WorldWideScience

Sample records for hazardous substances released

  1. New York hazardous substances emergency events surveillance: learning from hazardous substances releases to improve safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welles, Wanda Lizak; Wilburn, Rebecca E.; Ehrlich, Jenny K.; Floridia, Christina M.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1993, the New York State Department of Health, funded by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, has collected data about non-petroleum hazardous substances releases through the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (NYHSEES) project. This study investigates risk factors for hazardous substances releases that may result in public health consequences such as injury or reported health effects. The 6428 qualifying events that occurred during the 10-year-period of 1993-2002 involved 8838 hazardous substances, 842 evacuations, more than 75,419 people evacuated, and more than 3120 people decontaminated. These events occurred both at fixed facilities (79%) and during transport (21%). The causative factors most frequently contributing to reported events were equipment failure (39%) and human error (33%). Five of the 10 chemicals most frequently associated with injuries were also among the 10 chemicals most frequently involved in reported events: sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, ammonia, sodium hypochlorite, and carbon monoxide. The chemical categories most frequently associated with events, and with events with adverse health effects were volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and solvents, and acids. Events with releases of hazardous substances were associated with injuries to 3089 people including employees (37%), responders (12%), the general public (29%) and students (22%). The most frequently reported adverse health effects were respiratory irritation, headache, and nausea or vomiting. Most of the injured were transported to the hospital, treated, and released (55%) or treated at the scene (29%). These data have been used for emergency response training, planning, and prevention activities to reduce morbidity and mortality from future events

  2. Surveillance of hazardous substances releases due to system interruptions, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Maureen F; Ruckart, Perri Zeitz

    2007-04-11

    The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system collected information on 9014 acute hazardous substance releases in 15 participating states in 2002. There were 3749 fixed-facility manufacturing events, of which 2100 involved "interruptions" to normal processing and 1649 "comparisons" that did not involve interruption. Equipment failure (69%) or intentional acts (20%) were the main root factor. Many events occurred in October and November in three states (Texas, Louisiana, and New Jersey), in three manufacturing industries (industrial and miscellaneous chemicals; petroleum refining; and plastics, synthetics, and resins). In interruption events, the substance categories most often released were mixtures, other inorganic substances, and volatile organic compounds and those most often causing injury were acids, chlorine, bases, and ammonia. Comparison events resulted in more acutely injured persons (408 versus 59) and more evacuees (11,318 versus 335) than interruption events and therefore may receive more public health attention. Because of the large number of interruption events, targeted prevention activities, including management of change procedures, lessons-learned implementation, process hazards analysis, and appropriate protection for workers could be economically advantageous and improve environmental quality. Efforts should focus on the identified areas of greater occurrence. The relationship of weather and equipment failure with interruption events needs further investigation.

  3. Reporting releases of hazardous substances under CERCLA and EPCRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dailey, R.

    1990-04-01

    Several federal environmental laws requires that ''release of hazardous substances to the environment'' above certain threshold amounts -- Reportable Quantities or RQs -- be reported. Current and proposed regulations under these statutes are unclear and make full compliance difficult. Nevertheless, failure to comply could result in civil or criminal penalties. In response to questions raised by several DOE Field Elements, this Information Brief is part of a series that will provide updated information on this and other CERCLA issues. The Environmental Guidance Division (EH-231) has responded to those questions relating the reporting of releases for which EPA has a clearly articulated position. EPA's position on other questions raised by Field Elements has been equivocal; DOE is working with EPA to resolve these outstanding issues. Additional information briefs on reporting releases will be issued as a clear position is defined

  4. Reporting continuous releases of hazardous and extremely hazardous substances under CERCLA and EPCRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This guidance is designed to provide basic instruction to US DOE and DOE operations contractor personnel on how to characterize CERCLA and EPCRA hazardous substance releases as continuous and how to prepare and deliver continuousreleasee reports to Federal, State, and local authorities. DOE staff should use this guidance as an overview of the continuous release requirements, a quick ready reference guide for specific topics concerning continuous releases and a step-by-step guide for the process of identifying and reporting continuous releases

  5. Chemical incidents resulted in hazardous substances releases in the context of human health hazards.

    OpenAIRE

    Palaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Czerczak, Sławomir; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The research purpose was to analyze data concerning chemical incidents in Poland collected in 1999–2009 in terms of health hazards. Material and Methods: The data was obtained, using multimodal information technology (IT) system, from chemical incidents reports prepared by rescuers at the scene. The final analysis covered sudden events associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous chemical substances or mixtures, which may potentially lead to human exposure. Releases of uniden...

  6. EMERGENCY RESPONSE PROCEDURES FOR CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RELEASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information is provided for selecting the best spill stabilization controls for hazardous substances regulated by the Comprehensive Enviromental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Information is also provided on the onsite assessment of spill severity, app...

  7. Chemical incidents resulted in hazardous substances releases in the context of human health hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pałaszewska-Tkacz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The research purpose was to analyze data concerning chemical incidents in Poland collected in 1999–2009 in terms of health hazards. Material and Methods: The data was obtained, using multimodal information technology (IT system, from chemical incidents reports prepared by rescuers at the scene. The final analysis covered sudden events associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous chemical substances or mixtures, which may potentially lead to human exposure. Releases of unidentified substances where emergency services took action to protect human health or environment were also included. Results: The number of analyzed chemical incidents in 1999–2009 was 2930 with more than 200 different substances released. The substances were classified into 13 groups of substances and mixtures posing analogous risks. Most common releases were connected with non-flammable corrosive liquids, including: hydrochloric acid (199 cases, sulfuric(VI acid (131 cases, sodium and potassium hydroxides (69 cases, ammonia solution (52 cases and butyric acid (32 cases. The next group were gases hazardous only due to physico-chemical properties, including: extremely flammable propane-butane (249 cases and methane (79 cases. There was no statistically significant trend associated with the total number of incidents. Only with the number of incidents with flammable corrosive, toxic and/or harmful liquids, the regression analysis revealed a statistically significant downward trend. The number of victims reported was 1997, including 1092 children and 18 fatalities. Conclusions: The number of people injured, number of incidents and the high 9th place of Poland in terms of the number of Seveso establishments, and 4 times higher number of hazardous industrial establishments not covered by the Seveso Directive justify the need for systematic analysis of hazards and their proper identification. It is advisable enhance health risk assessment, both qualitative and

  8. Analysis of hazardous substances released during CFRP laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedt, Michael; Walter, Juergen; Bluemel, Sven; Jaeschke, Peter; Kaierle, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Due to their outstanding mechanical properties, in particular their high specific strength parallel to the carbon fibers, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) have a high potential regarding resource-efficient lightweight construction. Consequently, these composite materials are increasingly finding application in important industrial branches such as aircraft, automotive and wind energy industry. However, the processing of these materials is highly demanding. On the one hand, mechanical processing methods such as milling or drilling are sometimes rather slow, and they are connected with notable tool wear. On the other hand, thermal processing methods are critical as the two components matrix and reinforcement have widely differing thermophysical properties, possibly leading to damages of the composite structure in terms of pores or delamination. An emerging innovative method for processing of CFRP materials is the laser technology. As principally thermal method, laser processing is connected with the release of potentially hazardous, gaseous and particulate substances. Detailed knowledge of these process emissions is the basis to ensure the protection of man and the environment, according to the existing legal regulations. This knowledge will help to realize adequate protective measures and thus strengthen the development of CFRP laser processing. In this work, selected measurement methods and results of the analysis of the exhaust air and the air at the workplace during different laser processes with CFRP materials are presented. The investigations have been performed in the course of different cooperative projects, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) in the course of the funding initiative "Photonic Processes and Tools for Resource-Efficient Lightweight Structures".

  9. Hazardous substances releases associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in industrial settings, Louisiana and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Orr, Maureen F; Lanier, Kenneth; Koehler, Allison

    2008-11-15

    The scientific literature concerning the public health response to the unprecedented hurricanes striking the Gulf Coast in August and September 2005 has focused mainly on assessing health-related needs and surveillance of injuries, infectious diseases, and other illnesses. However, the hurricanes also resulted in unintended hazardous substances releases in the affected states. Data from two states (Louisiana and Texas) participating in the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system were analyzed to describe the characteristics of hazardous substances releases in industrial settings associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. HSEES is an active multi-state Web-based surveillance system maintained by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). In 2005, 166 hurricane-related hazardous substances events in industrial settings in Louisiana and Texas were reported. Most (72.3%) releases were due to emergency shut downs in preparation for the hurricanes and start-ups after the hurricanes. Emphasis is given to the contributing causal factors, hazardous substances released, and event scenarios. Recommendations are made to prevent or minimize acute releases of hazardous substances during future hurricanes, including installing backup power generation, securing equipment and piping to withstand high winds, establishing procedures to shutdown process operations safely, following established and up-to-date start-up procedures and checklists, and carefully performing pre-start-up safety reviews.

  10. Hazardous substances releases associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in industrial settings, Louisiana and Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Orr, Maureen F.; Lanier, Kenneth; Koehler, Allison

    2008-01-01

    The scientific literature concerning the public health response to the unprecedented hurricanes striking the Gulf Coast in August and September 2005 has focused mainly on assessing health-related needs and surveillance of injuries, infectious diseases, and other illnesses. However, the hurricanes also resulted in unintended hazardous substances releases in the affected states. Data from two states (Louisiana and Texas) participating in the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system were analyzed to describe the characteristics of hazardous substances releases in industrial settings associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. HSEES is an active multi-state Web-based surveillance system maintained by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). In 2005, 166 hurricane-related hazardous substances events in industrial settings in Louisiana and Texas were reported. Most (72.3%) releases were due to emergency shut downs in preparation for the hurricanes and start-ups after the hurricanes. Emphasis is given to the contributing causal factors, hazardous substances released, and event scenarios. Recommendations are made to prevent or minimize acute releases of hazardous substances during future hurricanes, including installing backup power generation, securing equipment and piping to withstand high winds, establishing procedures to shutdown process operations safely, following established and up-to-date start-up procedures and checklists, and carefully performing pre-start-up safety reviews

  11. Hazardous substances releases associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in industrial settings, Louisiana and Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz [Division of Health Studies, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States)], E-mail: afp4@cdc.gov; Orr, Maureen F. [Division of Health Studies, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lanier, Kenneth; Koehler, Allison [Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals, Office of Public Health, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2008-11-15

    The scientific literature concerning the public health response to the unprecedented hurricanes striking the Gulf Coast in August and September 2005 has focused mainly on assessing health-related needs and surveillance of injuries, infectious diseases, and other illnesses. However, the hurricanes also resulted in unintended hazardous substances releases in the affected states. Data from two states (Louisiana and Texas) participating in the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system were analyzed to describe the characteristics of hazardous substances releases in industrial settings associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. HSEES is an active multi-state Web-based surveillance system maintained by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). In 2005, 166 hurricane-related hazardous substances events in industrial settings in Louisiana and Texas were reported. Most (72.3%) releases were due to emergency shut downs in preparation for the hurricanes and start-ups after the hurricanes. Emphasis is given to the contributing causal factors, hazardous substances released, and event scenarios. Recommendations are made to prevent or minimize acute releases of hazardous substances during future hurricanes, including installing backup power generation, securing equipment and piping to withstand high winds, establishing procedures to shutdown process operations safely, following established and up-to-date start-up procedures and checklists, and carefully performing pre-start-up safety reviews.

  12. A Risk Assessment Model for Water Resources: releases of dangerous and hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Anabela; Ferra, Isabel; Gonçalves, Isolina; Marques, Albertina M

    2014-07-01

    Many dangerous and hazardous substances are used, transported and handled daily in diverse situations, from domestic use to industrial processing, and during those operations, spills or other anomalous situations may occur that can lead to contaminant releases followed by contamination of surface water or groundwater through direct or indirect pathways. When dealing with this problem, rapid, technically sound decisions are desirable, and the use of complex methods may not be able to deliver information quickly. This work describes a simple conceptual model established on multi-criteria based analysis involving a strategic appraisal for contamination risk assessment to support local authorities on rapid technical decisions. The model involves a screening for environmental risk sources, focussing on persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) substances that may be discharged into water resources. It is a simple tool that can be used to follow-up actual accident scenarios in real time and to support daily activities, such as site-inspections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1998-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  14. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  15. Hazardous Substance Release Reporting Under CERCLA, EPCR {section}304 and DOE Emergency Management System (EMS) and DOE Occurrence Reporting Requirements. Environmental Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traceski, T.T.

    1994-06-01

    Releases of various substances from DOE facilities may be subject to reporting requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), as well as DOE`s internal ``Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information`` and the ``Emergency Management System`` (EMS). CERCLA and EPCPA are Federal laws that require immediate reporting of a release of a Hazardous Substance (HS) and an Extremely Hazardous Substance (EHS), respectively, in a Reportable Quantity (RQ) or more within a 24-hour period. This guidance uses a flowchart, supplemental information, and tables to provide an overview of the process to be followed, and more detailed explanations of the actions that must be performed, when chemical releases of HSs, EHSs, pollutants, or contaminants occur at DOE facilities. This guidance should be used in conjunction with, rather than in lieu of, applicable laws, regulations, and DOE Orders. Relevant laws, regulations, and DOE Orders are referenced throughout this guidance.

  16. Maintenance and hazardous substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhl, K.; Terwoert, J.; Cabecas, J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance workers come into close contact with a broad variety of often hazardous chemicals. Depending on the specific type, these chemicals may not only cause diseases like skin sores or cancer, but many of them are highly flammable and explosive. This e-facts focuses on the specific risks

  17. Technical Guidance for Hazardous Analysis, Emergency Planning for Extremely Hazardous Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    This current guide supplements NRT-1 by providing technical assistance to LEPCs to assess the lethal hazards related to potential airborne releases of extremely hazardous substances (EHSs) as designated under Section 302 of Title Ill of SARA.

  18. Storage of hazardous substances in bonded warehouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos Artavia, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    A variety of special regulations exist in Costa Rica for registration and transport of hazardous substances; these set the requirements for entry into the country and the security of transport units. However, the regulations mentioned no specific rules for storing hazardous substances. Tax deposits have been the initial place where are stored the substances that enter the country.The creation of basic rules that would be regulating the storage of hazardous substances has taken place through the analysis of regulations and national and international laws governing hazardous substances. The regulatory domain that currently exists will be established with a field research in fiscal deposits in the metropolitan area. The storage and security measures that have been used by the personnel handling the substances will be identified to be putting the reality with that the hazardous substances have been handled in tax deposits. A rule base for the storage of hazardous substances in tax deposits can be made, protecting the safety of the environment in which are manipulated and avoiding a possible accident causing a mess around. The rule will have the characteristics of the storage warehouses hazardous substances, such as safety standards, labeling standards, infrastructure features, common storage and transitional measures that must possess and meet all bonded warehouses to store hazardous substances. (author) [es

  19. Summary reports on some ecotoxicologically hazardous substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueffer, H.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on industrial waste water discharge into a public sewage system initiated a study in which the available knowlege on ecologically hazardous materials was compiled. The report contains information on polychlorinated biphenyls, acrylonitride, pentachlorophenol, and further toxic substances. (UT) [de

  20. Landfills as sinks for (hazardous) substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Heijo

    2012-12-01

    The primary goal of waste regulations is to protect human health and the environment. This requires the removal from the material cycle of those materials that cannot be processed without harm. Policies to promote recycling hold a risk that pollutants are dispersed. Materials have an environmental impact during their entire life cycle from extraction through production, consumption and recycling to disposal. Essentially there are only two routes for pollutants that cannot be rendered harmless: storage in sinks or dispersion into the environment. Many sinks do not contain substances absolutely, but result in slow dispersion. Dispersion leads to exposure and impact to human health and the environment. It is therefore important to assess the impact of the release to the environment. Based on various sources this paper discusses important material flows and their potential impact. This is compared with the intentions and achievements of European environmental and resource policy. The polluter pays principle is being implemented in Europe, but lags behind implementation of waste management regulations. As long as producers are allowed to add hazardous substances to their products and don't take their products back, it is in society's best interest to carefully consider whether recycling or storage in a sink is the better solution. This requires further development of life-cycle assessment tools and harmonization of regulations. In many cases the sink is unavoidable. Landfills as sinks will be needed in the future. Fail-safe design and construction as well as sustainable management of landfills must be further developed.

  1. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Comprehensive, peer-reviewed toxicology data for about 5,000 chemicals. The data bank focuses on the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced...

  2. Managing hazardous activities and substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenroth, V.H.

    1994-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to provide background information on the process, principles and policies being employed in OECD Member Countries for managing hazardous activities (non-nuclear) and products involving chemicals (non-radioactive). In addition, the author highlights certain areas in the risk management process where certain assumptions and conclusions may be of particular relevance to the goal of a review, reconsideration and restatement of the strategy of geological disposal of radioactive wastes. (O.L.)

  3. 41 CFR 102-75.130 - If hazardous substance activity took place on the property, what specific information must an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If hazardous substance... Utilization of Excess Real Property Title Report § 102-75.130 If hazardous substance activity took place on... quantity of such hazardous substance and the time at which such storage, release, or disposal took place...

  4. Hazardous substances shipping at inland water harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovic, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Safety measures and regulations system covering the aspects of fire protection, professional and ecological safety are aimed to create a safe working environment, by detection and remedy of conditions that are potentially hazardous for the well-being of the employees or are leading to certain undesired events. Such unwanted incidents may result in different consequences: operating person's injury, environment pollution or material damage. This study attempts to illustrate the organization of work during hazardous matter loading and unloading at inland water harbors, based on legal provisions and decrees involving safety precautions, and in order to achieve constant enhancement of operating procedure, decreasing thereby the number of work-related injuries and various accidental situations. Fundamental precondition required to prevent possible accidents and to optimize general safety policy is to recognize and control any danger or potential hazard, as well as to be familiar with the legal provisions covering the inland waterway transport of harmful substances.(author)

  5. Egyptian Environmental Activities and Regulations for Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Zarka, M.

    1999-01-01

    A substantial use of hazardous substances is essential to meet the social and economic goals of the community in Egypt. Agrochemicals are being used extensively to increase crop yield. The outdated agrochemicals and their empty containers represent a serious environmental problem. Industrial development in different sectors in Egypt obligates handling of huge amounts of hazardous substances and hazardous wastes. The inappropriate handling of such hazardous substances creates several health and environmental problems. Egypt faces many challenges to control safe handling of such substances and wastes. Several regulations are governing handling of hazardous substances in Egypt. The unified Environmental Law 4 for the year 1994 includes a full chapter on the Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes. National and international activities have been taken to manage hazardous substances and hazardous wastes in an environmental sound manner

  6. Potential hazard by toxic substances in foods. Environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unterhalt, B

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews various toxic substances found in foods. These toxic substances include not only natural occurring toxins but also bacterial food poisons, pesticide residues, heavy metals, and food additives. The potential hazard of each toxic substance is discussed. 74 references.

  7. 75 FR 44920 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... State Registry of Inactive Hazardous Waste Disposal Sites as a ``Class 2 Inactive Hazardous Waste Site..., Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental relations, Natural resources, Oil... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Deletion of the SMS...

  8. Hazardous materials and toxic substances - Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerlad, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The paper first forecasts what the status of hazardous wastes should be in the year 2028. The author believes all the problems will be solved: no new hazardous wastes will be being generated and the current hazardous waste problems will have been cleared up by common sense engineering. He then describes the current status of waste management of hazardous wastes, the regulatory situation, as well as combustion test programs

  9. Security and health protection during the transport of hazardous substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovic, Z.; Bobic, V.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of this work describes the legal regulations which regulate the conditions and method of the transport of hazardous substances, necessary documentation for storage, forwarding and transport. Hazardous substances are defined and classified according to the ADR. The necessary security measures which are taken for the transport of particular types of hazardous substances are mentioned. Marking and labeling of vehicles for the transport of hazardous substances (plates and lists of hazards), packing and marking of packaging is important. The safety measures which are taken at the filling stations of combustible liquids as well as places specially organized for filling, prohibitions and limitations and necessary transport documentation are mentioned. It is visible from the above mentioned that the activity of the whole security chain is necessary and depends on the good knowledge of basic characteristics and features of substances. All the participants in the security chain have to be familiar with and consistently obey the legal regulations. The manufacturer must know the features of the hazardous substance, supervisory services must be acquainted with the threat and potential danger. The hauler and intervention forces must, in case of accidents and damage, be familiar with the emergency procedures in case of accidents and act properly regarding the threatening dangerous substance.(author)

  10. Hazardous substances in Europe's fresh and marine waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Robert; Brack, Werner; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten

    Chemicals are an essential part of our daily lives. They are used to produce consumer goods, to protect or restore our health and to boost food production, to name but a few examples — and they are also involved in a growing range of environmental technologies. Europe's chemical and associated...... on their pattern of use and the potential for exposure. Certain types of naturally occurring chemicals, such as metals, can also be hazardous. Emissions of hazardous substances to the environment can occur at every stage of their life cycle, from production, processing, manufacturing and use in downstream...... regarding chemical contamination arising from the exploitation of shale gas has grown recently. Hazardous substances in water affect aquatic life… Hazardous substances are emitted to water bodies both directly and indirectly through a range of diffuse and point source pathways. The presence of hazardous...

  11. Baltic Sea hazardous substances management: results and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selin, Henrik; VanDeveer, Stacy D

    2004-05-01

    The introduction into the Baltic Sea of hazardous substances that are persistent, bioaccumulate, and are toxic is an important environmental and human health problem. Multilateral efforts to address this problem have primarily been taken under the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM). This article examines past HELCOM efforts on hazardous substances, and discusses future challenges regarding their management. The article finds that past actions on hazardous substances have had a positive effect on improving Baltic environmental quality and reducing human health risks, although there are remaining issues and difficulties that need to be addressed. In particular, four related future challenges for HELCOM management of hazardous substances are identified and discussed: i) the need to engender further implementation and building public and private sector capacities; ii) the need to improve data availability, quality and comparability across the region and international fora; iii) the need to strengthen existing regulations and incorporate new issues; and iv) the need to effectively coordinate HELCOM activities with efforts on hazardous substances in other international fora.

  12. 76 FR 56294 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List AGENCY: Environmental... pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous Waste, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental relations, Penalties... error in processing the direct- final rule. The online Federal Document Management System (FDMS) did not...

  13. 76 FR 56362 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List AGENCY: Environmental... protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous Waste, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental... processing the deletion notice. The online Federal Document Management System (FDMS) did not include required...

  14. Fate and monitoring of hazardous substances in temporary rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ademollo, N.; Capri, S.; Froebrich, J.; Patrolecco, L.; Polesello, S.; Puddu, A.; Rusconi, M.; Valsecchi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Under climate-change conditions, temporary rivers will be the dominant surface-water bodies of the Mediterranean region. In order to manage this kind of water body appropriately, it is necessary to understand the chemical and ecological processes that involve hazardous substances in these

  15. Sustainable hazardous substances management in the supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenvliet, H.; Valk, van der W.; Weele, van A.J.; Esposito, E.

    2012-01-01

    Being compliant to legal hazardous substances regulations is difficult for multinational companies that have a global network of suppliers. The presence of these chemicals has to be monitored throughout the supply chain often even up until the raw materials suppliers. Companies have also to deal

  16. Substance P release from rat hypothalamus and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronheim, S.; Sheppard, M.C.; Pimstone, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    A specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay for substance P has been developed to study the release of immunoreactive substance P from incubated rat hypothalamus and rat spinal cord in vitro. Release was significantly increased in the presence of two depolarizing stimuli (56 mM KCl and 75 μM veratrine) and was calcium-dependent. The released immunoreactive material diluted in parallel with synthetic substance P and showed close identity on Sephadex chromatography. A neuromodulator role for the peptide in the central nervous system is suggested

  17. Small WEEE: determining recyclables and hazardous substances in plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakakis, Emmanouil; Janz, Alexander; Bilitewski, Bernd; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2009-01-30

    An examination regarding the determination of recyclables and hazardous substances in small waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) found in the residual household waste stream of the city of Dresden, Germany, is described. Firstly, attitudes towards the disposal of small WEEE in the latter are assessed, and product types and categories which mostly contribute to its composition are identified. Physical parameters which could be used as mechanical sorting criteria are measured, and the material composition of the small WEEE found is determined. The hazardous substances' "base" charge in the residual waste is established by means of atomic absorption spectrometry and ionic chromatography, as a first step in estimating the contribution of small WEEE to its pollutant load. Consequently, the content of small WEEE plastics in key heavy metals and halogens is determined. Key conclusions are drawn concerning the future strategic development and practical implementation of the 2002/96/EC Directive, in relation to small WEEE management and recycling.

  18. Small WEEE: Determining recyclables and hazardous substances in plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrakakis, Emmanouil; Janz, Alexander; Bilitewski, Bernd; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    An examination regarding the determination of recyclables and hazardous substances in small waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) found in the residual household waste stream of the city of Dresden, Germany, is described. Firstly, attitudes towards the disposal of small WEEE in the latter are assessed, and product types and categories which mostly contribute to its composition are identified. Physical parameters which could be used as mechanical sorting criteria are measured, and the material composition of the small WEEE found is determined. The hazardous substances' 'base' charge in the residual waste is established by means of atomic absorption spectrometry and ionic chromatography, as a first step in estimating the contribution of small WEEE to its pollutant load. Consequently, the content of small WEEE plastics in key heavy metals and halogens is determined. Key conclusions are drawn concerning the future strategic development and practical implementation of the 2002/96/EC Directive, in relation to small WEEE management and recycling

  19. Hazard of radioactive releases resulted from coal burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbard, V.

    1995-01-01

    Consideration is given to the data, pointing to the fact, that coal-burning power plants release of radioactive substances, contained in gaseous wastes, is not less, than the same one of nuclear power plants. The necessity of regulating emission of these substance in atmosphere by analogy with nuclear power industry is shown. 1 fig

  20. List of hazardous substances for 1995. Hazardous substances at the working place; Gefahrstoffliste 1995. Gefahrstoffe am Arbeitsplatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflaumbaum, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Blome, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Kleine, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Stamm, R. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany)

    1995-04-01

    The List of Hazardous Substances for 1995 contains a summarizing table of the most important regulations concerning safety and health at the working place together with supplementary information. The present version, compiled by the Berufsgenossenschaftliche Institut fuer Arbeitssicherheit (Trade Associations` Institute for Working Safety), is an update of the List of Hazardous Substances for 1994. The List contains the prescribed classifications and designations of substances and preparations pursuant to the EC Directive 67/548/EEC (including the 20th amendment); the substances contained in the ``List of carcinogenic, mutagenic and reproduction-endangering substances`` (TRGS 905); the air pollution limit values of MAK and TRK (``Air pollution limit values at the working place``, TRGS 900); and the Biological Tolerance Values (BAT, TRGS 903). At the end it provides information, amongst other things, on measuring methods (DFG, ZH1/120, BIA desk folder, HSE, NIOSH, OSHA), industrial medicine, substance-specific regulations of the Ordinance On Hazardous Substances (GefStoffV), Ordinance of Prohibitions Concerning Chemicals (ChemVerbotsV), and Hazardous Substances Technical Code (TRGS), and on regulations of the trade associations. The amendments to the Technical Code (e.g. TRGS 900 and 905) published in early 1995 have also been incorporated. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Das Berufsgenossenschaftliche Institut fuer Arbeitssicherheit - BIA hat in der Gefahrstoffliste 1995 die wichtigsten Regelungen fuer die Sicherheit und Gesundheit am Arbeitsplatz sowie ergaenzende Hinweise in einer Tabelle zusammengefasst. Die vorliegende Version aktualisiert die Gefahrstoffliste aus dem Jahr 1994. Die Liste enthaelt die vorgeschriebenen Einstufungen und Kennzeichnungen von Stoffen und Zubereitungen gemaess der EU-Richtlinie 67/548/EWG (einschliesslich 20. Anpassung) sowie die in der TRGS 905 ``Verzeichnis krebserzeugender, erbgutveraendernder und fortpflanzungsgefaehrdender Stoffe

  1. Hazardous substances in the aquatic environment of Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roots, Ott; Roose, Antti

    2013-09-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to regulate the management of European surface water bodies. Directive 2008/105/EC, which establishes the environmental quality standards of priority substances and certain other pollutants, the content of which in the surface water should be monitored, has been transposed by the Estonian Ministry of Environment 9 September 2010 Regulation No. 49. Sampled hazardous substances were selected primarily based on their toxicity, as well as their lifetime in environment and ability to accumulate in living organisms (bioaccumulation). The contents of hazardous substances and their groups determined from Estonian surface waters remained below the limits of quantifications of used analysis methods in most cases. However, the content of some heavy metals, mono- and dibasic phenols in the surface water/waste water and sewage sludge/bottom sediments can still reach the delicate levels in the Estonian oil shale region in particular. Among new substances analysed in Estonia historically first time in 2010, amounts of organotin compounds in sediments and some alkylphenols, their ethoxylates and phthalates were found in various sample matrices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk management of hazardous substances in a circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodar, Charles; Spijker, Job; Lijzen, Johannes; Waaijers-van der Loop, Susanne; Luit, Richard; Heugens, Evelyn; Janssen, Martien; Wassenaar, Pim; Traas, Theo

    2018-04-15

    The ambitions for a circular economy are high and unambiguous, but day-to-day experience shows that the transition still has many difficulties to overcome. One of the current hurdles is the presence of hazardous substances in waste streams that enter or re-enter into the environment or the technosphere. The key question is: do we have the appropriate risk management tools to control any risks that might arise from the re-using and recycling of materials? We present some recent cases that illustrate current practice and complexity in the risk management of newly-formed circular economy chains. We also highlight how separate legal frameworks are still disconnected from each other in these cases, and how circular economy initiatives interlink with the European REACH regulation. Furthermore, we introduce a novel scheme describing how to decide whether a(n)(additional) risk assessment is necessary with regard to the re-use of materials containing hazardous substances. Finally, we present our initial views on new concepts for the fundamental integration of sustainability and safety aspects. These concepts should be the building blocks for the near future shifts in both policy frameworks and voluntary initiatives that support a sound circular economy transition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The hazard to man of accidental releases of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brearley, I.R.

    1985-03-01

    Some aspects of the atmospheric dispersion of tritium are discussed, followed by consideration of the dosimetric pathways. In order to assess the significance of a tritium release the doses from various pathways are estimated and compared with the doses estimated from a similar release of iodine-131. The major hazard from tritium is the ingestion of contaminated food products. For similar releases of tritium and I 131 the ingestion hazard can be comparable if the release occurs near and before the end of the harvest season. However, in the tritium release case the agricultural season influences the consequences markedly and, at other times during the year, the ingestion hazard from tritium may be approximately 20 times less. The dose from inhalation of tritium is sensitive to its chemical form and for similar releases of tritiated water and tritium gas then the dose from tritiated water is approximately 10 4 greater than the dose from tritium gas. For similar releases of tritiated water and iodine-131 then a comparison of the inhalation shows that the dose from the iodine is approximately 300 times greater. (author)

  4. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Hazardous Waste Site Polygon Data, 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Hazardous Waste Site Polygon Data, 1996 consists of 2042 polygons for selected hazardous waste sites...

  5. Developments in consequence modelling of accidental releases of hazardous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, H.

    2012-01-01

    The modelling of consequences of releases of hazardous materials in the Netherlands has mainly been based on the “Yellow Book”. Although there is no updated version of this official publication, new insights have been developed during the last decades. This article will give an overview of new

  6. Ecotoxicological hazard and risk assessment of endocrine active substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Annegaaike; Roberts, Mike; Matthiessen, Peter

    2017-03-01

    This collection of papers provides state-of-the-art science on a complex topic that has been challenging for scientists and regulators for a long time. The papers emanated from the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Pellston Workshop ® Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA). Forty-eight international experts met in early February 2016 to discuss whether the environmental risks posed by endocrine-disrupting substances (EDS) can be reliably assessed. The primary conclusion of the workshop was that if data on environmental exposure, effects on sensitive species and life-stages, delayed effects, and effects at low concentrations are robust, initiating environmental risk assessment of EDS is scientifically sound and reliable. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:264-266. © 2016 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2016 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  7. 41 CFR 102-75.340 - Where hazardous substance activity has been identified on property proposed for disposal, what...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where hazardous... Provisions Relating to Hazardous Substance Activity § 102-75.340 Where hazardous substance activity has been... offer to purchase and the conveyance document? Where the existence of hazardous substance activity has...

