylinders with and without holes. These scoping calculations were also used to provide estimates for the variation in tangential stress around the rim of a nozzle using the superposition of published closed-form solutions for the stress around a hole in an infinite flat plate under uniaxial tension. From the results of the detailed finite element models, peak stress concentration factors (based on the maximum principal stresses in tension) were calculated to be 3.0 for the HB-2 nozzle and 2.8 for the HB-3 nozzle. Submodels for each nozzle were built to calculate the maximum principal stress distribution in the weldment region around the nozzle, where displacement boundary conditions for the submodels were automatically calculated by ABAQUS using the results of the global nozzle models. Maximum principal stresses are plotted and tabulated for eight positions around each nozzle and nozzle weldment

  14. Coinheritance of High Oxygen Affinity Hb Helsinki [HBB: c.248A>T; β82(EF6)Lys→Met] with Hb H Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shir-Ying; Goh, Jia-Hui; Tan, Karen M L; Liu, Te-Chih

    2017-05-01

    Hb Helsinki [HBB: c.248A>T; β82(EF6)Lys→Met] is a high oxygen affinity hemoglobin (Hb) causing polycythemia, whereas Hb H (β4) disease causes mild to severe chronic hemolytic anemia. The clinical characteristics, gel electrophoresis, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and molecular genotyping of a case of Hb Helsinki coinherited with Hb H disease in an ethnic Malay is described, illustrating the interaction between the β-globin variant and coinheritance of three α gene deletions. The proband was asymptomatic, exhibited microcytosis and a normal with Hb value.

  15. Determination of disulfide bridges of two spider toxins: hainantoxin-III and hainantoxin-IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Peptide toxins are usually highly bridged proteins with multipairs of intrachain disulfide bonds. Analysis of disulfide connectivity is an important facet of protein structure determination. In this paper, we successfully assigned the disulfide linkage of two novel peptide toxins, called HNTX-III and HNTX-IV, isolated from the venom of Ornithoctonus hainana spider. Both peptides are useful inhibitors of TTX-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channels and are composed of six cysteine residues that form three disulfide bonds, respectively. Firstly, the peptides were partially reduced by tris(2-carboxyethyl-phosphine (TCEP in 0.1 M citrate buffer containing 6 M guanidine-HCl at 40° C for ten minutes. Subsequently, the partially reduced intermediates containing free thiols were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and alkylated by rapid carboxamidomethylation. Then, the disulfide bonds of the intermediates were analyzed by Edman degradation. By using the strategy above, disulfide linkages of HNTX-III and HNTX-IV were determined as I-IV, II-V and III-VI pattern. In addition, this study also showed that this method may have a great potential for determining the disulfide bonds of spider peptide toxins.

  16. Synthesis and antimalarial activity of new chloroquine analogues carrying a multifunctional linear side chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniuk, Daniel P; Whetmore, Eric D; Rosa, Nicholas; Ekoue-Kovi, Kekeli; Alumasa, John; de Dios, Angel C; Roepe, Paul D; Wolf, Christian

    2009-09-15

    We report the synthesis and in vitro antimalarial activity of several new 4-amino- and 4-alkoxy-7-chloroquinolines carrying a linear dibasic side chain. Many of these chloroquine analogues have submicromolar antimalarial activity versus HB3 (chloroquine sensitive) and Dd2 (chloroquine resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum) and low resistance indices were obtained in most cases. Importantly, compounds 11-15 and 24 proved to be more potent against Dd2 than chloroquine. Branching of the side chain structure proved detrimental to the activity against the CQR strain.

  17. Systematic Review of the Cost Effectiveness of Insulin Analogues in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Ng, Chin Hui; Tan, Yui Ping; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2017-02-01

    Insulin analogues have a pharmacokinetic advantage over human insulin and are increasingly used to treat diabetes mellitus. A summary of their cost effectiveness versus other available treatments was required. Our objective was to systematically review the published cost-effectiveness studies of insulin analogues for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We searched major databases and health technology assessment agency reports for economic evaluation studies published up until 30 September 2015. Two reviewers performed data extraction and assessed the quality of the data using the CHEERS (Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards) guidelines. Seven of the included studies assessed short-acting insulin analogues, 12 assessed biphasic insulin analogues, 30 assessed long-acting insulin analogues and one assessed a combination of short- and long-acting insulin analogues. Only 17 studies involved patients with T1DM, all were modelling studies and 12 were conducted in Canada. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for short-acting insulin analogues ranged from dominant to $US435,913 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, the ICERs for biphasic insulin analogues ranged from dominant to $US57,636 per QALY gained and the ICERs for long-acting insulin analogues ranged from dominant to $US599,863 per QALY gained. A total of 15 studies met all the CHEERS guidelines reporting quality criteria. Only 26 % of the studies assessed heterogeneity in their analyses. Current evidence indicates that insulin analogues are cost effective for T1DM; however, evidence for their use in T2DM is not convincing. Additional evidence regarding compliance and efficacy is required to support the broader use of long-acting and biphasic insulin analogues in T2DM. The value of insulin analogues depends strongly on reductions in hypoglycaemia event rates and its efficacy in lowering glycated haemoglobin

  18. In-Depth Characterization of Protein Disulfide Bonds by Online Liquid Chromatography-Electrochemistry-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzar, Linda; Nicolardi, Simone; Rutten, Julie W.; Oberstein, Saskia A. J. Lesnik; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; van der Burgt, Yuri E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Disulfide bonds are an important class of protein post-translational modifications, yet this structurally crucial modification type is commonly overlooked in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics approaches. Recently, the benefits of online electrochemistry-assisted reduction of protein S-S bonds prior to MS analysis were exemplified by successful characterization of disulfide bonds in peptides and small proteins. In the current study, we have combined liquid chromatography (LC) with electrochemistry (EC) and mass analysis by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS in an online LC-EC-MS platform to characterize protein disulfide bonds in a bottom-up proteomics workflow. A key advantage of a LC-based strategy is the use of the retention time in identifying both intra- and interpeptide disulfide bonds. This is demonstrated by performing two sequential analyses of a certain protein digest, once without and once with electrochemical reduction. In this way, the "parent" disulfide-linked peptide detected in the first run has a retention time-based correlation with the EC-reduced peptides detected in the second run, thus simplifying disulfide bond mapping. Using this platform, both inter- and intra-disulfide-linked peptides were characterized in two different proteins, ß-lactoglobulin and ribonuclease B. In order to prevent disulfide reshuffling during the digestion process, proteins were digested at a relatively low pH, using (a combination of) the high specificity proteases trypsin and Glu-C. With this approach, disulfide bonds in ß-lactoglobulin and ribonuclease B were comprehensively identified and localized, showing that online LC-EC-MS is a useful tool for the characterization of protein disulfide bonds.

  19. Analogue Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Barceló

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  20. Microfluidic generated EGF-gradients induce chemokinesis of transplantable retinal progenitor cells via the JAK/STAT and PI3kinase signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchenna J Unachukwu

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies are evaluating retinal progenitor cell (RPC transplantation as an approach to repair retinal degeneration and restore visual function. To advance cell-replacement strategies for a practical retinal therapy, it is important to define the molecular and biochemical mechanisms guiding RPC motility. We have analyzed RPC expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and evaluated whether exposure to epidermal growth factor (EGF can coordinate motogenic activity in vitro. Using Boyden chamber analysis as an initial high-throughput screen, we determined that RPC motility was optimally stimulated by EGF concentrations in the range of 20-400 ng/ml, with decreased stimulation at higher concentrations, suggesting concentration-dependence of EGF-induced motility. Using bioinformatics analysis of the EGF ligand in a retina-specific gene network pathway, we predicted a chemotactic function for EGF involving the MAPK and JAK-STAT intracellular signaling pathways. Based on targeted inhibition studies, we show that ligand binding, phosphorylation of EGFR and activation of the intracellular STAT3 and PI3kinase signaling pathways are necessary to drive RPC motility. Using engineered microfluidic devices to generate quantifiable steady-state gradients of EGF coupled with live-cell tracking, we analyzed the dynamics of individual RPC motility. Microfluidic analysis, including center of mass and maximum accumulated distance, revealed that EGF induced motility is chemokinetic with optimal activity observed in response to low concentration gradients. Our combined results show that EGFR expressing RPCs exhibit enhanced chemokinetic motility in the presence of low nanomole levels of EGF. These findings may serve to inform further studies evaluating the extent to which EGFR activity, in response to endogenous ligand, drives motility and migration of RPCs in retinal transplantation paradigms.

  1. Beyond HbA1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomgarden, Zachary

    2017-12-01

    It can scarcely be denied that the supreme goal of all theory is to make the irreducible basic elements as simple and as few as possible without having to surrender the adequate representation of a single datum of experience. The diaTribe Foundation convened a meeting on the topic of glycemic outcomes beyond HbA1c on 21 July 2017, in Bethesda (MD, USA), focusing on potential uses of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Understanding patterns of glycemia in people with diabetes has long been a focus of approaches to improving treatment, and over the past few years this has become an available modality for clinical practice. Glucose levels are not the only biologic parameters affecting HbA1c levels; HbA1c changes with anemia or, more subtly, with changes in rates of erythrocyte turnover not reflected in hemoglobin levels outside the normal range. Renal disease often is associated with lower HbA1c than would be predicted based on an individual's glycemic levels. Furthermore, HbA1c levels tend to increase with age and are higher in some ethnic groups; for example, people of African ethnicity have higher HbA1c levels than people of Northern European descent. Indeed, we have argued that even as a measure of mean glycemia HbA1c is inherently imprecise. Overall, for some 20% of people with diabetes, HbA1c levels are substantially higher, or substantially lower, than those that would be predicted from mean blood glucose levels. If one recognizes that HbA1c is, at best, a partial measure of mean glycemic exposure, one must surely accept that HbA1c does not reflect variability within a day, from day to day, and from period to period. Many glucose-lowering medicines, particularly the sulfonylureas and insulin, cause hypoglycemia, with consequent negative effects on quality of life and patient-reported outcomes, as well as association with weight gain and adverse macrovascular outcome; hypoglycemia will, of course, not be captured by HbA1c measurement. Based on these

  2. Quantitative analysis of HGF and EGF-dependent phosphotyrosine signaling networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammond, Dean E; Hyde, Russell; Kratchmarova, Irina

    2010-01-01

    549 lung adenocarcinoma cells with EGF or HGF. In total, we obtained quantitative information for 274 proteins, which respond to either or both stimuli by >1.5 fold changes in enrichment, following immuno-precipitation with antiphosphotyrosine antibodies. The data reveal a high degree of overlap...

  3. Hb Tianshui (HBB: C.119A > G) in Compound Heterozygosity with Hb S (HBB: C.20A > T) from Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, Satyabrata; Dehury, Snehadhini; Mohanty, Pradeep Kumar; Patel, Siris; Pattanayak, Chinmayee; Bhattacharya, Subhra; Das, Kishalaya; Sarkar, Biswanath

    2016-08-01

    We describe here a rare β-globin gene variant, Hb Tianshui [β39(C5)Glu→Arg; HBB: c.119A > G], detected during routine screening in Odisha, India. This is the second report of Hb Tianshui and the first to describe the cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and DNA studies of two cases of this variant. Both cases had coinherited Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T) but none presented with typical symptoms of sickle cell disease. One of the cases was heterozygous for a common α-thalassemia (α-thal) allele (-α(3.7)) (rightward) (NG_000006.1: g.34164_37967del3804) and marginally raised Hb F percentage, while the other Hb S/Hb Tianshui case was completely benign and healthy. An atypical Asian Indian haplotype [+ - + - +] could be assigned to the Hb Tianshui variant. Hb Tianshui seems to mimic a few other Hb variants in cation exchange HPLC. However, we report two specific patterns in the chromatograms that are characteristic to Hb Tianshui. Combining an alkaline electrophoresis result with cation exchange HPLC at screening would be preferred to detect this rare variant, especially in regions with considerable frequency of Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys; HBB: c.79G > A] or Hb S.

  4. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IGF-II, EGF and CYFRA21-1 levels after chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jianlin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-II, EGF and CYFRA21-1 levels after chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer. Methods: Serum IGF-II, EGF (with RIA), and CYFRA21-1 (with ECLIA) levels were determined both before and after chemotherapy in 39 patients with lung cancer as well as once in 35 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy, serum IGF-II, EGF and CYFRA21-1 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls(P<0.01). Six months after chemotherapy, serum IGF-II, EGF and CYFRA21-1 levels dropped markedly, but remained significantly higher than those in controls(P<0.05). Conclusion: The development of lung cancer in patients was closely related to the serum IGF-II, EGF and CYFRA21-1 levels. (authors)

  5. Non-Ligand-Induced Dimerization is Sufficient to Initiate the Signalling and Endocytosis of EGF Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kourouniotis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF to EGF receptor (EGFR stimulates cell mitogenesis and survival through various signalling cascades. EGF also stimulates rapid EGFR endocytosis and its eventual degradation in lysosomes. The immediate events induced by ligand binding include receptor dimerization, activation of intrinsic tyrosine kinase and autophosphorylation. However, in spite of intensified efforts, the results regarding the roles of these events in EGFR signalling and internalization is still very controversial. In this study, we constructed a chimeric EGFR by replacing its extracellular domain with leucine zipper (LZ and tagged a green fluorescent protein (GFP at its C-terminus. We showed that the chimeric LZ-EGFR-GFP was constitutively dimerized. The LZ-EGFR-GFP dimer autophosphorylated each of its five well-defined C-terminal tyrosine residues as the ligand-induced EGFR dimer does. Phosphorylated LZ-EGFR-GFP was localized to both the plasma membrane and endosomes, suggesting it is capable of endocytosis. We also showed that LZ-EGFR-GFP activated major signalling proteins including Src homology collagen-like (Shc, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and Akt. Moreover, LZ-EGFR-GFP was able to stimulate cell proliferation. These results indicate that non-ligand induced dimerization is sufficient to activate EGFR and initiate cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis. We conclude that receptor dimerization is a critical event in EGF-induced cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis.

  6. Large area synthesis, characterization, and anisotropic etching of two dimensional tungsten disulfide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutlu, Zafer; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

    2016-01-01

    Emergent properties of tungsten disulfide at the quantum confinement limit hold promise for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Here we report on the large area synthesis of atomically thin tungsten disulfide films with strong photoluminescence properties via sulfurization of the pre-deposited tungsten films. Detailed characterization of the pre-deposited tungsten films and tungsten disulfide films are performed using microscopy and spectroscopy methods. By directly heating tungsten disulfide films in air, we have shown that the films tend to be etched into a series of triangular shaped pits with the same orientations, revealing the anisotropic etching behavior of tungsten disulfide edges. Moreover, the dimensions of the triangular pits increase with the number of layers, suggesting a thickness dependent behavior of etching in tungsten disulfide films. This method offers a promising new avenue for engineering the edge structures of tungsten disulfide films. - Highlights: • Large-scale synthesis of WS_2 films is achieved via sulfurization of W films. • Annealing of W films leads to a substantial improvement in the quality of WS_2 films. • WS_2 films show laser power dependent photoluminescence characteristics. • WS_2 films are etched with well-oriented triangular pits upon annealing in air. • Anisotropic oxidative etching is greatly affected by the thickness of WS_2 films.

  7. Simultaneous dual syringe electrospinning system using benign solvent to fabricate nanofibrous P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct as potential leave-on wound dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigneswari, S.; Murugaiyah, V.; Kaur, G.; Abdul Khalil, H.P.S.; Amirul, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this study is the incorporation of collagen peptides to fabricate P(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] nano-fiber construct to further enhance surface wettability and support cell growth while harbouring desired properties for biodegradable wound dressing. Simultaneous electrospinning of nanofiber P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct was carried out using dual syringe system. The wettability of the constructs increased with the increase in 4HB molar fraction from 20 mol% 4HB [53.2°], P(3HB-co-35 mol%4HB)[48.9°], P(3HB-co-50 mol%4HB)[44.5°] and P(3HB-co-82 mol%4HB) [37.7°]. In vitro study carried out using mouse fibroblast cells (L929) grown on nanofiber P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct showed an increase in cell proliferation. In vivo study using animal model (Sprague Dawley rats) showed that nanofibrous P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct had a significant effect on wound contractions with the highest percentage of wound closure of 79%. Hence, P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct suitable for wound dressing have been developed using nano-fabrication technique. - Highlights: • Nano-fiber construct to enhance surface wettability and cell growth, harbouring desired properties as biodegradable wound dressing. • Simultaneous electrospinning of nanofiber P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen construct using dual syringe system. • Nanofibrous construct accelerated wound healing with efficient cellular organization.

  8. Simultaneous dual syringe electrospinning system using benign solvent to fabricate nanofibrous P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct as potential leave-on wound dressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigneswari, S. [Malaysian Institute of Pharmaceuticals and Nutraceuticals, NIBM, MOSTI, 11700 Penang (Malaysia); Institute of Marine Biotechnology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu (Malaysia); Murugaiyah, V. [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11700 Penang (Malaysia); Kaur, G. [Institute of Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11700 Penang (Malaysia); Abdul Khalil, H.P.S. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11700 Penang (Malaysia); Amirul, A.A., E-mail: amirul@usm.my [Malaysian Institute of Pharmaceuticals and Nutraceuticals, NIBM, MOSTI, 11700 Penang (Malaysia); School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Centre of Chemical Biology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11900 Penang (Malaysia)

    2016-09-01

    The main focus of this study is the incorporation of collagen peptides to fabricate P(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] nano-fiber construct to further enhance surface wettability and support cell growth while harbouring desired properties for biodegradable wound dressing. Simultaneous electrospinning of nanofiber P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct was carried out using dual syringe system. The wettability of the constructs increased with the increase in 4HB molar fraction from 20 mol% 4HB [53.2°], P(3HB-co-35 mol%4HB)[48.9°], P(3HB-co-50 mol%4HB)[44.5°] and P(3HB-co-82 mol%4HB) [37.7°]. In vitro study carried out using mouse fibroblast cells (L929) grown on nanofiber P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct showed an increase in cell proliferation. In vivo study using animal model (Sprague Dawley rats) showed that nanofibrous P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct had a significant effect on wound contractions with the highest percentage of wound closure of 79%. Hence, P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct suitable for wound dressing have been developed using nano-fabrication technique. - Highlights: • Nano-fiber construct to enhance surface wettability and cell growth, harbouring desired properties as biodegradable wound dressing. • Simultaneous electrospinning of nanofiber P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen construct using dual syringe system. • Nanofibrous construct accelerated wound healing with efficient cellular organization.

  9. Genetic variations in EGF and EGFR and glioblastoma outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöström, Sara; Andersson, Ulrika; Liu, Yanhong

    2010-01-01

    associated EGF polymorphisms in haplotype block 4 were validated in a set from MDACC; however, none of the associations were clearly replicated. rs379644 had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.19 (0.94-1.51) in the whole population with 18.6 months survival in the risk genotype compared with 24.5 in the reference...

  10. Measurements of red cell deformability and hydration reflect HbF and HbA2 in blood from patients with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrow, Nermi L; Tu, Hongbin; Nichols, James; Violet, Pierre-Christian; Pittman, Corinne A; Fitzhugh, Courtney; Fleming, Robert E; Mohandas, Narla; Tisdale, John F; Levine, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Decreased erythrocyte deformability, as measured by ektacytometry, may be associated with disease severity in sickle cell anemia (SCA). Heterogeneous populations of rigid and deformable cells in SCA blood result in distortions of diffraction pattern measurements that correlate with the concentration of hemoglobin S (HbS) and the percentage of irreversibly sickled cells. We hypothesize that red cell heterogeneity, as well as deformability, will also be influenced by the concentration of alternative hemoglobins such as fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and the adult variant, HbA 2 . To test this hypothesis, we investigate the relationship between diffraction pattern distortion, osmotic gradient ektacytometry parameters, and the hemoglobin composition of SCA blood. We observe a correlation between the extent of diffraction pattern distortions and percentage of HbF and HbA 2 . Osmotic gradient ektacytometry data indicate that minimum elongation in the hypotonic region is positively correlated with HbF, as is the osmolality at which it occurs. The osmolality at both minimum and maximum elongation is inversely correlated with HbS and HbA 2 . These data suggest that HbF may effectively improve surface-to-volume ratio and osmotic fragility in SCA erythrocytes. HbA 2 may be relatively ineffective in improving these characteristics or cellular hydration at the levels found in this patient cohort. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Analysis of Disulfide Bond Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, Ineke; Lamriben, Lydia; van Zadelhoff, Guus; Hebert, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    In this unit, protocols are provided for detection of disulfide bond formation in cultures of intact cells and in an in vitro translation system containing isolated microsomes or semi-permeabilized cells. First, the newly synthesized protein of interest is biosynthetically labeled with radioactive

  12. Drugs affecting HbA1c levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Unnikrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is an important indicator of glycemic control in diabetes mellitus, based on which important diagnostic and therapeutic decisions are routinely made. However, there are several situations in which the level of HbA1c may not faithfully reflect the glycemic control in a given patient. Important among these is the use of certain non-diabetic medications, which can affect the HbA1c levels in different ways. This review focuses on the non-diabetic medications which can inappropriately raise or lower the HbA1c levels, and the postulated mechanisms for the same.

  13. [About the HbA1c in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcet, Anaïs; Delalande, Géraldine; Oliver, Charles; Retornaz, Frédérique

    2016-03-01

    HbA1c product of non enzymatic glycation of HbA increases in relation with the mean blood glucose level during the former 2-3 months. HbA1c levels are correlated with the development of diabetic complications and HbA1c assessment is now the gold standard for evaluation of diabetes control. HbA1c level should not be higher than 7% to avoid these complications. However, in aged peoples, the objectives of diabetes control vary according to their health status. It must be good with HbA1c lower than 7-7.5% in healthy subjects and more relax in subjects with symptoms of frailty and risks of non perceived and self corrected hypoglycemia. Under these conditions, HbA1c values lower than 8 to 9% are advised. Nevertheless, hypoglycemia episodes may occur in patients with high HbA1c and capillary glucose follow-up is necessary for detection of such complications.

  14. Internalization of EGF receptor following lipid rafts disruption in keratinocytes is delayed and dependent on p38 MAPK activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, S.; Ameels, H.; Gniadecki, R.

    2008-01-01

    The receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays an important role in epidermal keratinocytes and is known to move out of lipid raft after cholesterol depletion, leading to ligand-independent activation. Accumulation of evidence indicates the ability of EGF receptor (EGFR) to undergo internal......The receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays an important role in epidermal keratinocytes and is known to move out of lipid raft after cholesterol depletion, leading to ligand-independent activation. Accumulation of evidence indicates the ability of EGF receptor (EGFR) to undergo...... internalization without participation of the ligand under the control of p38 MAPK during stress conditions. Since cholesterol depletion using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin is known to induce ligand-independent activation of EGFR in keratinocytes, we investigated by confocal microscopy and ligand-binding tests...... the process of internalization, which can be considered as a protective response to stress. Moreover, cholesterol-depleted keratinocytes recover their ability to proliferate during the recovery period that follows lipid raft disruption Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  15. Oleic acid blocks EGF-induced [Ca2+]i release without altering cellular metabolism in fibroblast EGFR T17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugaza, J L; Casabiell, X A; Bokser, L; Casanueva, F F

    1995-02-06

    EGFR-T17 cells were pretreated with oleic acid and 5-10 minutes later stimulated with EGF, to study if early ionic signals are instrumental in inducing metabolic cellular response. Oleic acid blocks EGF-induced [Ca2+]i rise and Ca2+ influx without altering 2-deoxyglucose and 2-aminobutiryc acid uptake nor acute, nor chronically. Oleic acid it is shown, in the first minutes favors the entrance of both molecules to modify the physico-chemical membrane state. On the other hand, oleic acid is unable to block protein synthesis. The results suggest that EGF-induced Ins(1,4,5)P3/Ca2+ pathway does not seem to be decisive in the control of cellular metabolic activity.

  16. Electrostatic influence of local cysteine environments on disulfide exchange kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, G H; Cennerazzo, M J; Karalis, A J; Field, D

    1981-11-10

    The ionic strength dependence of the bimolecular rate constant for reaction of the negative disulfide 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) with cysteines in fragments of naturally occurring proteins was determined by stopped-flow spectroscopy. The Debye-Hückel relationship was applied to determine the effective charge at the cysteine and thereby determine the extent to which nearby neighbors in the primary sequence influence the kinetics. Corrections for the secondary salt effect on cysteine pKs were determined by direct spectrometric pH titration of sulfhydryl groups or by observation of the ionic strength dependence of kinetics of cysteine reaction with the neutral disulfide 2,2'-dithiodipyridine. Quantitative expressions was verified by model studies with N-acetyl-cystein. At ionic strengths equal to or greater than 20 mM, the net charge at the polypeptide cysteine site is the sum of the single negative charge of the thiolate anion and the charges of the amino acids immediately preceding and following the cysteine in the primary sequence. At lower ionic strengths, more distant residues influence kinetics. At pH 7.0, 23 degree C, and an ionic strength of 20 mM, rate constants for reaction of the negative disulfide with a cysteine having two positive neighbors, one positive and one neutral neighbor, or two neutral neighbors are 132000, 3350, and 367 s-1 M-1, respectively. This corresponds to a contribution to the activation energy of 0.65- 1.1 kcal/mol per ion pair involved in collision between the cysteine and disulfide regions. The results permit the estimation that cysteine local environments may provide a means of achieving a 10(6)-fold range in rate constants in disulfide exchange reactions in random-coil proteins. This range may prove useful in developing strategies for directing disulfide pairing in synthetic proteins.

  17. Structural basis for target protein recognition by the protein disulfide reductase thioredoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kenji; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Thioredoxin is ubiquitous and regulates various target proteins through disulfide bond reduction. We report the structure of thioredoxin (HvTrxh2 from barley) in a reaction intermediate complex with a protein substrate, barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI). The crystal structure...... of this mixed disulfide shows a conserved hydrophobic motif in thioredoxin interacting with a sequence of residues from BASI through van der Waals contacts and backbone-backbone hydrogen bonds. The observed structural complementarity suggests that the recognition of features around protein disulfides plays...... a major role in the specificity and protein disulfide reductase activity of thioredoxin. This novel insight into the function of thioredoxin constitutes a basis for comprehensive understanding of its biological role. Moreover, comparison with structurally related proteins shows that thioredoxin shares...

  18. Detection of Hb Constant Spring (HBA2: c.427T>C) Heterozygotes in Combination with β-Thalassemia or Hb E Trait by Capillary Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornprasert, Sakorn; Saoboontan, Supansa; Punyamung, Manoo

    2015-01-01

    Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS; HBA2: c.427T>C) is often missed by routine laboratory testing as its mRNA as well as gene product are unstable and presented at a low level in peripheral blood. This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for detecting and quantifying of Hb CS in β-thalassemia (β-thal) trait or Hb E (HBB: c.79G>A) trait samples with reduced β-globin chain expression. Thalassemia diagnostic data were reviewed in 2524 blood samples that were submitted to the laboratory of the Associated Medical Sciences Clinical Service Center, Chiang Mai, Thailand for hemoglobinopathy and thalassemia diagnosis. DNA analysis for Hb CS was performed in 322 β-thal trait and 397 Hb E trait samples using the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS). The CE electropherogram of Hb CS at zone 2 was observed in all five samples with β-thal trait and nine samples with Hb E trait with levels varying from 0.1-2.8 and 0.1-2.3%, respectively. Thus, the CE method proved useful for screening of Hb CS in samples with β-thal trait or Hb E trait, which is essential for providing accurate diagnosis, genetic counseling, prevention and control programs of Hb H-CS disease.

  19. Inhibition of Hb Binding to GP1bα Abrogates Hb-Mediated Thrombus Formation on Immobilized VWF and Collagen under Physiological Shear Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annarapu, Gowtham K; Singhal, Rashi; Peng, Yuandong; Guchhait, Prasenjit

    2016-01-01

    Reports including our own describe that intravascular hemolysis increases the risk of thrombosis in hemolytic disorders. Our recent study shows that plasma Hb concentrations correlate directly with platelet activation in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). The binding of Hb to glycoprotein1bα (GP1bα) increases platelet activation. A peptide AA1-50, designed from N-terminal amino acid sequence of GP1bα significantly inhibits the Hb binding to GP1bα as well as Hb-induced platelet activation. This study further examined if the Hb-mediated platelet activation plays any significant role in thrombus formation on subendothelium matrix under physiological flow shear stresses and the inhibition of Hb-platelet interaction can abrogate the above effects of Hb. Study performed thrombus formation assay in vitro by perfusing whole blood over immobilized VWF or collagen type I in presence of Hb under shear stresses simulating arterial or venous flow. The Hb concentrations ranging from 5 to 10 μM, commonly observed level in plasma of the hemolytic patients including PNH, dose-dependently increased thrombus formation on immobilized VWF under higher shear stress of 25 dyne/cm2, but not at 5 dyne/cm2. The above Hb concentrations also increased thrombus formation on immobilized collagen under both shear stresses of 5 and 25 dyne/cm2. The peptide AA1-50 abrogated invariably the above effects of Hb on thrombus formation. This study therefore indicates that the Hb-induced platelet activation plays a crucial role in thrombus formation on immobilized VWF or collagen under physiological flow shear stresses. Thus suggesting a probable role of this mechanism in facilitating thrombosis under hemolytic conditions.

  20. Edge eigen-stress and eigen-displacement of armchair molybdenum disulfide nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Quan; Li, Xi [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Environmental Fracture (MOE), University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Volinsky, Alex A., E-mail: volinsky@usf.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Su, Yanjing, E-mail: yjsu@ustb.edu.cn [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Environmental Fracture (MOE), University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2017-05-10

    Edge effects on mechanical properties of armchair molybdenum disulfide nanoribbons were investigated using first principles calculations. The edge eigen-stress model was applied to explain the relaxation process of forming molybdenum disulfide nanoribbon. Edge effects on surface atoms fluctuation degree were obtained from each fully relaxed nanoribbon with different width. Changes of the relaxed armchair molybdenum disulfide nanoribbons structure can be expressed using hexagonal perimeters pattern. Based on the thickness change, relaxed armchair molybdenum disulfide nanoribbons tensile/compression tests were simulated, providing intrinsic edge elastic parameters, such as eigen-stress, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. - Highlights: • Edge effects on mechanical properties of armchair MoS{sub 2} nanoribbons were investigated. • Structure changes of different width armchair MoS{sub 2} nanoribbons were obtained. • Tensile/compressive tests were conducted to determine elastic constants. • Mechanical properties are compared for two and three dimensional conditions.

  1. Analogue Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barceló Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  2. Positional cloning identifies zebrafish one-eyed pinhead as a permissive EGF-related ligand required during gastrulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Talbot, W S; Schier, A F

    1998-01-23

    The zebrafish one-eyed pinhead (oep) mutation disrupts embryonic development, resulting in cyclopia and defects in endoderm, prechordal plate, and ventral neuroectoderm formation. We report the molecular isolation of oep using a positional cloning approach. The oep gene encodes a novel EGF-related protein with similarity to the EGF-CFC proteins cripto, cryptic, and FRL-1. Wild-type oep protein contains a functional signal sequence and is membrane-associated. Following ubiquitous maternal and zygotic expression, highest levels of oep mRNA are found in the gastrula margin and in axial structures and forebrain. Widespread misexpression of both membrane-attached and secreted forms of oep rescues prechordal plate and forebrain development in mutant embryos but does not lead to the ectopic induction of these cell types in wild-type fish. These results establish an essential but permissive role for an EGF-related ligand during vertebrate gastrulation.

  3. Ultrastructure of Sheep Primordial Follicles Cultured in the Presence of Indol Acetic Acid, EGF, and FSH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Rabelo Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural characteristics of primordial follicles after culturing of sheep ovarian cortical slices in the presence of indol acetic acid (IAA, Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF, and FSH. To evaluate ultrastructure of primordial follicles cultured in MEM (control or in MEM containing IAA, EGF, and FSH, fragments of cultured tissue were processes for transmission electron microscopy. Except in the control, primordial follicles cultured in supplemented media for 6 d were ultrastructurally normal. They had oocyte with intact nucleus and the cytoplasm contained heterogeneous-sized lipid droplets and numerous round or elongated mitochondria with intact parallel cristae were observed. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER was rarely found. The granulosa cells cytoplasm contained a great number of mitochondria and abundant RER. In conclusion, the presence of IAA, EGF, and FSH helped to maintain ultrastructural integrity of sheep primordial follicles cultured in vitro.

  4. Positions of disulfide bonds in rye (Secale cereale) seed chitinase-a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, T; Funatsu, G; Ishiguro, M

    2000-06-01

    The positions of disulfide bonds of rye seed chitinase-a (RSC-a) were identified by the isolation of disulfide-containing peptides produced with enzymatic and/or chemical cleavages of RSC-a, followed by sequencing them. An unequivocal assignment of disulfide bonds in this enzyme was as follows: Cys3-Cysl8, Cys12-Cys24, Cys15-Cys42, Cys17-Cys31, and Cys35-Cys39 in the chitin-binding domain (CB domain), Cys82-Cys144, Cys156-Cys164, and Cys282-Cys295 in the catalytic domain (Cat domain), and Cys263 was a free form.

