Stein, Michael D.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Hebert, Meg; Clarke, Jennifer G.
Objective To test the hypothesis that among hazardously drinking incarcerated women who are returning to the community, a brief alcohol intervention will result in less alcohol use at follow-up relative to standard of care. Methods Eligible participants endorsed hazardous alcohol consumption--four or more drinks at a time on at least three separate days in the previous three months or a score of 8 or above on the AUDIT. Participants were randomized to either an assessment-only condition or to two brief motivationally-focused sessions, the first delivered during incarceration, the second one month later after community re-entry. Participants recalled drinking behaviors at three and six months after the baseline interview using a 90-day Timeline Followback method. Results The 245 female participants averaged 34 years of age, and were 71% Caucasian. Participants were abstinent only 47% of days in the three months prior to incarceration. On most days (85%) that they drank, women consumed four or more drinks. Intervention effects on abstinent days were statistically significant at 3-months (OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.17, 3.30); the percent of days abstinent was 68% for those randomized to intervention and 57% for controls. At 6-months the effect of the intervention was attenuated and no longer statistically significant. Conclusions Among incarcerated women who reported hazardous drinking, a two-session brief alcohol intervention increased abstinent days at three-months, but this effect decayed by six months. Study participants continued to drink heavily after return to the community. More intensive intervention pre-release and after re-entry may benefit hazardously-drinking incarcerated women. PMID:20402990
Stein, Michael D; Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J
At the time of incarceration, women have a high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI). In the months after community release, women remain at high risk for new infections. This study assessed the rates and predictors of incident chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis in a sample of hazardously drinking women after incarceration. Self-reported behavioral data were collected from 245 incarcerated women. Vaginal swabs were collected at baseline, and 3- and 6-month time points and tested for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis. Treatment was provided for all positive tests. Participants' mean age was 34.1 years of age; 175 (71.4%) were Caucasian, 47 (19.2%) were African American, 17 (6.9%) were Hispanic, and 6 (2.4%) were of other ethnic origins. The STI incidence rate was estimated to be 30.5 (95% confidence interval, 21.3-43.5) new infections per 100 person-years. Number of male sex partners reported during follow-up was a significant (z = 2.16; p = .03) predictor of STI; each additional male sex partner increased the estimated hazard of STI by 1.26. Incarcerated women who are hazardous drinkers are at high risk for STI in the months after their return to the community. In addition to testing and treatment during incarceration, post-release rescreening, education, partner treatment, and follow-up are recommended. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stein, Michael D.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Anderson, Bradley J.
Introduction and background At the time of incarceration, women have a high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI). In the months following community release, women remain at high risk for new infections. This study assessed the rates and predictors of incident Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Trichomoniasis in a sample of hazardously-drinking women following incarceration. Methods Self-reported behavioral data were collected from 245 incarcerated women. Vaginal swabs were collected at baseline, 3-, and 6-month time-points and tested for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Trichomoniasis. Treatment was provided for all positive tests. Results Participants’ mean age was 34.1 years of age, 175 (71.4%) (n=175) were Caucasian, 47 (19.2%) were African-American, 17 (6.9%) were Hispanic and 6 (2.4%) were of other ethnic origins. The STI incidence rate was estimated to be 30.5 (95%CI 21.3 – 43.5) new infections per 100 person-years. Number of male sex partners reported during follow-up was a significant (z = 2.16, p = .03) predictor of STI; each additional male sex partner increased the estimated hazard of STI by 1.26. Conclusions and discussion Incarcerated women who are hazardous drinkers are at high risk for sexually transmitted infection in the months following their return to the community. In addition to testing and treatment during incarceration, post-release rescreening, education, partner treatment, and follow-up are recommended. PMID:21835632
Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D
Incarcerated women are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections. Left untreated, these infections can have severe adverse health effects. In this study the authors present prevalence rates of trichomonas, chlamydia, and gonorrhea, and factors related to having a sexually transmitted infection in a sample of 245 hazardously-drinking incarcerated women who reported heterosexual intercourse in the previous 3 months. Vaginal swabs were collected following the self-report baseline assessment. Participants averaged 34.0 (±8.8) years of age; 174 (71.3%) were non-Hispanic Caucasian, 47 (19.3%) were African-American, 17 (7.0%) were Hispanic, and 6 (2.5%) were of other racial or ethnic origins. Twenty-three percent of participants tested positive for chlamydia, trichomonas, or gonorrhea. Being African-American, more frequent sex with a casual partner, and reporting more than one male partner were significantly positively related to sexually transmitted infection, while more frequent sex with a main partner was inversely related. Due to the high rates of infection in this population, jail admission provides a public health opportunity to access a concentrated group of sexually transmitted infectious women. Sexually transmitted infection testing targeted at specific demographic factors, for instance younger age, will miss infected women. Risky sexual partnerships, as well as the benefit of maintaining stable main partnerships may be important topics during sexually transmitted infection prevention interventions.
Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Strong, David R.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Brown, Richard A.; Stein, Michael D.
Background The number of females incarcerated within the United States has risen dramatically in recent decades and high rates of alcohol problems are evident among this population. Although little is known about the patterns of help utilization and efficacy for alcohol problems, preliminary evidence suggests that AA is a widely available resource for this population. Methods Data were collected as part of a study evaluating the effect of a brief intervention to reduce alcohol use among hazardously drinking (i.e., score of 8 or above on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test or 4 or more drinks at a time on at least 3 days in prior 3 months) incarcerated women. The current study characterized demographic, clinical, and previous AA attendance variables associated with AA attendance in the 6-months following incarceration. Associations between frequency of AA attendance and drinking outcomes following incarceration were also evaluated. Results Among the 224 participants who provided data about AA attendance, 54% reported some AA attendance during the follow-up assessment period. AA attendance in the year prior to study entry (OR = 4.02; 95% CI: 3.32–4.71) and greater baseline consequences of alcohol use (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.73–2.44) were associated with increased odds of higher frequency of AA attendance following incarceration. Weekly or greater AA attendance was associated with reductions in negative drinking consequences (B = −0.45; p < 0.01) and frequency of drinking days (B = −0.28; p < 0.01) following incarceration. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that AA is frequently utilized by hazardously drinking women following incarceration. Alcohol outcomes may be enhanced by AA attendance at a weekly or greater frequency is associated with better alcohol outcomes relative to lower levels of AA attendance. Evaluation of clinical guidelines for prescribing AA attendance for incarcerated women remains a task for future research. PMID:21158877
Hayaki, Jumi; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D
A growing literature has identified associations between impulsivity and negative behaviors such as sexual risk-taking among high-risk and/or vulnerable populations, but few studies have linked impulsivity to biological outcomes of sexual risk-taking. The main purpose of this study was to document associations among impulsivity, sexual risk-taking, and biological measures of sexually transmitted infection (STI+) in a sample of hazardously drinking incarcerated women. Two hundred forty-five hazardously drinking incarcerated women self-reported alcohol consumption and consequences, impulsivity, and sexual behavior. Biological testing revealed a 22.9% prevalence rate for STI+. In this sample, sexual risk-taking fully mediated the association between impulsivity and likelihood of STI+. In addition, individuals reporting sexual activity with multiple partners were significantly more likely to test STI+ than those reporting sexual activity with a primary partner. These results support previous research on impulsivity by demonstrating that impulsivity leads to STI+ through risky behavioral choices. These findings also extend prior work by documenting this association using biologically confirmed measures in a vulnerable female population that carries multiple risk factors and thus warrants increased research attention. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Hughes, Tonda L; Szalacha, Laura A; Johnson, Timothy P; Kinnison, Kelly E; Wilsnack, Sharon C; Cho, Young
Although research shows that sexual minority women report high rates of lifetime sexual victimization and high rates of hazardous drinking, investigators have yet to explore the relationships between sexual victimization and hazardous drinking in this population. In addition, because the rates of these problems may vary within the sexual minority population, we examined and compared relationships between sexual victimization and hazardous drinking in exclusively heterosexual and sexual minority (mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly lesbian and exclusively lesbian) women. Data from 548 participants in the National Study of Health and Life Experiences of Women and 405 participants in the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study were pooled to address these relationships. We compared hazardous drinking, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), adult sexual assault (ASA), and revictimization (both CSA and ASA) across the five sexual identity subgroups. We then fit a multilevel general linear model to examine group differences in the relationships between hazardous drinking and sexual victimization and to test for potential interactions between victimization and identity on hazardous drinking. Sexual minority women reported higher levels of hazardous drinking and higher rates of CSA and sexual revictimization than did exclusively heterosexual women. Revictimization was the strongest predictor of hazardous drinking among women who identified as mostly heterosexual and mostly lesbian. This study extends previous research by examining associations between sexual victimization and hazardous drinking in heterosexual and sexual minority women and by exploring within-group variations in these associations among sexual minority women. Higher rates of lifetime sexual victimization and revictimization may help to explain sexual minority women's heightened risk for hazardous drinking. The findings highlight the need for additional research that examines the meanings of sexual
Upshur, Carole C; Weinreb, Linda; Bharel, Monica
Screening for alcohol use in primary care is underutilized, especially for women. The current study implemented systematic women's alcohol use screening in a health care for the homeless primary care program. All women (n=541) seeking care over 12 months were screened. Of the 541 screening forms returned, 80 women refused to answer the alcohol use questions. Of 461 completed screens, over 40% reported no alcohol use, while 43.8% reported hazardous drinking. Hazardous drinking was significantly associated with younger age, African American race, and living on the street or in a shelter. High rates of drinking were identified among women in different housing situations and use of systematic screening was beneficial to providers. Health care settings are important sites to identify hazardous drinking as well as alcohol disorders among women with unstable housing histories. The growing integration of behavioral health care into primary care, and the medical home concept, both provide opportunities for brief interventions for at-risk drinkers, as well as treatment options for those with alcohol use disorders that may be particularly appealing to women. Findings support further investigation of the relationship of housing stability to drinking, and suggest African American women may need special attention. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Johnson, Jennifer E; Anderson, Bradley J; Caviness, Celeste; Stein, Michael D
Women who drink hazardously face a high risk for re-arrest and reincarceration when they return to their communities after a jail stay. This study is the first to examine the associations between women's own reports of basic needs 1 month after jail release, and reincarceration (defined as spending at least one night in jail) during the next 5 months among unsentenced, female pretrial jail detainees who drink hazardously. Perceived needs for housing (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.63; p < .01), substance treatment services (AOR = 2.65; p < .01), assistance/benefits (AOR = 2.37; p < .05), and mental health counseling (AOR = 2.07; p < .05) at 1 month after jail release were associated with reincarceration during the next 5 months for the 165 hazardously drinking jailed women in this study. These findings demonstrate that self-reported needs during the high-risk period immediately following jail release are associated with heightened odds of reincarceration among hazardously drinking jailed women.
Hamilton, Kristen R; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N
Hazardous drinking is characterized by decisions to engage in excessive or risky patterns of alcohol consumption. Levels of impulsivity and behavioral approach and inhibition may differ in hazardous drinkers and nonhazardous drinkers. A comparison of the relative levels of dimensions of impulsivity and behavioral inhibition and approach in adult men and women hazardous and nonhazardous drinkers may inform treatment and prevention efforts. In the present research, 466 men and women from a community sample were administered the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Approach System (BIS/BAS) scale, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 (BIS-11). Relations among the dimensions of these constructs were examined using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), with age and race as covariates. There were main effects of hazardous drinking on all 3 dimensions of impulsivity, the behavioral inhibition system, and the behavioral activation system Reward Responsiveness, and Fun-Seeking components, with hazardous drinkers scoring higher than nonhazardous drinkers. This research provides a better understanding of the manner in which impulsivity and behavioral inhibition and approach tendencies relate to hazardous alcohol use in men and women. The present results have implications for alcohol-related prevention and treatment strategies for adult men and women. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Hamilton, Kristen R.; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N.
Introduction Hazardous drinking is characterized by decisions to engage in excessive or risky patterns of alcohol consumption. Levels of impulsivity and behavioral approach and inhibition may differ in hazardous drinkers and nonhazardous drinkers. A comparison of the relative levels of dimensions of impulsivity and behavioral inhibition and approach in adult men and women hazardous and nonhazardous drinkers may inform treatment and prevention efforts. Methods In the present research, 466 men and women from a community sample were administered the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Approach System (BIS/BAS) Scale, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 (BIS-11). Relations among the dimensions of these constructs were examined using Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA), with age and race as covariates. Results There were main effects of hazardous drinking on all three dimensions of impulsivity, the behavioral inhibition system, and the behavioral activation system Reward-Responsiveness, and Fun-Seeking components, with hazardous drinkers scoring higher than non-hazardous drinkers. Conclusion This research provides a better understanding of the manner in which impulsivity and behavioral inhibition and approach tendencies relate to hazardous alcohol use in men and women. The present results have implications for alcohol-related prevention and treatment strategies for adult men and women. PMID:22486201
Bosque-Prous, Marina; Espelt, Albert; Borrell, Carme; Bartroli, Montse; Guitart, Anna M; Villalbí, Joan R; Brugal, M Teresa
The aim of this study was to estimate the magnitude of gender differences in hazardous drinking among middle-aged people and to analyse whether these differences are associated with contextual factors, such as public policies or socioeconomic factors. Cross-sectional design. The study population included 50- to 64-year-old residents of 16 European countries who participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe project conducted in 2010-12 (n = 26 017). We estimated gender differences in hazardous drinking in each country. To determine whether different social context or women's empowerment variables were associated with gender differences in hazardous drinking, we fitted multilevel Poisson regression models adjusted for various individual and country-level variables, which yielded prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Prevalence of hazardous drinking was significantly higher in men than women [30.2% (95% CI: 29.1-31.4%) and 18.6% (95% CI: 17.7-19.4%), respectively] in most countries, although the extent of these differences varied between countries. Among individuals aged 50-64 years in Europe, risk of becoming a hazardous drinker was 1.69 times higher (95% CI: 1.45-1.97) in men, after controlling for individual and country-level variables. We also found that lower values of the gender empowerment measure and higher unemployment rates were associated with higher gender differences in hazardous drinking. Countries with the greatest gender differences in hazardous drinking were those with the most restrictions on women's behaviour, and the greatest gender inequalities in daily life. Lower gender differences in hazardous drinking seem to be related to higher consumption among women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Riley, Barth B.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Benson, Perry; Aranda, Frances
Background Although sexual minority women (SMW) are at increased risk of hazardous drinking (HD), efforts to validate HD measures have yet to focus on this population. Objectives Validation of a 13-item Hazardous Drinking Index (HDI) in a large sample of SMW. Methods Data were from 700 adult SMW (age 18–82) enrolled in the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study. Criterion measures included counts of depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, average daily and 30-day ethanol consumption, risky sexual behavior, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) measures of alcohol abuse/dependence. Analyses included assessment of internal consistency, construction of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to predict alcohol abuse/dependence, and correlations between HDI and criterion measures. We compared the psychometric properties (diagnostic accuracy and correlates of hazardous drinking) of the HDI to the commonly used CAGE instrument. Results KR-20 reliability for the HDI was 0.80, compared to 0.74 for the CAGE. Predictive accuracy, as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for alcohol abuse/dependence, was HDI: 0.89; CAGE: 0.84. The HDI evidenced the best predictive efficacy and tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity. Results supported the concurrent validity of the HDI measure. Conclusions The Hazardous Drinking Index is a reliable and valid measure of hazardous drinking for sexual minority women. PMID:27661289
Drabble, Laurie; Trocki, Karen F; Hughes, Tonda L; Korcha, Rachael A; Lown, Anne E
This study examined relationships between past experiences of victimization (sexual abuse and physical abuse in childhood, sexual abuse and physical abuse in adulthood, and lifetime victimization) and hazardous drinking among sexual minority women compared to exclusively heterosexual women. Data were from 11,169 women responding to sexual identity and sexual behavior questions from three National Alcohol Survey waves: 2000 (n = 3,880), 2005 (n = 3,464), and 2010 (n = 3,825). A hazardous drinking index was constructed from five dichotomous variables (5+ drinking in the past year, drinking two or more drinks daily, drinking to intoxication in the past year, two or more lifetime dependence symptoms, and two or more lifetime drinking-related negative consequences). Exclusively heterosexual women were compared with three groups of sexual minority women: lesbian, bisexual, and women who identified as heterosexual but reported same-sex partners. Each of the sexual minority groups reported significantly higher rates of lifetime victimization (59.1% lesbians, 76% bisexuals, and 64.4% heterosexual women reporting same-sex partners) than exclusively heterosexual women (42.3%). Odds for hazardous drinking among sexual minority women were attenuated when measures of victimization were included in the regression models. Sexual minority groups had significantly higher odds of hazardous drinking, even after controlling for demographic and victimization variables: lesbian (ORadj = 2.0, CI = 1.1-3.9, p sexual minority women. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Talley, Amelia E; Aranda, Frances; Hughes, Tonda L; Everett, Bethany; Johnson, Timothy P
We examined differences between sexual minority women's (SMW's) sexual identity and sexual behavior or sexual attraction as potential contributors to hazardous drinking across a 10-year period. Data are from a longitudinal study examining drinking and drinking-related problems in a diverse, community-based sample of self-identified SMW (Wave 1: n = 447; Wave 2: n = 384; Wave 3: n = 354). Longitudinal cross-lagged models showed that SMW who report higher levels of identity-behavior or identity-attraction discordance may be at greater risk of concurrent and subsequent hazardous drinking. Results of multigroup models suggest that sexual orientation discordance is a more potent risk factor for risky drinking outcomes among SMW in older adulthood than in younger adulthood. Findings support that discordance between sexual orientation dimensions may contribute to hazardous drinking among SMW and provide evidence that cognitive-behavioral consistency is important for individuals expressing diverse and fluid sexual identities, attraction, and behavior. © American Sociological Association 2015.
Lewis, Robin J.; Mason, Tyler B.; Winstead, Barbara A.; Gaskins, Melissa; Irons, Lance B.
Lesbian women engage in more hazardous drinking than heterosexual women yet we know relatively little about what explains this disparity. In the present study, race, socioeconomic status, minority stress, general psychological processes and distress were examined as pathways to hazardous drinking among young (18-35 years) Black and non-Hispanic White lesbian women. We used the psychological mediation framework adaptation of minority stress theory and the reserve capacity model as theoretical underpinnings of the conceptual model in the current study. Self-identified lesbian participants (N= 867) completed a one-time online survey that assessed race, socioeconomic status, perceived sexual minority discrimination, proximal minority stress (concealment, internalized homophobia, lack of connection to lesbian community), rumination, social isolation, psychological distress, drinking to cope, and hazardous drinking. Cross-sectional results demonstrated that being Black was associated with hazardous drinking via sequential mediators of rumination, psychological distress, and drinking to cope. Socioeconomic status was associated with hazardous drinking via sequential mediators of sexual minority discrimination, proximal minority stress, rumination, social isolation, psychological distress, and drinking to cope. Understanding these pathways can aid researchers and clinicians studying and working with lesbians who are at risk for hazardous drinking. PMID:28138208
Lewis, Robin J; Mason, Tyler B; Winstead, Barbara A; Gaskins, Melissa; Irons, Lance B
Lesbian women engage in more hazardous drinking than heterosexual women yet we know relatively little about what explains this disparity. In the present study, race, socioeconomic status, minority stress, general psychological processes and distress were examined as pathways to hazardous drinking among young (18-35 years) Black and non-Hispanic White lesbian women. We used the psychological mediation framework adaptation of minority stress theory and the reserve capacity model as theoretical underpinnings of the conceptual model in the current study. Self-identified lesbian participants (N= 867) completed a one-time online survey that assessed race, socioeconomic status, perceived sexual minority discrimination, proximal minority stress (concealment, internalized homophobia, lack of connection to lesbian community), rumination, social isolation, psychological distress, drinking to cope, and hazardous drinking. Cross-sectional results demonstrated that being Black was associated with hazardous drinking via sequential mediators of rumination, psychological distress, and drinking to cope. Socioeconomic status was associated with hazardous drinking via sequential mediators of sexual minority discrimination, proximal minority stress, rumination, social isolation, psychological distress, and drinking to cope. Understanding these pathways can aid researchers and clinicians studying and working with lesbians who are at risk for hazardous drinking.
Drabble, Laurie; Trocki, Karen F; Klinger, Jamie L
Despite research documenting disparities in risk for alcohol-related problems among sexual minority women, few studies explore potential protective factors within this population. This study examines how religiosity may function as a protective or risk factor for alcohol-problems or other substance use among sexual minorities compared to heterosexuals. Data from 11,169 women who responded to sexual identity and sexual behavior questions from three population-based National Alcohol Survey waves (2000, 2005, 2010) were utilized for analyses of religiosity in relation to lifetime drinking, past year hazardous drinking, and past year drug use. Religiosity was significantly greater among exclusively heterosexual women compared to all sexual minority groups (lesbian, bisexual and heterosexual women who report same sex partners). Lesbians reported the lowest rates of affiliation with religions/denominations discouraging alcohol use. Past year hazardous drinking and use of any illicit drugs were significantly lower among exclusively heterosexual women compared to all sexual minority groups. High religiosity was associated with lifetime alcohol abstention and was found to be protective against hazardous drinking and drug use among both sexual minority and heterosexual women. Reporting religious norms unfavorable to drinking was protective against hazardous drinking among exclusively heterosexual women but not sexual minority women. Findings reveal the importance of considering sexual minority status in evaluation of religion or spirituality as protective among women. Future studies should explore religiosity in the context of other individual and environmental factors, such as positive identity development and community-level acceptance, which may be salient to resiliency among sexual minorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Everett, Bethany G; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Hughes, Tonda L
A small but growing body of research documents associations between structural forms of stigma (e.g., same-sex marriage bans) and sexual minority health. These studies, however, have focused on a limited number of outcomes and have not examined whether sociodemographic characteristics, such as race/ethnicity and education, influence the relationship between policy change and health among sexual minorities. To determine the effect of civil union legalization on sexual minority women's perceived discrimination, stigma consciousness, depressive symptoms, and four indicators of hazardous drinking (heavy episodic drinking, intoxication, alcohol dependence symptoms, adverse drinking consequences) and to evaluate whether such effects are moderated by race/ethnicity or education. During the third wave of data collection in the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study (N = 517), Illinois passed the Religious Freedom Protection and Civil Union Act, legalizing civil unions in Illinois and resulting in a quasi-natural experiment wherein some participants were interviewed before and some after the new legislation. Generalized linear models and interactions were used to test the effects of the new legislation on stigma consciousness, perceived discrimination, depression, and hazardous drinking indicators. Interactions were used to assess whether the effects of policy change were moderated by race/ethnicity or education. Civil union legislation was associated with lower levels of stigma consciousness, perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, and one indicator of hazardous drinking (adverse drinking consequences) for all sexual minority women. For several other outcomes, the benefits of this supportive social policy were largely concentrated among racial/ethnic minority women and women with lower levels of education. Results suggest that policies supportive of the civil rights of sexual minorities improve the health of all sexual minority women, and may be most
Everett, Bethany G.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Hughes, Tonda L.
Rationale A small but growing body of research documents associations between structural forms of stigma (e.g., same-sex marriage bans) and sexual minority health. These studies, however, have focused on a limited number of outcomes and have not examined whether sociodemographic characteristics, such as race/ethnicity and education, influence the relationship between policy change and health among sexual minorities. Objective To determine the effect of civil union legalization on sexual minority women’s perceived discrimination, stigma consciousness, depressive symptoms, and four indicators of hazardous drinking (heavy episodic drinking, intoxication, alcohol dependence symptoms, adverse drinking consequences) and to evaluate whether such effects are moderated by race/ethnicity or education. Methods During the third wave of data collection in the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study (N=517), Illinois passed the Religious Freedom Protection and Civil Union Act, legalizing civil unions in Illinois and resulting in a quasi-natural experiment wherein some participants were interviewed before and some after the new legislation. Generalized linear models and interactions were used to test the effects of the new legislation on stigma consciousness, perceived discrimination, depression, and hazardous drinking indicators. Interactions were used to assess whether the effects of policy change were moderated by race/ethnicity or education. Results Civil union legislation was associated with lower levels of stigma consciousness, perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, and one indicator of hazardous drinking (adverse drinking consequences) for all sexual minority women. For several other outcomes, the benefits of this supportive social policy were largely concentrated among racial/ethnic minority women and women with lower levels of education. Conclusions Results suggest that policies supportive of the civil rights of sexual minorities improve the health
Health care within jails and prisons in the United States is typically insufficient to meet the medical and psychological needs of female inmates. Health services are often of low quality, especially in the areas of reproductive medicine. Mental illness, substance abuse, a trauma history, and sexual victimization while incarcerated can predict a more difficult adjustment to a correctional environment. Incarcerated women who are able to maintain contact with family members, especially children, can have a better prison adjustment. Recommendations are made to improve the types and quality of health care delivered to women in jails and prisons in countries around the world.
Full Text Available Abstract Health care within jails and prisons in the United States is typically insufficient to meet the medical and psychological needs of female inmates. Health services are often of low quality, especially in the areas of reproductive medicine. Mental illness, substance abuse, a trauma history, and sexual victimization while incarcerated can predict a more difficult adjustment to a correctional environment. Incarcerated women who are able to maintain contact with family members, especially children, can have a better prison adjustment. Recommendations are made to improve the types and quality of health care delivered to women in jails and prisons in countries around the world.
Sygit-Kowalkowska, Ewa; Szrajda, Justyna; Weber-Rajek, Magdalena; Porażyński, Krzysztof; Ziółkowski, Marcin
Serving a prison sentence is an experience that bears the hallmarks of a trauma. Scientific findings on how people handle traumatic The aim of the following research was to analyze the way in which psychological resilience differentiates mental states of incarcerated women and to identify the predicator of mental well-being in this group.experiences show that there are numerous personal and social resources that allow for better adaptation. One of the concepts used to describe the process reflecting relatively good adaptation is psychological resilience. The study included women incarcerated in the External Department of Czersk Penitentiary for juvenile female offenders who serve a prison sentence for the first time and penitentiary recidivists. The following scales were used in the research: the Resilience Measurement Scale - RMS-25 and the HADS-M scale, which allows to conduct a test for symptoms of depression. The results revealed crucial statistical correlations between the results of the resilience scale and results of the HADS-M. It was also found that the predicators of anxiety and depression in the study group are the level of personal coping skills and tolerance of negative emotions (RMS-25). Additionally, a crucial factor in predicting the state of anxiety is the number of years of imprisonment. The conducted regression analysis also showed that the level of personal coping skills and tolerance of negative emotions (RMS-25) as well as openness to new experiences and sense of humor (RMS-25) are essential predicators of the level of aggression. The concept of psychological resilience is significant in analyzing the differences in mental health of incarcerated women and may help to create conditions that are conducive to reducing negative effects of prisoners staying in conditions of institutional constraint.
Cobbina, Jennifer E.
Criminologists have explored the reentry experience of formerly incarcerated adults, documented the pressing challenges of reentry, the correlates of recidivism, and the causes of desistance. Given scholars' focus on reentry to explain what factors impact criminal outcome, this raises the interesting question of whether and how such factors shape…
Cooper, Hannah L F; Caruso, Bethany; Barham, Terrika; Embry, Venita; Dauria, Emily; Clark, Claire D; Comfort, Megan L
Racialized mass incarceration is associated with racial/ethnic disparities in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the US. The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative study was to learn about the processes through which partner incarceration affects African-American women's sexual risk. Four waves of in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted in 2010-2011 with 30 women in Atlanta, Georgia (US) who had recently incarcerated partners. Approximately half the sample misused substances at baseline. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory. For over half the sample (N = 19), partner incarceration resulted in destitution, and half of this group (N = 9) developed new partnerships to secure shelter or food; most misused substances. Other women (N = 9) initiated casual relationships to meet emotional or sexual needs. When considered with past research, these findings suggest that reducing incarceration rates among African-American men may reduce HIV/STIs among African-American women, particularly among substance-misusing women, as might rapidly linking women with recently incarcerated partners to housing and economic support and drug treatment.
Fasula, Amy M; Fogel, Catherine I; Gelaude, Deborah; Carry, Monique; Gaiter, Juarlyn; Parker, Sharon
Incarcerated women are a critical population for targeted HIV/STI prevention programming; however, there is a dearth of evidence-based, genderspecific behavioral interventions for this population. Systematically adapting existing evidence-based interventions (EBIs) can help fill this gap. We illustrate the adaptation of the HIV/STI prevention EBI, Project Safe, for use among incarcerated women and delivery in prisons. Project POWER, the final adapted intervention, was developed using formative research with prison staff and administration, incarcerated and previously incarcerated women, and input of community advisory boards. Intervention delivery adaptations included: shorter, more frequent intervention sessions; booster sessions prior to and just after release; facilitator experience in prisons and counseling; and new videos. Intervention content adaptations addressed issues of empowerment, substance use, gender and power inequity in relationships, interpersonal violence, mental health, reentry, and social support. This illustration of the adaption process provides information to inform additional efforts to adapt EBIs for this underserved population.
Dermody, Sarah S; Marshal, Michael P; Cheong, Jeewon; Burton, Chad; Hughes, Tonda; Aranda, Frances; Friedman, Mark S
Sexual minority (lesbian and gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) individuals are at an increased risk for hazardous drinking than heterosexual individuals, but little is known about the nature of the disparities as adolescents reach adulthood. We used four waves of a nationally representative data set, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), to examine disparities of hazardous drinking outcomes between sexual minority and heterosexual men and women from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were 14-18 years old at the first assessment (N = 12,379; 53 % female) and 27-31 years old at the fourth assessment. At the fourth assessment, 13 % self-identified as sexual minority individuals, 16 % were Hispanic, and 36 % were of minority race, including primarily African Americans (60 %) and Asian Americans (18 %). There were clear hazardous drinking disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexual individuals over time. During adolescence, sexual minority individuals, particularly females, reported higher levels of hazardous drinking. As study participants reached adulthood, the magnitude of the hazardous drinking disparities increased among sexual minorities, sexual minority men in particular. Additional research is needed to better understand the developmental mechanisms that underlie the emerging sexual orientation related disparities of hazardous drinking in young adulthood.
Kuo, Caroline; Johnson, Jennifer; Rosen, Rochelle; Wechsberg, Wendee; Gobin, Robyn L.; Reddy, Madhavi K.; Peabody, Marlanea; Zlotnick, Caron
Incarcerated women, in comparison to non-incarcerated women, are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and many have experienced interpersonal violence. The psychological construct of emotional dysregulation – which includes heightened intensity of emotions, poor understanding of emotions, negative reactivity to emotion state, inability to control behaviors when experiencing emotional distress, and maladaptive emotion management responses – is a possible pathway to explain the link between interpersonal violence exposure and STI risk. The present study examined maladaptive emotion management responses for emotional dysregulation (i.e., avoidance and numbing, and dissociation) occurring in the context of risky sexual behavior. We collected qualitative data from 4 focus groups with a sample of n=21 incarcerated women (18+ years) from facilities in urban New England. Qualitative data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Findings indicated that incarcerated women reported engaging in a variety of maladaptive responses for emotion management during sexual encounters. These maladaptive responses for emotion management appear to increase sexual risk behaviors and alter women's ability to implement STI protective behaviors such as sexual negotiation and condom use. Preventive interventions to reduce sexual risk behaviors should incorporate strategies to promote emotional regulation among incarcerated women with histories of interpersonal violence. PMID:24965256
Kelsey, C M; Medel, Nickole; Mullins, Carson; Dallaire, Danielle; Forestell, Catherine
The number of incarcerated women in the United States has been steadily increasing over the last 30 years. An estimated 6-10% of these women are pregnant at intake. Previous studies on the health needs and care of pregnant incarcerated women have focused mainly on prison settings. Therefore, we examined the pregnancy-related accommodations and health care provided for regional jail populations. The present study is a quantitative survey (administered through phone or email to employees of predominately jail medical facilities) of common practices and policies employed across 53 jail facilities in the United States as a function of geographic region (North vs. South; West vs. Central vs. East). We examined provision of pregnancy screening, special diets, and drug rehabilitation and prohibition of shackling. Strikingly, across all aspects of the care of pregnant incarcerated women there are areas to be improved upon. Notably, only 37.7% of facilities pregnancy test all women upon entry, 45.7% put opioid addicted women through withdrawal protocol, and 56.7% of facilities use restraints on women hours after having a baby. In this first study to examine practices in regional jails nationwide, we found evidence that standards of care guidelines to improve health and well-being of pregnant incarcerated women, set by agencies such as American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, are not being followed in many facilities. Because not following these guidelines could pose major health risks to the mother and developing fetus, better policies, better enforcement of policies, and better common practices are needed to improve the health and welfare of pregnant incarcerated women.
Farel, Claire E.; Parker, Sharon D.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Grodensky, Catherine A.; Jones, Chaunetta; Golin, Carol E.; Fogel, Catherine I.; Wohl, David A.
Background Women who have been in prison carry a greater lifetime risk of HIV for reasons that are not well understood. This effect is amplified in the Southeastern United States, where HIV incidence and prevalence is especially high among African American (AA) women. The role of consensual sexual partnerships in the context of HIV risk, especially same-sex partnerships, merits further exploration. Methods We conducted digitally recorded qualitative interviews with 29 AA women (15 HIV-positive, 14 HIV-negative) within three months after entry into the state prison system. We explored potential pre-incarceration HIV risk factors, including personal sexual practices. Two researchers thematically coded interview transcripts and a consensus committee reviewed coding. Results Women reported complex sexual risk profiles during the six months prior to incarceration, including sex with women as well as prior sexual partnerships with both men and women. Condom use with primary male partners was low and a history of transactional sex work was prevalent. These behaviors were linked to substance use, particularly among HIV-positive women. Conclusions Although women may not formally identify as bisexual or lesbian, sex with women was an important component of this cohort’s sexuality. Addressing condom use, heterogeneity of sexual practices, and partner concurrency among at-risk women should be considered for reducing HIV acquisition and preventing forward transmission in women with a history of incarceration. PMID:24183410
Allsworth, Jenifer E; Clarke, Jennifer; Peipert, Jeffrey F; Hebert, Megan R; Cooper, Amy; Boardman, Lori A
We sought to estimate the association of stressful life events on menstrual function in incarcerated women. Project CONNECT is a study of reproductive health needs of incarcerated women conducted between June 2002 and December 2003. This analysis examines menstrual function in 446 women from this cohort who were under the age of 45. Regularity was defined as menses between 26 and 35 days long. Amenorrhea was defined as > or =90 days since last menstruation. Measures included stressful experiences and deprivation (e.g., physical or sexual abuse, stressful living conditions, exchanging sex for drugs or money, or having had an incarcerated parent). Menstrual dysfunction was common in this population. Nine percent reported amenorrhea, and 33% reported menstrual irregularity. A number of stressors were associated with menstrual irregularity, including having a parent with history of alcohol or drug problems (relative risk [RR] = 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.80), childhood physical or sexual abuse (RR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.03-2.13), or any sexual abuse (RR = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.03-2.14) after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, smoking status, and recent drug use. These effects were attenuated somewhat when excluding women who had reported any hormonal contraceptive use in the past 3 months. Incarcerated women have high rates of amenorrhea and menstrual irregularity and the prevalence may be associated with certain stresses. Further research on the causes and consequences of menstrual dysfunction in this underserved population is needed.
Sufrin, Carolyn B; Creinin, Mitchell D; Chang, Judy C
Incarcerated women have had limited access to health care prior to their arrest. Although their incarceration presents an opportunity to provide them with health care, their reproductive health needs have been overlooked. We performed a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of 950 correctional health providers who are members of the Academy of Correctional Health Providers. A total of 405 surveys (43%) were returned, and 286 (30%) were eligible for analysis. Most ineligible surveys were from clinicians at male-only facilities. Of eligible respondents, 70% reported some degree of contraception counseling for women at their facilities. Only 11% provided routine counseling prior to release. Seventy percent said that their institution had no formal policy on contraception. Thirty-eight percent of clinicians provided birth control methods at their facilities. Although the most frequently counseled and prescribed method was oral contraceptive pills, only 50% of providers rated their oral contraceptive counseling ability as good or very good. Contraception counseling was associated with working at a juvenile facility, and with screening for sexually transmitted infections. Contraception does not appear to be integrated into the routine delivery of clinical services to incarcerated women. Because the correctional health care system can provide important clinical and public health interventions to traditionally marginalized populations, services for incarcerated women should include access to contraception.
Luke, Katherine P.
Discusses the incidence and impact of maternal incarceration, analyzes one Minnesota prison's attempt to provide programs to support inmate mothers and their children, and offers policy and program recommendations. Describes the Shakopee women's prison overnight visiting program for children 11 years and younger, and a parent support program for…
Hennessey, Kathleen A.; Stein, Michael D.; Rosengard, Cynthia; Rose, Jennifer S.; Clarke, Jennifer G.
Objective: To estimate prevalence of childhood ADHD among incarcerated women and determine its association with substance use and adult functioning. Method: 192 female participants are recruited from the Department of Corrections in Rhode Island. Childhood ADHD is defined as scoring >46 on the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Results: The findings…
Nowotny, Kathryn M; Masters, Ryan K; Boardman, Jason D
This paper contributes to research on the education-health association by extending the scope of inquiry to adult inmates. Not only are inmates excluded from most nationally representative studies of health but they also represent a highly select group in terms of both education and health. As such, our study provides new information about the health of incarcerated populations and it extends the generalizability of the education-health association beyond the non-institutionalized population. We use a prison-level fixed-effects regression model with the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities (n = 287 facilities) to evaluate the effects of education on a standardized morbidity scale of 11 lifetime and current health conditions among incarcerated men (n = 10,493) and women (n = 2,797). Education prior to incarceration is negatively associated with lifetime health problems for both women and men and the association is stronger among women. Among inmates who enter prison with less than a GED level of education, attaining a GED in prison is associated with better current health outcomes for men, but not women. The generalization of the education-health association among prisoners further highlights the fundamental nature of education as a health promotive resource. Discussed are the implications for the education-health literature in general and health promotion efforts among incarcerated adults specifically.
Buchanan, Marla; Murphy, Kelly; Martin, Megan Smith; Korchinski, Mo; Buxton, Jane; Granger-Brown, Alison; Hanson, Debra; Hislop, Greg; Macaulay, Ann C.; Martin, Ruth Elwood
The majority of women serving short-term sentences in provincial prisons in Canada are incarcerated for illegal activities involving alcohol and substance use. Although there is a wealth of research on substance use among those serving sentences within the federal prison system, little of that literature addresses the needs and experiences of…
Peltan, Jessica R; Cellucci, Tony
Incarcerated women have high rates of substance abuse problems and trauma. A variety of variables may influence whether these women seek help or are referred for substance abuse problems. This study reports an exploratory project on service utilization among incarcerated substance-dependent women (N = 40) in southeastern Idaho. Using self-report and interview tools, most participants reported some substance abuse treatment history, although extent and types of treatment varied. Most of the women also reported some type of childhood abuse. Age, income, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use related positively to substance abuse treatment. However, severity of childhood sexual abuse and current trauma symptoms were negatively correlated with substance abuse treatment episodes. These women may use substances to cope with childhood trauma or may not perceive the substance abuse system as responsive to their co-occurring trauma symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reisner, Sari L; Bailey, Zinzi; Sevelius, Jae
Limited national data document the prevalence of incarceration among transgender women, experiences of victimization while incarcerated, and associations of transgender status with health. Data were from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (NTDS), a large convenience sample of transgender adults in the U.S., collected between September 2008 and March 2009. Respondents who indicated a transfeminine gender identity were included in the current study (n = 3,878). Multivariable logistic regression was used to model ever being incarcerated and experiencing victimization while incarcerated as a function of race/ethnicity and health-related indicators. Overall, 19.3% reported having ever been incarcerated. Black and Native American/Alaskan Native transgender women were more likely to report a history of incarceration than White (non-Hispanic) respondents, and those with a history of incarceration were more likely to report negative health-related indicators, including self-reporting as HIV-positive. Among previously incarcerated respondents, 47.0% reported victimization while incarcerated. Black, Latina, and mixed race transgender women were more likely to report experiences of victimization while incarcerated. Transgender women reported disproportionately high rates of incarceration and victimization while incarcerated, as well as associated negative health-related indicators. Interventions and policy changes are needed to support transgender women while incarcerated and upon release.
Nargiso, Jessica E; Kuo, Caroline C; Zlotnick, Caron; Johnson, Jennifer E
The nature of social support available to incarcerated women is not well-understood, particularly among women at high risk of negative outcomes, including women dually diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder and a Substance Use Disorder (MDD-SUD). Descriptive statistics and paired-tests were conducted on 60 incarcerated MDD-SUD women receiving in-prison substance use and depression treatments to characterize the women's social networks, including the strength of support, network characteristics, and types of support provided as well as to determine what aspects of social support may be amenable to change during incarceration and post-release. Study results showed that, on average, women perceived they had moderately supportive individuals in their lives, although more than a quarter of the sample could not identify any regular supporters in their network at baseline. During incarceration, women's social networks significantly increased in general supportiveness, and decreased in network size and percentage of substance users in their networks. Participants maintained positive social support gains post-release in most areas while also significantly increasing the size of their support network post-release. Findings suggest that there are aspects of incarcerated MDD-SUD women's social networks that are amenable to change during incarceration and post-release and provide insight into treatment targets for this vulnerable population.
Oot Hayes, Margaret
The fastest growing population in the U.S. prisons consists of women whose rate rose nearly twice that of men (Sipes, 2012). Incarcerated women are oftentimes victims of abuse and have high reported rates of mental illness and substance abuse, yet their life pattern is not well understood. The purpose of the study was to develop the life pattern of incarcerated women to gain a better understanding of the life situations that have led to their incarceration and gain a better understanding of their needs during their imprisonment. In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 incarcerated women. Margaret Newman's (1994) Theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness was used as the theoretical framework and research method to develop the community pattern. The life pattern that evolved for the women was a complex and interwoven life filled with childhood trauma, mental illness, substance abuse, unhealthy relationships, and disorganized family situations that led to the women's incarceration. The women gained a better understanding of their pathway to prison. Correctional nurses are in a unique position to address the traumas women in prison have experienced and to assist them with the healing process. Addressing the traumas the women have endured could improve their health and better prepare them for release from prison.
OTIS, MELANIE D.; OSER, CARRIE B.; STATON-TINDALL, MICHELE
This exploratory study examines the relationship between sexual identity and violent victimization experiences as predictors of differences in illicit substance and alcohol use and substance use problems among a sample of incarcerated women in rural Appalachia (N = 400). Results indicated that, compared to heterosexual women, sexual minority women were more likely to have a lifetime history of weapon, physical, and sexual assault, and were younger at the time of their first violent victimization. Sexual minority women were younger than heterosexual women at the age of onset for intravenous drug use and at the time they first got drunk, and were more likely to report having overdosed. Multivariate analysis found violent victimization to be the strongest predictor of a history of overdose and substance use problems. PMID:27660590
Chen, Gila; Gueta, Keren
The mental health problems and pathways to drug addiction and crime among female inmates have long been of interest to researchers and practitioners. The purpose of the current study was to examine the possible association between multiple types of childhood abuse, mental health problems, and drug addiction and the incarceration of 50 Israeli women in prison. The findings indicated that female inmates come from risky families with a high prevalence of family mental health problems, parental drug addiction and crime, and sibling drug addiction and crime. Furthermore, they revealed that incarcerated women from risky families were victims of multiple types of childhood abuse and neglect by their parents, as well as their siblings. Overall, the results suggest that the adverse consequences of a family's mental health problems are much more dramatic than we assumed to date, and that women are more likely than men to be the victims of multiple types of childhood abuse and neglect, as well as suffering more severe psychiatric problems, depression, and drug addiction. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nijhawan, AE; DeLong, AK; Celentano, DD; Klein, RS; Sobel, JD; Jamieson, DJ; Cu-Uvin, S
Background The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis is higher among incarcerated women than in the general community. We sought to determine whether a history of incarceration itself was independently associated with trichomoniasis. Methods The HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS) is a prospective cohort study of 871 HIV-seropositive and 439 high-risk seronegative women in 4 urban centers (Bronx, NY; Detroit, MI; Providence, RI; Baltimore, MD). All participants enrolled between April 1993 and January 1995, with interviews and physical exams conducted at baseline and at follow-up visits every 6 months up to 7 years. Results Of 1310 subjects, 427 (33%) reported being incarcerated on at least one occasion. In addition, 724 (55%) were found to have an STI on at least one occasion during the study; baseline rates were 21% for T. vaginalis, 4.3% for C. trachomatis, 0.6% for N. gonorrhea, and 8% for syphilis. Incarceration was associated with the detection of trichomonas infection (between-subject OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.85 to 3.14, p<0.01; within-subject OR 1.56, 95%CI 1.26 to 1.92, p<0.01). The association with incarceration remained significant after adjusting for age, race, HIV status, enrollment risk group, number of sexual partners, marital status, education, bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal candidiasis, drug use (crack, cocaine, heroin), alcohol use, health insurance, receipt of public assistance, employment status, visit number and study site. Conclusions A history of incarceration was independently associated with the detection of trichomonas infection in a cohort of high-risk women. These data have implications for increased STI prevention, screening and treatment upon entry to jail as well as in the communities most affected by incarceration. PMID:22082718
Valquíria Pereira Ferreira; Maria Arleide da Silva; Carlos Noronha Neto; Gilliatt Hanois Falbo Neto; Cynthia Vasconcelos Chaves; Rodrigo Pereira Bello
The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with the violence suffered by women accused of drug trafficking in the 24 months prior to incarceration in the Women's...
Sun, Ivan Y; Luo, Haishan; Wu, Yuning; Lin, Wen-Hsu
General strain theory (GST) has been one of the most frequently tested criminological theories. According to GST, strain tends to generate negative emotions, which create pressures for corrective action, such as crime and delinquency. Although GST has received strong empirical support, one under-addressed issue is the lack of diversity in sampling population in assessing the generalizability of the theory. Using survey data collected from 335 incarcerated women in four Chinese prisons, this study examined the impact of strain and negative emotions on the level of female criminality. The strain variable, physical abuse, and discrimination, exerted a positive effect on female inmates' levels of criminality, whereas negative emotions were not significantly related to female criminality. Two control variables, age of current offense and educational attainment, were predictive of female criminality, with younger and less-educated women having more serious criminality. Implications for future research and policy are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Ham, Lindsay S; Zamboanga, Byron L; Bacon, Amy K; Garcia, Tracey A
Although social anxiety (SA) and alcohol use disorders commonly co-occur, the relationship between these variables in college populations has been inconsistent. The present study tested the hypothesized model that negatively reinforcing, but not positively reinforcing, drinking motives (or reasons for drinking) would mediate the association between SA and three aspects of hazardous drinking (quantity/frequency, consequences, and dependence symptoms) in an ethnically diverse sample of college drinkers (N = 817; mean age = 19.9 years, range = 18-29). Structural equation modeling (SEM) results using the asymmetrical distribution of products test indicated that coping motives partially mediated the relationship between SA and negative consequences and dependence symptoms but not the quantity/frequency outcome. Contrary to the hypothesized model, conformity motives did not mediate the association between SA and hazardous drinking. As expected, positive reinforcement motives did not mediate the SA-hazardous drinking association. Multigroup SEM analyses revealed that the mediation models did not differ for men (n = 215) and women (n = 602). Overall, the present findings support extant research and theoretical models regarding the mediating role of coping motives in the relationship between SA and problem drinking, suggesting a potential pathway for the development and maintenance of SA and alcohol use disorder comorbidity. Such findings could contribute to improved intervention programs by targeting coping drinking motives and building coping skills.
Research on self-mutilating behaviour and incarcerated adults has found that nearly 50% of people in prison participated in it (Holley and Alborleda-Florez, 1988). This is an enormous liability for the criminal justice system as well as a human concern. The research question for this study was to explore whether a history of childhood abuse in a sample of incarcerated women would increase their likelihood of self-mutilation. Participants were 256 female inmates from five prisons in a large southern state who volunteered to attend a 12-week trauma and abuse psychosocial intervention group. The participants were evaluated for childhood abuse, criminal history, risk-taking behaviour and self-mutilation. Data are presented regarding individual, criminal, abuse, family and risk-taking behaviours comparing self-mutilators (n = 109) with non-self-mutilators (n = 147). The self-mutilation group was more likely to report higher rates of emotional, sexual and physical abuse and on clinical significance scales of anxiety, depression, dissociation, impaired self-reference, anger, tension reduction and intrusive experiences. The self-mutilation group was also younger and was more often Caucasian. The results of the regression model suggest that a history of suicide attempts, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, bingeing and vomiting and impaired self-reference are predictors of self-mutilation. Recommendations and implications for practice are discussed.
Sprague, Courtenay; Scanlon, Michael L.; Pantalone, David W.
Justice-involved HIV-positive women have poor health outcomes that constitute health inequities. Researchers have yet to embrace the range of qualitative methods to elucidate how psychosocial histories are connected to pathways of vulnerability to HIV and incarceration for this key population. We used life course narratives and…
Capron, Daniel W; Schmidt, Norman B
Negative drinking consequences in college students have been well studied, but emerging evidence points to a role for positive drinking consequences in predicting alcohol related problems. Positive drinking consequences appear to be distinct from other drinking constructs such as drinking expectancies and drinking motives. However, no work has evaluated the role of positive drinking consequences in hazardous drinking college students, a population at high risk for alcohol related problems. The goal of the current study was to examine the effect of positive drinking consequences on problem drinking and alcohol problem recognition in a hazardous drinking college sample. Participants (N=222) were hazardous drinking undergraduate students completing a battery of self-report measures about alcohol use. Findings indicated that positive drinking consequences predicted problem drinking above and beyond other related constructs including positive drinking motives (i.e. enhancement and social). However, positive drinking consequences did not appear to play a significant role in alcohol problem recognition. Future research directions and implications for interventions with hazardous drinking college students are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues; Maria do Carmo Leal; Ana Paula Esteves Pereira; Barbara Ayres; Alexandra Roma Sánchez; Bernard Larouzé
International audience; This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy, the mother to child transmission of syphilis and the incidence of congenital syphilis in incarcerated women in Brazil; to compare these rates to those observed in pregnant women outside of jail; and to verify the maternal factors associated with syphilis infection during pregnancy in free and incarcerated women. We used data from two nationwide studies conducted during the perio...
Ginette G. Ferszt
Full Text Available Incarcerated women enter the prison setting with remarkable histories of trauma, mental health and substance abuse issues. Given the stress of incarceration and separation from their children, families, and significant others, it is not surprising that many women experience increased anxiety, depression, and problems with sleep. Due to these negative outcomes, it is imperative to find efficient non-pharmacological interventions. This pilot study examined the impact of a 12-week mindfulness based program on the stress, anxiety, depression and sleep of women with a total of 33 completing the study. In one group, women’s perceived stress, anxiety and depression were all significantly lower following the intervention compared to prior to the intervention. Challenges with implementing the pilot study are addressed. Despite challenges and limitations, the low-cost non-pharmacological intervention has potential for a reducing the symptoms of anxiety and depression.
Toll, Benjamin A; Martino, Steve; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Fucito, Lisa M; McKee, Sherry A; Kahler, Christopher W; Rojewski, Alana M; Mahoney, Martin C; Wu, Ran; Celestino, Paula; Seshadri, Srinivasa; Koutsky, James; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael
This study evaluated whether tobacco quitline telephone coaches can be trained to counsel hazardous-drinking smokers to improve smoking cessation success and to limit or abstain from alcohol use. Smokers (N = 1,948) who called the New York State Smokers' Quitline and reported hazardous drinking (exceeding sex-specific weekly limits [14 drinks for men, 7 drinks for women] or meeting/exceeding daily drinking limits [5 drinks for men, 4 drinks for women] at least once in the past year) were randomized to receive either brief motivational counseling to limit or abstain from alcohol plus an alcohol reduction booklet added to standard care (Alcohol + Tobacco Counseling; ATC), or only smoking cessation counseling plus a smoking cessation booklet added to standard care (Tobacco-Only Counseling; TOC). Acceptable coach adherence was achieved. The intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed that ATC was associated with a significantly higher rate of smoking abstinence at 7-month follow-up (13.5%) compared with TOC (10.3%; p = .03). The respondent analysis (ATC= 26.2%; TOC = 20.4%) paralleled the ITT findings. When controlling for treatment condition, participants who did not report any heavy drinking were significantly more likely to quit smoking than those who reported any heavy drinking (OR = 1.87, 95% CI [1.29, 2.71]; p = .001). A brief alcohol intervention plus standard care via a telephone quitline resulted in significantly higher smoking cessation rates for hazardous-drinking callers. Given that quitline coaches were trained to provide the intervention with acceptable adherence, the potential to extend this intervention for wide-scale implementation and impact is promising. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Very little is known about how women’s experiences with inclusion or exclusion shape their entry into community after they have been incarcerated. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine inclusion from the perspective of women entering community after release from a federal prison in Ontario, Canada. This research project combined feminist participatory action research with anti-oppressive theories. Women who had been incarcerated were asked to come together to discuss ideas around inclusion and explore ways to foster a more inclusive environment. As women described the kind of community they experienced before and after incarceration, themes of being pushed out of community, being pulled into community, and negotiating issues of responsibility were evident. At the core of these themes was a powerful sense of difference. Findings suggest that deep societal change is needed for women to truly experience social inclusion upon their release from federal prison. They also suggest a role for community in supporting personal change and growth. We argue that if principles of social justice guided inclusion efforts, there would be dialogue and negotiation aimed at re-imagining social inclusion and creating a space that is hopeful and inclusive for all citizens.
Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Leal, Maria do Carmo; Pereira, Ana Paula Esteves; Ayres, Barbara; Sánchez, Alexandra Roma; Larouzé, Bernard
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy, the mother to child transmission of syphilis and the incidence of congenital syphilis in incarcerated women in Brazil; to compare these rates to those observed in pregnant women outside of jail; and to verify the maternal factors associated with syphilis infection during pregnancy in free and incarcerated women. We used data from two nationwide studies conducted during the period 2011-2014. The Birth in Brazil study included 23,894 free women cared for in 266 hospitals. The Maternal and Infant Health in Prisons study included 495 incarcerated pregnant women or mothers living with their children, according to a census conducted in 33 female prisons. The same case definitions and data collection methods were used in both studies. The chi-square test was used to compare the characteristics of incarcerated and free women with a significance of 0.05. For incarcerated women, the estimated prevalence of syphilis during pregnancy was 8.7% (95%CI: 5.7-13.1) and for HIV infection 3.3% (95%CI: 1.7-6.6); the estimated mother to child transmission of syphilis was 66.7% (95%CI: 44.7-83.2) and the incidence of congenital syphilis was 58.1 per 1,000 living newborns (95%CI: 40.4-82.8). Incarcerated women had a greater prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy, lower quality of antenatal care and higher levels of social vulnerability. Syphilis infection showed to be an indicator of social vulnerability in free women, but not in incarcerated women. Health initiatives in prison are necessary to reduce healthcare inequalities and should include adequate antenatal and birth care.
McCall, Janice D; Tsai, Jack
The majority of U.S. veterans in prisons and local jails are men, but incarcerated women veterans remain an important and understudied group. This study reported differences in sociodemographic, health, and criminal justice characteristics using Veterans Affairs (VA) administrative data on a national sample of 30,964 incarcerated veterans (30,440 men and 524 women) who received outreach from the VA Health Care for Reentry Veterans program between 2007 and 2011. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regressions determined gender and racial differences in this population. Compared with incarcerated veterans who were men, incarcerated women veterans were younger (d = 0.68), had significantly lower lifetime arrests (AOR, 0.65; p problems, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and seizure disorder, and were more likely to receive a preliminary diagnosis of mood disorder than men. Women were more likely to have received VA benefits, used VA health care before, and be willing to use VA services after release. A few important differences emerged when stratified by race. These findings suggest that incarcerated women veterans are interested in VA health care services, but there is lack of information about women's health needs through the Health Care for Reentry Veterans program. The inclusion of Health Care for Reentry Veterans screening questions about women's health issues may support the VA's interests to better engage women veterans in care. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Reisner, Sari L.; Bailey, Zinzi; Sevelius, Jae
Limited national data document the prevalence of incarceration among transgender women, experiences of victimization while incarcerated, and associations of transgender status with health. Data were from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (NTDS), a large convenience sample of transgender adults in the U.S., collected between September 2008 and March 2009. Respondents who indicated a transfeminine gender identity were included in the current study (n = 3,878). Multivariable logisti...
Heather, Nick; Partington, Sarah; Partington, Elizabeth; Longstaff, Fran; Allsop, Susan; Jankowski, Mark; Wareham, Helen; St Clair Gibson, Alan
To report on alcohol use disorders and hazardous drinking from a survey of university students in England in 2008-2009. A cross-sectional survey using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was carried out in a purposive sample of 770 undergraduates from seven universities across England. Sixty-one per cent of the sample (65% men; 58% women) scored positive (8+) on the AUDIT, comprising 40% hazardous drinkers, 11% harmful drinkers and 10% with probable dependence. There were large and significant differences in mean AUDIT scores between the universities taking part in the survey. Two universities in the North of England showed a significantly higher combined mean AUDIT score than two universities in the Midlands which in turn showed a significantly higher mean AUDIT score than three universities in the South. When the effects of university attended were extracted in a binary logistic regression analysis, independent significant predictors of AUDIT positive status were younger age, 'White' ethnicity and both on-campus and off-campus term-time student accommodation. Undergraduates at some universities in England show very high levels of alcohol-related risk and harm. University authorities should estimate the level of hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorders among students at their institutions and take action to reduce risk and harm accordingly. Research is needed using nationally representative samples to estimate the prevalence of alcohol risk and harm in the UK student population and to determine the future course of drinking problems among students currently affected.
Minieri, Alexandra M; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl; Clarke, Jennifer G; Surratt, Hilary L; Frisman, Linda K
The purpose of this study was to examine perceived relationship power as a mediator of the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health issues among incarcerated women with a history of substance use. Cross-sectional data from 304 women as part of the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) were used to evaluate this hypothesis. Regression analyses examined the mediation relationship of perceived relationship power in the association between a history of IPV and mental health issues. Results supported the hypothesis, suggesting that perceived relationship power helps to explain the association between IPV and mental health issues. Implications of the findings for the provision of services to address the needs of these women are discussed, including assessment of perceived relationship power and focusing counseling interventions on women's experiences with power in intimate relationships.
Paulus, Daniel J; Valadka, Jaclyn; Businelle, Michael S; Gallagher, Matthew W; Viana, Andres G; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J
Smoking and drinking frequently co-occur. For example, alcohol use is associated with smoking lapses during quit attempts. However, little is known regarding psychological factors explaining drinking among smokers. Anxiety sensitivity is a risk factor associated with hazardous drinking and drinking to cope and/or conform, although little is known about mechanisms underlying such associations. One potential explanatory factor is emotion dysregulation. The current study examined emotion dysregulation as an explanatory factor underlying Anxiety Sensitivity and 5 alcohol-related outcomes: hazardous drinking, alcohol consumption, alcohol problems, coping-oriented drinking, and drinking to conform. Participants for this study were 467 treatment-seeking adult, daily smokers (48.2% women; Mage = 36.7 years, SD = 13.6) who reported smoking an average of 16.5 cigarettes per day. Results indicate significant indirect effects of Anxiety Sensitivity on hazardous drinking via emotion dysregulation, alcohol consumption, alcohol problems, drinking to cope, and drinking to conform. Effects were medium in size. Alternative models testing indirect effects of emotion dysregulation through Anxiety Sensitivity on outcomes, and Anxiety Sensitivity through outcomes on emotion dysregulation were nonsignificant and all had small effect sizes. Follow-up tests examined the path of effects from Anxiety Sensitivity through specific emotion-dysregulation subfactors. Thus, among treatment-seeking smokers, emotion dysregulation may explain the associations of Anxiety Sensitivity with alcohol-related outcomes. This pattern of findings highlights the potential importance of interventions targeting emotion dysregulation among hazardous-drinking smokers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Lanza, Patricia Villagrá; García, Paula Fernández; Lamelas, Filomena Rodríguez; González-Menéndez, Ana
This randomized controlled study compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and a control group. The participants were 50 incarcerated women diagnosed with current substance use disorder. Two psychologists carried out pre- and posttreatment assessment and a 6-month follow-up assessment using the following instruments: Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Addiction Severity Index-6, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and Acceptance and Action Questionnaire. The study shows that the women who received treatment benefited differentially from the interventions. At posttreatment, CBT was more effective than ACT in reducing anxiety sensitivity; however, at follow-up, ACT was more effective than CBT in reducing drug use (43.8 vs. 26.7%, respectively) and improving mental health (26.4% vs. 19.4%, respectively). ACT may be an alternative to CBT for treatment of drug abuse and associated mental disorders. In fact, at long-term, ACT may be more appropriate than CBT for incarcerated women who present serious problems. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Minieri, Alexandra M.; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl; Clarke, Jennifer G.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Frisman, Linda K.
The purpose of this study was to examine perceived relationship power as a mediator of the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health issues among incarcerated women with a history of substance use. Cross-sectional data from 304 women as part of the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) were used to evaluate this hypothesis. Regression analyses examined the mediation relationship of perceived relationship power in the association between a history of IPV and mental health issues. Results supported the hypothesis, suggesting that perceived relationship power helps to explain the association between IPV and mental health issues. Implications of the findings for the provision of services to address the needs of these women are discussed, including assessment of perceived relationship power and focusing counseling interventions on women’s experiences with power in intimate relationships. PMID:23358104
Knittel, Andrea K; Snow, Rachel C; Riolo, Rick L; Griffith, Derek M; Morenoff, Jeffrey
Men who have been incarcerated experience substantial changes in their sexual behavior after release from jail and prison, and high rates of incarceration may change sexual relationship patterns at a community level. Few studies, however, address how rates of incarceration affect community patterns of sexual behavior, and the implications of those patterns for HIV and STD risk. We describe a "proof of principle" computational model that tests whether rates of male incarceration could, in part, explain observed population-level differences in patterns of sexual behavior between communities with high rates of incarceration and those without. This validated agent-based model of sexual partnership among 20-25 year old heterosexual urban residents in the United States uses an algorithm that incarcerates male agents and then releases them back into the agent community. The results from these model experiments suggest that at rates of incarceration similar to those observed for urban African American men, incarceration can cause an increase in the number of partners at the community level. The results suggest that reducing incarceration and creating a more open criminal justice system that supports the maintenance of inmates' relationships to reduce instability of partnerships for men who are incarcerated may have important sexual health and public health implications. Incarceration is one of many social forces that affect sexual decision-making, and incarceration rates may have substantial effects on community-level HIV and STD risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Danilo de Assis Pereira
This is a qualitative study grounded in Social Representations Theory (SRT, with descriptive approach. Objectives: the research aimed to identify the life trajectories of women incarcerated in the Public Jail Women's Votorantim, its prospects and the meanings attributed to prison. The specific objectives were: (1 identify the socio-demographic and clinical data, (2 the prevalence of depressive symptoms and (3 the use, abuse or dependence symptoms in women prisoners. Methods: we interviewed 25 women, trapped interim Chain Public Women's Votorantim. The arrested after signing the Instrument of Consent, responding to a data sheet Sociodemographic and Clinical Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. We use the Collective Subject Discourse to present the result of discursive question. For the rest of the specs of sociodemographic and clinical data and the Beck Depression Questionnaire, we chose the descriptive approach. Results: most of the interviewees was arrested for drug trafficking, has fragmented family history, present history of physical abuse and/or sexual abuse, have significant mental health problems, physical and substance abuse; 80% of women who responded to the BDI were identified as having moderate to severe depression, and the items that scored more this index were: loss of libido, sadness, punishment, insomnia. Conclusion: it is vital to ensure the rights of the imprisoned health access. We suggest that every convict follow a process of initial assessment, to be diagnosed soon: substance dependence and depression.
Bahorik, Amber L; Leibowitz, Amy; Sterling, Stacy A; Travis, Adam; Weisner, Constance; Satre, Derek D
Co-occurrence of depression, anxiety, and hazardous drinking is high in clinical samples. Hazardous drinking can worsen depression and anxiety symptoms (and vice versa), yet less is known about whether reductions in hazardous drinking improve symptom outcomes. Three hundred and seven psychiatry outpatients were interviewed (baseline, 3-, 6-months) for hazardous drinking (drinking over recommended daily limits), depression (PHQ-9), and anxiety (GAD-7) as part of a hazardous drinking intervention trial. Longitudinal growth models tested associations between hazardous drinking and symptoms (and reciprocal effects between symptoms and hazardous drinking), adjusting for treatment effects. At baseline, participants had moderate anxiety (M=10.81; SD=10.82) and depressive symptoms (M=13.91; SD=5.58); 60.0% consumed alcohol at hazardous drinking levels. Over 6-months, participants' anxiety (B=-3.03, panxiety (B=0.09, p=.005) and depressive symptom (B=0.10, p=.004) improvement; reductions in hazardous drinking led to faster anxiety (B=-0.09, p=.010) and depressive (B=-0.10, p=.015) symptom improvement. Neither anxiety (B=0.07, p=.066) nor depressive (B=0.05, p=.071) symptoms were associated with hazardous drinking outcomes. Participants were psychiatry outpatients, limiting generalizability. Reducing hazardous drinking can improve depression and anxiety symptoms but continued hazardous use slows recovery for psychiatry patients. Hazardous drinking-focused interventions may be helpful in promoting symptom improvement in clinical populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Christiansen, Paul; Cole, Jon C; Goudie, Andrew J; Field, Matt
Hazardous drinking is associated with both increased impulsivity and automatic approach tendencies elicited by alcohol-related cues. However, impulsivity is a multi-factorial construct, and it is currently unclear if all components of impulsivity are associated with heavy drinking. Furthermore, emerging evidence suggests that the relationships between hazardous drinking and automatic alcohol cognitions may be moderated by individual differences in impulsivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the independence of measures of impulsivity and their association with hazardous drinking, and to examine if the relationship between hazardous drinking and automatic alcohol approach tendencies would be moderated by individual differences in impulsivity. Ninety-seven social drinkers (65 female) completed questionnaire measures of trait impulsivity, alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking. Participants also completed computerised measures of automatic alcohol approach tendencies (stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) task), and two behavioural measures of impulsivity (Go/No-go and delay discounting tasks). Principal component analysis revealed that the two measures of behavioural impulsivity were distinct from each other and from self-reported trait impulsivity, although self-reported non-planning impulsivity loaded on to two factors (trait impulsivity and delay discounting). Furthermore, all measures of impulsivity predicted unique variance in hazardous drinking as did automatic alcohol approach tendencies, although the latter relationship was not moderated by impulsivity. These results indicate that multiple components of impulsivity and automatic alcohol approach tendencies explain unique variance in hazardous drinking.
Fairlie, Anne M; Maggs, Jennifer L; Lanza, Stephanie T
Types of college drinkers have been identified using traditional measures (e.g., 12-month drinking frequency). We used an alternative multidimensional approach based on daily reports of alcohol behaviors to identify college drinker statuses, each with a unique behavioral profile. The current study aimed to (a) identify drinker statuses at the week level across four semesters, (b) examine the predictive utility of drinker status by testing associations with senior-year hazardous drinking and dependence symptoms, and (c) identify concurrent predictors (gender, drinking motivations, hazardous drinking, any dependence symptoms) of senior-year drinker status. We also compared the week-level drinker statuses with drinker statuses identified using traditional measures. A multi-ethnic sample of U.S. college students completed 14-day bursts of daily web surveys across college (91%-96% completed ≥6 daily reports of the sampled week). Analyses focus on nine alcohol-related behaviors (including estimated blood alcohol concentration, pregaming, and drinking games) assessed daily in spring/sophomore year to fall/senior year and drinking motivations, hazardous drinking, and dependence symptoms assessed fall/senior year (n = 569; 56% women). Four week-level drinker statuses were replicated across semesters: Nondrinker, Light Weekend, Heavy Weekend, and Heavy Frequent. Across semesters, drinker status was associated with senior-year hazardous drinking and any dependence symptoms. Senior-year fun/social motivations were also associated with senior-year drinker status. Differences in behavioral profiles between week-level drinker statuses and those identified using traditional measures were found. Replicable week-level drinker statuses were identified, suggesting consistency in possible types of drinking weeks. Drinker statuses were predictive of senior-year hazardous drinking and dependence symptoms.
Kristen P. Lindgren
Conclusions: These studies provide preliminary evidence that drinking identity centrality may be an important factor for predicting hazardous drinking. Future research should improve its measurement and evaluate implicit and explicit centrality in experimental and longitudinal studies.
Goshin, Lorie S.; Byrne, Mary W.
Correctional facilities are prime targets for nursing interventions to decrease health disparities, but challenges to post-release follow-up limit use of the longitudinal research designs needed to fully examine intervention effects. Using an adapted version of the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations, we determined predictors of 1year post-release study retention and subsequent reenrollment an average of 3 years later in 88 mother and child dyads recruited from a state prison nursery. Predisposing characteristics and enabling factors emerged as strong predictors of loss to follow-up. Female research participants can be successfully retained years after release from a correctional facility. Understanding the barriers and facilitators to post-release follow-up supports the creation of theoretically informed strategies to retain formerly incarcerated populations. PMID:22105494
Warren, Janet I; South, Susan C
Our study examines the relationship between Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) and psychopathy among a sample of 137 female offenders. Drawing from a historical review of the evolution of these two concepts, we explore their differential relationship to patterns of criminal behavior, psychological adjustment, co-morbidity with other personality disorders, victimization, and institutional adjustment. Findings suggest that the two disorders share a common foundation of social norm violations and deception; however, APD is associated with impulsive, aggressive, and irresponsible behavior, higher rates of childhood abuse, and greater co-morbidity with Cluster A PDs, while psychopathy is better characterized by higher rates of property crimes, previous incarceration, and the manifestation of remorselessness. Results contribute to a further understanding of the etiology and phenomenology of these two disorders and suggest different types of treatment and intervention. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Read, Jennifer P.; Radomski, Sharon; Borsari, Brian
Students with trauma and posttraumatic stress are disproportionately at risk for heavy drinking and for alcohol-related consequences. Brief motivational interventions (BMIs) have been shown to reduce hazardous drinking in college students, and could serve as a first-line approach to reduce heavy drinking in students with trauma and posttraumatic stress (PTS). Yet the standard BMI format may not adequately address the factors that lead to hazardous drinking in these students. Here, we review t...
Pelligrino, Nicole; Zaitzow, Barbara H; Sothern, Melinda; Scribner, Richard; Phillippi, Stephen
Incarcerated black women in the southern USA are understudied despite the high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These incarceration and health disparities are rooted in centuries of historically inequitable treatment. Amidst the current dialogue on mass incarceration in the south and its relationship to the health of the black community, individual and environmental risk factors for STI/HIV transmission are seldom paired with discussions of evidence-based solutions. A narrative review of the literature from January 1995 to May 2015 was conducted. This sample of the literature (n = 18) revealed that partner concurrency, inconsistent condom use, sex work, previous STI, and drug abuse augmented individual STI/HIV risk. Recommended interventions include those which promote healthier relationships, cultural competence, and gender specificity, as well as those that enhance prevention skills. Policy recommendations include improving cultural sensitivity, cultural competence, and cultural humility training for clinicians, as well as substantially increasing funding for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitative services. These recommendations are timely given the recent national attention to incarceration, STI, and HIV disparities, particularly in the southern USA.
Gobin, Robyn L; Reddy, Madhavi K; Zlotnick, Caron; Johnson, Jennifer E
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are similar, but distinct, psychiatric conditions that are common in male and female inmates; a segment of the population with high rates of trauma exposure. It is unclear whether specific types of lifetime trauma are associated with ASPD and psychopathy in incarcerated women and men. Furthermore, the unique roles of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and trauma victimization in antisocial personality disturbance are not well-understood. The paper aims to discuss these issues. This study investigated associations between trauma variables (different kinds of traumatic experiences and PTSD) and antisocial personality variables (ASPD and psychopathy) in a sample of incarcerated women and men who participated in a randomized clinical trial for major depressive disorder. In total, 88 incarcerated men and women were assessed for ASPD diagnosis, psychopathy severity, PTSD symptom severity, and history of physical, sexual, and crime-related trauma. Regression analyses predicted ASPD or psychopathy from trauma variables, controlling for gender. Physical trauma was the only form of trauma that was significantly related to psychopathy. Physical trauma and crime-related trauma were associated with ASPD. PTSD symptom severity was not associated with psychopathy or ASPD. There are associations between some kinds of lifetime trauma exposure and current ASPD/psychopathy in the target sample, but these associations do not appear to be mediated through current PTSD symptoms.
Johnson-Greene, Doug; McCaul, Mary E; Roger, Patricia
Effective and valid screening methods are needed to identify hazardous drinking in elderly persons with new onset acute medical illness. The goal of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test-Geriatric Version (MAST-G) in identifying hazardous drinking among elderly patients with acute cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) and to compare the effectiveness of 2 shorter versions of the MAST-G with the full instrument. The study sample included 100 men and women who averaged 12 days posthemorrhagic or ischemic CVA admitted to a rehabilitation unit and who were at least 50 years of age and free of substance use other than alcohol. This cross-sectional validation study compared the 24-item full MAST-G, the 10-item Short MAST-G (SMAST-G), and a 2-item regression analysis derived Mini MAST-G (MMAST-G) to the reference standard of hazardous drinking during the past 3 months. Alcohol use was collected using the Timeline Followback (TLFB). Recent and lifetime alcohol-related consequences were collected using the Short Inventory of Problems (SIP). Nearly one-third (28%) of the study sample met the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for hazardous drinking. Moderately strong associations were found for the MAST-G, SMAST-G, and MMAST-G with alcohol quantity and frequency and recent and lifetime alcohol consequences. All 3 MAST-G versions could differentiate hazardous from nonhazardous drinkers and had nearly identical area under the curve characteristics. Comparable sensitivity was found across the 3 MAST-G measures. The optimal screening threshold for hazardous drinking was 5 for the MAST-G, 2 for the SMAST-G, and 1 for the MMAST-G. The 10-item SMAST-G and 2-item MMAST-G are brief screening tests that show comparable effectiveness in detecting hazardous drinking in elderly patients with acute CVA compared with the full 24-item MAST-G. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.
Capron, Daniel W; Bauer, Brian W; Madson, Michael B; Schmidt, Norman B
Hazardous drinking is prevalent among college students and often comorbid with mood and/or anxiety disorders; however, these disorders frequently go untreated. Prior studies have found that individuals with comorbid hazardous drinking are more likely to seek treatment than those with an hazardous drinking alone. The current study tested possible psychological and structural explanations to understand these treatment seeking behaviors. A sample of 222 students identified as hazardous drinkers (AUDIT ≥ 8) participated from September 2010 to April 2011. Behavioral measures designed to mimic actual treatment seeking and self-report measures were used to assess treatment seeking behaviors, and the influence of psychopathology and individual predictors on treatment interest. Students were more interested in treatment for emotional problems than for alcohol problems. Further, treatment seeking interest was significantly higher among individuals with comorbid hazardous drinking. When provided a telephone offer for a free on-campus clinic appointment, no students were interested in receiving treatment for alcohol use problems, but some were interested in an appointment for emotional problems (n = 13). Of those students expressing interest on the phone, seven attended the clinic appointment. Logistic regression analyses revealed that students with anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and depression were more likely to attend the clinic appointment. Conclusions/Importance: In sum, targeting mood and anxiety disorders may be a viable way to increase treatment seeking rates in hazardous drinking college students.
Berger, Lisa; Fendrich, Michael; Fuhrmann, Daniel
The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is prevalent among college students as is hazardous drinking, a drinking pattern that places one at risk for alcohol-related harm. The present study, therefore, examined associations between AmED use, hazardous drinking, and alcohol-related consequences in college students. Based on a probability sample conducted in 2010, participants were 606 undergraduate students aged 18-25. AmED consumption included lifetime and past year use. Hazardous drinking and alcohol-related consequences were measured during the past year. Point prevalence was used to estimate rates of AmED use, and chi-square, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used to examine associations between AmED use, hazardous drinking, and alcohol-related consequences. Lifetime and past year AmED use prevalence rates were 75.2% and 64.7%, respectively. Hazardous drinkers who engaged in AmED use were significantly more likely than past year hazardous drinkers who did not engage in AmED use to have had unprotected sex (OR=2.35, CI 1.27-4.32). AmED use appears to be highly prevalent among college students, and AmED use may confer additional risk for unprotected sex beyond hazardous drinking. Unprotected sex has implications for public health, and students who drink hazardously and consume AmED may be at greater risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Read, Jennifer P; Radomski, Sharon; Borsari, Brian
Students with trauma and posttraumatic stress are disproportionately at risk for heavy drinking and for alcohol-related consequences. Brief motivational interventions (BMIs) have been shown to reduce hazardous drinking in college students, and could serve as a first-line approach to reduce heavy drinking in students with trauma and posttraumatic stress (PTS). Yet the standard BMI format may not adequately address the factors that lead to hazardous drinking in these students. Here, we review the literature on PTS and hazardous drinking in college students, and highlight cognitive (self-efficacy, alcohol expectancies) and behavioral (coping strategies, emotion regulation skills, protective behaviors) factors that may link trauma and PTS to drinking risk. Incorporating these factors into standard BMIs in a collaborative way that enhances their personal relevance may enhance intervention efficacy and acceptability for these at-risk students.
Bosque-Prous, Marina; Espelt, Albert; Guitart, Anna M; Bartroli, Montserrat; Villalbí, Joan R; Brugal, M Teresa
To analyse the association between alcohol advertising restrictions and the prevalence of hazardous drinking among people aged 50-64 years in 16 European countries, taking into account both individual and contextual-level factors (alcohol taxation, availability, etc.). Cross-sectional study based on SHARE project surveys. A total of 27 773 subjects, aged 50-64 years, from 16 European countries who participated in wave 4 of the SHARE (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe) project. We estimated the prevalence of hazardous drinking (through adaptation of the SHARE questions to the scheme used by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption (AUDIT-C) for each country. To determine whether the degree of advertising restrictions was associated with prevalence of hazardous drinking, we fitted robust variance multi-level Poisson models, adjusting for various individual and contextual variables. Prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were obtained. The observed prevalence of hazardous drinking was 24.1%, varying by sex and country. Countries with greater advertising restrictions had lower prevalence of hazardous drinking: 30.6% (95% CI = 29.3-31.8) in countries with no restrictions, 20.3% (95% CI = 19.3-21.2) in countries with some restrictions and 14.4% (95% CI = 11.9-16.8) in those with greatest restrictions. The PR found (with respect to countries with greatest restrictions) were 1.36 (95% CI = 0.90-2.06) for countries with some restrictions and 1.95 (95% CI = 1.31-2.91) for those with no advertising restrictions. The extent of advertising restrictions in European countries is associated inversely with prevalence of hazardous drinking in people aged 50-64 years. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Tripodi, Stephen J.; Pettus-Davis, Carrie
Women are entering US prisons at nearly double the rate of men and are the fastest growing prison population. Current extant literature focuses on the prevalence of the incarceration of women, but few studies exist that emphasize the different trajectories to prison. For example, women prisoners have greater experiences of prior victimization, more reports of mental illness, and higher rates of illicit substance use. The purpose of this study was to understand the prevalence of childhood victimization and its association with adult mental health problems, substance abuse disorders, and further sexual victimization. The research team interviewed a random sample of 125 women prisoners soon to release from prison to gather information on their childhood physical and sexual victimization, mental health and substance abuse problems as an adult, and sexual victimization in the year preceding incarceration. Results indicate that women prisoners in this sample who were both physically and sexually victimized as a child were more likely to be hospitalized as an adult for a psychological or emotional problem. Women who were sexually victimized or both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to attempt suicide. Women who experienced physical victimization as children and women who were both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to have a substance use disorder and women who were sexually abused as children or both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to be sexually abused in the year preceding prison. This article ends with a discussion about prisons’ role in providing treatment for women prisoners and basing this treatment on women’s trajectories to prison, which disproportionately includes childhood victimization and subsequent mental health and substance use problems. PMID:23196054
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs are important and costly public health problems in the United States resulting from unprotected sexual intercourse. Risk factors for unplanned pregnancies and STIs (poverty, low educational attainment, homelessness, substance abuse, lack of health insurance, history of an abusive environment, and practice of commercial sex work are especially high among women with a history of incarceration. Project CARE (Contraceptive Awareness and Reproductive Education is designed to evaluate an innovative intervention, Motivational Interviewing with Computer Assistance (MICA, aimed at enhancing contraceptive initiation and maintenance among incarcerated women who do not want a pregnancy within the next year and who are anticipated to be released back to the community. This study aims to: (1 increase the initiation of highly effective contraceptives while incarcerated; (2 increase the continuation of highly effective contraceptive use at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after release; and (3 decrease unsafe sexual activity. Methods/Design This randomized controlled trial will recruit 400 women from the Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RI DOC women’s jail at risk for an unplanned pregnancy (that is, sexually active with men and not planning/wanting to become pregnant in the next year. They will be randomized to two interventions: a control group who receive two educational videos (on contraception, STIs, and pre-conception counseling or a treatment group who receive two sessions of personalized MICA. MICA is based on the principles of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM and on Motivational Interviewing (MI, an empirically supported counseling technique designed to enhance readiness to change targeted behaviors. Women will be followed at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post release and assessed for STIs, pregnancy, and reported condom use. Discussion Results from this study are expected
Semple, Shirley J; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Chavarin, Claudia V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zavala, Rosa Icela; Aarons, Gregory A; Patterson, Thomas L
To describe the prevalence and correlates of hazardous drinking among female sex workers (FSWs) at 13 sites throughout Mexico. FSWs (N = 1089) who were enrolled in a brief sexual risk reduction intervention (Mujer Segura) were queried about their sexual risk and substance use practices and their work contexts. Participants were classified as hazardous or non-hazardous drinkers based on the Alcohol Use Disorders test (AUDIT-C). Logistic regression models were used to examine individual, contextual, and community-level factors as correlates of hazardous drinking. Ninety-two percent of participants reported alcohol consumption in the past month. Among drinkers (N = 1001), 83% met AUDIT-C criteria for hazardous drinking. Factors that were independently associated with hazardous drinking included: drug use in the past month (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.31; 95% CI 1.29-8.45), being a cigarette smoker (AOR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.13-2.58), being a barmaid or dance hostess (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.95-5.91), alcohol use before or during sex with clients (AOR = 7.78; 95% CI 4.84-12.52), and working in a city with a higher marginalization index (AOR = 1.07; 95% CI 1.04-1.11). Findings support the high prioritization by public health authorities of alcohol prevention and treatment programs for FSWs. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The present study sought to investigate the associations between workplace social capital and hazardous drinking (HD among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers (RUMW.A cross sectional study with a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was conducted in Shanghai during July 2012 to January 2013. In total, 5,318 RUMWs from 77 workplaces were involved. Work-place social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure. The Chinese version of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT was used to assess hazardous drinking. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, education level, salary, and current smoking. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test whether individual- and workplace-level social capital was associated with hazardous drinking.Overall, the prevalence of HD was 10.6%. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, compared to workers in the highest quartile of individual-level social capital, the odds of HD for workers in the three bottom quartiles were 1.13(95%CI: 1.04-1.23, 1.17(95%CI: 1.05-1.56 and 1.26(95%CI: 1.13-1.72, respectively. However, contrary to hypothesis, there was no relationship between workplace-level social capital and hazardous drinking.Higher individual-level social capital may protect against HD among Chinese RUMWs. Interventions to build individual social capital among RUMWs in China may help reduce HD among this population.
Read, Jennifer P; Haas, Amie L; Radomski, Sharon; Wickham, Robert E; Borish, Sarah E
Heavy and problematic drinking is common on college campuses and is associated with myriad hazardous outcomes. The Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (YAACQ; Read et al., 2006) was developed to provide comprehensive and expedient assessment of negative consequences of young adult drinking and has been used in a number of research and clinical settings. To date, no empirically derived cutoffs for the YAACQ have been available for use in the identification of those drinkers at greatest risk. This was the objective of the present study. In a large (N = 1,311) and demographically heterogeneous multisite sample, we identified cutoff scores for the YAACQ, and the contrasted detection of hazardous drinking using these cutoffs with those recommended for the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). We also examined whether cutoffs differed by gender. Results of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis yielded cutoffs that delineate 3 levels (or zones) of hazardous drinking risk: low, moderate, and high. A cutoff of 8 differentiated those at low risk from those at moderate risk or greater, and a cutoff of 16 differentiated between moderate and high risk. These zones corresponded to other indices of risky drinking, including heavy episodic "binge" drinking, more frequent alcohol consumption, and engagement in alcohol risk behaviors. Scores differentiating low to moderate risk differed for men (8) and women (10), whereas the cutoff for high risk was the same (16) across the sexes. Findings suggest that the YAACQ can be used to reliably assess level of drinking risk among college students. Furthermore, these cut scores may be used to refer to interventions varying in intensity level, based on level of indicated alcohol risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Fazel, Seena; Yoon, Isabel A; Hayes, Adrian J
The aims were to (1) estimate the prevalence of alcohol and drug use disorders in prisoners on reception to prison and (2) estimate and test sources of between study heterogeneity. Studies reporting the 12-month prevalence of alcohol and drug use disorders in prisoners on reception to prison from 1 January 1966 to 11 August 2015 were identified from seven bibliographic indexes. Primary studies involving clinical interviews or validated instruments leading to DSM or ICD diagnoses were included; self-report surveys and investigations that assessed individuals more than 3 months after arrival to prison were not. Random-effects meta-analysis and subgroup and meta-regression analyses were conducted. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. In total, 24 studies with a total of 18 388 prisoners across 10 countries were identified. The random-effects pooled prevalence estimate of alcohol use disorder was 24% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 21-27], with very high heterogeneity (I2 = 94%). These ranged from 16 to 51% in male and 10-30% in female prisoners. For drug use disorders, there was evidence of heterogeneity by sex, and the pooled prevalence estimate in male prisoners was 30% (95% CI = 22-38; I2 = 98%; 13 studies; range 10-61%) and, in female prisoners, was 51% (95% CI = 43-58; I2 = 95%; 10 studies; range 30-69%). On meta-regression, sources of heterogeneity included higher prevalence of drug use disorders in women, increasing rates of drug use disorders in recent decades, and participation rate. Substance use disorders are highly prevalent in prisoners. Approximately a quarter of newly incarcerated prisoners of both sexes had an alcohol use disorder, and the prevalence of a drug use disorder was at least as high in men, and higher in women. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Ferreira, Valquíria Pereira; da Silva, Maria Arleide; Noronha Neto, Carlos; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois; Chaves, Cynthia Vasconcelos; Bello, Rodrigo Pereira
The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with the violence suffered by women accused of drug trafficking in the 24 months prior to incarceration in the Women's Penal Colony in the State of Pernambuco. A cross-sectional study including 290 women aged 18 and above, with up to twelve months imprisonment, was performed for the data collection period. A questionnaire was applied to research the socioeconomic and demographic variables and the characteristics of violence and drug trafficking. All of the participants signed a consent form. The association between variables and intensity of exposure and response were determined by the chi-square test and the values (p drug trafficking. A high prevalence of some form of violence suffered were observed in the population studied and the partner was the most frequent perpetrator (44.1%), calling for the authorities to pay greater attention in the actions of prevention of such violence.
Lindgren, Kristen P; Ramirez, Jason J; Namaky, Nauder; Olin, Cecilia C; Teachman, Bethany A
Drinking identity strength (how strongly one views oneself as a drinker) is a promising risk factor for hazardous drinking. A critical next step is to investigate whether the centrality of drinking identity (i.e., the relative importance of drinking vs. other identity domains, like well-being, relationships, education) also plays a role. Thus, we developed explicit and implicit measures of drinking identity centrality and evaluated them as predictors of hazardous drinking after controlling for explicit drinking identity strength. Two studies were conducted (Ns = 360 and 450, respectively). Participants, who self-identified as full-time students, completed measures of explicit identity strength, explicit and implicit centrality, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Study 1a evaluated two variants of the implicit measure (short- vs. long-format of the Multi-category Implicit Association Test); Study 1b only included the long form and also assessed alcohol consumption. In Study 1a, implicit and explicit centrality measures were positively and significantly associated with AUDIT scores after controlling for explicit drinking identity strength. There were no significant differences in the implicit measure variants, but the long format had slightly higher internal consistency. In Study 1b, results replicated for explicit, but not implicit, centrality. These studies provide preliminary evidence that drinking identity centrality may be an important factor for predicting hazardous drinking. Future research should improve its measurement and evaluate implicit and explicit centrality in experimental and longitudinal studies.
Calcaterra, Susan; Beaty, Brenda; Mueller, Shane R.; Min, Sung-Joon; Binswanger, Ingrid A.
Social stressors are associated with relapse to substance use among people receiving addiction treatment and people with substance use risk behaviors. The relationship between social stressors and drug use/hazardous drinking in former prisoners has not been studied. We interviewed former prisoners at baseline, 1 to 3 weeks post prison release, and follow up, between 2 and 9 months following the baseline interview. Social stressors were characterized by unemployment, homelessness, unstable housing, problems with family, friends, and/or significant others, being single, or major symptoms of depression. Associations between baseline social stressors and follow-up drug use and hazardous drinking were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Problems with family, friends, and/or significant others were associated with reported drug use (AOR 3.01, 95% CI 1.18–7.67) and hazardous drinking (AOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.05–6.87) post release. Further research may determine whether interventions and policies targeting social stressors can reduce relapse among former inmates. PMID:24642070
Lindgren, Kristen P.; Ramirez, Jason J.; Namaky, Nauder; Olin, Cecilia C.; Teachman, Bethany A.
Introduction Drinking identity strength (how strongly one views oneself as a drinker) is a promising risk factor for hazardous drinking. A critical next step is to investigate whether the centrality of drinking identity (i.e., the relative importance of drinking vs. other identity domains, like well-being, relationships, education) also plays a role. Thus, we developed explicit and implicit measures of drinking identity centrality and evaluated them as predictors of hazardous drinking after controlling for explicit drinking identity strength. Methods Two studies were conducted (Ns = 360 and 450, respectively). Participants, who self-identified as full-time students, completed measures of explicit identity strength, explicit and implicit centrality, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Study 1a evaluated two variants of the implicit measure (short- vs. long-format of the Multi-category Implicit Association Test); Study 1b only included the long form and also assessed alcohol consumption. Results In Study 1a, implicit and explicit centrality measures were positively and significantly associated with AUDIT scores after controlling for explicit drinking identity strength. There were no significant differences in the implicit measure variants, but the long format had slightly higher internal consistency. In Study 1b, results replicated for explicit, but not implicit, centrality. Conclusions These studies provide preliminary evidence that drinking identity centrality may be an important factor for predicting hazardous drinking. Future research should improve its measurement and evaluate implicit and explicit centrality in experimental and longitudinal studies. PMID:28603766
Makariev, Drika Weller; Shaver, Phillip R
Incarceration of parents and pregnant women, which is quite common in the United States, creates problems for the incarcerated individuals' children. Here we summarize attachment research related to this issue and explain how attachment-related interventions might reduce both the negative effects on children of having their parents incarcerated and the likelihood of future crime and incarceration on the part of both the adults and their children. We consider the intergenerational transmission of attachment insecurity, the practice of having an incarcerated adult's parent take custody of the children, and the multitude of problems associated with incarcerated adults' attachment insecurity (including perpetrated and received abuse, drug and alcohol problems, a history of educational and employment difficulties, and inadequate models of parenting). We discuss validated attachment intervention programs that might be used with incarcerated parents, as well as barriers to implementing such programs.
Muessig, Kathryn E; Rosen, David L; Farel, Claire E; White, Becky L; Filene, Eliza J; Wohl, David A
Correctional facilities offer opportunities to provide comprehensive HIV services including education, testing, treatment, and coordination of post- release care. However, these services may be undermined by unaddressed HIV stigma. As part of a prison-based HIV testing study, we interviewed 76 incarcerated men and women from the North Carolina State prison system. The sample was 72% men, median age 31.5 years (range: 19 to 60). Thematic analysis revealed high levels of HIV-related fear and stigma, homophobia, incomplete HIV transmission knowledge, beliefs that HIV is highly contagious within prisons ("HIV miasma"), and the View of HIV testing as protective. Interviewees described social distancing behaviors and coping mechanisms they perceived to be protective, including knowing their HIV status and avoiding contact with others and shared objects. Interviewees endorsed universal testing, public HIV status disclosure, and segregation of HIV-positive inmates. Intensified education and counseling efforts are needed to ameliorate entrenched HIV-transmission fears and stigmatizing beliefs.
Pinto, R M; Rahman, R; Williams, A
There is limited knowledge on re-entry initiatives for formerly incarcerated women specifically on building women's advocacy and leadership skills. Our research highlights an empowerment evaluation on ReConnect, a 12-session; innovative advocacy and leadership development program rooted in an integrated framework of empowerment, and transformational leadership theories. Using thematic analysis, we coded three focus groups with 24 graduates, for themes that matched our framework's concepts. ReConnect graduates reported being empowered by the information they received on parental rights, housing, and employment. Participants agreed that ReConnect improved their communication skills, preparing them to advocate for themselves and community members. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wildeman, Christopher; Wang, Emily A
In this Series paper, we examine how mass incarceration shapes inequality in health. The USA is the world leader in incarceration, which disproportionately affects black populations. Nearly one in three black men will ever be imprisoned, and nearly half of black women currently have a family member or extended family member who is in prison. However, until recently the public health implications of mass incarceration were unclear. Most research in this area has focused on the health of current and former inmates, with findings suggesting that incarceration could produce some short-term improvements in physical health during imprisonment but has profoundly harmful effects on physical and mental health after release. The emerging literature on the family and community effects of mass incarceration points to negative health impacts on the female partners and children of incarcerated men, and raises concerns that excessive incarceration could harm entire communities and thus might partly underlie health disparities both in the USA and between the USA and other developed countries. Research into interventions, policies, and practices that could mitigate the harms of incarceration and the post-incarceration period is urgently needed, particularly studies using rigorous experimental or quasi-experimental designs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Muessig, Kathryn E.; Rosen, David L.; Farel, Claire E.; White, Becky L.; Filene, Eliza J.; Wohl, David A.
Correctional facilities offer opportunities to provide comprehensive HIV services including education, testing, treatment, and coordination of post-release care. However, these services may be undermined by unaddressed HIV stigma. As part of a prison-based HIV testing study, we interviewed 76 incarcerated men and women from the North Carolina State prison system. The sample was 72% men, median age 31.5 years (range: 19 to 60). Thematic analysis revealed high levels of HIV-related fear and stigma, homophobia, incomplete HIV transmission knowledge, beliefs that HIV is highly contagious within prisons (“HIV miasma”), and the view of HIV testing as protective. Interviewees described social distancing behaviors and coping mechanisms they perceived to be protective, including knowing their HIV status and avoiding contact with others and shared objects. Interviewees endorsed universal testing, public HIV status disclosure, and segregation of HIV-positive inmates. Intensified education and counseling efforts are needed to ameliorate entrenched HIV-transmission fears and stigmatizing beliefs. PMID:27459162
Wahesh, Edward; Lewis, Todd F.
The current study identified psychosocial variables associated with AUDIT-C hazardous drinking risk status for male and female college students. Logistic regression analysis revealed that AUDIT-C risk status was associated with alcohol-related negative consequences, injunctive norms, and descriptive norms for both male and female participants.…
Khaddouma, Alexander; Shorey, Ryan C.; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Zapor, Heather; Elmquist, Joanna; Stuart, Gregory L.
For this study we examined the association between relationship satisfaction and readiness-to-change alcohol use, as well as the associations between hazardous drinking and readiness-to-change relationship issues in college dating relationships. A sample of 219 college students in a current dating relationship (aged 18-25) completed self-report…
Abdulhai, Sophia A; Glenn, Ian C; Ponsky, Todd A
Indirect inguinal hernias are the most commonly incarcerated hernias in children, with a higher incidence in low birth weight and premature infants. Contralateral groin exploration to evaluate for a patent processus vaginalis or subclinical hernia is controversial, given that most never progress to clinical hernias. Most indirect inguinal hernias can be reduced nonoperatively. It is recommended to repair them in a timely fashion, even in premature infants. Laparoscopic repair of incarcerated inguinal hernia repair is considered a safe and effective alternative to conventional open herniorrhaphy. Other incarcerated pediatric hernias are extremely rare and may be managed effectively with laparoscopy. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martin, Ryan J; Chaney, Beth H; Vail-Smith, Karen; Gallucci, Andrew R
"Weight-conscious drinking" refers to behaviors to restrict calories in conjunction with consuming alcohol and is associated with numerous negative consequences. This behavior has been observed in the college student population but has not been examined among college student athletes. This cross-sectional study assessed drinking, hazardous drinking levels (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption [AUDIT-C] sum score), and weight-conscious drinking behaviors (for weight loss purposes and for intoxication purposes) using a paper-and-pencil survey that was completed by students at a large, private university in the Southwest United States. The sample for this study included college student nonathletes (n = 482; 212 males and 270 females) who completed the survey in 1 of 34 classes and college student athletes (n = 201; 79 males and 122 females) who completed the survey during practice. These analyses examined whether hazardous drinking level and other personal covariates (gender, race, and athlete status) predicted the 2 weight-conscious drinking behaviors of interest. Among the subsample of students who drank, the same proportion of participants indicated weight-conscious drinking behavior for weight loss and weight-conscious drinking behavior for intoxication (both 24.9%; n = 122). In the multivariate analyses, students with higher hazardous drinking scores and females were significantly more likely to report engaging in both weight-conscious drinking behaviors. In those analyses, neither weight-conscious drinking behavior varied by athlete status. In this sample of college students, hazardous drinking most predicted weight-conscious drinking behavior and superseded gender and athlete status. In response, college health professionals should consider evidenced-based approaches to address hazardous drinking.
Ferszt, Ginette G; Miller, Robin J; Hickey, Joyce E; Maull, Fleet; Crisp, Kate
.... In one group, women's perceived stress, anxiety and depression were all significantly lower following the intervention compared to prior to the intervention. Challenges with implementing the pilot study are addressed. Despite challenges and limitations, the low-cost non-pharmacological intervention has potential for a reducing the symptoms of anxiety and depression.
Phillips, Tasha R; Sellbom, Martin; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Patrick, Christopher J
Replicating and extending research by Sellbom et al. (M. Sellbom, Y. S. Ben-Porath, C. J. Patrick, D. B. Wygant, D. M. Gartland, & K. P. Stafford, 2012, Development and Construct Validation of the MMPI-2-RF Measures of Global Psychopathy, Fearless-Dominance, and Impulsive-Antisociality, Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 3, 17-38), the current study examined the criterion-related validity of three self-report indices of psychopathy that were derived from scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Y. S. Ben-Porath & A. Tellegen, 2008, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form: Manual for Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation, Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press). We estimated psychopathy indices by regressing scores from the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; S. O. Lilienfeld & B. P. Andrews, 1996, Development and Preliminary Validation of a Self-Report Measure of Psychopathic Personality Traits in Noncriminal Populations, Journal of Personality Assessment, 66, 488-524) and its two distinct facets, Fearless-Dominance and Impulsive-Antisociality, onto conceptually selected MMPI-2-RF scales. Data for a newly collected sample of 230 incarcerated women were combined with existing data from Sellbom et al.'s (2012) male correctional and mixed-gender college samples to establish regression equations with optimal generalizability. Correlation and regression analyses were then used to examine associations between the MMPI-2-RF-based estimates of PPI psychopathy and criterion measures (i.e., other well-established measures of psychopathy and conceptually related personality traits), and to evaluate whether gender moderated these associations. The MMPI-2-RF-based psychopathy indices correlated as expected with criterion measures and showed only one significant moderating effect for gender, namely, in the association between psychopathy and narcissism. These
Kilmer, Jason R; Geisner, Irene Markman; Gasser, Melissa L; Lindgren, Kristen P
Approximately 10% of US college students are engaged in non-medical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) and that use is linked to concerning health, educational, and societal consequences. Few studies have assessed normative perceptions surrounding NMUPS. Accordingly, we examined self-reported use and normative perceptions for NMUPS and demographic factors that may be associated with them. We also investigated whether higher normative perceptions for NMUPS were related to the most commonly used and abused substance among college students (alcohol). 1106 undergraduates participated in an online survey of normative perceptions of NMUPS and students' own drinking and stimulant use habits. Students overestimated NMUPS by other students and those normative estimates were associated with higher NMUPS. Living in a fraternity or sorority was related to higher NMUPS and perceived norms. Finally, higher normative perceptions of NMUPS were associated with higher hazardous drinking. The large discrepancy between actual use (generally low) and students' perceptions (generally high), and the relationship of these perceptions to both one's own use of NMUPS and alcohol suggests that interventions aimed at correcting norms may be useful. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Barry, Adam E; Chaney, Beth H; Stellefson, Michael L; Dodd, Virginia
To simplify the screening process to identify problem drinking, researchers have developed single-item, quantity-based instruments. Quantity-based items, however, suffer from several limitations. Determine whether a non-quantity-based single item assessing drunkenness would be able to identify those who exhibited signs of hazardous alcohol use, as determined by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)-C scores. Between September and November of 2011, the alcohol-related behaviors of 1062 self-identified current drinkers were assessed with self-report measures (i.e. AUDIT-C and one item assessing frequency of drunkenness) in addition to corresponding biologic samples (i.e. breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) samples). We assessed the concurrent validity of the single item to identify hazardous alcohol use established via gender-based AUDIT-C thresholds. Convergent validity of the single-item was assessed by determining its relationship to BrAC levels. The single item accounted for 0.791 of the area under the received operating characteristics curve for hazardous alcohol use (p utility of a non-quantity-based single-item alcohol screen for assessing drunkenness. Additional research is warranted to confirm the utility of this one-item drunkenness measure to capture risk of injury and hazardous drinking.
Khaddouma, Alexander; Shorey, Ryan C.; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Zapor, Heather; Elmquist, Joanna; Stuart, Gregory L.
The present study examined the influence of relationship satisfaction on readiness-to-change alcohol use and the influence of hazardous drinking on readiness-to-change relationship issues in college student dating relationships. A sample of 219 college students in a current dating relationship (aged 18–25) completed self-report measures of dating relationship satisfaction, alcohol use, readiness-to-change alcohol use, and readiness-to-change relationship issues via an online survey from Augus...
Martin, Ryan J; Brechbiel, Kerry; Chaney, Beth H; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen
Alcohol-related injuries are a serious public health issue and research has found that alcohol consumption is positively correlated with injury risk. To better understand the association between alcohol consumption and injury risk. We conducted four anonymous cross-sectional field studies among a sample of bar patrons (N = 917) to assess breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels, hazardous drinking levels (based on AUDIT-C score), and past year alcohol-related injuries in Fall 2014. Next, we conducted two logistic regression analyses to predict alcohol-related injuries: one model used hazardous drinking level as a predictor variable and the other model used BrAC. Among participants in our sample, the average BrAC% was .076 (SD =.055) and the average hazardous drinking score (based on the AUDIT-C) was 5.0 (SD = 2.6). The majority of participants indicated that they had not experienced an alcohol-related injury in the past year (859; 93.7%). Our regression analyses found that each incremental increase in a participants' hazardous drinking score increased the odds of experiencing a self-reported alcohol-related injury by 1.4 times and as BrAC increased one unit of change (percentage), the odds of a past-year alcohol related injury increased twofold (OR = 2.2). Other covariates (ie, age, gender, race, college student status) did not significantly predict alcohol-related injuries in either model. High-risk drinking behaviors, including higher BrAC levels, greatly influenced experiencing an alcohol-related injury. This is the first examination of BrAC levels and alcohol-related injuries in a primarily college student sample. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Ravi, Anita; Pfeiffer, Megan R; Rosner, Zachary; Shea, Judy A
Sex-trafficked persons experience significant trauma while exploited, resulting in complex health issues and barriers to health care. Incorporating survivor perspectives is critical in optimizing health care delivery for this population. We interviewed sex-trafficking survivors regarding their experiences with trauma while being trafficked and elicited advice about health care delivery. Qualitative interviews were conducted in New York City's Rikers Island jail from July to September 2015. In total, 21 English-speaking women who had experienced sex trafficking were the subjects of the study. Interview domains included: interpersonal violence, behavioral health, and health care delivery advice. Interviewees described experiencing severe and chronic trauma perpetrated by traffickers and sex buyers. Substance use was the primary method of coping with trauma. With regard to mental health, interviewees noted diagnoses of depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem, and challenges in intimate relationships. Health care delivery themes included approaches to discussing trafficking in health care settings, concerns regarding sexual assault examinations, and suggestions for improving direct-services and prevention programming. With this perspective into the complex intersection of trauma and behavioral health that sex-trafficked women can experience, health care providers can better understand the context and recommendations regarding trauma-informed care practices for this population. Our results also offer several avenues for future studies with regard to discussing trafficking in clinical settings and an opportunity for stakeholders to incorporate survivor-based input to improve health care for this population.