  8. Applicability of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) to releases of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), commonly called Superfund, provided a $1.6 billion fund (financed by a tax on petrochemical feedstocks and crude oil and by general revenues) for the cleanup of releases of hazardous substances, including source, special nuclear or byproduct material, and other radioactive substances, from mostly inactive facilities. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is authorized to require private responsible parties to clean up releases of hazardous substances, or EPA, at its option, may undertake the cleanup with monies from the Fund and recover the monies through civil actions brought against responsible parties. CERCLA imposes criminal penalties for noncompliance with its reporting requirements. This paper will overview the key provisions of CERCLA which apply to the cleanup of radioactive materials

  9. 75 FR 33747 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Notice of Intent for... Notice of Intent to Delete the soils of Operable Unit 1 and the underlying ground water of the... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas...

  10. 78 FR 16612 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) to broaden the technology, to include computer... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 [EPA-HQ-SFUND-2012-0738; FRL-9791-4] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public Availability of the...

  11. 77 FR 10450 - Designation of Hazardous Substances; Designation, Reportable Quantities, and Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... in 40 CFR Part 302 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous substances...; Notification Requirements; Reportable Quantity Adjustments. Discharges of mixtures and solutions are subject to these regulations only where a component hazardous substance of the mixture or solution is discharged in...

  12. 76 FR 70105 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List: Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List: Partial Deletion of the... appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State... property PINs listed above. The deletion of these two parcels from the Site affects all surface soils...

  13. 76 FR 45484 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Notice of Intent for..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... PBL Superfund Site without prior Notice of Intent for Deletion because EPA views this as a...

  14. 78 FR 69360 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ...] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Partial... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of California... Corp Air Station Superfund Site without prior Notice of Intent for Partial Deletion because EPA views...

  15. 76 FR 18136 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Deletion of the Norwood... amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The... we view this as a noncontroversial revision and anticipate no adverse comment. We have explained our...

  16. 78 FR 48844 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Deletion of the Mosley... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Oklahoma... Deletion of the MRSL Superfund Site without prior Notice of Intent to Delete because we view this as a...

  17. 75 FR 43115 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Intent to Partially..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... Intent for Partial Deletion because EPA views this as a noncontroversial revision and anticipates no...

  18. 75 FR 47521 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Intent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Intent To Delete the... appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the... Corporation (Markhams) Superfund Site without prior notice of intent to delete because we view this as a...

  19. 76 FR 81904 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Deletion of the Hipps..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... of Intent to Delete because we view this as a noncontroversial revision and anticipate no adverse...

  20. 75 FR 54821 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List; Intent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List; Intent for Partial... amended, is an Appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The... Superfund Site without prior Notice of Intent for Partial Deletion because EPA views this as a...

  1. 77 FR 67783 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List: Deletion of the Waste... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of Michigan, through the...-Holland Lagoons Superfund Site without prior Notice of Intent to Delete because we view this as a...

  2. 78 FR 60721 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Deletion of the... final Notice of Deletion of the Ludlow Sand & Gravel Superfund Site (Site), located in the Town of Paris..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan...

  3. Methodology for environmental assessments of oil and hazardous substance spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, W. P.; Scott, G. I.; Getter, C. D.; Hayes, M. O.; Gundlach, E. R.

    1980-03-01

    Scientific assessment of the complex environmental consequences of large spills of oil or other hazardous substances has stimulated development of improved strategies for rapid and valid collection and processing of ecological data. The combination of coastal processes and geological measurements developed by Hayes & Gundlach (1978), together with selected field biological and chemical observations/measurements, provide an ecosystem impact assessment approach which is termed “integrated zonal method of ecological impact assessment.” Ecological assessment of oil and hazardous material spills has been divided into three distinct phases: (1) first-order response studies — conducted at the time of the initial spill event, which gather data to document acute impacts and assist decision-makers in prioritization of cleanup efforts and protection of ecologically sensitive habitats, (2) second-order response studies — conducted two months to one year post-spill, which document any delayed mortality and attempt to identify potential sublethal impacts in sensitive species, and (3) third-order response studies — conducted one to three years post-spill, to document chronic impacts (both lethal and sublethal) to specific indicator species. Data collected during first-order response studies are gathered in a quantitative manner so that the initial assessment may become a baseline for later, more detailed, post-spill scientific efforts. First- and second-order response studies of the “Peck Slip” oil spill in Puerto Rico illustrate the usefulness of this method. The need for contingency planning before a spill has been discussed along with the use of the Vulnerability Index, a method in which coastal environments are classified on a scale of 1 10, based upon their potential susceptibility to oiling. A study of the lower Cook Inlet section of the Alaskan coast illustrates the practical application of this method.

  4. Hazardous and radioactive substances in Danish marine waters. Status and temporal trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlloef, I; Andersen, Jesper H

    2009-07-15

    This book fulfils the Danish reporting obligations in relation to the OSPAR Trend Assessment on Dangerous Substances, and describes the degree of contamination from hazardous and radioactive substances and their temporal trends, as well as the effects of some of these hazardous substances, in the Danish marine environment. The assessment is based on existing information, primarily data collected via national and regional Danish monitoring activities until 2004. (author)

  5. Hazardous and radioactive substances in Danish marine waters. Status and temporal trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlloef, I.; Andersen, Jesper H.

    2009-07-01

    This book fulfils the Danish reporting obligations in relation to the OSPAR Trend Assessment on Dangerous Substances, and describes the degree of contamination from hazardous and radioactive substances and their temporal trends, as well as the effects of some of these hazardous substances, in the Danish marine environment. The assessment is based on existing information, primarily data collected via national and regional Danish monitoring activities until 2004. (author)

  6. Process for determining the remediation category of hazardous substance sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieben, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    An evaluation process has been developed that aids in selecting the appropriate remediation category of hazardous substance sites. Three general remediation categories have been established: No further Action: Potential Early Action: and Defer for RI/FS or Transition/Decontamination and Decommissioning. This evaluation method is a preliminary screening process only and will not identify the most appropriate remediation alternative for each site. The remedy selection process can proceed only after a remediation category is determined for each site. All sites are evaluated at a preliminary screening level to determine the general remediation category. After the first screen, a secondary evaluation is performed on both the PEA sites and the DEFER sites. For PEAs, this secondary evaluation will incorporate additional specific factors, such as a screening level risk assessment. For the DEFER sites feasibility factors will be used to distinguish between the sites which should undergo a normal RI/FS and the sites which will be recommended to be remediated in association with D ampersand D of buildings. Ultimately, all of the sites will be placed into one of four remediation categories

  7. Development of acute exposure guideline levels for airborne exposures to hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewski, Daniel; Bakshi, Kulbir; Garrett, Roger; Falke, Ernest; Rusch, George; Gaylor, David

    2004-04-01

    Hazardous substances can be released into the atmosphere due to industrial and transportation accidents, fires, tornadoes, earthquakes, and terrorists, thereby exposing workers and the nearby public to potential adverse health effects. Various enforceable guidelines have been set by regulatory agencies for worker and ambient air quality. However, these exposure levels generally are not applicable to rare lifetime acute exposures, which possibly could occur at high concentrations. Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) provide estimates of concentrations for airborne exposures for an array of short durations that possibly could cause mild (AEGL-1), severe, irreversible, potentially disabling adverse health effects (AEGL-2), or life threatening effects (AEGL-3). These levels can be useful for emergency responders and planners in reducing or eliminating potential risks to the public. Procedures and methodologies for deriving AEGLs are reviewed in this paper that have been developed in the United States, with direct input from international representatives of OECD member-countries, by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guidelines for Hazardous Substances and reviewed by the National Research Council. Techniques are discussed for the extrapolation of effects across different exposure durations. AEGLs provide a viable approach for assisting in the prevention, planning, and response to acute airborne exposures to toxic agents.

  8. 40 CFR 280.42 - Requirements for hazardous substance UST systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automatic line leak detector in accordance with § 280.44(a). (5) Other methods of release detection may be...-water intrusion with the ability to contain or detect a release of regulated substances; and (iii...

  9. Hazardous substances in wastewater systems:a delicate issue for wastewater management

    OpenAIRE

    Palmquist, Helena

    2001-01-01

    Many substances derived from human activity end up in wastewater systems at some point. A large number of different substances - up to 30,000 - are present in wastewater. Some of them are valuable, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, but there are also hazardous substances such as heavy metals and anthropogenic organic substances. To be able to utilise the wastewater nutrients on arable land (agriculture, forestry or other alternatives), it is of great importance to investigate the sources of ha...

  10. 76 FR 510 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Partial Deletion of the... Site is located in Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, New Mexico. After this deletion, this 62 acres will...

  11. 75 FR 38100 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Hazardous Substance Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...- traditional communication methods to make the significance and applicability of SRP-funded research... and Social Sciences Research, and National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering. [cir... Superfund Hazardous Substance Research and Training Program Strategic Plan; Request for Comments ACTION...

  12. Determination of hazardous substances in food basket eggs in Tehran, Iran: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Salar-Amoli, Jamileh; Ali-Esfahani, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Extensive distribution of hazardous substances in food chain and the deleterious effect of their residues on public health are a great concern of the society. Chicken eggs, as one of the most popular food commodities, in different parts of Tehran (Iran) were analyzed for two groups of hazardous substances including some organochlorine pesticides (OC) such as aldrin, lindane, dieldrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, heptachlor and endusulfan) and heavy metals namely mercury (Hg), arsenic (As...

  13. 78 FR 73449 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This partial deletion pertains to the soil of 1,154 residential...] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Partial Deletion of the Omaha Lead Superfund Site AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule...

  14. 78 FR 11620 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List: Deletion of the Kerr... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of Illinois, through the Illinois... because we view this as a noncontroversial revision and anticipate no adverse comment. We have explained...

  15. 78 FR 45905 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Deletion of the Craig... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, through the... Craig Farm Drum Superfund Site without prior Notice of Intent to Delete because we view this as a...

  16. 76 FR 50441 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Deletion of the... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of New Jersey, through the New Jersey... Deletion of the Sayreville Landfill Superfund Site without prior Notice of Intent to Delete because we view...

  17. 76 FR 20605 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List: Deletion of the... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of Michigan, through the Michigan Department... Delete because we view this as a noncontroversial revision and anticipate no adverse comment. We have...

  18. 76 FR 70057 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Partial Deletion of the...). Refer to Figures 1 to 3 in the deletion docket to view the location of the two parcels being proposed... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct final partial deletion is being published by EPA...

  19. 78 FR 66325 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ...] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Deletion of the... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of South Carolina, through the South... because we view this as a noncontroversial revision and anticipate no adverse comment. We have explained...

  20. 78 FR 60809 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Deletion of the... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of New York, through the New York State... Deletion of the Site without prior Notice of Intent to Delete because EPA views this as a noncontroversial...

  1. 76 FR 32115 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Intent To Delete the... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Delaware, through the Delaware... Delete because EPA views this as a noncontroversial revision and anticipates no adverse comment. We have...

  2. 78 FR 45167 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Deletion of the Cannon... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Massachusetts, through the...), Superfund Site without prior Notice of Intent to Delete because we view this as a noncontroversial revision...

  3. Artificial saliva effect on toxic substances release from acrylic resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Milena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Acrylic-based resins are intensively used in dentistry practice as restorative or denture-base materials. The purpose of this study was to analyze the surface structure of denture base resins and the amount of released potentially toxic substances (PTS immediately upon polymerization and incubation in different types of artificial saliva. Methods. Storage of acrylic samples in two models of artificial saliva were performed in a water bath at the temperature of 37 ± 1°C. Analysis of the surface structure of samples was carried out using scanning electronic microscopy analysis immediately after polymerization and after the 30-day incubation. The amounts of PTS per day, week and month extracts were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Results. Surface design and amount of PTS in acrylic materials were different and depended on the types and duration of polymerization. The surfaces of tested acrylates became flatter after immersing in solutions of artificial saliva. The degree of acrylic materials release was not dependent on the applied model of artificial saliva. Conclusion. In order to improve biological features of acrylic resin materials, it was recommended that dentures lined with soft or hard coldpolymerized acrylates should be kept at least 1 to 7 days in water before being given to a patient. So, as to reach high degree of biocompatibility preparation of prosthetic restorations from heat-polymerized acrylate was unnecessary. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41017

  4. Study on hazardous substances contained in radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroki, Ryoichiro; Takahashi, Kuniaki

    2008-01-01

    It is necessary that the technical criteria is established concerning waste package for disposal of the TRU waste generated in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. And it is important to consider the criteria not only in terms of radioactivity but also in terms of chemical hazard and criticality. Therefore the environmental impact of hazardous materials and possibility of criticality were investigated to decide on technical specification of radioactive waste packages. The contents and results are as following. (1) Concerning hazardous materials included in TRU waste, regulations on disposal of industrial wastes and on environmental preservation were investigated. (2) The assessment methods for environmental impact of hazardous materials included in radioactive waste in U.K, U.S.A. and France were investigated. (3) The parameters for mass transport assessment about migration of hazardous materials in waste packages around disposal facilities were compiled. And the upper limits of amounts of hazardous materials in waste packages to satisfy the environmental standard were calculated with mass transport assessment for some disposal concepts. (4) It was suggested from criticality analysis for waste packages in disposal facility that the occurrence of criticality was almost impossible under the realistic conditions. (author)

  5. A proposal for a test method for assessment of hazard property HP 12 ("Release of an acute toxic gas") in hazardous waste classification - Experience from 49 waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Pierre; Samaali, Ismahen; Molina, Pauline

    2016-12-01

    A stepwise method for assessment of the HP 12 is proposed and tested with 49 waste samples. The hazard property HP 12 is defined as "Release of an acute toxic gas": waste which releases acute toxic gases (Acute Tox. 1, 2 or 3) in contact with water or an acid. When a waste contains a substance assigned to one of the following supplemental hazards EUH029, EUH031 and EUH032, it shall be classified as hazardous by HP 12 according to test methods or guidelines (EC, 2014a, 2014b). When the substances with the cited hazard statement codes react with water or an acid, they can release HCl, Cl 2 , HF, HCN, PH 3 , H 2 S, SO 2 (and two other gases very unlikely to be emitted, hydrazoic acid HN 3 and selenium oxide SeO 2 - a solid with low vapor pressure). Hence, a method is proposed:For a set of 49 waste, water addition did not produce gas. Nearly all the solid waste produced a gas in contact with hydrochloric acid in 5 min in an automated calcimeter with a volume >0.1L of gas per kg of waste. Since a plateau of pressure is reached only for half of the samples in 5 min, 6 h trial with calorimetric bombs or glass flasks were done and confirmed the results. Identification of the gases by portable probes showed that most of the tested samples emit mainly CO 2 . Toxic gases are emitted by four waste: metallic dust from the aluminum industry (CO), two air pollution control residue of industrial waste incinerator (H 2 S) and a halogenated solvent (organic volatile(s) compound(s)). HF has not been measured in these trials started before the present definition of HP 12. According to the definition of HP 12, only the H 2 S emission of substances with hazard statement EUH031 is accounted for. In view of the calcium content of the two air pollution control residue, the presence of calcium sulphide (EUH031) can be assumed. These two waste are therefore classified potentially hazardous for HP 12, from a total of 49 waste. They are also classified as hazardous for other properties (HP 7

  6. A proposal for a test method for assessment of hazard property HP 12 (“Release of an acute toxic gas”) in hazardous waste classification - Experience from 49 waste

    OpenAIRE

    Hennebert , Pierre; Samaali , Ismahen; Molina , Pauline

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A stepwise method for assessment of the HP 12 is proposed and tested with 49 waste samples. The hazard property HP 12 is defined as “Release of an acute toxic gas”: waste which releases acute toxic gases (Acute Tox. 1, 2 or 3) in contact with water or an acid. When a waste contains a substance assigned to one of the following supplemental hazards EUH029, EUH031 and EUH032, it shall be classified as hazardous by HP 12 according to test methods or guidelines (EC, 2014a, ...

  7. Transportation training: Focusing on movement of hazardous substances and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.; Moreland, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    Over the past 25 years extensive federal legislation involving the handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste has been passed that has resulted in numerous overlapping regulations administered and enforced by different federal agencies. The handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste involves a significant number of workers who are subject to a varying degree of risk should an accident occur during handling or transport. Effective transportation training can help workers address these risks and mitigate them, and at the same time enable ORNL to comply with the federal regulations concerning the transport of hazardous materials/waste. This presentation will outline how the Environmental and Health Protection Division's Technical Resources and Training Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, working with transportation and waste disposal personnel, are developing and implementing a comprehensive transportation safety training program to meet the needs of our workers while satisfying appropriate federal regulations. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Toxics Release Inventory Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) dataset contains hazard information about the chemicals reported in TRI. Users can...

  9. A Marine Hazardous Substances Data System. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    HAZARDOUS CARGOS (CONT’D) *20-DEC-85 CHEMICAL NAIIE CHRIS CFR OTHER TLV-TWA SEG CODE ROUTE PPM NO. WAX : CANDELILLA D 684 WAX . CARNAUBA WCA D 685 WAX ...50 693 * WAX : PARAFFIN IJPF D 2 MG/M3 696 MXYLENE XLM D 100 693 O-XYLENE XLO D 100 694 P-XYLENE XLP D 100 695 ZINC DIALKYLDITHIOPHOSPHATE ZDP D 10

  10. Natural and technologic hazardous material releases during and after natural disasters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Stacy; Balluz, Lina; Malilay, Josephine

    2004-04-25

    Natural disasters may be powerful and prominent mechanisms of direct and indirect hazardous material (hazmat) releases. Hazardous materials that are released as the result of a technologic malfunction precipitated by a natural event are referred to as natural-technologic or na-tech events. Na-tech events pose unique environmental and human hazards. Disaster-associated hazardous material releases are of concern, given increases in population density and accelerating industrial development in areas subject to natural disasters. These trends increase the probability of catastrophic future disasters and the potential for mass human exposure to hazardous materials released during disasters. This systematic review summarizes direct and indirect disaster-associated releases, as well as environmental contamination and adverse human health effects that have resulted from natural disaster-related hazmat incidents. Thorough examination of historic disaster-related hazmat releases can be used to identify future threats and improve mitigation and prevention efforts.

  11. Ingestible capsule for remote controlled release of a substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The application relates to an ingestible capsule (102) for delivery of a substance e.g. a pharmaceutical drug, to a human or animal. The ingestible capsule comprises a capsule wall structure (202) forming a substantially sealed reservoir or lumen holding the substance (204). An electrical resonance...

  12. Controlled release of biofunctional substances by radiation-induced polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1978-01-01

    The release behaviour of a drug from flat circular capsules obtained by radiation-induced polymerization at low temperatures and with different hydrophilic properties has been studied. The effect of various factors on release property was investigated. The release process could be divided into three parts, an initial quick release stage, stationary state release stage and a retarded release stage. Release behaviour in the stationary state was examined using Noyes-Whitney and Higuchi equations. It was shown that the hydrophilic property of polymer matrix expressed by water content was the most important effect on diffusion and release rate. Rigidity of the polymer may also affect diffusivity. The first quick release step could be attributed to rapid dissolution of drug in the matrix surface due to polymer swelling. (author)

  13. Analysis on the Industrial Design of Food Package and the Component of Hazardous Substance in the Packaging Material

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Wen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Transferring the hazardous chemicals contained in food packaging materials into food would threaten the health of consumers, therefore, the related laws and regulations and the detection method of hazardous substance have been established at home and abroad to ensure the safety to use the food packaging material. According to the analysis on the hazardous component in the food packaging, a set of detection methods for hazardous substance in the food packaging was established in the paper and ...

  14. Water management in cities of the future using emission control strategies for priority hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, E; Revitt, D M; Ledin, A; Lundy, L; Holten Lützhøft, H C; Wickman, T; Mikkelsen, P S

    2011-01-01

    Cities of the future face challenges with respect to the quantity and quality of water resources, and multiple managerial options need to be considered in order to safeguard urban surface water quality. In a recently completed project on 'Source control options for reducing emissions of Priority Pollutants' (ScorePP), seven emission control strategies (ECSs) were developed and tested within a semi-hypothetical case city (SHCC) to evaluate their potential to reduce the emission of selected European priority hazardous substances (PHSs) to surface waters. The ECSs included (1) business-as-usual, (2) full implementation of relevant European (EU) directives, (3) ECS2 in combination with voluntary options for household, municipalities and industry, (4) ECS2 combined with industrial treatment and best available technologies (BAT), (5) ECS2 in combination with stormwater and combined sewer overflow treatment, (6) ECS2 in combination with advanced wastewater treatment, and (7) combinations of ECS3-6. The SHCC approach was chosen to facilitate transparency, to allow compensating for data gaps and to decrease the level of uncertainty in the results. The selected PHSs: cadmium (Cd), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), nonylphenol (NP) and pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE) differ in their uses and environmental fate and therefore accumulate in surface waters to differing extents in response to the application of alternative ECS. To achieve the required reduction in PHS levels in urban waters the full implementation of existing EU regulation is prioritised and feasible combinations of managerial and technological options (source control and treatment) can be highly relevant for mitigating releases.

  15. [Exposure to hazardous chemical substances in furniture industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pośniak, Małgorzata; Kowalska, Joanna; Makhniashvili, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the exposure to organic solvents in plants of the furniture industry. Studies were conducted in five furniture plants. Hazardous chemicals present in the air at workposts were determined by capillary gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection. The analysis of air samples collected at the workposts allowed to identify the following chemicals occurring during varnishing and cleaning of furniture surface elements: acetone, butan-2-one, ethyl, isobutyl and methoxypropyl acetate, 4-methylpentan-2-on, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes. Indices characteristic of combined exposure ranged from 0.13 to 1.67 and exceeded the limit value at 21% of workposts. The results of the study indicate that chemicals present at representative workposts during the furniture production are harmful to health of workers, especially those involved in varnishing and cleaning of furniture elements.

  16. Hazardous substances in electronics: the effects of European Union risk regulation on China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biedenkopf, K.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that European Union (EU) risk regulation of hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) was both a trigger and formative factor in the development of similar Chinese regulation. The attractiveness and global interdependence of the EU market in EEE impelled a

  17. 77 FR 73289 - Hazardous Substances and Articles; Administration and Enforcement Regulations: Revisions to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... of Animals, and the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. 1. Non-animal Testing Alternatives... Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA). DATES: This rule is effective on January 9, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... proposed amendments to the regulations that interpret, supplement, or provide alternatives to definitions...

  18. Pesticides; resource recovery; hazardous substances and oil spill responses; waste disposal; biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In the category of pesticides this volume features close to sixty standard test method, practices, and guides for evaluating the properties and efficacy of pesticides and antimicrobial agents. Also covered are standards for hazardous substances, oil spell responses, waste disposal, and biological effects of these materials

  19. EXPOSURE TO HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND MALE REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH: A RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    The discovery in the mid-1970s that occupational exposures to pesticides could diminish or destroy the fertility of workers sparked concern about the effects of hazardous substances on male reproductive health. More recently, there is evidence that sperm quantity and quality may ...

  20. 76 FR 11350 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: February... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Partial Deletion of the... Mexico, from the National Priorities List (NPL). The NPL, promulgated pursuant to section 105 of the...

  1. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ecotoxicological hazards and risks of endocrine‐active substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop™ ?‘Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)’ was held from 31st January to 5th February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary aim of the workshop was to provide objective advice, based on current s...

  2. 40 CFR 355.12 - What quantities of extremely hazardous substances trigger emergency planning requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMERGENCY PLANNING AND NOTIFICATION Emergency Planning Who Must Comply § 355.12 What quantities of extremely... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What quantities of extremely hazardous substances trigger emergency planning requirements? 355.12 Section 355.12 Protection of Environment...

  3. 75 FR 55479 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Partial Deletion of the... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The portion of the site to be deleted from the NPL is the surface media (soil... further actions. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...

  4. 77 FR 31215 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Partial Deletion of the... the surface soil, unsaturated subsurface soil, surface water and sediments of Operable Unit (OU) 1...: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 announces the deletion of Operable Unit (OU) 1--the...

  5. 76 FR 45483 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Notice of Intent for... Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality... Notice of Deletion for SMPA Superfund Site without prior Notice of Intent for Deletion because EPA views...

  6. 77 FR 43567 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Deletion of the Fort... Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of New Jersey, through the NJ Department of Environmental... Intent to Delete because we view this as a noncontroversial revision and anticipate no adverse comment...

  7. 78 FR 47267 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Deletion of the... Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Oklahoma, through the Oklahoma Department of Environmental... without prior Notice of Intent to Delete because we view this as a noncontroversial revision and...

  8. 76 FR 51316 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Deletion of the... Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, through the Puerto Rico Environmental... Site without prior Notice of Intent to Delete because we view this as a noncontroversial revision and...

  9. 78 FR 44512 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Deletion of the Sola... Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of California, through the Regional Water Quality...., Inc. Superfund Site without prior Notice of Intent to Delete because we view this as a...

  10. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ecotoxicological hazards and risks of endocrine-active substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Peter; Ankley, Gerald T.; Biever, Ronald C

    2017-01-01

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop(®) "Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)" was held in February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary objective of the workshop was to provide advice, based on current scientific understanding, to regulators...... and policy makers; the aim being to make considered, informed decisions on whether to select an ecotoxicological hazard- or a risk-based approach for regulating a given endocrine-disrupting substance (EDS) under review. The workshop additionally considered recent developments in the identification of EDS...... at multiple biological levels of organization for 1 or more ecologically relevant taxa. The substances selected were 17α-ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, propiconazole, 17β-trenbolone, tributyltin, and vinclozolin. The 6 case studies were not comprehensive safety evaluations but provided foundations...

  11. Models for environmental impact assessments of releases of radioactive substances from CERN facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vojtyla, P

    2005-01-01

    The document describes generic models for environmental impact assessments of releases of radioactive substances from CERN facilities. Except for few models developed in the Safety Commission, the models are based on the 1997 Swiss directive HSK-R-41 and on the 2001 IAEA Safety Report No. 19. The writing style is descriptive, facilitating the practical implementation of the models at CERN. There are four scenarios assumed for airborne releases: (1) short-term releases for release limit calculations, (2) actual short-term releases, (3) short-term releases during incidents/accidents, and (4) chronic long-term releases during the normal operation of a facility. For water releases, two scenarios are considered: (1) a release into a river, and (2) a release into a water treatment plant. The document shall be understood as a reference for specific environmental studies involving radioactive releases and as a recommendation of the Safety Commission.

  12. Releases of radioactive substances from Swedish nuclear power plants (RAKU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, T.; Bergstroem, C. [ALARA Engineering AB, Skultuna (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    Releases of radioactivity to air and water from Swedish nuclear power plants have been studied and compared with those from foreign reactors. Averaged over the years from commissioning of the reactors to the last year data are available, the release of radioactive noble gas from the Swedish BWRs has been about the same as from comparable foreign reactors. The oldest Swedish BWRs, Oskarshamn 1 and 2 (O1 and O2) and Ringhals 1 (R1), have simple off-gas systems with only one delay volume. All BWRs in US, Germany, Japan and Switzerland are equipped with more sophisticated off-gas systems. It can be expected that O1, O2 and R1 therefore will have the highest release of noble gas activity at an international comparison if they do not modernize their off-gas system. BWRs in US, Germany and Japan are today equipped with recombiners and with one exception also charcoal columns. Japanese BWRs report zero releases to air. Releases of radioactivity to water after commissioning was about the same for most of the studied reactors. Some of the newest German plants have had low annual releases already at commissioning. Improvements of the treatment systems at old German, Swiss and US reactors have significantly lowered the releases. For most of the Swedish plants the annual releases to water have remained at the initial level. Forsmark 3 has succeeded in decreasing the release of radionuclides to water by a factor of almost one hundred compared to other Swedish reactors. Also O3 has managed to decrease the liquid effluents. Japanese plants have zero release of radioactivity excluding tritium to water. The release of tritium is about the same for all reactors of the same type in the world. 35 refs, 31 figs, 24 tabs.

  13. Modelling short term individual exposure from airborne hazardous releases in urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartzis, J.G.; Efthimiou, G.C.; Andronopoulos, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The statistical behavior of the variability of individual exposure is described with a beta function. • The extreme value in the beta function is properly addressed by [5] correlation. • Two different datasets gave clear support to the proposed novel theory and its hypotheses. - Abstract: A key issue, in order to be able to cope with deliberate or accidental atmospheric releases of hazardous substances, is the ability to reliably predict the individual exposure downstream the source. In many situations, the release time and/or the health relevant exposure time is short compared to mean concentration time scales. In such a case, a significant scatter of exposure levels is expected due to the stochastic nature of turbulence. The problem becomes even more complex when dispersion occurs over urban environments. The present work is the first attempt to approximate on generic terms, the statistical behavior of the abovementioned variability with a beta distribution probability density function (beta-pdf) which has proved to be quite successful. The important issue of the extreme concentration value in beta-pdf seems to be properly addressed by the [5] correlation in which global values of its associated constants are proposed. Two substantially different datasets, the wind tunnel Michelstadt experiment and the field Mock Urban Setting Trial (MUST) experiment gave clear support to the proposed novel theory and its hypotheses. In addition, the present work can be considered as basis for further investigation and model refinements.

  14. Modelling short term individual exposure from airborne hazardous releases in urban environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzis, J.G., E-mail: bartzis@uowm.gr [University of Western Macedonia, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sialvera & Bakola Str., 50100, Kozani (Greece); Efthimiou, G.C.; Andronopoulos, S. [Environmental Research Laboratory, INRASTES, NCSR Demokritos, Patriarchou Grigoriou & Neapoleos Str., 15310, Aghia Paraskevi (Greece)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • The statistical behavior of the variability of individual exposure is described with a beta function. • The extreme value in the beta function is properly addressed by [5] correlation. • Two different datasets gave clear support to the proposed novel theory and its hypotheses. - Abstract: A key issue, in order to be able to cope with deliberate or accidental atmospheric releases of hazardous substances, is the ability to reliably predict the individual exposure downstream the source. In many situations, the release time and/or the health relevant exposure time is short compared to mean concentration time scales. In such a case, a significant scatter of exposure levels is expected due to the stochastic nature of turbulence. The problem becomes even more complex when dispersion occurs over urban environments. The present work is the first attempt to approximate on generic terms, the statistical behavior of the abovementioned variability with a beta distribution probability density function (beta-pdf) which has proved to be quite successful. The important issue of the extreme concentration value in beta-pdf seems to be properly addressed by the [5] correlation in which global values of its associated constants are proposed. Two substantially different datasets, the wind tunnel Michelstadt experiment and the field Mock Urban Setting Trial (MUST) experiment gave clear support to the proposed novel theory and its hypotheses. In addition, the present work can be considered as basis for further investigation and model refinements.

  15. Petroleum and hazardous material releases from industrial facilities associated with Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Sengul, Hatice

    2010-04-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck an area dense with industry, causing numerous releases of petroleum and hazardous materials. This study integrates information from a number of sources to describe the frequency, causes, and effects of these releases in order to inform analysis of risk from future hurricanes. Over 200 onshore releases of hazardous chemicals, petroleum, or natural gas were reported. Storm surge was responsible for the majority of petroleum releases and failure of storage tanks was the most common mechanism of release. Of the smaller number of hazardous chemical releases reported, many were associated with flaring from plant startup, shutdown, or process upset. In areas impacted by storm surge, 10% of the facilities within the Risk Management Plan (RMP) and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) databases and 28% of SIC 1311 facilities experienced accidental releases. In areas subject only to hurricane strength winds, a lower fraction (1% of RMP and TRI and 10% of SIC 1311 facilities) experienced a release while 1% of all facility types reported a release in areas that experienced tropical storm strength winds. Of industrial facilities surveyed, more experienced indirect disruptions such as displacement of workers, loss of electricity and communication systems, and difficulty acquiring supplies and contractors for operations or reconstruction (55%), than experienced releases. To reduce the risk of hazardous material releases and speed the return to normal operations under these difficult conditions, greater attention should be devoted to risk-based facility design and improved prevention and response planning.

  16. The modulatory effect of substance P on rat pineal norepinephrine release and melatonin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukda, Sujira; Møller, Morten; Ebadi, Manuchair

    2009-01-01

    innervate the pineal gland. Some of these peptidergic nerve fibers contain substance P. Previously, we have characterized neurokinin 1 type substance P receptors in the pineal gland. However, the function of this receptor in the pineal gland remains unclear. Here, we examined the modulatory effect...... of substance P on rat pineal NE transmission. We show that at the presynaptic level, substance P stimulates the KCl-induced [(3)H]NE release from the pineal nerve ending. However, we found that substance P did not affect the basal levels of either arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity...... or melatonin secretion in rat pineal organ cultures. However, in the presence of NE, substance P inhibited the NE-induced increase in AANAT activity and melatonin secretion. This is the first time that a function for substance P in the mammalian pineal gland has been demonstrated....