  5. Disulfide bond within mu-calpain active site inhibits activity and autolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lametsch, René; Lonergan, Steven; Huff-Lonergan, Elisabeth

    2008-09-01

    Oxidative processes have the ability to influence mu-calpain activity. In the present study the influence of oxidation on activity and autolysis of mu-calpain was examined. Furthermore, LC-MS/MS analysis was employed to identify and characterize protein modifications caused by oxidation. The results revealed that the activity of mu-calpain is diminished by oxidation with H2O2 in a reversible manner involving cysteine and that the rate of autolysis of mu-calpain concomitantly slowed. The LC-MS/MS analysis of the oxidized mu-calpain revealed that the amino acid residues 105-133 contained a disulfide bond between Cys(108) and Cys(115). The finding that the active site cysteine in mu-calpain is able to form a disulfide bond has, to our knowledge, not been reported before. This could be part of a unique oxidation mechanism for mu-calpain. The results also showed that the formation of the disulfide bond is limited in the control (no oxidant added), and further limited in a concentration-dependent manner when beta-mercaptoethanol is added. However, the disulfide bond is still present to some extent in all conditions indicating that the active site cysteine is potentially highly susceptible to the formation of this intramolecular disulfide bond.

  6. Diagnostic of tumours of epithelial origin with the monoclonal antibody IOR EGF/R3 murino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, M.

    1997-01-01

    Despite of the advantages on anti tumoral therapy, the cancer of epithelial origin constitutes one of the first causes of death worldwide. That kind of tumors have a 10-30-fold overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr). Monoclonal antibody ior egf/r3 is a lgG2a, which recognizes the epidermal growth factor receptor. The aim of the present work was the evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of the 99m Tc-labelled ior egf/r3 for the detection of epithelial derived tumors, its metastasis and its recurrences

  7. Single molecule force spectroscopy for in-situ probing oridonin inhibited ROS-mediated EGF-EGFR interactions in living KYSE-150 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Jiang; Jin, Hua; Jiang, Jinhuan; Yang, Fen; Cai, Huaihong; Yang, Peihui; Cai, Jiye; Chen, Zheng W

    2017-05-01

    As the active anticancer component of Rabdosia Rubescens, oridonin has been proved to show strong anticancer activity in cancer cells, which is also found to be closely related to its specific inhibition effects on the EGFR tyrosine kinase activity. In this study, atomic force microscopy based single molecule force spectroscopy (AFM-SMFS) was used for real-time and in-situ detection of EGF-EGFR interactions in living esophageal cancer KYSE-150 cells to evaluate the anticancer activity of oridonin for the first time. Oridonin was found to induce apoptosis and also reduce EGFR expression in KYSE-150 cells. AFM-SMFS results demonstrated that oridonin could inhibit the binding between EGF and EGFR in KYSE-150 cells by decreasing the unbinding force and binding probability for EGF-EGFR complexes, which was further proved to be closely associated with the intracellular ROS level. More precise mechanism studies based on AFM-SMFS demonstrated that oridonin treatment could decrease the energy barrier width, increase the dissociation off rate constant and decrease the activation energy of EGF-EGFR complexes in ROS dependent way, suggesting oridonin as a strong anticancer agent targeting EGF-EGFR interactions in cancer cells through ROS dependent mechanism. Our results not only suggested oridonin as a strong anticancer agent targeting EGF-EGFR interactions in ROS dependent mechanism, but also highlighted AFM-SMFS as a powerful technique for pharmacodynamic studies by detecting ligand-receptor interactions, which was also expected to be developed into a promising tool for the screening and mechanism studies of drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exposure to the cytokine EGF leads to abnormal hyperactivity of pallidal GABA neurons: implications for schizophrenia and its modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoyama, Hidekazu; Namba, Hisaaki; Chiken, Satomi; Nambu, Atsushi; Nawa, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies on a cytokine model for schizophrenia reveal that the hyperdopaminergic innervation and neurotransmission in the globus pallidus (GP) is involved in its behavioral impairments. Here, we further explored the physiological consequences of the GP abnormality in the indirect pathway, using the same schizophrenia model established by perinatal exposure to epidermal growth factor (EGF). Single-unit recordings revealed that the neural activity from the lateral GP was elevated in EGF-treated rats in vivo and in vitro (i.e., slice preparations), whereas the central area of the GP exhibited no significant differences. The increase in the pallidal activity was normalized by subchronic treatment with risperidone, which is known to ameliorate their behavioral deficits. We also monitored extracellular GABA concentrations in the substantia nigra, one of the targets of pallidal efferents. There was a significant increase in basal GABA levels in EGF-treated rats, whereas high potassium-evoked GABA effluxes and glutamate levels were not affected. A neurotoxic lesion in the GP of EGF-treated rats normalized GABA concentrations to control levels. Corroborating our in vivo results, GABA release from GP slices was elevated in EGF-treated animals. These findings suggest that the hyperactivity and enhanced GABA release of GP neurons represent the key pathophysiological features of this cytokine-exposure model for schizophrenia. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  9. SMAD4 loss enables EGF, TGFβ1 and S100A8/A9 induced activation of critical pathways to invasion in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moz, Stefania; Basso, Daniela; Bozzato, Dania; Galozzi, Paola; Navaglia, Filippo; Negm, Ola H; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Zambon, Carlo-Federico; Padoan, Andrea; Tighe, Paddy; Todd, Ian; Franchin, Cinzia; Pedrazzoli, Sergio; Punzi, Leonardo; Plebani, Mario

    2016-10-25

    Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) receptor overexpression, KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A and SMAD4 mutations characterize pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. This mutational landscape might influence cancer cells response to EGF, Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGFβ1) and stromal inflammatory calcium binding proteins S100A8/A9. We investigated whether chronic exposure to EGF modifies in a SMAD4-dependent manner pancreatic cancer cell signalling, proliferation and invasion in response to EGF, TGFβ1 and S100A8/A9. BxPC3, homozigously deleted (HD) for SMAD4, and BxPC3-SMAD4+ cells were or not stimulated with EGF (100 ng/mL) for three days. EGF pre-treated and non pretreated cells were stimulated with a single dose of EGF (100 ng/mL), TGFβ1 (0,02 ng/mL), S100A8/A9 (10 nM). Signalling pathways (Reverse Phase Protein Array and western blot), cell migration (Matrigel) and cell proliferation (XTT) were evaluated. SMAD4 HD constitutively activated ERK and Wnt/β-catenin, while inhibiting PI3K/AKT pathways. These effects were antagonized by chronic EGF, which increased p-BAD (anti-apoptotic) in response to combined TGFβ1 and S100A8/A9 stimulation. SMAD4 HD underlied the inhibition of NF-κB and PI3K/AKT in response to TGFβ1 and S100A8/A9, which also induced cell migration. Chronic EGF exposure enhanced cell migration of both BxPC3 and BxPC3-SMAD4+, rendering the cells less sensitive to the other inflammatory stimuli. In conclusion, SMAD4 HD is associated with the constitutive activation of the ERK and Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathways, and favors the EGF-induced activation of multiple signalling pathways critical to cancer proliferation and invasion. TGFβ1 and S100A8/A9 mainly inhibit NF-κB and PI3K/AKT pathways and, when combined, sinergize with EGF in enhancing anti-apoptotic p-BAD in a SMAD4-dependent manner.

  10. CysLT1 receptor-induced human airway smooth muscle cells proliferation requires ROS generation, EGF receptor transactivation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capra Valérie

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cysteine-containing leukotrienes (cysteinyl-LTs are pivotal inflammatory mediators that play important roles in the pathophysiology of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and other inflammatory conditions. In particular, cysteinyl-LTs exert a variety of effects with relevance to the aetiology of asthma such as smooth muscle contraction, eosinophil recruitment, increased microvascular permeability, enhanced mucus secretion and decreased mucus transport and, finally, airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC proliferation. We used human ASMC (HASMC to identify the signal transduction pathway(s of the leukotriene D4 (LTD4-induced DNA synthesis. Methods Proliferation of primary HASMC was measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Phosphorylation of EGF receptor (EGF-R and ERK1/2 was assessed with a polyclonal anti-EGF-R or anti-phosphoERKl/2 monoclonal antibody. A Ras pull-down assay kit was used to evaluate Ras activation. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS was estimated by measuring dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCF oxidation. Results We demonstrate that in HASMC LTD4-stimulated thymidine incorporation and potentiation of EGF-induced mitogenic signaling mostly depends upon EGF-R transactivation through the stimulation of CysLT1-R. Accordingly, we found that LTD4 stimulation was able to trigger the increase of Ras-GTP and, in turn, to activate ERK1/2. We show here that EGF-R transactivation was sensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitors and that it occurred independently from Src activity, despite the observation of a strong impairment of LTD4-induced DNA synthesis following Src inhibition. More interestingly, CysLT1-R stimulation increased the production of ROS and N-acetylcysteine (NAC abolished LTD4-induced EGF-R phosphorylation and thymidine incorporation. Conclusion Collectively, our data demonstrate that in HASMC LTD4 stimulation of a Gi/o coupled CysLT1-R triggers the transactivation of the EGF

  11. Pregnancy outcome in patients with sickle cell disease in the UK--a national cohort study comparing sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) with HbSC disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Ayensah, Benjamin; Knight, Marian; Howard, Jo

    2015-04-01

    We describe the findings from a national study of maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnancy in women with sickle cell disease (SCD). Data were collected via the United Kingdom Obstetric Surveillance System between 1 February 2010 and 31 January 2011 from 109 women, of whom 51 (46·8%) had HbSS and 44 (40·4%) had HbSC. Data included antenatal, maternal and fetal outcomes. Comparisons were made between women with HbSS and HbSC. Incidence of complications were acute pain (57%), blood transfusion (26%), urinary tract infection (UTI; 12%) and critical care unit admission (23%) and these were all more common in women with HbSS than HbSC. There was no difference in the incidence of acute chest syndrome, hypertension and venous thromboembolism between HbSS and HbSC. Women with HbSS were more likely to deliver at pregnancy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Enhancing Protein Disulfide Bond Cleavage by UV Excitation and Electron Capture Dissociation for Top-Down Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkongkathep, Piriya; Li, Huilin; Zhang, Xing; Loo, Rachel R Ogorzalek; Julian, Ryan R; Loo, Joseph A

    2015-11-15

    The application of ion pre-activation with 266 nm ultraviolet (UV) laser irradiation combined with electron capture dissociation (ECD) is demonstrated to enhance top-down mass spectrometry sequence coverage of disulfide bond containing proteins. UV-based activation can homolytically cleave a disulfide bond to yield two separated thiol radicals. Activated ECD experiments of insulin and ribonuclease A containing three and four disulfide bonds, respectively, were performed. UV-activation in combination with ECD allowed the three disulfide bonds of insulin to be cleaved and the overall sequence coverage to be increased. For the larger sized ribonuclease A with four disulfide bonds, irradiation from an infrared laser (10.6 µm) to disrupt non-covalent interactions was combined with UV-activation to facilitate the cleavage of up to three disulfide bonds. Preferences for disulfide bond cleavage are dependent on protein structure and sequence. Disulfide bonds can reform if the generated radicals remain in close proximity. By varying the time delay between the UV-activation and the ECD events, it was determined that disulfide bonds reform within 10-100 msec after their UV-homolytic cleavage.

  13. Inhibitory effect of SPE-39 due to tyrosine phosphorylation and ubiquitination on the function of Vps33B in the EGF-stimulated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Ayumi; Kamimori, Kanae; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Kido, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takeshi; Konishi, Hiroaki

    2012-07-30

    Although SPE-39 is a binding protein to Vps33B that is one of the subunit in the mammalian HOPS complex, the elements of SPE-39 function remain unknown. Here, we show that tyrosine phosphorylation of SPE-39 following EGF stimulation plays a role in the stability of SPE-39 itself. Ubiquitination of the C-terminal region of SPE-39 was also elevated in response to EGF stimulation, and this process was regulated by the phosphorylation of Tyr-11 in SPE-39. However, association of Vps33B with SPE-39 inhibited the elevation of ubiquitination of SPE-39 following EGF stimulation, which might be responsible for the stabilization of SPE-39. Furthermore, an opposing functional relationship between SPE-39 and Vps33B on the downregulation of the EGF receptor was observed in EGF-stimulated COS-7 cells. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression of polyhedrin-hEGF fusion protein in cultured cells and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-06-02

    Jun 2, 2006 ... EGF virus and wild virus protected the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced damage in rats, although .... virus stock was prepared and the dilution of the virus was calculated .... silkworm larvae presented typical symptoms of BmNPV .... Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein malaria vaccine.

  15. Characterization of Hb Lepore variants in the UK population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lina; Kausar, Anika; Old, John M; Henderson, Shirley J; Gallienne, Alice E

    2015-01-01

    A molecular study of Hb Lepore heterozygotes identified by the UK population screening program has revealed four out of the five known Lepore variants. The region of homologous δ- and β-globin gene sequence was determined in 58 unrelated Hb Lepore heterozygotes referred for confirmation of their carrier status by DNA analysis through the national thalassemia and sickle cell screening program over a period of 10 years. The most common variant found was Hb Lepore-Boston-Washington (Hb LBW, HBD: c.265 C > c.315 + 7 C) observed in 46 carriers (79.0%). Hb Lepore-Hollandia (HBD: c.69 A > c.92 + 16 A) was found in nine cases (16.0%); Hb Lepore-Baltimore (HBD: c.208 G > c.254 C) in two cases (4.0%) and Hb Lepore-ARUP (HBD: c.97 C > c.150 C) in one carrier (2.0%). Analysis of the hematological findings showed no significant differences between the four groups. The wide range of Hb Lepore variants observed in this study confirms the very diverse range of α- and β-globin gene mutations observed in the UK population by previous studies.

  16. Hb D/Talassemia beta associada à anemia crônica Hb D/ Beta thalassaemia associated with chronic anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Naoum

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of Hb D/Beta thalassemia associated with chronic anemia. Hematological analyses performed in a patient with chronic anemia demonstrating microcytosis and hypochromic in his erythrocytes. Specific laboratory diagnosis performed by alkaline and acid electrophoresis, and fetal determination by alkali resistance, indicated it to be Hb D associated with beta thalassemia. Analyses carried out on his family (father, mother and brother confirmed the suspected diagnosis. Hb D/Beta thalassemia is a very rare interaction in the Brazilian population, and its determination required specific laboratorial techniques and hematological analyses.

  17. Modulation of Thiol-Disulfide Oxidoreductases for Increased Production of Disulfide-Bond-Containing Proteins in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwen, Thijs R. H. M.; Dubois, Jean-Yves F.; Freudl, Roland; Quax, Wim J.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2008-01-01

    Disulfide bonds are important for the correct folding, structural integrity, and activity of many biotechnologically relevant proteins. For synthesis and subsequent secretion of these proteins in bacteria, such as the well-known "cell factory" Bacillus subtilis, it is often the correct formation of

  18. SMAD4 loss enables EGF, TGF?1 and S100A8/A9 induced activation of critical pathways to invasion in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Moz, Stefania; Basso, Daniela; Bozzato, Dania; Galozzi, Paola; Navaglia, Filippo; Negm, Ola H.; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Zambon, Carlo-Federico; Padoan, Andrea; Tighe, Paddy; Todd, Ian; Franchin, Cinzia; Pedrazzoli, Sergio; Punzi, Leonardo; Plebani, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) receptor overexpression, KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A and SMAD4 mutations characterize pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. This mutational landscape might influence cancer cells response to EGF, Transforming Growth Factor ?1 (TGF?1) and stromal inflammatory calcium binding proteins S100A8/A9. We investigated whether chronic exposure to EGF modifies in a SMAD4-dependent manner pancreatic cancer cell signalling, proliferation and invasion in response to EGF, TGF?1 and S100A8/A...

  19. Primary study on the clinical significance of measurement of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and NPY concentrations in human semen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiyun; Ning Yong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the difference between the semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY in fertile and non-fertile males with the relevant sperm count and motility. Methods: Semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY were determined with RIA in 110 non-fertile males. Simultaneous semen analysis revealed (1) Group A, n=45, with normal sperm count, (2) Group B, n=34 low sperm count (0-20) x 10 6 /ml and (3) Group C n=31, with aspermia. White blood cell/HPF was examined in all the semen specimens and sperm motile rate and motility were examined in Group A specimens. Results: The semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY in non-fertile males were significantly higher than those in fertile males (P 1 x 10 6 /ml) were significantly lower than those in specimens with more white blood cells (P<0.05). Conclusion: Higher semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY might exert toxic effect on the sperms, contributing to the development of infertility. (authors)

  20. Freeze-dried formulation for direct 99mTc-labeling ior-egf/r3 MAb: additives, biodistribution, and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Alejo A. Morales; Nunez-Gandolff, Gilda; Perez, Niuvis Perez; Veliz, Belkis Chico; Caballero-Torres, Idania; Duconge, Jorge; Fernandez, Eduardo; Crespo, Francisco Zayas; Veloso, Ana; Iznaga-Escobar, Normando

    1999-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been useful for immunoscintigraphic applications in clinical diagnosis since they were introduced in nuclear medicine practice. The MAb ior egf/r3 developed at the Center of Molecular Immunology (Havana, Cuba) is a murine antibody that recognizes the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) and has been used widely in the radioimmunodiagnosis of tumors of epithelial origin. Based on the direct Schwarz method, the present report describes the preparation of a freeze-dried formulation for radiolabeling the MAb ior egf/r3 with 99m Tc for immunoscintigraphic applications. Radiolabeling efficiency, effects on immunoreactivity, biodistribution, pharmacokinetic, and stability of the formulation are reported. The study demonstrated that the freeze-dried formulation can be labeled with 99m Tc at high yield. The resulting 99m Tc-labeled ior egf/r3 MAb can be used to visualize in vivo human tumors of epithelial origin by immunoscintigraphy studies. The kit does not need any other addition or purification at the time of tagging other than the requisite amount of pertechnetate (40-50 mCi). Because the contents of the kit are lyophilized, no special storage or transportation is required

  1. Can the Afinion HbA1c Point-of-Care instrument be an alternative method for the Tosoh G8 in the case of Hb-Tacoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenters-Westra, Erna; Strunk, Annuska; Campbell, Paul; Slingerland, Robbert J

    2017-02-01

    Hb-variant interference when reporting HbA1c has been an ongoing challenge since HbA1c was introduced to monitor patients with diabetes mellitus. Most Hb-variants show an abnormal chromatogram when cation-exchange HPLC is used for the determination of HbA1c. Unfortunately, the Tosoh G8 generates what appears to be normal chromatogram in the presence of Hb-Tacoma, yielding a falsely high HbA1c value. The primary aim of the study was to investigate if the Afinion HbA1c point-of-care (POC) instrument could be used as an alternative method for the Tosoh G8 when testing for HbA1c in the presence of Hb-Tacoma. Whole blood samples were collected in K 2 EDTA tubes from individuals homozygous for HbA (n = 40) and heterozygous for Hb-Tacoma (n = 20). Samples were then immediately analyzed with the Afinion POC instrument. After analysis, aliquots of each sample were frozen at -80 °C. The frozen samples were shipped on dry ice to the European Reference Laboratory for Glycohemoglobin (ERL) and analyzed with three International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) and National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) Secondary Reference Measurement Procedures (SRMPs). The Premier Hb9210 was used as the reference method. When compared to the reference method, samples with Hb-Tacoma yielded mean relative differences of 31.8% on the Tosoh G8, 21.5% on the Roche Tina-quant Gen. 2 and 16.8% on the Afinion. The Afinion cannot be used as an alternative method for the Tosoh G8 when testing for HbA1c in the presence of Hb-Tacoma.

  2. HB-Line Plutonium Oxide Data Collection Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, R. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Varble, J. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Jordan, J. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions

    2015-05-26

    HB-Line and H-Canyon will handle and process plutonium material to produce plutonium oxide for feed to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). However, the plutonium oxide product will not be transferred to the MFFF directly from HB-Line until it is packaged into a qualified DOE-STD-3013-2012 container. In the interim, HB-Line will load plutonium oxide into an inner, filtered can. The inner can will be placed in a filtered bag, which will be loaded into a filtered outer can. The outer can will be loaded into a certified 9975 with getter assembly in compliance with onsite transportation requirement, for subsequent storage and transfer to the K-Area Complex (KAC). After DOE-STD-3013-2012 container packaging capabilities are established, the product will be returned to HB-Line to be packaged into a qualified DOE-STD-3013-2012 container. To support the transfer of plutonium oxide to KAC and then eventually to MFFF, various material and packaging data will have to be collected and retained. In addition, data from initial HB-Line processing operations will be needed to support future DOE-STD-3013-2012 qualification as amended by the HB-Line DOE Standard equivalency. As production increases, the volume of data to collect will increase. The HB-Line data collected will be in the form of paper copies and electronic media. Paper copy data will, at a minimum, consist of facility procedures, nonconformance reports (NCRs), and DCS print outs. Electronic data will be in the form of Adobe portable document formats (PDFs). Collecting all the required data for each plutonium oxide can will be no small effort for HB-Line, and will become more challenging once the maximum annual oxide production throughput is achieved due to the sheer volume of data to be collected. The majority of the data collected will be in the form of facility procedures, DCS print outs, and laboratory results. To facilitate complete collection of this data, a traveler form will be developed which

  3. Inhibition of carbon disulfide on bio-desulfurization in the process of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological desulfurization is a novel technology for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from some biogas or sour gas, in which there are always a certain amounts of carbon disulfide together with much hydrogen sulfide. Nowadays, carbon disulfide is found to have negative effect on the biological desulfurization, but seldom ...

  4. Gallic acid-capped gold nanoparticles inhibit EGF-induced MMP-9 expression through suppression of p300 stabilization and NFκB/c-Jun activation in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying-Jung; Lee, Yuan-Chin; Huang, Chia-Hui; Chang, Long-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are highly invasive and have a higher rate of distant metastasis. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a crucial role in EGF/EGFR-mediated malignant progression and metastasis of TNBCs. Various studies have revealed that treatment with gallic acid down-regulates MMP-9 expression in cancer cells, and that conjugation of phytochemical compounds with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) increases the anti-tumor activity of the phytochemical compounds. Thus, the effect of gallic acid-capped AuNPs (GA-AuNPs) on MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells was analyzed in the present study. The so-called green synthesis of AuNPs by means of gallic acid was performed at pH 10, and the resulting GA-AuNPs had spherical shape with an average diameter of approximately 50 nm. GA-AuNPs notably suppressed migration and invasion of EGF-treated cells, and inhibited EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation. GA-AuNPs abrogated EGF-induced Akt/p65 and ERK/c-Jun phosphorylation, leading to down-regulation of MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression in EGF-treated cells. Meanwhile, EGF-induced p300 stabilization was found to be involved in MMP-9 expression, whereas GA-AuNPs inhibited the EGF-promoted stability of the p300 protein. Although GA-AuNPs and gallic acid suppressed EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation via the same signaling pathway, the effective concentration of gallic acid was approximately 100-fold higher than that of GA-AuNPs for inhibition of MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated cells to a similar extent. Collectively, our data indicate that, in comparison with gallic acid, GA-AuNPs have a superior ability to inhibit EGF/EGFR-mediated MMP-9 expression in TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings also point to a way to improve the anti-tumor activity of gallic acid. - Highlights: • Gallic acid-capped gold nanoparticles inhibit EGF-induced MMP-9 expression. • EGF-induced MMP-9 expression via p300 stabilization and NFκB/c-Jun activation. • Gallic acid

  5. Gallic acid-capped gold nanoparticles inhibit EGF-induced MMP-9 expression through suppression of p300 stabilization and NFκB/c-Jun activation in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying-Jung; Lee, Yuan-Chin; Huang, Chia-Hui [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Chang, Long-Sen, E-mail: lschang@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2016-11-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are highly invasive and have a higher rate of distant metastasis. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a crucial role in EGF/EGFR-mediated malignant progression and metastasis of TNBCs. Various studies have revealed that treatment with gallic acid down-regulates MMP-9 expression in cancer cells, and that conjugation of phytochemical compounds with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) increases the anti-tumor activity of the phytochemical compounds. Thus, the effect of gallic acid-capped AuNPs (GA-AuNPs) on MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells was analyzed in the present study. The so-called green synthesis of AuNPs by means of gallic acid was performed at pH 10, and the resulting GA-AuNPs had spherical shape with an average diameter of approximately 50 nm. GA-AuNPs notably suppressed migration and invasion of EGF-treated cells, and inhibited EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation. GA-AuNPs abrogated EGF-induced Akt/p65 and ERK/c-Jun phosphorylation, leading to down-regulation of MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression in EGF-treated cells. Meanwhile, EGF-induced p300 stabilization was found to be involved in MMP-9 expression, whereas GA-AuNPs inhibited the EGF-promoted stability of the p300 protein. Although GA-AuNPs and gallic acid suppressed EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation via the same signaling pathway, the effective concentration of gallic acid was approximately 100-fold higher than that of GA-AuNPs for inhibition of MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated cells to a similar extent. Collectively, our data indicate that, in comparison with gallic acid, GA-AuNPs have a superior ability to inhibit EGF/EGFR-mediated MMP-9 expression in TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings also point to a way to improve the anti-tumor activity of gallic acid. - Highlights: • Gallic acid-capped gold nanoparticles inhibit EGF-induced MMP-9 expression. • EGF-induced MMP-9 expression via p300 stabilization and NFκB/c-Jun activation. • Gallic acid

  6. Insulin analog with additional disulfide bond has increased stability and preserved activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N.; Norrman, Mathias; Ribel, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Insulin is a key hormone controlling glucose homeostasis. All known vertebrate insulin analogs have a classical structure with three 100% conserved disulfide bonds that are essential for structural stability and thus the function of insulin. It might be hypothesized that an additional disulfide...... bond may enhance insulin structural stability which would be highly desirable in a pharmaceutical use. To address this hypothesis, we designed insulin with an additional interchain disulfide bond in positions A10/B4 based on Cα-Cα distances, solvent exposure, and side-chain orientation in human insulin...... (HI) structure. This insulin analog had increased affinity for the insulin receptor and apparently augmented glucodynamic potency in a normal rat model compared with HI. Addition of the disulfide bond also resulted in a 34.6°C increase in melting temperature and prevented insulin fibril formation...

  7. Low oxygen saturation and severe anemia in compound heterozygous Hb Louisville [β42(CD1)Phe→Leu] and Hb La Desirade [β129(H7)Ala→Val].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamseng, Parin; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Trachoo, Objoon; Yimniam, Walaiporn; Panthan, Bhakbhoom; Jittorntam, Paisan; Niparuck, Pimjai; Sanguanwit, Pitsucha; Wananukul, Winai; Jindadamrongwech, Sumalee

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the cause(s) of a Thai male proband presenting low oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO 2 ) and severe anemia. As Hb variant was suspected, Hb typing was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis, and subsequently Hb variant was identified by DNA sequencing. Complete blood counts were performed using automated blood cell counter and oxygen saturation was measured by pulse oximetry. Proband was compound heterozygous for Hb Louisville [β42(CD1)Phe→Leu] and Hb La Desirade [β129(H7)Ala→Val]. Of the proband's two sons, one was compound heterozygous for Hb Louisville and Hb E and the other for Hb La Desirade and Hb E. The former son had similar clinical features and laboratory findings with those of the proband while the latter showed had no abnormal clinical manifestations. This the first report of compound heterozygosity of Hb Louisville and Hb La Desirade in an individual of Southeast Asian ethnicity. Hb variant identification is crucial for genetic counseling and appropriate treatment in regions where hemoglobinopathies are common.

  8. Disulfide Bridges: Bringing Together Frustrated Structure in a Bioactive Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Schulten, Klaus; Gruebele, Martin; Bansal, Paramjit S; Wilson, David; Daly, Norelle L

    2016-04-26

    Disulfide bridges are commonly found covalent bonds that are usually believed to maintain structural stability of proteins. Here, we investigate the influence of disulfide bridges on protein dynamics through molecular dynamics simulations on the cysteine-rich trypsin inhibitor MCoTI-II with three disulfide bridges. Correlation analysis of the reduced cyclic peptide shows that two of the three disulfide distances (Cys(11)-Cys(23) and Cys(17)-Cys(29)) are anticorrelated within ∼1 μs of bridge formation or dissolution: when the peptide is in nativelike structures and one of the distances shortens to allow bond formation, the other tends to lengthen. Simulations over longer timescales, when the denatured state is less structured, do not show the anticorrelation. We propose that the native state contains structural elements that frustrate one another's folding, and that the two bridges are critical for snapping the frustrated native structure into place. In contrast, the Cys(4)-Cys(21) bridge is predicted to form together with either of the other two bridges. Indeed, experimental chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance data show that an engineered peptide with the Cys(4)-Cys(21) bridge deleted can still fold into its near-native structure even in its noncyclic form, confirming the lesser role of the Cys(4)-Cys(21) bridge. The results highlight the importance of disulfide bridges in a small bioactive peptide to bring together frustrated structure in addition to maintaining protein structural stability. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A role for the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in development of intestinal serrated polyps in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Gerold; Muniz, Luciana R; Pacer, Michelle E; Iuga, Alina C; Thirunarayanan, Nanthakumar; Slinger, Erik; Smit, Martine J; Reddy, E Premkumar; Mayer, Lloyd; Furtado, Glaucia C; Harpaz, Noam; Lira, Sergio A

    2012-09-01

    Epithelial cancers can be initiated by activating mutations in components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway such as v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF), v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Human intestinal serrated polyps are a heterogeneous group of benign lesions, but some progress to colorectal cancer. Tumors that arise from these polyps frequently contain activating mutations in BRAF or KRAS, but little is known about the role of EGFR activation in their development. Polyp samples were obtained from adults during screening colonoscopies at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York. We measured levels of EGFR protein and phosphorylation in human serrated polyps by immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses. We generated transgenic mice that express the ligand for EGFR, Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), in the intestine. EGFR and the extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 were phosphorylated in serrated areas of human hyperplastic polyps (HPPs), sessile serrated adenomas, and traditional serrated adenomas. EGFR and ERK1/2 were phosphorylated in the absence of KRAS or BRAF activating mutations in a subset of HPP. Transgenic expression of the EGFR ligand HB-EGF in the intestines of mice promoted development of small cecal serrated polyps. Mice that expressed a combination of HB-EGF and US28 (a constitutively active, G-protein-coupled receptor that increases processing of HB-EGF from the membrane) rapidly developed large cecal serrated polyps. These polyps were similar to HPPs and had increased phosphorylation of EGFR and ERK1/2 within the serrated epithelium. Administration of pharmacologic inhibitors of EGFR or MAPK to these transgenic mice significantly reduced polyp development. Activation of EGFR signaling in the intestine of mice promotes development of serrated polyps. EGFR signaling also is activated in human HPPs, sessile serrated adenomas

  10. Iron may induce both DNA synthesis and repair in rat hepatocytes stimulated by EGF/pyruvate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenoufi, N.; Loreal, O.; Cariou, S.; Hubert, N.; Lescoat, G. [Univ. Hospital Pontchaillou, Unite de Recherches Hepatologiques, INSERM U 49, Rennes (France); Drenou, B. [Univ. Hospital Pontchaillou, Lab. d`Hematologie et d`Immunologie, Rennes (France); Leroyer, P.; Brissot, P. [Univ. Hospital Pontchaillou, Clinique des Maladies du Foie, Rennes (France)

    1997-03-01

    Background/Aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma develops frequently in the course of genetic hemochromatosis, and a role of iron overload in hepatic carcinogenesis is strongly suggested. Methods: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of iron exposure on DNA synthesis of adult rat hepatocytes maintained in primary culture stimulated or not by EGF/pyruvate and exposed to iron-citrate complex. Results: In EGF/pyruvate-stimulated cultures, the level of [{sup 3}H] methyl thymidine incorporation was strongly increased as compared to unstimulated cultures. The addition of iron to stimulated cultures increased [{sup 3}H] methyl thymidine incorporation. The mitotic index was also significantly higher at 72 h. However,the number of cells found in the cell layer was not significantly different from iron-citrate free culture. By flow cytometry, no difference in cell ploidy was found between iron-treated and untreated EGF/pyruvate-stimulated cultures. A significant increase in LDH leakage reflecting a toxic effect of iron was found in the cell medium 48 h after cell seeding. In addition, [{sup 3}H] methyl thymidine incorporation in the presence of hydroxyurea was increased in iron-treated compared to untreated cultures. Conclusions: Our results show that DNA synthesis is increased in the presence of iron in rat hepatocyte cultures stimulated by EGF/pyruvate, and they suggest that DNA synthesis is likely to be related both to cell proliferation and to DNA repair. These observations may allow better understanding of the role of iron overload in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. (au) 61 refs.

  11. Chemoreactomic analysis of thiamine disulfide, thiamine hydrochloride, and benfotiamine molecules

    OpenAIRE

    O. A. Gromova; I. Yu. Torshin; L. V. Stakhovskaya; L. E. Fedotova

    2017-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the interactions that could indicate the potential pharmacological properties of the molecules of thiamin, thiamine disulfide, and others.Material and methods. The investigators simulated the properties of thiamine disulfide (bistiamin) versus those of the reference molecules of thiamin hydrochloride and benfotiamine. The study was performed using chemoreactomic simulation that is the newest area in post-genome pharmacology.Results and discussion. Chemoreactomic analysis...