Lima, Carlos Tadeu; Farrell, Michael; Prince, Martin
To assess the association between high job strain and drinking behaviors among bank workers. A crosssectional study was performed in 1,080 Brazilian bank employees. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire, including the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test to assess hazardous drinking (HZD). Alcohol-related disorders (ARDs) were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Associations between job strain and drinking behaviors were tested by fitting the main effects of high job demands and low job control, with the interaction between them, and by comparing high demands and low-control jobs with other jobs, using Poisson regression. Prevalences of HZD and ARDs were 25.5% and 13.5%, respectively. For the association with HZD, there was a significant interaction between high demands and low control (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.56, 95% CI [1.03, 2.35]). For low-demand jobs, low control was negatively associated with HZD (PR = 0.69, 95% CI [0.50, 0.97]). High demands only conferred increased risk for HZD in the context of low control. Patterns of association with ARDs were similar but did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, multivariate analyses supported the associations between the four-quadrant jobstrain model and HZD. However, passive jobs were associated with a low prevalence of HZD, and post hoc analysis suggested that increased risk of HZD was concentrated in the highest quarter of job strain (PR = 1.55, 95% CI [1.10, 2.21]). High job strain was associated with HZD; the association with ARDs was equivocal. For HZD, an interaction between high demands and low control, as posited by Karasek, was observed.
Harrison, Emily L R; Desai, Rani A; McKee, Sherry A
Nondaily smoking and heavy alcohol use are prevalent behaviors among young adults, with nondaily smoking occurring primarily in the context of alcohol use. Although the relationship between drinking and daily smoking has been well characterized in young adults, few epidemiological investigations have investigated the association between nondaily smoking and drinking behavior. We examined Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; Grant et al., 2003b; n = 43,093). Young adults (aged 18 to 25 years; n = 5,838) were stratified on current smoking behavior (daily, nondaily, and nonsmokers in the past 12 months) and differences in weekly quantity of alcohol use, frequency of alcohol use, frequency of binge drinking behavior, rates of NIAAA-defined hazardous drinking, and rates of DSM-IV alcohol diagnoses were investigated. College student status was examined. Twenty-five percent were current smokers and 7% were smoking on a nondaily basis. Seventy-one percent were current drinkers, 39% reported binge drinking at least once a month, 41% met criteria for hazardous drinking, and 18% had alcohol use disorders. Across all measures of alcohol use, there was a significant effect of smoking status, with daily smokers having greater alcohol use patterns, compared with nondaily smokers, with nonsmokers consuming the least. Nondaily smokers were more likely to report any binge drinking in the past 12 months. However, daily smokers were more likely to report daily binge drinking. With regard to hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorders, nondaily smoking conferred the greatest risk, followed by daily smoking with nonsmoking as the reference group. Multinomial logistic regression demonstrated that the odds of being a hazardous drinker were 16 times greater (95% CI 9.46-26.48) in a nondaily smoker compared with a nonsmoker, whereas the odds for a daily smoker were increased by 7-fold (95% CI 5.54-9.36). A similar pattern of results was
Incarcerated women are a highly vulnerable population, most of whom have had extremely adverse life experiences. Nurses who work in corrections have significant challenges as they attempt to care in a setting that is focused on punishment. This article focuses on the unique culture of incarceration as it applies to women, along with the common challenges nurses face when caring for these women. Leininger's Theory of Culture Care and the Sunrise Enabler are discussed as useful tools to assist nurses in providing culture care within the confines of the prison, as well as a means of understanding these women as cultural beings apart from the prison setting. Despite the many security restrictions that exist within the correctional environment, "care" can be provided regardless of the setting. A model case has been developed to show the enormous impact that culture care can have on the lives of many women who face incarceration. © The Author(s) 2014.
Morenoff, JD; Harding, DJ
Since the mid-1970s, the United States has experienced an enormous rise in incarceration and accompanying increases in returning prisoners and in postrelease community correctional supervision. Poor urban communities are disproportionately impacted by these phenomena. This review focuses on two complementary questions regarding incarceration, prisoner reentry, and communities: (a) whether and how mass incarceration has affected the social and economic structure of American communities, and (b...
Bailey, Zinzi D; Williams, David R; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A
The United States has the unenviable distinction of having both the highest obesity rate among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries and the highest incarceration rate in the world. Further, both are socially patterned by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Incarceration involves various health behaviors that could influence adult weight trajectory. We evaluated the associations between history and duration of adult incarceration and weight gain using the National Survey of American Life (N=6082 adults residing in the 48 contiguous states between February 2001 and March 2003). We propensity score-matched individuals to control for the probability of having a history of incarceration. To examine the relation between prior incarceration and adult weight gain, we fit gender-stratified generalized estimating equations controlling for propensity of incarceration history, age, education, income, race/ethnicity, and marital status. For males (N=563), incarceration was associated with about a 1.77 kg/m(2) lower gain in body mass index (BMI) during adulthood, after adjusting for age, education, income, race/ethnicity, and marital status in addition to the propensity of having a history of incarceration (95% CI: -2.63, -0.92). For females (N=286), no significant overall relationship was found between a history of incarceration and adult weight gain. In subgroup analyses among those with an incarceration history, we found no overall association between duration of incarceration and adult weight gain in men or women. In sensitivity analyses, neither tobacco smoking nor parity changed the results. The results of this study indicate that incarceration is associated with a lower transition of weight gain in males, but not in females.. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article examines how incarcerated mothers constructed moral identities in the face of stigma. Analyzing data from participant observation and 83 in-depth interviews with incarcerated mothers, we show that mothers claimed moral identities by distancing from the stigma of incarceration and/or embracing the identity of incarcerated mothers. Utilizing these strategies, women challenged the stigma of convicted felon/bad mother and reinforced the assumptions that motherhood is compulsory and should be reserved for women with enough money and standing to give their children advantages. The implications for understanding motherhood as a mechanism of moral identity and social control are discussed.
Screening for Hazardous Drinking in Nursing Home Residents: Evaluating the Validity of the Current Cutoffs of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption Questions by Using Ethyl Glucuronide in Hair.
Dreher-Weber, Monika; Laireiter, Anton-Rupert; Kühberger, Anton; Kunz, Isabella; Yegles, Michel; Binz, Tina; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Hoffmann, Rainer; Praxenthaler, Verena; Lang, Siegfried; Wurst, Friedrich M
Because of physiological changes, elderly people are much more exposed to the adverse effects of alcohol. Therefore, hazardous drinking is defined at lower levels as compared to younger adults. This work aimed to evaluate the validity of the current cutoff levels of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) questions to detect hazardous drinking in the elderly by using ethyl glucuronide in hair (HEtG). In a border region between Austria and Germany, 344 nursing home residents were included from 33 of the 107 nursing homes. Residents were asked to answer the AUDIT-C questions, hair samples were obtained, and nursing staff members were asked for their assessments of the residents' alcohol consumption. Hair samples were analyzed for HEtG using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the validity of cutoff values for the AUDIT-C to detect an alcohol consumption of ≥10 g of alcohol/d. A total of 11.3% of the nursing home residents (n = 344) drank ≥10 g of alcohol/d (4.9% >60 g of alcohol/d, 6.4% 10 to 60 g of alcohol/d, 88.7% alcohol/d)). For the drinking limit of ≥10 g of alcohol/d, ROC curve analysis showed a balanced sensitivity and specificity, with an AUDIT-C cutoff of ≥4 for men (sensitivity: 70%, specificity: 83.6%; AUC = 0.823, CI = 0.718 to 0.928, p alcohol consumption and evaluated 40% of the chronic-excessive alcohol consumers (>60 g of alcohol/d) as being abstinent. Our data suggest that an AUDIT-C cutoff of ≥4 for men and ≥2 for women can be recommended to detect the consumption of ≥10 g of alcohol/d in the elderly. Because the nursing staff to a large extent underestimates the alcohol consumption among nursing home residents, further teaching of the staff, improvement of screening instruments for the elderly, and the use of objective biomarkers might be helpful for recognizing hazardous drinking and can thus help improve the
Brian D Ostafin; Palfai, Tibor P.
Background Research indicates that brief motivational interventions are efficacious treatments for hazardous drinking. Little is known, however, about the psychological processes that may moderate intervention success. Based on growing evidence that drinking behavior may be influenced by automatic (nonvolitional) mental processes, the current study examined whether automatic alcohol-approach associations moderated the effect of a brief motivational intervention. Specifically, we examined whet...
Morenoff, Jeffrey D; Harding, David J
Since the mid-1970s the United States has experienced an enormous rise in incarceration and accompanying increases in returning prisoners and in post-release community correctional supervision. Poor urban communities are disproportionately impacted by these phenomena. This review focuses on two complementary questions regarding incarceration, prisoner reentry, and communities:(1) whether and how mass incarceration has affected the social and economic structure of American communities, and (2) how residential neighborhoods affect the social and economic reintegration of returning prisoners. These two questions can be seen as part of a dynamic process involving a pernicious "feedback" loop, in which mass incarceration undermines the structure and social organization of some communities, thus creating more criminogenic environments for returning prisoners and further diminishing their prospects for successful reentry and reintegration.
Dumont, Dora M; Parker, Donna R; Viner-Brown, Samara; Clarke, Jennifer G
Incarceration is simultaneously a public health opportunity and a public health concern. We examined the association between maternal/partner incarceration in the year prior to birth and perinatal smoking. We pooled 2006-2010 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System. Controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status and other stressors, we assessed prevalence and heaviness of perinatal smoking. Women who reported incarceration of themselves or their partners in the year prior to delivery were more likely to smoke during the last trimester of pregnancy (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.51 (95% CI 1.36 to 1.67)), and they were more likely to smoke more than 10 cigarettes a day compared to smokers who did not report incarceration (AOR 1.35 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.65)). Patterns were similar for the 3 months prior to pregnancy and postbirth smoking. Incarceration of a parent in the 12 months before birth is associated with increased risk of fetal and newborn exposure to smoking. The criminal justice system can be utilised by public health practitioners to target perinatal smoking reduction interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Roettger, Michael E; Boardman, Jason D
Although recent studies suggest that 13% of young adults, including at least one-fourth of African Americans, experience parental incarceration, little research has examined links between parental incarceration and physical health. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-2008) and gender-based theories of stress, the authors examined whether parental incarceration is associated with increased body mass index among women but not men. Panel analysis spanning adolescence and adulthood, controlling for stressful life events, internalizing behaviors, and a range of individual, familial, and neighborhood characteristics, reveals that body mass index for women who have experienced parental incarceration is 0.49 units (P incarcerated. This association is not evident among men. Similarly, in change score models between waves II and IV, women experiencing parental incarceration have a 0.92-unit increase in body mass index (P incarceration. In supplemental analysis examining if gender differences in incarceration stress response (externalizing vs. internalizing) explain these findings, the authors found that obesity status moderates the relation between depression and parental incarceration. Results suggest a stress internalization process that, for the first time, links parental incarceration with obesity among women.
Khaddouma, Alexander; Shorey, Ryan C.; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Zapor, Heather; Elmquist, Joanna; Stuart, Gregory L.
The present study examined the influence of relationship satisfaction on readiness-to-change alcohol use and the influence of hazardous drinking on readiness-to-change relationship issues in college student dating relationships. A sample of 219 college students in a current dating relationship (aged 18–25) completed self-report measures of dating relationship satisfaction, alcohol use, readiness-to-change alcohol use, and readiness-to-change relationship issues via an online survey from August to December 2011. Participants were grouped on the basis of their scores on measures of alcohol use (hazardous drinkers vs. nonhazardous drinkers) and relationship satisfaction (high vs. low). Results indicated that alcohol use was negatively correlated with relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, hazardous drinkers with high relationship satisfaction indicated more readiness-to-change alcohol use than hazardous drinkers with low relationship satisfaction. Alcohol problems were not related to readiness-to-change relationship issues. These findings indicate that highly satisfied dating relationships during college may positively influence readiness-to-change heavy drinking habits among college students. PMID:26997754
Khaddouma, Alexander; Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Zapor, Heather; Elmquist, Joanna; Stuart, Gregory L
The present study examined the influence of relationship satisfaction on readiness-to-change alcohol use and the influence of hazardous drinking on readiness-to-change relationship issues in college student dating relationships. A sample of 219 college students in a current dating relationship (aged 18-25) completed self-report measures of dating relationship satisfaction, alcohol use, readiness-to-change alcohol use, and readiness-to-change relationship issues via an online survey from August to December 2011. Participants were grouped on the basis of their scores on measures of alcohol use (hazardous drinkers vs. nonhazardous drinkers) and relationship satisfaction (high vs. low). Results indicated that alcohol use was negatively correlated with relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, hazardous drinkers with high relationship satisfaction indicated more readiness-to-change alcohol use than hazardous drinkers with low relationship satisfaction. Alcohol problems were not related to readiness-to-change relationship issues. These findings indicate that highly satisfied dating relationships during college may positively influence readiness-to-change heavy drinking habits among college students.
Goodman-Meza, David; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Semple, Shirley J; Wagner, Karla D; Chavarin, Claudia V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L
Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk for HIV. Whereas the HIV risks of alcohol use are well understood, less is known about hazardous alcohol use among male clients of FSWs, particularly in Mexico. We sought to identify risk factors for hazardous alcohol use and test associations between hazardous alcohol use and HIV risk behavior among male clients in Tijuana. Male clients of FSWs in Tijuana (n = 400) completed a quantitative interview in 2008. The AUDIT was used to characterize hazardous alcohol use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine independent associations of demographic and HIV risk variables with hazardous alcohol use (vs. non-hazardous). Forty percent of our sample met criteria for hazardous alcohol use. Variables independently associated with hazardous drinking were reporting any sexually transmitted infection (STI), having sex with a FSW while under the influence of alcohol, being younger than 36 years of age, living in Tijuana, and ever having been jailed. Hazardous drinkers were less likely ever to have been deported or to have shared injection drugs. Hazardous alcohol use is associated with HIV risk, including engaging in sex with FSWs while intoxicated and having an STI among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. We systematically described patterns and correlates of hazardous alcohol use among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. The results suggest that HIV/STI risk reduction interventions must target hazardous alcohol users, and be tailored to address alcohol use. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance
During the past 30 years, U.S. poverty has remained high despite overall economic growth. At the same time, incarceration rates have risen by more than 300%, a phenomenon that many analysts have referred to as mass incarceration. This article explores whether the mass incarceration of the past few decades impeded progress toward poverty reduction.…
Determinants of psychoactive substance use among incarcerated delinquents in Nigeria. ... substance use prevalence is high among incarcerated delinquents, the incorporation of substance abuse screening and treatment as part of their programmeme is advocated. Key Words: Substance use, delinquents, incarceration, ...
Haugland, Siri H; Holmen, Turid L; Ravndal, Edle; Bratberg, Grete H
Parental alcohol misuse may negatively affect drinking behaviours among offspring, but it is unclear to what extent influences are gender-specific and dependent upon the actual drinking behaviour measured. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hazardous drinking among Norwegian teenage boys (N = 2538) and girls (N = 2494) was associated with paternal and maternal alcohol misuse (CAGE). Definitions of hazardous drinking among offspring were based on self-reported alcohol consumption (in litres a year), frequency of drinking, and frequency of drunkenness. Based on this information, two composite measures of hazardous drinking were also constructed. Cross-sectional data from the Norwegian Young-HUNT 3 survey (2006-2008) were linked to information from biological parents who participated in the adult part of the HUNT study. Logistic regression analyses showed that both boys and girls with alcohol misusing fathers were more likely to report high levels of alcohol intake compared to others of the same age and gender. This was contrary to boys with misusing mothers, who reported less alcohol consumption than other boys. Among girls, but not boys, high frequency of drunkenness was associated with maternal as well as paternal misuse. This study suggests that adolescent hazardous drinking is more prevalent among boys and girls with alcohol misusing parents versus those whose parents do not misuse alcohol. However, findings were gender specific and varied depending on the drinking outcomes under investigation. More evidence-based knowledge in this field is of great importance for better understanding the possible role paternal and maternal alcohol misuse may play in the development of hazardous alcohol drinking patterns among adolescent boys and girls.
Astarcioğlu, H; Sökmen, S; Atila, K; Karademir, S
Petit's hernia is an uncommon abdominal wall defect in the inferior lumbar triangle. Colonic incarceration through the inferior lumbar triangle, which causes mechanical obstructive symptoms, necessitates particular diagnostic and management strategy. We present a rare case of inferior lumbar hernia, leading to mechanical bowel obstruction, successfully treated with prosthetic mesh reinforcement repair.
Roettger, Michael E.; Boardman, Jason D.
Although recent studies suggest that 13% of young adults, including at least one-fourth of African Americans, experience parental incarceration, little research has examined links between parental incarceration and physical health. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994–2008) and gender-based theories of stress, the authors examined whether parental incarceration is associated with increased body mass index among women but not men. Panel analysis spanning a...
Socías, M E; Deering, K; Horton, M; Nguyen, P; Montaner, J S; Shannon, K
In light of the emphasis on enforcement-based approaches towards sex work, and the well-known negative impacts of these approaches on women's health, safety and well-being, we conducted a study to investigate the prevalence and correlates of recent incarceration among a cohort of women sex workers in Vancouver, Canada. Data were obtained from an open prospective community cohort of female and transgender women sex workers, known as An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access (AESHA). Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses, using generalized estimating equations (GEE), were used to model the effect of social and structural factors on the likelihood of incarceration over the 44-month follow-up period (January 2010-August 2013). Among 720 sex workers, 62.5 % (n = 450) reported being incarcerated in their lifetime and 23.9 % (n = 172) being incarcerated at least once during the study period. Of the 172 participants, about one third (36.6 %) reported multiple episodes of incarceration. In multivariable GEE analyses, younger age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.04 per year younger, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.06), being of a sexual/gender minority (AOR = 1.62, 95 % CI 1.13-2.34), heavy drinking (AOR = 1.99, 95 % CI 1.20-3.29), being born in Canada (AOR = 3.28, 95 % CI 1.26-8.53), living in unstable housing conditions (AOR = 4.32, 95 % CI 2.17-8.62), servicing clients in public spaces (versus formal sex work establishments) (AOR = 2.33, 95 % CI 1.05-5.17) and experiencing police harassment without arrest (AOR = 1.82, 95 % CI 1.35-2.45) remain independently correlated with incarceration. This prospective study found a very high prevalence and frequency of incarceration among women sex workers in Vancouver, Canada, with the most vulnerable and marginalized women at increased risk of incarceration. Given the well-known social and health harms associated with incarceration, and associations between police harassment
Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin
External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surg...
Harcourt, Kate Taylor; Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Rauer, Amy; Pettit, Gregory S; Erath, Stephen
As relationship education (RE) programs become more widely implemented, it is important to measure and document the changes associated with RE for diverse audiences. Also, researchers have been challenged to examine the impact of RE with more disadvantaged groups. While we are seeing an increase in this area, only three studies have examined RE with an incarcerated sample. These previous studies examined only those currently in a relationship and focused primarily on couple functioning. The aim of this study was to expand the existing literature by examining RE with a broader sample of incarcerated adults, regardless of current relationship status, and to expand our understanding of its association with outcomes beyond the couple domain by also including measures of individual and parental functioning. In addition, we examined whether change from pre- to posttest was moderated by individual characteristics. Using a sample of incarcerated adults (N = 122), the study found positive change in three domains of functioning (couple, individual, and parental). Specifically, results indicated change on five of the eight outcome variables examined. Overall, we found both similarities and differences among program participants on changes from pre- to posttest. For the majority of outcomes, the positive change from pre- to posttest emerged regardless of individual characteristics. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Pérez-Milena, Alejandro; Redondo-Olmedilla, Manuel de Dios; Martínez-Fernández, María Luz; Jiménez-Pulido, Idoia; Mesa-Gallardo, Inmaculada; Leal-Helmling, Francisco Javier
To determine the changes in hazardous drinking in adolescents in the last decade, as well as their motivations and experiences. Firstly, a descriptive design using a self-report questionnaire, and secondly an explanatory qualitative design, with video recordings of discussion groups with content analysis (coding, triangulation of categories and verification of results). Pupils from an urban High School, administering a questionnaire every 3 years from 2004 to 2013. Purposive sampling was used to elect groups in qualitative design. Homogeneity criteria: education level; heterogeneity criteria: age, gender, and drug use. Questionnaire: age, gender, drug use, and the CAGE test. Interviews: semi-structured on a previous script, evaluating experiences and expectations. Descriptive design: A total of 1,558 questionnaires, age 14.2±0.3years, 50% female. The prevalence of alcohol drinking decreases (13%), but its hazardous use increases (11%; P6 standard drink units weekly; P<.001, ANOVA), during the weekend (56%; P<.01, χ 2 ) and multiple drug use (P<.01, χ 2 ). CAGE questionnaire: 37% ≥1positive response (related to hazardous drinking, P<.05 χ 2 ), 18% ≥2answers. A total of 48 respondents, classified into 4 categories: personal factors (age, gender), social influences (family, friends), consumption standards (accessibility, nightlife), and addiction (risk, multiple drug use). Despite the decrease in the prevalence of alcohol drinking, the increase in the percentage of the hazardous drinking is a public health problem. It is related to being female, binge-drinking, and multiple drug use. Nightlife and social standards are the main reasons given by adolescents, who have no perception of risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available History of present illness: A 51-year-old male presents complaining of increasing right groin pain and an enlarging bulge. Symptoms started as a “bubble” 6 weeks prior to presentation. One week prior to presentation, thinking the bulge was an abscess, the patient attempted to “pop” the bulge with a sewing needle, the needle became lodged in the site and he attempted retrieval with a second sewing needle, which also became lodged. No purulent material was obtained. The patient denied any nausea, vomiting or constipation as well as any fevers or urinary symptoms. His abdomen was soft, non-tender, non-distended with active bowel sounds. The groin exam demonstrated an incarcerated right inguinal hernia and cellulitis of the right hemiscrotum with associated induration and tenderness. Significant findings: The AP and lateral pelvis x-rays revealed two sewing needles, 60 mm in length, within the soft tissue over the anterior right lower hemipelvis. In addition, the AP view showed emphysema involving the right hemiscrotum (arrow, concerning for perforated bowel. Discussion: Groin hernias have a lifetime risk of 27% for men and 3% for women and the incidence increases with age.1 Groin hernias can be either direct or indirect, and inguinal or femoral. The distinction is made during surgery. Femoral hernias make up only 5% of groin hernias but are more common in women.1 Concerning complications include incarceration, in which a hernia cannot be reduced, and strangulation in which vascular compromise occurs.1 Incarcerated hernias often present with a painful, tender mass and are difficult to distinguish from strangulation. Patients with strangulation may present with fevers and peritonitis. The overlying skin may also be red.2 The percentage of patients presenting with strangulation varies by region. Western developed countries report only 1%-3% of patients presenting as surgical emergencies whereas in Africa the percentage can be as high as 26
Groves, Allison K; Zhan, WeiHai; Del Río-González, Ana Maria; Rosenberg, Alana; Blankenship, Kim M
Incarceration fractures relationship ties and has been associated with unprotected sex. Relationships where both individuals have a history of incarceration (dual incarceration) may face even greater disruption and involve more unprotected sex than relationships where only one individual has been incarcerated. We sought to determine whether dual incarceration is associated with condom use, and whether this association varies by relationship type. Data come from 499 sexual partnerships reported by 210 individuals with a history of incarceration. We used generalized estimating equations to examine whether dual incarceration was associated with condom use after controlling for individual and relationship characteristics. Interaction terms between dual incarceration and relationship commitment were also examined. Among currently committed relationships, dual incarceration was associated with inconsistent condom use (AOR: 4.33; 95% CI 1.02, 18.45). Dual incarceration did not affect condom use in never committed relationships. Reducing incarcerations may positively impact committed relationships and subsequently decrease HIV-related risk.
Bailey, Zinzi D; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Kawachi, Ichiro; Williams, David R
We examined the relationship between having a history of incarceration and being a current smoker using a national sample of noninstitutionalized Black adults living in the United States. With data from the National Survey of American Life collected between February 2001 and March 2003, we calculated individual propensity scores for having a history of incarceration. To examine the relationship between prior incarceration and current smoking status, we ran gender-specific propensity-matched fitted logistic regression models. A history of incarceration was consistently and independently associated with a higher risk of current tobacco smoking in men and women. Formerly incarcerated Black men had 1.77 times the risk of being a current tobacco smoker than did their counterparts without a history of incarceration (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20, 2.61) in the propensity score-matched sample. The results were similar among Black women (prevalence ratio = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.00, 2.57). Mass incarceration likely contributes to the prevalence of smoking among US Blacks. Future research should explore whether the exclusion of institutionalized populations in national statistics obscures Black-White disparities in tobacco smoking.
Patton, Robert; Boniface, Sadie
Most published research utilizes an AUDIT score of >8 as the threshold for hazardous drinking. Recent research suggests that this limit should be amended for younger drinkers (aged 18-35 years). This study aimed to explore the effect of a revision to AUDIT cut scores. Applying Foxcroft et al.'s [(2015) Accuracy of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for detecting problem drinking in 18-35 year-olds in England: method comparison study. Alcohol Alcohol 50, 244-50] suggested cut off scores of nine for males and four for females to the most recent Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (2007) data. This more than doubles the prevalence of female hazardous drinkers, and significantly increases the overall rate for that age group when compared with the standard threshold of >8. The prevalence of hazardous drinking among females ages 18-30 may be significantly higher than current estimates. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
de Torres, Luis Angel Pérula; Rebollo, Encarnación Márquez; Ruiz-Moral, Roger; Fernández-García, Jose Angel; Vega, Raquel Arias; Palomino, María Muriel
To check the validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) among Spanish adult citizens. This is a descriptive observational study. The surveyed group comprised patients aged 18-80 years who went to their doctors' surgeries at two primary care centres located in Cordoba (Spain). We examined the psychometric properties of AUDIT and its capacity to correctly diagnose alcohol abuse or dependence, as defined by DSM-IV, ICD-10, and hazardous drinking. Six hundred and fourteen patients were studied (mean age 43+/-1.43 years). At a cut-off value of 7 points, the sensitivity of AUDIT in detecting hazardous drinking was 91.7%, and its specificity 91.9%; the area below the curve was 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.937-0.975). To detect possible dependence, the optimum cut-off value was 6 points. According to ICD-10, sensitivity was 81.6%, specificity 82.3%, and the area under the curve 0.885 (95% CI 0.848-0.923; p<0.001), whereas according to DSM-IV criteria, sensitivity was 88.3%, specificity 83.1%, and the area under the curve 0.918 (95% CI 0.885-0.951). The high criterion-related validity of AUDIT was proven, regardless of the gold standard used.
Geller, Amanda; Cooper, Carey E; Garfinkel, Irwin; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Mincy, Ronald B
High rates of incarceration among American men, coupled with high rates of fatherhood among men in prison, have motivated recent research on the effects of parental imprisonment on children's development. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the relationship between paternal incarceration and developmental outcomes for approximately 3,000 urban children. We estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models that control not only for fathers' basic demographic characteristics and a rich set of potential confounders, but also for several measures of pre-incarceration child development and family fixed effects. We find significant increases in aggressive behaviors and some evidence of increased attention problems among children whose fathers are incarcerated. The estimated effects of paternal incarceration are stronger than those of other forms of father absence, suggesting that children with incarcerated fathers may require specialized support from caretakers, teachers, and social service providers. The estimated effects are stronger for children who lived with their fathers prior to incarceration but are also significant for children of nonresident fathers, suggesting that incarceration places children at risk through family hardships including and beyond parent-child separation.
Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin
External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required.
Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.
Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…
In Zimbabwe, as elsewhere across the world, convicted nursing mothers are often incarcerated jointly with their young children. This joint incarceration is justified on the grounds that it ensures social protection of the children who are inadvertently caught up in the incarceration process. However, whether joint incarceration ...
Siennick, Sonja E.; Stewart, Eric A.; Staff, Jeremy
Recent studies have suggested that incarceration dramatically increases the odds of divorce, but we know little about the mechanisms that explain the association. This study uses prospective longitudinal data from a subset of married young adults in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,919) to examine whether incarceration is associated with divorce indirectly via low marital love, economic strain, relationship violence, and extramarital sex. The findings confirmed that incarcerations occurring during, but not before, a marriage were associated with an increased hazard of divorce. Incarcerations occurring during marriage also were associated with less marital love, more relationship violence, more economic strain, and greater odds of extramarital sex. Above-average levels of economic strain were visible among respondents observed preincarceration, but only respondents observed postincarceration showed less marital love, more relationship violence, and higher odds of extramarital sex than did respondents who were not incarcerated during marriage. These relationship problems explained approximately 40 percent of the association between incarceration and marital dissolution. These findings are consistent with theoretical predictions that a spouse’s incarceration alters the rewards and costs of the marriage and the relative attractiveness of alternative partners. PMID:25598544
Erickson, Bonnie J.; Young, Mark E.
Art therapy is often thought of as an adjunct to counseling; however, because of its unique ability to bypass defenses, in some situations, art therapy may be a treatment of choice to allow clients to discover and express feelings that are often difficult to express verbally. Using art as therapy does not require that the therapist or the client…
Eddy, J. Mark; Martinez, Charles R.; Schiffmann, Tracy; Newton, Rex; Olin, Laura; Leve, Leslie; Foney, Dana M.; Shortt, Joann Wu
The majority of men and women prison inmates are parents. Many lived with children prior to incarceration, and most have at least some contact with their children and families while serving their sentences. Because prison populations have increased in the United States, there has been a renewed interest in finding ways not only to reduce…
Ford, Julian D.; Trestman, Robert L.; Wiesbrock, Valerie; Zhang, Wanli
The authors report the development and initial psychometric evaluation of gender-specific brief screening instruments to identify undetected psychiatric impairment on incarceration. Women and men completed the Correctional Mental Health Screen (CMHS), a 56-item screen derived from validated measures. Representative subsamples completed structured…
The prevalence of obesity and overweight is socially patterned, with higher prevalence among women, racial/ethnic minorities, and those with lower socio-economic status. Contextual factors also affect obesity risk. However, an omitted factor has been incarceration, particularly since it disproportionately affects minorities. This study examines the effects of incarceration on adult male body mass index (BMI) in the United States over the life course, and whether effects vary by race/ethnicity and education. BMI trajectories were analyzed over age using growth curve models of men ages 18-49 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth panel study. BMI was based on self-reported height/weight (kg/m2). Being currently incarcerated increased BMI, but the effect varied by race/ethnicity and education: blacks experienced the largest increases, while effects were lowered for men with more education than a high school diploma. Cumulative exposure to prison increased BMI for all groups. These results suggest a differential effect of incarceration on adult male BMI among some racial/ethnic-education minority groups. Particularly given that these groups are most commonly imprisoned, incarceration may help structure obesity disparities and disadvantage across the life course.
Kjellstrand, Jean; Cearley, Jennifer; Eddy, J. Mark; Foney, Dana; Martinez, Charles R.
The number of children of incarcerated parents in the U.S. has grown dramatically in recent years. These children appear to be at risk for various problems, and a number of family-focused preventive efforts have been attempted. The current study examines differences between incarcerated mothers, incarcerated fathers, and their families on factors that might be important to consider when creating the content and process of preventive intervention programs. Participants were 359 inmates (54% women; 41% minority) who were parents of children between the ages of 3 and 11 years and who parented their children prior to imprisonment. Mothers and fathers were similar on a number of dimensions including age, education-level, number and age of children, and family criminal history, but differences were observed on key variables relevant to outcomes for children and families, including employment history and income, substance use, mental health, trauma experiences and criminal history. Implications for prevention programs are discussed. PMID:23226912
Song, Hyojong; Woo, Youngki; Lee, Heeuk D; Cochran, John K
The current study examines effects of changes in intra-family relationships after parental incarceration on internalizing behaviors of the children of incarcerated parents. Using data from a sample of 249 incarcerated parents with minor children in South Korea, the present study found that perceived degradation of family relationships among inmate parents, their non-incarcerated spouses, and children was a significant risk factor of internalizing behaviors of children of incarcerated parents. The current study also found that inmate parents who had more frequent family contact were more likely to perceive improvements of all forms of intra-family relationships during incarceration. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Previous research has suggested that adolescent peers influence behavior and provide social support during a critical developmental period, but few studies have addressed the antecedents of adolescent social networks. Research on the collateral consequences of incarceration has explored the implications of parental incarceration for children's behavioral problems, academic achievement, health, and housing stability, but not their social networks. Using network data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that adolescents with recently incarcerated fathers are in socially marginal positions in their schools and befriend more-marginal peers than other adolescents: their friends are less advantaged, less academically successful, and more delinquent than other adolescents' friends. Differences in network outcomes are robust to a variety of specifications and are consistent across race and gender subgroups. This study advances the social networks literature by exploring how familial characteristics can shape adolescent social networks and contributes to the collateral consequences of incarceration literature by using network analysis to consider how mass incarceration may promote intergenerational social marginalization.
Wildeman, Christopher; Wang, Emily A.; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S.
Objectives. We examined the association of family member incarceration with cardiovascular risk factors and disease by gender. Methods. We used a sample of 5470 adults aged 18 years and older in the National Survey of American Life, a 2001–2003 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of Blacks and Whites living in the United States, to examine 5 self-reported health conditions (diabetes, hypertension, heart attack or stroke, obesity, and fair or poor health). Results. Family member incarceration was associated with increased likelihood of poor health across all 5 conditions for women but not for men. In adjusted models, women with family members who were currently incarcerated had 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 2.00), 2.53 (95% CI = 1.80, 3.55), and 1.93 (95% CI = 1.45, 2.58) times the odds of being obese, having had a heart attack or stroke, and being in fair or poor health, respectively. Conclusions. Family member incarceration has profound implications for women’s cardiovascular health and should be considered a unique risk factor that contributes to racial disparities in health. PMID:24432879
Although there is substantial evidence of the negative effects of being incarcerated or having a father imprisoned, there is little research on the spillover effects created by the concentration of incarceration within disadvantaged communities. This article addresses this limitation by investigating the association between mass incarceration and…
Dallaire, Danielle H.; Ciccone, Anne; Wilson, Laura C.
Children with incarcerated parents, and mothers in particular, are at increased risk for academic failure and school dropout. In two studies, we examined teachers' experiences with children with incarcerated parents and their expectations for competence of children with incarcerated mothers. In Study 1, a descriptive, qualitative study, teachers…
Geller, Amanda; Garfinkel, Irwin; Cooper, Carey E; Mincy, Ronald B
OBJECTIVE: Using a population-based, longitudinal family survey (N=4,898), we identify economic, residential, and developmental risks particular to the children of incarcerated parents. METHODS: We use parental reports of incarceration history, demographic background, and a rich set of child and family outcomes, in a series of multivariate regression models. RESULTS: Children of incarcerated parents face more economic and residential instability than their counterparts. Sons of incarcerated fathers display more behavior problems, though other developmental differences are insignificant. CONCLUSIONS: We find that incarceration identifies families facing severe hardship, which cannot be explained by other observed family characteristics. Given the prevalence of incarceration, our findings suggest that a large population of children suffers unmet material needs, residential instability, and behavior problems. These risks may be best addressed by using the point of incarceration as an opportunity for intervention and the administration of age-appropriate social services.
Tannis, Lynette N.
In this "Harvard Educational Review" symposium article, Lynette N. Tannis provides an in-depth look at the juncture of education and incarceration. Tannis states that the denial and/or lack of educational programs within carceral settings are concerning given the size of the US prison system. Discourse about the intersection of education…
diseases, Liver diseases, Cerebrovascular accident , non-Illnesses, and finally AIDS. 30% of inmates incarcerated in the WDOC die from Cancer while it is...are higher among WDOC inmates than the general U.S. population; while Cerebrovascular Accidents (CVA) are lower among WDOC inmates than the general
Part of the problem appears to be that the police do not have sufficient crime intelligence about house robbers. This article focuses on the value of incarcerated offenders of house robberies as an additional source of crime intelligence to the police on the basis of research conducted by the author in Gauteng in 2007.
This study evaluated automated techniques including personalized normative feedback and protective behavioral strategies, for brief interventions intended to reduce peak alcohol concentrations in university students. After completing baseline assessment, a total of 1,678 hazardous-drinking consumers were randomized to a single or a repeated Internet (WEB) or Interactive Voice Response (IVR) intervention, or to a control group (Single WEB: 323; Single IVR: 329; Repeated WEB: 318; Repeated IVR: 334; 374). At follow-up, six weeks after baseline, questionnaires were returned by 1,422 participants (Single WEB: 277; Single IVR: 286; Repeated WEB: 259; Repeated IVR: 279; 321). It was found that peak estimated BAC was reduced in the total group (b -0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.023; -0.005), in the total (b -0.17, 95% CI -0.027; -0.007) and single (b -0.021, 95% CI -0.032; -0.011) WEB group, and in the total (b -0.011, 95% CI -0.021; -0.015) and repeated (b -0.012, 95% CI -0.023; -0.000) IVR groups, compared to controls. The reduction in peak estimated BAC was greater in the single WEB group compared to the single IVR group (b -0.011, 95% CI -0.022; -0.000). This study concluded that both WEB and IVR interventions have a small but significant effect in reducing heavy episodic drinking, which may be due to the relatively large sample size. Repeated intervention may be needed if delivered by IVR. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kate Taylor Harcourt
Full Text Available The current study examined program outcomes for an understudied population of Relationship Education (RE participants: incarcerated men and women. In addition to relationship functioning, we examined a number of individual and parenting outcomes which had not previously been explored. In a sample of 453 adult inmates, we found improvements in (a trust, (b confidence in the relationship, (c intimacy, (d individual empowerment, (e conflict management, (f help-seeking attitudes, (g self-esteem, (h depression, (i global life stress, (j faulty relationship beliefs, and (k parenting efficacy. Tests of moderation by gender and race indicated minimal differences in change patterns between groups; however, we found a significant time by gender interaction on intimacy and a time by race interaction on parenting efficacy. Implications for research and practice are presented
Sanders, Jeannette F.; McNeill, Kevin F.; Rienzi, Beth M.; DeLouth, Tara-Nicholle B.
Reports on a survey of incarcerated women (N=203) to determine program needs and to describe the inmate population. Results indicate that the typical inmate was a European American mother of two children. Most were multiple offenders with a history of abuse and addiction, and desired substance abuse education and treatment. (RJM)
Barnert, Elizabeth S; Dudovitz, Rebecca; Nelson, Bergen B; Coker, Tumaini R; Biely, Christopher; Li, Ning; Chung, Paul J
Despite the widespread epidemic of mass incarceration in the US, relatively little literature exists examining the longitudinal relationship between youth incarceration and adult health outcomes. We sought to quantify the association of youth incarceration with subsequent adult health outcomes. We analyzed data from 14 344 adult participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We used weighted multivariate logistic regressions to investigate the relationship between cumulative incarceration duration (none, 1 year) before Wave IV (ages 24-34 years) and subsequent adult health outcomes (general health, functional limitations, depressive symptoms, and suicidal thoughts). Models controlled for Wave I (grades 7-12) baseline health, sociodemographics, and covariates associated with incarceration and health. A total of 14.0% of adults reported being incarcerated between Waves I and IV. Of these, 50.3% reported a cumulative incarceration duration of 1 year. Compared with no incarceration, incarceration duration of 1 year predicted subsequent adult functional limitations (OR = 2.92; 95% CI, 1.51-5.64; P = .002), adult depressive symptoms (OR = 4.18; 95% CI, 2.48-7.06; P incarceration duration during adolescence and early adulthood is independently associated with worse physical and mental health later in adulthood. Potential mechanisms merit exploration. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Shlafer, Rebecca J; Poehlmann, Julie
This longitudinal, mixed method study focused on 57 families of children who participated in a mentoring program for children of incarcerated parents. Children ranged in age from 4 to 15 years. Monthly interviews were conducted with children, caregivers, and mentors during the first six months of program participation, and questionnaires were administered at intake and six months to assess caregiver-child and incarcerated parent-child relationships, contact with incarcerated parents, and children's behavior problems. Although some children viewed their incarcerated parents as positive attachment figures, other children reported negative feelings toward or no relationship with incarcerated parents. In addition, our assessments of children nine years old and older revealed that having no contact with the incarcerated parent was associated with children reporting more feelings of alienation toward that parent compared to children who had contact. Children's behavior problems were a primary concern, often occurring in a relational context or in reaction to social stigma associated with parental imprisonment.
Perry, Armon R; Bright, Mikia
Despite only accounting for 6% of the general population, African American males represent nearly 50% of the prison population. To investigate the impact of mass incarceration on African American families, data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study were analyzed. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of previous incarceration on African American fathers' instrumental and affective involvement with their children, and the extent to which their previous incarceration influences their children's behavior. Results revealed that 51% of the fathers in the sample had been incarcerated by their child's fifth birthday. The results also revealed that these fathers fared worse economically and were less involved with their children. Moreover, the children of previously incarcerated fathers had significantly worse behavioral problems than the children of fathers who had never been incarcerated.
Full Text Available Spigelian hernias are rare, making up only 1-2% of all hernias. Like other hernias, they may contain abdominal contents but are more likely to be incarcerated due to the small size of the fascial defect.(1 We describe here the case of a 71-year-old female with a 10-year history of right lower quadrant pain that remained undiagnosed despite multiple imaging studies. Prior to presentation the patient developed a new bulge and increasing pain at this site; an ultrasound revealed the presence of a bowel-containing hernia. The patient was taken urgently to the operating room for a laparoscopic Spigelian hernia repair, and was found to have an incarcerated appendix in the hernia. After the hernia was reduced, an appendectomy was performed and the hernia was repaired with biological mesh. Postoperatively, the patient did well, and her pain resolved.
Porter, Kimberly A.; Thomas, James C.; Emch, Michael E
High community incarceration rates have been shown to be associated with high rates of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Proposed mechanisms underlying this association include transmission by recently released inmates and community disruption through a skewed sex ratio or changes in sexual networks resulting from the absence of individuals removed by incarceration. To continue exploring the relationship between incarceration and STDs, we studied the 2006 rates of gonorrhea at the...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol problems are a major health issue in Nepal and remain under diagnosed. Increase in consumption are due to many factors, including advertising, pricing and availability, but accurate information is lacking on the prevalence of current alcohol use disorders. The AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test questionnaire developed by WHO identifies individuals along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse and hence provides an opportunity for early intervention in non-specialty settings. This study aims to validate a Nepali version of AUDIT among patients attending a university hospital and assess the prevalence of alcohol use disorders along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in patients attending the medicine out-patient department of a university hospital. DSM-IV diagnostic categories (alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence were used as the gold standard to calculate the diagnostic parameters of the AUDIT. Hazardous drinking was defined as self reported consumption of ≥21 standard drink units per week for males and ≥14 standard drink units per week for females. Results A total of 1068 individuals successfully completed the study. According to DSM-IV, drinkers were classified as follows: No alcohol problem (n=562; 59.5%, alcohol abusers (n= 78; 8.3% and alcohol dependent (n=304; 32.2%. The prevalence of hazardous drinker was 67.1%. The Nepali version of AUDIT is a reliable and valid screening tool to identify individuals with alcohol use disorders in the Nepalese population. AUDIT showed a good capacity to discriminate dependent patients (with AUDIT ≥11 for both the gender and hazardous drinkers (with AUDIT ≥5 for males and ≥4 for females. For alcohol dependence/abuse the cut off values was ≥9 for both males and females. Conclusion The AUDIT questionnaire is a good screening instrument for detecting alcohol use disorders in patients attending a university
Ostafin, Brian D; Palfai, Tibor P
Research indicates that brief motivational interventions are efficacious treatments for hazardous drinking. Little is known, however, about the psychological processes that may moderate intervention success. Based on growing evidence that drinking behavior may be influenced by automatic (nonvolitional) mental processes, the current study examined whether automatic alcohol-approach associations moderated the effect of a brief motivational intervention. Specifically, we examined whether the efficacy of a single-session intervention designed to increase motivation to reduce alcohol consumption would be moderated by the strength of participants' automatic alcohol-approach associations. Eighty-seven undergraduate hazardous drinkers participated for course credit. Participants completed an Implicit Association Test to measure automatic alcohol-approach associations, a baseline measure of readiness to change drinking behavior, and measures of alcohol involvement. Participants were then randomly assigned to either a brief (15-minute) motivational intervention or a control condition. Participants completed a measure of readiness to change drinking at the end of the first session and returned for a follow-up session six weeks later in which they reported on their drinking over the previous month. Compared with the control group, those in the intervention condition showed higher readiness to change drinking at the end of the baseline session but did not show decreased drinking quantity at follow-up. Automatic alcohol-approach associations moderated the effects of the intervention on change in drinking quantity. Among participants in the intervention group, those with weak automatic alcohol-approach associations showed greater reductions in the amount of alcohol consumed per occasion at follow-up compared with those with strong automatic alcohol-approach associations. Automatic appetitive associations with alcohol were not related with change in amount of alcohol consumed per
Garde, K; Mortensen, A C; Toft, P B
We report 3 cases of 31P and 1H MR spectroscopy (MRS) performed at different stages on patients with clinical signs of near or fulminant incarceration of the brain. The measurements were made on a whole body, 1.5 T scanner. 1H-MRS was obtained with the STEAM sequence and 31P-spectra were obtained...... incarceration, the energy supply to the brain was substantial. 1H-MRS of the 3rd patient showed massive lactate concentration, and 31P-MRS revealed the total absence of high-energy phosphorous compounds leaving only one single peak of inorganic phosphate, indicating irreversible brain death....
Green, Traci C; Pouget, Enrique R; Harrington, Magdalena; Taxman, Faye S; Rhodes, Anne G; OʼConnell, Daniel; Martin, Steven S; Prendergast, Michael; Friedmann, Peter D
To investigate how incarceration may affect risk of acquiring HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, we tested associations of ex-offenders' sexual risk behavior with the male-female sex ratio and the male incarceration rate. Longitudinal data from 1287 drug-involved persons on probation and parole as part of the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies were matched by county of residence with population factors, and stratified by race/ethnicity and gender. Generalized estimating equations assessed associations of having unprotected sex with a partner who had HIV risk factors, and having >1 sex partner in the past month. Among non-Hispanic black men and women, low sex ratios were associated with greater risk of having unprotected sex with a risky partner (adjusted relative risk [ARR] = 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29, 2.42; ARR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.31, 4.73, respectively). Among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women, low sex ratios were associated with having >1 sex partner (ARR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.02, 3.94; ARR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.06, 2.75, respectively). High incarceration rates were associated with greater risk of having a risky partner for all men (non-Hispanic black: ARR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.39, 3.30; NHW: ARR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.85; Hispanic: ARR = 3.99, 95% CI = 1.55, 10.26) and having >1 partner among NHW men (ARR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.40, 2.64). Low sex ratios and high incarceration rates may influence the number and risk characteristics of sex partners of ex-offenders. HIV-prevention policies and programs for ex-offenders could be improved by addressing structural barriers to safer sexual behavior.
Garde, K; Mortensen, A C; Toft, P B
incarceration, the energy supply to the brain was substantial. 1H-MRS of the 3rd patient showed massive lactate concentration, and 31P-MRS revealed the total absence of high-energy phosphorous compounds leaving only one single peak of inorganic phosphate, indicating irreversible brain death....
Garde, K; Mortensen, A C; Toft, P B
We report 3 cases of 31P and 1H MR spectroscopy (MRS) performed at different stages on patients with clinical signs of near or fulminant incarceration of the brain. The measurements were made on a whole body, 1.5 T scanner. 1H-MRS was obtained with the STEAM sequence and 31P-spectra were obtained...
This study was conducted to examine characteristics contributing to high self control for incarcerated youth. Subjects include fifty youth (8 females and 42 males) ages 14 through 18 incarcerated for at least 60 days. Data on subjects' responses from a validated measure (Grasmick et. al. Scale, 1993) and data from historical records, STAR reading…
Poehlmann, Julie; Dallaire, Danielle; Loper, Ann Booker; Shear, Leslie D.
Approximately 1.7 million children have parents who are incarcerated in prison in the United States, and possibly millions of additional children have a parent incarcerated in jail. Many affected children experience increased risk for developing behavior problems, academic failure, and substance abuse. For a growing number of children,…
Background: In patients with incarcerated inguinal hernia, initial manual reduction, which is not always feasible, rather than immediate surgery, is associated with fewer complications. The aim of the study was to evaluate factors associated with successful manual reduction of incarcerated inguinal hernia in children.
Geller, Amanda; Franklin, Allyson Walker
High rates of imprisonment among American fathers have motivated an ongoing examination of incarceration's role in family life. A growing literature suggests that incarceration creates material and socioemotional challenges not only for prisoners and former prisoners but also for their families and communities. The authors examined the relationship between fathers' incarceration and one such challenge: the housing insecurity of the mothers of their children. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,125) and a series of longitudinal regression models, they found that mothers' housing security was compromised following their partners' incarceration, an association likely driven in part, but not entirely, by financial challenges following his time in prison or jail. Given the importance of stable housing for the continuity of adult employment, children's schooling, and other inputs to healthy child development, the findings suggest a grave threat to the well-being of children with incarcerated fathers.
The United States has the highest incarceration rate of any nation in the world-more than 700 people per 100,000. For this reason alone, clinicians practicing in the US should be aware of the numerous ways in which incarceration adversely affects the health of individuals, their families, and communities. While we clinicians are taught how to discuss ways that culture, religion, or sexuality can affect health outcomes, we are not instructed on how to talk about incarceration history with patients when it might be affecting their health, as highlighted in the case scenario. Here I present a "structural vulnerability" screen, a theoretical approach that clinics or individuals can take to better understand how structures of power (i.e., mass incarceration) directly and indirectly affect our patients. I also offer practical tips on how to talk to patients about incarceration history and why it matters for good health. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Full Text Available A 30-year-old man presented to the Department of Surgery with a painful groin swelling on right side. Exploration revealed a reddish-blue hemangiomatous mass in the scrotum extending through inguinal canal into the retroperitoneum. On further dissection swelling was found to be originating from right external iliac vein. The swelling was excised after ligating all vascular connections. The histopathological examination of excised mass confirmed the diagnosis of venous variety of vascular malformation. This is the first reported case of vascular malformation arising from retroperitoneum and extending into inguinoscrotal region, presenting as incarcerated inguinal hernia.