  17. Hazard of radioactive releases resulted from coal burning; Opasnost` vysvobozhdeniya radioaktivnykh produktov pri szhiganii uglya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbard, V

    1995-09-01

    Consideration is given to the data, pointing to the fact, that coal-burning power plants release of radioactive substances, contained in gaseous wastes, is not less, than the same one of nuclear power plants. The necessity of regulating emission of these substance in atmosphere by analogy with nuclear power industry is shown. 1 fig.

  18. Overview of major hazards. Part 2: Source term; dispersion; combustion; blast, missiles, venting; fire; radiation; runaway reactions; toxic substances; dust explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, J.

    Approaches to major hazard assessment and prediction are reviewed. Source term: (phenomenology/modeling of release, influence on early stages of dispersion); dispersion (atmospheric advection, diffusion and deposition, emphasis on dense/cold gases); combustion (flammable clouds and mists covering flash fires, deflagration, transition to detonation; mostly unconfined/partly confined situations); blast formation, propagation, interaction with structures; catastrophic fires (pool fires, torches and fireballs; highly reactive substances) runaway reactions; features of more general interest; toxic substances, excluding toxicology; and dust explosions (phenomenology and protective measures) are discussed.

  19. Controlled release of biofunctional substances by radiation-induced polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1978-01-01

    The controlled release of potassium chloride from flat circular matrices made by radiation-induced polymerization of a glass-forming monomer at low temperatures has been studied. The water-particle phase content formed in a poly(diethylene glycol dimethacrylate) matrix was controlled by the addition of polyethylene glycol 600. The dispersed water-particle phase content in the matrix was estimated directly and by scanning electron microscopic observations. The release of potassium chloride from the matrix increased linearly with the square root of time. The water content of the matrix had an important effect on the release rate which increases roughly in proportion to water content. This effect can be attributed to the apparent increase of the rate of drug diffusion. (author)

  20. Probabilistic Approach to Conditional Probability of Release of Hazardous Materials from Railroad Tank Cars during Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-13

    This paper describes a probabilistic approach to estimate the conditional probability of release of hazardous materials from railroad tank cars during train accidents. Monte Carlo methods are used in developing a probabilistic model to simulate head ...

  1. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Quotient/Hazard Index (HQ/HI) formulation to determine the toxic concentration threshold for mixtures of... cloud center of mass altitude. (vi) Worst case initial source term assuming instantaneous release of...

  2. A COMPARISON: ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS VERSUS THE 1990 TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY AIR RELEASES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste, and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition `to hazardous waste' incineration HWI). One of the reasons cited for...

  3. Optimal routing of hazardous substances in time-varying, stochastic transportation networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, A.L.; Miller-Hooks, E.; Mahmassani, H.S.

    1998-07-01

    This report is concerned with the selection of routes in a network along which to transport hazardous substances, taking into consideration several key factors pertaining to the cost of transport and the risk of population exposure in the event of an accident. Furthermore, the fact that travel time and the risk measures are not constant over time is explicitly recognized in the routing decisions. Existing approaches typically assume static conditions, possibly resulting in inefficient route selection and unnecessary risk exposure. The report described the application of recent advances in network analysis methodologies to the problem of routing hazardous substances. Several specific problem formulations are presented, reflecting different degrees of risk aversion on the part of the decision-maker, as well as different possible operational scenarios. All procedures explicitly consider travel times and travel costs (including risk measures) to be stochastic time-varying quantities. The procedures include both exact algorithms, which may require extensive computational effort in some situations, as well as more efficient heuristics that may not guarantee a Pareto-optimal solution. All procedures are systematically illustrated for an example application using the Texas highway network, for both normal and incident condition scenarios. The application illustrates the trade-offs between the information obtained in the solution and computational efficiency, and highlights the benefits of incorporating these procedures in a decision-support system for hazardous substance shipment routing decisions

  4. HPLC analysis of potentially harmful substances released from dental filing aterials available on the EU market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Małkiewicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Incomplete cross-linking of composite dental materials leads to their susceptibility to degradation in the environment of non-organic and organic solvents, contributing to the release of chemical compounds which are potentially harmful to living organisms. Objective. The aim of the study was an evaluation in in vitro conditions of releasing of potentially toxic substances from six dental composite materials available in EU countries. Materials and methods. The following compounds released from the samples stored in water were analyzed: bisphenol A (BPA, triethylene glycol-dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDGMA. Analysis of the substances was performed with the use of high performance liquid chromatography, after the following incubation periods: 1 hour, 24 hours, 7 days and 30 days. Results. Among the analyzed substances, after 1 hour of incubation, the highest average concentration was found for TEGDMA – 2045 μg cm-3 (in Herculite XRV material, after 24 hours – for UDMA 4.402 μg cm-3 (in Gradia Direct Anterior material and after 7 and 30 days for TEGDMA: 8.112 and 6.458 μg•cm-3 respectively (in Charisma material. Conclusions. The examined composites used for reconstruction of hard tissues of teeth remain chemically unstable after polymerization, and release potentially harmful substances in conditions of the present study. The dynamics of the releasing of potentially harmful substances is correlated with the period of sample storage in water.

  5. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ecotoxicological hazards and risks of endocrine-active substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiessen, Peter; Ankley, Gerald T; Biever, Ronald C; Bjerregaard, Poul; Borgert, Christopher; Brugger, Kristin; Blankinship, Amy; Chambers, Janice; Coady, Katherine K; Constantine, Lisa; Dang, Zhichao; Denslow, Nancy D; Dreier, David A; Dungey, Steve; Gray, L Earl; Gross, Melanie; Guiney, Patrick D; Hecker, Markus; Holbech, Henrik; Iguchi, Taisen; Kadlec, Sarah; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Kawashima, Yukio; Kloas, Werner; Krueger, Henry; Kumar, Anu; Lagadic, Laurent; Leopold, Annegaaike; Levine, Steven L; Maack, Gerd; Marty, Sue; Meador, James; Mihaich, Ellen; Odum, Jenny; Ortego, Lisa; Parrott, Joanne; Pickford, Daniel; Roberts, Mike; Schaefers, Christoph; Schwarz, Tamar; Solomon, Keith; Verslycke, Tim; Weltje, Lennart; Wheeler, James R; Williams, Mike; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Yamazaki, Kunihiko

    2017-03-01

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop ® "Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)" was held in February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary objective of the workshop was to provide advice, based on current scientific understanding, to regulators and policy makers; the aim being to make considered, informed decisions on whether to select an ecotoxicological hazard- or a risk-based approach for regulating a given endocrine-disrupting substance (EDS) under review. The workshop additionally considered recent developments in the identification of EDS. Case studies were undertaken on 6 endocrine-active substances (EAS-not necessarily proven EDS, but substances known to interact directly with the endocrine system) that are representative of a range of perturbations of the endocrine system and considered to be data rich in relevant information at multiple biological levels of organization for 1 or more ecologically relevant taxa. The substances selected were 17α-ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, propiconazole, 17β-trenbolone, tributyltin, and vinclozolin. The 6 case studies were not comprehensive safety evaluations but provided foundations for clarifying key issues and procedures that should be considered when assessing the ecotoxicological hazards and risks of EAS and EDS. The workshop also highlighted areas of scientific uncertainty, and made specific recommendations for research and methods-development to resolve some of the identified issues. The present paper provides broad guidance for scientists in regulatory authorities, industry, and academia on issues likely to arise during the ecotoxicological hazard and risk assessment of EAS and EDS. The primary conclusion of this paper, and of the SETAC Pellston Workshop on which it is based, is that if data on environmental exposure, effects on sensitive species and life-stages, delayed effects, and effects at low concentrations are robust, initiating environmental risk

  6. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ecotoxicological hazards and risks of endocrine-active substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiessen, Peter; Ankley, Gerald T.; Biever, Ronald C.; Bjerregaard, Poul; Borgert, Christopher; Brugger, Kristin; Blankinship, Amy; Chambers, Janice; Coady, Katherine K.; Constantine, Lisa; Dang, Zhichao; Denslow, Nancy D.; Dreier, David; Dungey, Steve; Gray, L. Earl; Gross, Melanie; Guiney, Patrick D.; Hecker, Markus; Holbech, Henrik; Iguchi, Taisen; Kadlec, Sarah; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Kawashima, Yukio; Kloas, Werner; Krueger, Henry; Kumar, Anu; Lagadic, Laurent; Leopold, Annegaaike; Levine, Steven L.; Maack, Gerd; Marty, Sue; Meador, James P.; Mihaich, Ellen; Odum, Jenny; Ortego, Lisa; Parrott, Joanne L.; Pickford, Daniel; Roberts, Mike; Schaefers, Christoph; Schwarz, Tamar; Solomon, Keith; Verslycke, Tim; Weltje, Lennart; Wheeler, James R.; Williams, Mike; Wolf, Jeffery C.; Yamazaki, Kunihiko

    2017-01-01

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop® “Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)” was held in February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary objective of the workshop was to provide advice, based on current scientific understanding, to regulators and policy makers; the aim being to make considered, informed decisions on whether to select an ecotoxicological hazard- or a risk-based approach for regulating a given endocrine-disrupting substance (EDS) under review. The workshop additionally considered recent developments in the identification of EDS. Case studies were undertaken on 6 endocrine-active substances (EAS—not necessarily proven EDS, but substances known to interact directly with the endocrine system) that are representative of a range of perturbations of the endocrine system and considered to be data rich in relevant information at multiple biological levels of organization for 1 or more ecologically relevant taxa. The substances selected were 17α-ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, propiconazole, 17β-trenbolone, tributyltin, and vinclozolin. The 6 case studies were not comprehensive safety evaluations but provided foundations for clarifying key issues and procedures that should be considered when assessing the ecotoxicological hazards and risks of EAS and EDS. The workshop also highlighted areas of scientific uncertainty, and made specific recommendations for research and methods-development to resolve some of the identified issues. The present paper provides broad guidance for scientists in regulatory authorities, industry, and academia on issues likely to arise during the ecotoxicological hazard and risk assessment of EAS and EDS. The primary conclusion of this paper, and of the SETAC Pellston Workshop on which it is based, is that if data on environmental exposure, effects on sensitive species and life-stages, delayed effects, and effects at low concentrations are robust, initiating environmental risk

  7. HABIT, Toxic and Radioactive Release Hazards in Reactor Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stage, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. 2 - Methods: Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel

  8. Top five industries resulting in injuries from acute chemical incidents—Hazardous Substance Emergency Events Surveillance, nine states, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ayana R; Wu, Jennifer

    2015-04-10

    Because industries using and/or producing chemicals are located in close proximity to populated areas, U.S. residents are at risk for unintentional chemical exposures. 1999-2008. The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system was operated by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry during January 1991-September 2009 to collect data that would enable researchers to describe the public health consequences of chemical releases and to develop activities aimed at reducing the harm from such releases. This report summarizes data for the top five industries resulting in injuries from an acute chemical incident (lasting truck transportation, educational services, chemical manufacturing, utilities, and food manufacturing) accounted for approximately one third of all incidents in which persons were injured as a result of unintentional release of chemicals; the same five industries were responsible for approximately one third of all persons injured as a result of such releases. Acute chemical incidents in these five industries resulted in serious public health implications including the need for evacuations, morbidity, and mortality. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS: Targeting chemical incident prevention and preparedness activities towards these five industries provides an efficient use of resources for reducing chemical exposures. A variety of methods can be used to minimize chemical releases in industries. One example is the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's hierarchy of controls model, which focuses on controlling exposures to occupational hazards. The hierarchy includes elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment.

  9. Environmental hazard and risk characterisation of petroleum substances: a guided "walking tour" of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, Johan; Geerts, Lieve

    2014-05-01

    Petroleum substances are used in large quantities, primarily as fuels. They are complex mixtures whose major constituents are hydrocarbons derived from crude oil by distillation and fractionation. Determining the complete molecular composition of petroleum and its refined products is not feasible with current analytical techniques because of the huge number of molecular components. This complex nature of petroleum products, with their varied number of constituents, all of them exhibiting different fate and effect characteristics, merits a dedicated hazard and risk assessment approach. From a regulatory perspective they pose a great challenge in a number of REACH processes, in particular in the context of dossier and substance evaluation but also for priority setting activities. In order to facilitate the performance of hazard and risk assessment for petroleum substances the European oil company association, CONCAWE, has developed the PETROTOX and PETRORISK spreadsheet models. Since the exact composition of many petroleum products is not known, an underlying assumption of the PETROTOX and PETRORISK tools is that the behaviour and fate of a total petroleum substance can be simulated based on the physical-chemical properties of representative structures mapped to hydrocarbon blocks (HBs) and on the relative share of each HB in the total mass of the product. To assess how differing chemical compositions affect the simulated chemical fate and toxicity of hydrocarbon mixtures, a series of model simulations were run using an artificial petroleum substance, containing 386 (PETROTOX) or 160 (PETRORISK) HBs belonging to different chemical classes and molecular weight ranges, but with equal mass assigned to each of them. To this artificial petroleum substance a guided series of subsequent modifications in mass allocation to a delineated number of HBs belonging to different chemical classes and carbon ranges was performed, in what we perceived as a guided "walking tour

  10. An advanced model for spreading and evaporation of accidentally released hazardous liquids on land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijssenaar-Buhre, I.J.M.; Sterkenburg, R.P.; Wijnant-Timmerman, S.I.

    2009-01-01

    Pool evaporation modelling is an important element in consequence assessment of accidentally released hazardous liquids. The evaporation rate determines the amount of toxic or flammable gas released into the atmosphere and is an important factor for the size of a pool fire. In this paper a

  11. An advanced model for spreading and evaporation of accidentally released hazardous liquids on land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijssenaar-Buhre, I.J.M.; Wijnant-Timmerman, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    Pool evaporation modelling is an important element in consequence assessment of accidentally released hazardous liquids. The evaporation rate determines the amount of toxic or flammable gas released into the atmosphere and is an important factor for the size of a pool fire. In this paper a

  12. In vivo laser scanning microscopic investigation of the decontamination of hazardous substances from the human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lademann, J; Patzelt, A; Schanzer, S; Richter, H; Sterry, W; Gross, I; Menting, K H; Frazier, L; Antoniou, C

    2010-01-01

    The stimulation of the penetration of topically applied substances into the skin is a topic of intensive dermatological and pharmacological research. In this context, it was found that in addition to the intercellular penetration, the follicular penetration also represents an efficient penetration pathway. The hair follicles act as a long-term reservoir for topically applied substances. They are surrounded by all important target structures, such as blood capillaries, stem and dendritic cells. Therefore, the hair follicles, as well as the skin, need to be protected from hazardous substances. The traditional method of decontamination after respective accidental contacts consists of an intensive washing of the skin. However, during this mechanical procedure, the substances can be pushed even deeper into the hair follicles. In the present study, absorbent materials were applied to remove a fluorescent model substance from the skin without inducing mechanical stress. The results were compared to the decontamination effects obtained by intensive washing. Investigations were performed by means of in vivo laser scanning microscopy (LSM). The comparison revealed that decontamination with absorbent materials is more effective than decontamination with washing processes

  13. Differences in relationship conflict, attachment, and depression in treatment-seeking veterans with hazardous substance use, PTSD, or PTSD and hazardous substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Gina P; Held, Philip; Blackburn, Laura; Auerbach, John S; Clark, Allison A; Herrera, Catherine J; Cook, Jerome; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-05-01

    Veterans (N = 133) who were seeking treatment in either the Posttraumatic Stress Program or Substance Use Disorders Program at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) and, based on self-report of symptoms, met clinical norms for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or hazardous substance use (HSU) completed a survey related to relationship conflict behaviors, attachment styles, and depression severity. Participants were grouped into one of three categories on the basis of clinical norm criteria: PTSD only, HSU only, and PTSD + HSU. Participants completed the PTSD Checklist-Military, Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Short Form, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Drug Use Disorders Identification Test, and Psychological Aggression and Physical Violence subscales of the Conflict Tactics Scale. Most participants were male and Caucasian. Significant differences were found between groups on depression, avoidant attachment, psychological aggression perpetration and victimization, and physical violence perpetration and victimization. Post hoc analyses revealed that the PTSD + HSU group had significantly higher levels of depression, avoidant attachment, and psychological aggression than the HSU only group. The PTSD + HSU group had significantly higher levels of physical violence than did the PTSD only group, but both groups had similar mean scores on all other variables. Potential treatment implications are discussed.

  14. Exposure to hazardous substances in Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) recycling sites in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecler, Marie-Thérèse, E-mail: marie-therese.lecler@inrs.fr; Zimmermann, François; Silvente, Eric; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Grosjean, Jérôme

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the nine cathode ray tube screens recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are dust containing lead, cadmium, barium and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels are described for different operations and processes. • All the operations and processes are concerned by significant levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) or e-waste recycling sector has grown considerably in the last fifteen years due to the ever shorter life cycles of consumables and an increasingly restrictive policy context. Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) from used television and computer screens represent one of the main sources of e-waste. CRTs contain toxic materials such as lead, cadmium, barium, and fluorescent powders which can be released if recycling of CRTs is not appropriate. Exposure to these harmful substances was assessed in nine workshops where CRT screens are treated. Particulate exposure levels were measured using a gravimetric method and metals were analysed by plasma emission spectrometry. The maximum levels of worker exposure were 8.8 mg/m{sup 3}, 1504.3 μg/m{sup 3}, 434.9 μg/m{sup 3}, 576.3 μg/m{sup 3} and 2894.3 μg/m{sup 3} respectively for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The maximum levels of airborne pollutants in static samples were 39.0 mg/m{sup 3}, 848.2 μg/m{sup 3}, 698.4 μg/m{sup 3}, 549.3 μg/m{sup 3} and 3437.9 μg/m{sup 3} for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The most harmful operations were identified, and preventive measures for reducing the chemical risk associated with screen recycling were proposed. Workplace measurements were used to define recommendations for reducing the chemical risks in CRT screens recycling facilities and for promoting the design and development of “clean and safe” processes in emerging recycling channels.

  15. The hazardous priority substances in Italy: National rules and environmental quality standard in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggi, Chiara; Onorati, Fulvio; Lamberti, Claudia Virno; Cicero, Anna Maria

    2008-01-01

    Article number 16 of the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC) lays down the community strategy for establishment of harmonised quality standards for the priority substances and other substances posing a significant risk to the aquatic environment. In order to achieve the protection objectives of the Directive 2000/60/EC, the Italian Ministry of the Environment proposed the quality standards for surface water, sediments and biota related to the priority substances listed in the decision No. 2455/2001/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of November 20 (2001) [Decision N. 2455/2001/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 November 2001. The list of priority substances in the field of water policy and amending Directive 2000/60/EC. Official Journal of the European Communities, 15.12.2001, p. 5]. Particularly, for the protection of the marine environment, the proposed Italian rules state that, from 1 January 2021, the concentrations of the hazardous priority substances in Italian marine and lagoon waters must be near the natural background for natural substances, like metals, and near zero for the anthropogenic one. According to Directive 2000/60/EC, the Italian Ministry of Environment issued in 2003 Decree 367 in which has derived 160 Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water and 27 Environmental Quality Objective (EQO) for sediment of marine coastal area, lagoons and coastal ponds. Biota quality standards have still to be fixed. The paper illustrates the criteria applied for the definition of the quality standards and some comments are presented

  16. Storage and sustained release of volatile substances from a hollow silica matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jiexin [Key Lab for Nanomaterials, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100029 (China); Ding Haomin [Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Tao Xia [Key Lab for Nanomaterials, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen Jianfeng [Key Lab for Nanomaterials, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2007-06-20

    Porous hollow silica nanospheres (PHSNSs) prepared by adopting a nanosized CaCO{sub 3} template were utilized for the first time as a novel carrier for the storage and sustained release of volatile substances. Two types of volatile substances, Indian pipal from perfumes and peroxyacetic acid from disinfectants, were selected and then tested by one simple adsorption process with two separate comparative carriers, i.e. activated carbon and solid porous silica. It was demonstrated that a high storage capacity (9.6 ml{sub perfume}/mg{sub carrier}) of perfume could be achieved in a PHSNS matrix, which was almost 14 times as much as that of activated carbon. The perfume release profiles showed that PHSNSs exhibited sustained multi-stage release behaviour, while the constant release of activated carbon at a low level was discerned. Further, a Higuchi model study proved that the release process of perfume in both carriers followed a Fickian diffusion mechanism. For peroxyacetic acid as a disinfectant model, PHSNSs also displayed a much better delayed-delivery process than a solid porous silica system owing to the existence of unique hollow frameworks. Therefore, the aforementioned excellent sustained-release behaviours would make PHSNSs a promising carrier for storage and sustained delivery applications of volatile substances.

  17. Persistent toxic substances released from uncontrolled e-waste recycling and actions for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, Ming; Naidu, Ravi; Wong, Ming H.

    2013-01-01

    The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted on March 22, 1989 and enforced on May 5, 1992. Since then, the USA, one of the world's largest e-waste producers, has not ratified this Convention or the Basel Ban Amendment. Communities are still debating the legal loophole, which permits the export of whole products to other countries provided it is not for recycling. In January 2011, China's WEEE Directive was implemented, providing stricter control over e-waste imports to China, including Hong Kong, while emphasizing that e-waste recycling is the producers' responsibility. China is expected to supersede the USA as the principal e-waste producer, by 2020, according to the UNEP. Uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities generate and release heavy metals and POPs into the environment, which may be re-distributed, bioaccumulated and biomagnified, with potentially adverse human health effects. Greater efforts and scientific approaches are needed for future e-product designs of minimal toxic metal and compound use, reaping greater benefits than debating the definition and handling responsibilities of e-waste recycling. - Highlights: ► We recommended to ban uses of deca-BDE in addition to penta- and octa-BDEs. ► We suggested to replace PVC in electronic products with non-chlorinated polymers. ► Spend less time on debating responsibilities and definition of e-waste and recycling. ► Proposed to work more on eliminating sources and potentials of toxic substances

  18. Persistent toxic substances released from uncontrolled e-waste recycling and actions for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Ming [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong); Naidu, Ravi [Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environments (CRC CARE), University of South Australia (Australia); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong)

    2013-10-01

    The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted on March 22, 1989 and enforced on May 5, 1992. Since then, the USA, one of the world's largest e-waste producers, has not ratified this Convention or the Basel Ban Amendment. Communities are still debating the legal loophole, which permits the export of whole products to other countries provided it is not for recycling. In January 2011, China's WEEE Directive was implemented, providing stricter control over e-waste imports to China, including Hong Kong, while emphasizing that e-waste recycling is the producers' responsibility. China is expected to supersede the USA as the principal e-waste producer, by 2020, according to the UNEP. Uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities generate and release heavy metals and POPs into the environment, which may be re-distributed, bioaccumulated and biomagnified, with potentially adverse human health effects. Greater efforts and scientific approaches are needed for future e-product designs of minimal toxic metal and compound use, reaping greater benefits than debating the definition and handling responsibilities of e-waste recycling. - Highlights: ► We recommended to ban uses of deca-BDE in addition to penta- and octa-BDEs. ► We suggested to replace PVC in electronic products with non-chlorinated polymers. ► Spend less time on debating responsibilities and definition of e-waste and recycling. ► Proposed to work more on eliminating sources and potentials of toxic substances.

  19. APROBA-Plus: A probabilistic tool to evaluate and express uncertainty in hazard characterization and exposure assessment of substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokkers, Bas G H; Mengelers, Marcel J; Bakker, Martine I; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Slob, Wout

    2017-12-01

    To facilitate the application of probabilistic risk assessment, the WHO released the APROBA tool. This tool applies lognormal uncertainty distributions to the different aspects of the hazard characterization, resulting in a probabilistic health-based guidance value. The current paper describes an extension, APROBA-Plus, which combines the output from the probabilistic hazard characterization with the probabilistic exposure to rapidly characterize risk and its uncertainty. The uncertainty in exposure is graphically compared with the uncertainty in the target human dose, i.e. the dose that complies with the specified protection goals. APROBA-Plus is applied to several case studies, resulting in distinct outcomes and illustrating that APROBA-Plus could serve as a standard extension of routine risk assessments. By visualizing the uncertainties, APROBA-Plus provides a more transparent and informative outcome than the more usual deterministic approaches, so that risk managers can make better informed decisions. For example, APROBA-Plus can help in deciding whether risk-reducing measures are warranted or that a refined risk assessment would first be needed. If the latter, the tool can be used to prioritize possible refinements. APROBA-Plus may also be used to rank substances into different risk categories, based on potential health risks without being compromised by different levels of conservatism that may be associated with point estimates of risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detecting marine hazardous substances and organisms: sensors for pollutants, toxins, and pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zielinski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments are influenced by a wide diversity of anthropogenic and natural substances and organisms that may have adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. Real-time measurements of pollutants, toxins, and pathogens across a range of spatial scales are required to adequately monitor these hazards, manage the consequences, and to understand the processes governing their magnitude and distribution. Significant technological advancements have been made in recent years for the detection and analysis of such marine hazards. In particular, sensors deployed on a variety of mobile and fixed-point observing platforms provide a valuable means to assess hazards. In this review, we present state-of-the-art of sensor technology for the detection of harmful substances and organisms in the ocean. Sensors are classified by their adaptability to various platforms, addressing large, intermediate, or small areal scales. Current gaps and future demands are identified with an indication of the urgent need for new sensors to detect marine hazards at all scales in autonomous real-time mode. Progress in sensor technology is expected to depend on the development of small-scale sensor technologies with a high sensitivity and specificity towards target analytes or organisms. However, deployable systems must comply with platform requirements as these interconnect the three areal scales. Future developments will include the integration of existing methods into complex and operational sensing systems for a comprehensive strategy for long-term monitoring. The combination of sensor techniques on all scales will remain crucial for the demand of large spatial and temporal coverage.

  1. Development of a Hazard Classification Scheme for Substances Used in the Fraudulent Adulteration of Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everstine, Karen; Abt, Eileen; McColl, Diane; Popping, Bert; Morrison-Rowe, Sara; Lane, Richard W; Scimeca, Joseph; Winter, Carl; Ebert, Andrew; Moore, Jeffrey C; Chin, Henry B

    2018-01-01

    Food fraud, the intentional misrepresentation of the true identity of a food product or ingredient for economic gain, is a threat to consumer confidence and public health and has received increased attention from both regulators and the food industry. Following updates to food safety certification standards and publication of new U.S. regulatory requirements, we undertook a project to (i) develop a scheme to classify food fraud-related adulterants based on their potential health hazard and (ii) apply this scheme to the adulterants in a database of 2,970 food fraud records. The classification scheme was developed by a panel of experts in food safety and toxicology from the food industry, academia, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Categories and subcategories were created through an iterative process of proposal, review, and validation using a subset of substances known to be associated with the fraudulent adulteration of foods. Once developed, the scheme was applied to the adulterants in the database. The resulting scheme included three broad categories: 1, potentially hazardous adulterants; 2, adulterants that are unlikely to be hazardous; and 3, unclassifiable adulterants. Categories 1 and 2 consisted of seven subcategories intended to further define the range of hazard potential for adulterants. Application of the scheme to the 1,294 adulterants in the database resulted in 45% of adulterants classified in category 1 (potentially hazardous). Twenty-seven percent of the 1,294 adulterants had a history of causing consumer illness or death, were associated with safety-related regulatory action, or were classified as allergens. These results reinforce the importance of including a consideration of food fraud-related adulterants in food safety systems. This classification scheme supports food fraud mitigation efforts and hazard identification as required in the U.S. Food Safety Modernization Act Preventive Controls Rules.

  2. Hazards of Illicit Methamphetamine Production and Efforts at Reduction: Data from the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Natalia; Welles, Wanda Lizak; Wilburn, Rebecca E.; Rice, Nancy; Wu, Jennifer; Stanbury, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Methamphetamine (meth) is a highly addictive drug of abuse that can easily be made in small illegal laboratories from household chemicals that are highly toxic and dangerous. Meth labs have been found in locations such as homes, outbuildings, motels, and cars. Its production endangers the “cook,” neighbors, responders, and the environment. This article describes surveillance data used to examine the emergence and public health impacts of illicit clandestine meth labs, as well as two states' efforts to thwart lab operations and prevent responder injuries. Methods. We analyzed data collected from 2001 to 2008 by 18 states participating in the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) Program to examine the occurrence and public health impacts of clandestine meth production. Results. HSEES data indicate that the majority of clandestine meth lab events occurred in residential areas. About 15% of meth lab events required evacuation. Nearly one-fourth of these events resulted in injuries, with 902 reported victims. Most victims (61%) were official responders, and one-third were members of the general public. Since 2004, with the implementation of local and federal laws and prevention activities, the number of meth lab events has declined. Increased education and training of first responders has led to decreased injuries among police officers, firefighters, and emergency medical personnel. Conclusions. HSEES data provided a good data source for monitoring the emergence of domestic clandestine meth production, the associated public health effects, and the results of state and federal efforts to promote actions to address the problem. PMID:21563719

  3. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebert, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.hennebert@ineris.fr [INERIS – Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Domaine du Petit Arbois BP33, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Papin, Arnaud [INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, BP No. 2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Padox, Jean-Marie [INERIS – Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Domaine du Petit Arbois BP33, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Hasebrouck, Benoît [INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, BP No. 2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Knowledge of wastes in substances will be necessary to assess HP1–HP15 hazard properties. • A new analytical protocol is proposed for this and tested by two service laboratories on 32 samples. • Sixty-three percentage of the samples have a satisfactory analytical balance between 90% and 110%. • Eighty-four percentage of the samples were classified identically (Seveso Directive) for their hazardousness by the two laboratories. • The method, in progress, is being normalized in France and is be proposed to CEN. - Abstract: The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of ‘pools’ of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved ‘mass’ during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved ‘pools’) should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter

  4. utilization of adsorption and/or liquid membranes techniques in treatment of some hazardous substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussin, L.M.S.

    2011-01-01

    environmental pollution, as a consequence of the industrialization process, is one of the major problems that has to be solved and controlled. The most important treatment processes for metals and dyes contaminated waste streams include chemical precipitation, membrane, filtration, ion exchange, carbon adsorption and coprecipitation/adsorption. However, all these techniques have their inherent advantages and limitations in applications. These processes usually need expensive facility and high maintenance cost. Therefore, there is a need for more economical alternative technologies for the treatment of metals and dyes contaminated waste streams. The aim of present work is to study the treatment of some hazardous substances such as heavy metals e.g. ( lead, cobalt and strontium) and dyes e.g. ( acid red 73, and acid blue 74 ) using either adsorption or liquid emulsion membrane techniques. The experimental part deals with the application of adsorption and liquid emulsion membrane techniques for removal of some hazardous substances such as metal ions ( lead, cobalt and strontium) and dyes (acid red 73 and acid blue 74). All the apparatus and techniques employed were described.

  5. Strategy for the investigation of hazardous substances in industrial effluents: IDA (Industrial Discharge Assessment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reemtsma, T.; Klinkow, N.

    2001-08-01

    The assessment of amounts and effects of hazardous substances in industrial effluents necessitates a combination of chemical and biological investigations. Therefore in this study a strategy for the investigation of hazardous substances in wastewater discharges was developed which connects the parameters persistence, bioaccumulation, and aquatic toxicity. The strategy IDA (Industrial Discharge Assessment) was elaborated based on the evaluation of existing investigation strategies and the available test systems. The strategy has a modular structure to assure a flexible investigation with regard to the particularities of a given wastewater. After the determination of acute and chronic toxicity and genotoxicity a microbial degradation test is carried out to obtain the persistent wastewater fraction. The bioaccumulating substances are determined from this fraction by solid-phase extraction. Within the strategy differences between direct and indirect discharges are taken into account and particulate matter is considered as well. By the modular linking it can be determined if a wastewater contains toxic and persistent and bioaccumulating substances, which present an important potential of hazard for the aquatic environment. The first application of the strategy on three wastewater samples of the chemical and the metal processing industry showed that the strategy can be used as planned. (orig.) [German] Die Erfassung der Gehalte und Wirkungen gefaehrlicher Stoffe in Abwassereinleitungen der Industrie erfordert eine Kombination chemischer und biologischer Untersuchungen, die ueber das bisher in der AbwV festgelegte Mass hinausgeht. In dieser Studie wurde deshalb eine Untersuchungsstrategie fuer gefaehrliche Stoffe in Abwasserleitungen entwickelt, die die Parameter Persistenz, Bioakkumulierbarkeit und Toxizitaet auch experimentell verknuepft. Die Ausarbeitung erfolgte nach Auswertung der international bestehenden Untersuchungsstrategien sowie der zur Verfuegung stehenden

  6. 41 CFR 102-75.135 - If no hazardous substance activity took place on the property, what specific information must an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If no hazardous... DISPOSAL Utilization of Excess Real Property Title Report § 102-75.135 If no hazardous substance activity... hazardous substance activity took place, the reporting agency must include the following statement: The...