  12. Identification of thioredoxin target disulfides in proteins released from barley aleurone layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Bunkenborg, J.; Yang, Fen

    2010-01-01

    Thioredoxins are ubiquitous disulfide reductases involved in a wide range of cellular processes including DNA synthesis, oxidative stress response and apoptosis. In cereal seeds thioredoxins are proposed to facilitate the germination process by reducing disulfide bonds in storage proteins and other...

  13. Hb Dartmouth (HBA2: c.200T>C): An α2-Globin Gene Associated with Hb H Disease in One Homozygous Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farashi, Samaneh; Faramarzi Garous, Negin; Ashki, Mehri; Vakili, Shadi; Zeinali, Fatemah; Imanian, Hashem; Azarkeivan, Azita; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Hb H (β4) disease is caused by deletion or inactivation of three out of four α-globin genes. A high incidence of Hb H disease has been reported all over the world. There is a wide spectrum of phenotypic presentations, from clinically asymptomatic to having significant hepatosplenomegaly and requiring occasional or even regular blood transfusions, even more severe anemia, Hb Bart's (γ4) hydrops fetalis syndrome that can cause death in the affected fetuses late in gestation. We here present a case who was diagnosed with Hb H disease that represents a new genotype for this hereditary disorder. Hb Dartmouth is a variant caused by a missense mutation at codon 66 of the α2-globin gene (HBA2: c.200T>C), resulting in the substitution of leucine by proline. We here emphasize the importance of this point mutation involving Hb H disease and also the necessity for prenatal diagnosis (PND) for those who carry this point mutation in the heterozygous state.

  14. Secondary polycythaemia in a Malay girl with homozygous Hb Tak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, H S; Aziz, M A; George, E; Mahmud, N; Lee, T Y; Md Noor, S

    2017-12-01

    Hb Tak is one of more than 200 high affinity haemoglobin variants reported worldwide. It results from the insertion of two nucleotides (AC) at the termination codon, between codon 146 and codon 147 of the beta-globin gene [Beta 147 (+AC)]. Polycythaemia is the main clinical feature although affected carriers are usually asymptomatic and do not require intervention. Several case studies in this region have reported the co-inheritance of Hb Tak with Hb E, delta beta and beta thalassaemia with one case of homozygous Hb Tak in a Thai boy. In this case report, a cluster of haemoglobin Tak was found in a family of Malay ethnic origin. Cascade family screening was conducted while investigating a 4-year old girl who presented with symptomatic polycythaemia. She had 2 previous Hb analysis done, at 7-month and 2-year-old with the diagnosis of possible Hb Q Thailand and Homozygous Hb D, respectively. Both diagnosis did not fit her clinical presentations. She was plethoric, had reduced exercise tolerance as well as cardiomyopathy. Her parents were consanguineously married and later diagnosed as asymptomatic carriers of Hb Tak. Consequently, re-analysis of the girl's blood sample revealed a homozygous state of Hb Tak. In conclusion, high oxygen affinity haemoglobin like Hb Tak should be considered in the investigation of polycythaemic patients with abnormal Hb analyses. In this case, DNA analysis was crucial in determining the correct diagnosis.

  15. Kinetic analysis of the mechanism and specificity of protein-disulfide isomerase using fluorescence-quenched peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westphal, V; Spetzler, J C; Meldal, M

    1998-01-01

    Protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) is an abundant folding catalyst in the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells. PDI introduces disulfide bonds into newly synthesized proteins and catalyzes disulfide bond isomerizations. We have synthesized a library of disulfide-linked fluorescence......-quenched peptides, individually linked to resin beads, for two purposes: 1) to probe PDI specificity, and 2) to identify simple, sensitive peptide substrates of PDI. Using this library, beads that became rapidly fluorescent by reduction by human PDI were selected. Amino acid sequencing of the bead-linked peptides...

  16. Internalization mechanisms of the epidermal growth factor receptor after activation with different ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Henriksen

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR regulates normal growth and differentiation, but dysregulation of the receptor or one of the EGFR ligands is involved in the pathogenesis of many cancers. There are eight ligands for EGFR, however most of the research into trafficking of the receptor after ligand activation focuses on the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α. For a long time it was believed that clathrin-mediated endocytosis was the major pathway for internalization of the receptor, but recent work suggests that different pathways exist. Here we show that clathrin ablation completely inhibits internalization of EGF- and TGF-α-stimulated receptor, however the inhibition of receptor internalization in cells treated with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF or betacellulin (BTC was only partial. In contrast, clathrin knockdown fully inhibits EGFR degradation after all ligands tested. Furthermore, inhibition of dynamin function blocked EGFR internalization after stimulation with all ligands. Knocking out a number of clathrin-independent dynamin-dependent pathways of internalization had no effect on the ligand-induced endocytosis of the EGFR. We suggest that EGF and TGF-α lead to EGFR endocytosis mainly via the clathrin-mediated pathway. Furthermore, we suggest that HB-EGF and BTC also lead to EGFR endocytosis via a clathrin-mediated pathway, but can additionally use an unidentified internalization pathway or better recruit the small amount of clathrin remaining after clathrin knockdown.

  17. Internalization Mechanisms of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor after Activation with Different Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lasse; Grandal, Michael Vibo; Knudsen, Stine Louise Jeppe; van Deurs, Bo; Grøvdal, Lene Melsæther

    2013-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates normal growth and differentiation, but dysregulation of the receptor or one of the EGFR ligands is involved in the pathogenesis of many cancers. There are eight ligands for EGFR, however most of the research into trafficking of the receptor after ligand activation focuses on the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α). For a long time it was believed that clathrin-mediated endocytosis was the major pathway for internalization of the receptor, but recent work suggests that different pathways exist. Here we show that clathrin ablation completely inhibits internalization of EGF- and TGF-α-stimulated receptor, however the inhibition of receptor internalization in cells treated with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) or betacellulin (BTC) was only partial. In contrast, clathrin knockdown fully inhibits EGFR degradation after all ligands tested. Furthermore, inhibition of dynamin function blocked EGFR internalization after stimulation with all ligands. Knocking out a number of clathrin-independent dynamin-dependent pathways of internalization had no effect on the ligand-induced endocytosis of the EGFR. We suggest that EGF and TGF-α lead to EGFR endocytosis mainly via the clathrin-mediated pathway. Furthermore, we suggest that HB-EGF and BTC also lead to EGFR endocytosis via a clathrin-mediated pathway, but can additionally use an unidentified internalization pathway or better recruit the small amount of clathrin remaining after clathrin knockdown. PMID:23472148

  18. Characterization of Disulfide-Linked Peptides Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Automated Data Analysis Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhidan; McGuinness, Kenneth N.; Crespo, Alejandro; Zhong, Wendy

    2018-05-01

    Disulfide bond formation is critical for maintaining structure stability and function of many peptides and proteins. Mass spectrometry has become an important tool for the elucidation of molecular connectivity. However, the interpretation of the tandem mass spectral data of disulfide-linked peptides has been a major challenge due to the lack of appropriate tools. Developing proper data analysis software is essential to quickly characterize disulfide-linked peptides. A thorough and in-depth understanding of how disulfide-linked peptides fragment in mass spectrometer is a key in developing software to interpret the tandem mass spectra of these peptides. Two model peptides with inter- and intra-chain disulfide linkages were used to study fragmentation behavior in both collisional-activated dissociation (CAD) and electron-based dissociation (ExD) experiments. Fragments generated from CAD and ExD can be categorized into three major types, which result from different S-S and C-S bond cleavage patterns. DiSulFinder is a computer algorithm that was newly developed based on the fragmentation observed in these peptides. The software is vendor neutral and capable of quickly and accurately identifying a variety of fragments generated from disulfide-linked peptides. DiSulFinder identifies peptide backbone fragments with S-S and C-S bond cleavages and, more importantly, can also identify fragments with the S-S bond still intact to aid disulfide linkage determination. With the assistance of this software, more comprehensive disulfide connectivity characterization can be achieved. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Characterization of Disulfide-Linked Peptides Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Automated Data Analysis Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhidan; McGuinness, Kenneth N; Crespo, Alejandro; Zhong, Wendy

    2018-01-25

    Disulfide bond formation is critical for maintaining structure stability and function of many peptides and proteins. Mass spectrometry has become an important tool for the elucidation of molecular connectivity. However, the interpretation of the tandem mass spectral data of disulfide-linked peptides has been a major challenge due to the lack of appropriate tools. Developing proper data analysis software is essential to quickly characterize disulfide-linked peptides. A thorough and in-depth understanding of how disulfide-linked peptides fragment in mass spectrometer is a key in developing software to interpret the tandem mass spectra of these peptides. Two model peptides with inter- and intra-chain disulfide linkages were used to study fragmentation behavior in both collisional-activated dissociation (CAD) and electron-based dissociation (ExD) experiments. Fragments generated from CAD and ExD can be categorized into three major types, which result from different S-S and C-S bond cleavage patterns. DiSulFinder is a computer algorithm that was newly developed based on the fragmentation observed in these peptides. The software is vendor neutral and capable of quickly and accurately identifying a variety of fragments generated from disulfide-linked peptides. DiSulFinder identifies peptide backbone fragments with S-S and C-S bond cleavages and, more importantly, can also identify fragments with the S-S bond still intact to aid disulfide linkage determination. With the assistance of this software, more comprehensive disulfide connectivity characterization can be achieved. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  20. The Chemistry of Alk-1-yn-1-yl DisulfidesA Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senning, Alexander Erich Eugen

    2009-01-01

    The preparation and the properties of the elusive alk-1-yn-1-yl disulfides are reviewed, including the most recent quantum chemical findings with regard to their reactivity.......The preparation and the properties of the elusive alk-1-yn-1-yl disulfides are reviewed, including the most recent quantum chemical findings with regard to their reactivity....

  1. The effects of EGF and IGF-1 on FSH-mediated in vitro maturation of domestic cat oocytes derived from follicular and luteal stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Koray; Vural, M Rıfat; Küplülü, Sükrü; Ozcan, Ziya; Polat, I Mert

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-1) on the in vitro maturation of cat oocytes recovered from follicular and luteal stage ovaries. Oocytes from follicular (n=580) and luteal (n=209) stages were harvested and divided into four groups, which were cultured in FSH-mediated maturation medium supplemented with: (1) EGF alone (25ng/mL); (2) IGF-1 alone (100ng/mL); (3) EGF+IGF-1 (25ng/mL EGF+100ng/mL IGF-I); or (4) no growth factor (control). The proportion of follicular stage oocytes reaching the metaphase II stage was significantly higher than that of oocytes obtained at the luteal stage in both control and study groups (pIGF-1, and 78.1% in EGF+IGF-1 groups, whereas the respective values for gametes collected from luteal stage ovaries were 12.5%, 17.5%, 12.5%, and 16.9%. Additionally, the differences between the study and control groups were significant in the case of follicular stage oocytes. Finally, supplementing the maturation medium with EGF and/or IGF-1 significantly enhanced the meiotic maturation of oocytes recovered from follicular stage ovaries. The present study also demonstrated that the combination of EGF and IGF-I provides an additional or synergic effect on meiotic maturation of oocytes recovered from the follicular stage. Copyright © 2014 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. Glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue therapy directly modulates innate immune-mediated inflammation in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Andrew E; Gaoatswe, Gadintshware; Lynch, Lydia; Corrigan, Michelle A; Woods, Conor; O'Connell, Jean; O'Shea, Donal

    2014-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a gut hormone used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is emerging evidence that GLP-1 has anti-inflammatory activity in humans, with murine studies suggesting an effect on macrophage polarisation. We hypothesised that GLP-1 analogue therapy in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus would affect the inflammatory macrophage molecule soluble CD163 (sCD163) and adipocytokine profile. We studied ten obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients starting GLP-1 analogue therapy at a hospital-based diabetes service. We investigated levels of sCD163, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, adiponectin and leptin by ELISA, before and after 8 weeks of GLP-1 analogue therapy. GLP-1 analogue therapy reduced levels of the inflammatory macrophage activation molecule sCD163 (220 ng/ml vs 171 ng/ml, p < 0.001). This occurred independent of changes in body weight, fructosamine and HbA1c. GLP-1 analogue therapy was associated with a decrease in levels of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α (264 vs 149 pg/ml, p < 0.05), IL-1β (2,919 vs 748 pg/ml, p < 0.05) and IL-6 (1,379 vs 461 pg/ml p < 0.05) and an increase in levels of the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin (4,480 vs 6,290 pg/ml, p < 0.002). In individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, GLP-1 analogue therapy reduces the frequency of inflammatory macrophages. This effect is not dependent on the glycaemic or body weight effects of GLP-1.

  3. Freeze-dried formulation for direct {sup 99m}Tc-labeling ior-egf/r3 MAb: additives, biodistribution, and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, Alejo A. Morales; Nunez-Gandolff, Gilda; Perez, Niuvis Perez; Veliz, Belkis Chico; Caballero-Torres, Idania; Duconge, Jorge; Fernandez, Eduardo; Crespo, Francisco Zayas; Veloso, Ana; Iznaga-Escobar, Normando E-mail: normando@ict.sld.cu

    1999-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been useful for immunoscintigraphic applications in clinical diagnosis since they were introduced in nuclear medicine practice. The MAb ior egf/r3 developed at the Center of Molecular Immunology (Havana, Cuba) is a murine antibody that recognizes the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) and has been used widely in the radioimmunodiagnosis of tumors of epithelial origin. Based on the direct Schwarz method, the present report describes the preparation of a freeze-dried formulation for radiolabeling the MAb ior egf/r3 with {sup 99m}Tc for immunoscintigraphic applications. Radiolabeling efficiency, effects on immunoreactivity, biodistribution, pharmacokinetic, and stability of the formulation are reported. The study demonstrated that the freeze-dried formulation can be labeled with {sup 99m}Tc at high yield. The resulting {sup 99m}Tc-labeled ior egf/r3 MAb can be used to visualize in vivo human tumors of epithelial origin by immunoscintigraphy studies. The kit does not need any other addition or purification at the time of tagging other than the requisite amount of pertechnetate (40-50 mCi). Because the contents of the kit are lyophilized, no special storage or transportation is required.

  4. A method comparison study between two hemoglobinometer models (Hemocue Hb 301 and Hb 201+) to measure hemoglobin concentrations and estimate anemia prevalence among women in Preah Vihear, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, A I; Karakochuk, C D; Whitfield, K C; Kheang, K M; Green, T J

    2017-02-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration is often measured in global health and nutrition surveys to determine anemia prevalence using a portable hemoglobinometer such as the Hemocue® Hb 201+. More recently, a newer model was released (Hemocue Hb 301) utilizing slightly different methods to measure Hb as compared to the older model. The objective was to measure bias and concordance between Hb concentrations using the Hemocue Hb 301 and Hb 201+ models in a rural field setting. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was measured using one finger prick of blood (approximately 10 μL) from 175 Cambodian women (18-49 years) using three Hemocue Hb 201+ and three Hb 301 machines. Bias and concordance were measured and plotted. Overall, mean ± SD Hb concentration was 116 ± 13 g/L using the Hb 201+ and 118 ± 12 g/L using the Hb 301; and anemia prevalence (Hb < 120 g/L) was 58% (n = 102) and 58% (n = 101), respectively. Overall bias ± SD was 2.0 ± 10.5 g/L and concordance (95% CI) was 0.63 (0.54, 0.72). Despite the 2 g/L bias detected between models, anemia prevalence was very similar in both models. The two models measured anemia prevalence comparably in this population of women in rural Cambodia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Complete Mapping of Complex Disulfide Patterns with Closely-Spaced Cysteines by In-Source Reduction and Data-Dependent Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Christian N; Kelstrup, Christian D; Olsen, Jesper V

    2017-01-01

    bonds are present in complicated patterns. This includes the presence of disulfide bonds in nested patterns and closely spaced cysteines. Unambiguous mapping of such disulfide bonds typically requires advanced MS approaches. In this study, we exploited in-source reduction (ISR) of disulfide bonds during...... the electrospray ionization process to facilitate disulfide bond assignments. We successfully developed a LC-ISR-MS/MS methodology to use as an online and fully automated partial reduction procedure. Postcolumn partial reduction by ISR provided fast and easy identification of peptides involved in disulfide bonding......Mapping of disulfide bonds is an essential part of protein characterization to ensure correct cysteine pairings. For this, mass spectrometry (MS) is the most widely used technique due to fast and accurate characterization. However, MS-based disulfide mapping is challenged when multiple disulfide...

  6. Current Status of HbA1c Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hua; Yi, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is formed via non-enzymatic glycosylation reactions at the α–amino group of βVal1 residues in the tetrameric Hb, and it can reflect the ambient glycemic level over the past two to three months. A variety of HbA1c detection methods, including chromatography, immunoassay, enzymatic measurement, electrochemical sensor and capillary electrophoresis have been developed and used in research laboratories and in clinics as well. In this review, we summarize the current status of HbA1c biosensors based on the recognition of the sugar moiety on the protein and also their applications in the whole blood sample measurements. PMID:28777351

  7. Long-term organ culture of rabbit skin: Effect of EGF on epidermal structure in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, S.; Hozumi, Y.; Aso, K.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for maintaining the epidermal structure of normal rabbit ear skin explants in organ culture for up to 12 weeks. Split-thickness skin specimens were put in diffusion chambers made of either millipore filters or bovine collagen membranes, and then submitted to a roller tube culture at 15 rpm and 36 degrees C. The culture medium was Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 20% fetal calf serum (FCS) + 0.4 micrograms/ml hydrocortisone. The gas used in the culture tube was air + 5% CO2. Autoradiography revealed the incorporation of [3H]-glycine into the 68-kD keratin band of explants for up to 12 weeks, indicating that normal keratinization was maintained throughout the entire culture period. The turnover time of the epidermis from basal layer to granular layer was around 7 d in both the early and late stages of culture. The addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to the culture caused the epidermis to become acanthotic with orthokeratosis, but with high concentrations of EGF (greater than or equal to 10 ng/ml) parakeratosis and increased proliferation of the epidermis occurred. Dexamethasone (DMS) strongly inhibited the EGF effect

  8. PDILT, a divergent testis-specific protein disulfide isomerase with a non-classical SXXC motif that engages in disulfide-dependent interactions in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lith, Marcel; Hartigan, Nichola; Hatch, Jennifer; Benham, Adam M

    2005-01-14

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is the archetypal enzyme involved in the formation and reshuffling of disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). PDI achieves its redox function through two highly conserved thioredoxin domains, and PDI can also operate as an ER chaperone. The substrate specificities and the exact functions of most other PDI family proteins remain important unsolved questions in biology. Here, we characterize a new and striking member of the PDI family, which we have named protein disulfide isomerase-like protein of the testis (PDILT). PDILT is the first eukaryotic SXXC protein to be characterized in the ER. Our experiments have unveiled a novel, glycosylated PDI-like protein whose tissue-specific expression and unusual motifs have implications for the evolution, catalytic function, and substrate selection of thioredoxin family proteins. We show that PDILT is an ER resident glycoprotein that liaises with partner proteins in disulfide-dependent complexes within the testis. PDILT interacts with the oxidoreductase Ero1alpha, demonstrating that the N-terminal cysteine of the CXXC sequence is not required for binding of PDI family proteins to ER oxidoreductases. The expression of PDILT, in addition to PDI in the testis, suggests that PDILT performs a specialized chaperone function in testicular cells. PDILT is an unusual PDI relative that highlights the adaptability of chaperone and redox function in enzymes of the endoplasmic reticulum.

  9. Solvent Induced Disulfide Bond Formation in 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole

    OpenAIRE

    Palanisamy Kalimuthu; Palraj Kalimuthu; S. Abraham John

    2007-01-01

    Disulfide bond formation is the decisive event in the protein folding to determine the conformation and stability of protein. To achieve this disulfide bond formation in vitro, we took 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (DMcT) as a model compound. We found that disulfide bond formation takes place between two sulfhydryl groups of DMcT molecules in methanol. UV-Vis, FT-IR and mass spectroscopic as well as cyclic voltammetry were used to monitor the course of reaction. We proposed a mechanism for...

  10. Phosphoproteomics identified Endofin, DCBLD2, and KIAA0582 as novel tyrosine phosphorylation targets of EGF signaling and Iressa in human cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yunhao; Low, Teck-Yew; Choong, Lee-Yee

    2007-01-01

    With the completion of the human genome project, analysis of enriched phosphotyrosyl proteins from epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced phosphotyrosine proteome permits the identification of novel downstream substrates of the EGF receptor (EGFR). Using cICAT-based LC-MS/MS method, we identified...

  11. EGF suppresses hydrogen peroxide induced Ca2+ influx by inhibiting L-type channel activity in cultured human corneal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, Stefan; Pleyer, Uwe; Reinach, Peter; Bednarz, Jürgen; Dannowski, Haike; Engelmann, Katrin; Hartmann, Christian; Yousif, Tarik

    2005-02-01

    Endogenous generated hydrogen peroxide during eye bank storage limits viability. We determined in cultured human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC) whether: (1) this oxidant induces elevations in intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]i; (2) epidermal growth factor (EGF) medium supplementation has a protective effect against peroxide mediated rises in [Ca2+]i. Whereas pathophysiological concentrations of H2O2 (10 mM) induced irreversible large increases in [Ca2+]i, lower concentrations (up to 1 mM) had smaller effects, which were further reduced by exposure to either 5 microM nifedipine or EGF (10 ng ml(-1)). EGF had a larger protective effect against H2O2-induced rises in [Ca2+]i than nifedipine. In addition, icilin, the agonist for the temperature sensitive transient receptor potential protein, TRPM8, had complex dose-dependent effects (i.e. 10 and 50 microM) on [Ca2+]i. At 10 microM, it reversibly elevated [Ca2+]i whereas at 50 microM an opposite effect occurred suggesting complex effects of temperature on endothelial viability. Taken together, H2O2 induces rises in [Ca2+]i that occur through increases in Ca2+ permeation along plasma membrane pathways that include L-type Ca2+ channels as well as other EGF-sensitive pathways. As EGF overcomes H2O2-induced rises in [Ca2+]i, its presence during eye bank storage could improve the outcome of corneal transplant surgery.

  12. HB D Los Angeles in a Brazilian family Hb D Los Angeles em família brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme G. Leoneli

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Inherited disorders of hemoglobin, the most common monogenic disease, are now well understood at the molecular level, knowledge, which has led to considerable improvements in their control and management. The Brazilian population is multiethnic, and the correct characterization of the Hb D is important, mainly because the method available for detection of abnormal hemoglobins, present a migration in the same zone at alkaline pH, for Hb S, D, and G for example. In this paper we studied a family with an abnormal hemoglobin like S in alkaline electrophoresis, by appropriated methods including HPLC and molecular analysis, characterized as hemoglobin D Los Angeles.As doenças hereditária da hemoglobina são as mais comuns doenças monogênicas e atualmente bem conhecidas do ponto de vista molecular, fato este que propiciou um avanço no seu controle e manuseio. A população brasileira caracteriza-se pela multiplicidade étnica e a caracterização da Hb D torna-se importante por este dado, associado ao fato de que os métodos de detecção das hemoglobinopatias comumente não identificam esta fração anormal que apresenta a peculiaridade de migração eletroforéticia em pH alcalino na mesma zona observada nas Hb S e G. Neste relato é apresentado um estudo familiar no qual é empregada metodologia adequada, o HLPC, que permite a identificação da Hb D.

  13. Interaction of Hb Grey Lynn (Vientiane) [α91(FG3)Leu>Phe (α1)] with Hb E [β26(B8) Glu>Lys] and α(+)-thalassemia: Molecular and Hematological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Kritsada; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) Grey Lynn is a Hb variant caused by a mutation at codon 91 of α1-globin gene whereas Hb E is a common β-globin chain variant among Southeast Asian population. We report two hitherto undescribed conditions of Hb Grey Lynn found in Thai individuals. The study was done on two unrelated Thai subjects. Hematological parameters were recorded and Hb analysis was carried out using automated Hb analyzers. Mutations were identified by DNA analysis. Hematological features of the patients were compared with those of various forms of Hb Grey Lynn documented previously. Hb and DNA analyses identified a heterozygous Hb Grey Lynn in one patient and a double heterozygous Hb Grey Lynn and Hb E with α(+)-thalassemia in another. Interaction of α(Grey Lynn) with β(E) chains leads to the formation of a new Hb variant, namely the Hb Grey Lynn E (α(GL)2β(E)2), detectable by liquid chromatography (10.3%) but masked by Hb E on capillary electrophoresis. Interaction of these multiple globin gene defects could lead to complex hemoglobinopathies requiring combined analysis with multiple Hb analyzers followed by DNA testing to provide accurate diagnosis of the cases.

  14. Transfusion Associated Peak in Hb HPLC Chromatogram – a Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sonal; Dass, Jasmita; Pati, Hara Prasad

    2012-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrophoresis are commonly used to diagnose various hemoglobinopathies. However, insufficient information about the transfusion history can lead to unexpected and confusing results. We are reporting a case of Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) in which HbHPLC was done to quantify fetal hemoglobin (HbF). The chromatogram showed elevated HbF along with a peak in the HbD window. A transfusion acquired peak was suspected based on the unexpectedly low percentage of HbD and was subsequently confirmed using parental HbHPLC. PMID:22348188

  15. Selective removal of heavy metal ions by disulfide linked polymer networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Dongah [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Lee, Joo Sung [Graduate School of EEWS, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Patel, Hasmukh A. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Jakobsen, Mogens H. [Department of Micro and Nano technology, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, 345B, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Hwang, Yuhoon [Department of Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, 232 Gongreung-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 01811 (Korea, Republic of); Yavuz, Cafer T. [Graduate School of EEWS, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Andersen, Henrik R., E-mail: henrik@ndersen.net [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Disulfide/thiol polymer networks are promising as sorbent for heavy metals. • Rapid sorption and high Langmuir affinity constant (a{sub L}) for stormwater treatment. • Selective sorption for copper, cadmium, and zinc in the presence of calcium. • Reusability likely due to structure stability of disulfide linked polymer networks. - Abstract: Heavy metal contaminated surface water is one of the oldest pollution problems, which is critical to ecosystems and human health. We devised disulfide linked polymer networks and employed as a sorbent for removing heavy metal ions from contaminated water. Although the polymer network material has a moderate surface area, it demonstrated cadmium removal efficiency equivalent to highly porous activated carbon while it showed 16 times faster sorption kinetics compared to activated carbon, owing to the high affinity of cadmium towards disulfide and thiol functionality in the polymer network. The metal sorption mechanism on polymer network was studied by sorption kinetics, effect of pH, and metal complexation. We observed that the metal ions–copper, cadmium, and zinc showed high binding affinity in polymer network, even in the presence of competing cations like calcium in water.

  16. Electrochemistry-assisted top-down characterization of disulfide-containing proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Cui, Weidong; Zhang, Hao; Dewald, Howard D; Chen, Hao

    2012-04-17

    Covalent disulfide bond linkage in a protein represents an important challenge for mass spectrometry (MS)-based top-down protein structure analysis as it reduces the backbone cleavage efficiency for MS/MS dissociation. This study presents a strategy for solving this critical issue via integrating electrochemistry (EC) online with a top-down MS approach. In this approach, proteins undergo electrolytic reduction in an electrochemical cell to break disulfide bonds and then undergo online ionization into gaseous ions for analysis by electron-capture dissociation (ECD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID). The electrochemical reduction of proteins allows one to remove disulfide bond constraints and also leads to increased charge numbers of the resulting protein ions. As a result, sequence coverage was significantly enhanced, as exemplified by β-lactoglobulin A (24 vs 75 backbone cleavages before and after electrolytic reduction, respectively) and lysozyme (5 vs 66 backbone cleavages before and after electrolytic reduction, respectively). This methodology is fast and does not need chemical reductants, which would have an important impact in high-throughput proteomics research.

  17. Hb H Hydrops Fetalis Syndrome Caused by Association of the - -(SEA) Deletion and Hb Constant Spring (HBA2: c.427T > C) Mutation in a Chinese Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Sheng; Zheng, Chenguang; Meng, Dahua; Chen, Rongyu; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Xiaoxian; Chen, Shaoke

    2015-01-01

    Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS; HBA2: c.427T > C) is an unstable hemoglobin (Hb) variant that results from a nucleotide substitution at the termination codon of the α2-globin gene. Compound heterozygosity for α(0)-thalassemia (α(0)-thal) and Hb CS (- -(SEA)/α(CS)α) results in Hb H/Hb CS disease, which is generally characterized with mild hemolytic anemia, jaundice, and splenomegaly. Here, we describe one case with Hb H/Hb CS disease that presented with fetal anemia and fetal hydrops, known as Hb H (β4) hydrops fetalis. This is the first report of fetal hydrops caused by association of the - -(SEA) deletion and the α(CS)α mutation. Our study highlights the significance of watchful observation using a serial ultrasound method and care of pregnant women who have fetuses found to carry Hb H/Hb CS disease during pregnancy, to guard against the occurrence of fetal hydrops.

  18. Study of the effects of low-dose radiation and rhEGF on growth of cultured human epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jicheng; Zhao Xiaoyu; Sheng Weihua; Tang Zhongyi

    1998-01-01

    In authors' study, the method of taking skin sample, mincing and trypsinizing the sample are presented. The cells were inoculated on adherent membrane or, for sublethally injured 3T3 cells, in culture dish fed with Eargles' medium supplemented with fetal calf serum and various growth-stimulating factors. The cultures were incubated at 37 degree C in an atmosphere containing 5% CO 2 . The medium was changed every three days. The cultured cells became confluent in about two weeks. At the same time, low-dose-radiation and rhEGF were used to influence the growth of the epithelial cells and to test the effects of dosage and concentration. The results showed that low-dose-radiation in the conditions like authors' study could enhance the growth of human epithelial cells just like rhEGF, and it has synergetic effects with rhEGF. The mechanism is discussed

  19. Accumulation of human EGF in nectar of transformed plants of Nicotiana langsdorffii × N. sanderae and transfer to honey by bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Kwakman, P.H.S.; Bleeker, W.K.; Keizer, L.C.P.; Bade, J.B.; Velde, te A.A.; Zaat, S.A.J.; Verbeek, M.; Creemers-Molenaar, J.

    2011-01-01

    Honey has been used successfully in wound healing for thousands of years. The peptide hormone human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) is also known to have a beneficial effect in various wound healing processes via mechanisms that differ from those for honey. In this study, we show that hEGF can be

  20. Accumulation of human EGF in nectar of transformed plants of Nicotiana langsdorffii x N. sanderae and transfer to honey by bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J. P. F. G.; Ruyter-Spira, C. P.; Kwakman, P. H. S.; Bleeker, W. K.; Keizer, L. C. P.; Bade, J. B.; te Velde, A. A.; Zaat, S. A. J.; Verbeek, M.; Creemers-Molenaar, J.

    2011-01-01

    Honey has been used successfully in wound healing for thousands of years. The peptide hormone human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) is also known to have a beneficial effect in various wound healing processes via mechanisms that differ from those for honey. In this study, we show that hEGF can be

  1. Analogue MIMO Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNamara Darren

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we propose an analogue receiver that can perform turbo detection in MIMO systems. We present the case for a receiver that is built from nonlinear analogue devices, which perform detection in a "free-flow" network (no notion of iterations. This contribution can be viewed as an extension of analogue turbo decoder concepts to include MIMO detection. These first analogue implementations report reductions of few orders of magnitude in the number of required transistors and in consumed energy, and the same order of improvement in processing speed. It is anticipated that such analogue MIMO decoder could bring about the same advantages, when compared to traditional digital implementations.

  2. Advanced computational biology methods identify molecular switches for malignancy in an EGF mouse model of liver cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Stegmaier

    Full Text Available The molecular causes by which the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase induces malignant transformation are largely unknown. To better understand EGFs' transforming capacity whole genome scans were applied to a transgenic mouse model of liver cancer and subjected to advanced methods of computational analysis to construct de novo gene regulatory networks based on a combination of sequence analysis and entrained graph-topological algorithms. Here we identified transcription factors, processes, key nodes and molecules to connect as yet unknown interacting partners at the level of protein-DNA interaction. Many of those could be confirmed by electromobility band shift assay at recognition sites of gene specific promoters and by western blotting of nuclear proteins. A novel cellular regulatory circuitry could therefore be proposed that connects cell cycle regulated genes with components of the EGF signaling pathway. Promoter analysis of differentially expressed genes suggested the majority of regulated transcription factors to display specificity to either the pre-tumor or the tumor state. Subsequent search for signal transduction key nodes upstream of the identified transcription factors and their targets suggested the insulin-like growth factor pathway to render the tumor cells independent of EGF receptor activity. Notably, expression of IGF2 in addition to many components of this pathway was highly upregulated in tumors. Together, we propose a switch in autocrine signaling to foster tumor growth that was initially triggered by EGF and demonstrate the knowledge gain form promoter analysis combined with upstream key node identification.