Ann M. Kulungowski
Full Text Available A 16 day-old boy infant with an umbilical mass underwent operative exploration of the umbilicus. The mass proved to be a gallbladder incarcerated in a hernia of the umbilical cord. Distinguishing an omphalocele from an umbilical cord hernia is not obvious and can be arbitrary. Morphologically, the two terms both describe congenital abdominal wall defects covered by a membrane, typically containing abdominal organs. Subtle differences and clinical features between omphalocele and umbilical cord hernia are highlighted in this report.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands, youths of Moroccan origin account for a disproportionately large percentage of the population in juvenile justice institutions. Previous research showed that Moroccan adolescents in pre-trial arrest are characterized by less serious offending behavior (i.e., primarily property-based and lower levels of mental health problems than native Dutch adolescents in pre-trial arrest. To date, little is known about the parent-child relationship of these adolescents. This study examines the mother-son relationships of Moroccan and native Dutch delinquent adolescents and their association with adolescent delinquency. Methods In the present study, differences in the mother-son relationship characteristics between families of incarcerated (N = 129 and non-incarcerated (N = 324 adolescents were examined, and it was analyzed if these differences between incarcerated and non-incarcerated adolescents were the same for Moroccans and native Dutch. Data collection for the incarcerated sample took place from 2006 to 2008. Comparison data were used of interviews conducted with mothers originating from former larger studies in the general Dutch population. Latent Class Analysis was performed in order to identify types of mother-son relationship. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the relationships between mother-son relationship types, incarceration and ethnicity. Results A three class model of mother-son relationship types was found: a low-conflict mother-son relationship type, a high-conflict mother-son relationship type, and a neglectful mother-son relationship type. Compared to the native Dutch adolescents, Moroccans (both in the incarcerated and non-incarcerated population more often showed a neglectful mother-son relationship type. For Moroccans, no differences in mother-son relationship types were found between the incarcerated and non-incarcerated adolescents, whereas considerable differences occurred
Aiello, Brittnie; McQueeny, Krista
This article examines how incarcerated mothers constructed moral identities in the face of stigma. Analyzing data from participant observation and 83 in-depth interviews with incarcerated mothers, we show that mothers claimed moral identities by distancing from the stigma of incarceration and/or embracing the identity of incarcerated mothers.…
Teixidó-Compañó, Ester; Espelt, Albert; Sordo, Luis; Bravo, María J; Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Indave, B Iciar; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Brugal, M Teresa
To determine differences between men and women in hazardous drinking, heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative use according to educational level and employment status in the economically active population in Spain. Cross-sectional study with data from 2013 Spanish Household Survey on Alcohol and Drugs on individuals aged 25-64 [n=14,113 (women=6,171; men=7,942)]. Dependent variables were hazardous drinking, heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative consumption; the main independent variables were educational level and employment situation. Associations between dependent and independent variables were calculated with Poisson regression models with robust variance. All analyses were stratified by sex. Hazardous drinking and heavy cannabis use were higher in men, while women consumed more hypnosedatives. The lower the educational level, the greater the gender differences in the prevalence of this substances owing to different consumption patterns in men and women. While men with a lower educational level were higher hazardous drinkers [RII=2.57 (95%CI: 1.75-3.78)] and heavy cannabis users [RII=3.03 (95%CI: 1.88-4.89)] compared to higher educational level, in women the prevalence was the same. Women with a lower education level and men with a higher education level had higher hypnosedative consumption. Unemployment was associated with increased heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative use in both women and men and with lower hazardous drinking only in women. There are differences between men and women in the use of psychoactive substances that can be explained by the unequal distribution of substance use in them according to educational level. Unemployment was associated with substance use in both men and women. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Durham, Marian B.; And Others
Services to imprisoned women under the age of 21 and the effects of incarceration on inmate mothers and their children are the two major subjects discussed in this report of a study conducted at the two state prison facilities for women in North Carolina. Information on these topics was obtained through site visits, interviews with staff and…
Aerts, Bas R J; Plaisier, Peter W; Jakma, Tijs S C
An incarcerated inguinal hernia is a common diagnosis, since the risk of an inguinal hernia incarcerating or strangulating is around 0.3-3%. An acute rupture of the adductor longus tendon is rarely seen and mostly affects (semi-) professional sportsmen. We present a case of a patient with an assumed incarcerated inguinal hernia which turned out to be a proximal adductor longus tendon rupture. If patients without a history of inguinal hernia present themselves with acute groin pain after suddenly exorotating the upper leg, a rupture of the adductor longus tendon should be considered. Both surgical and non-surgical treatment can be performed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Keyes, Katherine; Hamilton, Ava; Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro
Objectives. We examined whether residence in neighborhoods with high levels of incarceration is associated with psychiatric morbidity among nonincarcerated community members. Methods. We linked zip code-linked information on neighborhood prison admissions rates to individual-level data on mental health from the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study (2008-2012), a prospective probability sample of predominantly Black individuals. Results. Controlling for individual- and neighborhood-level risk factors, individuals living in neighborhoods with high prison admission rates were more likely to meet criteria for a current (odds ratio [OR] = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7, 5.5) and lifetime (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.4, 4.6) major depressive disorder across the 3 waves of follow-up as well as current (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.0, 4.2) and lifetime (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.2, 4.5) generalized anxiety disorder than were individuals living in neighborhoods with low prison admission rates. These relationships between neighborhood-level incarceration and mental health were comparable for individuals with and without a personal history of incarceration. Conclusions. Incarceration may exert collateral damage on the mental health of individuals living in high-incarceration neighborhoods, suggesting that the public mental health impact of mass incarceration extends beyond those who are incarcerated.
Full Text Available Background: Incarcerated inguinal hernia is a commonly encountered urgent surgical condition, and tension-free repair is a well-established method for the treatment of noncomplicated cases. However, due to the risk of prosthetic material-related infections, the use of mesh in the repair of strangulated or incarcerated hernia has often been subject to debate. Recent studies have demonstrated that biomaterials represent suitable materials for performing urgent hernia repair. Certain studies recommend mesh repair only for cases where no bowel resection is required; other studies, however, recommend mesh repair for patients requiring bowel resection as well. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of different surgical techniques performed for strangulated hernia, and to evaluate the effect of mesh use on postoperative complications. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: This retrospective study was performed with 151 patients who had been admitted to our hospital’s emergency department to undergo surgery for a diagnosis of incarcerated inguinal hernia. The patients were divided into two groups based on the applied surgical technique. Group 1 consisted of 112 patients treated with mesh-based repair techniques, while Group 2 consisted of 39 patients treated with tissue repair techniques. Patients in Group 1 were further divided into two sub-groups: one consisting of patients undergoing bowel resection (Group 3, and the other consisting of patients not undergoing bowel resection (Group 4. Results: In Group 1, it was observed that eight (7.14% of the patients had wound infections, while two (1.78% had hematomas, four (3.57% had seromas, and one (0.89% had relapse. In Group 2, one (2.56% of the patients had a wound infection, while three (7.69% had hematomas, one (2.56% had seroma, and none had relapses. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to wound infection
Paltrow, Lynn M
All pregnant women, not just those who seek to end a pregnancy, have benefited from Roe v Wade. Today's system of mass incarceration makes it likely that if Roe is overturned women who have abortions will go to jail. Efforts to establish separate legal "personhood" for fertilized eggs, embryos, and fetuses, however, are already being used as the basis for the arrests and detentions of and forced interventions on pregnant women, including those who seek to go to term. Examination of these punitive actions makes clear that attacks on Roe threaten all pregnant women not only with the loss of their reproductive rights and physical liberty but also with the loss of their status as full constitutional persons.
Full Text Available Abstract Most Spanish prisons provide specialised treatment for incarcerated sex offenders, both rapists and child molesters. This treatment is a cognitive-behavioural intervention that has shown relative effectiveness in previous research. With regard to offenders’ rehabilitation, recidivism assessments are necessary as a final measure of treatment effectiveness. However, the evaluation of recidivism by itself does not provide sufficient information on the treatment process and the specific effects that treated subjects could undergo. This paper aims to analyse the therapeutic effectiveness of psychological treatment provided to rapists (in general, males sentenced for committing a sexual offence against women. To this aim, a group of treated rapists (N=153 serving a sentence in prison was analysed. Using a specially designed scale (PASSO, the global therapeutic change and ten specific variables (including assertiveness, readiness to change, cognitive distortions, impulsivity, etc. were assessed. The within-subjects comparison showed that treated sex offenders improved, in therapeutic terms, globally as well as in most of the specific variables assessed (improvements not experimented by the control group. Also, different therapeutic subscales showed relevant associations between them. The findings regarding treatment effectiveness are discussed.
Lyons, Thomas; Cantrell, W Dustin
By some estimates, more than half of inmates held in jails and prisons in the United States have a substance use disorder. Treatments involving the teaching of meditation and other contemplative practices have been developed for a variety of physical and mental disorders, including drug and alcohol addiction. At the same time, an expanding volunteer movement across the country has been bringing meditation and yoga into jails and prisons. This review first examines the experimental research on one such approach-mindfulness meditation as a treatment for drug and alcohol addiction, as well as the research on mindfulness in incarcerated settings. We argue that to make a substantial impact on recidivism, such programs must mirror volunteer programs which emphasize interdependency and non-duality between the "helper" and the "helped," and the building of meditation communities both inside and outside of prison. © The Author(s) 2015.
Munns, Justin; Samora, Julie Balch; Granger, Jeffrey F; Ng, Vincent Y
According to the 1976 Supreme Court case of Estelle v Gamble, the government is required to provide prisoners access to the necessary care for known, serious medical needs. Failure to do so violates the Eighth Amendment prohibiting the imposition of "cruel and unusual punishment." Currently, more than 2.5 million Americans are imprisoned, the highest per capita rate in the world. In the current fiscal climate and with burgeoning health care costs for society as a whole, providing care for prisoners poses both moral and logistical challenges. From an orthopedic standpoint, caring for the incarcerated raises uniquely challenging issues due to the nature of this patient population and their types of musculoskeletal conditions.
James C. Oleson
Full Text Available In the early twentieth century, the eugenics movement exercised considerable influence over domestic US public policy. Positive eugenics encouraged the reproduction of “fit” human specimens while negative eugenics attempted to reduce the reproduction of “unfit” specimens like the “feebleminded” and the criminal. Although eugenics became a taboo concept after World War II, it did not disappear. It was merely repackaged. Incarceration is no longer related to stated eugenic goals, yet incapacitation in prisons still exerts a prophylactic effect on human reproduction. Because minorities are incarcerated in disproportionately high numbers, the prophylactic effect of incarceration affects them most dramatically. In fact, for black males, the effect of hyper-incarceration might be so great as to depress overall reproduction rates. This article identifies some of the legal and extralegal variables that would be relevant for such an analysis and calls for such an investigation.
Whalen, Mathilde Logan; Loper, Ann Booker
This study examines the association between the incarceration of a household member and adolescent pregnancy, and evaluates whether this association extends beyond that of other variables associated with sexual health. We used data from 12 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: Child and Young Adult. After eliminating males and individuals who did not respond to key questions, a sample of 1,229 girls (ages 14-19) was analyzed. Girls who experienced the incarceration of a household member faced more demographic and family environment risk factors than those who did not. Regression analyses demonstrated that the addition of a household incarceration variable afforded superior prediction of teenage pregnancy relative to the prediction based on demographic and family features alone. Programs that are directed toward reducing teen pregnancy will benefit from attention to the home situation of the at-risk girl, particularly the experience of household member incarceration and related family dynamics.
Suzanne M. Beecher
Conclusion: In cases, where there is a known intra-abdominal malignancy & the presence of an incarcerated hernia, there should be a high index of suspicion for the presence of tumour within the hernial contents.
Fields, Julie C; King, Kelly M; Alexander, Kamila A; Smith, Katherine C; Sherman, Susan G; Knowlton, Amy
Evidence suggests that men with recent histories of incarceration are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual activity, however there is limited research exploring how having been recently released from prison might impact men's sexual risk behaviours or sexual partnering. This qualitative study explores the ways in which exposure to incarceration impacts the dynamics of sexual partnering among recently released Black men in Baltimore, USA. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 recently released Black men between 21-45 years of age living in the city. Data were analysed using a combination of inductive and deductive approaches. Participants reported that women living in the neighbourhoods to which they returned found recently released men to be highly desirable sexual partners because they offered increased potential for sexual gratification, were perceived as healthier than other sexual partners in their communities and represented opportunities for attaining financial stability and the potential for establishing romantic partnerships. As a result, men reported they had more opportunities for sex and more power to negotiate sex with women. Recently released Black men's perceptions of their own sexual desirability among women raise important implications regarding power in the sexual relationships of recently released men that may increase HIV- and sexually transmitted infection-related risk for recently released men and their sexual partners.
Genberg, Becky L; Astemborski, Jacquie; Vlahov, David; Kirk, Gregory D; Mehta, Shruti H
There is limited longitudinal research examining incarceration and subsequent changes in drug use among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the United States. The objective of the current study was to characterize the frequency of incarceration and estimate the association between incarceration and subsequent injection drug use among current and former PWIDs in one US city. ALIVE (AIDS Linked to the Intravenous Experience) is a prospective cohort study of current and former PWIDs, with semi-annual follow-up occurring since 1988. Baltimore, Maryland, USA. A total of 3245 participants with 48 738 study visits were included. Participants enrolled from 1988 to 2012 with a median of 13 follow-up visits per participant (Interquartile range = 7-25). Incarcerations were defined as any self-reported jail or prison stays in the previous 6 months that were ≥7 days or longer. The primary outcome was defined as any self-reported injection drug use in the previous 6 months. At baseline, 29% were female, 90% African American and 33% HIV-positive. Fifty-seven per cent of participants experienced at least one incarceration episode. After adjusting for confounders, there was a positive association between incarceration and subsequent injection drug use [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.37-1.59]; however, stratified analysis showed that the effect was restricted to those who were not injecting at the time of incarceration (AOR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.88-2.37). In the United States, incarceration of people who had previously stopped injecting drugs appears to be associated with an increased risk of subsequent injecting. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Solomon, Phyllis; Draine, Jeffrey; Marcus, Steven C
This study assessed the extent to which clinical characteristics, psychiatric status, and use of mental health services explain incarceration for technical violations of probation or parole rather than incarceration for new offenses. A total of 250 clients of an urban psychiatric probation and parole service were screened for psychiatric diagnoses and monitored with a 12-month data collection protocol. Longitudinal analysis was used to explain incarceration on new charges, incarceration on technical violations of probation and parole, or absence of incarceration. Eighty-five individuals (34 percent) were incarcerated during the follow-up period. Forty-four (18 percent) were incarcerated for a new offense, and 41 (16 percent) were incarcerated for a technical violation. Participation in mental health treatment was associated with a lower risk of incarceration for a technical violation. Intensive monitoring by mental health providers, such as through case management and medication management, were significant risk factors for incarceration for a technical violation. Clients who were incarcerated for a technical violation were more than six times as likely to have received intensive case management services. The role of mental health services in reducing the risk of incarceration remains mixed. Providing services that emphasize monitoring tends to increase the risk of incarceration for technical violations of criminal justice sanctions. However, any participation in treatment and motivation to participate in treatment appears to reduce the risk of incarceration.
This study is a report of a narrative review to explore the challenges facing prisoners and the corrections system in the presence of the death of a significant person to the prisoner. Death of a loved one is an important challenge, amplified for incarcerated men. There are unique aspects of incarceration that prevent prisoners from having access to usual ritual expressions and support structures. A search of the CINAHL, ProQuest Medical, PubMed, EBSCO and COCHRANE databases was conducted for papers published from 1998-2007. The search terms were bereavement and prison nursing. A hand search of material specific to grief and incarceration was also undertaken. A narrative technique involving reading, writing, thinking, interpreting, arguing and justifying was used to synthesize the material and create a convincing and cohesive story. Limited research is available specifically addressing the grief experience of incarcerated individuals or the impact of unresolved grief on recidivism. However, a number of potential challenges to the grieving process in the prison system are identified in the literature, such as the prison culture of toughness and limited options for funeral attendance. Whilst the literature is scant, it is clear that issues of masculinity and culture have a strong impact on the ability of incarcerated men to resolve grief issues. More research is required to understand the impact of this on issues, such as recidivism. In the meantime, prison nurses have an important role to play in supporting prisoners who have lost a loved one during their incarceration.
Pesić, Ivan; Karanikolić, Aleksandar; Djordjević, Nebojsa; Stojanović, Miroslav; Stanojević, Goran; Radojković, Milan; Nestorović, Milica
Incarcerated inguinal hernias surgical treatment represents one of the most frequent surgical treatments in elderly patients. The percentage of incarcerated inguinal hernias urgent surgical treatments is growing exponentially with the age in patients over 50. The aim of the study was to investigate some of the factors that may have impact on the incarcerated inguinal hernias surgical treatment outcome in elderly patients. The study included 180 patients classified in two groups: the study group (> 65 years of age) and the control group (Synthetic material was implanted in 124 (68.90%) patients, while the tension technique was performed in 65 (31.1%) patients. The duration of incarceration more than 24 h (p = 0.015), previous abdominal surgery (p = 0.001), the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification system (ASA classification) (p = 0.033) and the presence of chronic diseases (p = 0.01) appeared to be statistically significant risk factors for performing intestinal resection in the study group, while in the control group they represented risk factors, but not at the level of statistical significance (p < 0.05), except for the duration of incarceration (p = 0.007). A higher ASA stage (p = 0.001) and the presence of bowel resection (p <0.001) are the most important risk factors for lethal outcome in both groups of patients. Incarcerated inguinal hernia in elderly patients is a serious problem. A higher ASA score and the presence of bowel resection are the most important factors related to unfavorable outcome.
A growing literature has documented the mostly deleterious intergenerational consequences of paternal incarceration, but less research has considered heterogeneity in these relationships. In this article, I use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,065) to estimate the heterogeneous relationship between paternal incarceration and children's problem behaviors (internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, and early juvenile delinquency) and cognitive skills (reading comprehension, math comprehension, and verbal ability) in middle childhood. Taking into account children's risk of experiencing paternal incarceration, measured by the social contexts in which children are embedded (e.g., father's residential status, poverty, neighborhood disadvantage) reveals that the consequences-across all outcomes except early juvenile delinquency-are more deleterious for children with relatively low risks of exposure to paternal incarceration than for children with relatively high risks of exposure to paternal incarceration. These findings suggest that the intergenerational consequences of paternal incarceration are more complicated than documented in previous research and, more generally, suggest that research on family inequality consider both differential selection into treatments and differential responses to treatments.
M. Carmen Herrera Enríquez
Full Text Available Given the role that women play in the family, their imprisonment brings about a stigma in the family, an alteration of roles and attachment problems. These effects worsen for those who have young children while in prison. The purpose of this research is to contrast the differences between men’s and women’s responses to certain issues related to the time they spent in prison. Specifically, the purpose is to analyze whether time in prison affects the genders in different ways and to analyze any differences in the light of gender role theories. It is of utmost importance to address the fact that it is not that women have different problems than those which can be found in men, but rather that the consequences arising from incarceration for men and for women come on top of those differences already inherent to the genders.
Tucker, Joseph; Ren, Xin; Sapio, Flora
Sex workers in China are routinely coercively detained through administrative mechanisms outside of legal procedures, but very little is known about the anthropologic and public health context of these policies. This biosocial analysis of female Chinese sex worker detention uses ethnographic, legal, and public health data to describe social suffering and countervailing social justice responses among incarcerated sex workers (ISW) in China. Compared to sex workers not detained in China, ISW face substantive inequalities inscribed in physical and psychological suffering. Chinese sex worker detention camp practices may not only systematically increase HIV/syphilis risk among ISW, but also work to narrow women's social spheres of influence, a particularly cruel tragedy in a Chinese social system that highly values social and personal connections. A limited empiric analysis of Guangxi Province STI clinic data shows that cities detaining sex workers have higher mean HIV prevalence compared to cities that do not detain sex workers. While incipient medical and legal movements in China have generated momentum for expanding ISW services and resources, there is still substantial variation in the implementation of laws that ensure basic life-saving medical treatments. Post-incarceration social justice programs for sex workers linking women to essential STI/HIV resources, reconnecting broken social lives, and helping restore interpersonal relationships are urgently needed.
Full Text Available This paper describes three different service-learning approaches the authors utilized in graduate art education students and incarcerated residents at a municipal jail facility. By situating our experiences within feminist theory, we analyze and unpack the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. Through an analysis of teacher and student journal entries we came to see that our level of responsiveness to residents needed to increase as compared to our considerations of the university students. We came to see the significant knowledge that the residents hold about excellence in teaching and created an opportunity for the university students and ourselves to learn from the residents. We also identified three areas, breaking stereotypes, awareness of privilege, and showing empathy, that created change in the university students. We believe that service-learning in pre-service teacher preparation programs allows university students to learn from and with residents, thus helping to create more empathetic future teachers.
Full Text Available Women as criminals who have received prison sentences have, if certain conditions are met, special rights tied to their reproductive function. This paper highlights the issues which women who have received prison sentences face, considering that there is only one institution in the Republic of Serbia in which women serve prison sentences. Special regard will be given to pregnant women expecting the execution of a prison sentence, their right to have the sentence suspended, as well as their right to be on temporary licence. The subject of this paper will also be what is perhaps the most complex issue: the incarceration of pregnant women.
Khan, Maria R; Doherty, Irene A; Schoenbach, Victor J; Taylor, Eboni M; Epperson, Matthew W; Adimora, Adaora A
.... The associations between incarceration and high-risk sex partnerships may exist, in part, because incarceration disrupts stable sex partnerships, some of which are protective against high-risk sex partnerships...
Anna R Haskins
Though sociologists have examined how mass incarceration affects stratification, remarkably little is known about how it shapes educational disparities. Analyzing the Fragile Families Study and its rich paternal incarceration data, I ask whether black and white children with fathers who have been incarcerated are less prepared for school both cognitively and non-cognitively as a result, and whether racial and gendered disparities in incarceration help explain the persistence of similar gaps i...
Mass incarceration in America is a moral, economic, and societal crisis with serious implications for many men of color and high school non-completers who are incarcerated at proportionally higher rates than Whites or college graduates. For the formerly incarcerated, engagement in adult learning, whether high school equivalency (HSE) or college,…
Ermer, Elsa; Cope, Lora M.; Nyalakanti, Prashanth K.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.
Objective: To investigate the relationship between brain structure and psychopathic traits in maximum-security incarcerated male adolescents, and to examine whether the associations between brain volumes in paralimbic and limbic regions and psychopathic traits observed in incarcerated adult men extend to an independent sample of incarcerated male…
Sweigart, Amy N
Full Text Available Uterine incarceration is an uncommon but serious presentation in the emergency department that requires early recognition to improve maternal and fetal outcomes.Case: A 29-year-old female, at 12 weeks gestation, presented to the emergency department (ED with complaints of fever, sacral pain and urgency. Based on history and physical examination, she was found to have a retroverted, incarcerated uterus. After a failed attempt at reduction in the ED, her uterus was successfully reduced under general anesthesia.Discussion: Pain and urinary difficulties, such as retention and hesitancy, are frequent in pregnancy, yet incarcerated uterus is an uncommon emergency department diagnosis that often presents with these symptoms. Clues to the diagnosis include a retroverted uterus, urinary retention, and pain in a patient presenting in the third to fourth months of gestation. Treatment is by manual reduction of the uterus. Complications range from spontaneous abortion to uterine rupture.[WestJEM. 2008;9:232-234.
Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Lo, T Wing; Zhong, Lena Y; Chui, Wing Hong
Criminal recidivism of the incarcerated population in Hong Kong has rarely been studied. The purpose of this study is to explore the recidivism rates and to identify significant predictors of reoffending among incarcerated male offenders convicted of a nonviolent offense in Hong Kong. Using a self-reported methodological design, 278 offenders were sampled. These offenders' immediate past incarceration is used as the benchmark for this recidivism study. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year recidivism rates are 21%, 68%, and 87%, respectively. The findings denote that offending history, psychological attributes, interpersonal relationships, and environmental influences are significant reoffending risk factors. These findings, especially the alarming failure rates, highlight the need to seriously assess the effectiveness of intervention strategies used by the Hong Kong correctional system in preventing future offending. Implications for intervention strategies with emphasis on the risk factors for recidivism are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Incarcerated inguinal hernias surgical treatment represents one of the most frequent surgical treatments in elderly patients. The percentage of incarcerated inguinal hernias urgent surgical treatments is growing exponentially with the age in patients over 50. The aim of the study was to investigate some of the factors that may have impact on the incarcerated inguinal hernias surgical treatment outcome in elderly patients. Methods. The study included 180 patients classified in two groups: the study group (> 65 years of age and the control group (≤ 65, managed in the period from January 2005 till March 2009 at the General Surgery Clinic, Clinical Center Niš. Results. Most of the patients had right inguinal hernia (52.6%, the study group; 59.1%, the control group. All the study group patients suffered from some of accompanying chronic diseases (100%, opposite to 39 (59% patients of the control group. Synthetic material was implanted in 124 (68.9% patients, while the tension technique was performed in 65 (31.1% patients. The duration of incarceration more than 24 h (p = 0.015, previous abdominal surgery (p = 0.001, the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification system (ASA classification (p = 0.033 and the presence of chronic diseases (p = 0.01 appeared to be statistically significant risk factors for performing intestinal resection in the study group, while in the control group they represented risk factors, but not at the level of statistical significance (p <0.05, except for the duration of incarceration (p = 0.007. A higher ASA stage (p = 0.001 and the presence of bowel resection (p <0.001 are the most important risk factors for lethal outcome in both groups of patients. Conclusion. Incarcerated inguinal hernia in elderly patients is a serious problem. A higher ASA score and the presence of bowel resection are the most important factors related to unfavorable outcome.
Poehlmann, Julie; Eddy, J Mark; Dallaire, Danielle H; Zeman, Janice L; Myers, Barbara J; Mackintosh, Virginia; Kuznetsova, Maria I; Lotze, Geri M; Best, Al M; Ravindran, Neeraja; Loper, Ann Booker; Clarke, Caitlin Novero; McHale, James P; Salman, Selin; Strozier, Anne; Cecil, Dawn K; Martinez, Charles R; Burraston, Bert
Children with incarcerated parents are at risk for a variety of problematic outcomes, yet research has rarely examined protective factors or resilience processes that might mitigate such risk in this population. In this volume, we present findings from five new studies that focus on child- or family-level resilience processes in children with parents currently or recently incarcerated in jail or prison. In the first study, empathic responding is examined as a protective factor against aggressive peer relations for 210 elementary school age children of incarcerated parents. The second study further examines socially aggressive behaviors with peers, with a focus on teasing and bullying, in a sample of 61 children of incarcerated mothers. Emotion regulation is examined as a possible protective factor. The third study contrasts children's placement with maternal grandmothers versus other caregivers in a sample of 138 mothers incarcerated in a medium security state prison. The relation between a history of positive attachments between mothers and grandmothers and the current cocaregiving alliance are of particular interest. The fourth study examines coparenting communication in depth on the basis of observations of 13 families with young children whose mothers were recently released from jail. Finally, in the fifth study, the proximal impacts of a parent management training intervention on individual functioning and family relationships are investigated in a diverse sample of 359 imprisoned mothers and fathers. Taken together, these studies further our understanding of resilience processes in children of incarcerated parents and their families and set the groundwork for further research on child development and family resilience within the context of parental involvement in the criminal justice system.
Fiona G Kouyoumdjian
Full Text Available We aimed to explore whether mortality data are consistent with the view that aging is accelerated for people with a history of incarceration compared to the general population, using data on mortality rates and life expectancy for persons in Ontario, Canada.We obtained data from the Ontario Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services on all adults admitted to provincial correctional facilities in Ontario in 2000, and linked these data with death records from provincial vital statistics between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2012. We used life table methods to calculate mortality rates and life expectancies for this cohort by sex and 5-year age group. We similarly generated population comparison rates using publicly available data for the general population of Ontario in 2006 as the midpoint of the follow up period. We compared these mortality indices between the 2000 Ontario prison cohort and the general population by age group and sex.The difference in all-cause mortality rates between the 2000 Ontario prison cohort and the general population was greatest for younger adults, with the prison cohort experiencing rates of death that would be expected for persons at least 15 years older at ages 20 to 44 for men and ages 20 to 59 for women. Life expectancy in the 2000 Ontario prison cohort was most similar to life expectancy of persons five years older in the general population at age intervals 20 to 45 in men and 20 to 30 in women.For most of adulthood, life expectancy and mortality rates are worse for adults with a history of incarceration than for the general population in Ontario, Canada. However, the association between mortality and incarceration status is modified by age, with the greatest relative burden of mortality experienced by younger persons with a history of incarceration and modified by sex, with worse relative mortality in women. Future research should explore the association between incarceration status and markers of
Teo, K A T; Burns, E; Garcea, G; Abela, J E; McKay, C J
Lumbar hernias are rare, resulting from protrusion through the posterior abdominal wall that may be congenital, acquired or spontaneous. They very rarely present with acute bowel obstruction. We present a case of incarcerated small bowel within a spontaneous inferior (Petit's) lumbar hernia, treated by early open repair with mesh insertion. This case highlights the importance of thorough clinical examination and a high index of suspicion, even in the absence of previous surgery around the anatomical site of the suspected hernia, in order to effect an early repair before the onset of ischaemia in incarcerated contents.
Giftos, Jonathan; Mitchell, Andreas; MacDonald, Ross
The United States incarcerates more people than any other country in the world. The scale of mass incarceration ensures that almost all practicing physicians will treat formerly incarcerated patients. Yet the majority of physicians receive little training on this topic. In this paper, we will outline the need for expanded education on the interface between incarceration and health, describe initiatives taking place within the New York City jail system and nationally, and describe future directions for curriculum development. We conclude by highlighting the important role health care workers can play in transforming our criminal justice system and ending mass incarceration. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Haskins, Anna R.
A growing number of American school-aged children have incarcerated or formally incarcerated parents necessitating a more comprehensive understanding of the intergenerational effects of mass imprisonment. Using the Fragile Families Study, I assess whether having an incarcerated father impacts children’s cognitive skill development into middle childhood. While previous studies have primarily found effects for boys’ behavior problems, matching models and sensitivity analyses demonstrate that experiencing paternal incarceration by age 9 is associated with lower cognitive skills for both boys and girls and these negative effects hold net of a pre-paternal incarceration measure of child cognitive ability. Moreover, I estimate that paternal incarceration explains between 2 and 15 percent of the Black-White achievement gap at age 9. These findings represent new outcomes of importance and suggest that paternal incarceration may play an even larger role in the production of intergenerational inequalities for American children than previously documented. PMID:28579646
Haskins, Anna R
A growing number of American school-aged children have incarcerated or formally incarcerated parents necessitating a more comprehensive understanding of the intergenerational effects of mass imprisonment. Using the Fragile Families Study, I assess whether having an incarcerated father impacts children's cognitive skill development into middle childhood. While previous studies have primarily found effects for boys' behavior problems, matching models and sensitivity analyses demonstrate that experiencing paternal incarceration by age 9 is associated with lower cognitive skills for both boys and girls and these negative effects hold net of a pre-paternal incarceration measure of child cognitive ability. Moreover, I estimate that paternal incarceration explains between 2 and 15 percent of the Black-White achievement gap at age 9. These findings represent new outcomes of importance and suggest that paternal incarceration may play an even larger role in the production of intergenerational inequalities for American children than previously documented.
Jones, Lise Oen; Varberg, Jeanette; Manger, Terje; Eikeland, Ole-Johan; Asbjornsen, Arve
This paper is the first to examine the Reading and Writing Self-Efficacy Scale among incarcerated adults. The aim was to examine whether performance of reading and spelling tests (Reading Speed, Nonsense Words and Spelling) explained individual differences in the participants' efficacy beliefs in reading and writing. Six hundred subjects rated…
G.H.P. van der Helm PhD; G.J.J.M. Stams; J.C. van der Stel; M.A.M. van Langen; P.H. van der Laan
The present study examined the influence of group climate on empathy in a Dutch youth correctional facility in a sample of 59 incarcerated delinquent boys. Higher levels of empathy have been shown to be associated with less delinquent and more prosocial behaviour, and may therefore be vital for
Curtis, Rebecca S.; Derzis, Nicholas C.; Shippen, Margaret E.; Musgrove, Kate Racoff; Brigman, Holly
The educational background and work history of adult incarcerated males who were 90 days or less from release were examined in the present study. The Vocational and Educational History Questionnaire (VEHQ), the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests Revised/Normative Update, and the Basic Achievement of Common Knowledge and Skills were given to offenders…
Alexander, E. Carlene; And Others
Examines self-reported histories of victimization among two groups of men. Violence, provocation, hostility, and aggression inventories were administered to a prosocial group of firefighters and an antisocial group of incarcerated felons. Fourteen of the 15 possible behavioral-abuse correlations were significant when both groups were considered…
Urinary bladder catheter encrustations are known complications of long-term urinary catheterisation, which is commonly seen in clinical practice. These encrustations can impede deflation of the balloon and therefore cause problems in the removal of the catheter. The options in managing an encrusted and incarcerated ...
Bahn, Charles; Davis, James R.
Analyzed 320 case records, interviewed offenders and staff, and made general observations to evaluate a nonresidential, anti-incarceration facility. Results indicate that successful graduates have the least serious criminal records, most have positive attitudes toward the facility, and participants receive much individual attention. Other findings…
Lantini, Ryan; van den Berg, Jacob J; Roberts, Mary B; Bock, Beth C; Stein, L A R; Parker, Donna R; Friedmann, Peter D; Clarke, Jennifer G
Little is known about smoking behaviors involving shared and previously used cigarettes, which we refer to as "smoking used cigarettes." Examples include: cigarette sharing with strangers, smoking discarded cigarettes ("butts"), or remaking cigarettes from portions of discarded cigarettes. The current study focuses on the prevalence of and factors associated with smoking used cigarettes prior to incarceration among a U.S. prison population. Questionnaires were administered to 244 male and female inmates at baseline. Prevalence of smoking used cigarettes was assessed using 3 questions; 1 about sharing cigarettes with strangers, 1 about smoking a "found" cigarette, and 1 about smoking previously used cigarettes. Factors associated with those who engaged in smoking used cigarettes were then compared with those who did not engage in smoking used cigarettes. A majority of participants (61.5%) endorsed engaging in at least 1 smoking used cigarette behavior in the past prior to incarceration. Those who engaged in these behaviors were more likely to have a higher degree of nicotine dependence, to have started smoking regularly at a younger age, and to have lived in an unstable living environment prior to incarceration. Our results indicate that a history of smoking used cigarettes is common among incarcerated persons in the United States. Consistent with our hypothesis, engaging in smoking used cigarettes was found to be associated with a higher degree of nicotine dependence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
During a discussion with a panel of speakers from All of Us or None, an organization fighting for the rights of people who have been imprisoned, nearly every student in Andy Peck's senior economics class at Berkeley High School in California spoke of family members or friends who were currently locked up or formerly incarcerated, back on their…
Turney, Kristin; Schnittker, Jason; Wildeman, Christopher
As the American imprisonment rate has risen, researchers have become increasingly concerned about the implications of mass imprisonment for family life. The authors extend this research by examining how paternal incarceration is linked to perceived instrumental support among the mothers of inmates' children. Results from the Fragile Families and…
Jeglic, Elizabeth L; Spada, Ashley; Mercado, Cynthia Calkins
Little is known about suicide attempts among sex offenders. This study examines the rates of nonfatal suicide attempts among a sample (N = 3,030) of incarcerated male sex offenders. Overall, the authors found that 14% of sex offenders in the study sample had made a suicide attempt at some point in their lives. Of those, 11% had reported a suicide attempt prior to incarceration, 0.5% had made a suicide attempt while incarcerated, and 2.5% made suicide attempts both prior to and during incarceration. Sex offenders who made suicide attempts were significantly more likely than those who did not make suicide attempts to have had an abusive childhood, a history of psychiatric problems, intellectual impairment, male victims, and related victims. Suicide attempters also scored higher on actuarial risk measures than nonattempters. No differences were found in attempter status between sex offenders who committed sex offenses against children and those who committed sex offenses against adults. A history of psychiatric problems and treatment as well as childhood abuse/neglect and perpetration against male victims predicted suicide attempter status. These findings are discussed as they pertain to suicide prevention, risk assessment, and the collateral consequences of sex offender legislation.
A patient with an incarcerated fallopian tihe complicating an incisional hernia, which was associated with a Pfannenstiel incision, is presented ancl cliscussed. Mechanisms responsible for this type of incisional hernia are outlined. Even though the use of mass closure has significantly decreased the rate of burst abdomen.
Investigates the needs, as perceived by the offender, of families with incarcerated individuals. Seeks to determine inmates' family and parenting issues and concerns, and to assess their interest in formal and informal family services. Results demonstrate that although male and female inmates have different concerns, both seem to value their…
Fishman, Susan Hoffman
Discusses impact of parent's imprisonment on children of male and female inmates at four crisis points: (1) arrest and pretrial; (2) sentencing day; (3) initial incarceration; and (4) pre/post release. Describes Sesame Street projects, designed to provide educational and entertaining activities for children on prison visiting days. (CMG)
Draine, J; Solomon, P
This study of the extent to which probation officers use threats of incarceration when working with clients who have mental illness found that collaboration between probation and parole officers and mental health workers significantly enhances the coercive interactions between officers and their clients. Guidelines for collaboration between criminal justice and mental health systems are called for.
Massoglia, Michael; Remster, Brianna; King, Ryan D.
Prior research suggests a correlation between incarceration and marital dissolution, although questions remain as to why this association exists. Is it the stigma associated with "doing time" that drives couples apart? Or is it simply the duration of physical separation that leads to divorce? This research utilizes data from the National…
Tejani, N; Rosenheck, R; Tsai, J; Kasprow, W; McGuire, J F
There is increasing concern that adults with a past history of incarceration are at particular disadvantage in exiting homelessness. Supported housing with case management has emerged as the leading service model for assisting homeless adults; however there has been limited examination of the success of adults with past history of incarceration in obtaining housing within this paradigm. Data were examined on 14,557 veterans who entered a national supported housing program for homeless veterans, the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing program (HUD-VASH) during 2008 and 2009, to identify characteristics associated with a history of incarceration and to evaluate whether those with a history of incarceration are less likely to obtain housing and/or more likely to experience delays in the housing attainment process. Veterans who reported no past incarceration were compared with veterans with short incarceration histories (≤ 1 year) and those with long incarceration histories (>1 year). A majority of participants reported history of incarceration; 43 % reported short incarceration histories and 22 % reported long incarceration histories. After adjusting for baseline characteristics and site, history of incarceration did not appear to impede therapeutic alliance, progression through the housing process or obtaining housing. Within a national supported housing program, veterans with a history of incarceration were just as successful at obtaining housing in similar time frames when compared to veterans without any past incarceration. Supported housing programs, like HUD-VASH, appear to be able to overcome impediments faced by formerly incarcerated homeless veterans and therefore should be considered a a good model for housing assistance programs.
Attachment organization in a sample of incarcerated mothers: distribution of classifications and associations with substance abuse history, depressive symptoms, perceptions of parenting competency and social support.
Borelli, Jessica L; Goshin, Lorie; Joestl, Sarah; Clark, Juliette; Byrne, Mary W
We report attachment classifications in a sample of pregnant women incarcerated in a state prison with a nursery program. Analyses were based on 69 women serving sentences for felony crimes who were followed from the birth of their child to completion of the prison nursery co-residence. They completed the Adult Attachment Interview shortly after entering the program and scales measuring depression, perceived parenting competency, and social support at study entry (Time 1) and program completion (Time 2). Incarcerated mothers had higher rates of insecure attachment than previous low-risk community samples. Compared with dismissing and secure mothers, preoccupied mothers reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower parenting competency, and lower satisfaction with social support at the conclusion of the nursery program. Higher scores on unresolved loss and derogation were associated with a history of substance abuse; higher scores on unresolved trauma were associated with depressive symptoms at program completion.
Marlow, Elizabeth; White, Mary C; Tulsky, Jacqueline P; Estes, Milton; Menendez, Enrique
Recidivism is a pervasive problem facing the incarcerated. Incarcerated persons who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected often have multiple risk factors associated with initial incarceration and recidivism, in particular, injection drug use. Yet, some jails provide case management for HIV-infected inmates to provide continuity of health care, which might have positive effects on reentry into the community. We sought to measure recidivism and factors related to recidivism in an HIV-infected cohort in an urban county jail with an active case management program. Fifty-two inmates surveyed in 1999 at the San Francisco County Jail were followed for rearrests through 2006. In follow-up, 73% were re-incarcerated on an average of 6.8 times for 552 days. Risk factors included nonwhite ethnicity, history of homelessness and crack use, common risk factors for incarceration. Less than high school education was associated with recidivism, shorter time to reincarceration, and more incarcerations. HIV-infected inmates spend a high proportion of time in multiple incarcerations, a reflection of the cyclical nature of incarceration despite comprehensive case management. Well-known risk factors for incarceration were associated with recidivism; in addition, lack of high school education played a prominent role. Education should be explored as a way to make further progress on breaking the cycle of incarceration.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Incarceration history is associated with lower rates of condom use and increased HIV risk. Less is known about duration of incarceration and multiple incarcerations’ impact on condom use post-release. Methods In the current study, we surveyed 1,416 adults in Mississippi about their incarceration history and sexual risk behaviors. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were used to test associations between duration of incarceration, multiple incarcerations, socio-demographic factors, substance use, sexual behavior, and event level condom use at last sex. Results After adjusting for covariates, having been incarcerated for at least 6 months two or more times remained significantly associated with condomless sex. Conclusions This study found a strong, independent relationship between condom use and multiple, long-term incarceration events among patients in an urban STI clinic in the Deep South. The results suggest that duration of incarceration and multiple incarcerations have significant effects on sexual risk behaviors, underscoring the deleterious impact of long prison or jail sentences on population health. Our findings also suggest that correctional health care professionals and post-release providers might consider offering comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services and those providing community care should consider screening for previous incarceration as a marker of risk.
Marlow, Elizabeth; Tulsky, Jacqueline P.; Estes, Milton; Menendez, Enrique
Recidivism is a pervasive problem facing the incarcerated. Incarcerated persons who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected often have multiple risk factors associated with initial incarceration and recidivism, in particular, injection drug use. Yet, some jails provide case management for HIV-infected inmates to provide continuity of health care, which might have positive effects on reentry into the community. We sought to measure recidivism and factors related to recidivism in an HIV-infected cohort in an urban county jail with an active case management program. Fifty-two inmates surveyed in 1999 at the San Francisco County Jail were followed for rearrests through 2006. In follow-up, 73% were re-incarcerated on an average of 6.8 times for 552 days. Risk factors included nonwhite ethnicity, history of homelessness and crack use, common risk factors for incarceration. Less than high school education was associated with recidivism, shorter time to reincarceration, and more incarcerations. HIV-infected inmates spend a high proportion of time in multiple incarcerations, a reflection of the cyclical nature of incarceration despite comprehensive case management. Well-known risk factors for incarceration were associated with recidivism; in addition, lack of high school education played a prominent role. Education should be explored as a way to make further progress on breaking the cycle of incarceration. PMID:18418714
Howell, Benjamin A; Long, Jessica B; Edelman, E Jennifer; McGinnis, Kathleen A; Rimland, David; Fiellin, David A; Justice, Amy C; Wang, Emily A
Incarceration is associated with increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease mortality. We used data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) to explore the impact of incarceration on blood pressure (BP) control. Among hypertensive VACS participants, we measured the association between self-reported recent incarceration or past (not recent) history of incarceration and BP control in the year following the survey. To analyze the association between incarceration and BP control, we used logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, clinical factors (HIV status and body mass index), and behavioral factors (history of smoking, unhealthy alcohol use, illicit drug use). We explored potential mediators including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, primary care engagement, and adherence to antihypertensive medications. Among the 3515 eligible VACS participants, 2304 participants met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 163 (7 %) reported recent incarceration, and 904 (39 %) reported a past history of incarceration. Participants with recent or past history of incarceration were more likely to have uncontrolled BP than those without a history of incarceration (67 % vs. 56 % vs. 51 %, p incarceration (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.57 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-2.26), but not a past history of incarceration (AOR = 1.08 95 % CI: 0.90-1.30), was associated with uncontrolled BP compared with those who were never incarcerated. Among patients with a history of hypertension, recent incarceration is associated with having uncontrolled BP following release. Interventions are needed for recently released individuals to improve hypertension outcomes.
Peeters, Karen; Huysentruyt, Frederik; Delvaux, Peter
Spigelian hernias are rare hernias, occurring through a defect in the Spigelian aponeurosis. Like other hernias, they may contain abdominal contents but are more likely to be incarcerated due to the small size of the fascial defect. Multiple intra-abdominal organs have reportedly been found in Spigelian hernias. A search of the literature showed only nine reported cases in which an appendix has been found within a Spigelian hernia. We present a patient with a history of lower abdominal pain since 10 weeks with a large intra-abdominal mass in the right iliac fossa. Due to abscess formation with spontaneous evacuation through the abdominal wall, drainage and incision were performed and the patient was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. An explorative laparoscopy after six weeks showed an incarcerated appendix in a Spigelian hernia.
Ermer, Elsa; Kahn, Rachel E.; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A.
The expression, recognition, and communication of emotional states are ubiquitous features of the human social world. Emotional intelligence (EI) is defined as the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions, in oneself and others. Individuals with psychopathy have numerous difficulties in social interaction and show impairment on some emotional tasks. Here we investigate the relation between emotional intelligence and psychopathy in a sample of incarcerated men (n=374), using the ...
Lutwak, Nancy; Dill, Curt
A 59-year-old male with history of hepatitis C, refractory ascites requiring multiple paracentesis and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement presented to the emergency department with 2 days of abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed blood pressure of 104/66 and pulse of 94. The abdomen was remarkable for distention and a tender incarcerated umbilical hernia. The skin overlying the hernia was pale with areas of necrosis. The patient immediately underwent laparotomy whi...
Lutwak, Nancy; Dill, Curt
A 59-year-old male with history of hepatitis C, refractory ascites requiring multiple paracentesis and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement presented to the emergency department with 2 days of abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed blood pressure of 104/66 and pulse of 94. The abdomen was remarkable for distention and a tender incarcerated umbilical hernia. The skin overlying the hernia was pale with areas of necrosis. The patient immediately underwent laparotomy which was successful.
Katharine Elizabeth Stott
Full Text Available We describe a case of HIV/tuberculosis (TB co-infection from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, characterised by drug resistance in both pathogens. The development of drug resistance was linked temporally to two periods of incarceration. This highlights the urgent need for improved integration of HIV/TB control strategies within prison health systems and within the broader public health framework.
Phelps, Michelle S.
After four decades of steady growth, U.S. states’ prison populations finally appear to be declining, driven by a range of sentencing and policy reforms. One of the most popular reform suggestions is to expand probation supervision in lieu of incarceration. However, the classic socio-legal literature suggests that expansions of probation instead widen the net of penal control and lead to higher incarceration rates. This article reconsiders probation in the era of mass incarceration, providing ...
Wohl, David Alain
More than 1% of all adults in the United States are currently in a jail or prison. This mass incarceration, particularly of African American men, fosters conditions that facilitate the spread of HIV in communities where both HIV and incarceration are endemic. Recognition of the role of mass incarceration in the perpetuation of the HIV epidemic is essential to development of effective HIV prevention policies. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.
Bailey, Zinzi D.; WILLIAMS, David R.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A.
The United States has the unenviable distinction of having both the highest obesity rate among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries and the highest incarceration rate in the world. Further, both are socially patterned by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Incarceration involves various health behaviors that could influence adult weight trajectory. We evaluated the associations between history and duration of adult incarceration and weight gain...
Massoglia, Michael; Firebaugh, Glenn; Warner, Cody
Each year, more than 700,000 convicted offenders are released from prison and reenter neighborhoods across the country. Prior studies have found that minority ex-inmates tend to reside in more disadvantaged neighborhoods than do white ex-inmates. However, because these studies do not control for pre-prison neighborhood conditions, we do not know how much (if any) of this racial variation is due to arrest and incarceration, or if these observed findings simply reflect existing racial residential inequality. Using a nationally representative dataset that tracks individuals over time, we find that only whites live in significantly more disadvantaged neighborhoods after prison than prior to prison. Blacks and Hispanics do not, nor do all groups (whites, blacks, and Hispanics) as a whole live in worse neighborhoods after prison. We attribute this racial variation in the effect of incarceration to the high degree of racial neighborhood inequality in the United States: because white offenders generally come from much better neighborhoods, they have much more to lose from a prison spell. In addition to advancing our understanding of the social consequences of the expansion of the prison population, these findings demonstrate the importance of controlling for preprison characteristics when investigating the effects of incarceration on residential outcomes.
Yang, Shuo; Zhang, Guangyong; Jin, Cuihong; Cao, Jinxin; Zhu, Yilin; Shen, Yingmo; Wang, Minggang
Abstract To investigate the efficacy, key technical points, and complication management of the transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) approach for incarcerated inguinal hernia repair. Seventy-three patients with incarcerated inguinal hernias underwent TAPP surgery in our department between Jan 2010 and Dec 2015. A retrospective review was performed by analyzing the perioperative data from these patients. The operation was successfully completed in all 73 patients. Operation time was 54.0 ± 18.8 minutes (range, 35–100 minutes). Length of stay was 3.9 ± 1.1 days (range, 3–9 days). There was 1 case of incisional infection, 32 cases of seroma, and 3 cases of postoperative pain during follow-up. All patients recovered after the appropriate treatment. No recurrence or fistula was observed. The TAPP approach represents a safe and effective technique for incarcerated inguinal hernia repair because of its potential in assessment of hernia content and decreasing incisional infection rate. However, it requires experienced surgeons to ensure safety with special attention paid to the key technical points as well as complication management. PMID:28033260
Gebremariam, M K; Nianogo, R A; Arah, O A
Existing evidence suggests that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among prisoners in different settings is high. Evaluating weight change during incarceration would allow for the investigation of whether the prison environment indeed contributes to unfavourable weight changes. This study aimed to do a systematic review and a meta-analysis of existing evidence regarding weight change during incarceration. We conducted a systematic literature search by using five different online databases and included grey literature. A total of 16 studies, all conducted in developed countries, were identified. Weight change was computed in 11 of these studies and was self-reported in five studies. Only two studies included youth. In all but 1 of the 11 studies using actual assessment of weight change, there was an increase in body weight or body mass index on average or weight gain occurred among a significant proportion of participants. A meta-analysis of eight of these studies showed an average weight gain of 0.43 (95% CI 0.14, 0.72) lb/week. In all studies including perceived weight change, a high proportion (43% to 73%) of participants reported weight gain during incarceration. Health promotion activities within prisons should incorporate initiatives aimed at combating unhealthy weight developments. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.
This article argues that the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a new tactic in the history of American racism. Slavery was ended by the Civil War, but after Reconstruction, the gains of the former slaves were eroded by Jim Crow (a rigid pattern of racial segregation), lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, tenantry, unequal educational resources, terrorism, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Movement struck down legal barriers, but we have chosen to deal with the problems of poverty and race not so differently than we have in the past. The modern version of convict leasing, is mass incarceration. This article documents the dramatic change in American drug policy beginning with Reagan's October, 1982 announcement of the War on Drugs, the subsequent 274 percent growth in the prison and jail populations, and the devastating and disproportionate effect on inner city African Americans. Just as the Jim Crow laws were a reaction to the freeing of the slaves after the Civil War, mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement.
Jillani, Sarah; Patel, Prina; Trestman, Robert; Kamath, Jayesh
Effective interventions for adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the correctional setting may improve care during incarceration, decrease risk of substance relapse, and reduce recidivism after release from the correctional setting of these individuals. The present report delineates the epidemiology of adolescent ADHD in the correctional setting and its association with substance use disorders and comorbid psychiatric illnesses. Evidence suggests that adolescents with ADHD have a higher risk of arrest and incarceration during adulthood. The present report examines evidence related to efficacy of atomoxetine, a nonstimulant medication for the treatment of adolescent ADHD, and presents data from a case series evaluating the effectiveness of atomoxetine for the treatment of adolescent ADHD in the Connecticut correctional setting. The results from the case series suggest that atomoxetine is effective for the treatment of adolescent ADHD in the context of significant past substance use. In summary, adolescents with ADHD have an elevated risk of incarceration and developing substance use disorders. The present review and pilot case series suggest that atomoxetine is an effective treatment for adolescents with ADHD in the correctional setting. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
Anna R Haskins
Full Text Available Though sociologists have examined how mass incarceration affects stratiﬁcation, remarkably little is known about how it shapes educational disparities. Analyzing the Fragile Families Study and its rich paternal incarceration data, I ask whether black and white children with fathers who have been incarcerated are less prepared for school both cognitively and non-cognitively as a result, and whether racial and gendered disparities in incarceration help explain the persistence of similar gaps in educational outcomes and trajectories. Using a variety of estimation strategies, I show that experiencing paternal incarceration by age ﬁve is associated with lower non-cognitive school readiness. While the main effect of incarceration does not vary by race, boys with incarcerated fathers have substantially worse non-cognitive skills at school entry, impacting the likelihood of special education placement at age nine. Mass incarceration facilitates the intergenerational transmission of male behavioral disadvantage, and because of the higher exposure of black children to incarceration, it also plays a role in explaining the persistently low achievement of black boys.
de Saxe Zerden, Lisa; Lundgren, Lena M; Chassler, Deborah; Horowitz, Amanda C; Adorno, Elpidio; Purington, Timothy
Using a sample of 280 Puerto Rican drug users with a history of incarceration residing in Massachusetts, we explore whether a significant association exists between social and economic factors (maintaining social network contacts, receiving public assistance) and lifetime incarceration. Analysis of survey data using regression methods shows that respondents who live in their own home, receive public assistance, and have recent familial contact are significantly less likely to have been incarcerated in the past 6 months. Among study participants, men and those who initiated heroin use at younger ages are more likely to have greater lifetime incarceration totals. Practice implications are discussed.