  7. Remediation of sites with mixed contamination of radioactive and other hazardous substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States with the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the management of the legacies of past practices and accidents. In response to this, the IAEA has initiated a comprehensive programme of work covering all aspects of environmental remediation. Mixed radioactive and hazardous substances contamination poses a particular challenge because of the combination of types of hazards and potential exposures. While radionuclides and toxic (heavy) metals pose similar and mostly compatible challenges, organic contaminants often require different approaches that may not be compatible with the former. Additional complexity is introduced into the problem by a different and sometimes conflicting regulatory framework for radiological and non-radiological contamination, including the prescribed waste management routes. In consideration of the added complexities of remediating (mixed) contamination, the IAEA has determined that this subject sufficiently warrants the development of a specialized report for assisting Member States. Topics discussed are types of sites, hazards and contaminant behaviour; regulatory implications; implications for worker health and safety; implications for sampling and analysis; elements of the remediation process; technology evaluation and selection; monitored non-intervention; blocking of pathways; removal of the source term; ex-situ treatment followed by case studies and a glossary

  8. Biological monitoring of organic substances in workers of a hazardous waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agramunt, C.; Domingo, J.L.; Bocio, A.; Nadal, M. [Lab. of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Reus (Spain); Muller, L. [SGS GmbH, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    In recent years, incineration has been one of the most frequently used technologies for hazardous waste treatment. However, health risks and the potential environmental impact of hazardous waste incinerators (HWI) are still issues of major concern. The reason is the association of stack emissions of semivolatile and volatile compounds from HWI with their potential adverse health effects. Some compounds of special interest are polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). In relation to this, HWI workers can be potentially exposed to PCDD/Fs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other pollutants with a well-known toxicity. Since 1999, the only HWI in Spain has been operating in Constanti (Tarragona, Catalonia). It has a burning furnace that operates at a temperature of 1100 C and can burn 30,000 tons of hazardous waste per year. The purpose of the present survey was to determine after four years of regular operations in the facility, the concentrations in blood and urine of the HWI workers of a number of organic substances directly related with HWI and to which workers could be exposed. Human biological monitoring evaluates the degree of internal exposure to a defined environmental or occupational pollutant of individuals or population groups. The results of the current study have been compared with the baseline levels.

  9. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiang; Saat, Mohd Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    2014-01-01

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail

  10. International conference and workshop on modeling and mitigating the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This conference was held September 26--29, 1995 in New Orleans, Louisiana. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous materials. Attention is focused on air dispersion of vapors. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  11. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang, E-mail: liu94@illinois.edu; Saat, Mohd Rapik, E-mail: mohdsaat@illinois.edu; Barkan, Christopher P.L., E-mail: cbarkan@illinois.edu

    2014-07-15

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail.

  12. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Pierre; Papin, Arnaud; Padox, Jean-Marie; Hasebrouck, Benoît

    2013-07-01

    The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of 'pools' of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved 'mass' during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved 'pools') should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter results. Despite discrepancies in some parameters, a satisfactory sum of estimated or measured concentrations (analytical balance) of 90% was reached for 20 samples (63% of the overall total) during this first test exercise, with identified reasons for most of the unsatisfactory results. Regular use of this protocol (which is now included in the French legislation) has enabled service laboratories to reach a 90% mass balance for nearly all the solid samples tested, and most of liquid samples (difficulties were caused in some samples from polymers in solution and

  13. Work environments and exposure to hazardous substances in korean tire manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Naroo; Lee, Byung-Kyu; Jeong, Sijeong; Yi, Gwang Yong; Shin, Jungah

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the tire manufacturing work environments extensively and to identify workers' exposure to hazardous substances in various work processes. Personal air sampling was conducted to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon disulfide, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, methyl isobutyl ketone, methylcyclohexane, formaldehyde, sulfur dioxide, and rubber fume in tire manufacturing plants using the National Institute for Occupational Safety Health Manual of Analytical Methods. Noise, carbon monoxide, and heat stress exposure were evaluated using direct reading instruments. Past concentrations of rubber fume were assessed using regression analysis of total particulate data from 2003 to 2007, after identifying the correlation between the concentration of total particulate and rubber fume. Workers were exposed to rubber fume that exceeded 0.6 mg/m(3), the maximum exposure limit of the UK, in curing and production management processes. Forty-seven percent of workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding 85 dBA. Workers in the production management process were exposed to 28.1℃ (wet bulb globe temperature value, WBGT value) even when the outdoor atmosphere was 2.7℃ (WBGT value). Exposures to other substances were below the limit of detection or under a tenth of the threshold limit values given by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. To better classify exposure groups and to improve work environments, examining closely at rubber fume components and temperature as risk indicators in tire manufacturing is recommended.

  14. REITP3-Hazard evaluation program for heat release based on thermochemical calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akutsu, Yoshiaki.; Tamura, Masamitsu. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). School of Engineering; Kawakatsu, Yuichi. [Oji Paper Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Wada, Yuji. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshida, Tadao. [Hosei University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Engineering

    1999-06-30

    REITP3-A hazard evaluation program for heat release besed on thermochemical calculation has been developed by modifying REITP2 (Revised Estimation of Incompatibility from Thermochemical Properties{sup 2)}. The main modifications are as follows. (1) Reactants are retrieved from the database by chemical formula. (2) As products are listed in an external file, the addition of products and change in order of production can be easily conducted. (3) Part of the program has been changed by considering its use on a personal computer or workstation. These modifications will promote the usefulness of the program for energy hazard evaluation. (author)

  15. Changes in Inmates’ Substance Use and Dependence From Pre-Incarceration to One Year Post-Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, June P.; Folk, Johanna B.; Graham, David M.; Stuewig, Jeffrey B.; Blalock, Daniel V.; Salatino, Andrew; Blasko, Brandy B.; Moore, Kelly E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess changes in inmates’ misuse of substances from pre- to post-incarceration. Methods In Study 1, professionals (n = 162) and laypersons (n = 50) predicted how jail inmates’ substance misuse would change from pre-incarceration to post-release. In Study 2, a longitudinal study of 305 jail inmates, we examined actual changes in substance use and dependence from pre-incarceration to the first year post-incarceration, as well as whether changes varied as a function of demographic, criminal justice, treatment, and personality factors. Results Professionals and laypersons predicted little change in substance misuse whereas, in fact, inmates’ frequency of substance use and dependence decreased substantially from pre-incarceration to post-release. Sharper decreases were observed for inmates who were female, younger, more educated, serving longer sentences, enrolled in substance abuse treatment, high in shame-proneness, and low in criminogenic thinking. Race, first time incarceration, transfer to other correctional facilities, mandated community supervision (probation), and guilt-proneness did not predict changes in substance use or dependence. Conclusions Although substance misuse decreased, this remains a population high in need of substance abuse treatment both upon arrest and at one year post-incarceration; 60% of former inmates met at least one DSM-IV criterion for substance dependence at one year post-release. PMID:27458324

  16. An ecodesign method for reducing the effects of hazardous substances in the product lifecycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanovska, J.; Valters, K.; Bažbauers, G.; Luttropp, C.

    2012-10-01

    Growing evidence on the indoor and outdoor pollution caused by the flow of man-made products urges that the content and leaching of hazardous substances from products be minimised. One of the ways to reduce the potential adverse impacts caused by these substances could be via ecodesign - i.e. through the consideration of lifecycle-related environmental aspects during the product development. The authors’ review of the existing ecodesign methods highlights the weakness of these methods in identifying and assessing the health-related and environmental impacts of hazardous substances contained in products, especially with regard to the exposure assessment. Therefore, a new, semi-quantitative screening ecodesign method applicable for different types of products has been developed. The method ranks the most severe hazards based on the classification according to the Globally Harmonised System together with the exposure evaluation as well as integrates the aspects of material efficiency. This method is suitable for use in the product development process, requiring decisions to be made based on limited information while integrating the main principles of a scientific risk assessment for chemicals. Application of the method is demonstrated with a case study on products made of plywood. The method makes it possible to identify the needs for and elaboration of ecodesign proposals, and fosters communication and information exchange throughout the supply chain. Augošs pierādījumu daudzums par produktu sastāvā esošo kaitīgo ķīmisko vielu nelabvēlīgo ietekmi uz vidi un cilvēku veselību liecina par nepieciešamību samazināt šādu vielu saturu produktos un izdalīšanos no tiem, ko varētu realizēt ar ekodizaina palīdzību. Pārskatot zinātniskās publikācijas ekodizaina jomā, konstatēts, ka pašreiz ekodizaina metodes nepilnīgi nodrošina materiālu sastāvā esošo vielu kaitīgās ietekmes uz cilvēku veselību un apkārtējo vidi novēršanu. T

  17. Bacterial inclusion bodies as potential synthetic devices for pathogen recognition and a therapeutic substance release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talafová, Klaudia; Hrabárová, Eva; Chorvát, Dušan; Nahálka, Jozef

    2013-02-07

    Adhesins of pathogens recognise the glycans on the host cell and mediate adherence. They are also crucial for determining the tissue preferences of pathogens. Currently, glyco-nanomaterials provide potential tool for antimicrobial therapy. We demonstrate that properly glyco-tailored inclusion bodies can specifically bind pathogen adhesins and release therapeutic substances. In this paper, we describe the preparation of tailored inclusion bodies via the conjugation of indicator protein aggregated to form inclusion bodies with soluble proteins. Whereas the indicator protein represents a remedy, the soluble proteins play a role in pathogen recognition. For conjugation, glutaraldehyde was used as linker. The treatment of conjugates with polar lysine, which was used to inactivate the residual glutaraldehyde, inhibited unwanted hydrophobic interactions between inclusion bodies. The tailored inclusion bodies specifically interacted with the SabA adhesin from Helicobacter pylori aggregated to form inclusion bodies that were bound to the sialic acids decorating the surface of human erythrocytes. We also tested the release of indicator proteins from the inclusion bodies using sortase A and Ssp DNAB intein self-cleaving modules, respectively. Sortase A released proteins in a relatively short period of time, whereas the intein cleavage took several weeks. The tailored inclusion bodies are promising "nanopills" for biomedical applications. They are able to specifically target the pathogen, while a self-cleaving module releases a soluble remedy. Various self-cleaving modules can be enabled to achieve the diverse pace of remedy release.

  18. Effect of Engineered Nanoparticles on Exopolymeric Substances Release from Marine Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Meng-Hsuen; Khan, Zafir A.; Garcia, Santiago G.; Le, Andre D.; Kagiri, Agnes; Ramos, Javier; Tsai, Shih-Ming; Drobenaire, Hunter W.; Santschi, Peter H.; Quigg, Antonietta; Chin, Wei-Chun

    2017-12-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), products from modern nanotechnologies, can potentially impact the marine environment to pose serious threats to marine ecosystems. However, the cellular responses of marine phytoplankton to ENPs are still not well established. Here, we investigate four different diatom species ( Odontella mobiliensis, Skeletonema grethae, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Thalassiosira pseudonana) and one green algae ( Dunaliella tertiolecta) for their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) release under model ENP treatments: 25 nm titanium dioxide (TiO2), 10-20 nm silicon dioxide (SiO2), and 15-30 nm cerium dioxide (CeO2). We found SiO2 ENPs can significantly stimulate EPS release from these algae (200-800%), while TiO2 ENP exposure induced the lowest release. Furthermore, the increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration can be triggered by ENPs, suggesting that the EPS release process is mediated through Ca2+ signal pathways. With better understanding of the cellular mechanism mediated ENP-induced EPS release, potential preventative and safety measures can be developed to mitigate negative impact on the marine ecosystem.

  19. Dog and Cat Exposures to Hazardous Substances Reported to the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory: 2009–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi, Ali; Van der Merwe, Deon

    2013-01-01

    Pet dogs and cats in the USA are commonly exposed to potentially hazardous substances found in domestic environments. Requests for assistance and advice received by the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory regarding exposures in dogs and cats to substances perceived by their caretakers to be potentially harmful included 1,616 phone calls, over a 3-year period covering 2009–2012. Enquiries occurred more often during summer. Dogs were involved in 84.7 % of calls and cats in 15.3 %. Ora...

  20. Results of development and field tests of a radar-tracer system providing meteorological support to modeling hazardous technological releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shershakov, V.M.; Zukov, G.P.; Kosykh, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Radar support to systems of automated radiation monitoring requires dealing with determination of geometric characteristics of air release of radionuclides. For doing this, an air release can be labeled by chaff propagating in the air similarly to particles of radioactive substance. Then, a chaff suspension can be treated as a spatially distributed radar target and thus be detected by a radar. For a number of years the Science and Production Association 'Typhoon' of Roshydromet, Obninsk has been developing a radar tracer system (RTS) for meteorological support of modeling hazardous technological releases. In September -December 2002 experiments were conducted to test the RTS in field. This presentation contains preliminary results of testing this system. A total of 9 experiments pursuing different goals were carried out. Of them 6 experiments were conducted approximately 6 km south-west of Obninsk in the vicinity of the village of Potresovo. The first three experiments were aimed at working out interaction between the MR and LDU and assessing the chaff cloud observation distance. In doing this, radar information was not transmitted from the MR to the CCS. In the last three experiments radar information was transmitted to the CCS by cell communication lines using telephones Siemens S35 with in-built modems. The CCS was deployed in building 4/25 of SPA 'Typhoon'. All information received in the CCS was put an a map. Three experiments were conducted in the area of the Kursk NPP as part of preparations for training exercises near the village of Makarovka about 7 km north-west of the city of Kurchatov. In the first two experiments radar information from the MR was passed by cell communication channels to the CCS deployed in the laboratory of external radiation monitoring of the Kursk nuclear power plant. Experiment 3 was a demonstration and arranged during the emergency response exercises at the Kursk NPP. The MR was based on the site of the external

  1. Federal regulation on the handling of substances constituting a hazard to water; Bundeseinheitliche Regelung des Umgangs mit wassergefaehrdenden Stoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollaender, Robert; Unnerstall, Herwig; Skiba, Katja; Katscher, Henriette; Kochmann, Linda; Enderlein, Frank [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Professur fuer Umwelttechnik und -management; Helmholtzzentrum fuer Umweltforschung - ufz, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. Umwelt- und Planungsrecht; Sachverstaendigenorganisation AGU-TSO e.V., Bergen b. Auerbach (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Subject of the research project was preliminary work for a draft of the federal ordinance on the handling of substances constituting a hazard to water. Basis was the draft for an Environmental Code by the Federal Ministry for the Environment from 25. June 2007 and 03. July 2008, Part II on water management. This report includes an analysis of the existing ordinances of the Laender (to be replaced by the new federal ordinance), a survey on problems with their enforcement, an analysis of European Directives on relevant implementation requirements, an analysis of the relation to the legislation on construction products, a comparison to regulations of other European Countries for the protection of water against hazardous substances, an approach for obligations of an ordinance, a preliminary draft of an ordinance, a concept for a system of related Technical Rules and finally an evaluation of possible costs of operators and of additional tasks of authorities due to obligations in the preliminary draft. (orig.)

  2. Natural hazards that may trigger a radiological release from a plutonium processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvidge, J. E.

    1977-04-28

    Calculations show the probability of a tornado striking a plutonium area at Rocky Flats is 2.2 x 10/sup -4/ per year. The source term (expected value of plutonium release) should such an event occur is calculated at 3.3 x 10/sup -7/ grams. The source term for high-velocity, downslope winds is higher--2.2 x 10/sup -3/ grams. The probability of a meteorite that weighs one or more pounds (453 grams) striking a plutonium area is estimated at 8.88 x 10/sup -7/ per year. Because of this small probability and the remote chance that a plutonium release would occur even if a meteorite hit occurred, the hazard from meteorite impact is considered negligible. Conservative assumptions result in all calculated frequencies being almost certainly too high. Empirical observations have indicated lower frequencies than those calculated.

  3. A set of integrated environmental transport and diffusion models for calculating hazardous releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    A set of numerical transport and dispersion models is incorporated within a graphical interface shell to predict hazardous material released into the environment. The visual shell (EnviroView) consists of an object-oriented knowledge base, which is used for inventory control, site mapping and orientation, and monitoring of materials. Graphical displays of detailed sites, building locations, floor plans, and three-dimensional views within a room are available to the user using a point and click interface. In the event of a release to the environment, the user can choose from a selection of analytical, finite element, finite volume, and boundary element methods, which calculate atmospheric transport, groundwater transport, and dispersion within a building interior. The program runs on 486 personal computers under WINDOWS

  4. Natural hazards that may trigger a radiological release from a plutonium processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvidge, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Calculations show the probability of a tornado striking a plutonium area at Rocky Flats is 2.2 x 10 -4 per year. The source term (expected value of plutonium release) should such an event occur is calculated at 3.3 x 10 -7 grams. The source term for high-velocity, downslope winds is higher--2.2 x 10 -3 grams. The probability of a meteorite that weighs one or more pounds (453 grams) striking a plutonium area is estimated at 8.88 x 10 -7 per year. Because of this small probability and the remote chance that a plutonium release would occur even if a meteorite hit occurred, the hazard from meteorite impact is considered negligible. Conservative assumptions result in all calculated frequencies being almost certainly too high. Empirical observations have indicated lower frequencies than those calculated

  5. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: challenges for hazardous substance control and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazono, Atsushi; Oguchi, Masahiro; Iino, Shigenori; Mogi, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6-10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using insulation (tape) on waste batteries to prevent fires, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. Our field study of small WEEE showed that batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE on a weight basis. Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, digital cameras, radios, and remote controls, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. Given the safety issues and the rapid changes occurring with mobile phones or other types of small WEEE, discussion is needed among stakeholders to determine how to safely collect and recycle WEEE and waste batteries. Copyright

  6. Evaluating the toxic effects of three priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) to rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Pan, Luqing; Lin, Pengfei; Miao, Jingjing; Wang, Xiufen; Lin, Yufei; Wu, Jiangyue

    2017-12-01

    Hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) spill in the marine environment is an issue of growing concern, and it will mostly continue to do so in the future owing to the increase of high chemical traffic. Nevertheless, the effects of HNS spill on marine environment, especially on aquatic organisms are unclear. Consequently, it is emergent to provide valuable information for the toxicities to marine biota caused by HNS spill. Accordingly, the acute toxicity of three preferential HNS and sub-lethal effects of acrylonitrile on Brachionus plicatilis were evaluated. The median lethal concentration (LC 50 ) at 24 h were 47.2 mg acrylonitrile L -1 , 276.9 mg styrene L -1 , and 488.3 mg p-xylene L -1 , respectively. Sub-lethal toxicity effects of acrylonitrile on feeding behavior, development, and reproduction parameters of B. plicatilis were also evaluated. Results demonstrated that rates of filtration and ingestion were significantly reduced at 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mg L -1 of acrylonitrile. Additionally, reproductive period, fecundity, and life span were significantly decreased at high acrylonitrile concentrations. Conversely, juvenile period was significantly increased at the highest two doses and no effects were observed on embryonic development and post-reproductive period. Meanwhile, we found that ingestion rate decline could be a good predictor of reproduction toxicity in B. plicatilis and ecologically relevant endpoint for toxicity assessment. These data will be useful to assess and deal with marine HNS spillages.

  7. Korean research project on the integrated exposure assessment of hazardous substances for food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ae Lim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This survey was designed to conduct the first nationwide dietary exposure assessment on hazardous substances including the intakes of functional food and herbal medicine. In this paper, we introduced the survey design and the results of the dietary exposure status and internal exposure levels of lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, and mercury (Hg. Methods: We selected 4867 subjects of all ages throughout Korea. We conducted a food survey, dietary survey, biomonitoring, and health survey. Results: Pb and Cd were the highest (median value in the seaweed (94.2 μg/kg for Pb; 594 μg/kg for Cd, and Hg was the highest in the fish (46.4 μg/kg. The dietary exposure level (median value of Pb was 0.14 μg/kg body weight (bw/d, 0.18 μg/kg bw/d for Cd, and 0.07 μg/kg bw/d for Hg. Those with a blood Pb level of less than 5.00 μg/dL (US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, reference value for those 1 to 5 years of age were 99.0% of all the subjects. Those with a blood Cd level with less than 0.30 μg/L (German Federal Environmental Agency, reference value for non-smoking children were 24.5%. For those with a blood Hg level with less than 5.00 μg/L (human biomonitoring I, references value for children and adults, German Federal Environmental Agency was 81.0 % of all the subjects. Conclusions: The main dietary exposure of heavy metals occurs through food consumed in a large quantity and high frequency. The blood Hg level and dietary exposure level of Hg were both higher than those in the European Union.

  8. The National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB): background, recent enhancements and future plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonger, George Charles; Hakkinen, Pertti; Jordan, Shannon; Publicker, Stephanie

    2014-11-05

    The National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Division of Specialized Information Services (SIS) Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program is responsible for the management of the online Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). HSDB, a part of NLM's Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET(®)), is a file of chemical/substance information with one record for each specific chemical or substance, or for a category of chemicals or substances. Like the rest of TOXNET's databases and other resources, HSDB is available online at no cost to global users. HSDB has approximately 5600 chemicals and substances, with a focus on toxicology information and also on human exposure, industrial hygiene, emergency handling procedures, environmental fate, regulatory requirements, and related areas of likely interest to HSDB users. All data are from a core set of books, government documents, technical reports, selected primary journal literature, and other online sources of information, with a goal of linking the HSDB content to as much publicly available information as possible. HSDB's content is peer-reviewed by the Scientific Review Panel, a group of experts in the areas covering the scope of HSDB content. Recent enhancements include the addition of chemical structures to HSDB records, the addition of new subfields such as age groups for human data, more occupational exposure standards, and the addition of information on numerous nanomaterials. Examples of future plans include providing more exposure-related information, e.g., uses of a chemical or substance in consumer products; the addition of information summaries aimed towards consumers and other members of the public wanting to learn about a chemical or substance; more visual content such as diagrams (images) of the pathways of metabolism of a substance; and enhanced search features and navigation. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Decontamination and management of human remains following incidents of hazardous chemical release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Veronique D; Watson, Annetta; Bock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To provide specific guidance and resources for systematic and orderly decontamination of human remains resulting from a chemical terrorist attack or accidental chemical release. A detailed review and health-based decision criteria protocol is summarized. Protocol basis and logic are derived from analyses of compound-specific toxicological data and chemical/physical characteristics. Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present, such as sites of transportation accidents, terrorist operations, or medical examiner processing points. Guidance is developed from data-characterizing controlled experiments with laboratory animals, fabrics, and materiel. Logic and specific procedures for decontamination and management of remains, protection of mortuary affairs personnel, and decision criteria to determine when remains are sufficiently decontaminated are presented. Established procedures as well as existing materiel and available equipment for decontamination and verification provide reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from chemically exposed remains. Unique scenarios such as those involving supralethal concentrations of certain liquid chemical warfare agents may prove difficult to decontaminate but can be resolved in a timely manner by application of the characterized systematic approaches. Decision criteria and protocols to "clear" decontaminated remains for transport and processing are also provided. Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for management of remains and release can be followed.

  10. A Comparison of Organic Emissions from Hazardous Waste Incinerators Versus the 1990 Toxics Release Inventory Air Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition to hazardous waste incineration (HWI). One of the reasons cited for t...

  11. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: Challenges for hazardous substance control and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terazono, Atsushi, E-mail: terazono@nies.go.jp [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiro [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Iino, Shigenori [Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection, 1-7-5 Shinsuna, Koto-ku, Tokyo 136-0075 (Japan); Mogi, Satoshi [Bureau of Environment, Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 2-8-1 Nishi-shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8001 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality in Japan. • 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. • Despite announcements by producers and municipalities, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. • Batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE under the small WEEE recycling scheme in Japan. • Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. - Abstract: To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using

  12. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: Challenges for hazardous substance control and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazono, Atsushi; Oguchi, Masahiro; Iino, Shigenori; Mogi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality in Japan. • 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. • Despite announcements by producers and municipalities, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. • Batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE under the small WEEE recycling scheme in Japan. • Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. - Abstract: To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using

  13. Aqueous media treatment and decontamination of hazardous chemical and biological substances by contact plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivovarov, A.; Kravchenko, A.; Kublanovsky, V.

    2009-01-01

    Usage of non-equilibrium contact plasma for processes of decontamination and neutralization in conditions of manifestation of chemical, biological and radiation terrorism takes on special significance due to portability of equipment and its mobility in places where toxic liquid media hazardous for people's health are located. Processes of decontamination of aqueous media, seminated with pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, treatment of water containing toxic heavy metals, cyanides, surface-active substances, and heavy radioactive elements, are investigated. Examples of activation processes in infected water and toxic aqueous solutions present convincing evidence of the way, how new quality technological approach for achievement of high enough degree of the said media treatment is used in each specific case. Among new properties of water activated as a result of action of non-equilibrium contact plasma, it is necessary to mention presence of cluster structure, confirmed by well-known spectral and physical-chemical methods, presence of peroxide compounds, active particles and radicals. Anti-microbial activity which is displayed under action of plasma in aqueous media (chemically pure water, drinking water, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, potassium iodide, as well as other inorganic compounds) towards wide range of pathogenic and conventionally pathogenic microorganisms allows use them as reliable, accessible and low-cost preparations for increasing the degree of safety of food products. Combination of such processes with known methods of filtration and ultra-filtration gives an efficient and available complex capable of withstanding any threats, which may arise for population and living organisms. Present-day level of machine-building, electrical engineering, and electronics allows predict creation of industrial plasma installations, adapted to conditions of various terrorist threats, with minimized power consumption and optimized technological parameters

  14. Aqueous media treatment and decontamination of hazardous chemical and biological substances by contact plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivovarov, A; Kravchenko, A [Ukrainian State University of Chemical Engineering, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine); Kublanovsky, V [V. I. Vernadsky Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of National Academy of Science, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2009-07-01

    Usage of non-equilibrium contact plasma for processes of decontamination and neutralization in conditions of manifestation of chemical, biological and radiation terrorism takes on special significance due to portability of equipment and its mobility in places where toxic liquid media hazardous for people's health are located. Processes of decontamination of aqueous media, seminated with pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, treatment of water containing toxic heavy metals, cyanides, surface-active substances, and heavy radioactive elements, are investigated. Examples of activation processes in infected water and toxic aqueous solutions present convincing evidence of the way, how new quality technological approach for achievement of high enough degree of the said media treatment is used in each specific case. Among new properties of water activated as a result of action of non-equilibrium contact plasma, it is necessary to mention presence of cluster structure, confirmed by well-known spectral and physical-chemical methods, presence of peroxide compounds, active particles and radicals. Anti-microbial activity which is displayed under action of plasma in aqueous media (chemically pure water, drinking water, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, potassium iodide, as well as other inorganic compounds) towards wide range of pathogenic and conventionally pathogenic microorganisms allows use them as reliable, accessible and low-cost preparations for increasing the degree of safety of food products. Combination of such processes with known methods of filtration and ultra-filtration gives an efficient and available complex capable of withstanding any threats, which may arise for population and living organisms. Present-day level of machine-building, electrical engineering, and electronics allows predict creation of industrial plasma installations, adapted to conditions of various terrorist threats, with minimized power consumption and optimized technological parameters

  15. Comparison of the rationale used in setting occupational exposure standards for ionizing radiation and hazardous chemical substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halton, D.M.

    1986-12-01

    Ten chemicals which create significant occupational hazard are reviewed. They are toluene diisocyanate, hydrogen fluoride, n-hexane, carbon disulphide, cadmium, inorganic mercury, cobalt, nitroglycerol, silica and vinyl chloride. Each is discussed under the headings of physiological intake and elimination in humans, characteristics of acute and chronic toxicity, sites of occupational exposure and rationale for limits of such exposure. Since radioactive substances yield ionizing radiation as the common hazard the treatment of the current permissible levels of exposure is somewhat simpler. Having set out industrial standards for exposure to hazardous substances and radionuclides, a detailed comparison is made. Exposure limits to ioninzing radiation are sufficiently low to remove the appearance of directly related injury. It is expected however that low level exposure may have a stochastic effect, that is, there is the possibility of a slightly increased incidence of neoplasms in a large exposed population, but numbers will be too small to be able to attribute any particular case to the exposure. TLVs on the other hand, depending on the particular chemical, may be high enough in the workplace to permit some directly related signs or symptoms in the exposed individual. 244 refs

  16. Proposed new regulations for the limitation of releases of radioactive substances from nuclear power stations with light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    In this publication the Swedish National Institute of Radiation Protection presents a proposed version of new regulations concerning the way in which the release of radioactive substances from nuclear power stations is to be limited. The regulations come into force on 1st January 1976. (Auth.)

  17. 75 FR 33724 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... at the site or the customer's shop, if needed. During the mid-1980s, the southern portion of the Site... substances identified in the Selected Remedy for Operable Unit 1 of the Site. The ground water flows to the...

  18. The relevance of national and international initiatives on toxic substances to the management of hazardous air pollutants in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buccini, J.

    2001-03-30

    The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), seeking guidance on current and emerging national and international initiatives, activities, and programs that could impact on the management of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in Canada, commissioned the author to prepare this document. In this report, HAPs are defined as toxic substances subject to airborne transport as a significant route of environmental distribution and/or exposure. Heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were included in this definition. A model, known as toxics cycle, represented the four distinct stages of the process of selecting substances for risk assessment and management: problem identification and priority setting, risk assessment, risk management, and monitoring and evaluation. A large number of international activities were reviewed, such as research, hazard and risk assessment, risk management, and monitoring and surveillance programs. The present report only deals with the programs that had been identified in the National Air Issues Coordinating Committee-Other Air Issues (NAICC-A) of the CCME report published in 1999 and which had recent or foreseen impacts. Five bi-lateral and multi-lateral agreements on persistent toxic substances, as well as national, regional and global programs, activities, and initiatives concerning the assessment of the hazards and risks of chemicals and actions were reviewed. It was recommended that initiatives at all levels continue to be monitored and that Environment Canada continue to be the conduit of information at the international level. Issues and opportunities must be identified by all jurisdictions with regard to risk management. It was suggested by the author that risk assessment be conducted by Environment Canada and the attention of the HAP group be drawn on specific topics as required. 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  19. Estimate of airborne release of plutonium from Babcock and Wilcox plant as a result of severe wind hazard and earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, J.; Schwendiman, L.C.; Ayer, J.E.

    1978-10-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary study to evaluate the potential radiological consequences of wind hazard and earthquake upon existing commercial mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants, the potential mass airborne releases of plutonium (source terms) from such events are estimated. The estimated souce terms are based upon the fraction of enclosures damaged to three levels of severity (crush, puncture penetrate, and loss of external filter, in order of decreasing severity), called damage ratio, and the airborne release if all enclosures suffered that level of damage. The discussion of damage scenarios and source terms is divided into wind hazard and earthquake scenarios in order of increasing severity. The largest airborne releases from the building were for cases involving the catastrophic collapse of the roof over the major production areas--wind hazard at 110 mph and earthquakes with peak ground accelerations of 0.20 to 0.29 g. Wind hazards at higher air velocities and earthquakes with higher ground acceleration do not result in significantly greater source terms. The source terms were calculated as additional mass of respirable particles released with time up to 4 days; and, under these assumptions, approximately 98% of the mass of material of concern is made airborne from 2 h to 4 days after the event. The overall building source terms from the damage scenarios evaluated are shown in a table. The contribution of individual areas to the overall building source term is presented in order of increasing severity for wind hazard and earthquake

  20. 29 CFR 1918.93 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; § 1918.94(e), Catch of menhaden and similar species of fish. (b) Determination of the hazard. When the...-contained breathing apparatus which shall be used for entry. (4) To prevent inadvertent employee entry into...

  1. 78 FR 33276 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ..., including learning deficits, lowered intelligence, and adverse effects on behavior. The Integrated Exposure... hazards in the community. Use of mass media (television, radio, internet, print media, etc.) to distribute...