  3. Selective disulfide reduction for labeling and enhancement of Fab antibody fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirley, Terence L.; Greis, Kenneth D.; Norman, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    Many methods have been developed for chemical labeling and enhancement of the properties of antibodies and their common fragments, including the Fab and F(ab’) 2 fragments. Somewhat selective reduction of some antibody disulfide bonds has been previously achieved, yielding antibodies and antibody fragments that can be labeled at defined sites, enhancing their utility and properties. Selective reduction of the two hinge disulfide bonds present in F(ab’) 2 fragments using mild reduction has been useful. However, such reduction is often not quantitative and results in the reduction of multiple disulfide bonds, and therefore subsequent multiple labeling or conjugation sites are neither homogenous nor stoichiometric. Here, a simple and efficient selective reduction of the single disulfide bond linking the partial heavy chain and the intact light chain which compose the Fab fragment is accomplished utilizing tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) immobilized on agarose beads. The resultant reduced cysteine residues were labeled with several cysteine-selective fluorescent reagents, as well as by cysteine-directed PEGylation. These two cysteine residues can also be re-ligated by means of a bifunctional cysteine cross-linking agent, dibromobimane, thereby both restoring a covalent linkage between the heavy and light chains at this site, far removed from the antigen binding site, and also introducing a fluorescent probe. There are many other research and clinical uses for these selectively partially reduced Fab fragments, including biotinylation, toxin and drug conjugation, and incorporation of radioisotopes, and this technique enables simple generation of very useful Fab fragment derivatives with many potential applications. - Highlights: • TCEP agarose is effective for selective reduction of a single Fab disulfide bond. • This disulfide is solvent accessible and distant from the antigen binding site. • A variety of buffers of varying pHs can be used, simplifying

  4. How does CKD affect HbA1c?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomgarden, Zachary; Handelsman, Yehuda

    2018-04-01

    HOW DOES CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE AFFECT HBA1C?: A number of factors determine HbA1c other than the level of glucose exposure alone. In an subset analysis of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study of 941 diabetic people with varying degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD), as well as 724 who did not have CKD, and mean age in the eighth decade, Jung et al. ask whether HbA1c is reliable as an indicator of glycemia in people with kidney disease (CKD) to the same degree as in those not having kidney disease, and, if not, whether measures of glycated serum proteins may be more useful. The only available measure of glycemia for comparison was a single fasting glucose level, and the authors acknowledge that this gives an incomplete measure, particularly in people with relatively mild diabetes, whose mean HbA1c was 6.4%, with most having levels of 7.5% or lower. In patients of this sort, postprandial glucose levels may better explain variations in mean HbA1c. Recognizing that the dataset may be limited, Jung et al. nevertheless give an intriguingly negative answer to the first question, of the reliability of HbA1c with kidney disease. Using Deming regression analysis, Jung et al. showed that the correlation between HbA1c and fasting glucose weakens as renal function worsens, and, moreover, that this appears particularly to be the case in people with anemia (hemoglobin men and women, respectively), confirming earlier observations. Among those diabetic people with neither anemia nor CKD, the correlation coefficient between HbA1c and fasting glucose was r = 0.70, compared with r = 0.35 among those with both anemia and very severe CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] perform SMBG to more adequately interpret HbA1c results. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Stimulation of chondrocytes in vitro by gene transfer with plasmids coding for epidermal growth factor (hEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, H; Mehlhorn, A T; Zwingmann, J

    2005-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) influence critical characteristics of chondrocytes. The effects on metabolism and differentiation were evaluated following transfection using specific plasmids coding for both cytokines. Chondrocytes were isolated from...... of recombinant hEGF and bFGF resulted in a significant increase in cell proliferation and glucosaminoglycan production. Chondrocytes were transfected with vectors coding for either hEGF or bFGF and the production of these proteins was measured in supernatants by ELISA. Expression kinetics showed different...... patterns: hEGF was detectable 2.5 days following transfection and peaked at day 5.5, whereas bFGF-production reached its maximum 1.5 days after transfection, declining thereafter. Chondrocytes endogenously produced significant amounts of bFGF within 5 days following isolation. Proliferation of h...

  6. Apoptosis inducer NGFI-B is degraded by the proteasome and stabilized by treatment with EGF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Bjorn O. [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Paulsen, Ragnhild E., E-mail: r.e.paulsen@farmasi.uio.no [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NGFI-B is a molecular target for some anti-cancer drugs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NGFI-B turnover may be important for their anti-cancer action. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NGFI-B is degraded by the proteasome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NGFI-B is stabilized by treatment with EGF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mimicking the EGF-induced phosphorylation also stabilizes the protein. -- Abstract: NGFI-B is a nuclear receptor and immediate early gene that is upregulated in many different tumour cell lines. As it is involved in cell death and survival, it has been suggested as a target for anti-cancer drugs. The protein level of NGFI-B is important for its functions and may be regulated through induction or stabilization. NGFI-B protein stability was studied using the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide in CV1 cells transiently transfected with NGFI-B. Inhibiting the proteasome with MG132 stabilized NGFI-B, indicating that the proteasome is responsible for break-down of NGFI-B, as it is for many nuclear receptors. In order to determine regions responsible for the break-down of NGFI-B two N-terminal regions with high PEST-scores were deleted. Deletion of amino acids 122-195 containing a PEST-sequence which includes an ERK2 phosphorylation target, gave a more stable protein. In addition, treatment of the cells with the ERK2 activator EGF increased the stability of wild type NGFI-B. We then tested whether a mutation at threonine 142 influenced the stability of NGFI-B. We found that the phosphorylation-mimicking mutant NGFI-B T142E had an increased stability, while the non-phosphorylable mutant (T142A) showed similar stability to the wild type. Thus, EGF-stimulation of cells may be a mechanism for priming the cells for effects of NGFI-B by increasing its stability.

  7. High Efficient Expression, Purification, and Functional Characterization of Native Human Epidermal Growth Factor in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF is a small, mitotic growth polypeptide that promotes the proliferation of various cells and is widely applied in clinical practices. However, high efficient expression of native hEGF in Escherichia coli has not been successful, since three disulfide bonds in monomer hEGF made it unable to fold into correct 3D structure using in vivo system. To tackle this problem, we fused Mxe GyrA intein (Mxe at the C-terminal of hEGF followed by small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO and 10x His-tag to construct a chimeric protein hEGF-Mxe-SUMO-H10. The fusion protein was highly expressed at the concentration of 281 mg/L and up to 59.5% of the total cellular soluble proteins. The fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography and 29.4 mg/L of native hEGF can be released by thiol induced N-terminal cleavage without any proteases. The mitotic activity in Balb/c 3T3 cells is proliferated by commercial and recombinant hEGF measured with methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay which indicated that recombinant hEGF protein stimulates the cell proliferation similar to commercial protein. This study significantly improved the yield and reduced the cost of hEGF in the recombinant E. coli system and could be a better strategy to produce native hEGF for pharmaceutical development.

  8. High Efficient Expression, Purification, and Functional Characterization of Native Human Epidermal Growth Factor in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Yu, Jieying; Lin, Jinglian; Wu, Shaomin; Li, Shan; Wang, Jufang

    2016-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) is a small, mitotic growth polypeptide that promotes the proliferation of various cells and is widely applied in clinical practices. However, high efficient expression of native hEGF in Escherichia coli has not been successful, since three disulfide bonds in monomer hEGF made it unable to fold into correct 3D structure using in vivo system. To tackle this problem, we fused Mxe GyrA intein (Mxe) at the C-terminal of hEGF followed by small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) and 10x His-tag to construct a chimeric protein hEGF-Mxe-SUMO-H 10 . The fusion protein was highly expressed at the concentration of 281 mg/L and up to 59.5% of the total cellular soluble proteins. The fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography and 29.4 mg/L of native hEGF can be released by thiol induced N-terminal cleavage without any proteases. The mitotic activity in Balb/c 3T3 cells is proliferated by commercial and recombinant hEGF measured with methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay which indicated that recombinant hEGF protein stimulates the cell proliferation similar to commercial protein. This study significantly improved the yield and reduced the cost of hEGF in the recombinant E. coli system and could be a better strategy to produce native hEGF for pharmaceutical development.

  9. Effects of α-Thalassemia on HbA1c Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Anping; Ji, Ling; Chen, Weidong; Xia, Yong; Zhou, Yu

    2016-11-01

    α-Thalassemia is a benign condition that is often present in patients with diabetes mellitus. Here, we evaluated the effects of different genotypes α-thalassemia on HbA 1c measurement. A total of 189 samples from nondiabetic patients were analyzed. HbA 1c analysis was performed by ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, boronate affinity HPLC, immunoassay, and capillary electrophoresis. Fasting glucose, fructosamin, and HbA 2 were also performed. All samples were confirmed by genotyping for thalassemia. In patients with two or three functional α-genes, HbA 1c values were not significantly different from those of controls (P > 0.05); however, in individuals with α-thalassemia with one functional α-gene (i.e., HbH disease), HbA 1c levels were significantly different from those of controls (P 0.05). In this study, HbA 1c values in samples from individuals with two or three functional α-genes basically reflected the normal mean blood glucose level, while those in samples from individuals with one functional α-gene did not. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. New thiol-responsive mono-cleavable block copolymer micelles labeled with single disulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourkohi, Behnoush Khorsand; Schmidt, Rolf; Oh, Jung Kwon

    2011-10-18

    Thiol-responsive symmetric triblock copolymers having single disulfide linkages in the middle blocks (called mono-cleavable block copolymers, ss-ABP(2)) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization in the presence of a disulfide-labeled difunctional Br-initiator. These brush-like triblock copolymers consist of a hydrophobic polyacrylate block having pendent oligo(propylene oxide) and a hydrophilic polymethacrylate block having pendent oligo(ethylene oxide). Gel permeation chromatography and (1)H NMR results confirmed the synthesis of well-defined mono-cleavable block copolymers and revealed that polymerizations were well controlled. Because of amphiphilic nature, these copolymers self-assembled to form colloidally stable micelles above critical micellar concentration of 0.032 mg · mL(-1). In response to reductive reactions, disulfides in thiol-responsive micelles were cleaved. Atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis suggested that the cleavage of disulfides caused dissociation of micelles to smaller-sized assembled structures in water. Moreover, in a biomedical perspective, the mono-cleavable block copolymer micelles are not cytotoxic and thus biocompatible. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Electrochemical reduction of disulfide-containing proteins for hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysling, Simon; Salbo, Rune; Ploug, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of disulfide bond-containing proteins by hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) requires reduction of the disulfide bonds under acidic and cold conditions, where the amide hydrogen exchange reaction is quenched (pH 2.5, 0 °C). The reduction typically...... of TCEP. In the present study, we explore the feasibility of using electrochemical reduction as a substitute for TCEP in HDX-MS analyses. Our results demonstrate that efficient disulfide bond reduction is readily achieved by implementing an electrochemical cell into the HDX-MS workflow. We also identify...... some challenges in using electrochemical reduction in HDX-MS analyses and provide possible conditions to attenuate these limitations. For example, high salt concentrations hamper disulfide bond reduction, necessitating additional dilution of the sample with aqueous acidic solution at quench conditions....

  12. Generation of a Multicomponent Library of Disulfide Donor-Acceptor Architectures Using Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drożdż, Wojciech; Kołodziejski, Michał; Markiewicz, Grzegorz; Jenczak, Anna; Stefankiewicz, Artur R

    2015-07-17

    We describe here the generation of new donor-acceptor disulfide architectures obtained in aqueous solution at physiological pH. The application of a dynamic combinatorial chemistry approach allowed us to generate a large number of new disulfide macrocyclic architectures together with a new type of [2]catenanes consisting of four distinct components. Up to fifteen types of structurally-distinct dynamic architectures have been generated through one-pot disulfide exchange reactions between four thiol-functionalized aqueous components. The distribution of disulfide products formed was found to be strongly dependent on the structural features of the thiol components employed. This work not only constitutes a success in the synthesis of topologically- and morphologically-complex targets, but it may also open new horizons for the use of this methodology in the construction of molecular machines.

  13. Dissecting the role of disulfide bonds on the amyloid formation of insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yang; Gong, Hao; Sun, Yue; Yan, Juan; Cheng, Biao; Zhang, Xin; Huang, Jing; Yu, Mengying; Guo, Yu; Zheng, Ling; Huang, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We dissect how individual disulfide bond affects the amyloidogenicity of insulin. ► A controlled reduction system for insulin is established in this study. ► Disulfide breakage is associated with unfolding and increased amyloidogenicity. ► Breakage of A6-A11 is associated with significantly increased cytotoxicity. ► Analogs without A6-A11 have a higher potency to form high order toxic oligomers. -- Abstract: Disulfide bonds play a critical role in the stability and folding of proteins. Here, we used insulin as a model system, to investigate the role of its individual disulfide bond during the amyloid formation of insulin. Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) was applied to reduce two of the three disulfide bonds in porcine insulin and the reduced disulfide bonds were then alkylated by iodoacetamide. Three disulfide bond-modified insulin analogs, INS-2 (lack of A6-A11), INS-3 (lack of A7-B7) and INS-6 (lack of both A6-A11 and A7-B7), were obtained. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy results indicated that the secondary structure of INS-2 was the closest to insulin under neutral conditions, followed by INS-3 and INS-6, whereas in an acidic solution all analogs were essentially unfolded. To test how these modifications affect the amyloidogenicity of insulin, thioflavin-T (ThT) fluorescence and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) were performed. Our results showed that all analogs were more prone to aggregation than insulin, with the order of aggregation rates being INS-6 > INS-3 > INS-2. Cross-linking of unmodified proteins (PICUP) assay results showed that analogs without A6-A11 (INS-2 and INS-6) have a higher potential for oligomerization than insulin and INS-3, which is accompanied with a higher cytotoxicity as the hemolytic assays of human erythrocytes suggested. The results indicated that breakage of A7-B7 induced more unfolding of the insulin structure and a higher amyloidogenicity than breakage of A6-A11, but breakage of A6

  14. The optical emission from the supernova remnant HB 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesen, R. A.; Gull, T. R.

    1983-01-01

    The supernova remnant HB 3 was first detected as a radio source by Brown and Hazard (1953). On the basis of subsequent radio studies, it was concluded that the object was a supernova remnant (SNR). HB 3 is located at the far western edge of the H II region/molecular cloud complex W3-W4-W5 (IC 1795-1805-1848). However, a physical association of HB 3 with this complex is uncertain. In the present investigation, attention is called to the probability that HB 3 exhibits a more extensive optical emission structure than previously realized, and one which agrees well with both the position and morphology of the radio emission. It is found that narrow-passband optical images strongly suggest an almost complete optical emission shell for HB 3. Spectroscopic observations are, however, required to confirm that this emission is characteristic of a SNR.

  15. Gallic acid-capped gold nanoparticles inhibit EGF-induced MMP-9 expression through suppression of p300 stabilization and NFκB/c-Jun activation in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Jung; Lee, Yuan-Chin; Huang, Chia-Hui; Chang, Long-Sen

    2016-11-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are highly invasive and have a higher rate of distant metastasis. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a crucial role in EGF/EGFR-mediated malignant progression and metastasis of TNBCs. Various studies have revealed that treatment with gallic acid down-regulates MMP-9 expression in cancer cells, and that conjugation of phytochemical compounds with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) increases the anti-tumor activity of the phytochemical compounds. Thus, the effect of gallic acid-capped AuNPs (GA-AuNPs) on MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells was analyzed in the present study. The so-called green synthesis of AuNPs by means of gallic acid was performed at pH10, and the resulting GA-AuNPs had spherical shape with an average diameter of approximately 50nm. GA-AuNPs notably suppressed migration and invasion of EGF-treated cells, and inhibited EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation. GA-AuNPs abrogated EGF-induced Akt/p65 and ERK/c-Jun phosphorylation, leading to down-regulation of MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression in EGF-treated cells. Meanwhile, EGF-induced p300 stabilization was found to be involved in MMP-9 expression, whereas GA-AuNPs inhibited the EGF-promoted stability of the p300 protein. Although GA-AuNPs and gallic acid suppressed EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation via the same signaling pathway, the effective concentration of gallic acid was approximately 100-fold higher than that of GA-AuNPs for inhibition of MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated cells to a similar extent. Collectively, our data indicate that, in comparison with gallic acid, GA-AuNPs have a superior ability to inhibit EGF/EGFR-mediated MMP-9 expression in TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings also point to a way to improve the anti-tumor activity of gallic acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The safety and efficacy of EGF-based cream for the prevention of radiotherapy-induced skin injury: results from a multicenter observational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Cheol [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seung Do [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Doo Ho [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Min Kyu [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, eungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Hong Gyun [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Huasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topically applied recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) for the prevention of radiation-induced dermatitis in cancer patients. From December 2010 to April 2012, a total of 1,172 cancer patients who received radiotherapy (RT) of more than 50 Gy were prospectively enrolled and treated with EGF-based cream. An acute skin reaction classified according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 6-point rating scale was the primary end point and we also assessed the occurrence of edema, dry skin, or pruritus. The percentage of radiation dermatitis with maximum grade 0 and grade 1 was 19% and 58% at the time of 50 Gy, and it became 29% and 47% after completion of planned RT. This increment was observed only in breast cancer patients (from 18%/62% to 32%/49%). Adverse events related to the EGF-based cream developed in 49 patients (4%) with mild erythema the most common. Skin toxicity grade >2 was observed in 5% of the patients. Edema, dry skin, and pruritus grade > or =3 developed in 9%, 9%, and 1% of the patients, respectively. Prophylactic use of an EGF-based cream is effective in preventing radiation dermatitis with tolerable toxicity. Further studies comparing EGF cream with other topical agents may be necessary.

  17. The safety and efficacy of EGF-based cream for the prevention of radiotherapy-induced skin injury: results from a multicenter observational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Cheol; Ahn, Seung Do; Choi, Doo Ho; Kang, Min Kyu; Wu, Hong Gyun

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topically applied recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) for the prevention of radiation-induced dermatitis in cancer patients. From December 2010 to April 2012, a total of 1,172 cancer patients who received radiotherapy (RT) of more than 50 Gy were prospectively enrolled and treated with EGF-based cream. An acute skin reaction classified according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 6-point rating scale was the primary end point and we also assessed the occurrence of edema, dry skin, or pruritus. The percentage of radiation dermatitis with maximum grade 0 and grade 1 was 19% and 58% at the time of 50 Gy, and it became 29% and 47% after completion of planned RT. This increment was observed only in breast cancer patients (from 18%/62% to 32%/49%). Adverse events related to the EGF-based cream developed in 49 patients (4%) with mild erythema the most common. Skin toxicity grade >2 was observed in 5% of the patients. Edema, dry skin, and pruritus grade > or =3 developed in 9%, 9%, and 1% of the patients, respectively. Prophylactic use of an EGF-based cream is effective in preventing radiation dermatitis with tolerable toxicity. Further studies comparing EGF cream with other topical agents may be necessary.

  18. Structured education using Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) reduces long-term HbA1c and HbA1c variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G S; Chen, J Y; Hopkinson, H; Sainsbury, C A R; Jones, G C

    2018-06-01

    Previous evidence has demonstrated that participation in the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) education programme can reduce HbA 1c and severe hypoglycaemia in people with Type 1 diabetes. In a number of studies, increased HbA 1c variability has been associated with higher diabetic morbidity and mortality. No studies have examined the impact of structured education on HbA 1c variability in Type 1 diabetes. People with Type 1 diabetes who had attended DAFNE were identified for inclusion from the Scottish Care Information-Diabetes dataset. HbA 1c median and variability, expressed as coefficient of variation (CV) before and after DAFNE was calculated. Some 1061 individuals participated in DAFNE education and 687 met the inclusion criteria. A significant median reduction in HbA 1c [-3.5 mmol/mol (-0.3%)] was seen at 12 months with a significant reduction [-1.5 mmol/mol (-0.1%)] still seen at 60 months of follow-up. HbA 1c variability as measured by CV was significantly lower during the post-DAFNE period: 0.08 (IQR 0.05-0.12) reduced to 0.07 (IQR 0.05-0.10); P = 0.002. The data confirm that DAFNE participation improves glycaemic control in Type 1 diabetes with benefits being sustained for 5 years. This study is the first to demonstrate reduced HbA 1c variability after completion of structured education. This is new evidence of the beneficial impact of DAFNE on glycaemic profile. © 2018 Diabetes UK.

  19. Cytoplasmic glutathione redox status determines survival upon exposure to the thiol-oxidant 4,4'-dipyridyl disulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Mirabal, H Reynaldo; Thorsen, Michael; Kielland-Brandt, Morten C

    2007-01-01

    Dipyridyl disulfide (DPS) is a highly reactive thiol oxidant that functions as electron acceptor in thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. DPS is very toxic to yeasts, impairing growth at low micromolar concentrations. The genes TRX2 (thioredoxin), SOD1 (superoxide dismutase), GSH1 (gamma-glutamyl-c......Dipyridyl disulfide (DPS) is a highly reactive thiol oxidant that functions as electron acceptor in thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. DPS is very toxic to yeasts, impairing growth at low micromolar concentrations. The genes TRX2 (thioredoxin), SOD1 (superoxide dismutase), GSH1 (gamma...... antioxidant pools of glutathione (GSH) and thioredoxin are required for resistance to DPS. We found that DPS-sensitive mutants display increases in the disulfide form of GSH (GSSG) during DPS exposure that roughly correlate with their more oxidizing GSH redox potential in the cytosol and their degree of DPS...

  20. Complex Interaction of Hb Q-Thailand (HBA1: c.223G>C) with β-Thalassemia/Hb E (HBB: c.79G>A) Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyasai, Sitthichai; Satthakarn, Surada; Pornprasert, Sakorn

    2018-01-01

    Hb Q-Thailand [α74(EF3)Asp→His (α1), GAC>CAC, HBA1: c.223G>C] is an abnormal hemoglobin (Hb) frequently found in Thailand and Southeast Asian countries. The association of the α Q-Thailand allele with other globin gene disorders has important implications in diagnosis. Here, we report how to diagnose the coinheritance of Hb Q-Thailand with β-thalassemia (β-thal)/Hb E disease in four Thai samples from high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) testing results. Understanding of the HPLC chromatogram and CE electropherogram patterns of this complex mutation is important for interpretation of testing results and providing genetic counseling.

  1. Synthesis of fluorescent analogues of relaxin family peptides and their preliminary in vitro and in vivo characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda eChan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Relaxin, a heterodimeric polypeptide hormone, is a key regulator of collagen metabolism and multiple vascular control pathways in humans and rodents. Its actions are mediated via its cognate G-protein-coupled receptor, RXFP1 although it also ‘pharmacologically’ activates RXFP2, the receptor for the related, insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3, which has specific actions on reproduction and bone metabolism. Therefore, experimental tools to facilitate insights into the distinct biological actions of relaxin and INSL3 are required, particularly for studies of tissues containing both RXFP1 and RXFP2. Here, we chemically functionalized human (H2 relaxin, the RXFP1-selective relaxin analogue H2:A(4-24(F23A, and INSL3 to accommodate a fluorophore without marked reduction in binding or activation propensity. Chemical synthesis of the two chains for each peptide was followed by sequential regioselective formation of their three disulfide bonds. Click chemistry conjugation of Cy5.5 at the B-chain N-terminus, with conservation of the disulfide bonds, yielded the analogues displaying appropriate selective binding affinity and ability to activate RXFP1 and/or RXFP2 in vitro. The in vivo biological activity of Cy5.5-H2 relaxin and Cy5.5-H2:A(4-24(F23A was confirmed in mice, as acute icv infusion of these peptides (but not Cy5.5-INSL3 stimulated water drinking, an established behavioral response elicited by central RXFP1 activation. The central distribution of Cy5.5-conjugated peptides was examined in mice killed 30 min after infusion, revealing fluorescence within brain tissue near-adjacent to the cerebral ventricle walls relative to deeper brain areas. These data will aid the interpretation of behavioral studies. Production of fluorophore-conjugated relaxin family peptides will facilitate future pharmacological studies to probe the function of H2 relaxin/RXFP1 and INSL3/RXFP2 signaling in vivo while tracking their distribution following central or peripheral

  2. Areca nut components stimulate ADAM17, IL-1α, PGE2 and 8-isoprostane production in oral keratinocyte: role of reactive oxygen species, EGF and JAK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Chan, Chiu-Po; Chen, Yi-Jane; Hsien, Hsiang-Chi; Chang, Ya-Ching; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Cheng, Ru-Hsiu; Hahn, Liang-Jiunn; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2016-03-29

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing is an etiologic factor of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and oral cancer. There are 600 million BQ chewers worldwide. The mechanisms for the toxic and inflammatory responses of BQ are unclear. In this study, both areca nut (AN) extract (ANE) and arecoline stimulated epidermal growth factor (EGF) and interleukin-1α (IL-1α) production of gingival keratinocytes (GKs), whereas only ANE can stimulate a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 8-isoprostane production. ANE-induced EGF production was inhibited by catalase. Addition of anti-EGF neutralizing antibody attenuated ANE-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), mature ADAM9 expression and PGE2 and 8-isoprostane production. ANE-induced IL-1α production was inhibited by catalase, anti-EGF antibody, PD153035 (EGF receptor antagonist) and U0126 (MEK inhibitor) but not by α-naphthoflavone (cytochrome p450-1A1 inhibitor). ANE-induced ADAM17 production was inhibited by pp2 (Src inhibitor), U0126, α-naphthoflavone and aspirin. AG490 (JAK inhibitor) prevented ANE-stimulated ADAM17, IL-1α, PGE2 production, COX-2 expression, ADAM9 maturation, and the ANE-induced decline in keratin 5 and 14, but showed little effect on cdc2 expression and EGF production. Moreover, ANE-induced 8-isoprostane production by GKs was inhibited by catalase, anti-EGF antibody, AG490, pp2, U0126, α-naphthoflavone, Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and aspirin. These results indicate that AN components may involve in BQ-induced oral cancer by induction of reactive oxygen species, EGF/EGFR, IL-1α, ADAMs, JAK, Src, MEK/ERK, CYP1A1, and COX signaling pathways, and the aberration of cell cycle and differentiation. Various blockers against ROS, EGF, IL-1α, ADAM, JAK, Src, MEK, CYP1A1, and COX can be used for prevention or treatment of BQ chewing-related diseases.

  3. The Hb E (HBB: c.79G>A), Mean Corpuscular Volume, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Cutoff Points in Double Heterozygous Hb E/- -SEA α-Thalassemia-1 Carriers are Dependent on Hemoglobin Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckngam, Prapapun; Limweeraprajak, Ektong; Kiewkarnkha, Tiemjan; Tatu, Thanusak

    2017-01-01

    Identifying double heterozygosities in Hb E (HBB: c.79 G>A)/- - SEA (Southeast Asian) (α-thalassemia-1) (α-thal-1) in patients first diagnosed as carrying Hb E is important in thalassemia control. Low Hb E, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (Hb) (MCH) levels have been observed in this double heterozygosity. However, the cutoff points of these parameters have never been systematically established. Here, we analyzed Hb E and red blood cell (RBC) parameters in 372 Hb E patients grouped by Hb levels, by the status of - - SEA and -α 3.7 (α-thal-2; rightward) deletions, to establish the cutoff points. Then, the established cutoff points were evaluated in 184 Hb E patients. It was found that the cutoff points of Hb E, MCV, MCH were significantly dependent on the Hb levels. In the group having Hb levels Hb E, MCV and MCH were 21.2%, 64.9 fL and 21.0 pg, respectively, and were 25.6%, 72.8 fL and 23.9 pg, respectively, in the group having Hb levels 10.0-11.9 g/dL. Finally, in the group having Hb levels ≥12.0 g/dL, the cutoff points of Hb E, MCV and MCH were 27.1%, 76.7 fL and 25.3 pg, respectively. Thus, to screen for the double heterozygous Hb E/- - SEA anomaly in patients initially diagnosed as carrying Hb E, the Hb levels must be taken into account in choosing the suitable cutoff points of these three parameters.

  4. Basal insulin analogues in diabetic pregnancy: a literature review and baseline results of a randomised, controlled trial in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Damm, Peter; Jovanovic, Lois

    2011-01-01

    hagedorn insulin, both with insulin aspart, in women with type 1 diabetes planning a pregnancy (n = 306) or are already pregnant (n = 164). Inclusion criteria include type 1 diabetes > 12 months' duration; screening HbA1c ≤ 9.0% (women recruited prepregnancy), or pregnant with gestational age 8-12 weeks...... with prandial insulin aspart. The results are expected mid-2011 with full publications expected later this year. Baseline characteristics show that basal insulin analogues are already frequently used in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. This study will hopefully elucidate the safety and efficacy of the basal...... of the current literature concerning basal insulin analogue use in diabetic pregnancy, and to present the design and preliminary, non-validated baseline characteristics of a currently ongoing randomized, controlled, open-label, multicentre, multinational trial comparing insulin detemir with neutral protamine...

  5. Basal insulin analogues in diabetic pregnancy: a literature review and baseline results of a randomised, controlled trial in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Damm, Peter; Jovanovic, Lois

    2011-01-01

    hagedorn insulin, both with insulin aspart, in women with type 1 diabetes planning a pregnancy (n = 306) or are already pregnant (n = 164). Inclusion criteria include type 1 diabetes > 12 months' duration; screening HbA1c = 9.0% (women recruited prepregnancy), or pregnant with gestational age 8-12 weeks...... with prandial insulin aspart. The results are expected mid-2011 with full publications expected later this year. Baseline characteristics show that basal insulin analogues are already frequently used in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. This study will hopefully elucidate the safety and efficacy of the basal...... of the current literature concerning basal insulin analogue use in diabetic pregnancy, and to present the design and preliminary, non-validated baseline characteristics of a currently ongoing randomized, controlled, open-label, multicentre, multinational trial comparing insulin detemir with neutral protamine...

  6. Is insulin the preferred treatment for HbA1c >9%?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomgarden, Zachary

    2017-09-01

    The algorithms and guidelines of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Diabetes Association recommend that insulin administration be strongly considered for people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with HbA1c levels exceeding 9.0% and 10%, respectively. Although the caveat is given in both sets of recommendations that this is particularly appropriate when patients are "symptomatic," referring to urinary frequency with increased thirst and appetite, weight loss, and ketosis, the clinical definition of such presentations may be ill-defined, and it is noteworthy that both documents consider insulin to offer particular benefit under such circumstances. However, with multiple options for glycemic treatment, it is of interest to reconsider this argument for insulin use. It should be recalled that in the UK Prospective Diabetes Study, diet alone was associated with a reduction in HbA1c from 9% to 7%. Drug-naïve people with T2D do often show surprisingly strong reductions in HbA1c with metformin-based dual-agent oral treatment approaches; a recent report showed that even with baseline HbA1c >11%, the combination of metformin with a sulfonylurea, pioglitazone, or sitagliptin was associated with reduction in HbA1c from 11.6% to 6.0%. A 32-week study of the combination of rosiglitazone with metformin in patients with mean baseline HbA1c 8.9% showed a mean HbA1c reduction of 2.3%, and an open-label cohort with baseline HbA1c 11.8% had a reduction in HbA1c to 7.8%. With metformin plus sitagliptin, a mean placebo-adjusted HbA1c reduction of 2.1% from a baseline of 8.8% was reported, with those patients with baseline HbA1c >9% having a 2.6% reduction in HbA1c, and an open-label cohort with baseline HbA1c 11.2% having a 2.9% reduction in HbA1c. Similar 2% HbA1c reductions from baseline levels of 9.1% were seen with metformin in initial combination with the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin. Although such dual oral agent

  7. Formation of hemoglobin (Hb)-octadecylamine (ODA) Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film by spreading Hb solution directly onto subphase covered with a layer of ODA and its electrochemical property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Fan; Shin, Hoon-Kyu; Kwon, Young-Soo

    2006-01-01

    The formation of hemoglobin (Hb)-octadecylamine (ODA) Langmuir-Blotgett (LB) film by spreading Hb solution directly onto subphase covered with a layer of ODA and its electrochemical properties were studied in this paper. This method ensured better electrode activity because almost no protein was adsorbed onto electrode surface before depositing Hb-ODA monolayer onto electrode surface. The optimum equilibrium time of Hb interacted with ODA layer, the optimum protein amount spread onto subphase's interface and the optimum ionic strength and pH of subphase were obtained from the experimental results. The compressibility analyses of Hb-ODA films showed that the surface pressure of this film from liquid-expanded to liquid-condensed state ranged between 16 and 40 mN/m. Direct electron transfer of Hb immobilized on gold electrode by LB technique was observed by cyclic voltammetry. Results showed that Hb molecules still kept their electrochemical activity. The electrode with Hb-ODA LB film displayed the fastest electron transfer rate when the film transferred under the surface pressure of 35 mN/m

  8. Formation of hemoglobin (Hb)-octadecylamine (ODA) Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film by spreading Hb solution directly onto subphase covered with a layer of ODA and its electrochemical property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Fan [Department of Electrical Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu, 215500 (China); Shin, Hoon-Kyu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Soo [Department of Electrical Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: yskwon@daunet.donga.ac.kr

    2006-03-21

    The formation of hemoglobin (Hb)-octadecylamine (ODA) Langmuir-Blotgett (LB) film by spreading Hb solution directly onto subphase covered with a layer of ODA and its electrochemical properties were studied in this paper. This method ensured better electrode activity because almost no protein was adsorbed onto electrode surface before depositing Hb-ODA monolayer onto electrode surface. The optimum equilibrium time of Hb interacted with ODA layer, the optimum protein amount spread onto subphase's interface and the optimum ionic strength and pH of subphase were obtained from the experimental results. The compressibility analyses of Hb-ODA films showed that the surface pressure of this film from liquid-expanded to liquid-condensed state ranged between 16 and 40 mN/m. Direct electron transfer of Hb immobilized on gold electrode by LB technique was observed by cyclic voltammetry. Results showed that Hb molecules still kept their electrochemical activity. The electrode with Hb-ODA LB film displayed the fastest electron transfer rate when the film transferred under the surface pressure of 35 mN/m.