Haskins, Anna R
Though sociologists have examined how mass incarceration affects stratification, remarkably little is known about how it shapes educational disparities. Analyzing the Fragile Families Study and its rich paternal incarceration data, I ask whether black and white children with fathers who have been incarcerated are less prepared for school both cognitively and non-cognitively as a result, and whether racial and gendered disparities in incarceration help explain the persistence of similar gaps in educational outcomes and trajectories. Using a variety of estimation strategies, I show that experiencing paternal incarceration by age five is associated with lower non-cognitive school readiness. While the main effect of incarceration does not vary by race, boys with incarcerated fathers have substantially worse non-cognitive skills at school entry, impacting the likelihood of special education placement at age nine. Mass incarceration facilitates the intergenerational transmission of male behavioral disadvantage, and because of the higher exposure of black children to incarceration, it also plays a role in explaining the persistently low achievement of black boys.
Solomon, Phyllis; Draine, Jeffrey; Marcus, Steven C
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the extent to which clinical characteristics, psychiatric status, and use of mental health services explain incarceration for technical violations of probation or parole rather...
Hawthorne, William B; Folsom, David P; Sommerfeld, David H; Lanouette, Nicole M; Lewis, Marshall; Aarons, Gregory A; Conklin, Richard M; Solorzano, Ellen; Lindamer, Laurie A; Jeste, Dilip V
Incarceration of people with mental illness has become a major social, clinical, and economic concern, with an estimated 2.1 million incarcerations in 2007. Prior studies have primarily focused on mental illness rates among incarcerated persons. This study examined rates of and risk factors for incarceration and reincarceration, as well as short-term outcomes after incarceration, among patients in a large public mental health system. The data set included 39,463 patient records combined with 4,544 matching incarceration records from the county jail system during fiscal year 2005-2006. Risk factors for incarceration and reincarceration were analyzed with logistic regression. Time after release from the index incarceration until receiving services was examined with survival analysis. During the year, 11.5% of patients (N=4,544) were incarcerated. Risk factors for incarceration included prior incarcerations; co-occurring substance-related diagnoses; homelessness; schizophrenia, bipolar, or other psychotic disorder diagnoses; male gender; no Medicaid insurance; and being African American. Patients older than 45, Medicaid beneficiaries, and those from Latino, Asian, and other non-Euro-American racial-ethnic groups were less likely to be incarcerated. Risk factors for reincarceration included co-occurring substance-related diagnoses; prior incarceration; diagnosed schizophrenia or bipolar disorder; homelessness; and incarceration for three or fewer days. Patients whose first service after release from incarceration was outpatient or case management were less likely to receive subsequent emergency services or to be reincarcerated within 90 days. Modifiable factors affecting incarceration risk include homelessness, substance abuse, lack of medical insurance, and timely receipt of outpatient or case management services after release from incarceration.
Martin, Margaret E.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.
Studies 49 incarcerated women to examine the complex relationship among women's criminal history, victimization, relational supports, personal strengths and their mental health. A cluster analysis produced four typologies shaping recommendations for assessment and treatment. Findings suggest that women with the greatest mental health needs have…
Dallaire, Danielle H; Zeman, Janice L; Thrash, Todd M
Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for social and emotional difficulties, yet few studies have investigated potential mechanisms of risk within this population. This research simultaneously examined the association of children's experience of incarceration-specific risk factors (e.g., witness mother's arrest) and environmental risks (e.g., low educational attainment) to children's psychological maladaptation using a multi-informant design and a latent variable analytic approach. Participants were 117 currently incarcerated mothers (64.1% African American), their 151 children (53.6% boys, M age = 9.8 years, range = 6-12 years, 61.7% African American), and the 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 62.2% African American) of the children. Mothers, children, and caregivers each provided accounts of children's experiences related to maternal incarceration and children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Mothers and caregivers each supplied information about 10 environmental risk factors. Findings from structural equation modeling indicate that children's incarceration-specific risk experiences predict internalizing and externalizing behavior problems whereas the influence of environmental risks was negligible. Follow-up analyses examining the contribution of specific risks indicate that significant predictors differ by reporter and separate into effects of family incarceration history and direct experiences of maternal incarceration. Incarceration-specific experiences place children at higher risk for maladjustment than exposure to general environmental risk factors. These findings indicate the need to critically examine children's exposure to experiences related to maternal incarceration and family incarceration history to help to clarify the multifaceted stressor of maternal incarceration.
Dallaire, Danielle H.; Zeman, Janice L.; Thrash, Todd M.
Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for social and emotional difficulties, yet few studies have investigated potential mechanisms of risk within this population. This research simultaneously examined the association of children’s experience of incarceration-specific risk factors (e.g., witness mother’s arrest) and environmental risks (e.g., low educational attainment) to children’s psychological maladaptation using a multi-informant design and a latent variable analytic approach. Participants were 117 currently incarcerated mothers (64.1% African American), their 151 children (53.6% boys, M age =9.8 years, range =6–12 years, 61.7% African American), and the 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 62.2% African American) of the children. Mothers, children, and caregivers each provided accounts of children’s experiences related to maternal incarceration and children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Mothers and caregivers each supplied information about 10 environmental risk factors. Findings from structural equation modeling indicate that children’s incarceration-specific risk experiences predict internalizing and externalizing behavior problems whereas the influence of environmental risks was negligible. Follow-up analyses examining the contribution of specific risks indicate that significant predictors differ by reporter and separate into effects of family incarceration history and direct experiences of maternal incarceration. Incarceration-specific experiences place children at higher risk for maladjustment than exposure to general environmental risk factors. These findings indicate the need to critically examine children’s exposure to experiences related to maternal incarceration and family incarceration history to help to clarify the multifaceted stressor of maternal incarceration. PMID:24871820
Salmons, Patrick Jeremiah
The United States has many problems currently, the most persistent of which is the issue of race, and the problem of Mass Incarceration. This thesis addresses what Mass Incarceration is, as well as developing a theoretical understanding of how to overcome Mass Incarceration through the music of Kendrick Lamar and The Black Lives Matter Movement. This thesis presents the questions: What is the era of Mass Incarceration? How does Kendrick Lamar�[BULLET]s music inform the problems of Mass Incarc...
Vogel, M.S.; Porter, L.C.
Objectives Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics in the United States are more likely to be incarcerated than non-Hispanic whites. The risk of incarceration also varies with age, and there are striking differences in age distributions across racial/ethnic groups. Guided by these trends, the present
Wildeman, Christopher; Wakefield, Sara; Turney, Kristin
In a recent "Journal of Marriage and Family" article, Johnson and Easterling (2012) reviewed research on the effects of parental incarceration on child well-being, focusing on the various conceptual frameworks linking parental incarceration and child well-being and the "important methodological and conceptual challenges related to selection bias"…
Schnittker, Jason; John, Andrea
Although incarceration rates have risen sharply since the 1970s, medical sociology has largely neglected the health effects of imprisonment. Incarceration might have powerful effects on health, especially if it instills stigma, and it could provide sociologists with another mechanism for understanding health disparities. This study identifies some…
This study extends research on the consequences of mass imprisonment and the causes of children's behavioral problems by considering the effects of paternal incarceration on children's physical aggression at age 5 using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Results suggest that paternal incarceration is associated with…
Farley, Helen; Hopkins, Susan
Space, time and movement have particular meanings and significance for Australian prisoners attempting higher education while incarcerated. In a sense, the prison is another "world" or "country" with its own spatial and temporal arrangements and constraints for incarcerated university students. The contemporary digital…
Swisher, Raymond R.; Roettger, Michael E.
This article examines associations between biological father's incarceration and internalizing and externalizing outcomes of depression and serious delinquency, across White, Black, and Hispanic subsamples of youth in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Among respondents whose father was first incarcerated during childhood or…
Johnson, Elizabeth Inez; Waldfogel, Jane
This paper examines risk factors that exist in the lives of incarcerated parents and their children, focusing on the living arrangements of the children. It uses data from the 1997 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities to address three issues: risk factors present in the lives of incarcerated parents and their children,…
Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Penn, Joseph V.; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony
The purpose of this study is to examine the problem behavior and self-medication models of alcohol abuse in incarcerated male adolescents. Male adolescents (N = 56) incarcerated in a juvenile correction facility were administered a battery of psychological measures. Approximately 84% of adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related…
Welch, Chiquitia L.; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Parker, Sharon
The rise in female delinquency has resulted in large numbers of girls being incarcerated in Youth Development Centers (YDC). However, there are few gender specific treatment programs for incarcerated female adolescent offenders, particularly for those with a history of substance dependency. In this article, we present a Multi-level Risk Model…
Vogel, M.S.; Porter, L.C.
Objectives Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics in the United States are more likely to be incarcerated than non-Hispanic whites. The risk of incarceration also varies with age, and there are striking differences in age distributions across racial/ethnic groups. Guided by these trends, the present
Cortes, Anibal; Villagra, Cristina; Martinez, Suky; Patel, Vir; Jandorf, Lina
In the USA, the rate of incarceration has steadily increased from 1980 to 2010, a period called mass incarceration. Incarcerated individuals are now leaving the jail system in large numbers, the majority of whom are returning to low-income and Black and Hispanic-Latino communities. Although highly preventable, colorectal cancer (CRC) is a significant risk for minority and underserved men over the age of 50. Black men have the highest CRC incidence and mortality rates, which can be prevented and treated effectively when detected early, especially via colonoscopy. Hispanic-Latino men have the third highest CRC incidence rates and the fourth highest mortality rates. This qualitative study seeks to examine how the experience of incarceration and reintegration affects the awareness of CRC screening practices, the attitudes towards these services, the availability of services, and the frequency of CRC screening among the recently released Black and Hispanic-Latino men over the age of 50 in New York City.
Ast, Michael P; Cabrera, Bryan J; DiMaio, Frank R; Lementowski, Peter
A patient with a history of total knee arthroplasty and 5 subsequent revisions presented with pain. His preoperative construct consisted of a revision implant with porous in-growth stem extensions. He was indicated for revision surgery for a painful implant with progressive arthrofibrosis. The surgery proceeded uneventfully until we were unable to loosen the proximal portion of the ingrown femoral stem. After the distal femur was removed, a trephine was used to break the bone ingrowth from the distal portion of the stem. Flexible osteotomes were used to loosen the bone-prosthetic interface, but they were unable to penetrate deep enough, and they eventually bent under the applied loads. Nonflexible osteotomes were also used without success, and we were still unable to remove the stem from within the femur. Slap hammers, vice grips, and other devices were used to try to remove the stem, but attempts were unsuccessful. We hung a 3-liter bag of ice-cold (4 °C) saline and ran all 3 liters of saline, under gravity pressure, retrograde down the femoral shaft in an attempt to contract the metal and allow for the removal of the stem. We then attached a stem extension screw to the incarcerated femoral stem and were able to remove it with minimal effort using a back-slap device. We inspected the prosthesis and found no abnormalities of the stem to explain its incarceration and no iatrogenic perforations in the femur. This case demonstrates a useful technique that should be kept in a revision surgeon's armamentarium for the removal of incarcerated porous ingrowth stems. Copyright © 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
Shah, Minesh P; Edmonds-Myles, Sadiqa; Anderson, Matthew; Shapiro, Miriam E; Chu, Carolyn
We examined the impact of arrest and incarceration on primary care patients in the Bronx, New York. Patients at three clinics were asked eight questions concerning current and past involvement in criminal proceedings, arrest, and incarceration. One hundred eighteen patients were surveyed. Eleven (9%) patients were currently involved in criminal proceedings. Twenty-one (18%) currently had a family member in jail or prison. Twenty-nine (25%) reported ever being arrested; 65 (55%) reported that they or a family member had been arrested. Twenty-one (18%) had been incarcerated; 60 (51%) reported they or a family member had spent time in jail or prison. For most variables, rates were higher for men and the adults accompanying children at pediatric visits. Clinicians reported positive experiences discussing incarceration. Involvement with the criminal justice system was common among our patients. Discussion of incarceration did not appear to have a negative impact on the clinical relationship.
Swan, Martha; Rizzo, Mary
Nonprofit human rights organization John Brown Lives! uses local and regional history as a tool to raise contemporary questions around racial injustice, inspired by the work of controversial abolitionist leader John Brown. In this interview, founder Martha Swan discusses how John Brown Lives! uses public history, from a series of community conversations around mass incarceration and drug laws to a traveling exhibit on voting rights in nineteenth century New York State, to encourage people to question the narrative of American history, the meaning of freedom, the role of policy in racial issues, and the connections between history and place.
Allen, Scott A; Wakeman, Sarah E; Cohen, Robert L; Rich, Josiah D
The United States leads the world in creating prisoners, incarcerating one in 100 adults and housing 25% of the world's prisoners. Since the 1976, the US Supreme Court ruling that mandated health care for inmates, doctors have been an integral part of the correctional system. Yet conditions within corrections are not infrequently in direct conflict with optimal patient care, particularly for those suffering from mental illness and addiction. In addition to providing and working to improve clinical care for prisoners, physicians have an opportunity and an obligation to advocate for reform in the system of corrections when it conflicts with patient well-being.
Full Text Available Silicone drains are often placed in the abdominal cavity for prophylactic reasons. One complication resulting from drainage includes visceral herniation at the drain site of the abdominal wall defect An 82-year-old woman underwent a laparotorny for a large pelvic mass. After the operation, she developed small bowel incarceration, which was caused by aggressive drain extraction. Subsequent surgical treatment resulted in the patient's full recovery. This case emphasises the unusual causative mechanism of intestinal obstruction. Drains should be placed carefully in the abdominal cavity in strictly selected cases, only when it is reasonable to do so.
Kadija, Sasa; Sparić, Radmila; Zizić, Vojislav; Stefanović, Aleksandar
Silicone drains are often placed in the abdominal cavity for prophylactic reasons. One complication resulting from drainage includes visceral herniation at the drain site of the abdominal wall defect. An 82-year-old woman underwent a laparotomy for a large pelvic mass. After the operation, she developed small bowel incarceration, which was caused by aggressive drain extraction. Subsequent surgical treatment resulted in the patient's full recovery. This case emphasises the unusual causative mechanism of intestinal obstruction. Drains should be placed carefully in the abdominal cavity in strictly selected cases, only when it is reasonable to do so.
Moril-Peñalver, L; Pellicer-Garcia, V; Gutierrez-Carbonell, P
Injuries of the medial epicondyle are relatively common, mostly affecting children between 7 and 15 years. The anatomical characteristics of this apophysis can make diagnosis difficult in minimally displaced fractures. In a small percentage of cases, the fractured fragment may occupy the retroepitrochlear groove. The presence of dysesthesias in the territory of the ulnar nerve requires urgent open reduction of the incarcerated fragment. A case of a seven-year-old male patient is presented, who required surgical revision due to a displaced medial epicondyle fracture associated with ulnar nerve injury. A review of the literature is also made. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Pollini, Robin A.; Alvelais, Jorge; Gallardo, Manuel; Vera, Alicia; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriquez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
Limited access to sterile syringes and condoms in correctional facilities make these settings high risk environments for HIV transmission. Although incarceration among injection drug users (IDUs) is common, there is limited information regarding specific IDU risk behaviors inside. We examined correlates of incarceration, injection inside and syringe sharing inside among male IDUs recruited in Tijuana, Mexico, using respondent driven sampling (RDS) (n=898). An interviewer administered survey collected data on sociodemographic, behavioral and contextual characteristics. Associations with a) history of incarceration, b) injection inside, and c) syringe sharing inside were identified using univariate and multiple logistic regression models with RDS adjustment. Seventy-six percent of IDUs had been incarcerated, of whom 61% injected inside. Three quarters (75%) of those who injected shared syringes. U.S. deportation [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 2.43] and migration (AOR=1.81; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.95) were independently associated with incarceration. Injection inside was independently associated with recent receptive syringe sharing (AOR=2.46; 95% CI: 1.75, 3.45) and having sex with a man while incarcerated (AOR=43.59; 95% CI: 1.65, 7.83). Sharing syringes inside was independently associated with having sex with a man while incarcerated (AOR=6.18; 95% CI: 1.78, 21.49). A majority of incarcerated IDUs reported injecting and syringe sharing during incarceration, and these IDUs were more likely to engage in sex with other men. Corrections-based interventions to reduce injection and syringe sharing are urgently needed, as are risk reduction interventions for male IDUs who have sex with men while incarcerated. PMID:19386448
Mollard, Elizabeth; Brage Hudson, Diane
Incarcerated women are a vulnerable and unique population of special concern to nurses as they have high rates of mental illness. In this article, the authors discuss how trauma exposure contributes to mental illness in incarcerated women through abuse, socioeconomic factors, and the prison environment, how this trauma exposure manifests in the inmate survivor, and the related implications for practice. A history of trauma and victimization is related to complex mental health issues which affect the majority of justice-involved women. The correctional environment can exacerbate these issues. Nursing implications include discussion of the trauma-informed care model. The authors recommend a model of trauma-informed care named "the 4 Es" that can guide nurses in preparing a trauma-informed correctional environment and discuss the importance of nurse-led policy change in finding alternatives to incarceration for women with mental illness. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kahn, Rachel E; Ermer, Elsa; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A
Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions and to use this information to guide thinking and behavior adaptively. Youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits demonstrate a variety of affective deficits, including impairment in recognition of emotion and reduced emotional responsiveness to distress or pain in others. We examined the association between ability EI and CU traits in a sample of incarcerated adolescents (n = 141) using an expert-rater device (Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL-YV; Manual for the Hare psychopathy checklist: Youth version. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, 2003) and self-report assessments of CU traits. EI was assessed using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test-Youth Version, Research Version (MSCEIT-YV-R; MSCEIT YV: Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test: Youth version, research version 1.0. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, Ontario, 2005). Similar to findings in adult forensic populations, high levels of CU traits in incarcerated adolescents were associated with lower EI, particularly higher order EI skills. Identifying impairment on EI abilities may have important implications for emerging treatment and intervention developments for youth with high levels of CU traits.
Maricevich, Marco; Farley, David
Obturator hernia (OH) is a rare condition and difficult to diagnose. While they account for as few as 0.073% of all hernias, mortality can be as high as 70%. The typical clinical presentation for OH is small bowel obstruction. Computed tomography is the diagnostic tool of choice. Surgical repair is mandatory in virtually all cases of OH and traditionally consists of performing an exploratory laparotomy. A 90-year-old female was admitted to our surgical service with signs of small bowel obstruction and a CT scan revealing incarcerated fatty tissue and small bowel within a left OH. The role of laparoscopic surgery in the management of OH has been limited to elective repairs; most reports detail that the OH was found serendipitously during laparoscopic inguinal hernia operations or other pelvic procedures. A few reports describe the use of laparoscopy to treat OH associated with bowel obstruction in an emergency setting using a TAPP approach. A strict TEP hernia repair is not indicated for all patients with OH, and should rarely be performed in emergency situations given its limitation to assess or resect bowel if necessary. In selected cases, a formal exploratory laparoscopy that is negative for compromised bowel can be safely followed by a TEP repair using the same umbilical access as shown in our patient. A 90-year-old female with a small bowel obstruction related to an incarcerated OH was treated effectively with an extraperitoneal laparoscopic approach.
Knittel, Andrea K; Snow, Rachel C; Griffith, Derek M; Morenoff, Jeffrey
In this study, we used data from Add Health Waves II and III to compare men who had been incarcerated to those who had not, and examined whether incarceration was associated with increased numbers of sexual partners and increased odds of concurrent partnerships. We used multivariate regression and propensity-score matching to compare sexual behavior of Wave III male respondents who had been incarcerated with those who had not, and compared sexual behavior at Wave II to identify differences in sexual behavior prior to incarceration. Incarceration was associated with an increased rate of lifetime sexual partnership, but this was attenuated by substance use. Criminal justice involvement was associated with increased odds of having partners who report concurrent partnerships, but no further increase was seen with incarceration. There were no significant sexual behavior differences prior to incarceration. These results suggest that the criminal justice system and substance use may interact to shape sexual behavior.
Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A; Kasprow, Wesley J; McGuire, James F
The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has been increasing efforts to reach out to assist incarcerated veterans. While previous studies have shown strong associations between incarceration and homelessness, few studies have examined distinctive characteristics of incarcerated homeless and non-homeless veterans. National administrative data on 30,348 incarcerated veterans served by the Health Care for Re-entry Veterans (HCRV) program were analyzed. Incarcerated veterans were classified into four groups based on their history of past homelessness: not homeless, transiently homeless, episodically homeless, and chronically homeless. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare groups on sociodemographic characteristics, criminal justice status, clinical status, and their interest in using VHA services. Of the sample, 70 % were classified as not homeless, 8 % as transiently homeless, 11 % as episodically homeless, and 11 % as chronically homeless. Thus, 30 % of the sample had a homeless history, which is five times the 6 % rate of past homelessness among adult men in the general population. Compared to non-homeless incarcerated veterans, all three homeless groups reported significantly more mental health problems, more substance abuse, more times arrested in their lifetime, more likely to be incarcerated for a non-violent offense, and were more interested in receiving VHA services after release from prison. Together, these findings suggest re-entry programs, like HCRV, can address relevant mental health-related service needs, especially among formerly homeless veterans and veterans in need of services are receptive to the offer of assistance.
The decade of the 1980s witnessed more than a doubling in the number of incarcerated individuals. Little is known about the psychological reactions of children whose parents are incarcerated, although a variety of behavioral disorders apparently related to separation, stigma, and deception of the child has been reported. The possibility of aggressive or antisocial behavior emerging in sons of incarcerated fathers has been mentioned as of particular concern in some reports. This article discusses salient themes in the literature on the reactions of children to parental incarceration, with an emphasis on boys' reactions to incarceration of their fathers. It critiques this literature and compares the findings with literature on the effects of separation in father absence related to other causes (for example, divorce, death, military service). Behavioral or emotional disorder associated with paternal incarceration probably is related mainly to associated factors such as the meaning of the incarceration to the child, the remaining caretaker's psychological characteristics and psychopathology, the parenting relationship between the caretaker and the child, and the coping capacities and resources of the family, rather than to the separation itself. Recommendations for further research in this increasingly important field are provided.
Phillips, Susan D; O'Brien, Patricia
Beginning in the fall of 2007, Illinois' Division of Mental Health began piloting an early intervention program targeting children of incarcerated parents. The pilot program was situated within a community-based agency on the Westside of Chicago with a high number of currently and formerly incarcerated community members. This article describes the program theory upon which the pilot program was based, the perceived benefits from the perspective of participants and the service provider agency, lessons learned, and recommendations for making incarceration-sensitive interventions a routine part of children's mental health services.
S J Baruah
Full Text Available Penile incarceration injury by heavy metallic ring is a rare genital injury. A man may place metal object for erotic or autoerotic purposes, for masturbation or increasing erection, and due to psychiatric disturbances are some of the reasons for a penile incarceration injury. The incarcerating injury results in reduced blood flow distal to the injury, leading to edema, ischemia, and sometimes gangrene. These injuries are divided into five grades and their treatment options are divided into four groups. Surgical techniques are reserved for the advanced grades (Grades IV and V. We describe an innovative surgical technique, which can be adopted in Grades II and III injuries.
Prasad C Soraganvi
Full Text Available Rotational dislocations of patella, which involve rotation of the patella around a horizontal or vertical axis are rare. These rotational dislocations of patella are difficult to reduce by close methods. These dislocations can have associated osteochondral and retinacular injury. We report a case of a 20-year-old male who presented with swelling and pain in the right knee following a motor cycle accident. Radiological evaluation using the computed tomography revealed a patellar dislocation with a concomitant Hoffa fracture. Patella was rotated around the vertical axis and was incarcerated into the Hoffa fracture. This is a very rare injury and first of its kind to be reported. The difficulties in diagnosis, mechanism of injury and management have been discussed. We feel closed reduction of such an injury is likely to fail and open reduction is recommended.
Background In the United States, tobacco use among prisoners is nearly three times that of the general population. While many American prisons and jails are now tobacco-free, nearly all inmates return to smoking as soon as they are released back into the community. Methods To better understand the role that personal relationships may play in enabling return to smoking, we enrolled former-smokers who were inmates in a tobacco-free prison. Baseline assessments were conducted six weeks prior to inmates’ scheduled release and included measures of smoking prior to incarceration, motivation, confidence and plans for remaining quit after release. We also assessed global social support (ISEL) and a measure of social support specific to quitting smoking (SSQ). Smoking status was assessed three weeks after prison release and included 7-day point-prevalence abstinence validated by urine cotinine, days to first cigarette and smoking rate. Results A diverse sample comprised of 35% women, 20% Hispanic, and 29% racial minorities (average age 35.5 years) provided baseline data (n = 247). Over 90% of participants provided follow up data at 3-weeks post-release. Prior to incarceration participants had smoked an average of 21.5 (SD = 11.7) cigarettes per day. Only 29.2% had definite plans to remain smoking-abstinent after release. Approximately half of all participants reported that “most” or “all” of their family (42.2%) and friends (68%) smoked, and 58.8% reported their spouse or romantic partner smoked. SSQ scores were not significantly predictive of smoking outcomes at three weeks, however, social support from family and friends were each significantly and positively correlated with motivation, confidence, and plans for remaining abstinent (all p values smoking-related attitudinal variables were significantly predictive of smoking outcomes (all p values smoking-related attitudinal variables or smoking outcomes. Conclusions Inmates of smoke-free prisons have a
Rocque, Michael; Bierie, David M; MacKenzie, Doris L
Research examining prisoner reentry has demonstrated negative impacts of incarceration on social bonds. However, this research is limited in two ways. First, it generally examines outcomes after release, paying less attention to processes occurring in prison. Second, this work tends to examine "incarceration" as a whole, regarding prisons as homogenous. This study uses data from an experiment in which offenders were randomly assigned to incarceration at one of two prisons polarized across a number of structural characteristics that research suggests affect social bonds (a traditional prison vs. a correctional boot camp). Groups were compared with respect to commitment, belief, attachment, and in terms of changes among their relationships during incarceration. The data showed that the boot camp improved prosocial beliefs, but few differences emerged in terms of commitment and attachment. Similarly, the data showed few differences in attachment regardless of the prosocial or antisocial orientation of the inmate's friends or family.
Nyamathi, Adeline M; Marlow, Elizabeth; Branson, Catherine; Marfisee, Mary; Nandy, Karabi
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination rates for incarcerated adults remain low despite their high risk for infection. This study determined predictors of vaccine completion in homeless adults (N= 297) who reported histories of incarceration and who participated in one of three nurse-led hepatitis programs of different intensity. Moreover time since release from incarceration was also considered. Just over half of the former prisoners completed the vaccine series. Older age (≥40), having a partner, and chronic homelessness were associated with vaccine completion. Recent research has documented the difficulty in providing vaccine services to younger homeless persons and homeless males at risk for HBV. Additional strategies are needed to achieve HBV vaccination completion rates greater than 50% for formerly incarcerated homeless men. © 2012 International Association of Forensic Nurses.
Ferguson, Warren J; Cloud, David; Spaulding, Anne C; Shelton, Deborah; Trestman, Robert L; Altice, Frederick L; Champion-Lippmann, Carisa; Thomas, David; Taxman, Faye S
Over 100 million Americans have criminal records, and the U.S. incarcerates seven times more citizens than most developed countries. The burden of incarceration disproportionately affects people of color and ethnic minorities, and those living in poverty. While 95% of incarcerated people return to society, recidivism rates are high with nearly 75% arrested again within five years of release. Criminal records impede access to employment and other social services such as shelter and health care. Justice-involved people have higher rates of substance, mental health, and some chronic medical disorders than the general population; furthermore, the incarcerated population is rapidly aging. Only a minority of academic health science centers are engaged in health services research, workforce training, or correctional health care. This commentary provides rationale and a blueprint for engagement of academic health science institutions to harness their capabilities to tackle one of the country's most vexing public health crises.
Green, Traci C; Pouget, Enrique R; Harrington, Magdalena; Taxman, Faye S; Rhodes, Anne G; OʼConnell, Daniel; Martin, Steven S; Prendergast, Michael; Friedmann, Peter D
... and the male incarceration rate. Longitudinal data from 1287 drug-involved persons on probation and parole as part of the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies were matched by county of residence with population factors...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2003 Thailand has waged an aggressive "war on drugs" campaign focused on arresting and incarcerating suspected drug users and dealers. However, little is known about incarceration experiences among IDU in the wake of the recent war on drugs. Therefore, we sought to examine incarceration experiences among IDU in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods We examined the prevalence of incarceration among community-recruited IDU participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with a self-reported history of incarceration. We also examined the prevalence of injection drug use and syringe sharing within prisons. Results 252 IDU were recruited in August 2008; 66 (26.2% were female and the median age was 36.5 years. In total, 197 (78.2% participants reported a history of incarceration. In multivariate analyses, reporting a history of incarceration was associated with a history of compulsory drug treatment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.95 - 12.48, non-fatal overdose (AOR = 3.69; 95%CI: 1.45 - 9.39, syringe sharing (AOR = 2.20; 95%CI: 1.12 - 4.32, and female gender (AOR = 0.41; 95%CI: 0.20 - 0.82. Among those who reported a history of incarceration, 59 (29.9% reported injection drug use in prison, and 48 (81.4% of these individuals reported sharing syringes in prison. Incarceration was not associated with the number of injections performed in the previous week (p = 0.202. Conclusion Over three-quarters of the IDU participating in this study reported a history of incarceration, and 30% of these individuals reported injection drug use within prison. Further, an alarmingly high level of syringe sharing within prison was reported, and incarceration was not associated with reductions in drug use. These findings provide further evidence of the need for community diversion strategies, as well as harm reduction programs, in Thai
Mainik, F; Flade-Kuthe, R; Kuthe, A
To estimate the value of TEP in the treatment of incarcerated and irreponible inguinal and femoral hernias more exactly we prospectively collected and evaluated the data of our clinic for the period of Oct. 1999 until Dec. 2003. In this period we performed in total 1 671 hernia repairs including 79 patients suffering from an incarcerated (n = 33) or irreponible (n = 46) inguinal or femoral hernia. Using only the TEP-technique we treated mainly the irreponible hernias (46 patients). In the combination of LAP (laparoscopy) and TEP (27 patients) the laparoscopy provided the possibility to classify as well the incarcerated tissue as the result of the reposition. With this combined technique we treated the majority of the incarcerated hernias. To confirm the recovery of the incarcerated tissue laparoscopy can be of high value at the end of the combined LAP + TEP (2 patients). Thus TEP was performed in 92 % of the cases. In 2 cases we performed a conventional hernioplasty and one operation was finished conventionally after switching from endoscopic to conventional procedure. In 2 patients we performed a laparoscopically supported resection of the incarcerated tissue without patch implantation. 1 patient acquired TAPP. The use of different operative techniques and their combinations demonstrates as well the possibility as the necessity of a differentiated and case adapted proceeding in the treatment of incarcerated hernias. Lethality with 1.2 % and early postoperative morbidity with only 5.0 % were low. The hospitalisation period was 4.7 d on average. Our results are comparable to results of literature and show that TEP-technique and combined TEP + LAP-technique are possible and reasonable for the treatment of incarcerated and irreponible hernias.
Full Text Available Background: No research has estimated the cumulative risk of paternal or maternal incarceration in any country other than the U.S., so it remains unclear how much more likely U.S. children are to be exposed to parental incarceration than children living in other countries. Objective: To estimate the cumulative risks of paternal and maternal incarceration (including even very short jail stays of less than 24 hours by age 14 for the 1990 Danish birth cohort. We then compare these estimates to equivalent estimates for the 1990 U.S. birth cohort. Methods: We use birth cohort life tables and Danish registry data, which provide administrative records on all incarcerations in Denmark, to estimate the cumulative risks of paternal and maternal incarceration. We follow the full 1990 Danish birth cohort (N = 62,982 up to age 14 to see whether each child has ever experienced different lengths of paternal and maternal incarceration. Results: We estimate that 1.54Š of Danish children experienced paternal imprisonment and that 8.78Š of Danish children experienced any paternal incarceration (including jail stays less than 24 hours, indicating that U.S. children are almost as likely to have their fathers sent to prison (which usually results from a sentence of at least one year in the U.S. as Danish children are to have their fathers spend less than one day in jail. Results for maternal imprisonment are similar. Conclusions: U.S. children are far more likely to be exposed to parental incarceration than Danish children, suggesting that imprisonment contributes not only to inequality among children within the U.S., but also to inequality between children in the U.S. and children in other developed democracies.
Johnson, Megan M; Mikolajewski, Amy; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Eckel, Lisa A; Taylor, Jeanette
Previous research has demonstrated that psychopathic personality traits are significantly predictive of blunted cortisol reactivity to a performance-based stressor task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) in college students. However, the relationship between cortisol reactivity and psychopathy has not been explored in high risk samples such as incarcerated populations. Further, the role of imprisonment in relation to cortisol stress reactivity has not been previously explored, but could have practical and conceptual consequences in regard to rehabilitation and biological sensitivity to context, respectively. The current study tested the hypotheses that both psychopathic personality traits and amount of time incarcerated are related to cortisol blunting in response to stress among incarcerated young adults. A sample of 49 young adult male offenders was recruited to complete the TSST. Salivary hormone samples were taken just prior to and 20 min post-stressor, and participants were interviewed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version. Variables quantifying the amount of time at the present facility prior to the date of testing and number of commitments in juvenile facilities were also collected. Correlational analyses indicated that only number of incarcerations was related to blunted cortisol. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that time incarcerated and number of commitments were related to a blunted cortisol response among responders and declining cortisol reactivity among nonresponders, respectively. Controlling for time incarcerated, psychopathic traits were significantly related to cortisol decline in response to the stressor among nonresponders, but were not related to blunted cortisol among responders. Results of this project highlight the potential biological effects of prolonged and repeated incarcerations, and extend our understanding about the relationship between psychopathic traits and cortisol reactivity in an incarcerated sample. Copyright © 2015
Full Text Available Spontaneous scrotal faecal fistula is a rare complication of incarcerated inguino-scrotal hernia in the neonate and infants. Only five previous cases have been reported in the English medical literature. We report another case of a 28-day-old neonate, who presented with fecal fistula following prolonged incarceration of a right inguino-scrotal hernia. The etiology and management of this rare complication is discussed.
Dallaire, Danielle H.; Zeman, Janice L.; Thrash, Todd M.
Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for social and emotional difficulties, yet few studies have investigated potential mechanisms of risk within this population. This research simultaneously examined the association of children’s experience of incarceration-specific risk factors (e.g., witness mother’s arrest) and environmental risks (e.g., low educational attainment) to children’s psychological maladaptation using a multi-informant design and a latent variable analytic app...
Venkata K Mukku
Full Text Available Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the US population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the United States. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91–180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.
Cusack, Meagan; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth
Homelessness and incarceration share a bidirectional association: individuals experiencing homelessness are more likely to be incarcerated and former inmates are more likely to become homeless. Permanent supportive housing (PSH) programs have demonstrated positive outcomes for participants with criminal histories, yet participants continue to exit to jail or prison and experience subsequent homelessness. Using data on Veterans participating in a PSH program at 4 locations between 2011 and 2014 (N = 1,060), logistic regression was used to examine the risk factors for exiting PSH because of incarceration and returning to homelessness. Though exiting because of incarceration was uncommon, Veterans with a drug use disorder who decreased the frequency of related care over time had an increased risk for this outcome, and a history of incarceration increased Veterans' risk of experiencing ongoing homelessness. Findings can inform housing and reentry interventions which should account for participant risk factors and service needs in an effort to end the cycle of homelessness and incarceration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Phelps, Michelle S
After four decades of steady growth, U.S. states' prison populations finally appear to be declining, driven by a range of sentencing and policy reforms. One of the most popular reform suggestions is to expand probation supervision in lieu of incarceration. However, the classic socio-legal literature suggests that expansions of probation instead widen the net of penal control and lead to higher incarceration rates. This article reconsiders probation in the era of mass incarceration, providing the first comprehensive evaluation of the role of probation in the build-up of the criminal justice system. The results suggest that probation was not the primary driver of mass incarceration in most states, nor is it likely to be a simple panacea to mass incarceration. Rather, probation serves both capacities, acting as an alternative and as a net-widener, to varying degrees across time and place. Moving beyond the question of diversion versus net widening, this article presents a new theoretical model of the probation-prison link that examines the mechanisms underlying this dynamic. Using regression models and case studies, I analyze how states can modify the relationship between probation and imprisonment by changing sentencing outcomes and the practices of probation supervision. When combined with other key efforts, reforms to probation can be part of the movement to reverse mass incarceration.
Stress proliferation theory suggests that parental incarceration may have deleterious intergenerational health consequences. In this study, I use data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) to estimate the relationship between parental incarceration and children's fair or poor overall health, a range of physical and mental health conditions, activity limitations, and chronic school absence. Descriptive statistics show that children of incarcerated parents are a vulnerable population who experience disadvantages across an array of health outcomes. After adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and familial characteristics, I find that parental incarceration is independently associated with learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, behavioral or conduct problems, developmental delays, and speech or language problems. Taken together, results suggest that children's health disadvantages are an overlooked and unintended consequence of mass incarceration and that incarceration, given its unequal distribution across the population, may have implications for population-level racial-ethnic and social class inequalities in children's health. © American Sociological Association 2014.
Zeman, Janice L; Dallaire, Danielle H; Folk, Johanna B; Thrash, Todd M
Children who live in the context of maternal incarceration (MI) are exposed to both general environmental risk and incarceration-specific risk increasing the probability of their developing externalizing and internalizing behaviors problems. Little research has examined the socio-emotional mechanisms that account for the psychological effects of MI. This research examined children's anger and sadness regulation as mediators between environmental and incarceration-specific risk and psychological functioning. Participants were 117 children (60% Black; 52% boys; M age = 9.85 years, SD = 1.65 years), their incarcerated mother, and current caregiver. All informants completed questionnaires assessing children's anger and sadness regulation as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Mothers and caregivers provided information concerning children's exposure to environmental risk and all three reporters provided information on incarceration-specific risk experiences (ISRE). Structural equation modeling was used to test indirect effects of risk variables (ISRE, environmental) on psychological functioning (externalizing, internalizing behaviors) via emotion regulation (anger, sadness). Gender, age, and race were covariates. The analyses revealed significant indirect effects of incarceration-specific risk on both externalizing and internalizing behavior problems via anger regulation but not via sadness regulation. The findings highlight the centrality of emotion regulation as a mechanism that helps explain the negative psychological outcomes experienced by children exposed to ISRE with implications for preventive interventions.
Mindra, Godwin; Wortham, Jonathan M; Haddad, Maryam B; Salinas, Jorge L; Powell, Krista M; Armstrong, Lori R
We examined the National tuberculosis surveillance system to describe Hispanic persons who were incarcerated at time of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and to compare their characteristics with those of non-Hispanic incarcerated TB patients. After declines between 1993 and 2002, the annual proportion of Hispanic TB patients who were incarcerated grew from 4.9% in 2003 to 8.4% in 2014. During 2003-2014, 19% of incarcerated US-born TB patients were Hispanic, and 86% of the foreign-born were Hispanic. Most incarcerated TB patients were in local jails, but about a third of all foreign-born Hispanics were in the facility category that includes Immigration and Customs Enforcement detention centers. Foreign birth and recent U.S. arrival characterized many Hispanic persons receiving a TB diagnosis while incarcerated. Hispanic patients had twice the odds of being in federal prisons. Systematic efforts to identify TB infection and disease might lead to early diagnoses and prevention of future cases.
Assari, Shervin; Miller, Reuben Jonathan; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Mouzon, Dawne; Keith, Verna; Chatters, Linda M
Using a nationally representative sample of African American men, this study investigated the associations between lifetime history of incarceration, discrimination, and mental health (e.g., depressive symptoms and psychological distress). We hypothesized that discrimination would fully mediate the association between incarceration history and mental health outcomes among African American men. Using a cross-sectional design, our analysis included 1271 African American men who participated in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001-2003. Incarceration history was the main independent variable. Depressive symptoms and psychological distress were the dependent variables. Everyday discrimination was the mediator. Age, education, and income were covariates. Structural equation models (SEMs) were used for data analysis. Among African American men, incarceration history was positively associated with perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, and psychological distress. Everyday discrimination fully mediated the associations between incarceration history and both depressive symptoms and psychological distress. Discrimination may play an important role in the mental health problems of African American men with a history of incarceration. These findings have public policy implications as well as clinical implications for mental health promotion of African American men. Policies that reduce preventable incarceration or at least reduce subsequent discrimination for those who have been incarcerated may enhance mental health of previously incarcerated African American men.
Catz, Sheryl L; Thibodeau, Laura; BlueSpruce, June; Yard, Samantha S; Seal, David W; Amico, K Rivet; Bogart, Laura M; Mahoney, Christine; Balderson, Benjamin H K; Sosman, James M
Greater understanding of barriers to risk reduction among incarcerated HIV+ persons reentering the community is needed to inform culturally tailored interventions. This qualitative study elicited HIV prevention-related information, motivation and behavioral skills (IMB) needs of 30 incarcerated HIV+ men and women awaiting release from state prison. Unmet information needs included risk questions about viral loads, positive sexual partners, and transmission through casual contact. Social motivational barriers to risk reduction included partner perceptions that prison release increases sexual desirability, partners' negative condom attitudes, and HIV disclosure-related fears of rejection. Personal motivational barriers included depression and strong desires for sex or substance use upon release. Behavioral skills needs included initiating safer behaviors with partners with whom condoms had not been used prior to incarceration, disclosing HIV status, and acquiring clean needles or condoms upon release. Stigma and privacy concerns were prominent prison context barriers to delivering HIV prevention services during incarceration.
Ermer, Elsa; Kahn, Rachel E.; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A.
The expression, recognition, and communication of emotional states are ubiquitous features of the human social world. Emotional intelligence (EI) is defined as the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions, in oneself and others. Individuals with psychopathy have numerous difficulties in social interaction and show impairment on some emotional tasks. Here we investigate the relation between emotional intelligence and psychopathy in a sample of incarcerated men (n=374), using the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002). The MSCEIT is a well-validated ability-based emotional intelligence measure that does not rely on self-report judgments of emotional skills. The Hare PCL-R is the gold-standard for the assessment of psychopathy in clinical populations. Controlling for general intelligence, psychopathy was associated with lower emotional intelligence. These findings suggest individuals with psychopathy are impaired on a range of emotional intelligence abilities and that emotional intelligence is an important area for understanding deficits in psychopathy. PMID:22329657
Psick, Zachary; Simon, Jonathan; Brown, Rebecca; Ahalt, Cyrus
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the policy Implications of aging prison populations. Design/methodology/approach An examination of the worldwide aging trend in prison and its implications for correctional policy, including an examination of population aging in California prisons as a case example of needed reform. Findings Prison populations worldwide are aging at an unprecedented rate, and age-related medical costs have had serious consequences for jurisdictions struggling to respond to the changes. These trends are accompanied by a growing body of evidence that old age is strongly correlated with desistance from criminal behavior, suggesting an opportunity to at least partially address the challenges of an aging prison population through early release from prison for appropriate persons. Originality/value Some policies do exist that aim to reduce the number of older, chronically ill or disabled and dying people in prison, but they have not achieved that goal on a sufficient scale. An examination of the situation in California shows that recognizing how the healthcare needs of incarcerated people change as they age - and how aging and aging-related health changes often decrease an older person's likelihood of repeat offense - is critical to achieving effective and efficient policies and practices aimed at adequately caring for this population and reducing their numbers in prisons when appropriate.
Naciye Sinem Gezer
Full Text Available An 82-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room with an acute left-sided groin pain and scrotal swelling. He has suffered from a groin hernia for two years. Abdominal x-ray demonstrated air-fluid levels in the left upper quadrant suggesting an intestinal obstruction (Figure 1. Abdominal computed tomography (CT scan was obtained with an initial diagnosis of an incarcerated inguinal hernia. However, it showed multiple perirenal abscesses and a giant-sized retroperitoneal abscess extending from the retroperitoneal space into the scrotum through the inguinal canal (Figure 2 and 3. Retroperitoneal abscesses are most frequently seen in the 3rd to 6th decades of life (1. Gram-negative bacteria, most commonly E. coli, are the cause of infection which usually develops secondary to pyelonephritis, urinary stasis or immune suppression. The onset of clinical manifestations of the infection, including flank, abdomen and groin pain, chills, fever, tachycardia, weakness and anorexia are often insidious (2,3. Laboratory findings include leukocytosis, increased serum creatinine levels and pyuria. The literature emphasizes the possibility of diagnostic delay and postponed treatment of retroperitoneal abscess due to the fact that its prodrome phase may be long.
Kimonis, Eva R; Fanti, Kostas A; Isoma, Zachary; Donoghue, Kathleen
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits in youth are believed to be a developmental precursor to adult psychopathy, tapping its affective dimension. There is growing support for the existence of variants of psychopathy that can be distinguished based on the presence of anxiety, maltreatment histories, and comorbid psychopathology. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether primary and secondary variants of CU traits could be differentiated according to their experiences of distinct types of childhood maltreatment among a sample of 227 incarcerated adolescent boys. Results indicated that variants of youth scoring high on CU traits could be identified which were consistent with theory and prior research. Greater sexual abuse histories, violent and property delinquency, and a sexually motivated index offense distinguished secondary variants, whereas greater neglect distinguished primary variants of youth with CU traits. Psychopathy variants were behaviorally indistinguishable with respect to their levels of aggression and drug delinquency, although they differed in several important ways from youth scoring low on CU traits. Variants also showed distinct patterns of scores on the measure of CU traits. These findings are important to informing developmental theories of psychopathy and have practical and policy implications for intervening with maltreated and antisocial youth.
Thijssen, Sandra; Kiehl, Kent A
The present study examined the association between psychopathic traits and functional connectivity in 177 incarcerated male adolescents. We hypothesized that psychopathic symptoms would be associated with functional connectivity within networks encompassing limbic and paralimbic regions, such as the default mode (DMN), salience networks (SN), and executive control network (ECN). The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from research at a youth detention facility in Wisconsin. All participants were scanned at maximum-security facilities. Psychopathic traits were assessed using Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version. Resting-state networks were computed using group Independent Component Analysis. Associations between psychopathic traits and resting-state connectivity were assessed using Mancova analyses. PCL-YV Total score and Factor 1 score (interpersonal and affective traits) were associated with the power spectra of the DMN. Factor 1 score was associated with SN and ECN spatial maps. Factor 2 score (lifestyle and antisocial traits) was associated with spatial map of the ECN. Only the Factor 1 association with DMN power spectrum survived correction for multiple testing. Comparable to adult psychopathy, adolescent psychopathic traits were associated with networks implicated in self-referential thought, moral behavior, cognition, and saliency detection: functions previously reported to be disrupted in adult psychopaths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Conclusion: An incarcerated Bochdalek hernias associated with increased intra-abdominal pressure is an uncommon clinical finding in an adult, and laparoscopic repair of an incarcerated Bochdalek hernia is safe, feasible, and an excellent option as it is minimally invasive.
Meyer, Jaimie P; Cepeda, Javier; Wu, Johnny; Trestman, Robert L; Altice, Frederick L; Springer, Sandra A
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) management in correctional settings is logistically feasible, but HIV-related outcomes before release have not been recently systematically examined. To evaluate HIV treatment outcomes throughout incarceration, including jail and prison. Retrospective cohort study of longitudinally linked demographic, pharmacy, and laboratory data on 882 prisoners within the Connecticut Department of Correction (2005-2012) with confirmed HIV infection, who were continually incarcerated 90 days or more, had at least 2 HIV-1 RNA and CD4 lymphocyte measurements, and were prescribed antiretroviral therapy. Three electronic databases (correctional, laboratory, and pharmacy) were integrated to assess HIV viral suppression (HIV-1 RNA levels, HIV-1 RNA levels and mean change in CD4 lymphocyte count during incarceration. Demographic characteristics, prescribed pharmacotherapies, receipt of directly observed therapy, and duration of incarceration were analyzed as possible explanatory variables for HIV viral suppression in logistic regression models. Among 882 HIV-infected prisoners with 1185 incarceration periods, mean HIV-1 RNA level decreased by 1.1 log10 and CD4 lymphocyte count increased by 98 cells/µL over time, with a higher proportion achieving viral suppression by release compared with entry (70.0% vs 29.8%; P HIV-1 RNA level, prerelease viral suppression correlated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.26-2.59) and psychiatric disorder severity below the sample median (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.12-1.99), but not race/ethnicity, incarceration duration, ART regimen or dosing strategy, or directly observed therapy. Though just one-third of HIV-infected prisoners receiving ART entered correctional facilities with viral suppression, HIV treatment was optimized during incarceration, resulting in the majority achieving viral suppression by release. Treatment for HIV within prison is facilitated by a highly structured
Full Text Available Abstract Background Street-involved youth are known to be an economically vulnerable population that commonly resorts to risky activities such as drug dealing to generate income. While incarceration is common among people who use illicit drugs and associated with increased economic vulnerability, interventions among this population remain inadequate. Although previous research has documented the role of incarceration in further entrenching youth in both the criminal justice system and street life, less is known whether recent incarceration predicts initiating drug dealing among vulnerable youth. This study examines the relationship between incarceration and drug dealing initiation among street-involved youth. Methods Between September 2005 and November 2014, data were collected through the At-Risk Youth Study, a cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit drugs, in Vancouver, Canada. An extended Cox model with time-dependent variables was used to examine the relationship between recent incarceration and initiation into drug dealing, controlling for relevant confounders. Results Among 1172 youth enrolled, only 194 (16.6% were drug dealing naïve at baseline and completed at least one additional study visit to facilitate the assessment of drug dealing initiation. Among this sample, 56 (29% subsequently initiated drug dealing. In final multivariable Cox regression analysis, recent incarceration was significantly associated with initiating drug dealing (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.31; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.21–4.42, after adjusting for potential confounders. Measures of recent incarceration lagged to the prior study follow-up were not found to predict initiation of drug dealing (hazard ratio = 1.50; 95% CI 0.66–3.42. Conclusions These findings suggest that among this study sample, incarceration does not appear to significantly propel youth to initiate drug dealing. However, the initiation of drug dealing among youth coincides
Full Text Available There is an increased risk of death due to drug toxicity after release from incarceration. The purpose of this study was to describe the timing, rate and circumstances of drug toxicity deaths following release from incarceration. This information can be used to help design potential preventive interventions.We reviewed coroner's files to identify deaths in adults in Ontario between 2006 and 2013 caused by drug toxicity (n = 6,978 and these records were matched with provincial correctional records to identify individuals who died within one year of being released from incarceration (n = 702. Twenty percent (n = 137 of the 702 deaths occurred within one week of release. The majority (77%, n = 538 of deaths after release involved one or more opioids. Of the deaths involving opioids, intervention by another person may have been possible in 318 cases.Between 2006 and 2013 in Ontario, one in ten drug toxicity deaths in adults occurred within one year of release from provincial incarceration. These findings may help to inform the implemention and assessment of interventions aimed at reducing drug toxicity deaths following release from incarceration.
Groot, Emily; Kouyoumdjian, Fiona G; Kiefer, Lori; Madadi, Parvaz; Gross, Jeremy; Prevost, Brittany; Jhirad, Reuven; Huyer, Dirk; Snowdon, Victoria; Persaud, Navindra
There is an increased risk of death due to drug toxicity after release from incarceration. The purpose of this study was to describe the timing, rate and circumstances of drug toxicity deaths following release from incarceration. This information can be used to help design potential preventive interventions. We reviewed coroner's files to identify deaths in adults in Ontario between 2006 and 2013 caused by drug toxicity (n = 6,978) and these records were matched with provincial correctional records to identify individuals who died within one year of being released from incarceration (n = 702). Twenty percent (n = 137) of the 702 deaths occurred within one week of release. The majority (77%, n = 538) of deaths after release involved one or more opioids. Of the deaths involving opioids, intervention by another person may have been possible in 318 cases. Between 2006 and 2013 in Ontario, one in ten drug toxicity deaths in adults occurred within one year of release from provincial incarceration. These findings may help to inform the implemention and assessment of interventions aimed at reducing drug toxicity deaths following release from incarceration.