  2. National Estimate of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substance (PFAS) Release to U.S. Municipal Landfill Leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Johnsie R; Allred, B McKay; Field, Jennifer A; Levis, James W; Barlaz, Morton A

    2017-02-21

    Landfills are the final stage in the life cycle of many products containing per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and their presence has been reported in landfill leachate. The concentrations of 70 PFASs in 95 samples of leachate were measured in a survey of U.S. landfills of varying climates and waste ages. National release of PFASs was estimated by coupling measured concentrations for the 19 PFASs where more than 50% of samples had quantifiable concentrations, with climate-specific estimates of annual leachate volumes. For 2013, the total volume of leachate generated in the U.S. was estimated to be 61.1 million m 3 , with 79% of this volume coming from landfills in wet climates (>75 cm/yr precipitation) that contain 47% of U.S. solid waste. The mass of measured PFASs from U.S. landfill leachate to wastewater treatment plants was estimated to be between 563 and 638 kg for 2013. In the majority of landfill leachate samples, 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (FTCA) was dominant and variations in concentrations with waste age affected total estimated mass. There were six PFASs that demonstrated significantly higher concentrations in leachate from younger waste compared to older waste and six PFAS demonstrated significant variation with climate.

  3. Dual diagnosis of mental illness and substance use disorder and injury in adults recently released from prison: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jesse T; Heffernan, Ed; Borschmann, Rohan; Ogloff, James R P; Spittal, Matthew J; Kouyoumdjian, Fiona G; Preen, David B; Butler, Amanda; Brophy, Lisa; Crilly, Julia; Kinner, Stuart A

    2018-05-01

    People with mental illness and substance use disorder are over-represented in prisons. Injury-related mortality is elevated in people released from prison, and both mental illness and substance use disorder are risk factors for injury. Effective care coordination during the transition between criminal justice and community service providers improves health outcomes for people released from prison. However, the health outcomes and support needs of people with dual diagnosis (co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorder) released from prison are poorly understood. Here we aim to examine the association between dual diagnosis and non-fatal injury in adults released from prison. Pre-release interview data collected between Aug 1, 2008, and July 31, 2010, from a representative sample of sentenced adults (≥18 years) in Queensland, Australia, were linked, retrospectively and prospectively, to person-level, state-wide emergency department and hospital records. We identified dual diagnoses from inpatient, emergency department, and prison medical records. We modelled the association between mental health status and all injury resulting in hospital contact by fitting a multivariate Cox regression, adjusting for sociodemographic, health, and criminogenic covariates, and replacing missing covariate data by multiple imputation. In 1307 adults released from prison, there were 2056 person-years of follow-up (median 495 days, IQR 163-958). The crude injury rates were 996 (95% CI 893-1112) per 1000 person-years for the dual diagnosis group, 538 (441-657) per 1000 person-years for the mental illness only group, 413 (354-482) per 1000 person-years for the substance use disorder only group, and 275 (247-307) per 1000 person-years for the no mental disorder group. After adjusting for model covariates, the dual diagnosis (adjusted hazard rate ratio 3·27, 95% CI 2·30-4·64; pmental illness only (1·87, 1·19-2·95; p=0·0071) groups were at increased risk of injury after

  4. Dual diagnosis of mental illness and substance use disorder and injury in adults recently released from prison: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse T Young, MPH

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: People with mental illness and substance use disorder are over-represented in prisons. Injury-related mortality is elevated in people released from prison, and both mental illness and substance use disorder are risk factors for injury. Effective care coordination during the transition between criminal justice and community service providers improves health outcomes for people released from prison. However, the health outcomes and support needs of people with dual diagnosis (co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorder released from prison are poorly understood. Here we aim to examine the association between dual diagnosis and non-fatal injury in adults released from prison. Methods: Pre-release interview data collected between Aug 1, 2008, and July 31, 2010, from a representative sample of sentenced adults (≥18 years in Queensland, Australia, were linked, retrospectively and prospectively, to person-level, state-wide emergency department and hospital records. We identified dual diagnoses from inpatient, emergency department, and prison medical records. We modelled the association between mental health status and all injury resulting in hospital contact by fitting a multivariate Cox regression, adjusting for sociodemographic, health, and criminogenic covariates, and replacing missing covariate data by multiple imputation. Findings: In 1307 adults released from prison, there were 2056 person-years of follow-up (median 495 days, IQR 163–958. The crude injury rates were 996 (95% CI 893–1112 per 1000 person-years for the dual diagnosis group, 538 (441–657 per 1000 person-years for the mental illness only group, 413 (354–482 per 1000 person-years for the substance use disorder only group, and 275 (247–307 per 1000 person-years for the no mental disorder group. After adjusting for model covariates, the dual diagnosis (adjusted hazard rate ratio 3·27, 95% CI 2·30–4·64; p<0·0001 and mental illness only (1

  5. PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells release signal substances that influence the migratory activity of cells in the tumor's microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zänker Kurt S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor cells interact with the cells of the microenvironment not only by cell-cell-contacts but also by the release of signal substances. These substances are known to induce tumor vascularization, especially under hypoxic conditions, but are also supposed to provoke other processes such as tumor innervation and inflammatory conditions. Inflammation is mediated by two organ systems, the neuroendocrine system and the immune system. Therefore, we investigated the influence of substances released by PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells as well as neutrophil granulocytes and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, especially with regard to their migratory activity. Results PC-3 cells express several cytokines and growth factors including vascular endothelial growth factors, fibroblast growth factors, interleukins and neurotrophic factors. SH-SY5Y cells are impaired in their migratory activity by PC-3 cell culture supernatant, but orientate chemotactically towards the source. Neutrophil granulocytes increase their locomotory activity only in response to cell culture supernantant of hypoxic but not of normoxic PC-3 cells. In contrast, cytotoxic T lymphocytes do not change their migratory activity in response to either culture supernatant, but increase their cytotoxicity, whereas supernatant of normoxic PC-3 cells leads to a stronger increase than that of hypoxic PC-3 cells. Conclusions PC-3 cells release several signal substances that influence the behavior of the cells in the tumor's microenvironment, whereas no clear pattern towards proinflammatory or immunosuppressive conditions can be seen.

  6. Persistent toxic substances released from uncontrolled e-waste recycling and actions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Ming; Naidu, Ravi; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted on March 22, 1989 and enforced on May 5, 1992. Since then, the USA, one of the world's largest e-waste producers, has not ratified this Convention or the Basel Ban Amendment. Communities are still debating the legal loophole, which permits the export of whole products to other countries provided it is not for recycling. In January 2011, China's WEEE Directive was implemented, providing stricter control over e-waste imports to China, including Hong Kong, while emphasizing that e-waste recycling is the producers' responsibility. China is expected to supersede the USA as the principal e-waste producer, by 2020, according to the UNEP. Uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities generate and release heavy metals and POPs into the environment, which may be re-distributed, bioaccumulated and biomagnified, with potentially adverse human health effects. Greater efforts and scientific approaches are needed for future e-product designs of minimal toxic metal and compound use, reaping greater benefits than debating the definition and handling responsibilities of e-waste recycling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparative survey of chemistry-driven in silico methods to identify hazardous substances under REACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nendza, M.; Gabbert, S.G.M.; Kühne, R.; Lombardo, A.; Roncaglioni, A.; Benfenati, E.; Benigi, R.; Bossa, C.; Strempel, S.; Scheringer, M.; Fernandez, A.; Rallo, R.; Giralt, F.; Dimitrov, S.; Mekenyan, O.; Bringezu, F.; Schüürmann, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an inventory of in silico screening tools to identify substance properties of concern under the European chemicals’ legislation REACH. The objective is to support the selection and implementation of appropriate tools as building blocks within integrated testing strategies (ITS).

  8. RIVM ZZS-2-BIO project : the biobased replacement potential of hazardous substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Es, van D.S.

    2014-01-01

    A quick scan of the ZZS (zeer zorgwekkende stoffen) list of 371 substances of very high concern shows that there is significant potential in biobased replacement of part of the list. It is shown that in many cases easily implementable biobased alternatives are already available or in advanced stages

  9. Non-Volcanic release of CO2 in Italy: quantification, conceptual models and gas hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, G.; Cardellini, C.; Caliro, S.; Avino, R.

    2011-12-01

    Central and South Italy are characterized by the presence of many reservoirs naturally recharged by CO2 of deep provenance. In the western sector, the reservoirs feed hundreds of gas emissions at the surface. Many studies in the last years were devoted to (i) elaborating a map of CO2 Earth degassing of the region; (ii) to asses the gas hazard; (iii) to develop methods suitable for the measurement of the gas fluxes from different types of emissions; (iv) to elaborate the conceptual model of Earth degassing and its relation with the seismic activity of the region and (v) to develop physical numerical models of CO2 air dispersion. The main results obtained are: 1) A general, regional map of CO2 Earth degassing in Central Italy has been elaborated. The total flux of CO2 in the area has been estimated in ~ 10 Mt/a which are released to the atmosphere trough numerous dangerous gas emissions or by degassing spring waters (~ 10 % of the CO2 globally estimated to be released by the Earth trough volcanic activity). 2) An on line, open access, georeferenced database of the main CO2 emissions (~ 250) was settled up (http://googas.ov.ingv.it). CO2 flux > 100 t/d characterise 14% of the degassing sites while CO2 fluxes from 100 t/d to 10 t/d have been estimated for about 35% of the gas emissions. 3) The sites of the gas emissions are not suitable for life: the gas causes many accidents to animals and people. In order to mitigate the gas hazard a specific model of CO2 air dispersion has been developed and applied to the main degassing sites. A relevant application regarded Mefite d'Ansanto, southern Apennines, which is the largest natural emission of low temperature CO2 rich gases, from non-volcanic environment, ever measured in the Earth (˜2000 t/d). Under low wind conditions, the gas flows along a narrow natural channel producing a persistent gas river which has killed over a period of time many people and animals. The application of the physical numerical model allowed us to

  10. Food contamination with environmentally hazardous chemical substances. Kontamination von Lebensmitteln mit Umweltchemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petz, M [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 9 - Naturwissenschaften 2 - Chemie - Biologie

    1990-01-01

    The author explains the difference between residues and contaminants in food. Of the contaminants, the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury are discussed at length, e.g. their pathway through the food chain and their accumulation in plants, animals, and humans etc. PCB in food and in mother's milk are gone into, as are the consequences of this contamination. Finally, dibenzofuranes and dibenzodioxins are mentioned, again with a view to the contamination of mother's milk. The health hazards from contaminated food is related to the health hazards of malnutrition and overeating. (MG).

  11. [Information content of immunologic parameters in the evaluation of the effects of hazardous substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litovskaia, A V; Sadovskiĭ, V V; Vifleemskiĭ, A B

    1995-01-01

    Clinical and immunologic examination including 1 and 2 level tests covered 429 staffers of chemical enterprises and 1122 of those engaged into microbiological synthesis of proteins, both the groups exposed to some irritating gases and isocyanates. Using calculation of Kulbak's criterion, the studies selected informative parameters to diagnose immune disturbances caused by occupational hazards. For integral evaluation of immune state, the authors applied general immunologic parameter, meanings of which can serve as criteria for early diagnosis of various immune disorders and for definition of risk groups among industrial workers exposed to occupational biologic and chemical hazards.

  12. Food contamination with environmentally hazardous chemical substances. Kontamination von Lebensmitteln mit Umweltchemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petz, M. (Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 9 - Naturwissenschaften 2 - Chemie - Biologie)

    1990-01-01

    The author explains the difference between residues and contaminants in food. Of the contaminants, the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury are discussed at length, e.g. their pathway through the food chain and their accumulation in plants, animals, and humans etc. PCB in food and in mother's milk are gone into, as are the consequences of this contamination. Finally, dibenzofuranes and dibenzodioxins are mentioned, again with a view to the contamination of mother's milk. The health hazards from contaminated food is related to the health hazards of malnutrition and overeating. (MG).

  13. Dog and cat exposures to hazardous substances reported to the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory: 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Ali; Van der Merwe, Deon

    2013-06-01

    Pet dogs and cats in the USA are commonly exposed to potentially hazardous substances found in domestic environments. Requests for assistance and advice received by the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory regarding exposures in dogs and cats to substances perceived by their caretakers to be potentially harmful included 1,616 phone calls, over a 3-year period covering 2009-2012. Enquiries occurred more often during summer. Dogs were involved in 84.7 % of calls and cats in 15.3 %. Oral exposures were reported in 95.5 % of calls, dermal exposures in 3.7 % of calls, inhalation exposures in 0.6 % of calls, and parenteral exposures in 0.2 % of calls. Therapeutic drugs were the most frequently reported substances, accounting for 35.4 % of calls, followed by household chemicals (15.5 %); foods (14.8 %); pesticides (13.9 %); plants (12 %), industrial chemicals and fertilizers (3.6 %); cosmetics and personal care products (2.8 %); and animal, insect, and microorganism toxins (2.1 %). Although requests for information or assistance are not a measure of poisoning incidence, it can provide insight regarding relative exposure rates, help to identify changing exposure trends and emerging exposures, and reflect the public concern regarding actual or apparent harmful exposures in pets.

  14. Leaching of hazardous substances from a composite construction product – An experimental and modelling approach for fibre-cement sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupsea, Maria [University of Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Paris–Est University, CSTB–Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, DEE/Environmentand Life Cycle Engineering Team, 24 rue Joseph Fourier, F–38400 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Tiruta-Barna, Ligia, E-mail: ligia.barna@insa-toulouse.fr [University of Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Schiopu, Nicoleta [Paris–Est University, CSTB–Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, DEE/Environmentand Life Cycle Engineering Team, 24 rue Joseph Fourier, F–38400 Saint Martin d’Hères (France)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Biocide and heavy metals leaching from fibre-cement sheet was investigated. • Equilibrium and dynamic leaching tests were used as modelling support. • The chemical-transport model identifies the main fixation/solubilisation mechanisms. • Biocides as terbutryn and boron were released by the commercial product. • FCS exhibit a cement-like leaching behaviour with high organic carbon release. -- Abstract: The leaching behaviour of a commercial fibre-cement sheet (FCS) product has been investigated. A static pH dependency test and a dynamic surface leaching test have been performed at lab scale. These tests allowed the development of a chemical-transport model capable to predict the release of major and trace elements over the entire pH range, in function of time. FCS exhibits a cement-type leaching behaviour with respect to the mineral species. Potentially hazardous species are released in significant quantities when compared to their total content. These are mainly heavy metals commonly encountered in cement matrixes and boron (probably added as biocide). Organic compounds considered as global dissolved carbon are released in significant concentrations, originating probably from the partial degradation of the organic fibres. The pesticide terbutryn (probably added during the preservative treatment of the organic fibres) was systematically identified in the leachates. The simulation of an upscaled runoff scenario allowed the evaluation of the cumulative release over long periods and the distribution of the released quantities in time, in function of the local exposure conditions. After 10 years of exposure the release reaches significant fractions of the species’ total content – going from 4% for Cu to near 100% for B.

  15. 24 CFR Appendix I to Subpart C of... - Specific Hazardous Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Ketone Naptha Pentane Propylene Oxide Toluene Vinyl Acetate Xylene Hazardous Gases Acetaldehyde Butadiene Butane Ethene Ethylene Ethylene Oxide Hydrogen Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG... Commercial/Industrial Facilities,” by Rolf Jensen and Associates, Inc., April 1982) [49 FR 5105, Feb. 10...

  16. Risk assessment of hazardous impacts on urbanization and industrialization activities based upon toxic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A risk assessment study was conducted to predict the expected hazardous influence on the ecosystem resulted from urbanization and industrialization activities at Helwan area, Egypt. To achieve these goals, soils, plants and water samples were collected from Helwan area, and their total concentrations of inorganic contaminants (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and organic pollutants; such as Phenol and hydrocarbons were measured. The obtained results showed that, the concentrations of organic contaminants in water streams and surrounding soils recorded high concentration values than the permissible limits, while inorganic elements were within the safe limits for irrigation. In addition, soils irrigated with the effluents of industrial units recorded high values of inorganic and organic contaminants. Consequently, the levels of these contaminants were high in plant tissues grown thereon; especially the edible parts. Risk assessment based on available Predicted No Effect Concentration values for the aquatic and terrestrial environment was performed. Inorganic elements were expected to cause serious hazard problems for both aquatic organisms and soil microorganisms. The impact of these pollutants on human health was calculated using daily metals intake of inorganic metals via consumption of edible plants. Hazard index values proved that concentrations of Cr may cause serious hazard problems for humans in this area; especially, children.

  17. 78 FR 48809 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... liquid hazardous waste, which included industrial and plating sludge, caustics, acid solutions, oil... performance objectives. Source control focuses on preventing surface water from infiltrating the waste unit... located just to the west of the Site. Waste management of Oklahoma (WMO) is the current owner of the MRSL...

  18. 75 FR 34405 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ..., Colorado. RMA was established in 1942 by the U.S. Army to manufacture chemical warfare agents and... liquids and decontamination waters (1995). OU 26: Chemical Process-Related Activities IRA--Decontamination... Ordnance/Explosives and Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel Hazards at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal...

  19. 16 CFR 1500.85 - Exemptions from classification as banned hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... component has no hazards other than being in a self-pressurized container. (8) Model rocket propellant devices designed for use in light-weight, recoverable, and reflyable model rockets, provided such devices... so designed that the main casing or container does not rupture during operation. (10) Solid fuel...

  20. Substance flow analysis and environmental releases of PBDEs in life cycle of automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jonghyun; Jang, Yong-Chul; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2017-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants, have been widely used in many applications in industry such as automobiles, textiles, and electronics. This study focused on a quantitative substance flow analysis (SFA) of PBDEs in automobiles in order to identify their flow by life cycle and treatment pathways of PBDEs-containing materials in end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Korea. In addition, this study has estimated environmental releases of PBDEs in automobiles by life cycle in Korea. During this study, PBDEs were analyzed for the samples collected from several ELVs treatment facilities using X-ray fluorescence and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. The system boundary for SFA of PBDEs ranged from manufacturing/trade to disposal stage of automobiles by life cycle. Based on the result of the SFA, it was found that the amount of PBDEs in automobiles were the highest in use stage (7748ton/year), followed by production stage (1743ton/year) in 2014. In disposal stage, automobile shredded residues (ASR) and seat fabrics were the main components with relatively high levels of PBDEs in ELVs. The major treatment methods of such components included incineration (84%), energy recovery (9%), and landfilling (6%). This research indicates that PBDEs were emitted the highest amount from interior components during the use stage of automobiles, followed by recycling processes such as dismantling and shredding. This study suggests that PBDEs in ASR and seat fabrics should be properly managed to prevent the widespread dispersion in the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of neutron interrogation techniques for detection of hazardous substances in containers port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Amico, N. M. B; Mayer, R.E; Tartaglione, A.

    2013-01-01

    This work is aimed at contributing to the effort of nations seeking to control international borders movement of dangerous chemical substances and nuclear material, in accordance with a multitude of agreements signed to that purpose. At this stage, we try to identify the signature of pure substances: chlorine (Cl), nitrogen (N), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), uranium (U) y arsenic (As) and, later, to detect their presence in simulated large cargo containers. The technique employed in previous and in current work, consists in the detection of prompt and early decay gammas induced by incident thermal neutrons or fast neutrons thermalized in the cargo array. Uranium has also been detected through the counting of fast neutrons originated in induced fissions. (author)

  2. Uncertainties in biological responses that influence hazard and risk approaches to the regulation of endocrine active substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Joanne L; Bjerregaard, Poul; Brugger, Kristin E; Gray, L Earl; Iguchi, Taisen; Kadlec, Sarah M; Weltje, Lennart; Wheeler, James R

    2017-03-01

    Endocrine-disrupting substances (EDS) may have certain biological effects including delayed effects, multigenerational effects, and may display nonmonotonic dose-response (NMDR) relationships that require careful consideration when determining environmental hazards. Endocrine disrupting substances can have specific and profound effects when exposure occurs during sensitive windows of the life cycle (development, reproduction). This creates the potential for delayed effects that manifest when exposure has ceased, possibly in a different life stage. This potential underscores the need for testing in appropriate (sensitive) life stages and full life cycle designs. Such tests are available in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) tool box and should be used to derive endpoints that can be considered protective of all life stages. Similarly, the potential for effects to be manifest in subsequent generations (multigenerational effects) has also been raised as a potential issue in the derivation of appropriate endpoints for EDS. However, multigenerational studies showing increasing sensitivity of successive generations are uncommon. Indeed this is reflected in the design of new higher tier tests to assess endocrine active substances (EAS) that move to extended one-generation designs and away from multi-generational studies. The occurrence of NMDRs is also considered a limiting factor for reliable risk assessment of EDS. Evidence to date indicates NMDRs are more prevalent in in vitro and mechanistic data, not often translating to adverse apical endpoints that would be used in risk assessment. A series of steps to evaluate NMDRs in the context of endocrine hazard and risk assessment procedures is presented. If careful consideration of delayed, multigenerational effects and NMDRs is made, it is feasible to assess environmental endocrine hazards and derive robust apical endpoints for risk assessment procedures ensuring a high level of environmental

  3. EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN POTTERY AND CERAMIC WORKERS

    OpenAIRE

    BASARAN, Nursen; ANLAR, Hatice Gul; BACANLI, Merve; SHUBAIR, Mohammed; BAL, Ceylan; TUTKUN, Engin; YILMAZ, Hinc

    2018-01-01

    During the last decade, the production and hence, the amount andthe types of exposure of hazardous chemicals have been increased in theoccupationally exposed workers. Most of these chemicals have deterious effectsin the living systems. The level of chemical exposure in the occupationalsettings and the biomonitoring of workers and also establishing the regulatoryendpoints are very important. The exposures of chemicals in the workplaces havebeen associated with the increase in allergy, organ an...

  4. Elimination of micropollutants and hazardous substances at the source in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöcher, C

    2007-01-01

    Industrial wastewater, especially from chemical and pharmaceutical production, often contains substances that need to be eliminated before being discharged into a biological treatment plant and following water bodies. This can be done within the production itself, in selected waste water streams or in a central treatment plant. Each of these approaches has certain advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, a variety of wastewater treatment processes exist that can be applied at each stage, making it a challenging task to choose the best one in economic and ecological terms. In this work a general approach for that and examples from practice are discussed.

  5. Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS) in the marine environment: prioritizing HNS that pose major risk in a European context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuparth, T; Moreira, S; Santos, M M; Reis-Henriques, M A

    2011-01-01

    Increases in the maritime transportation of Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS), alongside the need for an effective response to HNS spills have led environmental managers and the scientific community to focus attention on HNS spill preparedness and responsiveness. In the context of the ARCOPOL project, a weight-of-evidence approach was developed aimed at prioritizing HNS that pose major environmental risks to European waters. This approach takes into consideration the occurrence probability of HNS spills in European Atlantic waters and the severity of exposure associated with their physico-chemical properties and toxicity to marine organisms. Additionally, a screening analysis of the toxicological information available for the prioritization of HNS was performed. Here we discuss the need for a prioritization methodology to select HNS that are likely to cause severe marine environmental effects as an essential step towards the establishment of a more effective preparedness and response to HNS incidents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of tools for integrated monitoring and assessment of hazardous substances and their biological effects in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Kari K; Sundelin, Brita; Lang, Thomas; Strand, Jakob

    2014-02-01

    The need to develop biological effects monitoring to facilitate a reliable assessment of hazardous substances has been emphasized in the Baltic Sea Action Plan of the Helsinki Commission. An integrated chemical-biological approach is vitally important for the understanding and proper assessment of anthropogenic pressures and their effects on the Baltic Sea. Such an approach is also necessary for prudent management aiming at safeguarding the sustainable use of ecosystem goods and Services. The BEAST project (Biological Effects of Anthropogenic Chemical Stress: Tools for the Assessment of Ecosystem Health) set out to address this topic within the BONUS Programme. BEAST generated a large amount of quality-assured data on several biological effects parameters (biomarkers) in various marine species in different sub-regions of the Baltic Sea. New indicators (biological response measurement methods) and management tools (integrated indices) with regard to the integrated monitoring approach were suggested.

  7. Accidental hazardous material releases with human impacts in the United States: exploration of geographical distribution and temporal trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, Hatice; Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Chermak, Christina

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the circumstances and geographic and temporal distributions of hazardous material releases and resulting human impacts in the United States. Releases with fatalities, injuries, and evacuations were identified from reports to the National Response Center between 1990 and 2008, correcting for data quality issues identified in previous studies. From more than 550,000 reports, 861 deaths, 16,348 injuries and 741,427 evacuations were identified. Injuries from releases of chemicals at fixed facilities and natural gas from pipelines have decreased whereas evacuations from petroleum releases at fixed facilities have increased. Results confirm recent advances in chemical and pipeline safety and suggest directions for further improvement including targeted training and inspections and adoption of inherently safer design principles.

  8. Release of UV-absorbing substances from maize coleoptiles during auxin-, fusicoccin- and acid-mediated elongation growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, K.; Schopfer, P.

    1997-01-01

    Isolated cell walls from maize coleoptiles prepared under conditions that preserve the ability for enzymatic hemicellulose autolysis release UV-absorbing substances into the incubation medium in a time-dependent reaction with an optimal rate at pH 6–7. The reaction can be inhibited by low temperature and protein-denaturing treatments, indicating an enzymatic process. Spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses showed that the liberated substances represent a complex mixture of free and bound (alkali-hydrolyzable) phenolic compounds with similar absorption spectra restricted to the range below 300 nm and thus excluding hydroxycinnamic acids from cell-wall esters. A spectroscopically and chromatographically similar mixture of soluble UV-absorbing substances is released if living (abraded) maize coleoptiles or coleoptile segments are incubated in water or buffer, suggesting that insoluble phenolic materials in the cell wall are metabolized also in vivo. This reaction can be promoted by anaerobic conditions and application of fusicoccin whereas auxin had a slightly inhibitory effect. No clear relationship to elongation growth could be demonstrated. We conclude from these results that polymeric phenolic constituents of the cell wall are subject to enzymatic degradation in muro similar to polysaccharide autolysis and that this process is under metabolic control

  9. Apparatus and methods for monitoring the concentrations of hazardous airborne substances, especially lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaromb, Solomon

    2004-07-13

    Air is sampled at a rate in excess of 100 L/min, preferably at 200-300 L/min, so as to collect therefrom a substantial fraction, i.e., at least 20%, preferably 60-100%, of airborne particulates. A substance of interest (analyte), such as lead, is rapidly solubilized from the the collected particulates into a sample of liquid extractant, and the concentration of the analyte in the extractant sample is determined. The high-rate air sampling and particulate collection may be effected with a high-throughput filter cartridge or with a recently developed portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler. Rapid solubilization of lead is achieved by a liquid extractant comprising 0.1-1 M of acetic acid or acetate, preferably at a pH of 5 or less and preferably with inclusion of 1-10% of hydrogen peroxide. Rapid determination of the lead content in the liquid extractant may be effected with a colorimetric or an electroanalytical analyzer.

  10. Randomized Controlled Trial of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Paula D.; Winhusen, Theresa; Davies, Robert D.; Leimberger, Jeffrey D.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan; Klein, Constance; Macdonald, Marilyn; Lohman, Michelle; Bailey, Genie L.; Haynes, Louise; Jaffee, William B.; Haminton, Nancy; Hodgkins, Candace; Whitmore, Elizabeth; Trello-Rishel, Kathlene; Tamm, Leanne; Acosta, Michelle C.; Royer-Malvestuto, Charlotte; Subramaniam, Geetha; Fishman, Marc; Holmes, Beverly W.; Kaye, Mary Elyse; Vargo, Mark A.; Woody, George E.; Nunes, Edward V.; Liu, David

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of osmotic-release methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) compared with placebo for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the impact on substance treatment outcomes in adolescents concurrently receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders (SUD). Method: This was a…

  11. Thermodynamic considerations in the application of reverse mode gasification to the destruction of hazardous substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, D.W.; Washington, M.D.; Manahan, S.E.; Medcalf, B.; Stary, F.E. [University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-09-01

    Previous studies by the authors have demonstrated the effectiveness of reverse mode gasification using a granular coal char matrix for treatment of hazardous wastes. Calculations pertaining to this gasification are presented, including a one-dimensional temperature profile and a thermodynamic analysis. Equilibrium compositions were calculated by free energy minimization using commercially available software. The calculated results were compared with experimental data for gasification of mixtures containing water, selected hydrocarbons, and used motor oil. Batch and continuous feed reactors were used with optimized operating parameters to generate the data. The dry gas product obtained from gasification of water and selected hydrocarbons contains carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and hydrogen, in agreement with thermodynamic predictions, and the compositions agree well with predictions obtained assuming that chemical equilibrium is attained at a temperature of 650{degree}C. The dry gas product from gasification of motor oil contains small amounts of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, which are not thermodynamically stable, but the composition of the major products generally agrees with the thermodynamic predictions. Under optimized conditions, the aqueous condensate contains between 1 and 100 ppm organics. Heat balance terms for the process were also calculated, and these demonstrate the efficiency of gasification as a treatment method. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Paradoxical effect of salbutamol in a model of acute organophosphates intoxication in guinea pigs: role of substance P release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Jaime; Segura, Patricia; Vargas, Mario H; Arreola, José Luis; Flores-Soto, Edgar; Montaño, Luis M

    2007-04-01

    Organophosphates induce bronchoobstruction in guinea pigs, and salbutamol only transiently reverses this effect, suggesting that it triggers additional obstructive mechanisms. To further explore this phenomenon, in vivo (barometric plethysmography) and in vitro (organ baths, including ACh and substance P concentration measurement by HPLC and immunoassay, respectively; intracellular Ca2+) measurement in single myocytes) experiments were performed. In in vivo experiments, parathion caused a progressive bronchoobstruction until a plateau was reached. Administration of salbutamol during this plateau decreased bronchoobstruction up to 22% in the first 5 min, but thereafter airway obstruction rose again as to reach the same intensity as before salbutamol. Aminophylline caused a sustained decrement (71%) of the parathion-induced bronchoobstruction. In in vitro studies, paraoxon produced a sustained contraction of tracheal rings, which was fully blocked by atropine but not by TTX, omega-conotoxin (CTX), or epithelium removal. During the paraoxon-induced contraction, salbutamol caused a temporary relaxation of approximately 50%, followed by a partial recontraction. This paradoxical recontraction was avoided by the M2- or neurokinin-1 (NK1)-receptor antagonists (methoctramine or AF-DX 116, and L-732138, respectively), accompanied by a long-lasting relaxation. Forskolin caused full relaxation of the paraoxon response. Substance P and, to a lesser extent, ACh released from tracheal rings during 60-min incubation with paraoxon or physostigmine, respectively, were significantly increased when salbutamol was administered in the second half of this period. In myocytes, paraoxon did not produce any change in the intracellular Ca2+ basal levels. Our results suggested that: 1) organophosphates caused smooth muscle contraction by accumulation of ACh released through a TTX- and CTX-resistant mechanism; 2) during such contraction, salbutamol relaxation is functionally antagonized by the

  13. Effect of Engineered Nanoparticles on Exopolymeric Substances Release from Marine Phytoplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Meng-Hsuen; Khan, Zafir A.; Garcia, Santiago G.; Le, Andre D.; Kagiri, Agnes; Ramos, Javier; Tsai, Shih-Ming; Drobenaire, Hunter W.; Santschi, Peter H.; Quigg, Antonietta; Chin, Wei-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), products from modern nanotechnologies, can potentially impact the marine environment to pose serious threats to marine ecosystems. However, the cellular responses of marine phytoplankton to ENPs are still not well established. Here, we investigate four different diatom species (Odontella mobiliensis, Skeletonema grethae, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Thalassiosira pseudonana) and one green algae (Dunaliella tertiolecta) for their extracellular polymeric substance...

  14. Report: EPA Provided Quality and Timely Information on Hurricane Katrina Hazardous Material Releases and Debris Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2006-P-00023, May 2, 2006. After Hurricane Katrina, EPA was the agency with lead responsibility to prevent, minimize, or mitigate threats to public health and the environment caused by hazardous materials and oil spills in inland zones.

  15. Release of Extracellular Polymeric Substance and Disintegration of Anaerobic Granular Sludge under Reduced Sulfur Compounds-Rich Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuro Kobayashi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of reduced form of sulfur compounds on granular sludge was investigated. Significant release of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS from the granular sludge occurred in the presence of sulfide and methanethiol according to various concentrations. Granular sludge also showed a rapid increase in turbidity and decrease in diameter in accordance with sulfide concentration during the long-term shaking, suggesting that the strength of the granules was reduced with high-concentration sulfide. A continuous experiment of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors with different concentrations of sulfide (10, 200, 500 mg-S/L influence demonstrated that the reactor fed with higher concentration of sulfide allowed more washout of small particle-suspended solid (SS content and soluble carbohydrate and protein, which were considered as EPS released from biofilm. Finally, the presence of sulfide negatively affected methane production, chemical oxygen demand removal and sludge retention in operational performance.