  9. A Mosaic Expression of a Hb J-Amiens (HBB: c.54G > T; p.Lys18Asn) and its Interference with Hb A1c Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiemsky, Toon; Van Hoovels, Lieve; Desmet, Koen J O; Phylipsen, Marion; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Kieffer, Davy M J

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 56-year-old Caucasian woman in whom hemoglobinopathy screening was triggered following an aberrant Hb A1c analysis. Preliminary diagnosis of the hemoglobin (Hb) variant was obtained through cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gel electrophoresis. DNA analysis confirmed the presence of Hb J-Amiens [β17(A14)Lys→Asn; HBB: c.[54G > C or 54G > T)]. However, an unbalanced ratio between wild type and mutant signal after direct sequencing and a lower than expected percentage of this Hb variant led to the suggestion of a mosaic expression. Furthermore, different methods [capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), cation exchange HPLC and boronate affinity] were tested to study the possible interference of this variant with Hb A1c measurements. These investigations showed a clinically relevant difference between the methods tested. Hb A1c analysis may lead to the discovery of new Hb variants or mosaicism for previously described Hb variants. This may have genetic consequences for the offspring of carriers and brings about the question of partner testing.

  10. Expression of the epidermal growth factor system in human endometrium during the menstrual cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Sørensen, B S; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2005-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) system is ubiquitous in humans and plays fundamental roles in embryogenesis, development, proliferation and differentiation. As the endometrium of fertile women is characterized by proliferation and differentiation, we hypothesize a role for the EGF system....... Fourteen premenopausal women had endometrial samples removed on day 6 +/- 1 and day 6 +/- 1 and 12 +/- 1 after ovulation during one menstrual cycle. RNA was extracted and analysed by real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry was performed to localize the components of the EGF system. Human EGF Receptor 1...... (HER1) showed highest expression during the proliferative phase, HER2 and HER4 during the early and HER3 during the late secretory phase. Amphiregulin (AR) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) expression is highest in proliferative phase. Heparin binding (HB)-EGF and betacellulin (BCL) show...

  11. Use of Fructosyl Peptide Oxidase for HbA1c Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonehara, Satoshi; Inamura, Norio; Fukuda, Miho; Sugiyama, Koji

    2015-01-01

    ARKRAY, Inc developed the world’s first automatic glycohemoglobin analyzer based on HPLC (1981). After that, ARKRAY developed enzymatic HbA1c assay “CinQ HbA1c” with the spread and diversification of HbA1c measurement (2007). CinQ HbA1c is the kit of Clinical Chemistry Analyzer, which uses fructosyl peptide oxidase (FPOX) for a measurement reaction. This report mainly indicates the developmental background, measurement principle, and future of the enzymatic method HbA1c reagent. PMID:25633966

  12. Binding of sFRP-3 to EGF in the extra-cellular space affects proliferation, differentiation and morphogenetic events regulated by the two molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Scardigli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: sFRP-3 is a soluble antagonist of Wnts, widely expressed in developing embryos. The Wnt gene family comprises cysteine-rich secreted ligands that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, organogenesis and oncogenesis of different organisms ranging from worms to mammals. In the canonical signal transduction pathway Wnt proteins bind to the extracellular domain of Frizzled receptors and consequently recruit Dishevelled (Dsh to the cell membrane. In addition to Wnt membrane receptors belonging to the Frizzled family, several other molecules have been described which share homology in the CRD domain and lack the putative trans-membrane domain, such as sFRP molecules (soluble Frizzled Related Protein. Among them, sFRP-3 was originally isolated from bovine articular cartilage and also as a component of the Spemann organizer. sFRP-3 blocks Wnt-8 induced axis duplication in Xenopus embryos and binds to the surface of cells expressing a membrane-anchored form of Wnt-1. Injection of sFRP-3 mRNA blocks expression of XMyoD mRNA and leads to embryos with enlarged heads and shortened trunks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that sFRP-3 specifically blocks EGF-induced fibroblast proliferation and foci formation. Over-expression of sFRP-3 reverts EGF-mediated inhibition of hair follicle development in the mouse ectoderm while its ablation in Xenopus maintains EGF-mediated inhibition of ectoderm differentiation. Conversely, over-expression of EGF reverts the inhibition of somitic myogenesis and axis truncation in Xenopus and mouse embryos caused by sFRP-3. In vitro experiments demonstrated a direct binding of EGF to sFRP-3 both on heparin and on the surface of CHO cells where the molecule had been membrane anchored. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: sFRP-3 and EGF reciprocally inhibit their effects on cell proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis and indeed are expressed in contiguous domains of the embryo, suggesting that in

  13. The Long and Winding Road to Optimal HbA1c Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Randie R.; Rohlfing, Curt

    2016-01-01

    The importance of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as an indicator of mean glycemia and risks for complications in patients with diabetes mellitus was established by the results of long-term clinical trials, most notably the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), published in 1993 and 1998 respectively. However, clinical application of recommended HbA1c targets that were based on these studies was difficult due to lack of comparability of HbA1c results among assay methods and laboratories. Thus, the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) was initiated in 1996 with the goal of standardizing HbA1c results to those of the DCCT/UKPDS. HbA1c standardization efforts have been highly successful; however, a number of issues have emerged on the “long and winding road” to better HbA1c, including the development of a higher-order HbA1c reference method by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC), recommendations to use HbA1c to diagnose as well as monitor diabetes, and point-of-care (POC) HbA1c testing. Here, we review the past, present and future of HbA1c standardization and describe the current status of HbA1c testing, including limitations that healthcare providers need to be aware of when interpreting HbA1c results. PMID:23318564

  14. Radiation-induced cleavage of disulfide bonds in proteins. Clivage radiolytique des ponts disulfure des proteines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favaudon, V; Tourbez, H; Lhoste, J M [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (FR); Houee-Levin, C [Paris-5 Univ., 75 (FR)

    1991-06-01

    The reduction of the disulfide bonds in apo-Riboflavin-Binding Protein (apoRBP) by the CO{sub 2}{sup -}{center dot} radical occurred under {gamma}-ray irradiation as a chain reaction whose efficiency increased upon acidification of the medium. Pulse-radiolysis analysis showed a rapid one-electron oxidation of the disulfide bonds yielding the anionic or protonated form of the disulfide radical. The main decay path of this radical under acidic conditions consisted of the rapid formation of a thiyl radical intermediate in equilibrium with the closed, cyclic form. At pH 8 the disulfide radical anion decayed via intramolecular and/or intermolecular routes including disproportionation, protein-protein crosslinking, non-dismutative recombination processes, and reaction with sulfhydryl groups in pre-reduced systems.

  15. An analytic study of molybdenum disulfide nanofluids using the modern approach of Atangana-Baleanu fractional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Abro, Kashif; Hussain, Mukkarum; Mahmood Baig, Mirza

    2017-10-01

    The significance of the different shapes of molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles contained in ethylene glycol has recently attracted researchers, because of the numerical or experimental analyses on the shapes of molybdenum disulfide and the lack of fractionalized analytic approaches. This work is dedicated to examining the shape impacts of molybdenum disulfide nanofluids in the mixed convection flow with magnetic field and a porous medium. Ethylene glycol is chosen as the base fluid in which molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles are suspended. Non-spherically shaped molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles, namely, platelet, blade, cylinder and brick, are utilized in this analysis. The modeling of the problem is characterized by employing the modern approach of Atangana-Baleanu fractional derivatives and the governing partial differential equations are solved via Laplace transforms with inversion. Solutions are obtained for temperature distribution and velocity field and expressed in terms of compact form of M-function, Mba(T) . In the end, a figures are drawn to compare the different non-spherically shaped molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles. Furthermore, the Atangana-Baleanu fractional derivatives model has been compared with ordinary derivatives models and discussed graphically by setting various rheological parameters.

  16. Synthesis of tetraalkyl thiuram disulfides using different oxidants in recycling solvent mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Milutin M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new optimized laboratory synthesis of tetraalkyl thiuram disulfides, starting from dialkyl amines and carbon disulfide in presence of three oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, potassium peroxodisulfate and sodium hypochlorite and appropriate reaction medium: two mixtures of isopropyl alcohol - water used in two consecutive syntheses, was presented in this work. First synthesis was performed in a recycled azeotropic mixture of isopropyl alcohol - water 87.7% - 12.3%, and second in a filtrate obtained after first synthesis, which was a mixture of isopropyl alcohol - water 70.4% - 29.6%. After the second synthesis and filtration, recycled azeotropic mixture isopropyl alcohol - water 87.7% - 12.3% was regenerated from the filtrate by rectification. Considering this, the technology for beneficial use of recycling isopropyl alcohol - water mixture as reaction medium for tetraalkyl thiuram disulfides synthesis was developed. Such concept contributes to extraordinary economical benefit of implemented optimal laboratory synthesis at semi-industrial level. High yields of tetraalkyl thiuram disulfides syntheses were obtained at both laboratory and semiindustrial level. Structure and purity of synthesized compounds were confirmed by elemental analysis, as well as FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR, and MS spectral data.

  17. Recent Progress in Electrochemical HbA1c Sensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhen Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent progress made in the development of electrochemical glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c sensors for the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. Electrochemical HbA1c sensors are divided into two categories based on the detection protocol of the sensors. The first type of sensor directly detects HbA1c by binding HbA1c on the surface of an electrode through bio-affinity of antibody and boronic acids, followed by an appropriate mode of signal transduction. In the second type of sensor, HbA1c is indirectly determined by detecting a digestion product of HbA1c, fructosyl valine (FV. Thus, the former sensors rely on the selective binding of HbA1c to the surface of the electrodes followed by electrochemical signaling in amperometric, voltammetric, impedometric, or potentiometric mode. Redox active markers, such as ferrocene derivatives and ferricyanide/ferrocyanide ions, are often used for electrochemical signaling. For the latter sensors, HbA1c must be digested in advance by proteolytic enzymes to produce the FV fragment. FV is electrochemically detected through catalytic oxidation by fructosyl amine oxidase or by selective binding to imprinted polymers. The performance characteristics of HbA1c sensors are discussed in relation to their use in the diagnosis and control of diabetic mellitus.

  18. Changes in HbA1c levels and body mass index after successful decompression surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and lumbar spinal stenosis: results of a 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Cho, Dae-Chul; Sung, Joo-Kyung; Kim, Chi Heon; Kang, Hyun; Kim, Du Hwan

    2017-02-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) can hinder a patient's physical activity, which in turn can impair glucose tolerance and body weight regulation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2). Therefore, successful lumbar surgery could facilitate glycemic control and body weight regulation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of postoperative improvement in physical activity on body mass index (BMI) and hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) level in patients with LSS and DM-2 over a 2-year follow-up period. Prospective longitudinal observational study. Patients with LSS and DM-2. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for back pain and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, JOA Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ) sections, BMI, and blood analysis for HbA 1c were carried out. A total of 119 patients were enrolled for analysis of the effect of successful decompression surgery on changes in HbA 1c levels and BMI. The VAS score, ODI score, JOA score, JOABPEQ, BMI, HbA 1c were reassessed at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery. Additionally, correlations between changes in HbA 1c and changes in the ODI, JOA, JOABPEQs, and BMI were analyzed. The overall values of HbA1c before and at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after the surgery were 7.08±0.94%, 6.58±0.87%, 6.59±0.79%, and 6.59±0.79%, respectively (p-values; 6 months: .024; 1 year: .021; 2 years: .038). In the not well-controlled sugar (non-WCS) group (preoperative HbA 1c >6.5%), the difference between pre- and postoperative HbA 1c was highly statistically significant (p25) patients with DM-2 and LSS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Displayed correlation between gene expression profiles and submicroscopic alterations in response to cetuximab, gefitinib and EGF in human colon cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solmi, Rossella [Dipartimento di Istologia, Embriologia e Biologia Applicata, Università di Bologna, Via Belmeloro 8, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Montroni, Isacco [Dipartimento Emergenza/Urgenza, Chirurgia Generale e dei Trapianti, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Mattei, Gabriella [Dipartimento di Istologia, Embriologia e Biologia Applicata, Università di Bologna, Via Belmeloro 8, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Taffurelli, Mario [Dipartimento Emergenza/Urgenza, Chirurgia Generale e dei Trapianti, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Santini, Donatella [Dipartimento di Patologia, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Pezzetti, Furio [Dipartimento di Istologia, Embriologia e Biologia Applicata, Università di Bologna, Via Belmeloro 8, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Ruggeri, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Scienze Anatomiche Umane e Fisiopatologia dell' Apparato Locomotore, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Castellani, Gastone [Centro Interdipartimentale L. Galvani, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); DIMORFIPA, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Guidotti, Lia [Dipartimento di Istologia, Embriologia e Biologia Applicata, Università di Bologna, Via Belmeloro 8, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Coppola, Domenico [H. Lee Moffit Cancer Center and Research Institute, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Strippoli, Pierluigi; Lauriola, Mattia [Dipartimento di Istologia, Embriologia e Biologia Applicata, Università di Bologna, Via Belmeloro 8, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Francesconi, Mirko [Centro Interdipartimentale L. Galvani, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); DIMORFIPA, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Martini, Désirée [Dipartimento di Scienze Anatomiche Umane e Fisiopatologia dell' Apparato Locomotore, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Voltattorni, Manuela [Laboratori di Biotecnologie, Via Beverara 123, Bologna (Italy); Ceccarelli, Claudio [Dipartimento di Patologia, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Ugolini, Giampaolo; Rosati, Giancarlo; Zanotti, Simone [Dipartimento Emergenza/Urgenza, Chirurgia Generale e dei Trapianti, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2008-08-08

    EGFR is frequently overexpressed in colon cancer. We characterized HT-29 and Caco-2, human colon cancer cell lines, untreated and treated with cetuximab or gefitinib alone and in combination with EGF. Cell growth was determined using a variation on the MTT assay. Cell-cycle analysis was conducted by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate EGFR expression and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evidenced the ultrastructural morphology. Gene expression profiling was performed using hybridization of the microarray Ocimum Pan Human 40 K array A. Caco-2 and HT-29 were respectively 66.25 and 59.24 % in G0/G1. They maintained this level of cell cycle distribution after treatment, suggesting a predominantly differentiated state. Treatment of Caco-2 with EGF or the two EGFR inhibitors produced a significant reduction in their viability. SEM clearly showed morphological cellular transformations in the direction of cellular death in both cell lines treated with EGFR inhibitors. HT-29 and Caco-2 displayed an important reduction of the microvilli (which also lose their erect position in Caco-2), possibly invalidating microvilli absorption function. HT-29 treated with cetuximab lost their boundary contacts and showed filipodi; when treated with gefitinib, they showed some vesicles: generally membrane reshaping is evident. Both cell lines showed a similar behavior in terms of on/off switched genes upon treatment with cetuximab. The gefitinib global gene expression pattern was different for the 2 cell lines; gefitinib treatment induced more changes, but directly correlated with EGF treatment. In cetuximab or gefitinib plus EGF treatments there was possible summation of the morphological effects: cells seemed more weakly affected by the transformation towards apoptosis. The genes appeared to be less stimulated than for single drug cases. This is the first study to have systematically investigated the effect of cetuximab or gefitinib, alone and in combination

  20. Displayed correlation between gene expression profiles and submicroscopic alterations in response to cetuximab, gefitinib and EGF in human colon cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezzetti Furio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EGFR is frequently overexpressed in colon cancer. We characterized HT-29 and Caco-2, human colon cancer cell lines, untreated and treated with cetuximab or gefitinib alone and in combination with EGF. Methods Cell growth was determined using a variation on the MTT assay. Cell-cycle analysis was conducted by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate EGFR expression and scanning electron microscopy (SEM evidenced the ultrastructural morphology. Gene expression profiling was performed using hybridization of the microarray Ocimum Pan Human 40 K array A. Results Caco-2 and HT-29 were respectively 66.25 and 59.24 % in G0/G1. They maintained this level of cell cycle distribution after treatment, suggesting a predominantly differentiated state. Treatment of Caco-2 with EGF or the two EGFR inhibitors produced a significant reduction in their viability. SEM clearly showed morphological cellular transformations in the direction of cellular death in both cell lines treated with EGFR inhibitors. HT-29 and Caco-2 displayed an important reduction of the microvilli (which also lose their erect position in Caco-2, possibly invalidating microvilli absorption function. HT-29 treated with cetuximab lost their boundary contacts and showed filipodi; when treated with gefitinib, they showed some vesicles: generally membrane reshaping is evident. Both cell lines showed a similar behavior in terms of on/off switched genes upon treatment with cetuximab. The gefitinib global gene expression pattern was different for the 2 cell lines; gefitinib treatment induced more changes, but directly correlated with EGF treatment. In cetuximab or gefitinib plus EGF treatments there was possible summation of the morphological effects: cells seemed more weakly affected by the transformation towards apoptosis. The genes appeared to be less stimulated than for single drug cases. Conclusion This is the first study to have systematically investigated

  1. Displayed correlation between gene expression profiles and submicroscopic alterations in response to cetuximab, gefitinib and EGF in human colon cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solmi, Rossella; Montroni, Isacco; Mattei, Gabriella; Taffurelli, Mario; Santini, Donatella; Pezzetti, Furio; Ruggeri, Alessandro; Castellani, Gastone; Guidotti, Lia; Coppola, Domenico; Strippoli, Pierluigi; Lauriola, Mattia; Francesconi, Mirko; Martini, Désirée; Voltattorni, Manuela; Ceccarelli, Claudio; Ugolini, Giampaolo; Rosati, Giancarlo; Zanotti, Simone

    2008-01-01

    EGFR is frequently overexpressed in colon cancer. We characterized HT-29 and Caco-2, human colon cancer cell lines, untreated and treated with cetuximab or gefitinib alone and in combination with EGF. Cell growth was determined using a variation on the MTT assay. Cell-cycle analysis was conducted by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate EGFR expression and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evidenced the ultrastructural morphology. Gene expression profiling was performed using hybridization of the microarray Ocimum Pan Human 40 K array A. Caco-2 and HT-29 were respectively 66.25 and 59.24 % in G0/G1. They maintained this level of cell cycle distribution after treatment, suggesting a predominantly differentiated state. Treatment of Caco-2 with EGF or the two EGFR inhibitors produced a significant reduction in their viability. SEM clearly showed morphological cellular transformations in the direction of cellular death in both cell lines treated with EGFR inhibitors. HT-29 and Caco-2 displayed an important reduction of the microvilli (which also lose their erect position in Caco-2), possibly invalidating microvilli absorption function. HT-29 treated with cetuximab lost their boundary contacts and showed filipodi; when treated with gefitinib, they showed some vesicles: generally membrane reshaping is evident. Both cell lines showed a similar behavior in terms of on/off switched genes upon treatment with cetuximab. The gefitinib global gene expression pattern was different for the 2 cell lines; gefitinib treatment induced more changes, but directly correlated with EGF treatment. In cetuximab or gefitinib plus EGF treatments there was possible summation of the morphological effects: cells seemed more weakly affected by the transformation towards apoptosis. The genes appeared to be less stimulated than for single drug cases. This is the first study to have systematically investigated the effect of cetuximab or gefitinib, alone and in combination

  2. Quantitation of multisite EGF receptor phosphorylation using mass spectrometry and a novel normalization approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erba, Elisabetta Boeri; Matthiesen, Rune; Bunkenborg, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    Using stable isotope labeling and mass spectrometry, we performed a sensitive, quantitative analysis of multiple phosphorylation sites of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Phosphopeptide detection efficiency was significantly improved by using the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor sodium p...

  3. Enhanced production of a single domain antibody with an engineered stabilizing extra disulfide bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinny L; Goldman, Ellen R; Zabetakis, Dan; Walper, Scott A; Turner, Kendrick B; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C; Anderson, George P

    2015-10-09

    Single domain antibodies derived from the variable region of the unique heavy chain antibodies found in camelids yield high affinity and regenerable recognition elements. Adding an additional disulfide bond that bridges framework regions is a proven method to increase their melting temperature, however often at the expense of protein production. To fulfill their full potential it is essential to achieve robust protein production of these stable binding elements. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that decreasing the isoelectric point of single domain antibody extra disulfide bond mutants whose production fell due to the incorporation of the extra disulfide bond would lead to recovery of the protein yield, while maintaining the favorable melting temperature and affinity. Introduction of negative charges into a disulfide bond mutant of a single domain antibody specific for the L1 antigen of the vaccinia virus led to approximately 3.5-fold increase of protein production to 14 mg/L, while affinity and melting temperature was maintained. In addition, refolding following heat denaturation improved from 15 to 70 %. It also maintained nearly 100 % of its binding function after heating to 85 °C for an hour at 1 mg/mL. Disappointingly, the replacement of neutral or positively charged amino acids with negatively charged ones to lower the isoelectric point of two anti-toxin single domain antibodies stabilized with a second disulfide bond yielded only slight increases in protein production. Nonetheless, for one of these binders the charge change itself stabilized the structure equivalent to disulfide bond addition, thus providing an alternative route to stabilization which is not accompanied by loss in production. The ability to produce high affinity, stable single domain antibodies is critical for their utility. While the addition of a second disulfide bond is a proven method for enhancing stability of single domain antibodies, it frequently comes at the cost of reduced

  4. EGF receptor-targeted synthetic double-stranded RNA eliminates glioblastoma, breast cancer, and adenocarcinoma tumors in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Shir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most lethal form of brain cancer. With the available treatments, survival does not exceed 12-14 mo from the time of diagnosis. We describe a novel strategy to selectively induce the death of glioblastoma cells and other cancer cells that over-express the EGF receptor. Using a non-viral delivery vector that homes to the EGF receptor, we target synthetic anti-proliferative dsRNA (polyinosine-cytosine [poly IC], a strong activator of apoptosis, selectively to cancer cells. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Poly IC was delivered by means of a non-viral vector: 25kDa polyethylenimine-polyethyleneglycol-EGF (PEI25-PEG-EGF. EGFR-targeted poly IC induced rapid apoptosis in the target cells in vitro and in vivo. Expression of several cytokines and "bystander killing" of untransfected tumor cells was detected in vitro and in vivo. Intra-tumoral delivery of the EGFR-targeted poly IC induced the complete regression of pre-established intracranial tumors in nude mice, with no obvious adverse toxic effects on normal brain tissue. A year after treatment completion the treated mice remain cancer-free and healthy. Similarly, non-viral delivery of poly IC completely eliminated pre-established breast cancer and adenocarcinoma xenografts derived from EGFR over-expressing cancer cell lines, suggesting that the strategy is applicable to other EGFR-over-expressing tumors. CONCLUSION: The strategy described has yielded an effective treatment of EGFR over-expressing GBM in an animal model. If this strategy is translated successfully to the clinical setting, it may actually offer help to GBM patients. Moreover the elimination of two additional EGFR over-expressing cancers in vivo suggests that in principle this strategy can be applied to treat other tumors that over-express EGFR.

  5. On the relevance of sophisticated structural annotations for disulfide connectivity pattern prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Becker

    Full Text Available Disulfide bridges strongly constrain the native structure of many proteins and predicting their formation is therefore a key sub-problem of protein structure and function inference. Most recently proposed approaches for this prediction problem adopt the following pipeline: first they enrich the primary sequence with structural annotations, second they apply a binary classifier to each candidate pair of cysteines to predict disulfide bonding probabilities and finally, they use a maximum weight graph matching algorithm to derive the predicted disulfide connectivity pattern of a protein. In this paper, we adopt this three step pipeline and propose an extensive study of the relevance of various structural annotations and feature encodings. In particular, we consider five kinds of structural annotations, among which three are novel in the context of disulfide bridge prediction. So as to be usable by machine learning algorithms, these annotations must be encoded into features. For this purpose, we propose four different feature encodings based on local windows and on different kinds of histograms. The combination of structural annotations with these possible encodings leads to a large number of possible feature functions. In order to identify a minimal subset of relevant feature functions among those, we propose an efficient and interpretable feature function selection scheme, designed so as to avoid any form of overfitting. We apply this scheme on top of three supervised learning algorithms: k-nearest neighbors, support vector machines and extremely randomized trees. Our results indicate that the use of only the PSSM (position-specific scoring matrix together with the CSP (cysteine separation profile are sufficient to construct a high performance disulfide pattern predictor and that extremely randomized trees reach a disulfide pattern prediction accuracy of [Formula: see text] on the benchmark dataset SPX[Formula: see text], which corresponds to

  6. A novel engineered interchain disulfide bond in the constant region enhances the thermostability of adalimumab Fab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hitomi; Oda-Ueda, Naoko; Ueda, Tadashi; Ohkuri, Takatoshi

    2018-01-01

    We constructed a system for expressing the Fab of the therapeutic human monoclonal antibody adalimumab at a yield of 20 mg/L in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. To examine the contribution of interchain disulfide bonds to conformational stability, we prepared adalimumab Fab from which the interchain disulfide bond at the C-terminal region at both the CH 1 and CL domains was deleted by substitution of Cys with Ala (Fab ΔSS ). DSC measurements showed that the Tm values of Fab ΔSS were approximately 5 °C lower than those of wild-type Fab, suggesting that the interchain disulfide bond contributes to conformational thermostability. Using computer simulations, we designed a novel interchain disulfide bond outside the C-terminal region to increase the stability of Fab ΔSS . The resulting Fab (mutSS Fab ΔSS ) had the mutations H:V177C and L:Q160C in Fab ΔSS , confirming the formation of the disulfide bond between CH 1 and CL. The thermostability of mutSS Fab ΔSS was approximately 5 °C higher than that of Fab ΔSS . Therefore, the introduction of the designed interchain disulfide bond enhanced the thermostability of Fab ΔSS and mitigated the destabilization caused by partial reduction of the interchain disulfide bond at the C-terminal region, which occurs in site-specific modification such as PEGylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Conformational analysis by quantitative NOE measurements of the β-proton pairs across individual disulfide bonds in proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2012-01-01

    NOEs between the β-protons of cysteine residues across disulfide bonds in proteins provide direct information on the connectivities and conformations of these important cross-links, which are otherwise difficult to investigate. With conventional [U- 13 C, 15 N]-proteins, however, fast spin diffusion processes mediated by strong dipolar interactions between geminal β-protons prohibit the quantitative measurements and thus the analyses of long-range NOEs across disulfide bonds. We describe a robust approach for alleviating such difficulties, by using proteins selectively labeled with an equimolar mixture of (2R, 3S)-[β- 13 C; α,β- 2 H 2 ] Cys and (2R, 3R)-[β- 13 C; α,β- 2 H 2 ] Cys, but otherwise fully deuterated. Since either one of the prochiral methylene protons, namely β2 (proS) or β3 (proR), is always replaced with a deuteron and no other protons remain in proteins prepared by this labeling scheme, all four of the expected NOEs for the β-protons across disulfide bonds could be measured without any spin diffusion interference, even with long mixing times. Therefore, the NOEs for the β2 and β3 pairs across each of the disulfide bonds could be observed at high sensitivity, even though they are 25% of the theoretical maximum for each pair. With the NOE information, the disulfide bond connectivities can be unambiguously established for proteins with multiple disulfide bonds. In addition, the conformations around disulfide bonds, namely χ 2 and χ 3 , can be determined based on the precise proton distances of the four β-proton pairs, by quantitative measurements of the NOEs across the disulfide bonds. The feasibility of this method is demonstrated for bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, which has three disulfide bonds.

  8. Transcriptional regulation of Hb-α and Hb-β through nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) activation in human vaginal cells: A novel mechanism of cellular adaptability to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Debarchana; Koli, Swanand; Reddy, Kudumula Venkata Rami

    2017-06-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb), a major protein involved in transport of oxygen (O 2 ), is expressed by erythroid lineages. Until recently, it was not known whether non-erythroid cells express Hb. The objective was to evaluate the expression and functional significance of Hb-α and Hb-β in human primary vaginal epithelial cells (hPVECs) and decipher downstream signaling. RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, Western blot, immunofluorescence were used to evaluate the expression of Hb-α, Hb-β, and nuclear factor E2-related factor-2(Nrf2) after hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) induction. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay were used to determine the binding efficiency of Nrf2 on the Hb-α promoter. Stimulation of hPVECs and human vaginal epithelial cell line, VK2/E6E7 with H 2 O 2 augmented the expression of Hb-α, Hb-β, Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Treatment of these cells with Nrf2 inhibitor, trigonelline (Trig) inhibited Hb-α and Hb-β expressions. Hb-α and Hb-β overexpression downregulated H 2 O 2 -induced ROS. The presence of Nrf2 binding domain was demonstrated within Hb-α promoter. The results revealed for the first time that Hb-α and Hb-β were induced by oxidative stress through the activation of Nrf2. Overexpression of Hb-α and Hb-β ameliorated H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress, indicating one of the possible mechanism(s) to protect hPVECS from oxidative stress. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Ferulic acid modification enhances the anti-oxidation activity of natural Hb in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Donglai; Li, Qian; Chen, Chen; Wang, Xiang

    2018-03-13

    During the development of artificial red blood cell (RBC) substitutes, oxidation side reaction is one of the major factors that hinder the application of haemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs). In order to avoid oxidation toxicity, we designed and prepared natural Hb conjugated with ferulic acid (FA) via simple chemical modification. In addition, the thiol groups on Hb surface were increased via the reaction of Hb with 2-iminothiolane (2-IT) and then modified with FA for the study of anti-oxidant ability. It was showed that Hb modified with FA (FA-Hb) had similar oxygen-binding capacity to natural Hb. Moreover, the anti-oxidant ability of FA-Hb in vitro in different systems was superior to natural Hb and in proportion to the degree of modification of FA. The results indicate that FA-Hb might have the potential to serve as a novel oxygen carrier with the capacity to reduce oxidative side reaction.

  10. Tc-99m direct radiolabeling of monoclonal antibody ior egf/r3: quality control and image studies in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Carla Roberta; Marczewski, Barbara; Moraes, Vanessa; Barboza, Marycel Figols de; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) have been useful for immunoscintigraphic applications in clinical diagnosis since they were introduced in the practice of nuclear medicine. The ior egf/r3 (Centis, Cuba) is a murine monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) and has been widely used in the radioimmunodiagnosis of tumors of epithelial origin. Labeled with 99m Tc, its main application in Nuclear Medicine is the follow up, detection and evaluation of tumor recurrences. The objective of this work is to describe the preparation of a lyophilized formulation (kit) for radiolabeling the Mab ior egf/r3 with 99m Tc for immunoscintigraphic applications. Radiolabeling efficiency, effects on immunoreactivity, image studies and stability of the formulation are reported. The study demonstrated that the kit formulation can be labeled with 99m Tc at high yields and can be used to visualize in vivo human tumors of epithelial origin by immunoscintigraphy studies.(author)

  11. Alpha-cyclodextrins reversibly capped with disulfide bonds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumprecht, Lukáš; Buděšínský, Miloš; Bouř, Petr; Kraus, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 10 (2010), s. 2254-2260 ISSN 1144-0546 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cyclodextrins * disulfide bond * dynamic covalent bond Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.631, year: 2010

  12. Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1α protein synthesis by inhibition of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Cho, Hyun-Ji [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of); Magae, Junji [Magae Bioscience Institute, 49-4 Fujimidai, Tsukuba 300-1263 (Japan); Lee, In-Kyu [Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 700-721 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Keun-Gyu, E-mail: kpark@knu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 700-721 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Young-Chae, E-mail: ycchang@cu.ac.kr [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 plays an important role in tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-angiogenic effect of ascofuranone, an isoprenoid antibiotic from Ascochyta viciae, in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-1 responsive human breast cancer cells. Ascofuranone significantly and selectively suppressed EGF-induced HIF-1α protein accumulation, whereas it did not affect the expression of HIF-1β. Furthermore, ascofuranone inhibited the transcriptional activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by reducing protein HIF-1α. Mechanistically, we found that the inhibitory effects of ascofuranone on HIF-1α protein expression are associated with the inhibition of synthesis HIF-1α through an EGF-dependent mechanism. In addition, ascofuranone suppressed EGF-induced phosphorylation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase, but the phosphorylation of ERK/JNK/p38 kinase was not affected by ascofuranone. These results suggest that ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1α protein translation through the inhibition of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase signaling pathways and plays a novel role in the anti-angiogenic action. - Highlights: • Inhibitory effect of ascofuranone on HIF-1α expression is EGF-specific regulation. • Ascofuranone decreases HIF-1α protein synthesis through Akt/mTOR pathways. • Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced VEGF production and tumor angiogenesis.

  13. Photo-reduction on the rupture of disulfide bonds and the related protein assembling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei

    It has been found that many proteins can self-assemble into nanoscale assemblies when they unfold or partially unfold under harsh conditions, such as low pH, high temperature, or the presence of denaturants, and so on. These nanoscale assemblies can have some applications such as the drug-delivery systems (DDSs). Here we report a study that a very physical way, the UV illumination, can be used to facilitate the formation of protein fibrils and nanoparticles under native conditions by breaking disulfide bonds in some disulfide-containing proteins. By controlling the intensity of UV light and the illumination time, we realized the preparation of self-assembly nanoparticles which encapsulate the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) and can be used as the DDS for inhibiting the growth of tumor. The formation of fibrillary assemblies was also observed. The rupture of disulfide bonds through photo-reduction process due to the effect of tryptophan and tyrosine was studied, and the physical mechanism of the assembling of the related disulfide-containing proteins was also discussed. We thank the financial support from NSF of China and the 973 project.