Haskins, Anna R
Within the last few decades our understanding of the importance of non-cognitive skills for socioeconomic success has grown along with our knowledge of the deleterious impacts of paternal incarceration for child wellbeing. Given the importance of early skills and that elementary-aged children constitute the majority of children with incarcerated parents, understanding the connection between paternal incarceration and the socio-emotional component of children's non-cognitive development is pressing. Using matching models, data from the newest wave of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, and exploring a larger range of behavioral skills than previous literature, this paper provides estimates of the impact of paternal incarceration on children's behavioral functioning at age 9 using children's own self-reports. Comparisons to oft-used parent reports are made and heterogeneity by gender is explored. Findings suggest the incarceration of a father increases the antisocial behaviors children self-report, but has null effects on prosocial skill development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Johnson, R Scott; Stolar, Andrea G; McGuire, James F; Mittakanti, Krithika; Clark, Sean; Coonan, Loretta A; Graham, David P
Significant variability exists regarding the criteria and procedures used by different veterans' courts (VCs) across the country. Limited guidance is available regarding which VC model has the most successful outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with incarceration during VC participation. This study used data for 1,224 veterans collected from the HOMES (Homeless Operations Management and Evaluation System) database of the Department of Veterans Affairs, as well as data from a national phone survey inventory of all U.S. VCs. To identify variables associated with incarceration during VC participation, four backward conditional logistic regressions were performed. The following variables were associated with higher rates of incarceration because of a veteran's noncompletion of the VC program: charges of probation or parole violations, longer stays in the VC program, end of VC participation because of incarceration for a new arrest or case transfer by the legal system, and requiring mental health follow-up but not undergoing treatment. The following variables were associated with lower rates of incarceration: stable housing and participating in a VC program that referred veterans for substance abuse treatment. This study offers VCs a thorough review of an extensive set of recidivism data. Further investigation is necessary to understand the impact of VCs.
Zeman, Janice; Dallaire, Danielle; Borowski, Sarah
Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for psychological, social, and emotional maladaptation. This research investigates whether perceived maternal socialization of sadness and anger may moderate these outcomes in a sample of 154 children (53.9% boys, 61.7% Black, M age = 9.38, range: 6 - 12), their 118 mothers (64.1% Black), and 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 63.2% Black). Using mother, caregiver, and child report, seven maternal socialization strategies were assessed in their interaction with incarceration-specific risk experiences predicting children's adjustment. For sadness socialization, the results indicated that among children reporting maternal emotion-focused responses, incarceration-specific risk predicted increases in psychological problems, depressive symptoms, increased emotional lability, and poorer emotion regulation. For children who perceived a problem-focused response, incarceration-specific risk did not predict outcomes. There were no significant interactions with incarceration-specific risk and perceived maternal anger socialization strategies. These results indicate a critical need to examine how socialization processes may operate differently for children raised in atypical socializing contexts.
Marlow, Elizabeth; Nosek, Marcianna; Lee, Yema; Young, Earthy; Bautista, Alejandra; Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn
This paper describes the first phase of an ongoing education and research project guided by three main intentions: (1) to create opportunities for phronesis in the classroom; (2) to develop new understandings about phronesis as it relates to nursing care generally and to caring for specific groups, like formerly incarcerated adults; and (3) to provide an opportunity for formerly incarcerated adults and graduate nursing students to participate in a dialectical conversation about ethical knowing. Gadamer's writings on practical philosophy, phronesis, and the Socratic dialectic provide the philosophical foundation and framework for the project. The first phase in the project was a 4-h class within a graduate-level health promotion course during which 30 nursing students and three formerly incarcerated panelists engaged in a dialectic conversation about what it means to care for formerly incarcerated adults in a meaningful way. After the class, two focus groups were conducted, one with the students and one with the formerly incarcerated panelists. Findings articulated participants' prejudices and assumptions prior to the class, expanded sense of phronesis, and ability to consider nursing practice within a larger ethical framework. Panelists and students left the class with a deeper understanding of one another and expressed an openness towards continued dialectic conversations together. Use of the Socratic dialectic within nursing curricula reflects a current and critical trend in nursing education to bring non-epistemologic forms of knowledge into the classroom. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Arum, Richard; LaFree, Gary
Little is known about the relationship between school characteristics, such as teacher-student ratios, and the risk of incarceration in adulthood. Educational skeptics argue that investment in schools has little effect on outcomes, such as criminality or the risk of incarceration, because criminal propensities are fixed at an early age and…
Unruh, Deanne K.; Gau, Jeff M.; Waintrup, Miriam G.
Juvenile offenders are costly to our society in terms of the monetary and social expenditures from the legal system, victims' person costs, and incarceration. The re-entry and community reintegration outcomes for formerly incarcerated youth with a disabling condition are bleak compared to peers without disabilities. In this study, we examined the…
Coker, Kendell L; Rosenheck, Robert
Cross sectional studies have addressed the incarceration of Vietnam veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but no studies have examined changes in incarceration as they age. This study examines patterns of incarceration among Vietnam veterans treated in specialized veterans affairs (VA) intensive PTSD programs over time. Data was drawn from admission data from the initial episode of treatment of Caucasian and African American Vietnam veterans entering VA specialized intensive PTSD programs between 1993 and 2011 (N = 31,707). Bivariate correlations and logistic regression were used to examine associations among race and incarceration over time and the potentially confounding influence of demographic and clinical covariates on this relationship. Rates of reported incarceration declined from 63 to 43%. Over time, African American veterans were 34% more likely than Caucasian veterans to have a lifetime history of incarceration while interaction analysis showed steeper declines for Caucasians than African Americans. Rates of incarceration among these Vietnam veterans declined as they aged. Furthermore, African American veterans were substantially more likely than Caucasian veterans to have been incarcerated and showed less decline as the cohort aged. While reduced, needs for clinical PTSD services remain among aging combat veterans.
Bui, Hoan N.; Morash, Merry
Using data obtained from retrospective, in-depth interviews with 20 successful female parolees, the present study examines the effects of women offenders' relationships with people in their social networks (i.e., their network relationships) before, during, and after incarceration on their postrelease desistence from crime. Because women's social…
Ziesmann, Markus Tyler; Alotaiby, Nouf; Abbasi, Thamer Al; Rezende-Neto, Joao B
We describe an unusual case of a 74-year-old woman who presented with signs and symptoms of small-bowel obstruction and a clinically appreciable, irreducible, left-sided lumbar hernia associated with previous iliac crest bone graft harvesting. Palpation of the hernia demonstrated a small, firm mass within the loops of herniated bowel. CT scanning recognised an intraluminal gallstone at the transition point, establishing the diagnosis of gallstone ileus within an incarcerated lumbar hernia. The proposed explanatory mechanism is that of a gallstone migrating into an easily reducible hernia containing small bowel causing obstruction at the hernia neck by a ball-valve mechanism, resulting in proximal bowel dilation and thus hernia incarceration; it remains unclear when the stone entered the hernia, and whether it enlarged in situ or prior to entering the enteral tract. This is only the second reported instance in the literature of an intraluminal gallstone causing hernia incarceration. PMID:25471112
Tusher, Chantal Poister; Cook, Sarah L.
This study examines physical and sexual revictimization in a random sample of incarcerated and poor, urban, nonincarcerated women using multiple measures of physical and sexual child abuse. Researchers used hierarchical logistic regression to compare rates of revictimization and the strength of the association between child abuse and adult…
Lin, Huang-Chi; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Yen, Cheng-Fang
Incarcerated intravenous heroin users have more problematic patterns of heroin use, but are less likely to access methadone maintenance treatment by their own initiative than heroin users in the community. The present study examined predictors for receiving methadone maintenance treatment post-release among incarcerated intravenous heroin users within a 24-month period. This cohort study recruited 315 incarcerated intravenous heroin users detained in 4 prisons in southern Taiwan and followed up within the 24-month period post-release. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was applied to determine the predictive effects of sociodemographic and drug-use characteristics, attitude toward methadone maintenance treatment, human immunodeficiency virus serostatus, perceived family support, and depression for access to methadone maintenance treatment after release. There were 295 (93.7%) incarcerated intravenous heroin users released that entered the follow-up phase of the study. During the 24-month follow-up period, 50.8% of them received methadone maintenance treatment. After controlling for the effects of the detainment period before and after recruitment by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, incarcerated intravenous heroin users who had positive human immunodeficiency virus serostatus (HR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.80-4.52, p < .001) and had ever received methadone maintenance treatment before committal (HR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.23-3.05, p < .01) were more likely to enter methadone maintenance treatment within the 24-month follow-up period. Positive human immunodeficiency virus serostatus with fully subsidized treatment and previous methadone maintenance treatment experiences predicted access of methadone maintenance treatment post-release. Strategies for getting familiar with methadone maintenance treatment during detainment, including providing methadone maintenance treatment prior to release and lowering the economic burden of receiving treatment, may
Noelle R Leonard
Full Text Available We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16 to 18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147 or an active control intervention (youth n = 117. Both arms received approximately 750 minutes of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3-5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further, within the CBT/MT arm, performance degraded over time in those with no outside-of-class practice time, but remained stable over time in those who practiced mindfulness exercises outside of the session meetings. Thus, these findings suggest that sufficient CBT/MT practice may protect against functional attentional impairments associated with high-stress intervals. Keywords: adolescent development, incarcerated adolescents, detained adolescents, stress, attention, mindfulness meditation.
Morosan, Larisa; Badoud, Deborah; Zaharia, Alexandra; Brosch, Tobias; Eliez, Stephan; Bateman, Anthony; Heller, Patrick; Debbané, Martin
Background Previous research suggests that antisocial individuals present impairment in social cognitive processing, more specifically in emotion recognition (ER) and perspective taking (PT). The first aim of the present study was to investigate the recognition of a wide range of emotional expressions and visual PT capacities in a group of incarcerated male adolescents in comparison to a matched group of community adolescents. Secondly, we sought to explore the relationship between these two mechanisms in relation to psychopathic traits. Methods Forty-five male adolescents (22 incarcerated adolescents (Mage = 16.52, SD = 0.96) and 23 community adolescents (Mage = 16.43, SD = 1.41)) participated in the study. ER abilities were measured using a dynamic and multimodal task that requires the participants to watch short videos in which trained actors express 14 emotions. PT capacities were examined using a task recognized and proven to be sensitive to adolescent development, where participants had to follow the directions of another person whilst taking into consideration his perspective. Results We found a main effect of group on emotion recognition scores. In comparison to the community adolescents, the incarcerated adolescents presented lower recognition of three emotions: interest, anxiety and amusement. Analyses also revealed significant impairments in PT capacities in incarcerated adolescents. In addition, incarcerated adolescents’ PT scores were uniquely correlated to their scores on recognition of interest. Conclusions The results corroborate previously reported impairments in ER and PT capacities, in the incarcerated adolescents. The study also indicates an association between impairments in the recognition of interest and impairments in PT. PMID:28122048
Iliceto, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Candilera, Gabriella; Rosafio, Iole; Erbuto, Denise; Battuello, Michele; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo
Women constitute only a small proportion of inmates, but several studies have shown that they have higher rates of psychiatric disturbance than incarcerated men and community samples. Mental health treatment is necessary to prevent severe illness and suicide in these women. The convenience sample consisted of 40 female detainees and 40 controls who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess temperament (TEMPS-A), insecure attachment (ECR), impulsivity (BIS-11), and sexual behavior (SESAMO). The incarcerated women had higher levels of affective temperament (except for hyperthymia), avoidance, anxiety, impulsivity, and psychosexual issues than the female community sample. Many interrelated emotional and affective disturbances affect the physical and psychological well-being of women in jail, and it is possible that these problems may lead to suicide. Health professionals need to develop gender-specific therapeutic interventions for women in jail. © 2012 International Association of Forensic Nurses.
Barocas, Joshua A; Baker, Lisa; Hull, Shawnika J; Stokes, Scott; Westergaard, Ryan P
Incarceration is common among people who inject drugs. Prior research has shown that incarceration is a marker of elevated risk for opioid overdose, suggesting that the criminal justice system may be an important, under-utilized venue for implementing overdose prevention strategies. To better understand the feasibility and acceptability of such strategies, we evaluated the utilization of naloxone-based overdose prevention training among people who inject drugs with and without a history of incarceration. We surveyed clients who utilize a multi-site syringe exchange program (SEP) in 2 cities in the Midwestern United States. Participants completed an 88-item, computerized survey assessing history of incarceration, consequences associated with injection, injecting practices, and uptake of harm reduction strategies. Among 543 respondents who injected drugs in the prior 30 days, 243 (43%) reported prior incarceration. Comparing those with and without a history of incarceration, there were no significant differences with respect to age, gender, or race. Those who observed an overdose, experienced overdose, and received training to administer or have administered naloxone were more likely to report incarceration. Overall, 69% of previously incarcerated clients had been trained to administer naloxone. People who inject drugs with a history of incarceration appear to have a higher risk of opioid overdose than those never incarcerated, and are more willing to utilize naloxone as an overdose prevention strategy. Naloxone training and distribution is an important component of comprehensive prevention services for persons with opioid use disorders. Expansion of services for persons leaving correctional facilities should be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
We present the case of a 72-year-old man with a history of anuria from his ileal conduit 15 months following its formation. That conduit had become incarcerated in a right-sided ingunial hernia. The patient presented with anuria and an acute kidney injury. A clincal diagnosis of an incarcerated hernia was made, and he was taken to theatre for reduction and repair of the hernia. On removal of the conduit from the hernial sac, it began to drain immediately. He made a full recovery, with normalisation of his renal function. PMID:26491738
Snow, Rachel C.; Griffith, Derek M.; Morenoff, Jeffrey
In this study, we used data from Add Health Waves II and III to compare men who had been incarcerated to those who had not, and examined whether incarceration was associated with increased numbers of sexual partners and increased odds of concurrent partnerships. We used multivariate regression and propensity-score matching to compare sexual behavior of Wave III male respondents who had been incarcerated with those who had not, and compared sexual behavior at Wave II to identify differences in sexual behavior prior to incarceration. Incarceration was associated with an increased rate of lifetime sexual partnership, but this was attenuated by substance use. Criminal justice involvement was associated with increased odds of having partners who report concurrent partnerships, but no further increase was seen with incarceration. There were no significant sexual behavior differences prior to incarceration. These results suggest that the criminal justice system and substance use may interact to shape sexual behavior. PMID:23392910
Shimada, Hiroyuki; Nakashizuka, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Takayuki; Mori, Ryusaburo; Mizutani, Yoshihiro; Yuzawa, Mitsuko
To demonstrate anterior vitreous incarceration in the cannulae at 3 ports during 25-gauge vitrectomy in eyes with asteroid hyalosis. In 6 eyes with asteroid hyalosis, 3-port 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was conducted using conventional 25-gauge cannula (4 eyes) or 25-gauge EdgePlusTM trocar/cannula system (2 eyes). The relationship between the cannulae and anterior vitreous was observed during surgery. The 3 ports were observed at the beginning of vitrectomy. At the infusion port, incarceration of anterior vitreous containing asteroid bodies between the cannula and the infusion tip was clearly observed in all 6 eyes, irrespective of the cannula used. When the incarcerated vitreous fibers were excised using a vitreous cutter, the infusion fluid flowed toward the center of the vitreous. At both the left and right ports, anterior vitreous containing asteroid bodies was incarcerated into the cannulae in all 6 eyes irrespective of the cannula used. The incarcerated vitreous fibers were excised. At the end of surgery, no vitreous prolapse was found at the 3 ports in all eyes. When using the 25-gauge cannula system, incarceration of anterior vitreous fibers into the cannulae of 3 ports from the beginning of surgery was clearly depicted in eyes with asteroid hyalosis. Excising the incarcerated anterior vitreous fibers is useful to ensure good perfusion and prevent vitreous prolapse.
Tangney, June P.; Folk, Johanna B.; Graham, David M.; Stuewig, Jeffrey B.; Blalock, Daniel V.; Salatino, Andrew; Blasko, Brandy B.; Moore, Kelly E.
Purpose To assess changes in inmates’ misuse of substances from pre- to post-incarceration. Methods In Study 1, professionals (n = 162) and laypersons (n = 50) predicted how jail inmates’ substance misuse would change from pre-incarceration to post-release. In Study 2, a longitudinal study of 305 jail inmates, we examined actual changes in substance use and dependence from pre-incarceration to the first year post-incarceration, as well as whether changes varied as a function of demographic, criminal justice, treatment, and personality factors. Results Professionals and laypersons predicted little change in substance misuse whereas, in fact, inmates’ frequency of substance use and dependence decreased substantially from pre-incarceration to post-release. Sharper decreases were observed for inmates who were female, younger, more educated, serving longer sentences, enrolled in substance abuse treatment, high in shame-proneness, and low in criminogenic thinking. Race, first time incarceration, transfer to other correctional facilities, mandated community supervision (probation), and guilt-proneness did not predict changes in substance use or dependence. Conclusions Although substance misuse decreased, this remains a population high in need of substance abuse treatment both upon arrest and at one year post-incarceration; 60% of former inmates met at least one DSM-IV criterion for substance dependence at one year post-release. PMID:27458324
Johnson, Regina J.; Ross, Michael W.; Taylor, Wendell C.; Williams, Mark L.; Carvajal, Raul I.; Peters, Ronald J.
Objective: The current study examined the prevalence and characteristics of childhood sexual abuse in a jailed-based population. Methodology: A retrospective, self-reported survey was administered over an 8-week period to a random sample of 100 men who were incarcerated in a county jail in Southeastern Texas. The survey included questions about…
Monahan, Kathryn C.; Goldweber, Aska; Meyer, Kristen; Cauffman, Elizabeth
The present study examines how perceptions of social prominence and attitudes toward antisocial behavior among peers moderate the association between anxiety and antisocial behavior among incarcerated females. Latent profile analysis identified two classes of females distinguished by their perceptions and attitudes. Individuals in both classes…
... beneficiaries and fugitive felons-compensation. 3.665 Section 3.665 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Adjustments and Resumptions § 3.665 Incarcerated beneficiaries and fugitive felons—compensation. (a) General... made if the veteran or the dependent is a fugitive felon as defined in paragraph (n) of this section...
Helmond, P.; Overbeek, G.; Brugman, D.
Studies on the effectiveness of correctional treatment have widely failed to assess program integrity. This study examined the program integrity of EQUIP in 34 treatment groups of incarcerated offenders, using a new multiaspect program integrity instrument (MIPIE). The first aim of our study was to
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incarcerated beneficiaries and fugitive felons-pension. 3.666 Section 3.666 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation...
Maruca, Annette T; Shelton, Deborah
The authors explore the current state-of-the art of correctional nursing by summarizing the types of interventions employed by nurses, across studies, designed to assist this challenging group of patients. This examination of evidence-based interventions implemented and tested by correctional nurses provides a better understanding of their role and function. Correctional health is a nurse driven system, yet a minimal amount is known about the nurses who practice in these environments or about their contributions to the practice of mental health nursing in correctional environments. An integrative review utilizing PRISMA guidelines examined five databases (Medline/PubMed, PsycInfo, PsychArticles, Sage Criminology, and Academic Search) for peer-reviewed articles that fit selected criteria. Of 324 references identified, 16 studies met criteria. Following assessment of strength of evidence, only eight studies offered scientific proof of the effectiveness of nursing interventions. Nursing interventions implemented in correctional settings targeted incarcerated persons with behavioral and psychological symptoms. Interventions included psycho-education, environmental adaptations, and behavior therapies. The centrality of nurses in correctional health care emphasizes the significance of understanding their role and function in this setting. This integrative review revealed that correctional nurses are actively engaged in providing therapeutic, evidence-based interventions in the health care of incarcerated persons. Of interest, seven of the eight studies focused on incarcerated persons with mental health or substance use issues. Nurse led interventions such as CBT, labyrinth walking, and yoga aim to improve coping and adaptation of incarcerated persons.
Erica D. Kane
Conclusion: This is the first report of incisional hernia appendicitis with nonhealing colocutaneous fistulas secondary to Crohn’s. It is a lesson in developing a differential diagnosis of an inflammatory process within an incarcerated hernia and management of the complications related to laparoscopic hernial appendectomy in a patient with undiagnosed Crohn’s disease.
Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A
Although criminal justice involvement and incarceration are common problems for homeless veterans, few studies have examined childhood risk factors for criminal justice involvement among veterans. This study examined the association between three types of childhood problems, family instability, conduct disorder behaviors, and childhood abuse, and criminal justice involvement and incarceration in adulthood. Data from 1,161 homeless veterans across 19 sites participating in the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing program were examined. After controlling for sociodemographics and mental health diagnoses, veterans who reported more conduct disorder behaviors during childhood tended to report more criminal charges of all types, more convictions, and longer periods of incarceration during adulthood. However, the variance explained in criminal behavior by childhood was not large, suggesting that there are other factors that affect the trajectory by which homeless veterans become involved in the criminal justice system. Further research is needed to intervene in the pathway to the criminal justice system and guide efforts to prevent incarceration among veterans. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Graham, James A.; Harris, Yvette R.
Practical information about culturally appropriate interventions with children of incarcerated parents (CIPs) of color and their families is notably sparse. This study uses a cultural-ecological perspective to contextualize individual, family, and legal issues inherent in many intervention programs for CIPs of color. The authors highlight…
Cooper, Kelly; May, David; Soderstrom, Irina; Jarjoura, G. Roger
A wide variety of theoretical perspectives have been found to have an association with substance abuse. Most of these studies use data from samples of public school students and thus capture only part of the youth population. Using data from approximately 800 delinquents incarcerated in a Midwestern state, we examine the association between…
Agbakwuru, Chikwe; Awujo, Grace C.
This paper investigated the strategies for coping with the challenges of incarceration among inmates of Port Harcourt Prison, Nigeria. The population was 2,997 inmates of the prison while the sample was 250 inmates drawn through stratified random sampling technique from the same Port Harcourt prison. Six research questions were posed and data for…
Shepherd, Tina D.
In 1990, The Americans with Disabilities Act ruled that, regardless of age, inmates were entitled to continued special education services in correctional facilities. This qualitative case study identified perceptions of recidivism in incarcerated adolescents with special education needs. In this study the correctional education programs were…
Malmgren, Kimber W.; Leone, Peter E.
This study examined the academic achievement of 45 incarcerated youth who received an intensive, 6-week summer reading program involving 3 hours of direct instruction and whole language reading activities per day. Significant improvements on 3 of 4 reading tests were found. Overall reading abilities of participants remained low, however,…
Desai, Shiv R.; Abeita, Andrea
The prison-industrial complex penetrates the public sphere through enhanced and militarized police presence in poor neighborhoods, thereby playing a key role in mass incarceration, and intersects with public schools via zero-tolerance policies that push students out. The purpose of this article is to examine how the Juvenile Justice System (JJS)…
Deffieux, Xavier; Kane, Aminata; Faivre, Erika; Gervaise, Amélie; Frydman, René; Fernandez, Hervé
A 34-year-old woman presented with an intermittent abdominal pain 5 years after voluntary vacuum aspiration for interruption of a first-trimester pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete septate uterus and a cystic mass that infiltrated the posterior myometrial wall of the right side of the uterus. Laparoscopy and hysteroscopy revealed an intra uterine fallopian tube incarceration.
Hasegawa, Y; Saito, T; Horimi, H; Kato, M; Kawashima, T; Fuse, K
A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital under diagnosis of Stanford type A acute aortic dissection. Chest CT showed aortic dissection from the ascending to descending aorta, and large hiatal hernia. Operation was undergone under cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory arrest with retrograde cerebral perfusion. A graft replacement was carried out from the ascending to transverse arch aorta. After the release of the cross-clamping of aorta, the heart was gradually oppressed anteriorly by extrapericardial mass, so that the patient could not be weaned from the cardiopulmonary bypass. The mass was revealed incarcerated hiatal hernia by ultrasonography. After laparotomy, diaphragm and hiatus were incised, the incarceration was relieved and the diaphgragm was repaired with a Goretex sheet. Then the patient could be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. Her postoperative course was uneventful except for acute renal failure, and she was discharged 60 days after the operation. The incarceration of hiatal hernia was thought to be caused by tissue edema and small bleeding during cardiopulmonary bypass. This is the first reported case with the incarceration of hiatal hernia which occurred during cardiopulmonary bypass.
In the course of an initiative to provide higher education to adults in prison, incarcerated men enrolled in an undergraduate degree programme were offered the opportunity to participate in a series of writing workshops. This article examines the products of these workshops, specifically the ways that language chosen by the writers serves as a…
Bauldry, Shawn; Korom-Djakovic, Danijela; McClanahan, Wendy S.; McMaken, Jennifer; Kotloff, Lauren J.
This report explores mentoring as a tool for supporting the successful reintegration of formerly incarcerated individuals within the context of a larger reentry strategy--in this case, the "Ready4Work" model. "Ready4Work" was a three-year national demonstration designed to address the needs of the growing ex-prisoner population and to test the…
Goldweber, A.; Cauffman, E.; Cillessen, A.H.N.
Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N=86, age 15-24years), our study is the first
Camp, Damon D.
Conducted qualitative interviews and comprehensive job-task analysis to identify activities and training needs of correctional officers working in "shock incarceration" or "Boot Camp" corrections. Found that for correctional officers working in two major shock programs, most highly rated tasks were related to physical security.…
Gavigan, Karen; Albright, Kendra
Graphic novels are an increasingly popular format that educators can use as a tool to teach reading and writing skills across the K-12 curriculum. This article describes a project in which incarcerated youths collaborated with a graphic illustrator to create a graphic novel about teens dealing with issues related to HIV/AIDS. The graphic novel is…
Neumann, Craig S.; Kosson, David S.; Forth, Adelle E.; Hare, Robert D.
Two studies are reported on the underlying dimensions of the psychopathy construct in adolescents as measured by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL: YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003). In Study 1, the PCL: YV item ratings for 505 male adolescents incarcerated in 5 different settings in North America were used to test the fit of 3…
Fink, Brandi C.; Tant, Adam S.; Tremba, Katherine; Kiehl, Kent A.
Analyses of convergent validity and group assignment using self-report, caregiver-report and interview-based measures of adolescent psychopathy were conducted in a sample of 160 incarcerated adolescents. Results reveal significant convergent validity between caregiver-report measures of adolescent psychopathy, significant convergent validity…
Blumberg, Daniel M.; Griffin, Dawn A.
This article introduces a successful reading program, Family Connections, for incarcerated parents and their children. A comprehensive review of the literature supports the need to implement prison programs from an ecological perspective, in which the needs of inmates and their families are considered. More specifically, the benefits of directing…
Mumola, Christopher J.
This report presents information on the characteristics of parents incarcerated in state or federal prisons. Data were obtained from personal interviews conducted for the 1997 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities. Findings indicated that a majority of state and federal prisoners were the parents of at least one minor…
Thombre, Avinash; Montague, David R.; Maher, Jennifer; Zohra, Israt Tusty
This study examined inmate perceptions on what is important in appropriately communicating concepts covering the American criminal justice system to children of incarcerated parents. Inmates interviewed at two facilities in Arkansas claimed that they knew little about meanings or consequences of their actions before and after indictment.…
Anders, Allison Daniel; Noblit, George W.
The North Carolina Workplace and Community Transition Youth Offender Program (YOP), recently renamed the Incarcerated Individuals Program (IPP), has proven to be effective in terms of its growth and expansion, the support of education directors across the correctional facilities, university collaboration, student evaluations, and a low recidivism…
Zaugg, Nathan; Jarjoura, Roger
"The Mentoring Toolkit 2.0: Resources for Developing Programs for Incarcerated Youth" provides information, program descriptions, and links to important resources that can assist juvenile correctional facilities and other organizations to design effective mentoring programs for neglected and delinquent youth, particularly those who are…
Kamptner, N. Laura; Teyber, Faith H.; Rockwood, Nicholas J.; Drzewiecki, Dolly
An attachment-based, psychotherapeutic parent education course was created for incarcerated mothers and fathers to help improve their ability to provide positive parenting and a more stable home environment for their children. The current study assessed the effects of this parenting curriculum on parents' reported tendencies to be abusive, their…
Pytash, Kristine E.
Incarcerated adolescent girls can benefit from an English classroom where personal identities, roles, and relationships can be challenged, resisted, and confronted. Education in English can be a transformative experience allowing adolescent girls to reshape and rethink not only their literacy identities but also their lives. An analysis of the…
... children ] of incarcerated parents. This project will examine the points of the criminal justice continuum... the pre-adjudication phase in the criminal justice system impacts this population. The project will... cover letter, on Standard Form 424 in section 11 with the title of your proposal, and in the right...
Modecki, Kathryn L.; Wilson, Melvin N.
We investigated the reported parenting practices of fifty incarcerated African American fathers. Fathers were interviewed using hypothetical vignettes adapted from the Parenting Dimensions Inventory (PDI) and received scores on two parenting practices: responsive and restrictive. Father's individual level (education and length of time spent…
Green, Traci C.; Bowman, Sarah E.; Ray, Madeline; McKenzie, Michelle; Lord, Sarah E.; Rich, Josiah D.
Objectives: The first 2 weeks following release from prison are associated with extraordinary risk of fatal drug overdose. However, bystanders can reverse opioid overdoses using rescue breathing and naloxone, an overdose antidote. We reviewed overdose prevention and naloxone administration training videos for incarceration specific and behaviour…
Gryglewski, Andrzej; Kuta, Marcin; Pasternak, Artur; Opach, Zdzisław; Walocha, Jerzy; Richter, Piotr
Upside-down stomach (UDS) represents the rarest type of hiatal hernia (hiatal hernia with incarceration of the gastric trunk. Immediate operation for reduction of the incarcerated stomach and repair of the hiatal defect was performed. The patient was discharged without any complication and was followed up at the surgical outpatient department. The presented case confirms that differentiation of an acute epigastric or intrathoracic pain in adults should always exclude presence of hiatal hernia which in case of incarceration should be treated by prompt surgical management.
Chui, Wing Hong
Objectives Caregivers of children with incarcerated parents have received little attention in the literature, though they face unique incarceration-related challenges. General caregiver research has highlighted associations between caregiver distress and children's behavioral problems, even implying that the depressive tendencies of caregivers can be 'transmitted'. The current study investigated the applicability of this notion to caregivers responsible for children of incarcerated fathers. Methods Fifty-four female caregivers of children with incarcerated parents were recruited via collaboration with a non-governmental organization. Their levels of stress and depression were measured using questionnaires, as were the behavioral problems of children under their care. The relationships between the variables were examined. Results The results firstly suggest that these caregivers are vulnerable to psychological distress, with around 57 % of them suffering from borderline to severe depression. Obtained socio-demographic characteristics were not found to have any bearing on the psychosocial functioning of caregivers or children-rather, all psychosocial variables were interlinked, and further analyses revealed that the depression of caregivers mediated the relationship between their perceived stress and internalizing/externalizing behavioral problems of the child (β = .628 and β = .468 respectively), implicating depression as a mechanism via which adversity can be transferred from a caregiver to a child. Conclusions Increasing the focus on a caregiver's mental health may be an efficacious strategy in research and practice, perhaps by providing more support for caregivers and implementing joint caregiver-child interventions to more holistically alleviate problems in families affected by parental incarceration. Limitations of the current study and further recommendations are also discussed.
Bailey, Steven; Gilmore, Kathryn; Yerkes, Lauren; Rhodes, Anne
Incarcerated individuals are disproportionately affected by HIV and often experience risk factors associated with poor maintenance of HIV care upon release. Therefore, the transition period from incarceration to the community is a particularly critical time for persons living with HIV to ensure continuity of care and treatment. By building relationships with Department of Corrections staff and community partners, the Virginia Department of Health developed a program to link recently incarcerated persons living with HIV to care and treatment immediately upon release from correctional facilities across Virginia. Findings show that clients served by the program have better outcomes along the HIV continuum of care than the overall population living with HIV in Virginia. This paper describes the development, implementation and health outcomes of the Care Coordination program for recently incarcerated persons living with HIV in Virginia.
A growing body of scholarship explores how incarceration contributes to inequality. The majority of this scholarship focuses on individual-level outcomes or aggregate outcomes within the United States. Despite substantial cross-national variation in incarceration rates, we know little about whether these differences contribute to cross-national variation in inequality outcomes. Using data from the period 1971-2010 from 15 advanced democracies, this study begins to fill this gap by exploring whether cross-national differences in incarceration rates help to explain cross-national differences in relative poverty rates. Although this research finds no average association, this null association obscures the important moderating role of country context. The association between incarceration and relative poverty is contingent upon a country's female employment rate and welfare state generosity.
Carr, William Reginald Joseph; O'Dair, Graham
A 65-year-old man presented to the general surgical outpatients with an incarcerated left inguinal hernia. Initial investigations revealed an iron deficiency anaemia that was investigated with a colonoscopy and gastroscopy. This revealed a sigmoid cancer and the staging CT scan confirmed a tumour incarcerated in the sac of the left inguinal hernia. We proceeded with a laparoscopic high anterior resection using the inguinal hernia as the extraction site. The hernia was repaired using Permacol mesh. No postoperative complications occurred.
Korbin, Jill E.
Nine women imprisoned for fatal child maltreatment were interviewed concerning their perceptions of interactions with their children, pregnancy and childbirth, mother-child separations and reunions, child development, rejection, children's behavior, and prior child abuse. Interpretation of their children as developmentally abnormal and…
Bryan L. Sykes
Full Text Available The expansion of the criminal justice system over the last four decades and the corresponding rise of parental incarceration raises questions about whether the children of current and former inmates are at an increased risk of material hardship that necessitates social service intervention. Recent sociological scholarship finds that the greater surveillance experienced by former inmates and the criminally involved precludes them from seeking medical care and social services. Yet there is no scholarship that assesses health care and social service utilization among children exposed to parental incarceration. In this article, we investigate how race and educational inequality in parental incarceration were associated with markers of deprivation and social program enlistment after the Great Recession. Using data from the 2011–2012 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH, we not only find that children with an incarcerated parent experience greater levels of deprivation—material hardship, unmet health needs, and residential instability—but that these children are drawn into social service programs at a higher rate than the rate for children unexposed to parental incarceration. Nearly 2.1 million children (or 81 percent of minors with an incarcerated parent are enrolled in at least one social service program. Our findings are consistent with a “system inclusion” perspective, which aligns with David Garland’s and William Julius Wilson’s theoretical and historical explanations of social service participation among disadvantaged minors.
Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence
Several microlevel studies have pinpointed prisons as an important site for tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant TB in European and central Asian countries. To date, no comparative analyses have examined whether rises in incarceration rates can account for puzzling differences in TB trends among overall populations. Using longitudinal TB and cross-sectional multidrug-resistant TB data for 26 eastern European and central Asian countries, we examined whether and to what degree increases in incarceration account for differences in population TB and multidrug-resistant TB burdens. We find that each percentage point increase in incarceration rates relates to an increased TB incidence of 0.34% (population attributable risk, 95% C.I.: 0.10-0.58%, P incarceration account for a 20.5% increase in TB incidence or nearly three-fifths of the average total increase in TB incidence in the countries studied from 1991 to 2002. Although the number of prisoners is a significant determinant of differences in TB incidence and multidrug-resistant TB prevalence among countries, the rate of prison growth is a larger determinant of these outcomes, and its effect is exacerbated but not confounded by HIV. Differences in incarceration rates are a major determinant of differences in population TB outcomes among eastern European and central Asian countries, and treatment expansion alone does not appear to resolve the effect of mass incarceration on TB incidence.
Nebbitt, Von E; Voisin, Dexter R; Tirmazi, M Taqi
Mass incarceration, substance use, and adolescent early onset of sex (e.g., initiate sexual intercourse at 13 years of age or younger) are social problems with disparate impacts on low-income African American communities. Two out of every five inmates in state and federal prisons are African American and the vast majority of these inmates are from low-income communities. Furthermore, this population experiences more severe consequences of substance use and abuse compared to other populations. In sum, African American youth endure the lion share of problems that mass incarceration and substance use leave in their wake. It is likely that the early onset of sex reported by African American youth in national data is related to mass incarceration and substance use in their communities. Using a sample of 142 African American youth, this paper assesses whether parental incarceration or substance, or both, are related to the likelihood of early onset of sex. Analytic procedures included chi-square and sequential logistic regression. The sample reported a mean age of 19 and 36% reported early onset of sex. Being male, paternal incarcerated, and maternal alcohol problems were associated with an increased likelihood of early onset of sex. Results point to a need for supportive services for the children of incarcerated parents, particularly those living in urban public housing developments.
One percent of the population of the United States consists of women offenders, who are at-risk for numerous preventable diseases. Since health promotion is not a high priority when women are incarcerated, the author used group education as one way of increasing participants' knowledge and self-efficacy. Results indicated that a group health education program is an excellent way to change participants' knowledge and self-efficacy in a women's prison population.
Lamba, Sangeeta; Patel, Nitin N; Scott, Sandra R
Penile incarceration or strangulation is a urologic emergency. Several techniques to remove metallic objects strangulating the penis are described in the literature. The method utilized depends on the severity of the incarceration and the tools that are readily accessible. Prompt action and resourcefulness, with expeditious removal, prevents organ ischemia and vascular or mechanical sequelae. We describe a case in which a Dremel Moto-Tool was used to remove a lead pipe strangulating a penile shaft, after failure of the string technique. A hospital-based Emergency Medical Services and Rescue program is a valuable resource to provide the tools needed for management of penile strangulation. Features of safe removal, including protecting the tissues from heat damage and mechanical injury from the cutting blade, are described. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available What were the socioeconomic consequences for American youth of having a parent incarcerated during the 2008 Great Recession? We analyze a nationally representative panel study of adolescents who, when interviewed during this recession, were transitioning to and through early adulthood. Young adult children who have had a father or mother imprisoned are at increased risk of experiencing socioeconomic deprivation, including inadequate access to food. We build in this article on recent research showing that postsecondary education has become especially important in determining adult outcomes, and we demonstrate that higher educational attainment reduces intergenerational effects of parental imprisonment. The salient policy implication of this article may be the important protective role of education in reducing unprecedented risks and vulnerabilities imposed by mass parental incarceration.
Jackson, Amanda M; Hope, Erica R; Phippen, Neil T
Surgery for suspected ovarian torsion sometimes reveals unexpected sources of pelvic pain, such as internal hernias, adhesions, or anatomic defects. A 23-year-old nulligravida with Alagille syndrome was taken to the operating room with suspected ovarian torsion. Intraoperatively, the right adnexa bulged out of a right-sided, posterior peritoneal cleft that incarcerated most of the enlarged ovary. No ovarian torsion was identified. The left adnexa appeared to be normal; however, it dwelled within a left-sided posterior peritoneal cleft. The bilateral posterior peritoneal defects that housed the adnexa were likely of congenital etiology. Although adnexal incarceration is a rare finding at surgery for suspected ovarian torsion, it should be part of the differential diagnosis when evaluating acute pelvic pain. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sugie, Naomi F.
The United States criminal justice and welfare systems are two important government institutions in the lives of the poor. Despite many theoretical discussions about their relationship, their operation at the level of offenders and families remains poorly understood. This paper utilizes Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing data to examine how recent paternal incarceration is associated with families’ receipt of TANF, food stamps, and Medicaid/SCHIP. Results robust to multiple tests find that incarceration is not related to subsequent TANF receipt but is significantly associated with increased receipt of food stamps and Medicaid/SCHIP. The findings suggest that greater government involvement among poor families is an unexpected consequence of mass imprisonment; however, increased participation does not include TANF—the cash assistance program of most concern to theorists. PMID:24244051
Penn, Joseph V.; Esposito, Christianne; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony
Correctional staff knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of incarcerated juveniles' mental health needs, including suicide prevention, have not been studied empirically. This study measured juvenile correctional officers' knowledge and attitudes regarding suicide risk factors and mental health and substance abuse issues through administration of the Mental Health Knowledge and Attitude Test (MHKAT) before and after a staff training on suicide prevention. Seventy-six participants completed the pre- and post-training MHKAT. They demonstrated significant improvement in knowledge of and attitudes toward mental health treatment of incarcerated youth as reflected by higher post-training MHKAT scores. Findings suggest that correctional staff are receptive to increasing knowledge of critical mental health issues. Studies of the retention and implementation of this new knowledge by direct care staff over time and the optimal type and frequency of new staff training and continuing education are indicated. PMID:19809578
Neeki, Michael M; Au, Christine; Richard, Aurora; Peace, Carlos; Jaques, Sharon; Johansson, Jens
We aimed to describe a case of an incarcerated adolescent with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) presenting as acute psychosis. This was a retrospective case report followed with chart and literature review. An adolescent with ADEM presented with drastic behavior and personality changes that led to her incarceration for serious charges. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis leads to neuropsychiatric effects and can be seen with magnetic resonance imaging as a large mass effect that may result in a poor prognosis. This adolescent made a full recovery from her left facial droop, slurred speech, and left-sided hemiplegia, and her personality changes were reverted. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis can present as acute psychosis; therefore, clinical suspicion is important when treating patients who have a history of past infectious brain diseases, especially encephalitis. Given the rapid onset of disease, physicians must be knowledgeable of the diagnosis and treatment of ADEM and be vigilant in finding organic causes of acute psychosis.
Kini, Sunil-Gurpur; du Pre, Karel; Bruce, Warwick
Medial collateral ligament of the knee is an important coronal stabiliser and often injured in isolation or as combination of injuries. The article reports a case of incarcerated medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury in combination with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in 20 year old male who presented to us 4 weeks after injury. Clinical examination and MRI was correlated to complete ACL tear with torn distal MCL and incarceration into the joint. Patient was taken up for ACL hamstring graft reconstruction with mini-arthrotomy and repair of the torn MCL. Patient was followed up with dedicated rehabilitation protocol with good functional results. At one year follow-up, patient exhibited full range of motion with negative Lachman, Pivot shift and valgus stress tests. This article highlights the rare pattern of MCL tear and also reviews the literature on this pattern of injury.
Braithwaite, Ronald; Stephens, Torrance
Research documents the challenges associated with preventing HIV/AIDS among prison inmate populations. This paper describes the predictors of protective barrier use and unprotected sexual intercourse among a sample of adult male inmates. Descriptive and scale information was collected on several variables using standard response formats. All major substance use constructs (marijuana, cocaine, and alcohol use) were assessed in terms of consumption prior to incarceration. T-tests were employed to evaluate the level of marijuana, cocaine, and alcohol use in general, as well as with particular respect to sexual situations. Linear regression analysis was conducted to determine whether the use of the substances, length of incarceration, and other demographic variables were associated with the frequency of reporting use of a protective barrier. The findings note that total years in prison, and marijuana and cocaine use were associated with inmates' risk behaviours. Marijuana and cocaine use were statistically significant predictors of risky sex behaviours.
Kjær Minke, Linda
International forskning viser overvejende positive resultater, når det gælder indsattes muligheder for at have kontakt med dyr under straffuldbyrdelsen. Paperet diskuterer resultaterne fra et kvalitativt studie om en hunds indflydelse på kvindelige indsatte og det sociale klima i en beskæftigelse...
Clement, Mary J.
Received completed mail questionnaires from 43 state and federal corrections departments as of June 1989 which collectively provided a profile of prisons, female inmates, and parenting programs. Thirty-six respondents indicated that parenting programs were available, but no consistency was found in length, depth, or content, and most classes were…
Gallagher, Amanda E; Carbonell, Joyce L; Gottfried, Emily D
Screening for mental illness within prison populations is vital to the safety and well-being of prisoners and to the operation of an institution. Although prisons are currently mandated to screen for mental illness, there are no standardized methods for doing so. Some prisons use specialized mental health screening measures while others simply ask a few face-valid mental health-related questions. The current study examined the validity of the latter method within a population of female prisoners. Quickview questions, selected to serve as mental health screening questions, were compared with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, a widely used forensic assessment measure. Results did not provide support for using the Quickview questions as a method for prison mental health screening. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Debergh, Isabelle; Fierens, Kjell
A Bochdalek hernia is a rare type of diaphragmatic defect, generally presenting in early childhood with acute signs of cardiorespiratory distress. We herein report a case of acute abdomen in a pregnant patient with pain increasing when lying on her right side. Laparoscopic evaluation revealed a right-sided Bochdalek hernia with incarcerated bowel. A successful reduction was possible, and laparoscopic repair appears to be a safe and feasible technique for the repair of these hernias.
Johnson, Megan M.; Mikolajewski, Amy; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Eckel, Lisa A.; Taylor, Jeanette
Previous research has demonstrated psychopathic personality traits are significantly predictive of blunted cortisol reactivity to a performance-based stressor task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) in college students. However, the relationship between cortisol reactivity and psychopathy has not been explored in high risk samples such as incarcerated populations. Further, the role of imprisonment in relation to cortisol stress reactivity has not been previously explored, but could have practic...
KJELLSTRAND, JEAN M.; EDDY, J. MARK
Over the past several decades, the number of youth with parents in prison in the U.S. has increased substantially. Findings thus far indicate a vulnerable group of children. Using prospective longitudinal data gathered as part of the population-based Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers (LIFT) randomized controlled trial, adolescents who had an incarcerated parent during childhood are compared to those who did not across four key domains: family social advantage, parent health, the ...
Nosrati, Elias; Ash, Michael; Marmot, Michael; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence P
The health gap between the top and the bottom of the income distribution is widening rapidly in the USA, but the lifespan of America's poor depends substantially on where they live. We ask whether two major developments in American society, deindustrialization and incarceration, can explain variation among states in life expectancy of those in the lowest income quartile. Life expectancy estimates at age 40 of those in the bottom income quartile were used to fit panel data models examining the relationship with deindustrialization and incarceration between 2001 and 2014 for all US states. A one standard deviation (s.d.) increase in deindustrialization (mean = 11.2, s.d. = 3.5) reduces life expectancy for the poor by 0.255 years [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.090-0.419] and each additional prisoner per 1000 residents (mean = 4.0, s.d. = 1.5) is associated with a loss of 0.468 years (95% CI: 0.213-0.723). Our predictors explain over 20% of the state-level variation in life expectancy among the poor and virtually the entire increase in the life expectancy gap between the top and the bottom income quartiles since the turn of the century. In the USA between 2001 and 2014, deindustrialization and incarceration subtracted roughly 2.5 years from the lifespan of the poor, pointing to their role as major health determinants. Future research must remain conscious of the upstream determinants and the political economy of public health. If public policy responses to growing health inequalities are to be effective, they must consider strengthening industrial policy and ending hyper-incarceration.
Zeman, Janice; Dallaire, Danielle; Borowski, Sarah
Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for psychological, social, and emotional maladaptation. This research investigates whether perceived maternal socialization of sadness and anger may moderate these outcomes in a sample of 154 children (53.9% boys, 61.7% Black, M age = 9.38, range: 6 – 12), their 118 mothers (64.1% Black), and 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 63.2% Black). Using mother, caregiver, and child report, seven maternal socia...
Kendall, Ashley D; Emerson, Erin M; Hartmann, William E; Zinbarg, Richard E; Donenberg, Geri R
There is a largely unmet need for evidence-based interventions that reduce future aggression and incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders serving probation. We addressed this gap using a group randomized controlled trial. Offenders both with and without clinical aggression were included, enabling comparison of intervention effects. Juveniles 13 to 17 years old (N = 310, mean = 16 years, 90% African-American, 66% male) on probation were assigned to a 2-week intervention targeting psychosocial factors implicated in risky behavior (e.g., learning strategies to manage "hot" emotions that prompt risk taking) or to an equally intensive health promotion control. Participants completed aggression measures at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-up and reported on incarceration at 12 months. Spline regression tested symptom change. Among clinically aggressive offenders (n = 71), the intervention arm showed significantly greater reductions in aggression over the first 6 months compared with controls. Juveniles from the intervention no longer met clinical criteria, on average, but clinically significant symptoms persisted in the control group. By 12 months, participants from the intervention appeared to maintain treatment gains, but their symptom levels no longer differed significantly from those in the control. However, the intervention group was nearly 4 times less likely than controls to report incarceration. Intervention effects were significantly stronger for offenders with clinical than with nonclinical (n = 239) baseline aggression. A 2-week intervention expedited improvements in aggression and reduced incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders. The findings underscore the importance of directing intervention resources to the most aggressive youth. Clinical trial registration information-PHAT Life: Preventing HIV/AIDS Among Teens in Juvenile Justice (PHAT Life); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT02647710. Copyright © 2017 American
Arve Egil Asbjørnsen
Full Text Available Several reports document increased prevalence of attention deficit and hyperactivity (ADHD and similar symptoms in incarcerated members of the community, but little is known about how the symptoms are related to education and work experience. An ongoing study among Norwegian inmates reveals that 60 % report signs of ADHD. In the present study a sample of 600 inmates incarcerated in Norway filled out a questionnaire including the WURS-k (Wender Utah Rating Scale, short form and questions to survey completed education level and work experience. A clear relationship was found between the WURS-k score and earlier job-experience, with increased probability of ADHD with work experience from low socio-economic status jobs. The scale was also found to share variance with the inmates’ reported education history, as higher education reduces the probability of ADHD among the incarcerated adults. Thus, the WURS-k could be a useful screening instrument in education assessment among inmates. The link between the present findings and development of anti-social behaviour is discussed.
Khachatryan, Norair; Heide, Kathleen M; Rad, Jordyn; Hummel, Erich V
Killings by juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) who use accomplices have been increasing since the 1980s and currently represent approximately half of juvenile arrests for murder in the United States. Nevertheless, prior research has not compared JHOs who kill alone with JHOs who kill in groups. The present research followed up 30 years later on a sample of 59 male murderers and attempted murderers sentenced to adult prison. This study was designed to analyze whether lone and group JHOs differed on pre-incarceration, incarceration, and post-incarceration variables. Significant findings indicated that compared with lone offenders, group JHOs had a higher mean of pre-homicide arrests and were more likely to be Black, have a pre-homicide delinquent record, commit a crime-related homicide offense, and target a stranger. With respect to post-homicide variables, group JHOs were more likely to be released from prison and more likely to be rearrested. The two types of JHOs did not differ significantly in relation to the number of post-release violent offenses. Preliminary implications of the findings and avenues for future investigation are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Edson Augusto Ribeiro
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Spigelian hernia is an uncommon spontaneous lateral ventral hernia with an incarceration ratio of around 20%. However, complications such as intestinal obstruction are extremely rare. We report on a case of giant incarcerated Spigelian hernia with a clinical condition of complete intestinal obstruction that was treated using prosthetic polypropylene mesh. CASE REPORT: A 72-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department complaining of diffuse abdominal pain. Abdominal examination revealed a firm 10 x 10 cm tender mass in the lower left quadrant, without surrounding cellulite or tenderness. Plain abdominal radiographs displayed the formation of levels, thus indicating the existence of intestinal obstruction. An abdominal computed tomography scan clearly showed a fluid and air-filled mass in the soft tissue area of the lower left-side abdominal wall. Spigelian incarcerated hernia was diagnosed and the patient underwent emergency surgical repair by means of local incision. The large defect in the abdominal wall was closed up as successive anatomical layers, and a prosthetic polypropylene mesh was set into the lateral aspect of the rectus sheath. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the seventh postoperative day.
Ross, Jana; Waterhouse-Bradley, Bethany; Contractor, Ateka A; Armour, Cherie
Numerous studies have reported that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with negative psychosocial outcomes in adulthood, but no study has examined the different typologies of ACEs and the relationship of these with adult incarceration in military veterans. The current study used latent class analysis to examine the existence of different childhood maltreatment and household dysfunction typologies in a sample of U.S. military veterans identified through the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III ((NESARC-III)). A total of 60.73% of veterans reported one or more ACEs. Four latent classes were identified and were named Low adversities, Moderate maltreatment with high household substance use, Severe maltreatment with moderate household dysfunction and Severe multi-type adversities. Relative to the Low adversities class, the three maltreatment/dysfunction classes had significantly elevated odds ratios (1.72-2.29) for adult incarceration, when controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol and drug use. The results point to the importance of examining childhood risk factors for incarceration and suggest that a certain sub-group of military personnel who are about to transition into the civilian life may need additional support to adjust and live successful lives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Becerra, Benjamin J; Becerra, Monideepa B; Gerdine, Miryam C; Banta, Jim E
The influence of religion, acculturation, and incarceration on substance abuse has been studied, though predominantly among adolescents. Little research exists on how such factors influence substance use among Hispanic adults. The objective of this study was to assess key determinants of substance use among Hispanic adults. Public access 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was utilized. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted while accounting for complex survey design to obtain population-weighted estimates. Receiver operator curve analysis was used to evaluate the relative contribution of each variable. Importance of religious influence in life and Spanish language interview were associated with lower odds of substance use, while history of incarceration increased the likelihood of substance use among Hispanic adults. Other factors associated with lower odds were increasing age, being female, and currently married. Other factors associated with increased odds were high school graduate and some college in addition to living above the 200% federal poverty level. Results from this study add to the limited body of the literature on determinants of substance use among Hispanic adults. Health education measures should target acculturated Hispanic adults and those with incarceration history to reduce substance use.