  16. Release procedures and disposal of radioactive residual substances at the Medical University Hanover (MHH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheller, F.; Behrendt, R.; Harke, H.

    2005-01-01

    The disposal of all radioactive residual packages of the MHH is regulated by the German radiation protection ordinance from 26 th July 2001; shown in appendix III, table 1, column 5: unrestricted release of solid materials and liquids. All radioactive waste packages are collected and handled by the central MHH department for radiation protection. They are sorted for type, nuclide and specific radioactivity. A few packages can directly be released as conventional waste after performing incoming measurements showing very low activity concentrations. Longer living radionuclides with specific activities above the release limits have to be delivered to the national waste disposal. For direct measurements of gamma-emitting radionuclides we use two in-situ-measuring units (ISOCS, Canberra) and a special release unit with 9 plastic scintillators in a fixed geometry (FR-9 PVT, MED Medizintechnik). Fluid beta-emitting radionuclides are measured by taking a fraction and using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Solid beta-emitting radionuclides activity are calculated. (orig.)

  17. Site-sensitive hazards of potential airborne radioactive release from sources on the Kola peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, R.; Thaning, L.; Baklanov, A.

    1998-02-01

    In this work we focus on cases of airborne releases from some of the sources on the Kola Peninsula - primarily nuclear reactors on submarines and the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP). The purpose of our study is to illustrate, and discuss some features - dependent on site and release characteristics - of the deposition patterns resulting from assumed unit radioactive releases to the atmosphere from a location at a fjord and from the KNPP in Polyarnye Zori. Using meteorological data for one real weather situation, the analysis is based on simulating the transport in air of assumed radioactive releases and estimating the deposition pattern on local, meso- and regional scales. By allowing unit releases to occur simultaneously from the site at the fjord and from the power plant (and with the same release profile in time) comparisons are made of differences in deposition patterns in and outside the Kola region. In this case study a set of assumed release heights, durations of the release, and particle size distributions are applied to indicate the dependence for the resulting deposition pattern on these parameters

  18. Effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on motility and on the release of substance P, neurokinin A, somatostatin and gastrin in the isolated perfused porcine antrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T N; Schmidt, P; Poulsen, S S

    2001-01-01

    increased by 154 +/- 15% in response to CGRP at 10(-8) mol L(-1). The release of gastrin was unaffected by pCGRP. In conclusion, pCGRP increases contractile activity in the porcine antrum, an effect that involves cholinergic mechanisms but is independent of the release of substance P and neurokinin A...

  19. Hazard analysis in uranium hexafluoride production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Maristhela Passoni de Araujo

    1999-01-01

    The present work provides a method for preliminary hazard analysis of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The proposed method identify both chemical and radiological hazards, as well as the consequences associated with accident scenarios. To illustrate the application of the method, a uranium hexafluoride production facility was selected. The main hazards are identified and the potential consequences are quantified. It was found that, although the facility handles radioactive material, the main hazards as associated with releases of toxic chemical substances such as hydrogen fluoride, anhydrous ammonia and nitric acid. It was shown that a contention bung can effectively reduce the consequences of atmospheric release of toxic materials. (author)

  20. Repeated episodes of ozone inhalation attenuates airway injury/repair and release of substance P, but not adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelegle, Edward S; Walby, William F; Alfaro, Mario F; Wong, Viviana J; Putney, Lei; Stovall, Mary Y; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Hyde, Dallas M; Plopper, Charles G

    2003-02-01

    To determine the impact of repeated episodes of ozone exposure on physiologic adaptation, epithelial injury/repair, and tracheal substance P levels, adult rats were subjected to episodes of ozone (5 days, 1 ppm, 8 h/day) followed by 9 days of filtered air for four cycles. Rats were sampled on days 1 and 5 of each episode and 9 days after day 5 of episodes 1, 2, and 4. One hour before being euthanized each rat was injected with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine to label proliferating cells. Each 5-day episode showed a characteristic pattern of rapid shallow breathing (days 1 and 2), epithelial injury, and interstitial and intraluminal inflammation. In contrast, the neutrophil component of inflammation, tracheal substance P release, and cell proliferation became attenuated with each consecutive episode of exposure. Concurrent with this cyclic and attenuated response there was progressive hypercellularity and hyperplasia in all airways studied and a progressive remodeling present in the terminal bronchioles. Our findings are consistent with the notion that the cumulative distal airway lesion is at least in part the result of a depressed cell proliferative response to injury in these airways. This depressed cell proliferative response may be in part the result of diminished neutrophil inflammation and/or release of mitogenic neuropeptides in response to ozone-induced injury.

  1. Civil liability and compensation for damages caused by certain hazardous and noxious substances during their carriage by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bievre, A. de.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper current international efforts directed at the establishment of a special legal regime for civil liability and compensation for damages caused by hazardous and noxious substances during their transport by sea, specifically chemicals and liquid gas products, are described and analysed. Special attention is given to the way in which concern with the development of an 'environment oriented' regime which provides full recovery for victims in a reliable manner, on the one hand, and, on the other, considerations relating to cost effectiveness complement or conflict with each other. Another important area of investigation concerns the potential role of the marine insurance industry in accident prevention through the provision of incentives for careful (i.e. safe and environmentally sound) behaviour. There is a distinct regulatory trend in favour of strict liability (i.e. liability without fault) and compulsory insurance. There is also a growing perception of the need to depart from the traditional pattern of maritime liability which channels liability automatically to the person exercizing operational control during transport by sea (i.e. the carrier), and to additionally impose liability on those responsible for the risks attached to the inherently harmful characteristics of the cargoes carried. (orig.) [de

  2. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemicals can still harm human health and the environment. When you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint thinner. U.S. residents ...

  3. Models for recurrent gas release event behavior in hazardous waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.N.; Arnold, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    Certain radioactive waste storage tanks at the United States Department of Energy Hanford facilities continuously generate gases as a result of radiolysis and chemical reactions. The congealed sludge in these tanks traps the gases and causes the level of the waste within the tanks to rise. The waste level continues to rise until the sludge becomes buoyant and ''rolls over'', changing places with heavier fluid on top. During a rollover, the trapped gases are released, resulting, in a sudden drop in the waste level. This is known as a gas release event (GRE). After a GRE, the wastes leading to another GRE. We present nonlinear time waste re-congeals and gas again accumulates leading to another GRE. We present nonlinear time series models that produce simulated sample paths that closely resemble the temporal history of waste levels in these tanks. The models also imitate the random GRE, behavior observed in the temporal waste level history of a storage tank. We are interested in using the structure of these models to understand the probabilistic behavior of the random variable ''time between consecutive GRE's''. Understanding the stochastic nature of this random variable is important because the hydrogen and nitrous oxide gases released from a GRE, are flammable and the ammonia that is released is a health risk. From a safety perspective, activity around such waste tanks should be halted when a GRE is imminent. With credible GRE models, we can establish time windows in which waste tank research and maintenance activities can be safely performed

  4. Future trends in the assessment of hazards from fission product releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, J. R.

    1983-11-15

    In comparing and selecting sites for reactors from the point of view of safety, one considers the remote possibility of an accidental release of moderately large amounts of fission products and its effects in relation to the present and future distribution of population in the neighbourhood. At present, until experience is gained of the reliability and safety of reactors, there is a tendency to site them remotely from centres of industry and population, although for economic reasons there will be a need to site large power reactors more closely to such centres in the future. With, among other objectives, the aim of adopting, in the proper course or time, less restrictive siting criteria, improvements are continually made in the intrinsic safety of reactor system and more sophisticated forms of reactor containment are devised, in order to reduce the possibility and scale of any fission product release. Changes and improvements in reactor systems could affect the nature and proportion of an accidental release of fission products if this should occur in the future. It is appropriate to consider what such a release and its radiobiological effects might be.

  5. Restriction of the use of hazardous substances (RoHS in the personal computer segment: analysis of the strategic adoption by the manufacturers settled in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Brescansin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The enactment of the RoHS Directive (Restriction of Hazardous Substances in 2003, limiting the use of certain hazardous substances in electronic equipment has forced companies to adjust their products to comply with this legislation. Even in the absence of similar legislation in Brazil, manufacturers of personal computers which are located in this country have been seen to adopt RoHS for products sold in the domestic market and abroad. The purpose of this study is to analyze whether these manufacturers have really adopted RoHS, focusing on their motivations, concerns, and benefits. This is an exploratory study based on literature review and interviews with HP, Dell, Sony, Lenovo, Samsung, LG, Itautec, and Positivo, using summative content analysis. The results showed that initially, global companies adopted RoHS to market products in Europe, and later expanded this practice to all products. Brazilian companies, however, adopted RoHS to participate in the government’s sustainable procurement bidding processes. It is expected that this study can assist manufacturers in developing strategies for reducing or eliminating hazardous substances in their products and processes, as well as help the government to formulate public policies on reducing risks of environmental contamination.

  6. In vitro effect of low intensity laser on the cytotoxicity produced by substances released by bleaching gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Maria Gomes Dantas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study aimed to analyze the effect of different parameters of phototherapy with low intensity laser on the viability of human dental pulp fibroblasts under the effect of substances released by bleaching gel. Cells were seeded into 96 wells plates (1 x 10³ cells/well and placed in contact with culture medium conditioned by a 35 % hydrogen peroxide bleaching gel for 40 minutes, simulating the clinical condition of the in-office bleaching treatment. Cells cultured in ideal growth conditions served as positive control group (PC, and the cells grown in conditioned medium and non-irradiated served as negative control group (NC. Cells grown in conditioned medium were submitted to a single irradiation with a diode laser (40 mW, 0.04 cm² emitting at visible red (660 nm; RL or near infrared (780 nm; NIR using punctual technique, in contact mode and energy densities of 4, 6 or 10 J/cm². The cell viability was analyzed through the MTT reduction assay immediately and 24 hours after the irradiation. The data was compared by ANOVA followed by the Tukey's test (p < 0.05. The cell viability increased significantly in 24 hours within each group. The PC presented cell viability significantly higher than NC in both experimental times. Only the NIR/10 J/cm² group presented cell viability similar to that of PC in 24 hours. The phototherapy with low intensity laser in defined parameters is able to compensate the cytotoxic effects of substances released by 35 % hydrogen peroxide bleaching gel.

  7. Methodology for prediction and estimation of consequences of possible atmospheric releases of hazardous matter: "Kursk"? submarine study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, A.; Mahura, A.; Sørensen, J. H.

    2003-03-01

    There are objects with some periods of higher than normal levels of risk of accidental atmospheric releases (nuclear, chemical, biological, etc.). Such accidents or events may occur due to natural hazards, human errors, terror acts, and during transportation of waste or various operations at high risk. A methodology for risk assessment is suggested and it includes two approaches: 1) probabilistic analysis of possible atmospheric transport patterns using long-term trajectory and dispersion modelling, and 2) forecast and evaluation of possible contamination and consequences for the environment and population using operational dispersion modelling. The first approach could be applied during the preparation stage, and the second - during the operation stage. The suggested methodology is applied on an example of the most important phases (lifting, transportation, and decommissioning) of the "Kursk" nuclear submarine operation. It is found that the temporal variability of several probabilistic indicators (fast transport probability fields, maximum reaching distance, maximum possible impact zone, and average integral concentration of 137Cs) showed that the fall of 2001 was the most appropriate time for the beginning of the operation. These indicators allowed to identify the hypothetically impacted geographical regions and territories. In cases of atmospheric transport toward the most populated areas, the forecasts of possible consequences during phases of the high and medium potential risk levels based on a unit hypothetical release are performed. The analysis showed that the possible deposition fractions of 1011 over the Kola Peninsula, and 10-12 - 10-13 for the remote areas of the Scandinavia and Northwest Russia could be observed. The suggested methodology may be used successfully for any potentially dangerous object involving risk of atmospheric release of hazardous materials of nuclear, chemical or biological nature.

  8. Methodology for prediction and estimation of consequences of possible atmospheric releases of hazardous matter: "Kursk" submarine study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, A.; Mahura, A.; Sørensen, J. H.

    2003-06-01

    There are objects with some periods of higher than normal levels of risk of accidental atmospheric releases (nuclear, chemical, biological, etc.). Such accidents or events may occur due to natural hazards, human errors, terror acts, and during transportation of waste or various operations at high risk. A methodology for risk assessment is suggested and it includes two approaches: 1) probabilistic analysis of possible atmospheric transport patterns using long-term trajectory and dispersion modelling, and 2) forecast and evaluation of possible contamination and consequences for the environment and population using operational dispersion modelling. The first approach could be applied during the preparation stage, and the second - during the operation stage. The suggested methodology is applied on an example of the most important phases (lifting, transportation, and decommissioning) of the ``Kursk" nuclear submarine operation. It is found that the temporal variability of several probabilistic indicators (fast transport probability fields, maximum reaching distance, maximum possible impact zone, and average integral concentration of 137Cs) showed that the fall of 2001 was the most appropriate time for the beginning of the operation. These indicators allowed to identify the hypothetically impacted geographical regions and territories. In cases of atmospheric transport toward the most populated areas, the forecasts of possible consequences during phases of the high and medium potential risk levels based on a unit hypothetical release (e.g. 1 Bq) are performed. The analysis showed that the possible deposition fractions of 10-11 (Bq/m2) over the Kola Peninsula, and 10-12 - 10-13 (Bq/m2) for the remote areas of the Scandinavia and Northwest Russia could be observed. The suggested methodology may be used successfully for any potentially dangerous object involving risk of atmospheric release of hazardous materials of nuclear, chemical or biological nature.

  9. Methodology for prediction and estimation of consequences of possible atmospheric releases of hazardous matter: 'Kursk' submarine study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baklanov

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available There are objects with some periods of higher than normal levels of risk of accidental atmospheric releases (nuclear, chemical, biological, etc.. Such accidents or events may occur due to natural hazards, human errors, terror acts, and during transportation of waste or various operations at high risk. A methodology for risk assessment is suggested and it includes two approaches: 1 probabilistic analysis of possible atmospheric transport patterns using long-term trajectory and dispersion modelling, and 2 forecast and evaluation of possible contamination and consequences for the environment and population using operational dispersion modelling. The first approach could be applied during the preparation stage, and the second - during the operation stage. The suggested methodology is applied on an example of the most important phases (lifting, transportation, and decommissioning of the ``Kursk" nuclear submarine operation. It is found that the temporal variability of several probabilistic indicators (fast transport probability fields, maximum reaching distance, maximum possible impact zone, and average integral concentration of 137Cs showed that the fall of 2001 was the most appropriate time for the beginning of the operation. These indicators allowed to identify the hypothetically impacted geographical regions and territories. In cases of atmospheric transport toward the most populated areas, the forecasts of possible consequences during phases of the high and medium potential risk levels based on a unit hypothetical release (e.g. 1 Bq are performed. The analysis showed that the possible deposition fractions of 10-11 (Bq/m2 over the Kola Peninsula, and 10-12 - 10-13 (Bq/m2 for the remote areas of the Scandinavia and Northwest Russia could be observed. The suggested methodology may be used successfully for any potentially dangerous object involving risk of atmospheric release of hazardous materials of nuclear, chemical or biological nature.

  10. Iron oxide/aluminum/graphene energetic nanocomposites synthesized by atomic layer deposition: Enhanced energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Ning; Qin, Lijun; Hao, Haixia; Hui, Longfei; Zhao, Fengqi; Feng, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energetic rGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 nanocompositeswerefabricatedbyatomiclayerdepositionapproach. • A novel Al@Fe 2 O 3 unit featuring core-shell structure was decorated on the graphene nanosheet. • RGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 nanocomposite exhibits superior energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard. - Abstract: Nanocomposites consisting of iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) and nano-sized aluminum (Al), possessing outstanding exothermic redox reaction characteristics, are highly promising nanothermite materials. However, the reactant diffusion inhibited in the solid state system makes the fast and complete energy release very challenging. In this work, Al nanoparticles anchored on graphene oxide (GO/Al) was initially prepared by a solution assembly approach. Fe 2 O 3 was deposited on GO/Al substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Simultaneously thermal reduction of GO occurs, resulting in rGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 energetic composites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis reveals that rGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 composite containing 4.8 wt% of rGO exhibits a 50% increase of the energy release compared to the Al@Fe 2 O 3 nanothermite synthesized by ALD, and an increase of about 130% compared to a random mixture of rGO/Al/Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles. The enhanced energy release of rGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 is attributed to the improved spatial distribution as well as the increased interfacial intimacy between the oxidizer and the fuel. Moreover, the rGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 composite with an rGO content of 9.6 wt% exhibits significantly reduced electrostatic discharge sensitivity. These findings may inspire potential pathways for engineering energetic nanocomposites with enhanced energy release and improved safety characteristics.

  11. Iron oxide/aluminum/graphene energetic nanocomposites synthesized by atomic layer deposition: Enhanced energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Ning; Qin, Lijun [Laboratory of Material Surface Engineering and Nanofabrication, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Science and Technology on Combustion and Explosion Laboratory, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Hao, Haixia [Science and Technology on Combustion and Explosion Laboratory, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Hui, Longfei [Laboratory of Material Surface Engineering and Nanofabrication, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Science and Technology on Combustion and Explosion Laboratory, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Zhao, Fengqi [Science and Technology on Combustion and Explosion Laboratory, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Feng, Hao, E-mail: fenghao98@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Material Surface Engineering and Nanofabrication, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); State Key Laboratory of Fluorine and Nitrogen Chemicals, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China)

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • Energetic rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}nanocompositeswerefabricatedbyatomiclayerdepositionapproach. • A novel Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} unit featuring core-shell structure was decorated on the graphene nanosheet. • RGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite exhibits superior energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard. - Abstract: Nanocomposites consisting of iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and nano-sized aluminum (Al), possessing outstanding exothermic redox reaction characteristics, are highly promising nanothermite materials. However, the reactant diffusion inhibited in the solid state system makes the fast and complete energy release very challenging. In this work, Al nanoparticles anchored on graphene oxide (GO/Al) was initially prepared by a solution assembly approach. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was deposited on GO/Al substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Simultaneously thermal reduction of GO occurs, resulting in rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} energetic composites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis reveals that rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite containing 4.8 wt% of rGO exhibits a 50% increase of the energy release compared to the Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite synthesized by ALD, and an increase of about 130% compared to a random mixture of rGO/Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. The enhanced energy release of rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is attributed to the improved spatial distribution as well as the increased interfacial intimacy between the oxidizer and the fuel. Moreover, the rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite with an rGO content of 9.6 wt% exhibits significantly reduced electrostatic discharge sensitivity. These findings may inspire potential pathways for engineering energetic nanocomposites with enhanced energy release and improved safety characteristics.

  12. Temporary shelter-in-place as protection against a release of airborne hazardous material : report of a literature search.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yantosik, G. D.; Lerner, K.; Maloney, D. M.

    2002-01-01

    ''Temporary shelter-in place'' is the combination of prompt shelter-in-place (SIP) to minimize initial exposure to airborne hazardous material, followed by timely action to terminate this protection to minimize exposure to hazardous vapor accumulations in the shelter once the air outside becomes less hazardous than the air inside the shelter. Temporary SIP, if properly executed, is considered to be an effective way to protect populations from hazardous chemical vapors, especially from high concentrations for short periods. This is supported by laboratory and field experiments. The need for timely termination of temporary SIP as protection from infiltrated vapors is an integral component of a temporary SIP strategy. It was from this premise that Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) was asked to develop methodologies for deciding when and how to terminate SIP. These methodologies, in turn, could be the basis for site-specific operational guidelines (e.g., decision matrix, decision-tree, or algorithm) for terminating SIP on each of the eight Army chemical stockpile storage sites, and in the off-post communities surrounding them. This project consists of two tasks. Task 1 was to collect and analyze existing literature that might be relevant to the termination of temporary SIP. This report is the product of Task 1. Task 2, which will begin on 2 February 2001, will use the results of the literature search as the baseline to investigate the concepts associated with temporary SIP, and to develop methodologies for termination of temporary SIP that can be incorporated in site-specific operational guidelines. It is understood that these methods will be consistent with Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) policy that ''the most important objective of the emergency preparedness and implementation process is the avoidance of fatalities to the maximum extent practicable, should an accidental release of chemical agent occur.'' It is also anticipated that these

  13. A general advection-diffusion model for radioactive substance dispersion released from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buske, D.

    2011-01-01

    The present contribution focuses on the question of radioactive material dispersion after discharge from a nuclear power plant in the context of micro-meteorology, i.e. an atmospheric dispersion model. The advection-diffusion equation with Fickian closure for the turbulence is solved for the atmospheric boundary layer where the eddy diffusivity coefficients and the wind profile are assumed to be space dependent. The model is solved in closed form using integral transform and spectral theory. Convergence of the solution is discussed in terms of a convergence criterion using a new interpretation of the Cardinal Theorem of Interpolation theory and Parseval's theorem. The solution is compared to other methods and model adequacy is analyzed. Model validation is performed against experimental data from a controlled release of radioactive material at the Itaorna Beach (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, 1985). (author)

  14. An adaptive Bayesian inference algorithm to estimate the parameters of a hazardous atmospheric release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaona, Harizo; Septier, François; Armand, Patrick; Delignon, Yves; Olry, Christophe; Albergel, Armand; Moussafir, Jacques

    2015-12-01

    In the eventuality of an accidental or intentional atmospheric release, the reconstruction of the source term using measurements from a set of sensors is an important and challenging inverse problem. A rapid and accurate estimation of the source allows faster and more efficient action for first-response teams, in addition to providing better damage assessment. This paper presents a Bayesian probabilistic approach to estimate the location and the temporal emission profile of a pointwise source. The release rate is evaluated analytically by using a Gaussian assumption on its prior distribution, and is enhanced with a positivity constraint to improve the estimation. The source location is obtained by the means of an advanced iterative Monte-Carlo technique called Adaptive Multiple Importance Sampling (AMIS), which uses a recycling process at each iteration to accelerate its convergence. The proposed methodology is tested using synthetic and real concentration data in the framework of the Fusion Field Trials 2007 (FFT-07) experiment. The quality of the obtained results is comparable to those coming from the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm, a popular Bayesian method used for source estimation. Moreover, the adaptive processing of the AMIS provides a better sampling efficiency by reusing all the generated samples.

  15. Hazards to nuclear plants from off-site release of toxic vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornyik, K.

    1976-01-01

    A method for the assessment of risk involved in shipping toxic compounds past nuclear power plants uses a postulated chain of events, starting with a traffic accident causing instantaneous release of the compound as vapor, and leading to incapacitation of control operators in the nuclear plant, described by deterministic and statistical models as appropriate to the respective event. Statistical treatment of relevant atmospheric conditions is a major improvement over more conservative assumptions commonly made in current analyses of this problem. Consequently, one obtains a substantial reduction in the estimated risk expressed in usual terms of the annual probability of an unacceptable event, in spite of the fact that no credit is taken for protective measures other than potential control room isolation

  16. Regulations on the supervision and use of installations, apparatus, material and substances which release ionizing or other radiation representing danger to health (23 January 1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Regulations repeal the Regulations of 22 October 1948 on the surveillance of facilities using X-rays and radium. They were issued in the Norwegian Official Gazette, 1st Section of 3 February 1976, and contain instructions on the control and use of facilities, devices, equipment and substances emitting ionizing radiation hazardous to health. This control applies to use for medical, veterinary, scientific, industrial or to ionizing radiation for other purposes as well as to all vessels, waste and discharge of substances emitting ionizing radiation. Finally, the Regulations specify the competent body, the type of devices concerned, and the duties of persons using such devices. (NEA) [fr

  17. Hazardous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... substances that could harm human health or the environment. Hazardous means dangerous, so these materials must be ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  18. Estimating nutrient releases from agriculture in China: An extended substance flow analysis framework and a modeling tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.; Chen, J.; Sun, F.

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture related pollution has attracted the attention of policy makers as well as scientists in China as its contribution to water impairment has increased, and quantitative information at the national and regional levels is being sought to support decision making. However, traditional approaches are either time-consuming, expensive (e.g. national surveys) or oversimplified and crude (e.g. coefficient methods). Therefore, this study proposed an extended substance flow analysis (SFA) framework to estimate nutrient releases from agricultural and rural activities in China by depicting the nutrient flows in Chinese agro-ecosystems. The six-step process proposed herein includes: (a) system definition; (b) model development; (c) database development; (d) model validation; (e) results interpretation; and (f) uncertainty analysis. The developed Eubolism (Elementary Unit based nutrient Balance mOdeLIng in agro-ecoSysteM) model combined a nutrient balance module with an emission inventory module to quantify the nutrient flows in the agro-ecosystem. The model was validated and then applied to estimate the total agricultural nutrient loads, identify the contribution of different agricultural and rural activities and different land use types to the total loads, and analyze the spatial pattern of agricultural nutrient emissions in China. These results could provide an entire picture of agricultural pollution at the national level and be used to support policy making. Furthermore, uncertainties associated with the structure of the elementary units, spatial resolution, and inputs/parameters were also analyzed to evaluate the robustness of the model results.

  19. A multi criteria analog model for assessing the vulnerability of rural catchments to road spills of hazardous substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Hygor Evangelista; Pissarra, Teresa Cristina Tarlé [Departamento de Engenharia Rural, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal (Brazil); Farias do Valle Junior, Renato [Laboratório de Geoprocessamento, Instituto Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Campus Uberaba, Uberaba (Brazil); Fernandes, Luis Filipe Sanches [Centro de Investigação e Tecnologias Agroambientais e Biológicas, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Ap 1013, 5001–801 Vila Real (Portugal); Pacheco, Fernando António Leal, E-mail: fpacheco@utad.pt [Centro de Química de Vila Real, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Ap 1013, 5001–801 Vila Real (Portugal)

    2017-05-15

    Road spills of hazardous substances are common in developing countries due to increasing industrialization and traffic accidents, and represent a serious threat to soils and water in catchments. There is abundant literature on equations describing the wash-off of pollutants from roads during a storm event and there are a number of watershed models incorporating those equations in storm water quality algorithms that route runoff and pollution yields through a drainage system towards the catchment outlet. However, methods describing catchment vulnerability to contamination by road spills based solely on biophysical parameters are scarce. These methods could be particularly attractive to managers because they can operate with a limited amount of easily collectable data, while still being able to provide important insights on the areas more prone to contamination within the studied watershed. The purpose of this paper was then to contribute with a new vulnerability model. To accomplish the goal, a selection of medium properties appearing in wash-off equations and routing algorithms were assembled and processed in a parametric framework based on multi criteria analysis to define the watershed vulnerability. However, parameters had to be adapted because wash-off equations and water quality models have been developed to operate primarily in the urban environment while the vulnerability model is meant to run in rural watersheds. The selected parameters were hillside slope, ground roughness (depending on land use), soil permeability (depending on soil type), distance to water courses and stream density. The vulnerability model is a spatially distributed algorithm that was prepared to run under the IDRISI Selva software, a GIS platform capable of handling spatial and alphanumeric data and execute the necessary terrain model, hydrographic and thematic analyses. For illustrative purposes, the vulnerability model was applied to the legally protected Environmental Protection

  20. A multi criteria analog model for assessing the vulnerability of rural catchments to road spills of hazardous substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Hygor Evangelista; Pissarra, Teresa Cristina Tarlé; Farias do Valle Junior, Renato; Fernandes, Luis Filipe Sanches; Pacheco, Fernando António Leal

    2017-01-01

    Road spills of hazardous substances are common in developing countries due to increasing industrialization and traffic accidents, and represent a serious threat to soils and water in catchments. There is abundant literature on equations describing the wash-off of pollutants from roads during a storm event and there are a number of watershed models incorporating those equations in storm water quality algorithms that route runoff and pollution yields through a drainage system towards the catchment outlet. However, methods describing catchment vulnerability to contamination by road spills based solely on biophysical parameters are scarce. These methods could be particularly attractive to managers because they can operate with a limited amount of easily collectable data, while still being able to provide important insights on the areas more prone to contamination within the studied watershed. The purpose of this paper was then to contribute with a new vulnerability model. To accomplish the goal, a selection of medium properties appearing in wash-off equations and routing algorithms were assembled and processed in a parametric framework based on multi criteria analysis to define the watershed vulnerability. However, parameters had to be adapted because wash-off equations and water quality models have been developed to operate primarily in the urban environment while the vulnerability model is meant to run in rural watersheds. The selected parameters were hillside slope, ground roughness (depending on land use), soil permeability (depending on soil type), distance to water courses and stream density. The vulnerability model is a spatially distributed algorithm that was prepared to run under the IDRISI Selva software, a GIS platform capable of handling spatial and alphanumeric data and execute the necessary terrain model, hydrographic and thematic analyses. For illustrative purposes, the vulnerability model was applied to the legally protected Environmental Protection

  1. Estimated airborne release of plutonium from Westinghouse Cheswick site as a result of postulated damage from severe wind and seismic hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, J.; Schwendiman, L.C.; Ayer, J.E.

    1979-06-01

    The potential airborne releases of plutonium (source terms) from postulated damage sustained by the Westinghouse Plutonium Fuel Development Laboratories at the Cheswick site in Pennsylvania as a result of various levels of wind and seismic hazard are estimated. The source terms are based on damage scenarios originated by other specialists and range up to 260 mph for wind hazard and in excess of 0.39 g ground acceleration for seismic hazard. The approaches and factors used to estimate the source terms (inventories of dispersible materials at risk, damage levels and ratios, fractional airborne releases of dispersible materials under stress, atmosphere exchange rates, and source term ranges) are discussed. Source term estimates range from less than 10 -7 g plutonium to greater than 130 g plutonium over a four-day period

  2. Development of a unified federal/state coastal/inland oil and hazardous substance contingency plan for the state of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautenberger, C.; Pearson, L.

    1993-01-01

    Passage of the US Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990 expanded the existing federal planning and response framework in several ways. The OPA created a new requirement for facility and tank vessel response plans and creates an area-level planning and coordination structure to help supplement federal, regional, and local planning efforts. The OPA amended the existing Clean Water Act's section 311(j)(4), which establishes area committees and area contingency plans as primary components of this structure. In 1980, the Alaska legislature enacted legislation which defines the state's policies regarding oil spills. Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill, additional legislation was passed to expand and strengthen the state's oil spill program. Specifically, in 1989 the Senate Bill 261 required the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation to develop, annually review, and revise the State Oil and Hazardous Substance Contingency Plans (State Master and Regional Plans). State regional plans serve as annexes to the State Master Plan. The coordinated and cooperative efforts by government agencies and local entities toward creating a unified federal/state, coastal/inland Oil and Hazardous Substance Contingency Plan are presented, along with the development and progress of unified area/regional contingency plans for Alaska. 3 figs

  3. Environmental effects and potential hazards of chemical substances used in waste water purification; Umweltvertraeglichkeit und Gefaehrdungspotentiale von Abwasserbehandlungschemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, H. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene

    1999-07-01

    Waste water purification in sewage systems would be impossible without additions of chemical substances for coagulation, flocculation and neutralisation. However, these substances also pollute the purified waste water and the freshwater supplies. In addition, the non-reactive fraction of toxic substances originally contained in the waste water is discharged with the purified waste water and adds to the pollution of freshwater reservoirs. Detailed investigations are required for defining the state of the art in the use of chemical substances for waste water purification. [German] Um Schadstoffe aus dem Abwasser zu entfernen, werden in der Klaeranlage bestimmte Hilfsstoffe zugesetzt, ohne die eine Reinigung des Abwassers nicht in dieser Qualitaet moeglich waere und unverhaeltnismaessig teuer wuerde. Die Hilfsstoffe unterstuetzen den Reinigungsprozess durch Faellung, Flockung und Neutralisation. Durch den Einsatz dieser Chemikalien zur Behandlung von Abwaessern gelangen jedoch auch - Verunreinigungen durch die Nebenstoff-Matrix der eingesetzten Behandlungschemikalien in das behandelte Abwasser und in die Gewaesser und - durch ueberstoechiometrische Dosierung oder Additive tritt der nicht reagierende Teil toxischer Substanzen ebenfalls im behandelten Abwasserablauf und im Gewaesser auf. Detaillierte Untersuchungen erscheinen geboten, um auf dieser Grundlage den Stand der Technik beim Einsatz von Chemikalien zur Abwasserbehandlung zu formulieren. (orig./SR)

  4. ''Hazardous'' terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.