  14. Compact conformations of human protein disulfide isomerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Yang

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI composed of four thioredoxin-like domains a, b, b', and a', is a key enzyme catalyzing oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Large scale molecular dynamics simulations starting from the crystal structures of human PDI (hPDI in the oxidized and reduced states were performed. The results indicate that hPDI adopts more compact conformations in solution than in the crystal structures, which are stabilized primarily by inter-domain interactions, including the salt bridges between domains a and b' observed for the first time. A prominent feature of the compact conformations is that the two catalytic domains a and a' can locate close enough for intra-molecular electron transfer, which was confirmed by the characterization of an intermediate with a disulfide between the two domains. Mutations, which disrupt the inter-domain interactions, lead to decreased reductase activity of hPDI. Our molecular dynamics simulations and biochemical experiments reveal the intrinsic conformational dynamics of hPDI and its biological impact.

  15. Comparing effects of insulin analogues and human insulin on nocturnal glycaemia in hypoglycaemia-prone people with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P. L.; Tarnow, L.; Bay, C.

    2017-01-01

    . Conclusions: Treatment with insulin analogue reduces the occurrence of nocturnal hypoglycaemia assessed by nocturnal glucose profiles in people with Type 1 diabetes prone to severe hypoglycaemia. Nocturnal glucose profiles provide a more comprehensive assessment of clinical benefit of insulin regimens......Aims: To assess the difference between analogue and human insulin with regard to nocturnal glucose profiles and risk of hypoglycaemia in people with recurrent severe hypoglycaemia. Methods: A total of 72 people [46 men, mean ± sd age 54 ± 12 years, mean ± sd HbA1c 65 ± 12 mmol/mol (8.1 ± 1.1......%), mean ± sd duration of diabetes 30 ± 14 years], who participated in a 2-year randomized, crossover trial of basal-bolus therapy with insulin detemir/insulin aspart or human NPH insulin/human regular insulin (the HypoAna trial) were studied for 2 nights during each treatment. Venous blood was drawn...

  16. Hb TAYBE: clinical and morphological findings IN 43 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Ariel; Levin, Carina; Zalman, Luci; Palmor, Haya; Filon, Dvora; Chubar, Evgeny; Resnitzky, Peretz; Bennett, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Hereditary sequence variants in globin genes are usually silent and are rarer in α-globin chains than β-globin chains. Some may lead to an unstable protein with a hemolytic or thalassemic phenotype. Hb Taybe is an unstable α-chain hemoglobin variant caused by the deletion of a threonine residue at codon 38 or 39 of the α1 globin gene. This deletion results in a structural abnormality that affects the α1 β2 contact and the α1 β1 interface, producing a highly unstable Hb. We describe the clinical, laboratory, and morphological characteristics of 43 patients with Hb Taybe, sixteen of whom are heterozygous, eight are homozygous, and nineteen are double heterozygous for Hb Taybe and other α-gene mutations or deletions. The clinical presentation is very variable from a mild hemolytic anemia to the need for red cell transfusion. Morphological characteristics include erythroid hyperplasia, defective hemoglobin production, and dyserythropoietic features. On electron microscopy dyserythropoiesis and cytoplasmic precipitation of globin compatible optical dense material is seen. This is the largest report of Hb Taybe patients. Previous reported cohorts are not related to these cases. We conclude that patients carrying Hb Taybe have a unique hematological and clinical phenotype distinct from other hemoglobinopathies and from congenital dyserythropoietic anemia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Liraglutide: a once-daily GLP-1 analogue for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina

    2007-01-01

    properties that are suitable for once-daily dosing. Liraglutide has demonstrated lasting improvement of HbA(1c )levels, weight reduction and improved beta-cell function in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Liraglutide is well tolerated; the adverse events that are most frequently reported being...... transient nausea and diarrhoea. This article reviews the mechanisms of action and efficacy of liraglutide for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. This agent is presently in Phase III clinical development.......The incretin hormones are intestinal peptides that enhance insulin secretion following ingestion of nutrients. Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor analogue, which is obtained by derivatising glucagon-like peptide-1 with a fatty acid, providing a compound with pharmacokinetic...

  18. Study on the changes of serum levels of polypeptide growth factors (EGF, TGF-α) and related hormones (gastrin, somatostatin) in patients with peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jianfan; Ma Yunbao; Zhang Xiaoyi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible roles of EGF, TGF-α, gastrin and somatostatin in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer by measuring the changes of serum levels of those four parameters in the patients with peptic ulcer. Methods: Serum levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), gastrin (Gas) and somatostatin (SS) were measured with RIA in 30 patients with gastric ulcer, 32 patients with duodenal ulcer and 30 controls. Results: Serum levels of gastrin and EGF were significantly higher in the patients with peptic ulcer than those in the controls (both P 0.05). However, serum TGF-α levels were significantly lower in the ulcer patients than those in the controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Changes of serum levels of gastrin, EGF and TGF-α were quite significant in the ulcer patients and determining of which might be of clinical meanings. Determination of somatostatin changes seemed to be of less importance. (authors)

  19. Novel Roles of the Non-catalytic Elements of Yeast Protein-disulfide Isomerase in Its Interplay with Endoplasmic Reticulum Oxidoreductin 1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yingbo; Zhang, Lihui; Yu, Jiaojiao; Wang, Chih-chen; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The formation of disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells is catalyzed by the sulfhydryl oxidase, ER oxidoreductin 1 (Ero1), and protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI). PDI is oxidized by Ero1 to continuously introduce disulfides into substrates, and feedback regulates Ero1 activity by manipulating the regulatory disulfides of Ero1. In this study we find that yeast Ero1p is enzymatically active even with its regulatory disulfides intact, and further activation of Ero1p by reduction of the regulatory disulfides requires the reduction of non-catalytic Cys90-Cys97 disulfide in Pdi1p. The principal client-binding site in the Pdi1p b′ domain is necessary not only for the functional Ero1p-Pdi1p disulfide relay but also for the activation of Ero1p. We also demonstrate by complementary activation assays that the regulatory disulfides in Ero1p are much more stable than those in human Ero1α. These new findings on yeast Ero1p-Pdi1p interplay reveal significant differences from our previously identified mode of human Ero1α-PDI interplay and provide insights into the evolution of the eukaryotic oxidative protein folding pathway. PMID:26846856

  20. Avaliação de Hb A2 e Hb F em doadores de sangue de região malarígena da Amazônia Oriental brasileira por HPLC Evaluation of Hb A2 and Hb F by HPLC in blood donors from the malaria endemic region of Eastern Amazon of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa C. Souza

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In malaria endemic regions of Africa, resistance to infection by Plasmodium has been observed in under 6-month-old children, when there are higher fetal hemoglobin (Hb F levels. Research performed in the São José do Rio Preto region, central-east Brazil, reported increased levels of Hb F in blood donors. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the A2 hemoglobin (Hb A2 and Hb F concentrations in blood donors deriving from the Brazilian malaria endemic region. Forty-five blood donor samples from Macapá, from patients with varying genders, ages and ethnic origins, were collected by venous puncture after informed consent was obtained. The samples were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC - System Variant (Bio-Rad. The HPLC demonstrated sensitivity and rapidity in the identification and measurement of the hemoglobins and gave precise results. Moreover, it provided measurement of hemoglobin variants, even when they were present in small amounts, providing a diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies. Hb F levels above the normal were observed in 33.3% of the analyzed samples. The presence of increased Hb F can suggest resistance to infection by Plasmodium falciparum, as there have been reports that infected red blood cells interfere in the development of the parasite.

  1. Effects of biphasic, basal-bolus or basal insulin analogue treatments on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Vaag, Allan; Tarnow, Lise

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of 3 insulin analogue regimens on change in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN AND SETTING: Investigator-initiated, randomised, placebo-controlled trial with a 2×3 factorial design, conducted at 8 hospitals in Denmark....... PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Participants with type 2 diabetes (glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)≥7.5% (≥58 mmol/mol), body mass index >25 kg/m(2)) were, in addition to metformin versus placebo, randomised to 18 months open-label biphasic insulin aspart 1-3 times daily (n=137) versus insulin aspart 3 times daily......: Carotid IMT change did not differ between 3 insulin regimens despite differences in HbA1c, weight gain and insulin doses. The trial only reached 46% of planned sample size and lack of power may therefore have affected our results. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00657943....

  2. EGF-Induced VEGF Exerts a PI3K-Dependent Positive Feedback on ERK and AKT through VEGFR2 in Hematological In Vitro Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Saryeddine

    Full Text Available EGFR and VEGFR pathways play major roles in solid tumor growth and progression, however, little is known about these pathways in haematological tumors. This study investigated the crosstalk between EGFR and VEGFR2 signaling in two hematological in vitro models: THP1, a human monocytic leukemia, and Raji, a Burkitt's lymphoma, cell lines. Results showed that both cell lines express EGFR and VEGFR2 and responded to EGF stimulation by activating EGFR, triggering VEGF production and phosphorylating ERK, AKT, and p38 very early, with a peak of expression at 10-20min. Blocking EGFR using Tyrphostin resulted in inhibiting EGFR induced activation of ERK, AKT, and p38. In addition, EGF stimulation caused a significant and immediate increase, within 1min, in pVEGFR2 in both cell lines, which peaked at ~5-10 min after treatment. Selective inhibition of VEGFR2 by DMH4, anti-VEGFR2 antibody or siRNA diminished EGF-induced pAKT and pERK, indicating a positive feedback exerted by EGFR-induced VEGF. Similarly, the specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002, suppressed AKT and ERK phosphorylation showing that VEGF feedback is PI3K-dependent. On the other hand, phosphorylation of p38, initiated by EGFR and independent of VEGF feedback, was diminished using PLC inhibitor U73122. Moreover, measurement of intracellular [Ca2+] and ROS following VEGFR2 inhibition and EGF treatment proved that VEGFR2 is not implicated in EGF-induced Ca2+ release whereas it boosts EGF-induced ROS production. Furthermore, a significant decrease in pAKT, pERK and p-p38 was shown following the addition of the ROS inhibitor NAC. These results contribute to the understanding of the crosstalk between EGFR and VEGFR in haematological malignancies and their possible combined blockade in therapy.

  3. Functional differences in yeast protein disulfide isomerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Westphal, V; Tachibana, C

    2001-01-01

    PDI1 is the essential gene encoding protein disulfide isomerase in yeast. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, however, contains four other nonessential genes with homology to PDI1: MPD1, MPD2, EUG1, and EPS1. We have investigated the effects of simultaneous deletions of these genes. In several...

  4. Improvement in the thermostability of chitosanase from Bacillus ehimensis by introducing artificial disulfide bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jun; Ji, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Yuan; Wang, Zhipeng; Sun, Mi

    2016-10-01

    To determine the effects of artificial disulfide bridges on the thermostability and catalytic efficiency of chitosanase EAG1. Five artificial disulfide bridges were designed based on the structural information derived from the three-dimensional (3-D) model of chitosanase EAG1. Two beneficial mutants (G113C/D116C, A207C-L286C) were located in the flexible surface loop region, whereas the similar substitutions introduced in α-helices regions had a negligible effect. Mut5, the most active mutant, had a longer half-life at 50 °C (from 10.5 to 69.3 min) and a 200 % higher catalytic efficiency (K cat/K m) than that of the original EAG1. The contribution of disulfide bridges to enzyme thermostability is mainly dependent on its location within the polypeptide chain. Strategical placement of a disulfide bridge in flexible regions provides a rigid support and creation of a protected microenvironment, which is effective in improving enzyme's thermostability and catalytic efficiency.

  5. Thrombosis in Hb Taybe [codons 38/39 (-ACC) (α1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Maja Bech; Vestergaard, Hanne; Petersen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Hb Taybe is a highly unstable hemoglobin (Hb) variant caused by a 3 bp deletion at codons 38/39 (-ACC) on the α1-globin gene. We report for the first time, a patient with a compound heterozygosity for Hb Taybe and a 5 bp deletion at the splice donor site of IVS-I on the α2-globin gene and ischemic...

  6. Interdependency of EGF and GLP-2 Signaling in Attenuating Mucosal Atrophy in a Mouse Model of Parenteral Nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Yongjia; Demehri, Farok R; Xiao, Weidong

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), a crucial treatment for patients who cannot receive enteral nutrition, is associated with mucosal atrophy, barrier dysfunction, and infectious complications. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) improve intestinal...... deprived of enteral nutrition. METHODS: Adult C57BL/6J, IEC-Egfr(knock out (KO)) and IEC-pik3r1(KO) mice receiving TPN or enteral nutrition were treated with EGF or GLP-2 alone or in combination with reciprocal receptor inhibitors, GLP-2(3-33) or gefitinib. Jejunum was collected and mucosal atrophy and IEC...

  7. TRPP2 and TRPV4 form an EGF-activated calcium permeable channel at the apical membrane of renal collecting duct cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ren Zhang

    Full Text Available Regulation of apical calcium entry is important for the function of principal cells of the collecting duct. However, the molecular identity and the regulators of the transporter/channel, which is responsible for apical calcium entry and what factors regulate the calcium conduction remain unclear.We report that endogenous TRPP2 and TRPV4 assemble to form a 23-pS divalent cation-permeable non-selective ion channel at the apical membrane of renal principal cells of the collecting duct. TRPP2\\TRPV4 channel complex was identified by patch-clamp, immunofluorescence and co-immunprecipitation studies in both principal cells that either possess normal cilia (cilia (+ or in which cilia are absent (cilia (-. This channel has distinct biophysical and pharmacological and regulatory profiles compared to either TRPP2 or TRPV4 channels. The rate of occurrence detected by patch clamp was higher in cilia (- compared to cilia (+ cells. In addition, shRNA knockdown of TRPP2 increased the prevalence of TRPV4 channel activity while knockdown of TRPV4 resulted in TRPP2 activity and knockdown of both proteins vastly decreased the 23-pS channel activity. Epidermal growth factor (EGF stimulated TRPP2\\TRPV4 channel through the EGF receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase-dependent signaling. With loss of cilia, apical EGF treatment resulted in 64-fold increase in channel activity in cilia (- but not cilia (+ cells. In addition EGF increased cell proliferation in cilia (- cell that was dependent upon TRPP2\\TRPV4 channel mediated increase in intracellular calcium.We conclude that in the absence of cilia, an EGF activated TRPP2\\TRPV4 channel may play an important role in increased cell proliferation and cystogenesis.

  8. Increasing the reactivity of an artificial dithiol-disulfide pair through modification of the electrostatic milieu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rosa E; Østergaard, Henrik; Winther, Jakob R

    2005-01-01

    K(a) value of Cys149, as well as favorable electrostatic interactions with the negatively charged reagents. The results presented here show that the electrostatic milieu of cysteine thiols in proteins can have substantial effects on the rates of the thiol-disulfide exchange reactions.......The thiol-disulfide exchange reaction plays a central role in the formation of disulfide bonds in newly synthesized proteins and is involved in many aspects of cellular metabolism. Because the thiolate form of the cysteine residue is the key reactive species, its electrostatic milieu is thought...... surface. We have studied properties of vicinal cysteine residues in proteins using a model system based on redox-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein (rxYFP). In this system, the formation of a disulfide bond between two cysteines Cys149 and Cys202 is accompanied by a 2.2-fold decrease in fluorescence...

  9. Identification of Thioredoxin Disulfide Targets Using a Quantitative Proteomics Approach Based on Isotope-Coded Affinity Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Maeda, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a ubiquitous protein disulfide reductase involved in a wide range of cellular redox processes. A large number of putative target proteins have been identified using proteomics approaches, but insight into target specificity at the molecular level is lacking since the reactivity...... of Trx toward individual disulfides has not been quantified. Here, a novel proteomics procedure is described for quantification of Trx-mediated target disulfide reduction based on thiol-specific differential labeling with the iodoacetamide-based isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) reagents. Briefly......, protein extract of embryos from germinated barley seeds was treated +/- Trx, and thiols released from target protein disulfides were irreversibly blocked with iodoacetamide. The remaining cysteine residues in the Trx-treated and the control (-Trx) samples were then chemically reduced and labeled...

  10. Mechanosensitive promoter region in the human HB-GAM gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liedert, Astrid; Kassem, Moustapha; Claes, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical loading is essential for maintaining bone mass in the adult skeleton. However, the underlying process of the transfer of the physical stimulus into a biochemical response, which is termed mechanotransduction is poorly understood. Mechanotransduction results in the modulation of gene...... cells. Analysis of the human HB-GAM gene upstream regulatory region with luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that the upregulation of HB-GAM expression occurred at the transcriptional level and was mainly dependent on the HB-GAM promoter region most upstream containing three potential AP-1 binding...

  11. [INHIBITORS OF MAP-KINASE PATHWAY U0126 AND PD98059 DIFFERENTLY AFFECT ORGANIZATION OF TUBULIN CYTOSKELETON AFTER STIMULATION OF EGF RECEPTOR ENDOCYTOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlobina, M V; Steblyanko, Yu Yu; Shklyaeva, M A; Kharchenko, V V; Salova, A V; Kornilova, E S

    2015-01-01

    To confirm the hypothesis about the involvement of EGF-stimulated MAP-kinase ERK1/2 in the regulation of microtubule (MT) system, the influence of two widely used ERK1/2 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, on the organization of tubulin cytoskeleton in interphase HeLa cells during EGF receptor endocytosis has been investigated. We have found that addition of U0126 or PD98059 to not-stimulated with EGF ells for 30 min has no effect on radially organized MT system. However, in the case of U0126 addition before EGF endocytosis stimulation, the number of MT per cell decreased within 15 min after such stimulation and was followed by complete MT depolymerization by 60-90 min. Stimulation of EGF endocytosis in the presence of PD98059 resulted only in insignificant depolymerization of MT and it could be detected mainly from their minus-ends. At the same time, MT regions close to plasma membrane became stabilized, which was proved by increase in tubulin acetylation level. This situation was characteristic for all period of the experiment. It has been also found that the inhibitors affect endocytosis dynamics of EGF-receptor complexes. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that the stimulation of endocytosis in the presence of U0126 generated a greater number of endosomes compared to control cells, and their number did not change significantly during the experiment. All these endosomes were localized peripherally. Effect of PD98059 resulted in the formation of lower number of endosomes that in control, but they demonstrated very slow clusterization despite the presence of some intact MT. Both inhibitors decreased EGFR colocolization with early endosomal marker EEA1, which indicated a delay in endosome fusions and maturation. The inhibitors were also shown to affect differently phospho-ERK 1 and 2 forms: U0126 completely inhibited phospho-ERK1 and 2, white, in the presence of PD98059, the two ERK forms demonstrated sharp transient activation in 15 min after stimulation, but only

  12. Internalization mechanisms of the epidermal growth factor receptor after activation with different ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse; Grandal, Michael Vibo; Knudsen, Stine Louise Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    after ligand activation focuses on the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α). For a long time it was believed that clathrin-mediated endocytosis was the major pathway for internalization of the receptor, but recent work suggests that different pathways exist....... Here we show that clathrin ablation completely inhibits internalization of EGF- and TGF-α-stimulated receptor, however the inhibition of receptor internalization in cells treated with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) or betacellulin (BTC) was only partial. In contrast, clathrin knockdown...... fully inhibits EGFR degradation after all ligands tested. Furthermore, inhibition of dynamin function blocked EGFR internalization after stimulation with all ligands. Knocking out a number of clathrin-independent dynamin-dependent pathways of internalization had no effect on the ligand...

  13. Protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) helps regulate EGF-induced stimulation of S-phase entry in human corneal endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishino, Yutaka; Zhu, Cheng; Harris, Deshea L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC), particularly from older donors, only proliferate weakly in response to EGF. The protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTP1B, is known to negatively regulate EGF-induced signaling in several cell types by dephosphorylating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The current studies were conducted to determine whether PTP1B plays a role in regulating cell cycle entry in HCEC in response to EGF stimulation. Methods Donor corneas were obtained from the National Disease Research Interchange and accepted for study based on established exclusion criteria. PTP1B was localized in the endothelium of ex vivo corneas and in cultured cells by immunocytochemistry. Western blot analysis verified PTP1B protein expression in HCEC and then compared the relative expression of EGFR and PTP1B in HCEC from young (60 years old). The effect of inhibiting the activity of PTP1B on S-phase entry was tested by comparing time-dependent BrdU incorporation in subconfluent HCEC incubated in the presence or absence of the PTP1B inhibitor, CinnGEL 2Me, before EGF stimulation. Results PTP1B was localized in a punctate pattern mainly within the cytoplasm of HCEC in ex vivo corneas and cultured cells. Western blots revealed the presence of three PTP1B-positive bands in HCEC and the control. Further western blot analysis showed no significant age-related difference in expression of EGFR (p=0.444>0.05); however, PTP1B expression was significantly higher in HCEC from older donors (p=0.024<0.05). Pre-incubation of HCEC with the PTP1B inhibitor significantly increased (p=0.019<0.05) the number of BrdU positive cells by 48 h after EGF stimulation. Conclusions Both immunolocalization and western blot studies confirmed that PTP1B is expressed in HCEC. Staining patterns strongly suggest that at least a subset of PTP1B is localized to the cytoplasm and most likely to the endoplasmic reticulum, the known site of EGFR/PTP1B interaction following EGF stimulation. PTP1B

  14. Tc-{sup 99m} direct radiolabeling of monoclonal antibody ior egf/r3: quality control and image studies in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Carla Roberta; Marczewski, Barbara; Moraes, Vanessa; Barboza, Marycel Figols de; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: crdias@ipen.br

    2005-10-15

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) have been useful for immunoscintigraphic applications in clinical diagnosis since they were introduced in the practice of nuclear medicine. The ior egf/r3 (Centis, Cuba) is a murine monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) and has been widely used in the radioimmunodiagnosis of tumors of epithelial origin. Labeled with 99m Tc, its main application in Nuclear Medicine is the follow up, detection and evaluation of tumor recurrences. The objective of this work is to describe the preparation of a lyophilized formulation (kit) for radiolabeling the Mab ior egf/r3 with 99m Tc for immunoscintigraphic applications. Radiolabeling efficiency, effects on immunoreactivity, image studies and stability of the formulation are reported. The study demonstrated that the kit formulation can be labeled with 99m Tc at high yields and can be used to visualize in vivo human tumors of epithelial origin by immunoscintigraphy studies.(author)

  15. Predictors of HbA1c levels in patients initiating metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martono, Doti P; Hak, Eelko; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo; Wilffert, Bob; Denig, Petra

    2016-12-01

    The aim was to assess demographic and clinical factors as predictors of short (6 months) and long term (18 months) HbA1c levels in diabetes patients initiating metformin treatment. We conducted a cohort study including type 2 diabetes patients who received their first metformin prescription between 2007 and 2013 in the Groningen Initiative to Analyze Type 2 Diabetes Treatment (GIANTT) database. The primary outcome was HbA1c level at follow-up adjusted for baseline HbA1c; the secondary outcome was failing to achieve the target HbA1c level of 53 mmol/mol. Associations were analyzed by linear and logistic regression. Multiple imputation was used for missing data. Additional analyses stratified by dose and adherence level were conducted. The cohort included 6050 patients initiating metformin. Baseline HbA1c at target consistently predicted better HbA1c outcomes. Longer diabetes duration and lower total cholesterol level at baseline were predictors for higher HbA1c levels at 6 months. At 18 months, cholesterol level was not a predictor. Longer diabetes duration was also associated with not achieving the target HbA1c at follow-up. The association for longer diabetes duration was especially seen in patients starting on low dose treatment. No consistent associations were found for comorbidity and comedication. Diabetes duration was a relevant predictor of HbA1c levels after 6 and 18 months of follow-up in patients initiating metformin treatment. Given the study design, no causal inference can be made. Our study suggests that prompt treatment intensification may be needed in patients who have a longer diabetes duration at treatment initiation.

  16. Effect of once-weekly dulaglutide on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose in patient subpopulations by gender, duration of diabetes and baseline HbA1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallwitz, Baptist; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; Thieu, Vivian; Garcia-Perez, Luis-Emilio; Pavo, Imre; Yu, Maria; Robertson, Kenneth E; Zhang, Nan; Giorgino, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dulaglutide 1.5 and 0.75 mg in patients with type 2 diabetes by subgroups of gender, duration of diabetes and baseline glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in the dulaglutide clinical development programme (AWARD-1 to -6 and -8 clinical trials). Change in HbA1c was analysed by gender, duration of diabetes (baseline HbA1c (baseline in weight, hypoglycaemia and gastrointestinal adverse events were evaluated for individual trials. In the pooled analysis of patients treated with dulaglutide 1.5 mg at 6 months, the reductions in HbA1c from baseline were similar across gender (men: least squares [LS] mean -1.26% [95% confidence interval {CI} -1.36, -1.16]; women: LS mean -1.33% [95% CI -1.43, -1.24]) and among duration of diabetes subgroups (baseline HbA1c ≥8.5% had greater HbA1c reductions than patients with baseline HbA1c baseline HbA1c subgroups, respectively; women had a numerically greater weight loss or less weight gain than men with both dulaglutide doses. There was no clinically meaningful difference in hypoglycaemia trends by gender or duration of diabetes. Hypoglycaemia incidence and rate were generally lower in patients with baseline HbA1c ≥8.5% than in those with baseline HbA1c, with greater HbA1c and FBG reductions in patients with a higher baseline HbA1c. Dulaglutide was well tolerated, with a safety profile similar to other glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Modeling Single-Phase PV HB-ZVR Inverter Connected to Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Zhu, Jieqiong

    2011-01-01

    PLECS is used to model the PV H-bridge zero voltage rectifier (HB-ZVR) inverter connected to grid and good results are obtained. First, several common topologies of PV inverters are introduced. Then the unipolar PWM control strategy is described for PV HB-ZVR inverter. Third, PLECS is briefly...... introduced. Fourth, the modeling of PV HB-ZVR inverter is presented with PLECS. Finally, a series of simulations are carried out. The simulation results tell us PLECS is very powerful tool to real power circuits and it is very easy to simulate LCL filter. They have also verified that the unipolar PWM control...... strategy is feasible to control the PV HB-ZVR inverter....

  18. Disruption of reducing pathways is not essential for efficient disulfide bond formation in the cytoplasm of E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatahet Feras

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of native disulfide bonds is a complex and essential post-translational modification for many proteins. The large scale production of these proteins can be difficult and depends on targeting the protein to a compartment in which disulfide bond formation naturally occurs, usually the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotes or the periplasm of prokaryotes. It is currently thought to be impossible to produce large amounts of disulfide bond containing protein in the cytoplasm of wild-type bacteria such as E. coli due to the presence of multiple pathways for their reduction. Results Here we show that the introduction of Erv1p, a sulfhydryl oxidase and FAD-dependent catalyst of disulfide bond formation found in the inter membrane space of mitochondria, allows the efficient formation of native disulfide bonds in heterologously expressed proteins in the cytoplasm of E. coli even without the disruption of genes involved in disulfide bond reduction, for example trxB and/or gor. Indeed yields of active disulfide bonded proteins were higher in BL21 (DE3 pLysSRARE, an E. coli strain with the reducing pathways intact, than in the commercial Δgor ΔtrxB strain rosetta-gami upon co-expression of Erv1p. Conclusions Our results refute the current paradigm in the field that disruption of at least one of the reducing pathways is essential for the efficient production of disulfide bond containing proteins in the cytoplasm of E. coli and open up new possibilities for the use of E. coli as a microbial cell factory.

  19. Enhancing Protein Disulfide Bond Cleavage by UV Excitation and Electron Capture Dissociation for Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Wongkongkathep, Piriya; Li, Huilin; Zhang, Xing; Loo, Rachel R. Ogorzalek; Julian, Ryan R.; Loo, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The application of ion pre-activation with 266 nm ultraviolet (UV) laser irradiation combined with electron capture dissociation (ECD) is demonstrated to enhance top-down mass spectrometry sequence coverage of disulfide bond containing proteins. UV-based activation can homolytically cleave a disulfide bond to yield two separated thiol radicals. Activated ECD experiments of insulin and ribonuclease A containing three and four disulfide bonds, respectively, were performed. UV-activation in comb...

  20. Should Studies of Diabetes Treatment Stratification Correct for Baseline HbA1c?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angus G.; Lonergan, Mike; Henley, William E.; Pearson, Ewan R.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Shields, Beverley M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Baseline HbA1c is a major predictor of response to glucose lowering therapy and therefore a potential confounder in studies aiming to identify other predictors. However, baseline adjustment may introduce error if the association between baseline HbA1c and response is substantially due to measurement error and regression to the mean. We aimed to determine whether studies of predictors of response should adjust for baseline HbA1c. Methods We assessed the relationship between baseline HbA1c and glycaemic response in 257 participants treated with GLP-1R agonists and assessed whether it reflected measurement error and regression to the mean using duplicate ‘pre-baseline’ HbA1c measurements not included in the response variable. In this cohort and an additional 2659 participants treated with sulfonylureas we assessed the relationship between covariates associated with baseline HbA1c and treatment response with and without baseline adjustment, and with a bias correction using pre-baseline HbA1c to adjust for the effects of error in baseline HbA1c. Results Baseline HbA1c was a major predictor of response (R2 = 0.19,β = -0.44,pHbA1c were associated with response, however these associations were weak or absent after adjustment for baseline HbA1c. Bias correction did not substantially alter associations. Conclusions Adjustment for the baseline HbA1c measurement is a simple and effective way to reduce bias in studies of predictors of response to glucose lowering therapy. PMID:27050911

  1. Differential role of EGF and BFGF in human GBM-TIC proliferation: relationship to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor sensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajetto, A; Porcile, C; Pattarozzi, A; Scotti, L; Aceto, A; Daga, A; Barbieri, F; Florio, T

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is among the most devastating human tumors being rapidly fatal despite aggressive surgery, radiation and chemotherapies. It is characterized by extensive dissemination of tumor cells within the brain that hinders complete surgical resection. GBM tumor initiating-cells (TICs) are a rare subpopulation of cells responsible for tumor development, growth, invasiveness and recurrence after chemotherapy. TICs from human GBM can be selected in vitro using the same conditions permissive for the growth of normal neural cells, of which share some features including marker expression, self-renewal capacity, long-term proliferation, and ability to differentiate into neuronal and glial cells. EGFR overexpression and its constitutive activation is one of the most important signaling alteration identified in GBM, and its pharmacological targeting represents an attractive therapeutic goal. We previously demonstrated that human GBM TICs have different sensitivity to the EGFR kinase inhibitors erlotinib and gefitinib, depending on the differential modulation of downstream signaling cascades. In this work we investigated the mechanisms of resistance to erlotinib in two human GBM TIC cultures, analyzing EGF and bFGF individual contribution to proliferation, clonogenicity, and migration. We demonstrated the presence of a small cell subpopulation whose proliferation is supported by EGF and a larger one mainly dependent on bFGF. Thus, insensitivity to EGFR kinase inhibitors as far as TIC proliferation results from a predominant FGFR activation that hides the inhibitory effects induced on EGFR signaling. Conversely, EGF and bFGF induced cell migration with similar efficacy. In addition, unlike neural stem/progenitors cells, the removal of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans from cell surface was unable to discern EGF- and bFGF-dependent subpopulations in GBM TICs.

  2. Photodegradable, Photoadaptable Hydrogels via Radical-Mediated Disulfide Fragmentation Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, Benjamin D; Singh, Samir P; Bowman, Christopher N; Anseth, Kristi S

    2011-04-26

    Various techniques have been adopted to impart a biological responsiveness to synthetic hydrogels for the delivery of therapeutic agents as well as the study and manipulation of biological processes and tissue development. Such techniques and materials include polyelectrolyte gels that swell and deswell with changes in pH, thermosensitive gels that contract at physiological temperatures, and peptide cross-linked hydrogels that degrade upon peptidolysis by cell-secreted enzymes. Herein we report a unique approach to photochemically deform and degrade disulfide cross-linked hydrogels, mitigating the challenges of light attenuation and low quantum yield, permitting the degradation of hydrogels up to 2 mm thick within 120 s at low light intensities (10 mW/cm(2) at 365 nm). Hydrogels were formed by the oxidation of thiol-functionalized 4-armed poly(ethylene glycol) macromolecules. These disulfide cross-linked hydrogels were then swollen in a lithium acylphosphinate photoinitiator solution. Upon exposure to light, photogenerated radicals initiate multiple fragmentation and disulfide exchange reactions, permitting and promoting photodeformation, photowelding, and photodegradation. This novel, but simple, approach to generate photoadaptable hydrogels portends the study of cellular response to mechanically and topographically dynamic substrates as well as novel encapsulations by the welding of solid substrates. The principles and techniques described herein hold implications for more than hydrogel materials but also for photoadaptable polymers more generally.

  3. Inhibition of the Ras-ERK pathway in mitotic COS7 cells is due to the inability of EGFR/Raf to transduce EGF signaling to downstream proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huaiping; Zhang, Tianying; Yi, Yongqing; Ma, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have shown that Ras-ERK signaling in mitosis is closed due to the inhibition of signal transduction, the events involved in the molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the Ras-ERK signaling pathway in mitotic COS7 cells. The results demonstrated that treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF) failed to increase the endocytosis of EGF-EGFR (EGF receptor) complexes in mitotic COS7 cells, although a large amount of endosomes were found in asynchronous COS7 cells. Clathrin expression levels in mitotic COS7 cells were inhibited whereas caveolin expression levels in mitotic COS7 cells were almost unaffected. Y1068 and Y1086 residues of EGFR in the mitotic COS7 cells were activated. However, Grb2 and Shc in the mitotic COS7 cells did not bind to activated EGFR. Ras activity was inhibited in the mitotic COS7 cells whereas its downstream protein, Raf, was obviously phosphorylated by EGF in mitosis. Treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) also increased the phosphorylation levels of Raf in the mitotic COS7 cells. Nevertheless, Raf phosphorylation in mitosis was significantly inhibited by AG1478. Lastly, activation of EGF-mediated MEK and ERK in the mitotic COS7 cells was obviously inhibited. In summary, our results suggest that the Ras-ERK pathway is inhibited in mitotic COS7 cells which may be the dual result of the difficulty in the transduction of EGF signaling by EGFR or Raf to downstream proteins.