Peasant, Courtney; Sullivan, Tami P; Weiss, Nicole H; Martinez, Isabel; Meyer, Jaimie P
HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) disproportionately affect women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV). The current study (1) applied a syndemic framework to study the collective effects of problematic drug use, hazardous drinking, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on fear of condom negotiation, condom negotiation, and condom use and (2) evaluated condom negotiation (controlling for fear of condom negotiation) as a mediator of the association between syndemic severity and condom use among low-income IPV-exposed women. Participants were 158 women living in the community and experiencing ongoing IPV who completed face-to-face, computer-assisted interviews. Almost three-fourths of the participants reported problematic drug use, hazardous drinking, depression, and/or PTSD; many of these factors were correlated, indicating a syndemic. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses revealed associations between syndemic severity and fear of condom negotiation (OR = 1.57, p = .02), condom negotiation (β = -8.51, p = .001), and condom use (β = -8.26, p = .01). Meditation analyses identified condom negotiation as a mediator of the association between syndemic severity and condom use (effect = -6.57, SE = 2.01, [95% CI: -10.66, -2.77]). Results fill a critical gap in previous research by identifying condom negotiation as a mechanism through which this syndemic affects condom use. Prevention and intervention programs should consider addressing condom negotiation to reduce sexual risk among this high-risk population. Further, because IPV-exposed women may experience fear related to condom negotiation, it is critical that prevention and intervention efforts for this population offer skills to safely negotiate condom use, increase condom use, and reduce STI and HIV risk.
Peasant, Courtney; Sullivan, Tami P.; Weiss, Nicole H.; Martinez, Isabel; Meyer, Jaimie P.
Background HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) disproportionately affect women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV). Objective The current study 1) applied a syndemic framework to study the collective effects of problematic drug use, hazardous drinking, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on fear of condom negotiation, condom negotiation, and condom use and 2) evaluated condom negotiation (controlling for fear of condom negotiation) as a mediator of the association between syndemic severity and condom use among low-income IPV-exposed women. Methods Participants were 158 women living in the community and experiencing ongoing IPV who completed face-to-face, computer-assisted interviews. Almost three-fourths of the participants reported problematic drug use, hazardous drinking, depression, and/or PTSD; many of these factors were significantly correlated, indicating a syndemic. Results Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses revealed associations between syndemic severity and fear of condom negotiation (OR = 1.57, p = .02), condom negotiation (β = −8.51, p = .001) and condom use (β = −8.26, p = .01). Meditation analyses identified condom negotiation as a mediator of the association between syndemic severity and condom use (Effect = −6.57, SE = 2.01, [95% CI: − 10.66, − 2.77]). Conclusions Results fill a critical gap in previous research by identifying condom negotiation as a mechanism through which this syndemic affects condom use. Prevention and intervention programs should consider addressing condom negotiation to reduce sexual risk among this high-risk population. Further, because IPV-exposed women may experience fear related to condom negotiation, it is critical that prevention and intervention efforts for this population offer skills to safely negotiate condom use, increase condom use, and reduce STI and HIV risk. PMID:27590004
Full Text Available After reduction of the incarceration during surgery for incarcerated hernia, intestinal blood flow (IBF and the need for bowel resection must be evaluated. We report the case of a patient with incarcerated umbilical hernia in whom the bowel was preserved after evaluating IBF using indocyanine green (ICG fluorescence. A woman in her 40s with a chief complaint of abdominal pain visited our hospital, was diagnosed with incarcerated umbilical hernia and underwent surgery. Laparotomy was performed to reduce bowel incarceration. After reducing the incarceration, IBF was observed using ICG fluorescence detected using a brightfield full-color fluorescence camera. The small bowel that had been incarcerated showed deep-red discoloration on gross evaluation, but intravenous injection of ICG revealed uniform fluorescence of the mesentery and bowel wall. This indicated an absence of irreversible ischemic changes of the bowel, so no resection was performed. The patient showed a good postoperative course, including resumption of eating on day 4 and discharge on day 11. In surgery for incarcerated hernia, ICG fluorescence may offer a useful method to evaluate IBF after reducing the incarceration. This case implied that PINPOINT could be used in open conventional surgery.
Caulfield, Laura S
Purpose Large numbers of women in prison report significant emotional and mental health problems, and there is evidence to suggest that the prison environment may exacerbate the incidence and severity of these issues (Armour, 2012). However, there has been limited exploration of the extent to which women's mental health problems exist prior to incarceration, whether symptoms first occur in incarceration, and how incarceration affects this. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 women incarcerated in three English prisons and a thematic analysis of the data was conducted. Review of official prison records provided a form of data triangulation. Findings Analysis of the data revealed that while many women who experienced mental health issues in prison had experienced these issues in the past, a number of women reported first experiencing mental health and emotional problems only after entering prison. Although these problems often recede, this demonstrates the significant impact that entering prison can have upon the mental health of women. Unusually, the data highlighted many positive experiences of support within prison. However, there was some lack of consistency in the treatment and support offered to women. Originality/value The data presented here are in many ways more positive than previous research and - as opposed to much of the existing literature that simply states the prevalence women's issues in prison - provides insight into the lived experiences of women in prison. This paper documents how prison can present an opportunity for women to engage with treatment, but there is a need for a clearer understanding of women's needs and consistent and appropriate support.
Incarcerated women are a vulnerable group with complex needs in pregnancy, birth and early parenting; and this is further complicated with a drug and/or alcohol addiction. Prior to the establishment of an antenatal outreach clinic in a Western Australian prison for women, pregnant inmates received fragmented antenatal care. Some of the women did not disclose drug and alcohol issues for fear of involvement of child protection services, and some refused to be transported for care to maternity hospitals for antenatal appointments. This is the first antenatal care clinic for pregnant women to be established within a prison population in Western Australia.
Parsons, Mickey L; Warner-Robbins, Carmen
The purpose of this study was to describe factors that support women's successful transition to the community following incarceration. The design is qualitative, utilizing open-ended data generating interview questions of women who participate in Welcome Home Ministries (WHM), a new community faith-based program for women released from jail/prison. A multitude of factors are necessary to support women's successful transition to the community following incarceration. Although no questions were asked about religion or spirituality, the rank-ordered dominant factors were a spiritual belief and practice and freedom from addiction. The role of support groups and their "sisters" in WHM, the nurse-chaplain's jail visit and support, and the role of supportive friends (not former drug using friends) were additional key factors. The study findings may be used to support the design of new interventions based upon women's needs and capacities to empower them to create their own and their children's healthy future.
Hidalgo, Jesús López-Torres; Pretel, Fernando Andrés; Bravo, Beatriz Navarro; Rabadan, Francisco Escobar; Serrano Selva, Juan Pedro; Latorre Postigo, Jose Miguel; Martínez, Ignacio Párraga
Objective: To examine the ability of medical students to identify hazardous drinkers using screening tools recommended in clinical practice. Design: Observational cross-sectional study. Setting: Faculty of Medicine of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. Method: The medical students learnt to use Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and…
Full Text Available Rates of childhood and adult trauma are high among incarcerated persons. In addition to criminality, childhood trauma is associated with the risk for emotional disorders (e.g., depression and anxiety and co-morbid conditions such as alcohol and drug abuse and antisocial behaviors in adulthood. This paper develops rates of childhood and adult trauma and examines the impact of age-of-onset and type-specific trauma on emotional problems and behavior for a sample of incarcerated males (N~4,000. Prevalence estimates for types of trauma were constructed by age at time of trauma, race and types of behavioral health treatment received while incarcerated. HLM models were used to explore the association between childhood and adult trauma and depression, anxiety, substance use, interpersonal problems, and aggression problems (each model estimated separately and controlling for age, gender, race, time incarcerated, and index offense. Rates of physical, sexual, and emotional trauma were higher in childhood than adulthood and ranged from 44.7% (physical trauma in childhood to 4.5% (sexual trauma in adulthood. Trauma exposure was found to be strongly associated with a wide range of behavioral problems and clinical symptoms. Given the sheer numbers of incarcerated men and the strength of these associations, targeted intervention is critical.
Dallaire, Danielle H; Ciccone, Anne; Wilson, Laura C
The current study examined children's attachment representations as assessed with their family drawings in relation to contact with an incarcerated or estranged parent, caregiver behavior, and family stress in a high-risk sample of children (N = 44, M (age) = 8.14), 55% of whom had incarcerated parents. Greater phone, mail, and physical contact with an incarcerated parent was associated with more role reversal in children's family drawings. Additional results show that child-reports of more hostile caregiver behavior were associated with greater overall insecurity in their family drawings; child and caregiver reports of stress were associated with increased global pathology and bizarreness/dissociation in children's family drawings. Given the lack of research on concurrent familial-based correlates of ratings made of children's family drawings, these results provide additional insights into children's representations of attachment relationships in early middle childhood. Further, the results regarding contact with incarcerated parents have implications for researchers and clinicians working with families impacted by parental incarceration.
Groot, Emily; Kouyoumdjian, Fiona G.; Kiefer, Lori; Madadi, Parvaz; Gross, Jeremy; Prevost, Brittany; Jhirad, Reuven; Huyer, Dirk; Snowdon, Victoria; Persaud, Navindra
Background There is an increased risk of death due to drug toxicity after release from incarceration. The purpose of this study was to describe the timing, rate and circumstances of drug toxicity deaths following release from incarceration. This information can be used to help design potential preventive interventions. Methods and Findings We reviewed coroner’s files to identify deaths in adults in Ontario between 2006 and 2013 caused by drug toxicity (n = 6,978) and these records were matched with provincial correctional records to identify individuals who died within one year of being released from incarceration (n = 702). Twenty percent (n = 137) of the 702 deaths occurred within one week of release. The majority (77%, n = 538) of deaths after release involved one or more opioids. Of the deaths involving opioids, intervention by another person may have been possible in 318 cases. Conclusions Between 2006 and 2013 in Ontario, one in ten drug toxicity deaths in adults occurred within one year of release from provincial incarceration. These findings may help to inform the implemention and assessment of interventions aimed at reducing drug toxicity deaths following release from incarceration. PMID:27384044
Kinner, Stuart A; Milloy, M-J; Wood, Evan; Qi, Jiezhi; Zhang, Ruth; Kerr, Thomas
Release from prison is associated with a markedly increased risk of both fatal and non-fatal drug overdose, yet the risk factors for overdose in recently released prisoners are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify risk and protective factors for non-fatal overdose (NFOD) among a cohort of illicit drug users in Vancouver, Canada, according to recent incarceration. Prospective cohort of 2515 community-recruited illicit drug users in Vancouver, Canada, followed from 1996 to 2010. We examined factors associated with NFOD in the past six months separately among those who did and did not also report incarceration in the last six months. One third of participants (n=829, 33.0%) reported at least one recent NFOD. Among those recently incarcerated, risk factors independently and positively associated with NFOD included daily use of heroin, benzodiazepines, cocaine or methamphetamine, binge drug use, public injecting and previous NFOD. Older age, methadone maintenance treatment and HIV seropositivity were protective against NFOD. A similar set of risk factors was identified among those who had not been incarcerated recently. Among this cohort, and irrespective of recent incarceration, NFOD was associated with a range of modifiable risk factors including more frequent and riskier patterns of drug use. Not all ex-prisoners are at equal risk of overdose and there remains an urgent need to develop and implement evidence-based preventive interventions, targeting those with modifiable risk factors in this high risk group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bryan L. Sykes
Full Text Available Despite the strong relationship between the rise in mass incarceration over the last forty years and racial inequality in employment and wages, few studies have examined the long-term consequences and spillover effects of criminal justice contact on the black-white wealth gap in the United States. In this paper, we investigate the mechanisms whereby the local and distal incarceration of a family member affects household wealth, focusing on wealth disparities by race and education. Using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP, the Current Population Survey, and the Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities and Local Jails, we apply fixed-effects and probit models to estimate how a family member’s incarceration influences household assets and debt over panel waves. We find that having an incarcerated family member reduced household assets by 64.3 percent and debt by 85.1 percent after we adjusted for the underrepresentation of institutionalization in SIPP data. We also discuss these findings in the context of broader racial disparities in wealth and employment. Our findings demonstrate how contemporary patterns of mass incarceration contribute to the maintenance of social inequality in wealth and form barriers to economic security for other household members.
van der Geest, V.R.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Blokland, A.A.J.; Nagin, D.
Life-course theories expect imprisonment to negatively influence a person’s employment prospects. Incarceration not only instantaneously interrupts a number of life-course domains but may also reduce future opportunities to reconnect to them. This article analyzes the effects of incarceration on
Lee, Hedwig; Porter, Lauren C; Comfort, Megan
Political participation and citizens' perceptions of the legitimacy and fairness of government are central components of democracy. In this article, we examine one possible threat to these markers of a just political system: family member incarceration. We offer a unique glimpse into the broader social consequences of punishment that are brought on by a partner's or parent's incarceration. We argue that the criminal justice system serves as an important institution for political socialization for the families of those imprisoned, affecting their attitudes and orientations toward the government and their will and capacity to become involved in political life. We draw from ethnographic data collected by one of the authors, quantitative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and interviews with recently released male prisoners and their female partners. Our findings suggest that experiences of a family member's incarceration complicate perceptions of government legitimacy and fairness and serve as a barrier to civic participation.
Wallace, Danielle; Fahmy, Chantal; Cotton, Lindsy; Jimmons, Charis; McKay, Rachel; Stoffer, Sidney; Syed, Sarah
A significant number of prisoners experience mental health problems, and adequate social support is one way that facilitates better mental health. Yet, by being incarcerated, social support, particularly family support, is likely to be strained or even negative. In this study, we examine whether familial support--either positive or negative--in-prison and after release affects mental health outcomes post-release. Using the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) dataset, we regress post-release mental health on in-prison familial support, post-incarceration familial support, and changes in familial support. We find that while in-prison family support does not affect mental health, post-release familial support does. Also, experiencing an increase in negative familial support is associated with lower post-incarceration mental health. We conclude with a discussion of policies which may facilitate better familial support environments. © The Author(s) 2014.
Wahlstrom, Laura C; Scott, Jillian Panuzio; Tuliao, Antover P; DiLillo, David; McChargue, Dennis E
Methamphetamine use remains a prevalent problem in the United States and is linked to numerous deleterious outcomes, including aggressive behavior, criminal activity, and incarceration. Given these associations, a greater understanding of factors that contribute to aggression among users of methamphetamine is needed, particularly within criminal justice settings, where users of this drug are overrepresented. The present study examined the relationships between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and emotion dysregulation and in-prison physical aggression among incarcerated males who identified as methamphetamine users (N = 60). Participants' average age was 34.4 years (SD = 7.9), and they were predominantly European American (n = 48, 80%), had spent an average of 6.53 years incarcerated (SD = 4.64), and perpetrated about 1.54 acts of aggression (SD = 6.74) during the past three months. Bivariate correlations found that greater PTSD symptoms (p aggression perpetrated in prison. However, results from multiple regression analyses indicated that only PTSD symptoms (p aggression. Regression analyses also suggested that impulse control difficulties (p aggressive behavior. The first interaction ran counter to study hypotheses: At greater levels of PTSD symptoms, those with greater acceptance of emotional responses reported greater aggression perpetration than those with lesser acceptance of emotional responses. The other two interactions were in line with hypotheses, showing that at greater levels of PTSD symptoms, those with greater impulse control difficulties (or lesser access to emotion regulation strategies) reported more aggressive behaviors. Consistent with theories of aggression, study findings suggest that PTSD symptoms bolster the risk of aggression via various forms emotion dysregulation. Results shed light on potential mechanisms that promote in-prison aggression and violent recidivism among this population.
Lau, Briana; Kim, Hanjoo; Haigh, Philip I; Tejirian, Talar
The current data available describing the relationship of obesity and abdominal wall hernias is sparse. The objective of this study was to investigate the current prevalence of noninguinal abdominal wall hernias and their correlation with body mass index (BMI) and other demographic risk factors. Patients with umbilical, incisional, ventral, epigastric, or Spigelian hernias with or without incarceration were identified using the regional database for 14 hospitals over a 3-year period. Patients were stratified based on their BMI. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to distinguish other significant risk factors associated with the hernias. Of 2,807,414 patients, 26,268 (0.9%) had one of the specified diagnoses. Average age of the patients was 52 years and 61 per cent were male. The majority of patients had nonincarcerated umbilical hernias (74%). Average BMI was 32 kg/m2. Compared with patients with a normal BMI, the odds of having a hernia increased with BMI: BMI of 25 to 29.9 kg/m2 odds ratio (OR) 1.63, BMI of 30 to 39.9 kg/m2 OR 2.62, BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m2 OR 3.91, BMI 50 to 59.9 kg/m2 OR 4.85, and BMI greater than 60 kg/m2 OR 5.17 (Pincarcerated hernias had a higher average BMI (32 kg/m2 vs 35 kg/m2; Pincarceration, and a BMI greater than 60 kg/m2 had the highest chance of incarceration, OR 12.7 (Pincarceration (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.59 and OR, 1.80; CI, 1.45 to 2.24). Increasing BMI and increasing age are associated with a higher prevalence and an increased risk of incarceration of noninguinal abdominal wall hernias.
Jablonski, Robert K; Leszek, Jerzy; Rosińczuk, Joanna; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Panaszek, Bernard
To show the extent to which the health of former prisoners was affected by incarceration in extermination camps after 5 and 30 years of leaving the camp, and to determine the etiological factors underlying particular dysfunctions. Medical records of former prisoners developed in 1950 (n=250) and 1975 (n=120) were then, after several decades, retrospectively analyzed and compared with the control group, randomized and matched according to age, sex, occupation, and environment. None of the subjects in the control group was a prisoner either at a concentration camp or at any other prison or detention facility. Multimorbidity affected mainly the central nervous system (CNS). Five years after leaving a camp, CNS dysfunctions were observed in 66% of former prisoners. Skeletal (42.4%) and cardiovascular system (34.4%) dysfunctions were the second and third most frequent dysfunctions. Thirty years after leaving a camp, the most prevalent coexisting conditions were also found within the CNS (80%), cardiovascular system (58.33%), and skeletal system (55%). Five and 30 years after leaving a camp, multiorgan lesions were found in 21.6% and 60% of survivors, respectively. Multimorbidity was more frequent in a group of prisoners who underwent the state of apathy and depression or who had been incarcerated longer than 24 months. The rate of CNS diseases was four times higher, and the rate of cardiovascular diseases or skeletal system dysfunctions was two times higher, in the study group after 30 years of leaving a camp compared with the control group. The consequences of incarceration in concentration camps manifesting as multimorbidity, premature aging, and dramatic increase in mortality rate are observed in the majority of former prisoners. The multimorbidity mostly affected older prisoners who stayed at a camp for a longer time period.
Nik Farid, Nik Daliana; Che' Rus, Sulaiman; Dahlui, Maznah; Al-Sadat, Nabilla
This study aimed to investigate the determinants of sexual intercourse initiation among incarcerated adolescents aged 12-19 years in Malaysia. This was a sequential mixed-method research project that was conducted in two phases. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the first and second phases, respectively. Data was collected via a survey using self-reported questionnaires from 1,082 adolescents, and from in-depth interviews and the written essays of 29 participants. The participants were recruited from 22 welfare institutions in peninsular Malaysia. Among the study participants, 483 were male and 599 were female. Overall, 62.3% of the incarcerated adolescents had initiated sexual intercourse at least once. The mean age at first sexual intercourse for both genders was 14.0 years. Individual factors found to be associated with previous sexual intercourse were the female gender (odds ratio [OR] 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-2.74), previous alcohol use (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.10-2.94), previous illicit drug use (OR 1.85; 95% CI 1.07-3.22), permissive attitude toward premarital sex (OR 4.34; 95% CI 2.17-8.70), and sexual abuse during childhood (OR 5.41; 95% CI 3.52-8.32). Qualitative findings revealed that the reasons for initiation of sexual intercourse among these adolescents were partner influence, inability to control sex drive, family issues, and the perception of sex as an expression of love. The determinants of sexual intercourse initiation among incarcerated Malaysian adolescents are comparable to those of developed countries. However, in Malaysia, sexual and reproductive health programmes for such adolescents should be tailored to address their specific needs.
Redmond, Nicole; Hicks, Leroi S; Cheng, Debbie M; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Winter, Michael R; Samet, Jeffrey H; Saitz, Richard
The higher risk of death among recently released inmates relative to the general population may be because of the higher prevalence of substance dependence among inmates or an independent effect of incarceration. We explored the effects of recent incarceration on health outcomes that may be intermediate markers for mortality. Longitudinal multivariable regression analyses were conducted on interview data (baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up) from alcohol- and/or drug-dependent individuals (n = 553) participating in a randomized clinical trial to test the effectiveness of chronic disease management for substance dependence in primary care. The main independent variable was recent incarceration (spending ≥1 night in jail or prison in the past 3 months). The 3 main outcomes of this study were any traumatic injury, substance use-related health consequences, and health care utilization--defined as hospitalization (excluding addiction treatment or detoxification) and/or emergency department visit. Recent incarceration was not significantly associated with traumatic injury (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65-1.49) or health care utilization (AOR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.64-1.20). However, recent incarceration was associated with higher odds for substance use-related health consequences (AOR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.02-1.98). Among people with alcohol and/or drug dependence, recent incarceration was significantly associated with substance use-related health consequences but not injury or health care utilization after adjustment for covariates. These findings suggest that substance use-related health consequences may be part of the explanation for the increased risk of death faced by former inmates.
Vidal, Sara; Izquierdo, Marta; Alom, Shamim; Garcia-Borràs, Marc; Filippone, Salvatore; Osuna, Sílvia; Solà, Miquel; Whitby, Richard J; Martín, Nazario
The first chemical modification on the brand new endohedral HF@C60 is reported. In particular, the isomerization from optically pure (2S,5S)-cis-pyrrolidino[3,4:1,2]fullerene 2b to (2S,5R)-trans-pyrrolidino[3,4:1,2]fullerene 2b has been studied and compared with empty C60 (2a) and endohedral H2O@C60 (3). The comparative study shows a kinetic order for the isomerization process of H2O@C60 > HF@C60 > C60, thus confirming the effect of the incarcerated species on the zwitterionic intermediate stability.
Eddy, B A; Powell, M J; Szubka, M H; McCool, M L; Kuntz, S
Incarcerated parents present several risk factors for later violence by their children. This study uses comparison groups and repeated measures to evaluate an inmate parenting program. Subjects are inmates at a county detention center, their children, and primary caregivers. Challenges to program implementation and longitudinal research with inmates were identified, along with recommendations to assist future research and programming. Training material should use illustrated, basic language format. Acceptance and participation by inmates and staff require ongoing outreach and communication. Severed relationships are common and future research on inmates with stable family relationships is recommended. Because of inmate transience, integrating parent training into post-release programming is suggested.
Silva, Jefferson Braga; Gerhardt, Samanta; Pacheco, Ivan
Objective To analyze the results from early intervention surgery in patients with the syndrome of fascial incarceration of the long thoracic nerve and consequent winged scapula. Methods Six patients with a syndrome of nerve trapping without specific nerve strain limitations were followed up. Results The patients achieved improvement of their symptoms 6–20 months after the procedure. The motor symptoms completely disappeared, without any persistent pain. The medial deformity of the winged scapula improved in all cases, without any residual esthetic disorders. Conclusion The approach of early surgical release seems to be a better predictor for recovery from non-traumatic paralysis of the anterior serratus muscle. PMID:26535205
Shelton, Deborah; Kesten, Karen; Zhang, Wanli; Trestman, Robert
This article reports the findings of a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) intervention upon difficult-to-manage, impulsive, and/or aggressive incarcerated male adolescents. A secondary analysis of a subsample of 38 male adolescents who participated in the study was conducted. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used; descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted. Significant changes were found in physical aggression, distancing coping methods, and number of disciplinary tickets for behavior. The study supports the value of DBT-CM for the management of incarcerated male adolescents with difficult-to-manage aggressive behaviors. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rich, Josiah D; McKenzie, Michelle; Larney, Sarah; Wong, John B; Tran, Liem; Clarke, Jennifer; Noska, Amanda; Reddy, Manasa; Zaller, Nickolas
Summary Background Methadone is an effective treatment for opioid dependence. When people who are receiving methadone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence are incarcerated in prison or jail, most US correctional facilities discontinue their methadone treatment, either gradually, or more often, abruptly. This discontinuation can cause uncomfortable symptoms of withdrawal and renders prisoners susceptible to relapse and overdose on release. We aimed to study the effect of forced withdrawal from methadone upon incarceration on individuals’ risk behaviours and engagement with post-release treatment programmes. Methods In this randomised, open-label trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) inmates of the Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RI, USA) who were enrolled in a methadone maintenance-treatment programme in the community at the time of arrest and wanted to remain on methadone treatment during incarceration and on release, to either continuation of their methadone treatment or to usual care—forced tapered withdrawal from methadone. Participants could be included in the study only if their incarceration would be more than 1 week but less than 6 months. We did the random assignments with a computer-generated random permutation, and urn randomisation procedures to stratify participants by sex and race. Participants in the continued-methadone group were maintained on their methadone dose at the time of their incarceration (with dose adjustments as clinically indicated). Patients in the forced-withdrawal group followed the institution’s standard withdrawal protocol of receiving methadone for 1 week at the dose at the time of their incarceration, then a tapered withdrawal regimen (for those on a starting dose >100 mg, the dose was reduced by 5 mg per day to 100 mg, then reduced by 3 mg per day to 0 mg; for those on a starting dose ≤100 mg, the dose was reduced by 3 mg per day to 0 mg). The main outcomes were engagement with a methadone maintenance
Johnson, Megan M; Dismukes, Andrew R; Vitacco, Michael J; Breiman, Chelsea; Fleury, Donald; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A
Conduct disorder (CD) is a heterogeneous diagnosis, leading researchers to initiate studies focused on neurobiological mechanisms underlying this disorder. One specifier of CD currently considered for inclusion in the DSM-V is callous-unemotional (CU) traits, a key component of psychopathy. CU traits are thought to have neuroendocrine underpinnings, yet little is known about hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and -gonadal (HPG) hormones in the context of psychopathic traits. The current study sought to identify daily coupling patterns between HPA and HPG hormones in order to clarify distinct neurobiological underpinning associated with psychopathic/CU traits. Fifty incarcerated adolescent males who met criteria for CD were recruited and provided 10 saliva samples across 2 days. Participants completed the Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL:YV) and Inventory of Callous Unemotional Traits (ICU) on a third day. Diurnal cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA functioning was modeled via hierarchical linear modeling. Psychopathy subscales from the measures administered were used as predictors of daily coupling patterns between these hormones. Results indicated all three hormones were tightly coupled. Further, higher PCL-YV interpersonal scores related to greater coupling between all three hormones, whereas higher ICU callousness scores related to greater uncoupling of testosterone with cortisol and DHEA. The current study is novel in its emphasis on testing the coupling of HPA and HPG hormones among incarcerated adolescent males. Results suggest that affective and interpersonal psychopathic traits are marked by unique HPA- and HPG coupling. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dumont, Dora M; Gjelsvik, Annie; Chen, Nadine; Rich, Josiah D
Disparities in incarceration rates and in prison-based TB/HIV testing may contribute to health disparities in the communities most affected by incarceration. We analyzed Bureau of Justice Statistics surveys of federal and state prison inmates to assess TB and HIV screening rates for US-born Hispanics, foreign-born Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks, and non-Hispanic whites. Screening rates were high overall but foreign-born Hispanic inmates had significantly lower odds of being tested for TB in both state (AOR 0.55) and federal prisons (AOR 0.31) compared to white inmates. Foreign-born Hispanics also had lower odds of being tested for HIV in state prisons and Hispanics had lower odds of being tested for HIV in federal prisons compared to white inmates. Screening for infectious diseases in state and federal prisons is high but Hispanics have higher odds of going untested; this has important consequences for prevention of further transmission in the communities to which they return.
Lora M Cope
Full Text Available Recent neuroscientific evidence indicates that psychopathy is associated with abnormal function and structure in limbic and paralimbic areas. Psychopathy and substance use disorders are highly comorbid, but clinical experience suggests that psychopaths abuse drugs for different reasons than non-psychopaths, and that psychopaths do not typically experience withdrawal and craving upon becoming incarcerated. These neurobiological abnormalities may be related to psychopaths’ different motivations for – and symptoms of – drug use. This study examined the modulatory effect of psychopathic traits on the neurobiological craving response to pictorial drug stimuli. Drug-related pictures and neutral pictures were presented and rated by participants while hemodynamic activity was monitored using functional magnetic resonance imaging. These data were collected at two correctional facilities in New Mexico using the Mind Research Network mobile magnetic resonance imaging system. The sample comprised 137 incarcerated adult males and females (93 females with histories of substance dependence. The outcome of interest was the relation between psychopathy scores (using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and hemodynamic activity associated with viewing drug-related pictures versus neutral pictures. There was a negative association between psychopathy scores and hemodynamic activity for viewing drug-related cues in the anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, hippocampus, amygdala, caudate, globus pallidus, and parts of the prefrontal cortex. Psychopathic traits modulate the neurobiological craving response and suggest that individual differences are important for understanding and treating substance abuse.
Rich, Josiah D; Beckwith, Curt G; Macmadu, Alexandria; Marshall, Brandon D L; Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Amon, Joseph J; Milloy, M-J; King, Maximilian R F; Sanchez, Jorge; Atwoli, Lukoye; Altice, Frederick L
The burden of HIV/AIDS and other transmissible diseases is higher in prison and jail settings than in the non-incarcerated communities that surround them. In this comprehensive review, we discuss available literature on the topic of clinical management of people infected with HIV, hepatitis B and C viruses, and tuberculosis in incarcerated settings in addition to co-occurrence of one or more of these infections. Methods such as screening practices and provision of treatment during detainment periods are reviewed to identify the effect of community-based treatment when returning inmates into the general population. Where data are available, we describe differences in the provision of medical care in the prison and jail settings of low-income and middle-income countries compared with high-income countries. Structural barriers impede the optimal delivery of clinical care for prisoners, and substance use, mental illness, and infectious disease further complicate the delivery of care. For prison health care to reach the standards of community-based health care, political will and financial investment are required from governmental, medical, and humanitarian organisations worldwide. In this review, we highlight challenges, gaps in knowledge, and priorities for future research to improve health-care in institutions for prisoners. PMID:27427452
Rich, Josiah D; Beckwith, Curt G; Macmadu, Alexandria; Marshall, Brandon D L; Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Amon, Joseph J; Milloy, M-J; King, Maximilian R F; Sanchez, Jorge; Atwoli, Lukoye; Altice, Frederick L
The burden of HIV/AIDS and other transmissible diseases is higher in prison and jail settings than in the non-incarcerated communities that surround them. In this comprehensive review, we discuss available literature on the topic of clinical management of people infected with HIV, hepatitis B and C viruses, and tuberculosis in incarcerated settings in addition to co-occurrence of one or more of these infections. Methods such as screening practices and provision of treatment during detainment periods are reviewed to identify the effect of community-based treatment when returning inmates into the general population. Where data are available, we describe differences in the provision of medical care in the prison and jail settings of low-income and middle-income countries compared with high-income countries. Structural barriers impede the optimal delivery of clinical care for prisoners, and substance use, mental illness, and infectious disease further complicate the delivery of care. For prison health care to reach the standards of community-based health care, political will and financial investment are required from governmental, medical, and humanitarian organisations worldwide. In this review, we highlight challenges, gaps in knowledge, and priorities for future research to improve health-care in institutions for prisoners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Knudsen, Hannah K; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Oser, Carrie B; Havens, Jennifer R; Leukefeld, Carl G
Women involved in the criminal justice system, particularly those with a history of drug use, are at elevated risk of HIV infection, yet few HIV prevention interventions have been tailored for delivery to incarcerated women. Drawing on the Relational Model, the Reducing Risky Relationships for HIV (RRR-HIV) intervention was developed and evaluated in a multisite randomized clinical trial. Women with weekly drug use prior to incarceration (n = 444) who were incarcerated within correctional institutions in four states were randomized to (1) the RRR-HIV intervention consisting of an HIV educational video, five group sessions, and one postrelease booster session or (2) a control condition consisting of the HIV educational video. The RRR-HIV intervention combined didactic and interactive content regarding seven "thinking myths" about intimate relationships that may result in decisions to engage in risky sexual behaviors. Data were collected while women were still incarcerated and approximately 90 days following release from prison by trained interviewers. A negative binomial regression (NBR) model of unprotected sexual behaviors at the 90-day follow-up indicated that RRR-HIV participants reported fewer unprotected sexual behaviors than women in the control condition once the analysis was adjusted for study site. Future studies should examine the sustainability of the RRR-HIV intervention's effect on risk reduction. Implementation research is needed to determine whether delivery of this intervention by correctional staff or peers, rather than research staff, yields similar reductions in unprotected sexual behaviors.
The Effects of the Children Having Incarcerated Parents Succeeding Group on Delinquent Behavior, Academic Achievement, Self-Esteem, Attendance and Aggressive Behavior with Seventh and Eighth Grade Students Who Have Incarcerated Parents or Guardians
King-White, Dakota L.
A sample of middle school students was investigated to determine whether an intervention group called Children Having Incarcerated Parents (C.H.I.P.S.; King-White & Lipford-Sanders, 2007) was an effective intervention for delinquent behavior, academic achievement, self-esteem, attendance, and aggressive behavior in children of incarcerated…
Full Text Available Introduction: the finding of the vermiform appendix within a crural hernia (Amyand's hernia is a rare entity whose incidence is not described in the literature. Objective: the aim of this study was to report our hospital's experience in this kind of pathology. Material and methods: between 1993 and 2004, 4,572 acute appendicitis and 372 incarcerated crural hernia cases have been operated on in our hospital. We studied 6 cases of incarcerated crural hernia with vermiform appendix inside. We analyzed in retrospect the following parameters: age, sex, personal history, clinical manifestations, preoperative diagnosis, surgical technique, mean hospital stay, and outcome. Results: all patients were women with a mean age of 78.8 years. Most frequent clinical manifestations included pain and a mass in the right inguinocrural region, of variable intensity and duration. No clinical, laboratory, or radiographic signs help in reaching a correct preoperative diagnosis. General anesthesia and a crural approach are used in most surgical operations. In all cases an appendectomy was performed via the hernia sac, thus proving the presence of acute appendicitis in four of them (66.67%. A prosthetic mesh was used in 3 cases, and one case of wound infection was found. In the other cases we sutured the hernia ring using prolene. Conclusion: the finding of the appendix in an incarcerated crural hernia is a rare entity in old women that is difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Treatment includes appendectomy and herniorraphy. The use of prosthetic mesh is controversial.Introducción: la presencia del apéndice vermiforme en el interior de un saco herniario crural (hernia de Amyand constituye una entidad poco frecuente y cuya incidencia no está descrita en la literatura. Objetivo: el objetivo del trabajo es presentar la experiencia de nuestro hospital en este tipo de patología. Material y métodos: entre 1993 y 2004 se han intervenido en nuestro centro 4.572 pacientes
Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Parker, Sharon; Welch, Chiquitia; Wall, Ariana; Wiggins, Pam
The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral approach in changing the behavioral and cognitive skills of incarcerated girls participating in a substance abuse treatment program. A repeated measures design was used. The findings of this study revealed that the behaviors (i.e., self-monitoring,…
Randall, G. K.; Bishop, Alex J.
Purpose of the study: Few studies have investigated the influence of religiosity (REL), forgiveness, and social resources on incarcerated individuals' attachment to their lives, or valuation of life (VOL). We tested a model linking REL to VOL through 3 subscales of the Heartland Forgiveness Scale (Self, Others, and Situations) and social…
Fraizer, Robert Lee; And Others
In attempting to determine the cost of probation and the cost of incarceration of adult felons in Texas, it was discovered that there were no comparative figures available. A search of the literature was conducted to determine the proper standards for probation caseload management and to identify problems associated with previous cost studies. In…
Helmond, P.; Overbeek, G.; Brugman, D.
The present study examined whether the cognitive behavioral program EQUIP for incarcerated youth would reduce recidivism and whether higher levels of program integrity - the extent to which a program is implemented as intended - would strengthen the effectiveness of EQUIP on recidivism. Program
Helmond, P.; Overbeek, G.; Brugman, D.
This study examined whether a "program integrity booster" could improve the low to moderate program integrity and effectiveness of the EQUIP program for incarcerated youth as practiced in The Netherlands. Program integrity was assessed in EQUIP groups before and after the booster. Youth residing in
Tosi, Gian Marco; Malandrini, Alex; Cevenini, Gabriele; Neri, Giovanni; Marigliani, Davide; Cerruto, Arianna; Virgili, Gianni
To study the patterns of vitreous incarceration at sclerotomy sites by ultrasound biomicroscopy in patients subjected to valved or nonvalved small-gauge pars plana vitrectomy. A prospective comparative study of 88 eyes affected by epiretinal membrane and macular hole. Patients were divided into four groups: valved or nonvalved 23-gauge (16 eyes each) and valved or nonvalved 25-gauge (20 eyes each); their vitreal disposition was compared by ultrasound biomicroscopy. Vitreal disposition was also assessed in 16 eyes of 16 patients subjected to valved 27-gauge pars plana vitrectomy. Three vitreal patterns were identified: P0 (vitreous not visible or vitreous strand distant from the sclerotomy site), P1 (vitreous strand parallel to and in contact with the sclerotomy site), and P2 (vitreous strand entrapped in the sclerotomy site). The effect of valved trocar use on vitreous incarceration seemed to be somewhat beneficial, but no statistically significant effect could be shown (odds ratio: 0.85, 95% confidence interval: 0.42-1.74, P = 0.657). Similarly, no differences in vitreous incarceration were shown among vitrectomy gauges (23, 25, or 27) both in a model including valved trocars only (P = 0.858) and in a model with all available data (P = 0.935). In 23- and 25-gauge macular surgeries, postoperative vitreous incarceration does not seem to be reduced using valved cannulas and was similar to that observed in 27-gauge surgery.
de Guzman, Allan B.; Imperial, Marnie Yvette G.; Javier, Rianne Rae L.; Kawasaki, Arisa M.
The impact of prison upon incarcerated individuals is considerably destructive and may lead to low mental health resiliency. Despite a large body of literature on resiliency, little is known about the process that the elderly go through in developing resiliency in the penal setting--hence, this grounded theory investigation. The overall intent of…
Munroe, Monekka L.
The problem is Florida is ranked as having the 10th largest incarceration rate in the United States, with a recidivism rate of almost 30%. Therefore, this researcher conducted a systematic review of the literature to determine any benefits to providing college courses to inmates, including the reduction of recidivism. To determine the…
Olaitan, Sulaiman A; Shmaila, Hanif; Sikiru, Lamina; Lawal, Isa U
Incarceration has been associated with reduced physical activity. However, physical inactivity is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was therefore, to evaluate the incidence and relationship between the measures of physical fitness and the duration of incarceration in of inmates in Kano-Nigeria prisons. A cross-sectional study was done to determine the relationship between the measures of physical fitness and the duration of incarceration of inmates in Kano prisons. Subjects' physical fitness level (cardio-respiratory fitness, body mass index and waist circumference) was assessed using standardized protocols. Simple percentage, Pearson moment correlation test and student's t-test were used to analyze variables of interest. One hundred and sixteen inmates; 108 (93.1%) males and 8 (6.9%) females participated in the study. The study revealed high (93.1%) prevalence of low cardio-respiratory fitness among inmates and significant correlation between the selected indices of physical fitness (cardio-respiratory fitness, body mass index and waist circumference) and duration of incarceration. The prevalence of low cardio-respiratory fitness was high among inmates and long period of inadequate physical activity may be implicated as causative factor of low physical fitness among inmates in Kano prison. Prison administration and staff should encourage healthy inmate behavior. Provision of adequate facilities to encourage physical activity and sports participation is highly needed.
Donahue, John J.
Smoking is a major health problem, however the issue is even more pronounced among those incarcerated in prisons, where smoking rates are often three times that of the general population. While effective treatments have been demonstrated in the tobacco literature, research examining treatment within prisons is limited in scope. This article…
Midgley, Erin Kathleen; Lo, Celia C.
The impact of a parent's incarceration and adolescents' emotional health on their substance abuse and delinquency is described for a group of at-risk 10- to 14-year-old adolescents. Data were drawn from a two-wave longitudinal study from the federally funded Children at Risk program, ongoing in five states from 1993 to 1997. Results point to a…
Robertson, Angela R.; St. Lawrence, Janet; Morse, David T.; Baird-Thomas, Connie; Liew, Hui; Gresham, Kathleen
Adolescent girls incarcerated in a state reformatory (N = 246) were recruited and assigned to an 18-session health education program or a time-equivalent HIV prevention program. Cohorts were assigned to conditions using a randomized block design separated by a washout period to reduce contamination. Post intervention, girls in the HIV risk…
Fowler, Cathrine; Dawson, Angela; Rossiter, Chris; Jackson, Debra; Power, Tamara; Roche, Michael
Learning to parent sensitively and safely can be challenging for adults with childhood abuse and neglect experiences. Such childhood experiences are prevalent among incarcerated parents whose ability to parent their own children is also limited by separation from them. Several prisons have developed programs to foster pro-social parenting skills…
Orjiakor, Charles T; Ugwu, Dorothy I; Eze, John E; Ugwu, Leonard I; Ibeagha, Peace N; Onu, Desmond U
Awaiting trial prisoners (ATPs) are represented in prisons globally, and may stay for long periods in detention. This group is however underrepresented in literature on incarcerated persons. We aim to explore the lived experiences of ATPs detained for prolonged years in a sub-Saharan country; examining what they make of their status and how their conditions have affected their wellbeing. Eight inmates awaiting trial for armed robbery and murder offences, held for between 8 years and 15 years participated in a focus group discussion. Hermeneutic phenomenology guided the interpretation of transcripts. ATPs recount disbelief and negative emotional experiences upon incarceration. Alienated and uncertain about their status, ATPs experience intensified distressful ruminations which impact wellbeing. ATPs re-rationalized incarceration and made social comparisons which breed poor perception of self. ATPs nonetheless recounted hopefulness, made favorable comparisons; and find consolation in religious beliefs. Prolonged years spent awaiting trial fuels a deterioration of wellbeing. Alternatives to incarceration are urgently needed for ATPs. Distressful experiences recalled by the inmates beg for the inclusiveness of ATPs in programs that promote wellbeing. The Good Lives Model holds potentials for building an inclusive framework to accommodate ATPs in prison interventions.
Orjiakor, Charles T.; Ugwu, Dorothy I.; Eze, John E.; Ugwu, Leonard I.; Ibeagha, Peace N.; Onu, Desmond U.
ABSTRACT Purpose: Awaiting trial prisoners (ATPs) are represented in prisons globally, and may stay for long periods in detention. This group is however underrepresented in literature on incarcerated persons. We aim to explore the lived experiences of ATPs detained for prolonged years in a sub-Saharan country; examining what they make of their status and how their conditions have affected their wellbeing. Method: Eight inmates awaiting trial for armed robbery and murder offences, held for between 8 years and 15 years participated in a focus group discussion. Hermeneutic phenomenology guided the interpretation of transcripts. Result: ATPs recount disbelief and negative emotional experiences upon incarceration. Alienated and uncertain about their status, ATPs experience intensified distressful ruminations which impact wellbeing. ATPs re-rationalized incarceration and made social comparisons which breed poor perception of self. ATPs nonetheless recounted hopefulness, made favorable comparisons; and find consolation in religious beliefs. Conclusion: Prolonged years spent awaiting trial fuels a deterioration of wellbeing. Alternatives to incarceration are urgently needed for ATPs. Distressful experiences recalled by the inmates beg for the inclusiveness of ATPs in programs that promote wellbeing. The Good Lives Model holds potentials for building an inclusive framework to accommodate ATPs in prison interventions. PMID:29103371
Giraldo, Luis Gustavo
As student diversity in higher education continues to encompass myriad groups that include numerous intersecting combinations of backgrounds, higher education actors must be aware of the changing dynamics of the 21st century student. These changes include growing numbers of previously incarcerated and formerly gang-involved students seeking higher…
Full Text Available Robert K Jablonski,1 Jerzy Leszek,2 Joanna Rosińczuk,3 Izabella Uchmanowicz,4 Bernard Panaszek11Department and Clinic of Internal Diseases, Geriatry and Allergology, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Nervous System Diseases, Department of Clinical Nursing, 4Division of Nursing in Internal Medicine Procedures, Department of Clinical Nursing, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, PolandObjective: To show the extent to which the health of former prisoners was affected by incarceration in extermination camps after 5 and 30 years of leaving the camp, and to determine the etiological factors underlying particular dysfunctions.Methods: Medical records of former prisoners developed in 1950 (n=250 and 1975 (n=120 were then, after several decades, retrospectively analyzed and compared with the control group, randomized and matched according to age, sex, occupation, and environment. None of the subjects in the control group was a prisoner either at a concentration camp or at any other prison or detention facility.Results: Multimorbidity affected mainly the central nervous system (CNS. Five years after leaving a camp, CNS dysfunctions were observed in 66% of former prisoners. Skeletal (42.4% and cardiovascular system (34.4% dysfunctions were the second and third most frequent dysfunctions. Thirty years after leaving a camp, the most prevalent coexisting conditions were also found within the CNS (80%, cardiovascular system (58.33%, and skeletal system (55%. Five and 30 years after leaving a camp, multiorgan lesions were found in 21.6% and 60% of survivors, respectively. Multimorbidity was more frequent in a group of prisoners who underwent the state of apathy and depression or who had been incarcerated longer than 24 months. The rate of CNS diseases was four times higher, and the rate of cardiovascular diseases or skeletal system dysfunctions was two times higher, in the study group after 30 years of leaving a camp compared with the control group
Full Text Available Introduction. Addiction in women can expose them to malnutrition, high blood pressure, cancer, and some other dangerous diseases like hepatitis, AIDS, or other sexual transmitted diseases. The aim of this study was to assess illegal sexual relations in three groups of women. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that was done on 236 girls and young women aged 16–25 years in 2012 in three groups: vulnerable women who have substance dependency (crimes that had made women incarcerated were considered as vulnerability in this study, invulnerable women who have substance dependency (substance dependent women without a history of incarceration, and a control group (women with no history of substance dependency or being in prison. Results. 43.8% of vulnerable women who have substance dependency had extramarital sexual relations; this percentage was 55.8% in invulnerable women who have substance dependency and 1.4% in the control group. Crystal and methamphetamine abuse was higher in addicts who had extramarital sexual relations and alcohol abuse was correlated with unsafe sexual intercourse (r=;0.36, P=0.001. There was a statistically significant difference in extramarital sexual relation based on marital status (P<0.001. Conclusions. Poverty, drug dependency, divorce, and alcohol consumption make women prone to other high risk behaviors that need more attention.
Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Dadgarmoghaddam, Maliheh; Erfanian, Majidreza; Alipourtabrizi, Arash; Khadem-Rezaiyan, Majid
Introduction. Addiction in women can expose them to malnutrition, high blood pressure, cancer, and some other dangerous diseases like hepatitis, AIDS, or other sexual transmitted diseases. The aim of this study was to assess illegal sexual relations in three groups of women. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that was done on 236 girls and young women aged 16-25 years in 2012 in three groups: vulnerable women who have substance dependency (crimes that had made women incarcerated were considered as vulnerability in this study), invulnerable women who have substance dependency (substance dependent women without a history of incarceration), and a control group (women with no history of substance dependency or being in prison). Results. 43.8% of vulnerable women who have substance dependency had extramarital sexual relations; this percentage was 55.8% in invulnerable women who have substance dependency and 1.4% in the control group. Crystal and methamphetamine abuse was higher in addicts who had extramarital sexual relations and alcohol abuse was correlated with unsafe sexual intercourse (r = 0.36, P = 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in extramarital sexual relation based on marital status (P divorce, and alcohol consumption make women prone to other high risk behaviors that need more attention.
Kathryn V. Stanley
Full Text Available This paper examines the African American church’s response to the special problems of African American women who reenter the community post-incarceration. The first portion of the paper examines the impact of criminal justice policies on women of color and the attending problems of reentry which resulted. It then surveys the black church’s response to returning citizens, especially women. It concludes by proposing shifts in perspectives and theologies which create barriers to successful reintegration into the community at large, and the church in particular. The intended audience is individuals and faith communities who seek to work effectively with returning women.
Angelini, Kimberly; Sutherland, Melissa A; Fantasia, Heidi Collins
To describe the reports of young women in their senior college years related to alcohol and tobacco use and to describe their health screening experiences in college health centers. A secondary analysis of data collected as part of a cross-sectional study of college women. For the original study, women were recruited from two accredited 4-year universities in the Northeastern United States. The first was a private university, and the second was a public university; both had on-campus health centers. The participants were 615 female undergraduate students enrolled in their senior year of college. A Web-based survey was sent to approximately 1,200 women at each university. Women were asked about their alcohol and tobacco use and about screening experiences in college health centers. The mean response rate was 25.8%. Nearly 90% (n = 550) of the women reported drinking alcohol in the last 3 months, and of those, more than two thirds (n = 370) met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of hazardous drinking. However, only 21.5% (n = 56) reported being screened for alcohol use. Similarly, only 19.7% (n = 52) reported being screened for tobacco use. College health centers are ideally positioned to screen and provide interventions for young women who are at high risk for alcohol misuse and tobacco use. Despite prevalence of use and importance of screening, reported screening is low. Future research is needed to understand barriers to screening and implement recommendations for college health centers. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kishan, Rama; Saibaba, Balaji; Kumar, Vishal; Aggarwal, Sameer
Conjoint bicondylar coronal plane fracture is a rare orthopaedic injury, associated with high-velocity trauma. The proposed mechanism is axially directed shear forces in a flexed knee. To the best of our literature search, only 2 cases of conjoint bicondylar coronal fracture have been published in English literature-1 each in adult and paediatric age group. Conjoint bicondylar coronal plane fracture with incarcerated patella has not yet been reported and hence this is the first report of its kind. We report on the clinical presentation, management and outcome of such a complex injury, along with a comprehensive, up-to-date literature review. Prompt open reduction and internal fixation coupled with early knee mobilisation is the key to achieve good functional outcome. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Ekanayake, Emnp; Fernando, S A; Durairajah, P L; Jayasundara, Jasb
Bochdalek hernias occur as a result of congenital fusion failure of the posterolateral muscular portion of the diaphragm derived from the embryonic pleuroperitoneal membrane. The vast majority of symptomatic Bochdalek hernias are diagnosed during the neonatal period. Congenital diaphragmatic hernias showing symptoms in adulthood are rare. We report the case of a 28-year-old man who presented with subacute bowel obstruction, later diagnosed to have a left-sided incarcerated Bochdalek hernia containing an ischaemic splenic flexure and the distal transverse colon. During laparotomy, he underwent primary repair of the diaphragmatic defect and an extended right hemicolectomy with ileocolic anastomosis. The patient made a good recovery and is well at three months following surgery. This case highlights the need for surgeons to be vigilant about rare types of congenital internal hernias as they may become symptomatic later in life.
Runell, Lindsey Livingston
The link between education and crime is a topic that requires special attention with respect to the converging influence of individual, social, and environmental factors. This article will investigate the educational pathways followed by students in a higher education program for formerly incarcerated individuals at a large state university in the northeastern United States. Specifically, it will explore the extent to which their postincarceration educational experiences served as a "hook for change" and also related impediments tied to street influences, financial constraints, stigma, academic and social development. Data were collected from a sample of 34 current and former students in the program, each of whom participated in a face-to-face interview. The higher education program played a key role in propelling the desistance process for research participants. This article will discuss how personal agency can be sustained through participation in higher education post release and the implications for future research on crime avoidance.
A grassroots movement of nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations is creating programs in which incarcerated individuals train rescued shelter dogs as therapeutic canines for Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Driven in part by reports of Veterans not receiving adequate treatment for PTSD, the programs are the latest iteration of prison-based animal programs and are founded on the principles of animal therapy and healing powers of animals. The far-reaching and deleterious collateral consequences of PTSD create social and economic burdens on the country; providing beneficial interventions for Veterans is a pressing social problem. Without oversight, a patchwork of agencies has developed that provides Veterans with dogs with varying levels of training and differing abilities. To best serve the needs of Veterans, the programs need regulation and standardized methods of training. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(5), 49-57.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Wakeman, Sarah E; Bowman, Sarah E; McKenzie, Michelle; Jeronimo, Alexandra; Rich, Josiah D
Death from opiate overdose is a tremendous source of mortality, with a heightened risk in the weeks following incarceration. The goal of this study is to assess overdose experience and response among long-term opiate users involved in the criminal justice system. One hundred thirty-seven subjects from a project linking opiate-dependent individuals being released from prison with methadone maintenance programs were asked 73 questions regarding overdose. Most had experienced and witnessed multiple overdoses; 911 was often not called. The majority of personal overdoses occurred within 1 month of having been institutionalized. Nearly all participants expressed an interest in being trained in overdose prevention with Naloxone. The risk of death from overdose is greatly increased in the weeks following release from prison. A pre-release program of overdose prevention education, including Naloxone prescription, for inmates with a history of opiate addiction would likely prevent many overdose deaths.