    1991-01-01

    A number of terms (e.g., ''hazardous chemicals,'' ''hazardous materials,'' ''hazardous waste,'' and similar nomenclature) refer to substances that are subject to regulation under one or more federal environmental laws. State laws and regulations also provide additional, similar, or identical terminology that may be confused with the federally defined terms. Many of these terms appear synonymous, and it easy to use them interchangeably. However, in a regulatory context, inappropriate use of narrowly defined terms can lead to confusion about the substances referred to, the statutory provisions that apply, and the regulatory requirements for compliance under the applicable federal statutes. This information Brief provides regulatory definitions, a brief discussion of compliance requirements, and references for the precise terminology that should be used when referring to ''hazardous'' substances regulated under federal environmental laws. A companion CERCLA Information Brief (EH-231-004/0191) addresses ''toxic'' nomenclature

  5. Dendrimer and an active substance occluded in the dendrimer : a process for the preparation thereof and a process for releasing the active substance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a dendrimer composition in which an effective number of the terminal functionalities are provided with blocking agents, and at least one active substance species is occluded in the dendrimer. A blocking agent is a sufficiently sterically sized compound which readily enters

  6. Illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic substances from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James C; Thorne, Michael C; Towler, George; Norris, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Many countries have a programme for developing an underground geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. A case study is provided herein on the illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic and radioactive substances from a generic geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. The illustrative assessment uses a source-pathway-receptor methodology and considers a number of human exposure pathways. Estimated exposures are compared with authoritative toxicological assessment criteria. The possibility of additive and synergistic effects resulting from exposures to mixtures of chemical contaminants or a combination of radiotoxic and chemotoxic substances is considered. The case study provides an illustration of how to assess human health issues arising from chemotoxic species released from a GDF for radioactive waste and highlights potential difficulties associated with a lack of data being available with which to assess synergistic effects. It also highlights how such difficulties can be addressed.

  7. Illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic substances from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, James C; Towler, George; Thorne, Michael C; Norris, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Many countries have a programme for developing an underground geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. A case study is provided herein on the illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic and radioactive substances from a generic geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. The illustrative assessment uses a source–pathway–receptor methodology and considers a number of human exposure pathways. Estimated exposures are compared with authoritative toxicological assessment criteria. The possibility of additive and synergistic effects resulting from exposures to mixtures of chemical contaminants or a combination of radiotoxic and chemotoxic substances is considered. The case study provides an illustration of how to assess human health issues arising from chemotoxic species released from a GDF for radioactive waste and highlights potential difficulties associated with a lack of data being available with which to assess synergistic effects. It also highlights how such difficulties can be addressed.

  8. Technical principles underlying limit values for release of substances for the percolation test TS3: comparison DE and NL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Zomeren, A.; Dijkstra, J.J. [ECN Environment and Energy Engineering, Petten (Netherlands); Susset, B. [Consulting Office SiWaP (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Within CEN TC 351 WG 1, standardized, horizontal test methods are developed to assess the release (leaching) of dangerous substances from construction as defined in ER3 of the CPD. For granular materials TS 3, a horizontal up-flow percolation test, was further developed by CEN TC 351 WG1 and will enter the validation phase in 2013. In CEN TC 351 WG1, there are still discussions regarding the sample preparation and some test conditions. Currently, two options for sample preparation and test conditions are specified. Controversy between DE and NL regarding sample preparation and test conditions and the need for two separate options in the TS 3 percolation test are possibly for a part caused by different approaches for risk assessment in the Netherlands and in Germany and the resulting regulatory concepts. One important reason for this is, that in soil and groundwater regulations the test method and the impact assessment method are systematically linked together but the impact assessment methods and lab methods in both countries are different. The discussions in CEN TC 351 WG 1 show that there is a need to have a better mutual understanding of the relation between test method and impact assessment on the one hand and a clear overview of differences in impact assessment approaches of each country on the other hand. The aim of this project is to explain and compare the assumptions, boundary conditions and conventions of the impact assessment approach that are implemented in the upcoming German Recycling Degree and in the Soil Quality Degree of the Netherlands. Ultimately, a better understanding of the impact assessment approaches provides a basis for further discussion in WG1 to agree on only one option for the percolation test conditions. The following report is prepared by the contractors of Germany and Netherlands together to compare the two country-specific concepts. This report summarizes and explains the presentation given on the 25th of April at TC 351 WG1 in

  9. Estimated airborne release of plutonium from the 102 Building at the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Vallecitos, California, as a result of postulated damage from severe wind and earthquake hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, J.; Ayer, J.E.; Hays, I.D.

    1980-12-01

    This report estimates the potential airborne releases of plutonium as a consequence of various severities of earthquake and wind hazard postulated for the 102 Building at the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center in California. The releases are based on damage scenarios developed by other specialists. The hazard severities presented range up to a nominal velocity of 230 mph for wind hazard and are in excess of 0.8 g linear acceleration for earthquakes. The consequences of thrust faulting are considered. The approaches and factors used to estimate the releases are discussed. Release estimates range from 0.003 to 3 g Pu

  10. Compilation of data on the release of radioactive substances in the vent air of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, I.; Endrulat, H.J.; Haubelt, R.; Westpfahl, U.

    1976-04-01

    The present compilation of data on the release of radioactive substances in the vent air of nuclear power plants in the FRG is a continuation of a report series on aerosol filter and iodine filter samples from the exhaust air control systems of the nuclear power plants Gundremmingen, Obrigheim, Wuergassen, Stade, Lingen and Biblis A. The reports have been issued by the Federal public health office since 1972. This report is supplemented by annual release values on radioactive noble gases, on short- and long-lived aerosols, and on gaseous 131 I, supplied by the individual nuclear power plants as in previous years on uniform questionnaires. Data on the release of tritium are also available from some nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  11. Predictors of time to relapse in amphetamine-type substance users in the matrix treatment program in Iran: a Cox proportional hazard model application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeeni, Maryam; Razaghi, Emran M; Ponnet, Koen; Torabi, Fatemeh; Shafiee, Seyed Ali; Pashaei, Tahereh

    2016-07-26

    The aim of this study was to determine which predictors influence the risk of relapse among a cohort of amphetamine-type substance (ATS) users in Iran. A Cox proportional hazards model was conducted to determine factors associated with the relapse time in the Matrix treatment program provided by the Iranian National Center of Addiction Studies (INCAS) between March 2010 and October 2011. Participating in more treatment sessions was associated with a lower probability of relapse. On the other hand, patients with less family support, longer dependence on ATS, and those with an experience of casual sex and a history of criminal offenses were more likely to relapse. This study broadens our understanding of factors influencing the risk of relapse in ATS use among an Iranian sample. The findings can guide practitioners during the treatment program.

  12. Tracking and mapping of spatiotemporal quantities using unicellular swarm intelligence visualisation of invisible hazardous substances using unicellular swarm intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Oyekan, John Oluwagbemiga

    2016-01-01

    The book discusses new algorithms capable of searching for, tracking, mapping and providing a visualization of invisible substances. It reports on the realization of a bacterium-inspired robotic controller that can be used by an agent to search for any environmental spatial function such as temperature or pollution. Using the parameters of a mathematical model, the book shows that it is possible to control the exploration, exploitation and sensitivity of the agent. This feature sets the work apart from the usual method of applying the bacterium behavior to robotic agents. The book also discusses how a computationally tractable multi-agent robotic controller was developed and used to track as well as provide a visual map of a spatio-temporal distribution of a substance. On the one hand, this book provides biologists and ecologists with a basis to perform simulations related to how individual organisms respond to spatio-temporal factors in their environment as well as predict and analyze the behavior of organis...

  13. Determination of Substances Content of Soil Surface Using Fast Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elin Nuraini; Elisabeth; Sunardi

    2002-01-01

    Determination of substances content of soil surface using neutron activation analysis has been performed. The aim of this research is to determine whether there are any dangerous, hazardous and toxic substances that released from The Research and Development Center for Advanced Technology (RDCAT) as a government institution has possibility in releasing that substances to the environment by surface water, sewage or rain water that give any dangerous the environmental. The fast neutron activation analysis was used to analyze the type and concentration of substances qualitative and quantitatively. The quantitative analysis was performed using relative method. Samples were counted using NaI(TI) detector. The result showed that there are several substances such as Mn-55, Fe-56, P-31, Al-27. Zn,65 and Mg-24. And there are found any hazardous, dangerous and toxic substances in the samples that causing any danger to human and environment. (author)

  14. Contingency plan for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300, hazardous waste operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    This contingency plan for hazardous waste release provides guidance for coordinating response efforts. With a goal to minimize hazards to human health and life; and protect livestock, wildlife, the environment, and property in the event of a fire, explosion, or any unplanned release of hazardous substances or mixtures to the air, water, or soil. In this document, hazardous waste includes all waste substances or mixtures that: contain any of the hazardous substances listed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; have the characteristic of being toxic, flammable, reactive, corrosive, an irritant, and/or a strong sensitizer; are radioactive and are used in experiments at Site 300; or could have a significant effect on the environment. This Plan includes an overview of emergency response capabilities; and responsibilities assigned to both LLNL and non-LLNL emergency response personel

  15. Discriminated release of phenolic substances from red wine grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) by multicomponent enzymes treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    Detailed insight into the effects of enzymatic treatments on grape phenolics is of significant importance for grape processing for wine making. This study examined the release of phenols during enzymatic (pectinolytic and cellulolytic) degradation of the cell wall polysaccharides in skins of Merlot...... the enzymatic treatment; phenolic acids, including hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acids, were released as a function of monosaccharides liberation, i.e. as a function of the enzyme catalyzed cell wall degradation of the skins, and with some of the phenolic acids perhaps released from the lignin...

  16. Analysis of accidental UF6 releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yumao; Tan Rui; Gao Qifa

    2012-01-01

    As interim substance in the nuclear fuel enrichment process, Uranium Hexafluoride (UF 6 ) is widely applied in nuclear processing, enrichment and fuel fabrication plants. Because of its vivid chemical characteristics and special radiological hazard and chemical toxicity, great attention must be paid to accident of UF 6 leakage. The chemical reactions involved in UF 6 release processes were introduced, therewith potential release styles, pathways and characteristics of diffusion were analyzed. The results indicated that the accidental release process of UF 6 is not a simple passive diffusion. So, specific atmospheric diffusion model related to UF 6 releases need be used in order to analyze and evaluate accurately the accidental consequences. (authors)

  17. User's guide for the KBERT 1.0 code: For the knowledge-based estimation of hazards of radioactive material releases from DOE nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browitt, D.S.; Washington, K.E.; Powers, D.A.

    1995-07-01

    The possibility of worker exposure to radioactive materials during accidents at nuclear facilities is a principal concern of the DOE. The KBERT software has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories under DOE support to address this issue by assisting in the estimation of risks posed by accidents at chemical and nuclear facilities. KBERT is an acronym for Knowledge-Based system for Estimating hazards of Radioactive material release Transients. The current prototype version of KBERT focuses on calculation of doses and consequences to in-facility workers due to accidental releases of radioactivity. This report gives detailed instructions on how a user who is familiar with the design, layout and potential hazards of a facility can use KBERT to assess the risks to workers in that facility. KBERT is a tool that allows a user to simulate possible accidents and observe the predicted consequences. Potential applications of KBERT include the evaluation of the efficacy of evacuation practices, worker shielding, personal protection equipment and the containment of hazardous materials

  18. Toxicity of seven priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) to marine organisms: Current status, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Galhano, Victor; Ferreira, Marta; Guimarães, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Shipping industry and seaborne trade have rapidly increased over the last fifty years, mainly due to the continuous increasing demand for chemicals and fuels. Consequently, despite current regulations, the occurrence of accidental spills poses an important risk. Hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) have been raising major concern among environmental managers and scientific community for their heterogeneity, hazardous potential towards aquatic organisms and associated social-economic impacts. A literature review on ecotoxicological hazards to aquatic organisms was conducted for seven HNSs: acrylonitrile, n-butyl acrylate, cyclohexylbenzene, hexane, isononanol, trichloroethylene and xylene. Information on the mechanisms of action of the selected HNS was also reviewed. The main purpose was to identify: i) knowledge gaps in need of being addressed in future research; and ii) a set of possible biomarkers suitable for ecotoxicological assessment and monitoring in both estuarine and marine systems. Main gaps found concern the scarcity of information available on ecotoxicological effects of HNS towards marine species and their poorly understood mode of action in wildlife. Differences were found between the sensitivity of freshwater and seawater organisms, so endpoints produced in the former may not be straightforwardly employed in evaluations for the marine environment. The relationship between sub-individual effects and higher level detrimental alterations (e.g. behavioural, morphological, reproductive effects and mortality) are not fully understood. In this context, a set of biomarkers associated to neurotoxicity, detoxification and anti-oxidant defences is suggested as potential indicators of toxic exposure/effects of HNS in marine organisms. Overall, to support the development of contingency plans and the establishment of environmental safety thresholds, it will be necessary to undertake targeted research on HNS ecotoxicity in the marine environment. Research should

  19. Toxicity of seven priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) to marine organisms: Current status, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S., E-mail: cristinasrocha@gmail.com; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Galhano, Victor; Ferreira, Marta, E-mail: marta.ferreira@usp.ac.fj; Guimarães, Laura

    2016-01-15

    Shipping industry and seaborne trade have rapidly increased over the last fifty years, mainly due to the continuous increasing demand for chemicals and fuels. Consequently, despite current regulations, the occurrence of accidental spills poses an important risk. Hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) have been raising major concern among environmental managers and scientific community for their heterogeneity, hazardous potential towards aquatic organisms and associated social-economic impacts. A literature review on ecotoxicological hazards to aquatic organisms was conducted for seven HNSs: acrylonitrile, n-butyl acrylate, cyclohexylbenzene, hexane, isononanol, trichloroethylene and xylene. Information on the mechanisms of action of the selected HNS was also reviewed. The main purpose was to identify: i) knowledge gaps in need of being addressed in future research; and ii) a set of possible biomarkers suitable for ecotoxicological assessment and monitoring in both estuarine and marine systems. Main gaps found concern the scarcity of information available on ecotoxicological effects of HNS towards marine species and their poorly understood mode of action in wildlife. Differences were found between the sensitivity of freshwater and seawater organisms, so endpoints produced in the former may not be straightforwardly employed in evaluations for the marine environment. The relationship between sub-individual effects and higher level detrimental alterations (e.g. behavioural, morphological, reproductive effects and mortality) are not fully understood. In this context, a set of biomarkers associated to neurotoxicity, detoxification and anti-oxidant defences is suggested as potential indicators of toxic exposure/effects of HNS in marine organisms. Overall, to support the development of contingency plans and the establishment of environmental safety thresholds, it will be necessary to undertake targeted research on HNS ecotoxicity in the marine environment. Research should

  20. Subjective effects, misuse, and adverse effects of osmotic-release methylphenidate treatment in adolescent substance abusers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winhusen, Theresa M; Lewis, Daniel F; Riggs, Paula D; Davies, Robert D; Adler, Lenard A; Sonne, Susan; Somoza, Eugene C

    2011-10-01

    Psychostimulants are effective treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but may be associated with euphoric effects, misuse/diversion, and adverse effects. These risks are perceived by some clinicians to be greater in substance-abusing adolescents relative to non-substance-abusing adults. The present study evaluates the subjective effects, misuse/diversion, and adverse effects associated with the use of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH), relative to placebo, for treating ADHD in adolescents with a substance use disorder (SUD) as a function of substance use severity and compared these risks with those associated with the treatment of ADHD in adults without a non-nicotine SUD. Datasets from two randomized placebo-controlled trials of OROS-MPH for treating ADHD, one conducted with 303 adolescents (13-18) with at least one non-nicotine SUD and one with 255 adult smokers (18-55), were analyzed. Outcome measures included the Massachusetts General Hospital Liking Scale, self-reported medication compliance, pill counts, and adverse events (AEs). Euphoric effects and misuse/diversion of OROS-MPH were not significantly affected by substance use severity. The euphoric effects of OROS-MPH did not significantly differ between the adolescent and adult samples. Adults rated OROS-MPH as more effective in treating ADHD, whereas adolescents reported feeling more depressed when taking OROS-MPH. The adolescents lost more pills relative to the adults regardless of treatment condition, which suggests the importance of careful medication monitoring. Higher baseline use of alcohol and cannabis was associated with an increased risk of experiencing a treatment-related AE in OROS-MPH, but baseline use did not increase the risk of serious AEs or of any particular category of AE and the adolescents did not experience more treatment-related AEs relative to the adults. With good monitoring, and in the context of substance abuse treatment, OROS-MPH can

  1. Recommendations on chemicals management policy and legislation in the framework of the Egyptian-German twinning project on hazardous substances and waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Burkhard O; Aziz, Elham Refaat Abdel; Schwetje, Anja; Shouk, Fatma Abou; Koch-Jugl, Juliane; Braedt, Michael; Choudhury, Keya; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The sustainable management of chemicals and their associated wastes-especially legacy stockpiles-is always challenging. Developing countries face particular difficulties as they often have insufficient treatment and disposal capacity, have limited resources and many lack an appropriate and effective regulatory framework. This paper describes the objectives and the approach of the Egyptian-German Twinning Project under the European Neighbourhood Policy to improve the strategy of managing hazardous substances in the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) between November 2008 and May 2011. It also provides an introduction to the Republic of Egypt's legal and administrative system regarding chemical controls. Subsequently, options for a new chemical management strategy consistent with the recommendations of the United Nations Chemicals Conventions are proposed. The Egyptian legal and administrative system is discussed in relation to the United Nations' recommendations and current European Union legislation for the sound management of chemicals. We also discuss a strategy for the EEAA to use the existing Egyptian legal system to implement the United Nations' Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, the Stockholm Convention and other proposed regulatory frameworks. The analysis, the results, and the recommendations presented may be useful for other developing countries in a comparable position to Egypt aspiring to update their legislation and administration to the international standards of sound management of chemicals.

  2. Transportation of hazardous goods

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A general reminder: any transportation of hazardous goods by road is subject to the European ADR rules. The goods concerned are essentially the following: Explosive substances and objects; Gases (including aerosols and non-flammable gases such as helium and nitrogen); Flammable substances and liquids (inks, paints, resins, petroleum products, alcohols, acetone, thinners); Toxic substances (acids, thinners); Radioactive substances; Corrosive substances (paints, acids, caustic products, disinfectants, electrical batteries). Any requests for the transport of hazardous goods must be executed in compliance with the instructions given at this URL: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/he/HH/adr.pdf Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 73793 - 160364

  3. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory response to the December 13, 1991, Congressional inquiry on offsite release of hazardous and solid waste containing radioactive materials from Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, C.; Garcia, K.M.; McMurtrey, C.D.; Williams, K.L.; Jordan, P.J.

    1992-05-01

    This report is a response to the December 13, 1991, Congressional inquiry that requested information on all hazardous and solid waste containing radioactive materials sent from Department of Energy facilities to offsite facilities for treatment or disposal since January 1, 1981. This response is for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Other Department of Energy laboratories are preparing responses for their respective operations. The request includes ten questions, which the report divides into three parts, each responding to a related group of questions. Part 1 answers Questions 5, 6, and 7, which call for a description of Department of Energy and contractor documentation governing the release of waste containing radioactive materials to offsite facilities. ''Offsite'' is defined as non-Department of Energy and non-Department of Defense facilities, such as commercial facilities. Also requested is a description of the review process for relevant release criteria and a list of afl Department of Energy and contractor documents concerning release criteria as of January 1, 1981. Part 2 answers Questions 4, 8, and 9, which call for information about actual releases of waste containing radioactive materials to offsite facilities from 1981 to the present, including radiation levels and pertinent documentation. Part 3 answers Question 10, which requests a description of the process for selecting offsite facilities for treatment or disposal of waste from Department of Energy facilities. In accordance with instructions from the Department of Energy, the report does not address Questions 1, 2, and 3

  4. 40 CFR 68.25 - Worst-case release scenario analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.25 Worst-case release... processes, one worst-case release scenario for each Program 1 process; (2) For Program 2 and 3 processes: (i... toxic substances from covered processes under worst-case conditions defined in § 68.22; (ii) One worst...

  5. Using the Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm for Humans (AHAAH) With Hearing Protection Software, Release MIL-STD-1474E

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    unfolding.” Invited article in NHCA’s Spectrum. 1997 MIL-STD-1474D. (1997). “Department of defense design criteria. Noise limits,” http...Passenger Safety, Washington, DC. Price, G. R. (1997). “Understanding hazard from intense sounds.” Invited seminar to Audiology Department, University of...Putting theory into practice.” In H. M. Borchgrevink (Ed.), Hearing and hearing prophylaxis, Scandinavian Audiology Supplement 16 (pp. 111-121

  6. Nutmeg oil alleviates chronic inflammatory pain through inhibition of COX-2 expression and substance P release in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Kevin Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic pain, or sometimes referred to as persistent pain, reduces the life quality of patients who are suffering from chronic diseases such as inflammatory diseases, cancer and diabetes. Hence, herbal medicines draw many attentions and have been shown effective in the treatment or relief of pain. Methods and Results: Here in this study, we used the CFA-injected rats as a sustainable pain model to test the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of nutmeg oil, a spice flavor additive to beverages and baked goods produced from the seed of Myristica fragrans tree. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that nutmeg oil could potentially alleviate the CFA-injection induced joint swelling, mechanical allodynia and heat hyperanalgesia of rats through inhibition of COX-2 expression and blood substance P level, which made it possible for nutmeg oil to be a potential chronic pain reliever.

  7. Iron oxide/aluminum/graphene energetic nanocomposites synthesized by atomic layer deposition: Enhanced energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ning; Qin, Lijun; Hao, Haixia; Hui, Longfei; Zhao, Fengqi; Feng, Hao

    2017-06-01

    Nanocomposites consisting of iron oxide (Fe2O3) and nano-sized aluminum (Al), possessing outstanding exothermic redox reaction characteristics, are highly promising nanothermite materials. However, the reactant diffusion inhibited in the solid state system makes the fast and complete energy release very challenging. In this work, Al nanoparticles anchored on graphene oxide (GO/Al) was initially prepared by a solution assembly approach. Fe2O3 was deposited on GO/Al substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Simultaneously thermal reduction of GO occurs, resulting in rGO/Al@Fe2O3 energetic composites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis reveals that rGO/Al@Fe2O3 composite containing 4.8 wt% of rGO exhibits a 50% increase of the energy release compared to the Al@Fe2O3 nanothermite synthesized by ALD, and an increase of about 130% compared to a random mixture of rGO/Al/Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The enhanced energy release of rGO/Al@Fe2O3 is attributed to the improved spatial distribution as well as the increased interfacial intimacy between the oxidizer and the fuel. Moreover, the rGO/Al@Fe2O3 composite with an rGO content of 9.6 wt% exhibits significantly reduced electrostatic discharge sensitivity. These findings may inspire potential pathways for engineering energetic nanocomposites with enhanced energy release and improved safety characteristics.

  8. The association of the original OSHA chemical hazard communication standard with reductions in acute work injuries/illnesses in private industry and the industrial releases of chemical carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinick, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    OSHA predicted the original chemical Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) would cumulatively reduce the lost workday acute injury/illness rate for exposure events by 20% over 20 years and reduce exposure to chemical carcinogens. JoinPoint trend software identified changes in the rate of change of BLS rates for days away from work for acute injuries/illnesses during 1992-2009 for manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries for both chemical, noxious or allergenic injury exposure events and All other exposure events. The annual percent change in the rates was used to adjust observed numbers of cases to estimate their association with the standard. A case-control study of EPA's Toxic Release Inventory 1988-2009 data compared carcinogen and non-carcinogens' releases. The study estimates that the HCS was associated with a reduction in the number of acute injuries/illnesses due to chemical injury exposure events over the background rate in the range 107,569-459,395 (Hudson method/modified BIC model) depending on whether the HCS is treated as a marginal or sole factor in the decrease. Carcinogen releases have declined at a substantially faster rate than control non-carcinogens. The previous HCS standard was associated with significant reductions in chemical event acute injuries/illnesses and chemical carcinogen exposures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. 40 CFR 355.31 - What types of releases are exempt from the emergency release notification requirements of this...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO... combustion related activities. (g) Any release to the air of a hazardous substance from animal waste at farms that stable or confine fewer than the numbers of animal specified in any of the following categories...

  10. Contribution of precursor compounds to the release of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Ulrika; Haglund, Peter; Kärrman, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous in sludge and water from waste water treatment plants, as a result of their incorporation in everyday products and industrial processes. In this study, we measured several classes of persistent PFASs, precursors, transformation intermediates, and newly identified PFASs in influent and effluent sewage water and sludge from three municipal waste water treatment plants in Sweden, sampled in 2015. For sludge, samples from 2012 and 2014 were analyzed as well. Levels of precursors in sludge exceeded those of perfluoroalkyl acids and sulfonic acids (PFCAs and PFSAs), in 2015 the sum of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid esters (PAPs) were 15-20ng/g dry weight, the sum of fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs) was 0.8-1.3ng/g, and the sum of perfluorooctane sulfonamides and ethanols ranged from non-detected to 3.2ng/g. Persistent PFSAs and PFCAs were detected at 1.9-3.9ng/g and 2.4-7.3ng/g dry weight, respectively. The influence of precursor compounds was further demonstrated by an observed substantial increase for a majority of the persistent PFCAs and PFSAs in water after waste water treatment. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) had a net mass increase in all WWTPs, with mean values of 83%, 28%, 37% and 58%, respectively. The load of precursors and intermediates in influent water and sludge combined with net mass increase support the hypothesis that degradation of precursor compounds is a significant contributor to PFAS contamination in the environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Radioactive hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of radioactive substances in hospital laboratories is discussed and the attendant hazards and necessary precautions examined. The new legislation under the Health and Safety at Work Act which, it is proposed, will replace existing legal requirements in the field of health and safety at work by a system of regulations and approved codes of practice designed to maintain or improve the standards of health, safety and welfare already established, is considered with particular reference to protection against ionising radiations. (UK)

  12. 78 FR 9311 - Hazard Communication; Corrections and Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ....1044, Appendix Reference to ``Class IIIA combustible B. liquid'' is corrected to ``Category 4 flammable..., Fire prevention, Hazard communication, Hazardous substances, Occupational safety and health. 29 CFR... Asbestos, Construction industry, Fire prevention, Hazardous substances, Occupational safety and health...

  13. Substances released from probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 potentiate NF-κB activity in Escherichia coli-stimulated urinary bladder cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Mattias; Scherbak, Nikolai; Khalaf, Hazem; Olsson, Per-Erik; Jass, Jana

    2012-11-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 is a probiotic bacterium used to maintain urogenital health. The putative mechanism for its probiotic effect is by modulating the host immunity. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are often caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli that frequently evade or suppress immune responses in the bladder and can target pathways, including nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). We evaluated the role of L. rhamnosus GR-1 on NF-κB activation in E. coli-stimulated bladder cells. Viable L. rhamnosus GR-1 was found to potentiate NF-κB activity in E. coli-stimulated T24 bladder cells, whereas heat-killed lactobacilli demonstrated a marginal increase in NF-κB activity. Surface components released by trypsin- or LiCl treatment, or the resultant heat-killed shaved lactobacilli, had no effect on NF-κB activity. Isolation of released products from L. rhamnosus GR-1 demonstrated that the induction of NF-κB activity was owing to released product(s) with a relatively large native size. Several putative immunomodulatory proteins were identified, namely GroEL, elongation factor Tu and NLP/P60. GroEL and elongation factor Tu have previously been shown to elicit immune responses from human cells. Isolating and using immune-augmenting substances produced by lactobacilli is a novel strategy for the prevention or treatment of UTI caused by immune-evading E. coli. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of NSAIDs and paracetamol (acetaminophen on protein kinase C epsilon translocation and on substance P synthesis and release in cultured sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellani V

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vittorio Vellani,1 Silvia Franchi,2 Massimiliano Prandini,1 Sarah Moretti,2 Mara Castelli,2 Chiara Giacomoni,3 Paola Sacerdote21Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy; 2Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 3Department of Economics and Technology, University of the Republic of San Marino, Republic of San MarinoAbstract: Celecoxib, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and nimesulide are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs very commonly used for the treatment of moderate to mild pain, together with paracetamol (acetaminophen, a very widely used analgesic with a lesser anti-inflammatory effect. In the study reported here, we tested the efficacy of celecoxib, diclofenac, and ibuprofen on preprotachykinin mRNA synthesis, substance P (SP release, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 release, and protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε translocation in rat cultured sensory neurons from dorsal root ganglia (DRGs. The efficacy of these NSAIDs was compared with the efficacy of paracetamol and nimesulide in in vitro models of hyperalgesia (investigated previously. While nimesulide and paracetamol, as in previous experiments, decreased the percentage of cultured DRG neurons showing translocation of PKCε caused by 100 nM thrombin or 1 µM bradykinin in a dose-dependent manner, the other NSAIDs tested did not have a significant effect. The amount of SP released by peptidergic neurons and the expression level of preprotachykinin mRNA were assessed in basal conditions and after 70 minutes or 36 hours of stimulation with an inflammatory soup (IS containing potassium chloride, thrombin, bradykinin, and endothelin-1. The release of SP at 70 minutes was inhibited only by nimesulide, while celecoxib and diclofenac were effective at 36 hours. The mRNA basal level of the SP precursor preprotachykinin expressed in DRG neurons was reduced only by nimesulide, while the

  15. 16 CFR 1500.5 - Hazardous mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., flammable, sensitizing, or pressure-generating properties of a substance from what is known about its... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES; ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.5 Hazardous mixtures...

  16. Effect of temperature on the release of intentionally and non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: chemical analysis and potential toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Severin, Isabelle; Munoz, Jean-François; Etienne, Serge; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of temperature on the release of PET-bottle constituents into water and to assess the potential health hazard using in vitro bioassays with bacteria and human cell lines. Aldehydes, trace metals and other compounds found in plastic packaging were analysed in PET-bottled water stored at different temperatures: 40, 50, and 60°C. In this study, temperature and the presence of CO2 increased the release of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony (Sb). In parallel, genotoxicity assays (Ames and micronucleus assays) and transcriptional-reporter gene assays for estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity were performed on bottled water extracts at relevant consumer exposure levels. As expected, and in accordance with the chemical formulations specified for PET bottles, neither phthalates nor UV stabilisers were present in the water extracts. However, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, a degradation compound of phenolic antioxidants, was detected. In addition, an intermediary monomer, bis(2-hydroxyethyl)terephthalate, was found but only in PET-bottled waters. None of the compounds are on the positive list of EU Regulation No. 10/2011. However, the PET-bottled water extracts did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or endocrine-disruption activity in the bioassays after exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Basic principles for the development of a concept for environmental exposure assessments of single substances released from multiple uses under REACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Rita; Bunke, Dirk [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    The ECHA Guidance Documents R.12 to R.18 include detailed provisions on how to conduct an exposure assessment as part of the Chemical Safety Report. The guidance documents, however, only restrictedly address the consideration of a substance's emissions into the environment, if the local releases from various uses of the same substance result in a cumulative exposure. In a situation where a chemical has a number of applications in one site, it may however occur that the emissions of several uses which only have a low risk if considered separately will sum up and cause an unacceptable risk to the environment. Against this background, the objective of the present study is a further specification of the guidelines on cumulative risk assessment according to the REACH Regulation. Besides the definition of the key terminology, guidelines on cumulative exposure assessment already laid down in other legal regulations have been evaluated and their transferability to the environmental exposure assessment according to REACH has been investigated. Moreover, the fields of application for which a cumulative exposure assessment might be relevant have been worked out. A distinction was made between cases where the responsibility for cumulative exposure assessment falls into the hands of the registrant as part of the Chemical Safety Report and other cases, where the responsibility lies with the downstream users (DU) or the Member State Competent Authorities (MS-CA). Initial proposals have been elaborated for a technical implementation of the cumulative exposure assessment of chemicals as part of the preparation and evaluation of chemical dossiers by the registrant and the MS-CA, respectively, and as part of the responsibility of the DU. (orig.)