  4. ERGEBNISSE DER UNTERSUCHUNG VON HB-AL BEI 94 PATIENTEN MIT NIERENINSUFFIZIENZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available We have qua nt i t a l ed Hb- Al ~n 125 patients . 74 pa t ient s had chronic Renal Failure . 20 of them had Diabetes wi th Renal Fai lure , 21 Diabetics and 10 patients were evaluat ed as control. We have divided the patients with Renal Failure i n 3 groups according to t heir serum c reatin i ne . Hb-Al in a ll groups "as not correlated wi th serum creat i ne. Hb-Al in Diabetic gr oup was highe r than Diabetic patients with Renal Failure . This group a lso had mor e HbA1 than t he gr oup with Renal ~ailure a nd no Diabetes ,and control group . , Hb-Al was correlated with Blood suger i n all pa t i e nt s s o we can u se"nal Failure the me a sureme nt of Hb-Al i n pati ents with Renunder Dial ys i s with gl ucose solution fo r evalua t i o n of sugar meta boli s m.  

  5. Structural Basis of a Thiol-Disulfide Oxidoreductase in the Hedgehog-Forming Actinobacterium Corynebacterium matruchotii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Truc Thanh; Tirgar, Reyhaneh; Reardon-Robinson, Melissa E; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Ton-That, Hung

    2018-05-01

    The actinobacterium Corynebacterium matruchotii has been implicated in nucleation of oral microbial consortia leading to biofilm formation. Due to the lack of genetic tools, little is known about basic cellular processes, including protein secretion and folding, in this organism. We report here a survey of the C. matruchotii genome, which encodes a large number of exported proteins containing paired cysteine residues, and identified an oxidoreductase that is highly homologous to the Corynebacterium diphtheriae thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase MdbA (MdbA Cd ). Crystallization studies uncovered that the 1.2-Å resolution structure of C. matruchotii MdbA (MdbA Cm ) possesses two conserved features found in actinobacterial MdbA enzymes, a thioredoxin-like fold and an extended α-helical domain. By reconstituting the disulfide bond-forming machine in vitro , we demonstrated that MdbA Cm catalyzes disulfide bond formation within the actinobacterial pilin FimA. A new gene deletion method supported that mdbA is essential in C. matruchotii Remarkably, heterologous expression of MdbA Cm in the C. diphtheriae Δ mdbA mutant rescued its known defects in cell growth and morphology, toxin production, and pilus assembly, and this thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase activity required the catalytic motif CXXC. Altogether, the results suggest that MdbA Cm is a major thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase, which likely mediates posttranslocational protein folding in C. matruchotii by a mechanism that is conserved in Actinobacteria IMPORTANCE The actinobacterium Corynebacterium matruchotii has been implicated in the development of oral biofilms or dental plaque; however, little is known about the basic cellular processes in this organism. We report here a high-resolution structure of a C. matruchotii oxidoreductase that is highly homologous to the Corynebacterium diphtheriae thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase MdbA. By biochemical analysis, we demonstrated that C. matruchotii MdbA catalyzes disulfide

  6. The SH2 and SH3 domains of mammalian Grb2 couple the EGF receptor to the Ras activator mSos1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozakis-Adcock, M; Fernley, R; Wade, J; Pawson, T; Bowtell, D

    1993-05-06

    Many tyrosine kinases, including the receptors for hormones such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), nerve growth factor and insulin, transmit intracellular signals through Ras proteins. Ligand binding to such receptors stimulates Ras guanine-nucleotide-exchange activity and increases the level of GTP-bound Ras, suggesting that these tyrosine kinases may activate a guanine-nucleotide releasing protein (GNRP). In Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila, genetic studies have shown that Ras activation by tyrosine kinases requires the protein Sem-5/drk, which contains a single Src-homology (SH) 2 domain and two flanking SH3 domains. Sem-5 is homologous to the mammalian protein Grb2, which binds the autophosphorylated EGF receptor and other phosphotyrosine-containing proteins such as Shc through its SH2 domain. Here we show that in rodent fibroblasts, the SH3 domains of Grb2 are bound to the proline-rich carboxy-terminal tail of mSos1, a protein homologous to Drosophila Sos. Sos is required for Ras signalling and contains a central domain related to known Ras-GNRPs. EGF stimulation induces binding of the Grb2-mSos1 complex to the autophosphorylated EGF receptor, and mSos1 phosphorylation. Grb2 therefore appears to link tyrosine kinases to a Ras-GNRP in mammalian cells.

  7. GENETIC FACTORS INFLUENCING HEMOGLOBIN F LEVEL IN β-THALASSEMIA/HB E DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangrai, Waraporn; Jindadamrongwech, Sumalee

    2016-01-01

    Genetic factors influencing Hb F content in adult red blood cells include β-thalassemia genotypes, co-inheritance of α-thalassemia traits and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genotyping of α- and β-thalassemia and five SNPs in β-globin gene cluster previously identified in genome-wide association studies as being markers of elevated Hb F in β-thalassemia were performed in 81 subjects diagnosed with β-thalassemia/Hb E. Hb F levels are higher (0.9-7.1 g/dl) in subjects (n = 57) with the severe compared to mild β-thalassemia (0.8-2.5 g/ dl) (n = 4) genotypes, and are similarly low (0.7-3.5 g/dl) in those (n = 15) with α-thalassemia co-inheritance. Hb F levels in non-thalassemia controls (n = 150) range from 0 to 0.15 g/dl. The presence of homozygous minor alleles of the 5 SNPs are significant indicators of β-thalassemia/Hb E individuals with high Hb F (> 4 g/dl), independent of their thalassemia genotypes. Given that re-activation of γ-globin genes leads to amelioration of β-thalassemia severity, understanding how genetic factors up-regulate Hb F production may lead to possible therapeutic interventions, genetically or pharmacologically, of this debilitating disease in the not too distant future.

  8. Simultaneous electrochemical determination of L-cysteine and L-cysteine disulfide at carbon ionic liquid electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Afsaneh; Ahmadi, Raheleh; Mahyari, Farzaneh Aghakhani

    2014-04-01

    A linear sweep voltammetric method is used for direct simultaneous determination of L-cysteine and L-cysteine disulfide (cystine) based on carbon ionic liquid electrode. With carbon ionic liquid electrode as a high performance electrode, two oxidation peaks for L-cysteine (0.62 V) and L-cysteine disulfide (1.3 V) were observed with a significant separation of about 680 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) in phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0). The linear ranges were obtained as 1.0-450 and 5.0-700 μM and detection limits were estimated to be 0.298 and 4.258 μM for L-cysteine and L-cysteine disulfide, respectively. This composite electrode was applied for simultaneous determination of L-cysteine and L-cysteine disulfide in two real samples, artificial urine and nutrient broth. Satisfactory results were obtained which clearly indicate the applicability of the proposed electrode for simultaneous determination of these compounds in complex matrices.

  9. Relationship of HbA1c variability, absolute changes in HbA1c, and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Mette Vinther; Sandbæk, Annelli; Kristensen, Jette Kolding

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relationship of mortality with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) variability and with absolute change in HbA1c. DESIGN: A population-based prospective observational study with a median follow-up time of 6 years. METHODS: Based on a validated algorithm, 11 205 Danish individua...

  10. Ultrastructure of sheep primordial follicles cultured in the presence of indol acetic acid, EGF, and FSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Evelyn Rabelo; Hyttel, Poul; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda Da Cruz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural characteristics of primordial follicles after culturing of sheep ovarian cortical slices in the presence of indol acetic acid (IAA), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), and FSH. To evaluate ultrastructure of primordial follicles cultured...... in MEM (control) or in MEM containing IAA, EGF, and FSH, fragments of cultured tissue were processes for transmission electron microscopy. Except in the control, primordial follicles cultured in supplemented media for 6¿d were ultrastructurally normal. They had oocyte with intact nucleus...... and the cytoplasm contained heterogeneous-sized lipid droplets and numerous round or elongated mitochondria with intact parallel cristae were observed. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was rarely found. The granulosa cells cytoplasm contained a great number of mitochondria and abundant RER. In conclusion...

  11. Selective disulfide reduction for labeling and enhancement of Fab antibody fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirley, Terence L; Greis, Kenneth D; Norman, Andrew B

    2016-11-25

    Many methods have been developed for chemical labeling and enhancement of the properties of antibodies and their common fragments, including the Fab and F(ab') 2 fragments. Somewhat selective reduction of some antibody disulfide bonds has been previously achieved, yielding antibodies and antibody fragments that can be labeled at defined sites, enhancing their utility and properties. Selective reduction of the two hinge disulfide bonds present in F(ab') 2 fragments using mild reduction has been useful. However, such reduction is often not quantitative and results in the reduction of multiple disulfide bonds, and therefore subsequent multiple labeling or conjugation sites are neither homogenous nor stoichiometric. Here, a simple and efficient selective reduction of the single disulfide bond linking the partial heavy chain and the intact light chain which compose the Fab fragment is accomplished utilizing tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) immobilized on agarose beads. The resultant reduced cysteine residues were labeled with several cysteine-selective fluorescent reagents, as well as by cysteine-directed PEGylation. These two cysteine residues can also be re-ligated by means of a bifunctional cysteine cross-linking agent, dibromobimane, thereby both restoring a covalent linkage between the heavy and light chains at this site, far removed from the antigen binding site, and also introducing a fluorescent probe. There are many other research and clinical uses for these selectively partially reduced Fab fragments, including biotinylation, toxin and drug conjugation, and incorporation of radioisotopes, and this technique enables simple generation of very useful Fab fragment derivatives with many potential applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Liraglutide: a once-daily GLP-1 analogue for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina

    2007-01-01

    The incretin hormones are intestinal peptides that enhance insulin secretion following ingestion of nutrients. Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor analogue, which is obtained by derivatising glucagon-like peptide-1 with a fatty acid, providing a compound with pharmacokinetic propert...... transient nausea and diarrhoea. This article reviews the mechanisms of action and efficacy of liraglutide for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. This agent is presently in Phase III clinical development....... properties that are suitable for once-daily dosing. Liraglutide has demonstrated lasting improvement of HbA(1c )levels, weight reduction and improved beta-cell function in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Liraglutide is well tolerated; the adverse events that are most frequently reported being...

  13. The road to the first, fully active and more stable human insulin variant with an additional disulfide bond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N.; Kjeldsen, Thomas B.; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Insulin, a small peptide hormone, is crucial in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis. The stability and activity of the protein is directed by an intricate system involving disulfide bonds to stabilize the active monomeric species and by their non-covalent oligomerization. All known insulin...... variants in vertebrates consist of two peptide chains and have six cysteine residues, which form three disulfide bonds, two of them link the two chains and a third is an intra-chain bond in the A-chain. This classical insulin fold appears to have been conserved over half a billion years of evolution. We...... addressed the question whether a human insulin variant with four disulfide bonds could exist and be fully functional. In this review, we give an overview of the road to engineering four-disulfide bonded insulin analogs. During our journey, we discovered several active four disulfide bonded insulin analogs...

  14. Photoinduced Cross-Linking of Dynamic Poly(disulfide) Films via Thiol Oxidative Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feillée, Noémi; Chemtob, Abraham; Ley, Christian; Croutxé-Barghorn, Céline; Allonas, Xavier; Ponche, Arnaud; Le Nouen, Didier; Majjad, Hicham; Jacomine, Léandro

    2016-01-01

    Initially developed as an elastomer with an excellent record of barrier and chemical resistance properties, poly(disulfide) has experienced a revival linked to the dynamic nature of the S-S covalent bond. A novel photobase-catalyzed oxidative polymerization of multifunctional thiols to poly(disulfide) network is reported. Based solely on air oxidation, the single-step process is triggered by the photodecarboxylation of a xanthone acetic acid liberating a strong bicyclic guanidine base. Starting with a 1 μm thick film based on trithiol poly(ethylene oxide) oligomer, the UV-mediated oxidation of thiols to disulfides occurs in a matter of minutes both selectively, i.e., without overoxidation, and quantitatively as assessed by a range of spectroscopic techniques. Thiolate formation and film thickness determine the reaction rates and yield. Spatial control of the photopolymerization serves to generate robust micropatterns, while the reductive cleavage of S-S bridges allows the recycling of 40% of the initial thiol groups. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Rethinking of the criteria for natural analogue study. A case of Tono natural analogue study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hidekazu

    1996-01-01

    Natural analogue regarding long-term performance of the geological disposal system for radioactive waste isolation is essentially the study of geochemical process which has been evolved in geological environment. All geochemical studies, however, will not be nominated as natural analogue studies. It is, therefore, important to be clear the criteria for natural analogue study with the view of analogy by following three categories, (1) Conceptual model development, (2) Data provision and (3) Model testing, for the concept of geological disposal and safety assessment model. Rethinking of the criteria for natural analogue study through the case of Tono Natural Analogue Study, and the usefulness of natural analogue study for the safety assessment of geological disposal system in Japan have been presented in this paper. (author)

  16. Serum Level of Antibodies Against Hepatitis B Core Protein Is Associated With Clinical Relapse After Discontinuation of Nucleos(t)ide Analogue Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Heng; Li, Zhandong; Hansen, Bettina E; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Sun, Jian; Hou, Jinlin; Janssen, Harry L A; Peng, Jie

    2018-06-11

    Levels of antibodies against the hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (anti-HBc) have been associated with response to nucleos(t)ide analogue and (peg)interferon therapy in patients with chronic HBV infection. We performed a prospective study to determine whether the total serum level of anti-HBc level (immunoglobulins M and G) is associated with clinical relapse after discontinuation of nucleos(t)ide analogue-based therapy. We collected data from patients with chronic HBV infection who discontinued nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy according to pre-specified stopping criteria, recruited from November 2012 through July 2016 at an academic hospital in Guangzhou, China. Patients were followed through February 2017. We performed comprehensive biochemical and virologic tests at every visit, and anti-HBc was quantified for 2 years after treatment cessation (at baseline and weeks 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 96). The primary endpoint was clinical relapse, defined as level of HBV DNA >2000 IU/mL and level of alanine aminotransferase more than 2-fold the upper limit of normal-these were also the criteria for retreatment. We followed 100 patients (71% positive for HB e antigen [HBeAg] at the start of nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy, 43% treated with entecavir or tenofovir) for a median of 2.5 years after stopping therapy. Clinical relapse occurred in 39 patients (in 46% of patients at year 4 after discontinuation). High level of anti-HBc at the end of treatment (hazard ratio [HR], 0.31 per log IU/mL; P=.002) and low level of HB surface antigen (HBsAg) at the end of treatment (HR, 1.71 per log IU/mL; P=.032) were associated with a reduced risk of clinical relapse after adjusting for age, start of nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy HBeAg-status, and consolidation therapy duration. At year 4, 21% of patients with anti-HBc levels at the end of treatment ≥1000 IU/mL developed a clinical relapse compared to 85% of patients with levels level at the end of treatment ≤100 IU/mL was associated

  17. New analogs of the CART peptide with anorexigenic potency: the importance of individual disulfide bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechová, Miroslava; Nagelová, Veronika; Záková, Lenka; Demianová, Zuzana; Zelezná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide is an anorexigenic neuropeptide that acts in the hypothalamus. The receptor and the mechanism of action of this peptide are still unknown. In our previous study, we showed that the CART peptide binds specifically to PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells in both the native and differentiated into neuronal phenotype. Two biologically active forms, CART(55-102) and CART(61-102), with equal biological activity, contain three disulfide bridges. To clarify the importance of each of these disulfide bridges in maintaining the biological activity of CART(61-102), an Ala scan at particular S-S bridges forming cysteines was performed, and analogs with only one or two disulfide bridges were synthesized. In this study, a stabilized CART(61-102) analog with norleucine instead of methionine at position 67 was also prepared and was found to bind to PC12 cells with an anorexigenic potency similar to that of CART(61-102). The binding study revealed that out of all analogs tested, [Ala(68,86)]CART(61-102), which contains two disulfide bridges (positions 74-94 and 88-101), preserved a high affinity to both native PC12 cells and those that had been differentiated into neurons. In food intake and behavioral tests with mice after intracerebroventricular administration, this analog showed strong and long-lasting anorexigenic potency. Therefore, the disulfide bridge between cysteines 68 and 86 in CART(61-102) can be omitted without a loss of biological activity, but the preservation of two other disulfide bridges and the full-length peptide are essential for biological activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A novel disulfide bond in the SH2 Domain of the C-terminal Src kinase controls catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jamie E; Whitford, Paul C; Shaffer, Jennifer; Onuchic, Jose N; Adams, Joseph A; Jennings, Patricia A

    2007-02-02

    The SH2 domain of the C-terminal Src kinase [Csk] contains a unique disulfide bond that is not present in other known SH2 domains. To investigate whether this unusual disulfide bond serves a novel function, the effects of disulfide bond formation on catalytic activity of the full-length protein and on the structure of the SH2 domain were investigated. The kinase activity of full-length Csk decreases by an order of magnitude upon formation of the disulfide bond in the distal SH2 domain. NMR spectra of the fully oxidized and fully reduced SH2 domains exhibit similar chemical shift patterns and are indicative of similar, well-defined tertiary structures. The solvent-accessible disulfide bond in the isolated SH2 domain is highly stable and far from the small lobe of the kinase domain. However, reduction of this bond results in chemical shift changes of resonances that map to a cluster of residues that extend from the disulfide bond across the molecule to a surface that is in direct contact with the small lobe of the kinase domain in the intact molecule. Normal mode analyses and molecular dynamics calculations suggest that disulfide bond formation has large effects on residues within the kinase domain, most notably within the active-site cleft. Overall, the data indicate that reversible cross-linking of two cysteine residues in the SH2 domain greatly impacts catalytic function and interdomain communication in Csk.

  19. Structural characterization of hemoglobins from Monilifera and Frenulata tubeworms (Siboglinids): first discovery of giant hexagonal-bilayer hemoglobin in the former "Pogonophora" group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Cédric; Andersen, Ann C; Bruneaux, Matthieu; Le Guen, Dominique; Terrier, Peran; Leize-Wagner, Emmanuelle; Zal, Franck

    2010-01-01

    Siboglinids are symbiotic polychete annelids having hemoglobins as essential oxygen- and sulfide-carriers for their endosymbiotic bacteria. We analyzed the structure of the hemoglobins from two species of siboglinids: the monilifera Sclerolinum contortum and the frenulata Oligobrachia webbi (i.e. haakonmosbiensis) from Norwegian cold seeps. Measured by Multi-Angle Laser Light Scattering (MALLS), Sclerolinum shows a 3190+/-50 kDa hexagonal bilayer hemoglobin (HBL-Hb) and a 461+/-46 kDa ring-Hb, just as vestimentifera, whereas Oligobrachia has a 409+/-3.7 kDa ring-Hb only. Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) showed Sclerolinum HBL-Hb composed of seven monomeric globins (15-16 kDa), three disulfide-bonded globin heterodimers and three linkers. The heterodimers always contain globin-b (15814.4+/-1.5 Da). Sclerolinum ring-Hb is composed of globins and dimers with identical masses as its HBL-Hb, but lacks linkers. Oligobrachia ring-Hb has three globin monomers (14-15 kDa) only, with no disulfide-bonded dimers. Comparison of Sclerolinum hemoglobins between Storegga and Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano, using the normalized height of deconvoluted ESI-MS peaks, shows differences in globin monomers abundances that could reflect genetic differences or differential gene expression between distinct seep populations. The discovery of HBL-Hb in Sclerolinum is a new element supporting the hypothesis of monilifera being phylogenetically more closely related to vestimentifera, than to frenulata.

  20. Shedding light on disulfide bond formation: engineering a redox switch in green fluorescent protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, H.; Henriksen, A.; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2001-01-01

    To visualize the formation of disulfide bonds in living cells, a pair of redox-active cysteines was introduced into the yellow fluorescent variant of green fluorescent protein. Formation of a disulfide bond between the two cysteines was fully reversible and resulted in a >2-fold decrease...... in the intrinsic fluorescence. Inter conversion between the two redox states could thus be followed in vitro as well as in vivoby non- invasive fluorimetric measurements. The 1.5 Angstrom crystal structure of the oxidized protein revealed a disulfide bond- induced distortion of the beta -barrel, as well...... the physiological range for redox-active cysteines. In the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli, the protein was a sensitive probe for the redox changes that occur upon disruption of the thioredoxin reductive pathway....

  1. Effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on [3H]TdR incorporation into DNA in ad lib fed and fasted CD2F1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheving, L.A.; Tsai, T.H.; Scheving, L.E.; Hoke, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of EGF on the incorporation of [ 3 H]TdR into DNA (DNA synthesis) was determined in the esophagus, liver, pancreas, and kidney in mice standardized to 12 hours (hr) of light alternating with 12 hr of darkness. A question asked was whether intraperitoneally administered EGF could alter the circadian patterns of DNA synthesis in these organs. The most marked effects of EGF were: an increase in DNA synthesis but only after a specific duration of time after treatment, ranging from 8 to 23 hr, which differed for each tissue, a similarity in the response of the esophagus in both ad lib fed and fasted mice, but not in the response of the liver, where the stimulatory effect of EGF observed in fed mice was dramatically reduced in fasted ones, and an advance in the phasing of the circadian rhythm in DNA synthesis of the esophagus by about 12 hr. In addition, no sex differences in fasted animals were found under the conditions of this study

  2. Analysis of the presence of cell proliferation-related molecules in the Tgf-β3 null mutant mouse palate reveals misexpression of EGF and Msx-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, A; Barrio, M C; Murillo, J; Maldonado, E; López-Gordillo, Y; Martínez-Sanz, E; Martínez, M L; Martínez-Álvarez, C

    2011-01-01

    The Tgf-β(3) null mutant mouse palate presents several cellular anomalies that lead to the appearance of cleft palate. One of them concerns the cell proliferation of both the palatal medial edge epithelium and mesenchyme. In this work, our aim was to determine whether there was any variation in the presence/distribution of several cell proliferation-related molecules that could be responsible for the cell proliferation defects observed in these palates. Our results showed no difference in the presence of EGF-R, PDGF-A, TGF-β(2), Bmp-2, and Bmp-4, and differences were minimal for FGF-10 and Shh. However, the expression of EGF and Msx-1 changed substantially. The shift of the EGF protein expression was the one that most correlated with that of cell proliferation. This molecule is regulated by TGF-β(3), and experiments blocking its activity in culture suggest that EGF misexpression in the Tgf-β(3) null mutant mouse palate plays a role in the cell proliferation defect observed. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Role of protein disulfide isomerase and other thiol-reactive proteins in HIV-1 envelope protein-mediated fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Wu; Silver, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Cell-surface protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has been proposed to promote disulfide bond rearrangements in HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) that accompany Env-mediated fusion. We evaluated the role of PDI in ways that have not been previously tested by downregulating PDI with siRNA and by overexpressing wild-type or variant forms of PDI in transiently and stably transfected cells. These manipulations, as well as treatment with anti-PDI antibodies, had only small effects on infection or cell fusion mediated by NL4-3 or AD8 strains of HIV-1. However, the cell-surface thiol-reactive reagent 5, 5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) had a much stronger inhibitory effect in our system, suggesting that cell-surface thiol-containing molecules other than PDI, acting alone or in concert, have a greater effect than PDI on HIV-1 Env-mediated fusion. We evaluated one such candidate, thioredoxin, a PDI family member reported to reduce a labile disulfide bond in CD4. We found that the ability of thioredoxin to reduce the disulfide bond in CD4 is enhanced in the presence of HIV-1 Env gp120 and that thioredoxin also reduces disulfide bonds in gp120 directly in the absence of CD4. We discuss the implications of these observations for identification of molecules involved in disulfide rearrangements in Env during fusion

  4. The immunogenicity and safety of the new, Indonesian DTwP-HB-Hib vaccine compared to the DTwP/HB vaccine given with the Hib vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novilia Sjafri Bachtiar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib causes infection with predominant manifestations of pneumonia, meningitis, and other invasive diseases, occurring primarily in children aged under 2 years, particularly in infants.  The World Health Organization (WHO and Indonesian Technical Advisory Group for Immunization recommend to include the Hib vaccine into the national immunization program. The newly developed DTwP-HB-Hib combination vaccine is anticipated to be the preferred choice for Hib vaccine introduction; it is efficient, simple, and has higher coverage. Objective To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a new, combined Bio Farma DTwP-HB-Hib vaccine, compared to the registered Hib monovalent vaccine given simultaneously with the local DTwP-HB vaccine, when used as the primary vaccination of Indonesian infants. Methods A prospective, randomized, open-label, phase II study was conducted on the DTwP-HB-Hib vaccine compared to the Hib (registered vaccine given simultaneously with the DTwP-HB vaccine, in Bandung from July 2011 to January 2012. Infants were serially vaccinated at 6-11, 10-15, and 14-19 weeks. Serological assessments were done prior to the first vaccine dose and 28 days after the third dose. Safety was assessed from the time of first injection until 1 month after the last injection. Results Of 220 healthy infants enrolled, 211 completed the study, with 105 receiving the combined vaccine and 106 the two separate vaccines. All vaccines were well tolerated. No differences in rates of local and systemic reactions were seen between the two methods of administration. No serious adverse events were considered to be related to the vaccines. In the DTwP-HB-Hib primary-vaccination group, at least 98% of the infants reached protective levels of antibodies (seropositivity against the antigens employed in the vaccines while 96% in the control group. Conclusion The DTwP-HB-Hib combined vaccine is immunogenic and safe, as well as

  5. Study of the helium cross-section of unsymmetric disulfide self-assembled monolayers on Au(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albayrak, Erol [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Ahi Evran University, Kırşehir 40000 (Turkey); Karabuga, Semistan [Department of Chemistry, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Kahramanmaraş 46030 (Turkey); Bracco, Gianangelo [CNR-IMEM and Department of Physics, University of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 33, Genoa 16146 (Italy); Danışman, M. Fatih, E-mail: danisman@metu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Unsymmetrtic disulfide (HDD and HOD) self assembled monolayers were grown on Au(111) by supersonic molecular beam deposition. • Helium scattering cross sections for these two different unsymmetric disulfides were determined. • A common low temperature film phase was observed for the studied disulfides. - Abstract: We have investigated the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 11-hydroxyundecyl decyl disulfide (CH{sub 3}-(CH{sub 2}){sub 9}-S-S-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-OH, HDD) and 11-hydroxyundecyl octadecyl disulfide (CH{sub 3}-(CH{sub 2}){sub 17}-S-S-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-OH, HOD) produced by supersonic molecular beam deposition (SMBD). The study has been carried out by means of helium diffraction at very low film coverage. In this regime helium single molecule cross sections have been estimated in a temperature range between 100 K and 450 K. The results show a different behavior above 300 K that has been interpreted as the starting of mobility with the formation of two thiolate moieties either linked by a gold adatom or distant enough to prevent cross section overlapping. Finally, helium diffraction patterns measured at 80 K for the SAMs grown at 200 K are discussed and the results support the proposed hypothesis of molecular dissociation based on the cross section data.

  6. Changes in Thiol-Disulfide Homeostasis of the Body to Surgical Trauma in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Murat; Ozcan, Onder; Sahan, Leyla; Üstündag-Budak, Yasemin; Alisik, Murat; Yilmaz, Nigar; Erel, Özcan

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the short-term effect of laparoscopic surgery on serum thiol-disulfide homeostasis levels as a marker of oxidant stress of surgical trauma in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. Venous blood samples were collected, and levels of native thiols, total thiols, and disulfides were determined with a novel automated assay. Total antioxidant capacity (measured as the ferric-reducing ability of plasma) and serum ischemia modified albumin, expressed as absorbance units assayed by the albumin cobalt binding test, were determined. The major findings of the present study were that native thiol (283 ± 45 versus 241 ± 61 μmol/L), total thiol (313 ± 49 versus 263 ± 67 μmol/L), and disulfide (14.9 ± 4.6 versus 11.0 ± 6.1 μmol/L) levels were decreased significantly during operation and although they increased, they did not return to preoperation levels 24 hours after laparoscopic surgery compared to the levels at baseline. Disulfide/native thiol and disulfide/total thiol levels did not change during laparoscopic surgery. The decrease in plasma level of native and total thiol groups suggests impairment of the antioxidant capacity of plasma; however, the delicate balance between the different redox forms of thiols was maintained during surgery.

  7. Estradiol attenuates EGF-induced rapid uPAR mobilization and cell migration via the G-protein-coupled receptor 30 in ovarian cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henic, Emir; Noskova, Vera; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    : rapid mobilization of uPAR from detergent-resistant domains, increased mRNA, and decreased degradation. G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) is a newly identified membrane estrogen receptor (ER).The objective of this study was to explore the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) on uPAR expression...... for ERalpha, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Estradiol attenuates the stimulatory effect of EGF on cell migration and uPAR expression. Specifically, E(2) reduces the very rapid increase of detergent extractable uPAR, which occurs within minutes of EGF stimulation and probably represents...... agonist G1, mimicked the effect of E(2) on uPAR expression and cell migration. OVCAR-3 cells express mRNA for GPR30.Estradiol attenuates EGF-induced mobilization of ligated uPAR from detergent-resistant domains and subsequent migration in ovarian cancer cells. The response to various ER ligands indicates...

  8. Dissecting molecular interactions involved in recognition of target disulfides by the barley thioredoxin system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Maeda, Kenji; Svensson, Birte

    2012-01-01

    Thioredoxin reduces disulfide bonds, thus regulating activities of target proteins in various biological systems, e.g., inactivation of inhibitors of starch hydrolases and proteases in germinating plant seeds. In the three-dimensional structure of a complex with barley α-amylase/subtilisin inhibi......Thioredoxin reduces disulfide bonds, thus regulating activities of target proteins in various biological systems, e.g., inactivation of inhibitors of starch hydrolases and proteases in germinating plant seeds. In the three-dimensional structure of a complex with barley α...... thioredoxin reductase. HvTrxh2 M88G and M88A adjacent to the invariant cis-proline lost efficiency in both BASI disulfide reduction and recycling by thioredoxin reductase. These effects were further pronounced in M88P lacking a backbone NH group. Remarkably, HvTrxh2 E86R in the same loop displayed overall...... retained catalytic properties, with the exception of a 3-fold increased activity toward BASI. From the 104VGA106 loop, a backbone hydrogen bond donated by A106 appears to be important for target disulfide recognition as A106P lost 90% activity toward BASI but was efficiently recycled by thioredoxin...

  9. Description of Three New α Variants and Four New β Variants: Hb Montluel [α110(G17)Ala → Val; HBA1: c.332C > T], Hb Cap d'Agde [α131(H14)Ser → Cys; HBA2: c.395C > G] and Hb Corsica [α100(G7)Leu → Pro; HBA1: 302T > C]; Hb Nîmes [β104(G6)Arg → Gly; HBB: c.313A > G], Hb Saint Marcellin [β112(G14)Cys → Gly; HBB: c.337T > G], Hb Saint Chamond [β80(EF4)Asn → 0; HBB: c.241_243delAAC] and Hb Dompierre [β29(B11)Gly → Arg; HBB: c.88G > C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoux, Céline; Feray, Cécile; Joly, Philippe; Lacan, Philippe; Francina, Alain

    2015-01-01

    We present here seven new hemoglobin (Hb) variants identified during routine Hb analysis. All of them are caused by a missense mutation except Hb Saint Chamond, which results from an in-frame deletion of the asparagine residue at β80. All these variants are clinically silent in the heterozygous state but two of them (Hb Cap d'Agde and Hb Dompierre) may be unstable, whereas Hb Nîmes could present a very slightly elevated oxygen affinity. These data are to be confirmed by appropriate biochemical tests.