Salemis, N S
Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital abnormality of the gastrointestinal tract and is the result of the incomplete obliteration of the omphalomesenteric duct. Herniation of Meckel's diverticulum is called Littre's hernia and is a rare occurrence. Herein is described an extremely rare case of incarcerated and strangulated Meckel's diverticulum through an incisional ventral defect in a 59-year-old female patient, who presented with manifestations of acute surgical abdomen. At emergency laparotomy, a strangulated small-bowel loop containing a Meckel's diverticulum was found, which had migrated through the subcutaneous tissues to the right iliac fossa, where a painful mass was palpated on admission. Segmental resection of the ischemic ileum was performed and the abdomen was closed without the use of a prosthetic mesh. Histopathological findings were suggestive of a true diverticulum containing heterotopic gastric mucosa.
Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Cillessen, Antonius H N
Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N = 86, age 15-24 years), our study is the first to examine the association between peer status and psychopathology in a correctional facility. Results indicated that a key indicator of likeability was prosocial behavior; popularity was related to leadership; and social impact was associated with aggression. Popularity might serve as a buffer against, and social impact as a risk factor for, psychosocial problems. Findings shed light on peer status as a mechanism underpinning female offenders' problem behaviors and an entry point for targeted interventions.
Burnette, Mandi L; South, Susan C; Reppucci, N Dickon
Several studies have linked Cluster B personality pathology to aggression in clinical and community samples. However, the structure of Cluster B traits, and association to aggression and psychopathology, has yet to be investigated among young female offenders. In order to better inform treatments for female aggression, we studied 121 incarcerated girls, aged 13 to 19 years, who completed a series of self-report inventories that measured overt and relational aggression, as well as symptoms of depression and anxiety. Personality was assessed through a structured interview. Factor analysis of Cluster B traits revealed a three factor solution, with each factor demonstrating a unique pattern of association to relational and overt aggression and psychopathology. The implications with regard to treatment of personality pathology and aggression in the juvenile justice setting are discussed.
Borschmann, Rohan; Young, Jesse T; Moran, Paul; Spittal, Matthew J; Snow, Kathryn; Mok, Katherine; Kinner, Stuart A
Self-harm is prevalent in prison populations and is a well-established risk factor for suicide. Researchers typically rely on self-report to measure self-harm, yet the accuracy and predictive value of self-report in prison populations is unclear. Using a large, representative sample of incarcerated men and women, we aimed to examine the level of agreement between self-reported self-harm history and historical medical records, and investigate the association between self-harm history and medically verified self-harm after release from prison. During confidential interviews with 1315 adults conducted within 6 weeks of expected release from 1 of 7 prisons in Queensland, Australia, participants were asked about the occurrence of lifetime self-harm. Responses were compared with prison medical records and linked both retrospectively and prospectively with ambulance, emergency department and hospital records to identify instances of medically verified self-harm. Follow-up interviews roughly 1, 3 and 6 months after release covered the same domains assessed in the baseline interview as well as self-reported criminal activity and contact with health care, social and criminal justice services since release. Agreement between self-reported and medically verified history of self-harm was poor, with 64 (37.6%) of 170 participants with a history of medically verified self-harm disclosing a history of self-harm at baseline. Participants with a medically verified history of self-harm were more likely than other participants to self-harm during the follow-up period. Compared to the unconfirmed-negative group, the true-positive (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 6.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.3-10.4]), false-negative (adjusted HR 4.0 [95% CI 2.2-6.7]) and unconfirmed-positive (adjusted HR 2.2 [95% CI 1.2-3.9]) groups were at increased risk for self-harm after release from prison. Self-reported history of self-harm should not be considered a sensitive indicator of prior self-harm or of
Epperson, Matthew W.; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Bolyard, Melissa; Sandoval, Milagros; Friedman, Samuel R.
Objectives. We examined the link between incarceration and sexually transmitted infection (STI), including HIV, from a social network perspective. Methods. We used data collected during a social network study conducted in Brooklyn, NY (n = 343), to measure associations between incarceration and infection with herpes simplex virus-2, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis or HIV and sex with an infected partner, adjusting for characteristics of respondents and their sex partners. Results. Infection with an STI or HIV was associated with incarceration of less than 1 year (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.76) and 1 year or longer (adjusted PR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.74). Sex in the past 3 months with an infected partner was associated with sex in the past 3 months with 1 partner (adjusted PR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.12, 1.79) and with 2 or more partners (adjusted PR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.43, 2.38) who had ever been incarcerated. Conclusions. The results highlight the need for STI and HIV treatment and prevention for current and former prisoners and provide preliminary evidence to suggest that incarceration may influence STI and HIV, possibly because incarceration increases the risk of sex with infected partners. PMID:21233443
Komatsu, Teruya; Takahashi, Yutaka
Morgagni's hernia is a congenital herniation of abdominal viscera into the thoracic cavity through a retrosternal diaphragmatic defect. We present a case of incarcerated Morgagni hernia in a 69-year-old woman. Three years previously, she had undertaken a video-assisted thoracoscopic resection (VATS) of a mediastinal mass, which had been mistaken for a lipoma. Following the primary repair of the hernia at emergency laparotomy, the patient was discharged home uneventfully. Irrespective of the radiologically characteristic findings of our case, the possibility of Morgagni hernia had not been entertained at the first operation. Thorough exploration around the diaphragm at the first VATS operation could have revealed the Morgagni hernia, ultimately avoiding the hernia-related complication such as an incarceration. Morgagni hernia as a differential diagnosis in case of anterior mediastinal mass should not be missed. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Štulhofer, Aleksandar; Jwehan, Isam; AbuRabie, Randa
In the Middle East, the HIV epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs) seems to be in an early phase, which increases the importance of prevention and systematic risk surveillance. To gain information about HIV and HCV infection rates among IDUs in the West Bank, a biobehavioral survey was conducted using time-location sampling in the Ramallah, Hebron, and Bethlehem governorates in 2013. The researchers recruited 288 Palestinian IDUs ages 16-64 (Mage = 39.2, SD = 11.11). While no HIV cases were found in the sample, 41% of participants tested positive for HCV. Imprisonment was common among participants (83%), so we explored the association of incarceration experience with HCV infection and HIV testing. In multivariate assessments, incarceration was shown to increase the odds of being infected with HCV and ever tested for HIV. HIV prevention should be strengthened in West Bank prisons and correctional facilities, and imprisonment for drug use re-examined.
Full Text Available Incisional or postoperative hernia, one of the most common surgical procedure in general surgery practice, mostly occurs in the first years following abdominal operations. Incarceration or strangulation is a serious complication of these hernias, and mostly requires emergent surgery. Meckel%u2019s diverticulum, the most frequent congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract, is rarely found within a hernial sac and this unusual condition is called as Littre%u2019s hernia. In addition, preoperative diagnosis of this unusual condition is rather difficult and it is almost always first discovered during operation. A small number of cases of strangulated Meckel%u2019s Diverticulum in an incarcerated ventral incisional hernia have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a strangulated Meckel%u2019s Diverticulum through a ventral incisional hernia in a 65 year-old woman who presented with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction.
Rodriguez, Aubrey J.; Margolin, Gayla
The temporary absence of a parent (e.g., due to incarceration, migration, or military deployment) is experienced by many youth and can have profound effects. Available research within these disparate literatures primarily has catalogued contextual and individual variables that influence youth adaptation, which are integrated and summarized here. In addition, we present a systematic review of proximal family process mechanisms by which youth and their family members adapt to periods of tempora...
Reagan, Louise A; Walsh, Stephen J; Shelton, Deborah
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine relationships of self-care behavior, illness representation and diabetes knowledge with A1C (level of glycemic control) in 124 incarcerated persons. Design/methodology/approach Using a cross-sectional design, summary scores and items from the self-care inventory revised, brief illness perception questionnaire and the spoken knowledge for low literacy in diabetes were evaluated using linear regression to assess their relationship to A1C. Findings Metabolic control was suboptimal for the majority of inmates with diabetes. The final regression model was statistically significant ( F (3, 120)=9.51, p=0.001, R(2)=19.2 percent). Higher log10 HbA1C (A1C) was associated with lower personal control beliefs ( B=-0.007, t (122)=-2.42, p=diabetes understanding ( B=0.009, t (122)=3.12, p=0.00) and using insulin ( B=0.062, t (122)=2.45, p=0.02). Research limitations/implications Similar to findings with community dwelling participants, enhancing diabetes personal control beliefs among inmates may lead to lower A1C. Social implications Highly structured environments with limited options for self-care, personal choices and readily available health care may give some incarcerated persons with diabetes no motivation to improve diabetes control even if they have an understanding of what to do. Originality/value While there is abundant research in the community describing how these factors influence A1C levels, research of this nature with incarcerated persons with diabetes is limited. Findings will inform diabetes programming during incarceration to better prepare inmates for reentry.
Hutton, Heidi; Lesko, Catherine R; Chander, Geetanjali; Lau, Bryan; Wand, Gary S; McCaul, Mary E
To examine the association between perceived stress and subsequent alcohol use in women living with HIV. Women (n=338) receiving HIV care between April 2006 and July 2010 who enrolled in either a brief intervention for hazardous drinking or a cohort of non-hazardous drinkers completed a 90-day drinking and drug use history, and completed stress, depression and anxiety measures at 0, 6, and 12 months. We examined the association between perceived stress at months 0 or 6 and measures of quantity and frequency of alcohol use in months 3-6 and 9-12, respectively. The association between perceived stress and subsequent alcohol use depended on whether women were heavy or moderate drinkers at index visit. Among women reporting ≥7 drinks/week at index visit, high levels of perceived stress were associated with subsequent increased alcohol intake. However, among women reporting >0 but perceived stress were associated with a subsequent reduction in drinking. Baseline drinking status moderates the relationship between perceived stress and subsequent alcohol use. Perceived stress is an important therapeutic target in women who are heavy drinkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Herschl, Laura C; Highland, Krista B; McChargue, Dennis E
The present pilot study hypothesized that degree of exposure to prenatal testosterone interacts with a history of lifetime physical abuse (LPA) to predict the cognitive (anger rumination) and behavioral (intimate partner and interpersonal violence) components of aggression within incarcerated methamphetamine (MA) users. In addition, we hypothesized that the degree of exposure to prenatal testosterone interacts with LPA to predict cognitive flexibility (Stroop Color-Word performance). Male inmate MA users (N = 60) completed neuropsychological and paper/pencil tests. Hand photocopies were also obtained to index prenatal testosterone exposure. Five covariate-adjusted moderation models were tested using anger rumination, intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, interpersonal violence perpetration (before and while incarcerated), and Stroop Color-Word T-score as the criteria, prenatal testosterone exposure as the predictor, and LPA as the moderator. Results indicated that, in individuals with a history of LPA, exposure to higher levels of prenatal testosterone exposure predicted greater anger rumination, lower Stroop Color-Word test T-scores, and lower frequencies of IPV perpetration. Findings were not significant in individuals without a history of LPA. This research suggests that biochemical and psychosocial vulnerabilities influence anger rumination and cognitive flexibility, which may render incarcerated MA users at greater risk to relapse or recidivate upon release from prison. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Norris, Jeanette; Kiekel, Preston A; Morrison, Diane M; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H; Zawacki, Tina; Abdallah, Devon Alisa; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A
Understanding how women judge male partners' sexual risk is important to developing risk reduction programs. Applying a cognitive mediation model of sexual decision making, our study investigated effects of alcohol consumption (control, low dose, high dose) and relationship type (disrupted vs. new) on women's risk judgments of a male sexual partner in three sexual risk conditions (low, unknown, high). After random assignment to an experimental condition, 328 participants projected themselves into a story depicting a sexual interaction. The story was paused to assess primary appraisals of sexual and relationship potential and secondary appraisals of pleasure, health, and relationship concerns, followed by sexual risk judgments. In all risk conditions, alcohol and disrupted relationship increased sexual potential whereas disrupted relationship increased relationship potential in the low- and high-risk conditions. In the unknown-risk condition, women in the no-alcohol, new relationship condition had the lowest primary sexual appraisals. In all conditions, sexual appraisals predicted all secondary appraisals, but primary relationship appraisals predicted only secondary relationship appraisals. Secondary health appraisals led to increased risk judgments whereas relationship appraisals predicted lower risk judgments. Possible intervention points include helping women to re-evaluate their safety beliefs about past partners, as well as to develop behavioral strategies for decreasing hazardous drinking.
Miller, Danise C
This article reviews the current research related to the many issues affecting women's journey from incarceration back into community living. The complex transition process that comes when ex-offenders attempt to reenter society post-release is examined, and the story of one faith-based community reentry program for women located in southern California is described. The women in this program currently achieve overall recidivism rates of 3% as compared with national averages of 50%. The program uses peers to help newly released women achieve long-term success. The specific steps taken by this organization to obtain such significant measurable positive outcomes are described.
Full Text Available Jailed women are four-five times more likely to have had cervical cancer compared to women without criminal justice histories. Previous research has shown that an important contributor to cervical cancer risk, and perhaps lack of follow-up, is incarcerated women's low health literacy about broader reproductive health issues. Little work has been done to address this disparity. Thus, the objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of an intervention to improve incarcerated women's cervical health literacy and ultimately address cervical cancer disparities. Using a waitlist control design, we compared changes in cervical health literacy (knowledge, beliefs, self-efficacy, and confidence for screening and follow-up among 188 incarcerated women who completed a 10-hour intervention between 2014 and 2016 in three Kansas City jails. We used bivariate tests and multivariate analyses that controlled for baseline cervical health literacy level and key covariates. Women in the intervention group showed significant gains in seven out of eight cervical health literacy domains (all p < 0.01, whereas the control group only improved in one domain (p < 0.01. When controlling for covariates, the intervention group had less barriers, perceptions of seriousness, susceptibility to disease, and increased self-efficacy for cervical health screening and follow-up, compared to the control group (all p < 0.05. A brief intervention is an effective way to improve jailed women's cervical health literacy, but should be provided alongside systemic efforts that expand access to correctional preventive health services, including the human papillomavirus vaccine, community-based cancer screenings, and health insurance after women leave jails and transition back to communities.
Cashel, M L; Ovaert, L; Holliman, N G
This is a preliminary study examining the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent form (MMPI-A; Butcher, Williams, Graham, Archer, Tellegan, Ben-Porath, & Kaemmer, 1992) for identifying PTSD in incarcerated adolescents. Scores from the MMPI-A were compared with scores and diagnostic criteria from the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (PTSD-RI; Frederick, 1985) for a sample of 60 male juvenile delinquents. Results from a MANOVA indicated significant differences in mean scores for MMPI-A Scales 4, 6, and 8 for both PTSD and Non-PTSD groups. The MMPI Supplementary PK scale (Keane, Malloy & Fairbank, 1984), developed for identifying PTSD, was adapted and evaluated for applications with the MMPI-A. Finally, a discriminant function analysis successfully classified juveniles with and without PTSD symptomatology. In summary, the PK scale was moderately successful at identifying post-traumatic stress reactions. Our results suggest that the MMPI-A may serve as a useful screening measure, indicating the need for further evaluation of traumatic experiences in juveniles.
Harenski, Carla L.; Harenski, Keith A.; Kiehl, Kent A.
Neuroimaging studies have found that adult male psychopaths show reduced engagement of limbic and paralimbic circuitry while making moral judgments. The goal of this study was to investigate whether these findings extend to adolescent males with psychopathic traits. Functional MRI was used to record hemodynamic activity in 111 incarcerated male adolescents while they viewed unpleasant pictures that did or did not depict moral transgressions and rated each on “moral violation severity”. Adolescents were assessed for psychopathic traits using the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL-YV), Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia–Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL) Conduct Disorder supplement, and Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits–Youth version (ICU-Y). While viewing pictures depicting moral transgressions, CD scores were negatively correlated with hemodynamic responses in the anterior temporal cortex. Adolescents scoring low on the ICU-Y showed a positive correlation between right amygdala responses and severity of violation ratings; those with high ICU-Y scores showed a negative correlation. While viewing unpleasant pictures with and without moral transgressions, PCL-YV scores were negatively correlated with hemodynamic responses in the left amygdala. Overall, the results are consistent with those previously found in adult male psychopaths, but vary depending on the type of psychopathy assessment. PMID:25279855
Blomberg, Thomas G; Bales, William D; Piquero, Alex R
Research has linked the role of education to delinquency, but much of the focus has been on general population samples and with little attention to demographic differences. Employing a cumulative disadvantage framework that integrates elements of informal social control and labeling theories, this article examines whether academic achievement serves as a positive turning point and re-directs juvenile delinquents away from subsequent offending. Attention is also given to race/sex contingencies. Using a sample of 4,147 delinquents released from Florida correctional institutions (86% male, 57% non-White, average age at release = 16.8 years), propensity score analysis yielded two findings: youth with above average academic achievement while incarcerated were significantly more likely to return to school post-release, and youth with above average attendance in public school were significantly less likely to be re-arrested in the 1-year post-release period. While the academic gains were pronounced among African-American males, the preventive effects of school attendance are similar across race and sex, suggesting that education can be a part of a larger prevention effort that assists juvenile delinquents in successful community re-entry.
J. Michael Maurer
Full Text Available Adult psychopathic offenders show an increased propensity towards violence, impulsivity, and recidivism. A subsample of youth with elevated psychopathic traits represent a particularly severe subgroup characterized by extreme behavioral problems and comparable neurocognitive deficits as their adult counterparts, including perseveration deficits. Here, we investigate response-locked event-related potential (ERP components (the error-related negativity [ERN/Ne] related to early error-monitoring processing and the error-related positivity [Pe] involved in later error-related processing in a sample of incarcerated juvenile male offenders (n = 100 who performed a response inhibition Go/NoGo task. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV. The ERN/Ne and Pe were analyzed with classic windowed ERP components and principal component analysis (PCA. Using linear regression analyses, PCL:YV scores were unrelated to the ERN/Ne, but were negatively related to Pe mean amplitude. Specifically, the PCL:YV Facet 4 subscale reflecting antisocial traits emerged as a significant predictor of reduced amplitude of a subcomponent underlying the Pe identified with PCA. This is the first evidence to suggest a negative relationship between adolescent psychopathy scores and Pe mean amplitude.
Full Text Available In the spring of 2014, President Obama’s administration reached a landmark of over 2 million deportations—more in under six years than the sum total of all deportations prior to 1997. Mass deportation has not affected all communities equally: the vast majority of deportees are Latin American and Caribbean men. Today, nearly 90 percent of deportees are men, and over 97 percent of deportees are Latin American or Caribbean. This article explores the global context under which mass deportation has occurred and draws parallels with mass incarceration. Whereas other scholars have characterized mass deportation as a tool of social or migration control, this article argues that mass deportation is best understood as a racialized and gendered tool of state repression implemented in a time of crisis. I argue that the confluence of four factors has created the conditions of possibility for mass deportation from the United States: (1 nearly all deportees are Latin American and Caribbean men; (2 the rise of a politics of fear in the aftermath of the attacks of September 11th; (3 the global financial crisis; and (4 the utility of deportees
Draine, Jeffrey; McTighe, Laura; Bourgois, Philippe
In the context of US urban jails, incarceration is often seen as an opportune intervention point for prevention interventions in public health. For the detained individual, it is an opportunity to reflect on individual choices and the potential for changes in one's life course. For population focused public health professionals, jail detention facilities represent a concentration of health risks, and an opportunity to have an impact on a significant portion of those at risk for HIV and other health concerns. This paper presents an innovative education and empowerment model that bridges across jail walls, beginning on the inside, and continuing on the outside of jail where individuals continue to be challenged and supported toward positive health and social choices. The intervention also seeks to foment community activism in the communities to which jail detainees return, thus aiming to have a structural impact. This paper examines both the intervention model and the challenges of examining the effectiveness claims for the intervention at multiple levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carla L. Harenski
Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have found that adult male psychopaths show reduced engagement of limbic and paralimbic circuitry while making moral judgments. The goal of this study was to investigate whether these findings extend to adolescent males with psychopathic traits. Functional MRI was used to record hemodynamic activity in 111 incarcerated male adolescents while they viewed unpleasant pictures that did or did not depict moral transgressions and rated each on “moral violation severity”. Adolescents were assessed for psychopathic traits using the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL-YV, Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL Conduct Disorder supplement, and Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits-Youth Version (ICU-Y. While viewing pictures depicting moral transgressions, CD scores were negatively correlated with hemodynamic responses in the anterior temporal cortex. Adolescents scoring low on the ICU-Y showed a positive correlation between right amygdala responses and severity of violation ratings; those with high ICU-Y scores showed a negative correlation. While viewing unpleasant pictures with and without moral transgressions, PCL-YV scores were negatively correlated with hemodynamic responses in the left amygdala. Overall, the results are consistent with those previously found in adult male psychopaths, but vary depending on the type of psychopathy assessment.
Full Text Available Case summary A 14-year-old, female neutered domestic shorthair presented for dyspnoea. Thoracic ultrasonography and radiography showed that a heterogeneous mass was present within the pericardial sac, and the mass continued caudally with the mesenteric fat. On CT, the outline of the diaphragm was not continuous and there was an obvious defect with diaphragmatic thickening present at the mid-level of the liver. A pleural effusion and a small-volume pericardial effusion were also present. A ventral midline coeliotomy and median sternotomy revealed a 5 × 6 × 7 cm firm, irregular, tan-coloured soft tissue mass within the pericardial sac attached to both the diaphragmatic defect and liver. The mass was carefully dissected away from the heart and the diaphragmatic defect was repaired with primary closure. Postoperatively, the cat had a persistent pneumothorax that required continuous pleural suction for 41 h. The cat died 44 h postoperatively. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the mass to be a hepatic fibrosarcoma incarcerated in a peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia (PPDH. Relevance and novel information This is the first reported case of metaplastic transformation of liver into a sarcoma in a cat with PPDH. In addition, hepatic fibrosarcoma is a rarely reported location for fibrosarcoma in this species.
Wiklund, Gunnar; Ruchkin, Vladislav V; Koposov, Roman A; Af Klinteberg, Britt
The objective was to evaluate a new scale aimed at assessing antisocial attitudes, the Pro-bullying Attitude Scale (PAS), on a group of 259 voluntarily-recruited male juvenile delinquents from a juvenile correctional institution in Arkhangelsk, North-western Russia. Exploratory factor analysis gave a two-factor solution: Factor 1 denoted Callous/Dominance and Factor 2 denoted Manipulativeness/Impulsiveness. Subjects with complete data on PAS and Childhood Psychopathy Scale (CPS) (n=171) were divided into extreme groups (first and fourth quartiles) according to their total scores on PAS and the two factor scores, respectively. The extreme groups of total PAS and PAS Factor 1 differed in CPS ratings and in violent behavior as assessed by the Antisocial Behavior Checklist (ABC). They also differed in the personality dimension Harm Avoidance as measured by use of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and in delinquent and aggressive behavior as assessed by the Youth Self Report (YSR). The extreme groups of PAS Factor 2, in turn, differed in aggressive behavior as assessed by the YSR, and in the TCI scale Self-Directedness. When PAS was used as a continuous variable, total PAS and PAS Factor 1 (Callous/Dominance) were significantly positively related to registered violent crime. The possible usefulness of PAS in identifying high-risk individuals for bullying tendencies among incarcerated delinquents is discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bailey, C; Shelton, D
This study examined self-reports of psychopathic offenders' childhood interactions with their parents to better understand what variables influence adult criminal psychopathy. The findings showed that childhood separations, physical abuse and indifferent parenting styles were more prominent in self-reports of incarcerated male psychopaths than with incarcerated males who were not psychopathic. To better understand the worldview of the criminal psychopath, and the trajectory of psychopathy, there is a need for more studies that examine childhood interactions with parental figures as reported by the adult criminal psychopath. Despite the high percentage of incarcerated psychopaths, few studies attempt to assess the past parent-child bonds of these individuals by asking them to report childhood attachments with their parents. Currently, there is limited data regarding common variables that contribute to a break in parent-child attachment and later adult criminal psychopathy. The data that presently exist concentrate on juvenile or community samples and do not explore the attachment variables that continue into adult criminal psychopathy. This paper presents the current literature regarding self-reports of childhood attachment to parents as indicated by male-incarcerated adult psychopaths compared with self-reports of childhood attachment to parents as indicated by male-incarcerated adult non-psychopaths. Variables that influence a break in attachment between the offenders and their parents and suggestions for future clinical research are provided. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Sharon C WilsnackDepartment of Clinical Neuroscience, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USAAbstract: Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS is a collaborative study of gender-related and cultural influences on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems of women and men. Members conduct comparative analyses of data from comparable general population surveys in 38 countries on five continents. This paper presents GENACIS findings that (1 age-related declines in drinking are uncommon outside North America and Europe; (2 groups of women at increased risk for hazardous drinking include women who cohabit, women with fewer social roles, more highly educated women in lower-income countries, and sexual minority women in North America; (3 heavier alcohol use shows strong and cross-culturally consistent associations with increased likelihood and severity of intimate partner violence; and (4 one effect or accompaniment of rapid social, economic, and gender-role change in traditional societies may be increased drinking among formerly abstinent women. These findings have potentially important implications for women-focused intervention and policy. Substance abuse services should include attention to middle-aged and older women, who may have different risk factors, symptoms, and treatment issues than their younger counterparts. Creative, targeted prevention is needed for high-risk groups of women. Programs to reduce violence between intimate partners must include attention to the pervasive role of alcohol use in intimate partner aggression. Social and economic empowerment of women, together with social marketing of norms of abstention or low-risk drinking, may help prevent increased hazardous alcohol use among women in countries undergoing rapid social change. Greater attention to effects of gender, culture, and their interactions can inform the design of more effective prevention
Kongerslev, Mickey; Bo, Sune; Simonsen, Erik
Aims: To test the validity of an age-appropriate adaptation of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) in a sample of incarcerated male youth Method: A sample of incarcerated boys, age 15 to 18, were administered the SAPAS by social workers from the participating...... prisons and secure institutions Within one week a clinical psychologist administered the Structured Clinical Inter-view for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) and the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) to assess for personality disorders and psychopathy In order to control for confounding......, including assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of the SAPAS for various cut-off scores, will be presented Conclusions: The study provides a basis for preliminary conclusions regarding the validity of SAPAS as a brief routine screen for personality disorders amongst incarcerated male youth...
Culbert, Gabriel J.; Pillai, Veena; Bick, Joseph; Al-Darraji, Haider A.; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.; Wegman, Martin P.; Bazazi, Alexander R.; Ferro, Enrico; Copenhaver, Michael; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L.
Throughout Southeast Asia, repressive drug laws have resulted in high rates of imprisonment in people who inject drugs and people living with HIV (PLH), greatly magnifying the harm associated with HIV, tuberculosis, and addiction. We review findings from Malaysia's largest prison to describe the synergistic effects of HIV, tuberculosis, addiction, and incarceration that contribute to a‘perfect storm’of events challenging public and personal health and offer insights into innovative strategies to control these converging epidemics. The majority of PLH who are imprisoned in Malaysia are opioid dependent. Although promoted by official policy, evidence-based drug treatment is largely unavailable, contributing to rapid relapse and/or overdose after release. Similarly, HIV treatment in prisons and compulsory drug treatment centers is sometimes inadequate or absent. The prevalence of active tuberculosis is high, particularly in PLH, and over 80% of prisoners and prison personnel are latently infected. Mandatory HIV testing and subsequent segregation of HIV-infected prisoners increases the likelihood of tuberculosis acquisition and progression to active disease, enlarging the reservoir of infection for other prisoners. We discuss strategies to control these intersecting epidemics including screening linked to standardized treatment protocols for all three conditions, and effective transitional programs for released prisoners. For example, recently introduced evidence-based interventions in prisons like antiretroviral therapy (ART) to treat HIV, isoniazid preventive therapy to treat latent tuberculosis infection, and methadone maintenance to treat opioid dependence, have markedly improved clinical care and reduced mortality. Since introduction of these interventions in September 2012, all-cause and HIV-related mortality have decreased by 50.0% and 75.7% respectively. We discuss the further deployment of these interventions in Malaysian prisons. PMID:27216260
Parker, Donna R; Fallone, Diandra; Martin, Rosemarie A; Stein, L A R; Bock, Beth; Martin, Stephen A; Roberts, Mary B; Lopes, Cheryl E; Clarke, Jennifer J
The rate of smoking among incarcerated adults is more than 3 times that of the general population. Negative health consequences of smoking have prompted many correctional facilities to become tobacco-free. This presents a unique opportunity to examine health conditions associated with motivation to remain tobacco-free after release from prison. We examined this association among individuals who participated in the WISE randomized clinical trial. A total of 247 participants completed a baseline questionnaire asking about illnesses (both smoking-related and non-smoking-related), family history of smoking-related illnesses, demographics, and smoking history. Smoking status was assessed 3 weeks postrelease. Approximately 38% of participants reported having an illness caused by or worsened by smoking and 53.0% reported having "moderate" to "a lot" of concern about their health due to smoking; 22.9% reported having asthma and 26.8% reported hypertension. The adjusted odds of remaining tobacco-free at 3 weeks postrelease from a tobacco-free prison was significant only for individuals with a family history of smoking-related illnesses (odds ratio [OR] = 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-0.68). For individuals with smoking-related conditions, the adjusted odds of remaining tobacco-free was nonsignificant (OR = 1.91; 95% CI, 0.85-4.27). Similarly, the adjusted odds of remaining tobacco-free for participants with non-smoking-related medical conditions was nonsignificant (OR = 0.27; 95% CI, 0.06-1.22). These results offer a first look at understanding health conditions as a motivator to remain tobacco-free after release from prison. Although these findings require additional investigation, these results suggest that providing treatment to prisoners with chronic disease and specifically targeting smoking-related illnesses might be beneficial with regard to smoking cessation success.
Tervo, K; Latvala, T; Suomalainen, V P; Tervo, T; Immonen, I
Posterior perforating eye injury carries a high risk of visual loss due to the formation of intravireal and epiretinal scar tissue. Intraocular scar formation in patients with retinal detachment has been shown to be associated with elevated intravitreal FN levels. The extracellular matrix glycoproteins fibronectin (FN) and tenascin (TN) have been located in epiretinal scar membranes. As both FN and TN are also involved in healing of cutaneous and corneal wounds, we undertook to study their expression in rabbit perforating scleral wounds with vitreous incarceration. A perforating scleral wound was produced and sutured without removal of vitreous from the wound in 18 pigmented rabbits. The rabbits were killed at various times (1 h to 21 days) after the operation, and the indirect immunohistochemical method was used for demonstration of FN and TN. Monoclonal mouse hybridoma antibodies 52 DH1 and 100 EB2, recognizing the cellular form of FN (cFN) and TN, respectively, were used. During the first post-operative week immunoreaction for glycoproteins, both the locally produced cFN and TN, were observed at the scar tissue containing the prolabed vitreous and the adjacent sclera. Subsequently, the reaction gradually shifted to the vitreal side of the wound, and 3 weeks after the operation it was almost completely restricted to a separated mass of vitreous beneath the scar. The expression of cFN and TN in the scleral scar and vitreous is indicative of their local synthesis. The shift of the expression of those proteins to the vitreal side of the wound with time suggests that the scarring process in the vitreous is delayed compared to the sclera.
Snow, Pamela C; Powell, Martine B
Previous research in Australia and overseas has shown that young offenders serving community-based orders are at high-risk for undetected but clinically significant oral language difficulties. However, this phenomenon has received little attention in incarcerated samples, and links with offending severity, mental health, and other markers of early risk have not previously been systemically examined. A cross-sectional examination of 100 young offenders (mean age 19.03 years) completing custodial sentences in Victoria, Australia was conducted. A range of standardized oral language, IQ, mental health, and offending severity measures was employed. Forty-six per cent of participants were classified as language impaired (LI), and these were compared with the non-LI sub-group on background and offending variables. When the sub-group with high scores on a measure of offending severity was compared with those with (relatively) lower offending scores, significant differences on a range of language measures were identified. A range of early risk indicators (such as placement in Out of Home Care) was also examined with respect to language impairment in this high-risk group. Results are discussed with respect to policy and practice pertaining to early intervention for vulnerable children, and implications for service delivery within the justice system. In particular, emphasis is placed on the need to closely examine the oral language skills of children who struggle with the transition to literacy and then display behavioural difficulties in the classroom. Once a young person is engaged with youth justice services, a high index of suspicion should be maintained with respect to their oral language skills; for example, in relation to forensic interviewing and the ability to benefit from verbally mediated interventions.
Culbert, Gabriel J; Pillai, Veena; Bick, Joseph; Al-Darraji, Haider A; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Wegman, Martin P; Bazazi, Alexander R; Ferro, Enrico; Copenhaver, Michael; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L
Throughout Southeast Asia, repressive drug laws have resulted in high rates of imprisonment in people who inject drugs (PWID) and people living with HIV (PLH), greatly magnifying the harm associated with HIV, tuberculosis, and addiction. We review findings from Malaysia's largest prison to describe the negative synergistic effects of HIV, tuberculosis, addiction, and incarceration that contribute to a 'perfect storm' of events challenging public and personal health and offer insights into innovative strategies to control these converging epidemics. The majority of PLH who are imprisoned in Malaysia are opioid dependent PWID. Although promoted by official policy, evidence-based addiction treatment is largely unavailable, contributing to rapid relapse and/or overdose after release. Similarly, HIV treatment in prisons and compulsory drug treatment centers is sometimes inadequate or absent. The prevalence of active tuberculosis is high, particularly in PLH, and over 80 % of prisoners and prison personnel are latently infected. Mandatory HIV testing and subsequent segregation of HIV-infected prisoners increases the likelihood of tuberculosis acquisition and progression to active disease, amplifying the reservoir of infection for other prisoners. We discuss strategies to control these intersecting epidemics including screening linked to standardized treatment protocols for all three conditions, and effective transitional programs for released prisoners. For example, recently introduced evidence-based interventions in prisons like antiretroviral therapy (ART) to treat HIV, isoniazid preventive therapy to treat latent tuberculosis infection, and methadone maintenance to treat opioid dependence, have markedly improved clinical care and reduced morbidity and mortality. Since introduction of these interventions in September 2012, all-cause and HIV-related mortality have decreased by 50.0 % and 75.7 %, respectively. We discuss the further deployment of these
Cepeda, Javier A.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Lyubimova, Alexandra; Kershaw, Trace; Levina, Olga; Heimer, Robert
Background Injection drug use, infectious disease, and incarceration are inextricably linked in Russia. We aimed to identify factors associated with time to relapse (first opioid injection after release from prison) and using a non-sterile, previously used syringe at relapse in a sample of people who inject drugs in St. Petersburg. Methods We collected data on time from release to relapse among individuals with a history of incarceration, a subsample of a larger study among people who inject drugs. Proportional hazards and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with time to relapse and injection with a non-sterile previously used syringe at relapse, respectively. Results The median time to relapse after release was 30 days. Factors that were independently associated with relapsing sooner were being a native of St. Petersburg compared to not being native (AHR: 1.64; 95% CI 1.15 – 2.33), unemployed at relapse compared to employed (AHR: 4.49; 95% CI 2.96 – 6.82) and receiving a previous diagnosis of HBV and HCV compared to no previous diagnosis (AHR: 1.49; 95% CI 1.03 – 2.14). Unemployment at relapse was also significant in modeling injection with a non-sterile, previously used syringe at relapse compared to those who were employed (AOR: 6.80; 95% CI 1.96 – 23.59). Conclusions Unemployment was an important correlate for both resuming opioid injection after release and using a non-sterile previously used syringe at relapse. Linkage to medical, harm reduction, and employment services should be developed for incarcerated Russian people who inject drugs prior to release. PMID:25496706
Farnia, Marziyeh; Torknejad, Alireza; Abbasi Alaei, Behrouz; Gholizadeh, Mehran; Kasraee, Farzad; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Oba, Koji; Kihara, Masahiro
Previous research indicates that prisoners in Iran are at risk of drug-related harm, including acquisition of blood-borne infections. In response, several prevention interventions have been introduced into prisons in Iran, such as methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). MMT is now provided to opioid-dependent prisoners in 142 of the 230 prisons and correctional settings in Iran. A baseline behavioral survey was conducted in Karaj Central prison which mainly holds prisoners with drug-related charges. Overall, 203 male prisoners from randomly selected rooms in two prison blocks were interviewed using a structured questionnaire in 2007, just before the introduction of MMT program in this prison. Among participants, 7% reported never having used illicit drugs in their lifetime, but 51% had used non-injecting illicit drugs, and as high as 42% reported having injected an illicit drug. Up to 79% (160/203) of all participants reported using drugs, and about 6% (12/203) reported drug injecting during their current incarceration term. Same-gender sexual practice during current incarceration term was reported by 2.5% (5/203) of all male prisoners. Comparison between injecting and non-injecting drug-using prisoners indicated that drug injectors had higher rates of previous incarcerations, commenced drug use at a younger age, were more likely to have used illicit drugs in the previous week, were more likely to have been treated by a physician for drug addiction, had higher rates of registration for methadone treatment inside prison, and were more likely to have been tested for HIV infection. These study findings provide a behavioral profile of prisoners in regard to drug-related harm and can be considered in any plan to introduce or improve provision of MMT in prisons in Iran or other countries with similar features. PMID:20390391
Robertson, Angela A; Robertson, Angela R; St Lawrence, Janet; Morse, David T; Baird-Thomas, Connie; Liew, Hui; Gresham, Kathleen
Adolescent girls incarcerated in a state reformatory (N = 246) were recruited and assigned to an 18-session health education program or a time-equivalent HIV prevention program. Cohorts were assigned to conditions using a randomized block design separated by a washout period to reduce contamination. Post intervention, girls in the HIV risk reduction program demonstrated the acquisition of risk-reduction behavioral skills and improved condom application skill. At a follow-up assessment approximately 9 months after release from the correctional facility, girls in both conditions reported fewer unprotected sexual intercourse occasions and less sex while under the influence of alcohol or other drugs.
Schubert, Erin C; Duininck, Megan; Shlafer, Rebecca J
We describe an evaluation of a prison visiting program, Extended Visiting (EV), for incarcerated mothers and their children. Mothers ( N = 24) and caregivers ( N = 19) were interviewed regarding experiences with the program. Mothers identified benefits including maintaining a relationship with children, physical contact, motivation, privacy, peer support, and personal growth. Caregivers echoed mothers' appreciation for the opportunity to maintain mother-child relationships and physical contact. Mothers identified barriers including desire for overnight visits and more age-appropriate activities. Caregivers perceived travel time and costs and children's adverse reactions as barriers. When comparing EV to typical visiting, participants unanimously preferred EV.
Boşgelmez, Sükriye; Aker, Tamer; Köklük, Oznur Acicbe; Ford, Julian D
To determine the prevalence of Criterion A traumatic events and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in prisoners in Kocaeli Closed Prison. The study was conducted in Kocaeli Closed Prison in Turkey. The sample consisted of 30 female and 30 male prisoners who had been in prison for at least 1 month. The PTSD and MDD section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Traumatic Events Screening Instrument for Adults were used by experienced clinicians. Most (n = 52, 86.7%) participants reported lifetime exposure to at least 1 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) PTSD Criterion A event. Although the August 17, 1999, earthquake was the most prevalent traumatic event (n = 31, 51.7%), it was not related to the risk of current PTSD in prisoners. Current PTSD was rare among men (n = 2, 6.7%) and women (n = 3, 10%) but more prevalent than in community surveys of adults. Traumatic events that were relatively unique to the incarcerated population (e.g., committing murder) were identified. Moreover, 17% of women (n = 5) and men (n = 5) were diagnosed with MDD. Traumatic events that had the strongest conditional probabilities of association with a diagnosis of PTSD and MDD were identified. Exposure to traumatic stressors was highly prevalent among prisoners. Ongoing interpersonal traumatic events were particularly likely to be experienced as traumatic and related to PTSD and MDD, and violent criminal acts may be highly traumatic for the perpetrator.
Wilsnack, Sharon C
An International Study (GENACIS) is a collaborative study of gender-related and cultural influences on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems of women and men. Members conduct comparative analyses of data from comparable general population surveys in 38 countries on five continents. This paper presents GENACIS findings that (1) age-related declines in drinking are uncommon outside North America and Europe; (2) groups of women at increased risk for hazardous drinking include women who cohabit, women with fewer social roles, more highly educated women in lower-income countries, and sexual minority women in North America; (3) heavier alcohol use shows strong and cross-culturally consistent associations with increased likelihood and severity of intimate partner violence; and (4) one effect or accompaniment of rapid social, economic, and gender-role change in traditional societies may be increased drinking among formerly abstinent women. These findings have potentially important implications for women-focused intervention and policy. Substance abuse services should include attention to middle-aged and older women, who may have different risk factors, symptoms, and treatment issues than their younger counterparts. Creative, targeted prevention is needed for high-risk groups of women. Programs to reduce violence between intimate partners must include attention to the pervasive role of alcohol use in intimate partner aggression. Social and economic empowerment of women, together with social marketing of norms of abstention or low-risk drinking, may help prevent increased hazardous alcohol use among women in countries undergoing rapid social change. Greater attention to effects of gender, culture, and their interactions can inform the design of more effective prevention, intervention, and policy to reduce the substantial global costs of alcohol abuse in both women and men.
Lorvick, Jennifer; Comfort, Megan L.; Krebs, Christopher P.; Kral, Alex H.
Background Most women involved in the criminal justice system are not incarcerated, but rather on probation or parole. We examined the receipt of health services and social vulnerability among women on parole or probation in the past year. Methods In a community-based sample of 776 women who use crack cocaine or injection drugs, we compared those who had been on probation or parole in the past year with those who had no criminal justice involvement in the past year. Results Women recently on ...
Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Elkins, Sara R.; O’Farrell, Timothy J.; Temple, Jeff R.; Ramsey, Susan; Shorey, Ryan C.
Objective There is a paucity of research on the temporal association between substance use and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization, especially among women arrested for domestic violence. The current study examined whether the probability of IPV perpetration and victimization increases following alcohol or drug use relative to days of no use among women arrested for domestic violence. Method Women arrested for domestic violence and court referred to batterer intervention programs who met criteria for hazardous drinking participated in the current study (N=105). Women who reported drinking four or more drinks on one occasion at least once per month for the past six months were considered hazardous drinkers. Violence and substance use were assessed with the Timeline Followback Interviews for substance use and IPV. Results Women were more likely to perpetrate physical violence on a drinking day (OR=10.58; 95% CI=5.38–20.79) and on a heavy drinking day (OR=12.81; 95% CI=8.10–33.57), relative to a non-drinking day. Women were more likely to be victimized by physical violence on a drinking day (OR=5.22; 95% CI=2.79–9.77) and on a heavy drinking day (OR=6.16; 95% CI=3.25–11.68), relative to a non-drinking day. They were more likely to be victims of sexual coercion (OR=6.06; 95% CI=1.19–30.80) on a cocaine use day relative to a non-use day. Conclusions Alcohol use was temporally associated with physical violence perpetration and victimization, and cocaine use was temporally associated with sexual coercion victimization, suggesting that substance use should be targeted in batterer intervention programs for women. PMID:23647284
Mushayabasa, S.; Bhunu, C. P.; Smith?, Robert J.
Prior studies have shown that imprisonment is a major risk factor for hepatitis C infection, with the risk of infection directly proportional to the length of incarceration. Women are at least twice as likely as men to contract HCV as they have limited access to information, health services and safe intravenous drug injecting equipments. We develop a mathematical model to assess the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings. Equilibria for the model are determined and their stability are examined. Population-level effects of increased educational campaigns to encourage safe injecting practices among women in prison are evaluated through numerical simulations. The results suggest that educating women prisoners about abstaining from intravenous drug misuse may significantly reduce HCV prevalence among women in prison settings. Targeted education campaigns, which are effective at stopping transmission of HCV more than 80% of the time, will be highly effective at controlling the disease among women in prisons.
Ferszt, Ginette G; Clarke, Jennifer G
Although standards for pregnancy-related health care in correctional facilities have been established, there is no mandatory accreditation that requires adherence to these standards. Furthermore, this information has been difficult to access from correctional facilities across the country. To examine the health care practices of pregnant women in state prisons, a survey with 62 multiple choice questions and four open-ended questions was developed. Wardens of 50 women's state correctional facilities were contacted to describe the study and request participation. Nineteen facilities completed the survey, for a 38% response rate. The findings of this study provide further evidence of the substandard care that pregnant incarcerated women receive in correctional facilities. In many state prisons, nutritional recommendations for a healthy pregnancy are not met, adequate rest is compromised and lower bunks are not required. Psychosocial support and education are minimal at best. The use of restraints, which can compromise the health and safety of the woman and her baby, continues as a matter of procedure in many facilities even during labor and delivery. The providers of health care for pregnant women fail to use best practices and established standards in many women's state prisons. A concerted effort is urgently needed to address the unmet health care needs of this marginalized population and support legislation to limit the use of restraints with pregnant incarcerated women in all states.
Rodriguez, Aubrey J; Margolin, Gayla
The temporary absence of a parent (e.g., due to incarceration, migration, or military deployment) is experienced by many youth and can have profound effects. Available research within these disparate literatures primarily has catalogued contextual and individual variables that influence youth adaptation, which are integrated and summarized here. In addition, we present a systematic review of proximal family process mechanisms by which youth and their family members adapt to periods of temporary parent absence. This systematic review across the different types of parent absence produced four themes: communication among family members, parenting characteristics during absence, negotiation of decision-making power and authority, and shifts in family roles. By juxtaposing the three types of temporary parent absence, we aim to bridge the separate research silos of parent absence due to incarceration, deployment, and migration, and to bring wide-ranging characteristics and processes of temporary parent-absent families into sharper focus. The review highlights possibilities for fuller integration of these literatures, and emphasizes the clinical value of considering these types of experiences from a family and relational perspective, rather than an individual coping perspective.
Full Text Available The paper examines the antecedents of criminal behavior through the process of retrospective family and life course histories in which incarcerated male inmates and male university students are compared. The main focus is on early childhood experiences and parental behaviors. The study data derive from intensive, face-to-face interviews with 38 men incarcerated for violent offences and a matched group of 66 men attending university at the same time. The interviews focus on the relative importance of adverse childhood experiences and linkages with adolescence. The interviews demonstrated that nearly four-fifths of the inmates experienced toxic family environments by the time they reached adolescence, as compared with only two of the university students. Qualitative analyses flesh out the major themes, experiences, and “risk factors” that helped shape the trajectories of both groups of men. The socially toxic family environments and sub-optimal parenting practices that most inmates endured produced long-term, adverse effects in reducing their capacities for resilience, forging healthy relationships with their peers, and remaining in school.
Full Text Available There are few reports of a transverse colon inguinal hernia; furthermore, an inguinal hernia perforating the scrotum is rare. Here we report the case of a 79-year-old man who died after developing an incarcerated colon inguinal hernia that perforated the scrotum and exhibited an air-fluid level. The patient was referred to our hospital in November 2011 with a complaint of inability to move. Physical examination revealed an abnormally enlarged left scrotum and cold extremities. He reported a history of gastric cancer that was surgically treated more than 30 years ago. His white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level were elevated. Abdominal and inguinal computed tomography revealed that his transverse colon was incarcerated in the left inguinal canal. Free air and air-fluid level were observed around the transverse colon, suggestive of a perforation. The patient and his family refused any surgical intervention; therefore, he was treated with sultamicillin tosilate hydrate and cefotiam hydrochloride. However, he succumbed to panperitonitis 19 days after admission. The findings from this case indicate that the transverse colon can perforate into an inguinal hernia sac.
Irizarry, Yasmiyn; May, David C; Davis, Adrienne; Wood, Peter B
In spite of documented harmful effects of mass incarceration, evidence to date suggests that Blacks perceive the experience of prison as less punitive than Whites. While these findings are well documented, little is known about the role of sociodemographic or contextual factors in shaping this pattern. Utilizing a quantitative intersectional framework, we analyze data from over 1000 Kentucky prison inmates who were within 12 months of their parole hearing or release date to examine the differential effects of various sociodemographic and contextual factors on perceptions of the punitiveness of regular probation, community service, and electronic monitoring (as opposed to prison) for Blacks and Whites. Findings confirm the presence of a racial gap in perceptions of the punitiveness of various alternatives to incarceration; however, results from models disaggregated by race highlight important differences in the effects of gender, parenting, and childhood locale on these perceptions. These findings demonstrate the role of various factors in shaping Blacks' and Whites' differential perceptions and reveal the contexts where these differences are most likely to be found.
Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Kamei, Ram; Kipgen, Hoineilam; Kh, Jayanta Kumar
The authors aimed to examine the incarceration experiences of injecting drug users in accessing harm reduction, and HIV-related services inside prisons in India. The authors conducted three focus groups with a purposive sample of 23 formerly incarcerated male IDUs and four key informant interviews with a former police official, a drug dealer and service providers. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method. Participants reported availability of alcohol and injectable or oral drugs such as heroin, dextropropoxyphene, and marijuana inside prisons. Inmates obtained drugs and clean syringes (one syringe bought for 2.5-4 USD) through prison staff, and collected used syringes and needles from the dustbins in prison sickrooms. Needles and syringes were reused and shared. Prisons did not have needle and syringe programmes, detoxification, overdose management or opioid substitution treatment. Drug-using prison inmates faced several challenges in accessing antiretroviral treatment and HIV testing. The authors' findings emphasize the need to protect the health of injection drug-using inmates by introducing harm reduction programmes and removing barriers to HIV testing and antiretroviral treatment. This study illustrates, for the first time, the contexts behind high risk injecting drug use behaviours among prison inmates in India. It also highlights the lack of availability of harm reduction services such as needle and syringe programmes, drug detoxification and opioid substitution treatment inside prisons. Further, it demonstrates the difficulties faced by HIV-positive prison inmates in getting timely and uninterrupted antiretroviral treatment.
Madison L. Gates
Full Text Available Introduction. The association between incarceration and weight gain, along with the public health impact of former prisoners who are overweight or obese, warrants more investigation to understand the impact of prison life. Studies regarding incarceration’s impact on obesity are too few to support assertions that prisons contribute to obesity and comorbid conditions. This study examined a statewide prison population over several years to determine weight gain. Methods. Objective data for weight, height, and chronic diseases, along with demographics, were extracted from an electronic health record. These data were analyzed statistically to determine changes over time and between groups. Results. As a total population, prisoners not only gained weight, but also reflected the distribution of BMIs for the state. There were differences within the population. Male prisoners gained significantly less weight than females. The population with chronic diseases gained less weight than the population without comorbid conditions. Prisoners with diabetes lost weight while hypertension’s impact was negligible. Conclusion. This study found that weight gain was a problem specifically to females. However, this prison system appears to be providing effective chronic disease management, particularly for prisoners with diabetes and hypertension. Additional research is needed to understand the impact incarceration has on the female population.
Johnson, Megan M.; Dismukes, Andrew R.; Vitacco, Michael J.; Breiman, Chelsea; Fleury, Donald; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.
Conduct disorder (CD) is a heterogeneous diagnosis, leading researchers to initiate research into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this disorder. One specifier of CD currently considered for inclusion in the DSM-V is callous-unemotional (CU) traits. CU traits are thought to have neuroendocrine underpinnings, yet little is known about Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) and –Gonadal (HPG) hormones in the context of psychopathic traits. The current study sought to identify daily coupling patterns between HPA and HPG hormones in order to clarify distinct neurobiological underpinning associated with psychopathic/CU traits. Fifty incarcerated adolescent males who met criteria for CD were recruited and provided 10 saliva samples across two days. Participants completed the Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL:YV) and Inventory of Callous Unemotional Traits (ICU) on a third day. Diurnal cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA functioning was modeled via hierarchical linear modeling. Psychopathy subscales from the measures administered were used as predictors of daily coupling patterns between these hormones. Results indicated that all three hormones were tightly coupled. Further, higher PCL-YV interpersonal scores related to greater coupling between all three hormones, whereas higher ICU callousness scores related to greater uncoupling of testosterone with cortisol and DHEA. The current study is novel in its emphasis on testing the coupling of HPA and HPG hormones among incarcerated adolescent males. Results suggest that affective and interpersonal psychopathic traits are marked by unique HPA- and HPG- coupling. PMID:23852424