  10. In brown adipocytes, adrenergically induced β1-/β3-(Gs)-, α2-(Gi)- and α1-(Gq)-signalling to Erk1/2 activation is not mediated via EGF receptor transactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yanling; Fälting, Johanna M.; Mattsson, Charlotte L.; Holmström, Therése E.; Nedergaard, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is unusual in that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine influences cell destiny in ways generally associated with effects of classical growth factors: regulation of cell proliferation, of apoptosis, and progression of differentiation. The norepinephrine effects are mediated through G-protein-coupled receptors; further mediation of such stimulation to e.g. Erk1/2 activation is in cell biology in general accepted to occur through transactivation of the EGF receptor (by external or internal pathways). We have examined here the significance of such transactivation in brown adipocytes. Stimulation of mature brown adipocytes with cirazoline (α 1 -adrenoceptor coupled via G q ), clonidine (α 2 via G i ) or CL316243 (β 3 via G s ) or via β 1 -receptors significantly activated Erk1/2. Pretreatment with the EGF receptor kinase inhibitor AG1478 had, remarkably, no significant effect on Erk1/2 activation induced by any of these adrenergic agonists (although it fully abolished EGF-induced Erk1/2 activation), demonstrating absence of EGF receptor-mediated transactivation. Results with brown preadipocytes (cells in more proliferative states) were not qualitatively different. Joint stimulation of all adrenoceptors with norepinephrine did not result in synergism on Erk1/2 activation. AG1478 action on EGF-stimulated Erk1/2 phosphorylation showed a sharp concentration–response relationship (IC 50 0.3 µM); a minor apparent effect of AG1478 on norepinephrine-stimulated Erk1/2 phosphorylation showed nonspecific kinetics, implying caution in interpretation of partial effects of AG1478 as reported in other systems. Transactivation of the EGF receptor is clearly not a universal prerequisite for coupling of G-protein coupled receptors to Erk1/2 signalling cascades. - Highlights: • In brown adipocytes, norepinephrine regulates proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation. • EGF receptor transactivation is supposed to mediate GPCR-induced Erk1/2 activation. •

  11. Posterior transverse interarch discrepancy on HbE β thalassemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniar Zen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the symptoms that often arises on thalassemia patients is disharmony dentofacial, class II skeletal malocclusion, as a result of the malrelation of maxilla and mandible. This malrelation can be affected by either maxillary bone position, dentoalveolar maxillary position, mandibular bone position, dentoalveolar mandibular position, or combinations of those components. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine whether there is posterior transverse interarch discrepancy on the HbE β thalassemia patients or not. Methods: This study is an observational research with cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 33 HbE β thalassemia patients and 33 non-thalassemia patients as a control group aged 12–14 years. Lateral cephalogram was carried out and dental casts of maxillary and mandibular dental arches were also taken in all of those patients. Results: There was no difference between the maxillary intermolar width of the HbE β thalassemia patients and that of the normal ones, but the mandibular intermolar width of the HbE β thalassemia patients was significantly smaller than that of the normal ones. Beside that, posterior transverse interarch discrepancy of of the HbE β thalassemia patients was significantly greater than that of the normal ones, which showed great difference between maxillary and mandibular intermolar widths. Conclusion: Posterior transverse interarch discrepancy of the HbE β thalassemia patients was different from that of the normal ones. The dentofacial abnormalities on the HbE β thalassemia patients aged 12–14 years primarily was due to disporposional dentofacial growth in the vertical, sagittal, and transversal directions, especially in the posterior region.Latar belakang: Salah satu akibat yang sering timbul pada penderita talasemia adalah disharmoni dentofasial berupa maloklusi skeletal kelas II yang merupakan kelainan hubungan maksila dan mandibula. Malrelasi ini dapat dipengaruhi oleh posisi

  12. Nota sobre antígeno relacionado à hepatite (HB Ag e anticorpo (HB Ab em população do território Federal do Amapá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann G. Schatzmayr

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available 53 amostras de soro, provenientes de Ferreira Gomes, no Amapá, foram testados para antígeno HB Ag e anticorpo HB Ab, com uma positividade de 3,7% para HB Ag, sub-tipo D. Os autores acentuam a necessidade de inquéritos em populações brasileiras a fim de estabelecer os sub-tipos associados à hepatite.3,7% of 53 serum samples from healthy inhabitants of Ferreira Gomes, Amapá, were positive for HB Ag, subtype D. The authors síress the needs of surveys to deteet the prevalent types of antigens associated with viral hepatitis in different areas of Brazil.

  13. Thiol/Disulfide system plays a crucial role in redox protection in the acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium Leptospirillum ferriphilum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javiera Norambuena

    Full Text Available Thiol/disulfide systems are involved in the maintenance of the redox status of proteins and other molecules that contain thiol/disulfide groups. Leptospirillum ferriphilum DSM14647, an acidophilic bacterium that uses Fe(2+ as electron donor, and withstands very high concentrations of iron and other redox active metals, is a good model to study how acidophiles preserve the thiol/disulfide balance. We studied the composition of thiol/disulfide systems and their role in the oxidative stress response in this extremophile bacterium. Bioinformatic analysis using genomic data and enzymatic assays using protein extracts from cells grown under oxidative stress revealed that the major thiol/disulfide system from L. ferriphilum are a cytoplasmic thioredoxin system (composed by thioredoxins Trx and thioredoxin reductase TR, periplasmic thiol oxidation system (DsbA/DsbB and a c-type cytochrome maturation system (DsbD/DsbE. Upon exposure of L. ferriphilum to reactive oxygen species (ROS-generating compounds, transcriptional activation of the genes encoding Trxs and the TR enzyme, which results in an increase of the corresponding activity, was observed. Altogether these data suggest that the thioredoxin-based thiol/disulfide system plays an important role in redox protection of L. ferriphilum favoring the survival of this microorganism under extreme environmental oxidative conditions.

  14. HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose and the prediction of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soulimane, Soraya; Simon, Dominique; Shaw, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    With diabetes defined by HbA1c≥6.5% and/or FPG≥7.0mmol/l and/or diabetes treatment, we investigated HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) thresholds/change-points above which the incidence of diabetes increases.......With diabetes defined by HbA1c≥6.5% and/or FPG≥7.0mmol/l and/or diabetes treatment, we investigated HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) thresholds/change-points above which the incidence of diabetes increases....

  15. CEC natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    The second meeting of the CEC Natural Analogue Working Group took place on June 17-19, 1986, hosted by the Swiss NAGRA in Interlaken (CH). A review of recent progress in natural analogue programmes was carried out, and complemented by detailed discussions about geomicrobiology, archaeological analogues, natural colloids, and use of analogues to increase confidence in safety assessments for radioactive waste disposal. A statement drafted by the Group, and the presentations made, are put together in this report

  16. Avaliação eletroforética, cromatográfica e molecular da Hb D Los Angeles no Brasil Electrophoretical, chromatographic and molecular valuations of Hb D Los Angeles in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. Chinelato-Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A variante de hemoglobina (Hb D mais comum, Hb D Los Angeles ou D Punjab, é originada de uma transversão GAA->CAA no códon 121 da globina beta; essa mutação resulta na substituição do ácido glutâmico por glutamina na proteína. É a terceira variante de hemoglobina mais freqüente da população brasileira. Como as hemoglobinas D apresentam migração similar à hemoglobina S em pH alcalino, e com a hemoglobina A em pH ácido, são necessários vários testes para o correto diagnóstico. No presente estudo objetivou-se relacionar os diferentes procedimentos laboratoriais de rotina diagnóstica, além da análise molecular, para estabelecer o perfil de Hb D Los Angeles no Brasil. Foram analisados 47 indivíduos da população brasileira com provável Hb D Los Angeles, por vários procedimentos eletroforéticos em diferentes condições de pH, além da cromatografia líquida de alta pressão, e testes moleculares para confirmação da mutação. Foram encontrados quatro tipos de combinações de hemoglobinas: 42 indivíduos portadores de hemoglobina AD Los Angeles, dois indivíduos com doença de Hb S/D Los Angeles, dois indivíduos com Hb D Los Angeles e talassemia beta e um indivíduo com Hb D Los Angeles e Hb Lepore. Os indivíduos heterozigotos para D Los Angeles são assintomáticos, entretanto, em associação com outras variantes e talassemias podem apresentar graus variáveis de manifestações clínicas. Os resultados apresentados enfatizaram a necessidade da associação de várias metodologias para a identificação da Hb D Los Angeles, além de auxiliar na elucidação de combinações raras.The most common Hb D variant, the Hb D-Los Angeles, also know as Hb D-Punjab, originates through a GAA->CAA change at the 121 codon of the beta globin gene; this mutation results in the replacement of glutamic acid for glutamine in the protein. It is the third most common hemoglobin variant in the Brazilian population. This variant has

  17. Evaluation of dynamic serum thiol/disulfide homeostasis in locally advanced and metastatic gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Hizal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric cancer is one the most diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of death from cancer worldwide. As an indicator of antioxidant capacity thiol/disulfide homeostasis regulates detoxification, cell signal mechanisms, apoptosis, transcription and antioxidant defense mechanisms. Disregulation of thiol/disulfide homeostasis identified in other cancer types by recent data. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the thiol/disulfide homeostasis in advanced gastric cancer patients. Methods: The patients who diagnosed with gastric cancer and healthy control subjects were included to study. Serum samples for the thiol-disulphide test were obtained at the time of diagnosis. Thiol-disulphide homeostasis tests were measured by the automated spectrophotometric method. Thiol-disulphide homeostasis was also measured according to clinical and laboratory features. Results: Thirty newly diagnosed advanced gastric adenocarcinoma patients and 28 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The native thiol (NT and total thiol (TT levels of patients' group were significantly lower compared with controls (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001. In the CEA high (≥5.4 ng/ml group, DS/NT ratio were higher compared with CEA low (<5.4 ng/ml group (p = 0.024. In CA.19-9 high (≥28.3 kU/L group, both DS and DS/NT ratio were significantly higher compared with a CA19-9 low(<28.3 kU/L group (p < 0.05 both. The correlation between CEA and DS levels was also significant (p = 0.02. There was also a positive correlation between CEA levels and DS/NT ratio (p = 0.01. Conclusion: Derangements of thiol/disulfide homeostasis may have a role in gastric cancer pathogenesis and the higher level of oxidative stress may relate to extensive and aggressiveness of the advanced disease. The diagnostic and prognostic values of thiol/disulfide products need to identify with further studies. Keywords: Thiol, Disulfide, Oxidative stress, Gastric cancer, Metastatic

  18. Impact of Mean Cell Hemoglobin on Hb A1c-Defined Glycemia Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Segade, Santiago; Garcia, Javier Rodriguez; García-López, José M; Gude, Francisco; Casanueva, Felipe F; Rs-Alonso, Santiago; Camiña, Félix

    2016-12-01

    Several hematological alterations are associated with altered hemoglobin A 1c (Hb A 1c ). However, there have been no reports of their influence on the rates of exceeding standard Hb A 1c thresholds by patients for whom Hb A 1c determination is requested in clinical practice. The initial data set included the first profiles (complete blood counts, Hb A 1c , fasting glucose, and renal and hepatic parameters) of all adult patients for whom such a profile was requested between 2008 and 2013 inclusive. After appropriate exclusions, 21844 patients remained in the study. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic, hematological, and biochemical variables excluded from the predictors. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) correlated negatively with Hb A 1c . Fasting glucose, MCH, and age emerged as predictors of Hb A 1c in a stepwise regression that discarded sex, hemoglobin, MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), serum creatinine, and liver disease. Mean Hb A 1c in MCH interdecile intervals fell from 6.8% (51 mmol/mol) in the lowest (≤27.5 pg) to 6.0% (43 mmol/mol) in the highest (>32.5 pg), with similar results for MCV. After adjustment for fasting glucose and other correlates of Hb A 1c , a 1 pg increase in MCH reduced the odds of Hb A 1c -defined dysglycemia, diabetes and poor glycemia control by 10%-14%. For at least 25% of patients, low or high MCH or MCV levels are associated with increased risk of an erroneous Hb A 1c -based identification of glycemia status. Although causality has not been demonstrated, these parameters should be taken into account in interpreting Hb A 1c levels in clinical practice. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  19. Photo-responsive liquid crystalline epoxy networks with exchangeable disulfide bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuzhan [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Zhang, Yuehong [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Rios, Orlando [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Keum, Jong K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kessler, Michael R. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States)

    2017-07-27

    The increasing demand for intelligent materials has driven the development of polymers with a variety of functionalities. However, combining multiple functionalities within one polymer is still challenging because of the difficulties encountered in coordinating different functional building blocks during fabrication. In this work, we demonstrate the fabrication of a multifunctional liquid crystalline epoxy network (LCEN) using the combination of thermotropic liquid crystals, photo-responsive azobenzene molecules, and exchangeable disulfide bonds. In addition to shape memory behavior enabled by the reversible liquid crystalline phase transition and photo-induced bending behavior resulting from the photo-responsive azobenzene molecules, the introduction of dynamic disulfide bonds into the LCEN resulted in a structurally dynamic network, allowing the reshaping, repairing, and recycling of the material.

  20. Inactivation of barley limit dextrinase inhibitor by thioredoxin-catalysed disulfide reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johanne Mørch; Hägglund, Per; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2012-01-01

    and one glutathionylated cysteine. Here, thioredoxin is shown to progressively reduce disulfide bonds in LDI accompanied by loss of activity. A preferential reduction of the glutathionylated cysteine, as indicated by thiol quantification and molecular mass analysis using electrospray ionisation mass......Barley limit dextrinase (LD) that catalyses hydrolysis of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in starch-derived dextrins is inhibited by limit dextrinase inhibitor (LDI) found in mature seeds. LDI belongs to the chloroform/methanol soluble protein family (CM-protein family) and has four disulfide bridges...... spectrometry, was not related to LDI inactivation. LDI reduction is proposed to cause conformational destabilisation leading to loss of function....

  1. Disulfide bond effects on protein stability: designed variants of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodszky, M; Chen, C W; Huang, J K; Zolkiewski, M; Wen, L; Krishnamoorthi, R

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to increase protein stability by insertion of novel disulfide bonds have not always been successful. According to the two current models, cross-links enhance stability mainly through denatured state effects. We have investigated the effects of removal and addition of disulfide cross-links, protein flexibility in the vicinity of a cross-link, and disulfide loop size on the stability of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V (CMTI-V; 7 kD) by differential scanning calorimetry. CMTI-V offers the advantage of a large, flexible, and solvent-exposed loop not involved in extensive intra-molecular interactions. We have uncovered a negative correlation between retention time in hydrophobic column chromatography, a measure of protein hydrophobicity, and melting temperature (T(m)), an indicator of native state stabilization, for CMTI-V and its variants. In conjunction with the complete set of thermodynamic parameters of denaturation, this has led to the following deductions: (1) In the less stable, disulfide-removed C3S/C48S (Delta Delta G(d)(50 degrees C) = -4 kcal/mole; Delta T(m) = -22 degrees C), the native state is destabilized more than the denatured state; this also applies to the less-stable CMTI-V* (Delta Delta G(d)(50 degrees C) = -3 kcal/mole; Delta T(m) = -11 degrees C), in which the disulfide-containing loop is opened by specific hydrolysis of the Lys(44)-Asp(45) peptide bond; (2) In the less stable, disulfide-inserted E38C/W54C (Delta Delta G(d)(50 degrees C) = -1 kcal/mole; Delta T(m) = +2 degrees C), the denatured state is more stabilized than the native state; and (3) In the more stable, disulfide-engineered V42C/R52C (Delta Delta G(d)(50 degrees C) = +1 kcal/mole; Delta T(m) = +17 degrees C), the native state is more stabilized than the denatured state. These results show that a cross-link stabilizes both native and denatured states, and differential stabilization of the two states causes either loss or gain in protein stability. Removal of hydrogen

  2. Beta-endorphin chimeric peptides: Transport through the blood-brain barrier in vivo and cleavage of disulfide linkage by brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardridge, W.M.; Triguero, D.; Buciak, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Water soluble peptides are normally not transported through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Chimeric peptides may be transportable through the BBB and are formed by the covalent coupling of a nontransportable peptide to a transportable peptide vector, e.g. cationized albumin, using disulfide-based coupling reagents such as N-succinimidyl 3-[2-pyridyldithio(propionate)] (SPDP). The transcytosis of peptide into brain parenchyma, as opposed to vascular sequestration of blood-borne peptide, was quantified using an internal carotid artery perfusion/capillary depletion method. It is shown that [125I]beta-endorphin is not transported through the BBB, but is rapidly cleaved to free [125I] tyrosine via capillary peptidase. Therefore, chimeric peptide was prepared using [125I] [D-Ala2]beta-endorphin (DABE), owing to the resistance of this analogue to peptidase degradation. The [125I] DABE-cationized albumin chimeric peptide is shown to enter brain parenchyma at a rate comparable to that reported previously for unconjugated cationized albumin. When the [125I] DABE-cationized albumin chimeric peptide was incubated with rat brain homogenate at 37 C, the free [125I] DABE was liberated from the cationized albumin conjugate prior to its subsequent degradation into free [125I] tyrosine. Approximately 50% of the chimeric peptide was cleaved within 60 sec of incubation at 37 C. These studies demonstrate that (1) [125I]beta-endorphin is not transported through the BBB in its unconjugated form, (2) a [125I] DABE-cationized albumin chimeric peptide is transported through the BBB into brain parenchyma at a rate comparable to the unconjugated cationized albumin, and (3) brain contains the necessary disulfide reductases for rapid cleavage of the chimeric peptide into free beta-endorphin and this cleavage occurs before degradation of the [125I] DABE into [125I] tyrosine

  3. Beta-endorphin chimeric peptides: Transport through the blood-brain barrier in vivo and cleavage of disulfide linkage by brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardridge, W.M.; Triguero, D.; Buciak, J.L. (UCLA School of Medicine (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Water soluble peptides are normally not transported through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Chimeric peptides may be transportable through the BBB and are formed by the covalent coupling of a nontransportable peptide to a transportable peptide vector, e.g. cationized albumin, using disulfide-based coupling reagents such as N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio(propionate)) (SPDP). The transcytosis of peptide into brain parenchyma, as opposed to vascular sequestration of blood-borne peptide, was quantified using an internal carotid artery perfusion/capillary depletion method. It is shown that (125I)beta-endorphin is not transported through the BBB, but is rapidly cleaved to free (125I) tyrosine via capillary peptidase. Therefore, chimeric peptide was prepared using (125I) (D-Ala2)beta-endorphin (DABE), owing to the resistance of this analogue to peptidase degradation. The (125I) DABE-cationized albumin chimeric peptide is shown to enter brain parenchyma at a rate comparable to that reported previously for unconjugated cationized albumin. When the (125I) DABE-cationized albumin chimeric peptide was incubated with rat brain homogenate at 37 C, the free (125I) DABE was liberated from the cationized albumin conjugate prior to its subsequent degradation into free (125I) tyrosine. Approximately 50% of the chimeric peptide was cleaved within 60 sec of incubation at 37 C. These studies demonstrate that (1) (125I)beta-endorphin is not transported through the BBB in its unconjugated form, (2) a (125I) DABE-cationized albumin chimeric peptide is transported through the BBB into brain parenchyma at a rate comparable to the unconjugated cationized albumin, and (3) brain contains the necessary disulfide reductases for rapid cleavage of the chimeric peptide into free beta-endorphin and this cleavage occurs before degradation of the (125I) DABE into (125I) tyrosine.

  4. Engineering of a mammalian O-glycosylation pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: production of O-fucosylated epidermal growth factor domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigira, Yuko; Oka, Takuji; Okajima, Tetsuya; Jigami, Yoshifumi

    2008-04-01

    Development of a heterologous system for the production of homogeneous sugar structures has the potential to elucidate structure-function relationships of glycoproteins. In the current study, we used an artificial O-glycosylation pathway to produce an O-fucosylated epidermal growth factor (EGF) domain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The in vivo O-fucosylation system was constructed via expression of genes that encode protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 and the EGF domain, along with genes whose protein products convert cytoplasmic GDP-mannose to GDP-fucose. This system allowed identification of an endogenous ability of S. cerevisiae to transport GDP-fucose. Moreover, expression of EGF domain mutants in this system revealed the different contribution of three disulfide bonds to in vivo O-fucosylation. In addition, lectin blotting revealed differences in the ability of fucose-specific lectin to bind the O-fucosylated structure of EGF domains from human factors VII and IX. Further introduction of the human fringe gene into yeast equipped with the in vivo O-fucosylation system facilitated the addition of N-acetylglucosamine to the EGF domain from factor IX but not from factor VII. The results suggest that engineering of an O-fucosylation system in yeast provides a powerful tool for producing proteins with homogenous carbohydrate chains. Such proteins can be used for the analysis of substrate specificity and the production of antibodies that recognize O-glycosylated EGF domains.

  5. Interchange reaction of disulfides and denaturation of oxytocin by copper(II)/ascorbic acid/O2 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, H; Hirobe, M

    1987-05-29

    The interchange reaction of disulfides was caused by the copper(II)/ascorbic acid/O2 system. The incubation of two symmetric disulfides, L-cystinyl-bis-L-phenylalanine (PP) and L-cystinyl-bis-L-tyrosine (TT), with L-ascorbic acid and CuSO4 in potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.2, 50 mM) resulted in the formation of an asymmetric disulfide, L-cystinyl-L-phenylalanine-L-tyrosine (PT), and the final ratio of PP:PT:TT was 1:2:1. As the reaction was inhibited by catalase and DMSO only at the initial time, hydroxyl radical generated by the copper(II)/ascorbic acid/O2 system seemed to be responsible for the initiation of the reaction. Oxytocin and insulin were denatured by this system, and catalase and DMSO similarly inhibited these denaturations. As the composition of amino acids was unchanged after the reaction, hydroxyl radical was thought to cause the cleavage and/or interchange reaction of disulfides to denature the peptides.

  6. HbA1c for diagnosis and prognosis of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon Sung; Kwon, Ja-Young; Park, Yong-Won; Kim, Young-Han; Lim, Jong-Baeck

    2015-10-01

    HbA1c is a widely used marker in diagnosing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), but its clinical utility in diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is not established. Here, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of HbA1c in diagnosing GDM and predicting the risk of future type 2 DM development among GDM patients. This retrospective, cross-sectional study included 321 subjects who underwent 100-g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) during pregnancy. HbA1c and other variables were analyzed to evaluate their diagnostic performance for GDM. To evaluate the clinical usefulness of HbA1c in predicting future type 2 DM development, we classified GDM subjects who had more than 3 months of follow-up data into two subgroups: those who developed postpartum type 2 DM (PDM) and those who did not. HbA1c was significantly higher in the GDM group than in the normal control group. With the 100-g OGTT as reference, HbA1c showed 91.3% sensitivity and 62% specificity at a cut-off value of 5.05% (32 mmol/mol) for GDM diagnosis. At a cut-off value of 5.25% (34 mmol/mol), sensitivity was 73.6% and specificity was 77.2%. HbA1c levels during pregnancy were higher in those with PDM than in those without PDM (5.91 [41 mmol/mol] vs. 5.44% [36 mmol/mol], p<0.001). The prognostic value of HbA1c for PDM was evaluated by ROC curve analysis, with sensitivity of 78.6% and specificity of 72.5% at a cut-off value of 5.55% (37 mmol/mol). HbA1c showed high sensitivity with relatively low specificity for diagnosis of GDM in pregnant women and was a potential predictor of PDM. HbA1c may be able to be used as a simple and less invasive alternative screening test for OGTT in GDM patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrical Transport Properties of Polycrystalline Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-14

    Lou, Sina Najmaei, Matin Amani, Matthew L. Chin, Zheng Se. TASK NUMBER Liu Sf. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 8...Transport Properties of Polycrystalline Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide Sina Najmaei,t.§ Matin Ama ni,M Matthew L. Chin,* Zhe ng liu/ ·"·v: A. Gle n

  8. Kinetics and mechanisms of thiol-disulfide exchange covering direct substitution and thiol oxidation-mediated pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Péter

    2013-05-01

    Disulfides are important building blocks in the secondary and tertiary structures of proteins, serving as inter- and intra-subunit cross links. Disulfides are also the major products of thiol oxidation, a process that has primary roles in defense mechanisms against oxidative stress and in redox regulation of cell signaling. Although disulfides are relatively stable, their reduction, isomerisation, and interconversion as well as their production reactions are catalyzed by delicate enzyme machineries, providing a dynamic system in biology. Redox homeostasis, a thermodynamic parameter that determines which reactions can occur in cellular compartments, is also balanced by the thiol-disulfide pool. However, it is the kinetic properties of the reactions that best represent cell dynamics, because the partitioning of the possible reactions depends on kinetic parameters. This review is focused on the kinetics and mechanisms of thiol-disulfide substitution and redox reactions. It summarizes the challenges and advances that are associated with kinetic investigations in small molecular and enzymatic systems from a rigorous chemical perspective using biological examples. The most important parameters that influence reaction rates are discussed in detail. Kinetic studies of proteins are more challenging than small molecules, and quite often investigators are forced to sacrifice the rigor of the experimental approach to obtain the important kinetic and mechanistic information. However, recent technological advances allow a more comprehensive analysis of enzymatic systems via using the systematic kinetics apparatus that was developed for small molecule reactions, which is expected to provide further insight into the cell's machinery.

  9. Evaluation of the DCA Vantage analyzer for HbA 1c assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymezak, Jean; Leroy, Nathalie; Lavalard, Emmanuelle; Gillery, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of HbA 1c is key in monitoring diabetic patients in both laboratories and clinical units, where HbA 1c results are used as part of patient education. We have evaluated the DCA Vantage, a new device for immunological assay of HbA 1c. HbA 1c results obtained were evaluated in terms of precision, linearity, specificity and practicability, and were compared with results obtained by a Variant II HPLC method. The method exhibited intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation lower than 2.6% and 4.0%, respectively, and good correlation with the comparison HPLC method (r2=0.9776). No interference was noted in the presence of labile HbA 1c or carbamylated hemoglobin. The new device exhibited improved practicability characteristics and allowed better sample identification, better management of quality control routines and greater connectivity possibilities compared to the previous DCA 2000 analyzer. This new analyzer exhibited analytical and practical characteristics very suitable for HbA 1c assay for laboratory or point-of-care use according to good laboratory practice.

  10. Analysis of HbA1c on an automated multicapillary zone electrophoresis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollborn, Niclas; Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn; Nordin, Gunnar; Xu, Xiao Yan; Mandic-Havelka, Aleksandra; Hansson, Lars-Olof; Larsson, Anders

    2017-02-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a frequently requested laboratory test and there is thus a need for high throughput instruments for this assay. We evaluated a new automated multicapillary zone electrophoresis instrument (Capillarys 3 Tera, Sebia, Lisses, France) for analysis of HbA1c in venous samples. Routine requested HbA1c samples were analyzed immunologically on a Roche c6000 instrument (n = 142) and then with the Capillarys 3 Tera instrument. The Capillarys 3 Tera instrument performed approximately 70 HbA1c tests/hour. There was a strong linear correlation between Capillarys 3 Tera and Roche Tina-Quant HbA1c Gen 3 assay (y = 1.003x - 0.3246 R 2  = .996). The total CV for the 12 capillaries varied between 0.8 and 2.2% and there was a good agreement between duplicate samples (R 2  = .997). In conclusion, the Capillarys 3 Tera instrument has a high assay capacity for HbA1c. It has a good precision and agreement with the Roche Tina-Quant HbA1c method and is well suited for high volume testing of HbA1c.

  11. Antagonistic effect of disulfide-rich peptide aptamers selected by cDNA display on interleukin-6-dependent cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Naoto; Tsutsui, Chihiro; Yamaguchi, Junichi; Ueno, Shingo; Machida, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Toshikatsu; Sakai, Takafumi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Disulfide-rich peptide aptamer inhibits IL-6-dependent cell proliferation. ► Disulfide bond of peptide aptamer is essential for its affinity to IL-6R. ► Inhibitory effect of peptide depends on number and pattern of its disulfide bonds. -- Abstract: Several engineered protein scaffolds have been developed recently to circumvent particular disadvantages of antibodies such as their large size and complex composition, low stability, and high production costs. We previously identified peptide aptamers containing one or two disulfide-bonds as an alternative ligand to the interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). Peptide aptamers (32 amino acids in length) were screened from a random peptide library by in vitro peptide selection using the evolutionary molecular engineering method “cDNA display”. In this report, the antagonistic activity of the peptide aptamers were examined by an in vitro competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an IL-6-dependent cell proliferation assay. The results revealed that a disulfide-rich peptide aptamer inhibited IL-6-dependent cell proliferation with similar efficacy to an anti-IL-6R monoclonal antibody.

  12. Dynamics of α-Hb chain binding to its chaperone AHSP depends on heme coordination and redox state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiger, Laurent; Vasseur, Corinne; Domingues-Hamdi, Elisa; Truan, Gilles; Marden, Michael C; Baudin-Creuza, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    AHSP is an erythroid molecular chaperone of the α-hemoglobin chains (α-Hb). Upon AHSP binding, native ferric α-Hb undergoes an unprecedented structural rearrangement at the heme site giving rise to a 6th coordination bond with His(E7). Recombinant AHSP, WT α-Hb:AHSP and α-Hb(HE7Q):AHSP complexes were expressed in Escherichia coli. Thermal denaturation curves were measured by circular dichroism for the isolated α-Hb and bound to AHSP. Kinetics of ligand binding and redox reactions of α-Hb bound to AHSP as well as α-Hb release from the α-Hb:AHSP complex were measured by time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. AHSP binding to α-Hb is kinetically controlled to prevail over direct binding with β-chains and is also thermodynamically controlled by the α-Hb redox state and not the liganded state of the ferrous α-Hb. The dramatic instability of isolated ferric α-Hb is greatly decreased upon AHSP binding. Removing the bis-histidyl hexacoordination in α-HbH58(E7)Q:AHSP complex reduces the stabilizing effect of AHSP binding. Once the ferric α-Hb is bound to AHSP, the globin can be more easily reduced by several chemical and enzymatic systems compared to α-Hb within the Hb-tetramer. α-Hb reduction could trigger its release from AHSP toward its final Hb β-chain partner producing functional ferrous Hb-tetramers. This work indicates a preferred kinetic pathway for Hb-synthesis. The cellular redox balance in Hb-synthesis should be considered as important as the relative proportional synthesis of both Hb-subunits and their heme cofactor. The in vivo role of AHSP is discussed in the context of the molecular disorders observed in thalassemia. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Studies of monoclonal antibodies IOR-CEA-1 and IOR-EGF/R3 labelled with {sup 99m}Tc; Estudo de marcacao dos anticorpos monoclonais IOR-CEA-1 e IOR-EGF/R3 com {sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Carla Roberta de Barros Rodrigues

    2005-07-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a speciality that uses radioisotopes for the diagnosis or treatment of diseases and it is considered one of the best tools among the diagnostic modalities for detection of cancer. {sup 99m}Tc is one of the main isotopes for labelling antibodies and in Nuclear Medicine in general, due to its adequate physical properties, availability and low cost. Labelled monoclonal antibodies have shown promising results for diagnosis and therapy of cancer and their use has brought great experimental and clinical advances in the field of oncology. The main clinical applications of immunoscintigraphy with monoclonal antibodies are staging and evaluation of tumoral reappearance. The antibodies employed in this work were: OIR-CEA-1, a murine monoclonal antibody that acts directly against CEA expressed in several neoplasia in particular those from the gastrointestinal tract (colorectal cancer) and IOR-EGF/R3, a murine monoclonal antibody that binds to the external domain of EGF-R and it has been used in the diagnosis of tumors of epithelial origin. The objectives of this work were the development and optimization of the reduction and purification processes, the radiolabelling techniques and quality control procedures (radiochemical, immunoreactivity and cystein challenge) and imaging studies of monoclonal antibodies OIR-CEA-1 and IOR-EGF/R3, using the simple, fast and efficient method of direct labelling of the antibody with {sup 99m}Tc. The final results was the definition of the best conditions for the preparation of lyophilized reactive kits of OIR-CEA-1 and IOR- EGF/R3 for an efficient diagnostic application in Nuclear Medicine. The most adequate conditions for the labelling of the antibodies were: 1.0 mg Ab, 29 {mu}L MDP, 3.0 {mu}g Sn{sup 2+}, 1 mL of {sup 99m}Tc and 30 min. reaction time. With these conditions the labelling yield was always higher than 95% and the maximum activity of {sup 99m}Tc was about 2220 MBq (60 mCi). The evidences of the efficiency and

  14. Engineering an improved IgG4 molecule with reduced disulfide bond heterogeneity and increased Fab domain thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Shirley J; Smales, C Mark; Henry, Alistair J; Stephens, Paul E; West, Shauna; Humphreys, David P

    2012-07-13

    The integrity of antibody structure, stability, and biophysical characterization are becoming increasingly important as antibodies receive increasing scrutiny from regulatory authorities. We altered the disulfide bond arrangement of an IgG4 molecule by mutation of the Cys at the N terminus of the heavy chain constant domain 1 (C(H)1) (Kabat position 127) to a Ser and introduction of a Cys at a variety of positions (positions 227-230) at the C terminus of C(H)1. An inter-LC-C(H)1 disulfide bond is thus formed, which mimics the disulfide bond arrangement found in an IgG1 molecule. The antibody species present in the supernatant following transient expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells were analyzed by immunoblot to investigate product homogeneity, and purified product was analyzed by a thermofluor assay to determine thermal stability. We show that the light chain can form an inter-LC-C(H)1 disulfide bond with a Cys when present at several positions on the upper hinge (positions 227-230) and that such engineered disulfide bonds can consequently increase the Fab domain thermal stability between 3 and 6.8 °C. The IgG4 disulfide mutants displaying the greatest increase in Fab thermal stability were also the most homogeneous in terms of disulfide bond arrangement and antibody species present. Importantly, mutations did not affect the affinity for antigen of the resultant molecules. In combination with the previously described S241P mutation, we present an IgG4 molecule with increased Fab thermal stability and reduced product heterogeneity that potentially offers advantages for the production of IgG4 molecules.

  15. The isolation of the γ subunit of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and its use in a radioimmunoassay for HbF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.F.L.; Shuster, J.; Freedman, S.O.; Gold, P.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for the purification, from fetal hemoglobin (HbF), of the fetal specific globin chain (γ chain) in its native state. In the absence of α chain (the globin chain common to all adult human hemoglobins) γ chain