  18. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  19. Modified hazard ranking system for sites with mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes. User manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, K.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Stenner, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    This document describes both the original Hazard Ranking System and the modified Hazard Ranking System as they are to be used in evaluating the relative potential for uncontrolled hazardous substance facilities to cause human health or safety problems or ecological or environmental damage. Detailed instructions for using the mHRS/HRS computer code are provided, along with instructions for performing the calculations by hand. Uniform application of the ranking system will permit the DOE to identify those releases of hazardous substances that pose the greatest hazard to humans or the environment. However, the mHRS/HRS by itself cannot establish priorities for the allocation of funds for remedial action. The mHRS/HRS is a means for applying uniform technical judgment regarding the potential hazards presented by a facility relative to other facilities. It does not address the feasibility, desirability, or degree of cleanup required. Neither does it deal with the readiness or ability of a state to carry out such remedial action, as may be indicated, or to meet other conditions prescribed in CERCLA. 13 refs., 13 figs., 27 tabs

  20. Modified hazard ranking system for sites with mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes. User manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, K.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Stenner, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    This document describes both the original Hazard Ranking System and the modified Hazard Ranking System as they are to be used in evaluating the relative potential for uncontrolled hazardous substance facilities to cause human health or safety problems or ecological or environmental damage. Detailed instructions for using the mHRS/HRS computer code are provided, along with instructions for performing the calculations by hand. Uniform application of the ranking system will permit the DOE to identify those releases of hazardous substances that pose the greatest hazard to humans or the environment. However, the mHRS/HRS by itself cannot establish priorities for the allocation of funds for remedial action. The mHRS/HRS is a means for applying uniform technical judgment regarding the potential hazards presented by a facility relative to other facilities. It does not address the feasibility, desirability, or degree of cleanup required. Neither does it deal with the readiness or ability of a state to carry out such remedial action, as may be indicated, or to meet other conditions prescribed in CERCLA. 13 refs., 13 figs., 27 tabs.

  1. 46 CFR 151.03-30 - Hazardous material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hazardous material means a liquid material or substance that is— (a) Flammable or combustible; (b) Designated a hazardous substance under section 311(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C... Agency designates hazardous substances in 40 CFR Table 116.4A. The Coast Guard designates hazardous...

  2. Optimal selection of the time of hazardous operations, and prediction of consequences of atmospheric releases of harmful matter: the 'Kursk' submarine study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baklanov, A.; Havskov Sorensen, J.; Mahura, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: There are objects and events with higher than normal risks of accidental atmospheric releases (nuclear, chemical, biological, etc.) during certain periods. Such accidents or events may occur due to natural hazards, human errors, terror acts, and may take place during transportation of waste or during various operations at high risk. A methodology for risk assessment is presented including two approaches: 1) probabilistic analysis of possible atmospheric transport patterns using long-term trajectory and dispersion modelling, and 2) forecast and evaluation of possible contamination and consequences for the environment and population using operational dispersion modelling. The first approach can be applied during the preparation stage, and the second during the operation stage. The methodology is applied on an example of the most important phases (lifting, transportation, and decommissioning) of the 'Kursk' nuclear submarine operation. It is found that the temporal variability of several probabilistic indicators (fast transport probability fields, maximum reaching distance, maximum possible impact zone, and average integral concentration of 137 Cs) show that the fall of 2001 was the most appropriate time for the beginning of the operation. These indicators allow identifying the hypothetically impacted geographical regions and territories. In cases of atmospheric transport toward the most populated areas, forecasts of possible consequences during phases of high and medium risks are performed based on a unit hypothetical release, e.g. 1 Bq. The analysis shows possible deposition fractions of 10 -11 Bq/m 2 over the Kola Peninsula, and 10 -12 -10 -13 Bq/m 2 for the remote areas of Scandinavia and Northwest Russia. The methodology may be applied to any potentially dangerous object involving a risk of atmospheric release of hazardous materials of nuclear, chemical or biological nature. In the present paper, the methodology is applied to the handling of the

  3. Emergency planning and the Control of Major Accident Hazards (COMAH/Seveso II) Directive: An approach to determine the public safety zone for toxic cloud releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahony, Mary T.; Doolan, Donal; O'Sullivan, Alice; Hession, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The EU Control of Major Accidents Hazards Directive (Seveso II) requires an external emergency plan for each top tier site. This paper sets out a method to build the protection of public health into emergency planning for Seveso sites in the EU. The method involves the review of Seveso site details prescribed under the directive. The site safety report sets out the potential accident scenarios. The safety report's worst-case scenario, and chemical involved, is used as the basis for the external emergency plan. A decision was needed on the appropriate threshold value to use as the level of concern to protect public health. The definitions of the regulatory standards (air quality standards and occupational standards) in use were studied, how they are derived and for what purpose. The 10 min acute exposure guideline level (AEGL) for a chemical is recommended as the threshold value to inform decisions taken to protect public health from toxic cloud releases. The area delimited by AEGL 1 defines the population who may be concerned about being exposed. They need information based on comprehensive risk assessment. The area delimited by AEGL 2 defines the population for long-term surveillance when indicated and may include first responders. The area delimited by AEGL 3 defines the population who may present acutely to the medical services. It ensures that the emergency responders site themselves safely. A standard methodology facilitates discussions with plant operators and concerned public. Examples show how the methodology can be adapted to suit explosive risk and response to fire

  4. Definition of Time Induction of Self-Ignition of the Substance on the Prognostic Extrapolation Depending on the Basis of Indicators Fire and Explosion Hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sechin, A; Kyrmakova, O; Osipenko, S

    2016-01-01

    In this article the research directed on development of a technique of definition of time of induction of the self-ignition of substances and materials which is an indicator of the beginning of development of an emergency is conducted. The experiment consisting in supervision over process of self-ignition of coal and oil deposits was the basis for research. On the basis of experimental data the curve expressing analytic - expected dependence of size of temperature of ignition on induction time was constructed. Proceeding from graphical representation of process, functional dependence of time of induction on a temperature indicator was received: y = 16920 • x 0 537 . By means of known indicators of such substances as bitumen oil oxidized (the combustible solid substance received by oxidation of residual product of oil refining) and tar oil (the combustible solid substance which is residual product of oil refining) and the received algorithm, verification of reliability of the received dependence and a technique of definition of time of induction of spontaneous ignition of deposits of oil in general was carried out. The practical importance of the conducted research is that having data on time of induction of process of self-ignition, by means of preventive measures becomes possible to avoid and prevent accidents in oil and oil processing branches, at the same time loss of property and loss of human life. (paper)

  5. Priority ranking of substances hazardous to the aquatic system according to their exposure and effects for 1993/94; Reihung gewaesserrelevanter, gefaehrlicher Stoffe aufgrund ihrer Exposition und Wirkung fuer 1993/94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrchen, M.; Mueller, M.; Storm, U.; Storm, A.

    1997-10-01

    For the identification of substances occuring in surface waters and being hazardous to the aquatic ecosystem a tiered selection scheme has been developed and applied in a previous project (Application of a selection scheme for the identification of substances hazardous to the acquatic system, No.: 102 04 109). On the first tier, substances occuring in surface waters were identified by comparison with substances in international lists (such as lists I and II of the Directive 76 464 EEC and annex 1A and 1D of the 3. International North Sea Conference). For substances which are detected in monitoring programs but are not listed in the international lists as well as for substances which are detected in monitoring programs but are not listed in the above lists, the second tier was applied. That comprised a substance ranking according to their hazard for aquatic organisms using a scoring system. For the exposure assessment monitored concentrations are used in order to avoid false positive or negative results. For the effect assessment the respective part of the IPS-system (developed within the EU for the ranking of Existing Chemicals) was used. Direct and indirect effects (bioaccumulation) are considered. On the third tier a source identification was performed identifying point and diffuse sources. Within the framework of the actual project an actualisation of the above feasibility study was performed: monitoring data were taken from 1993 and 1994; additionally, data from the North Sea as well as sediment data were considered. The software was improved in order to enable an easy calculation and assessment of the different results (e.g. use of mean or median values as input for the second tier, differentiation according to various streams; consideration of the statement `not detectable`). The software programme also enables a further implementation of actual data in the near future. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Identifizierung von gewaesserrelevanten, gefaehrlichen Stoffen wurde

  6. Defining utility trace substance emissions and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrens, I.M.

    1993-01-01

    An update is presented on the activities of EPRI and other organizations, including DOE, aimed at improving the quality of available information on utility trace element emissions, control technologies and risks. Because of these efforts, the state of knowledge is advancing rapidly. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments aim to reduce emissions of 189 substances that they designate as hazardous air pollutants - commonly called air toxics. The more neutral term open-quotes trace substancesclose quotes is used in this paper, since most are emitted in extremely low concentrations from utility stacks. The degree of toxicity or hazard at these concentrations is subject to considerable uncertainty, and clarifying this is one of the objectives of the work in progress. The most clear and urgent need emanating from the CAAA has been to obtain reliable information on which of the substances on the CAAA list are emitted from different types of power plants - in what amounts, what risks they pose, how much is removed by today's pollution control equipment. EPRI is addressing the issue on several fronts, e.g.; developing a data base and tools that will enable utilities to estimate emissions levels from their power facilities, given the types of fuels burned and plant characteristics; developing a better understanding of how emissions are transported and transformed before they encounter humans and ecological systems; and assessing the risk to public health and the environment posed by utility releases of these substances

  7. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount

  8. [Experimental research on the effects of different activators on the formation of platelet-rich gel and the release of bioactive substances in human platelet-rich plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Zhang, W; Cheng, B

    2017-01-20

    Objective: To explore the effects of calcium gluconate and thrombin on the formation of platelet-rich gel (PRG) and the release of bioactive substances in human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and the clinical significance. Methods: Six healthy blood donors who met the inclusion criteria were recruited in our unit from May to August in 2016. Platelet samples of each donor were collected for preparation of PRP. (1) PRP in the volume of 10 mL was collected from each donor and divided into thrombin activation group (TA, added with 0.5 mL thrombin solution in dose of 100 U/mL) and calcium gluconate activation group (CGA, added with 0.5 mL calcium gluconate solution in dose of 100 g/L) according to the random number table, with 5 mL PRP in each group. Then the PRP of the two groups was activated in water bath at 37 ℃ for 1 h. The formation time of PRG was recorded, and the formation situation of PRG was observed within 1 hour of activation. After being activated for 1 h, one part of PRG was collected to observe the distribution of fibrous protein with HE staining, and another part of PRG was collected to observe platelet ultrastructure under transmission electron microscope (TEM). After being activated for 1 h, the supernatant was collected to determine the content of transforming growth factor β(1, )platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermal growth factor, and insulin-like growth factorⅠby enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (2) Another 10 mL PRP from each donor was collected and grouped as above, and the platelet suspension was obtained after two times of centrifugation and resuspension with phosphate buffered saline, respectively. And then they were treated with corresponding activator for 1 h as that in experiment (1). Nanoparticle tracking analyzer was used to detect the concentrations of microvesicles with different diameters and total microvesicles derived from platelet. Data

  9. Recommendations to ECE governments on the prevention of water pollution from hazardous substances as adopted by the Committee on Environmental Policy at its first session (1994)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    With a view to preventing, controlling and reducing the release of pollutants into the aquatic environment, thus promoting the implementation of the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes, pending its entry into force, it is recommended that ECE Governments, taking into account, inter alia, current water quality, water-quality requirements of present and future water users in the relevant catchments, requirements of aquatic and riparian flora and fauna, assessments of the risks involved, the urgency of control measures, and the economic feasibility

  10. Active bio-based food-packaging: Diffusion and release of active substances through and from cellulose nanofiber coating toward food-packaging design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoine, Nathalie; Guillard, Valérie; Desloges, Isabelle; Gontard, Nathalie; Bras, Julien

    2016-09-20

    Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were recently investigated for the elaboration of new functional food-packaging materials. Their nanoporous network was especially of interest for controlling the release of active species. Qualitative release studies were conducted, but quantification of the diffusion phenomenon observed when the active species are released from and through CNF coating has not yet been studied. Therefore, this work aims to model CNF-coated paper substrates as controlled release system for food-packaging using release data obtained for two model molecules, namely caffeine and chlorhexidine digluconate. The applied mathematical model - derived from Fickian diffusion - was validated for caffeine only. When the active species chemically interacts with the release device, another model is required as a non-predominantly diffusion-controlled release was observed. From caffeine modeling data, a theoretical active food-packaging material was designed. The use of CNFs as barrier coating was proved to be the ideal material configuration that best meets specifications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Proposal of the concept of selection of accidents that release large amounts of radioactive substances in the high temperature engineering test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masato; Honda, Yuki; Takada, Shoji; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In Position, construction and equipment of testing and research reactor to be subjected to the use standards for rules Article 53 (prevention of expansion of the accident to release a large amount of radioactive material) generation the frequency is a lower accident than design basis accident, when what is likely to release a large amount of radioactive material or radiation from the facility has occurred, and take the necessary measures in order to prevent the spread of the accident. There is provided a lower accident than frequency design basis accidents, for those that may release a large amount of radioactive material or radiation. (author)

  12. Identification of hazards for water environment in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin caused by the discharge of salt mine water containing particularly harmful substances and radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bondaruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Silesian urban-industrial agglomeration is one of the most industrialized areas in Europe. The intense industrialization should be attributed mostly to the presence of coal and other minerals deposits and its extraction. Mining areas of hard coal mines comprise approximately 25% of the total catchment area of watercourses in the area of Upper Silesian Coal Basin, including the river basin of the Upper Oder River and the Little Vistula River. The mining, its scope and depth, duration of mining works, extraction systems being used and the total volume of the drainage fundamentally affect the conditions of groundwater and surface water in the studied area. In this paper, an overall characteristics of the coal mining industry in the area of USCB was made, including the issues of its influence on water environment in the light of the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD and its guidelines transposed into Polish law. An analysis of the collected data, obtained from collieries, relating to the quantity and quality of water flowing into the workings and discharged to surface watercourses, was performed. An approach to the requirements for wastewater discharge into the environment by these enterprises was presented regarding the physicochemical parameters, possible harmful substances and radionuclides measured in mine waters. The main goal of the paper is to recognize the condition of surface water bodies in the area of Upper Silesian Coal Basin and to make the assessment of the biological condition using Ecological Risk Assessment and bioindication methods.

  13. Priority hazardous substances for the aquatic environment: critical evaluation of the emission factor method for the indirect estimate of the loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzellino, A.; Vismara, R.

    2005-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive require to the EU Member States the knowledge of the priority hazardous pollutant contamination levels. Regional basin management plans (according to Italian laws D.Lgs 152/99 and to D.M. 367/03) generally include a review about the status of water contamination to respond to the Eu legislation prescriptions. However, since the actual monitoring activity of the water contamination is expensive and also extremely difficult in terms of analytical sensitivity, the most of these reviews has been prepared by using indirect emission coefficient estimates derived form literature. It is well known that such emission coefficients have been rarely proved fully reliable; moreover such an approach gives no information about the variability affecting the emission estimates. Aim of this work was to use the data contained into the emission EPER-INES database, european database which contains the IPPC Directive emission declarations, to define emission coefficients more reliable than literature coefficients. The presented results, even though based on a limited number of observations and referring the most only to heavy metals, confirm the scarce affidability of the emission factor method and show remarkable discrepancies (mostly under- but also over-estimations of about ten-fold) of these emission estimates from the actual emission data of the IPPC declarations. These results allow also to evaluate the not negligible variability that affects the definition of emission coefficients [it

  14. Environmental releases for calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-07-01

    This report fulfills the annual environmental release reporting requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. This report provides supplemental information to the Hanford Site Environmental Report. The Hanford Site Environmental Report provides an update on the environmental status of the entire Hanford Site. The sitewide annual report summarizes the degree of compliance of the Hanford Site with applicable environmental regulations and informs the public about the impact of Hanford operations on the surrounding environment. Like the Hanford Site Environmental Report, this annual report presents a summary of the environmental releases from facilities managed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and monitored by Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI). In addition to the summary data, this report also includes detailed data on air emissions, liquid effluents, and hazardous substances released to the environment during calendar year 1994 from these facilities

  15. Substance P enhances tissue factor release from granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent macrophages via the p22phox/β-arrestin 2/Rho A signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Rui; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Sakamoto, Arisa; Ishimaru, Yasuji; Narahara, Shinji; Sugiuchi, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2016-03-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induces procoagulant activity of macrophages. Tissue factor (TF) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein and substance P (SP) is a pro-inflammatory neuropeptide involved in the formation of membrane blebs. This study investigated the role of SP in TF release by GM-CSF-dependent macrophages. SP significantly decreased TF levels in whole-cell lysates of GM-CSF-dependent macrophages. TF was detected in the culture supernatant by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after stimulation of macrophages by SP. Aprepitant (an SP/neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist) reduced TF release from macrophages stimulated with SP. Pretreatment of macrophages with a radical scavenger(pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate) also limited the decrease of TF in whole-cell lysates after stimulation with SP. A protein kinase C inhibitor (rottlerin) partially blocked this macrophage response to SP, while it was significantly inhibited by a ROCK inhibitor (Y-27632) or a dynamin inhibitor (dinasore). An Akt inhibitor (perifosine) also partially blocked this response. Furthermore, siRNA targeting p22phox, β-arrestin 2, or Rho A, blunted the release of TF from macrophages stimulated with SP. In other experiments, visceral adipocytes derived from cryopreserved preadipocytes were found to produce SP. In conclusion, SP enhances the release of TF from macrophages via the p22phox/β-arrestin 2/Rho A signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Re-offending in forensic patients released from secure care: the role of antisocial/borderline personality disorder co-morbidity, substance dependence and severe childhood conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rick; McCarthy, Lucy; Huband, Nick; Duggan, Conor

    2013-07-01

    Research suggests that a particular externalising phenotype, manifested in a developmental trajectory from severe childhood conduct disorder through early-onset substance abuse to adult antisocial/borderline personality disorder co-morbidity, may increase risk of antisocial behaviour in general and criminal recidivism in particular. This study aims to test the hypothesis that antisocial/borderline co-morbidity together with the triad of substance dependence, severe conduct disorder and borderline pathology would result in an increased risk of criminal recidivism. Fifty-three men who had been assessed and treated in a secure hospital unit were followed up after they had returned to the community. They were assessed for severity of the following: (i) antisocial personality disorder; (ii) borderline personality disorder; (iii) drug/alcohol dependence; and (iv) high Psychopathy Checklist Revised scores (factors 1 and 2). Patients with antisocial/borderline co-morbidity took significantly less time to re-offend compared with those without such co-morbidity. Both Psychopathy Checklist Revised factor 2 and the tripartite risk measure significantly predicted time to re-offence; the former largely accounted for the predictive accuracy of the latter. Risk of criminal recidivism can be adequately assessed without recourse to the pejorative term 'psychopath'. It is sufficient to assess the presence of the three elements of our risk measure: borderline and antisocial personality disorders in the context of drug/alcohol dependence and severe childhood conduct disorder. Practical implications of the study are as follows. (i) Sound assessment of personality, inclusive of a detailed history of childhood conduct disorder as well as adolescent and adult substance misuse, yields good enough information about risk of recidivism without recourse to the pejorative concept of 'psychopathy'. (ii) Given the high risk of alcohol-related violence in individuals with antisocial/borderline co

  17. Determination of priority and other hazardous substances in football fields of synthetic turf by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: A health and environmental concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeiro, Maria; Dagnac, Thierry; Llompart, Maria

    2018-03-01

    Due to the high concern generated in the last years about the safety of recycled tire rubber used for recreational sports surfaces, this study aims at evaluating the presence of forty organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates, adipates, vulcanisation additives and antioxidants in recycled tire crumb of synthetic turf football fields. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) was successfully employed to extract the target compounds from the crumb rubber, and analysis was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The transfer of the target chemicals from the crumb rubber to the runoff water and to the air above the rubber surface has also been evaluated employing solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Samples from fifteen football fields were analysed, and the results revealed the presence of 24 of the 40 target compounds, including 14 of the 16 EPA PAHs, with total concentrations up to 50 μg g -1 . Heavy metals such as Cd, Cr and Pb were also found. A partial transfer of organic compounds to the air and runoff water was also demonstrated. The analysis of rain water collected directly from the football field, showed the presence of a high number of the target compounds at concentrations reaching above 100 μg L -1 . The environmental risk arising from the burning of crumb rubber tires has been assessed, as well, analysing the crumb rubber, and the air and water in contact with this material, showing a substantial increase both of the number and concentration of the hazardous chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Allegheny County Toxics Release Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data provides information about toxic substances released into the environment or managed through recycling, energy recovery, and...

  19. Hazard classification or risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The EU classification of substances for e.g. reproductive toxicants is hazard based and does not to address the risk suchsubstances may pose through normal, or extreme, use. Such hazard classification complies with the consumer's right to know. It is also an incentive to careful use and storage...

  20. Estimated airborne release of plutonium from Atomics International's Nuclear Materials Development Facility in the Santa Susana site, California, as a result of postulated damage from severe wind and earthquake hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, J.; Ayer, J.E.

    1981-09-01

    The potential mass of airborne releases of plutonium (source term) that could result from wind and seismic damage is estimated for the Atomics International Company's Nuclear Materials Development Facility (NMDF) at the Santa Susana site in California. The postulated source terms will be useful as the basis for estimating the potential dose to the maximum exposed individual by inhalation and to the total population living within a prescribed radius of the site. The respirable fraction of airborne particles is thus the principal concern. The estimated source terms are based on the damage ratio, and the potential airborne releases if all enclosures suffer particular levels of damage. In an attempt to provide a realistic range of potential source terms that include most of the normal processing conditions, a best estimate bounded by upper and lower limits is provided. The range of source terms is calculated by combining a high best estimate and a low damage ratio, based on a fraction of enclosures suffering crush or perforation, with the airborne release from enclosures based upon an upper limit, average, and lower limit inventory of dispersible materials at risk. Two throughput levels are considered. The factors used to evaluate the fractional airborne release of materials and the exchange rates between enclosed and exterior atmospheres are discussed. The postulated damage and source terms are discussed for wind and earthquake hazard scenarios in order of their increasing severity

  1. 30 CFR 47.21 - Identifying hazardous chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., subpart Z, Toxic and Hazardous Substances. (4) American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identifying hazardous chemicals. 47.21 Section... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Hazard Determination § 47.21 Identifying hazardous chemicals. The...

  2. Do Stimulants Reduce the Risk for Alcohol and Substance Use in Youth With ADHD? A Secondary Analysis of a Prospective, 24-Month Open-Label Study of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerness, Paul; Petty, Carter; Faraone, Stephen V; Biederman, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of stimulant treatment on risk for alcohol and illicit drug use in adolescents with ADHD. Analysis of data derived from a prospective open-label treatment study of adolescent ADHD ( n = 115, 76% male), and a historical, naturalistic sample of ADHD ( n = 44, 68% male) and non-ADHD youth ( n = 52, 73% male) of similar age and sex. Treatment consisted of extended-release methylphenidate in the clinical trial or naturalistic stimulant treatment. Self-report of alcohol and drug use was derived from a modified version of the Drug Use Screening Inventory. Rates of alcohol and drug use in the past year were significantly lower in the clinical trial compared with untreated and treated naturalistic ADHD comparators, and similar to rates in non-ADHD comparators. Well-monitored stimulant treatment may reduce the risk for alcohol and substance use in adolescent ADHD.

  3. Substance use - prescription drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use disorder - prescription drugs; Substance abuse - prescription drugs; Drug abuse - prescription drugs; Drug use - prescription drugs; Narcotics - substance use; Opioid - substance use; Sedative - substance ...

  4. Identification of sources of priority substances set out in Article 16 of the Water Framework Directive and estimation of their discharges into the German aquatic environment; Ermittlung der Quellen fuer die prioritaeren Stoffe nach Artikel 16 der Wasserrahmenrichtlinie und Abschaetzung ihrer Eintragsmengen in die Gewaesser in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, E.; Hillenbrand, T.; Marscheider-Weidemann, F.; Mueller, B.; Wiederhold, J.; Herrchen, M.; Klein, M.

    2002-12-01

    The Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) is a new instrument, that inter alia has replaced, harmonized and further developed the control and reduction of point and diffuse discharges of dangerous substances according to Council Directive 76/464/EEC. Article 16 of the Water Framework Directive set out a 'Strategy against pollution of water' which demands specific measures against pollution of water by individual pollutants or groups of pollutants presenting a significant risk to or via the aquatic environment (e.g. by drinking water consumed). For these priority substances community-wide water quality standards and emission controls have to be established. On the basis of Article 16 of Directive 2000/60/EC a list of 33 priority substances has been adopted by the decision of the European Parliament and of the Council of November 2001. This list identifies 11 priority hazardous substances, 14 substances subject to a review for identification as possible priority hazardous substance and 8 priority substances. The Commission will make a proposal for the final classification of the 'substances subject to a review' (priority hazardous or priority substances) not later than 12 months after adoption of this list. The planned measures aim at the cessation or phasing out of discharges, emissions and losses to the aquatic environment within 20 years for the priority hazardous substances and at the progressive reduction for the priority substances. In this project the available data for these 33 substances resp. groups of substances for the Federal Republic of Germany were put forward and described in a standardized pattern. This pattern includes the following items: nomenclature and properties of the substances, monitoring data, production and fields of application of these substances, existing regulations in Germany, releases to environment and possibilities to reduce discharges to the aquatic environment. The basis of the data is the year 2000 as far as

  5. Estimated airborne release of radionuclides from the Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories JN-1b building at the West Jefferson site as a result of postulated damage from severe wind and earthquake hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, J.; Ayer, J.E.

    1981-11-01

    The potential airborne releases of radionuclides (source terms) that could result from wind and earthquake dmage are estimated for the Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories JN-1b Building at the West Jefferson site in Ohio. The estimated source terms are based on the damage to barriers containing the radionuclides, the inventory of radionuclides at risk, and the fraction of the inventory made airborne as a result of the loss of containment. In an attempt to provide a realistic range of potential source terms that include most of the normal operating conditions, a best estimate bounded by upper and lower limits is calculated by combining the upper-bound, best-estimate, and lower-bound inventories-at-risk with an airborne release factor (upper-bound, best-estimate, and lower-bound if possible) for the situation. The factors used to evaluate the fractional airborne release of materials and the exchange rates between enclosed and exterior atmospheres are discussed. The postulated damage and source terms are discussed for wind and earthquake hazard scenarios in order of their increasing severity

  6. Method of assessment of the environmental risk associated with releases of radioactive substances. Adaptation to the case of mining sites in Haute-Vienne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Garnier-Laplace, J.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents methods which aim at proposing a first quantification (screening) of the potential impact and risk of releases from mining installations at the scale of a drainage basin for a given period, and at refining the characterization of the radiological and/or chemical risk when a potential risk is revealed by the screening step. The screening method allows a parallel assessment of the radio-ecological risk (for the whole set of radionuclides belonging to the uranium family) and of the chemical risk associated with uranium. The refinement is based on the use of probabilistic methods. These approaches lead to the calculation of a deterministic risk index by comparing Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PECs) with Predicted No-Effect Concentrations (PNECs) in the same media

  7. Ethylene Glycol, Hazardous Substance in the Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Patočka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting but poisonous type of alcohol found in many household products. The major use of ethylene glycol is as an antifreeze in, for example, automobiles, in air conditioning systems, in de-icing fluid for windshields, and else. People sometimes drink ethylene glycol mistakenly or on purpose as a substitute for alcohol. Ethylene glycol is toxic, and its drinking should be considered a medical emergency. The major danger from ethylene glycol is following ingestion. Due to its sweet taste, peoples and occasionally animals will sometimes consume large quantities of it if given access to antifreeze. While ethylene glycol itself has a relatively low degree of toxicity, its metabolites are responsible for extensive cellular damage to various tissues, especially the kidneys. This injury is caused by the metabolites, glycolic and oxalic acid and their respective salts, through crystal formation and possibly other mechanisms. Toxic metabolites of ethylene glycol can damage the brain, liver, kidneys, and lungs. The poisoning causes disturbances in the metabolism pathways, including metabolic acidosis. The disturbances may be severe enough to cause profound shock, organ failure, and death. Ethylene glycol is a common poisoning requiring antidotal treatment.

  8. Hazard Communication Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sichak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab

  9. Ministerial Order of 24 April 1964 on the approval of types of devices containing radioactive substances, made in implementation of Section 3.1 d/2 of the Royal Order of 28 February 1963 embodying the General Regulations for the Protection of the Population and Workers against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    This Order lays down that approval of devices containing radioactive substances and referred to in the Royal Order of 28 February 1963 embodying the General Regulations on Protection of the Population and Workers against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiations will only be granted if the total quantity of radioisotopes contained therein does not exceed certain values laid down by the 1963 Royal Order, and the radioactive substances are adequately shielded. It also lays down the procedure to be complied with for obtaining such approval and the conditions the applicant must meet to obtain the certificate of approval, which is valid for six years and may be renewed. The Ministry of Employment and Labour, Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, and the Ministry of Public Health and the Family are the competent authorities in respect of applications for a certificate of approval. Finally, suspension or withdrawal of the certificate or confiscation of the radioactive substances or devices do not give rise to compensation. (NEA) [fr

  10. Determination of Hazardous VOCs and Nicotine Released from Mainstream Smoke by the Combination of the SPME and GC-MS Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Kumar Pandey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the contents of nicotine and volatile organic compounds (VOCs in mainstream smoke (MSS were analyzed using samples of four cigarette types consisting of two common brands (R and E with full (F and light (L flavor, coded with R-F, R-L, E-F, and E-L. These cigarettes were also analyzed after removing the filter portions with the assignment of a new sample code of (N as the third letter (e.g., R-L-N. A total of 44 VOCs (including nicotine were quantified by the combination of the SPME and GC-MS methods. Out of the 44 VOCs, 10 were identified as hazardous air pollutants listed by the U.S. EPA, while their concentrations exceeded the reference exposure limits set by various agencies. A clear distinction was apparent in the concentration levels of VOCs between different brands or between full and light flavors. Nicotine concentrations varied greatly between different cigarettes types of the R brand, whereas such changes were insignificant in the counterpart E brand. This thus suggests that light-flavor cigarettes do not necessarily guarantee low doses of carcinogens (and tar than regular cigarettes, as their differences can be balanced by the inhaling behavior of the smoker.

  11. The testing of materials within the purview of the laws concerning the control of chemical substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosselmann, K.; Linden, W.

    1989-01-01

    The main approach adopted for this book is the question of whether and to what extent the commercially available chemical products (ranging from foodstuffs and drugs to pesticides and similar pollutants) have been assessed for environmental and health safety prior to release. The relevant existing laws concerning the testing and characterisation of substances are analysed and compared with a view to the major environmental principle, to prevent chemicals-induced hazards to health and the environment. The book reviews the following laws (and their implementing provisions): law on chemical substances, pesticides, fertilisers, drugs, detergents, leaded petrol, food and feedstuffs, explosives, and transport of hazardous materials. Environmentally significant laws reviewed include the waste management act, the atomic energy act (non-recycable wastes, plutonium, tritium), the water management act, and the act for protection against harmful effects on the environment. (orig./HP) [de

  12. 75 FR 78918 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Removal of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... and Community Right-to-Know Act FDA Food and Drug Administration HSWA Hazardous and Solid Waste...(f)), and hazardous substances (40 CFR 302.4) based solely upon the evidence that it is a potential... subsequently identified as hazardous wastes in Sec. 261.33(f) based solely on their potential for carcinogenic...

  13. Hazards from aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grund, J.E.; Hornyik, K.

    1975-01-01

    The siting of nuclear power plants has created innumerable environmental concerns. Among the effects of the ''man-made environment'' one of increasing importance in recent nuclear plant siting hazards analysis has been the concern about aircraft hazards to the nuclear plant. These hazards are of concern because of the possibility that an aircraft may have a malfunction and crash either near the plant or directly into it. Such a crash could be postulated to result, because of missile and/or fire effects, in radioactive releases which would endanger the public health and safety. The majority of studies related to hazards from air traffic have been concerned with the determination of the probability associated with an aircraft striking vulnerable portions of a given plant. Other studies have focused on the structural response to such a strike. This work focuses on the problem of strike probability. 13 references

  14. 77 FR 3223 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production Risk and Technology Review..., Administrative practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental relations... National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool Fiberglass...

  15. Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In south-central Washington State, the Columbia River flows through the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. A primary objective of the Hanford Site cleanup mission is protection of the Columbia River, through remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater that resulted from its weapons production mission. Within the Columbia River system, surface water, sediment, and biota samples related to potential Hanford Site hazardous substance releases have been collected since the start of Hanford operations. The impacts of Hanford Site hazardous substance releases to the Columbia River in areas upstream, within, and downstream of the Hanford Site boundary have been previously investigated as mandated by the U.S. Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act. The impacts are now being assessed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 via a remedial investigation. The Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River has been developed and issued to initiate the remedial investigation. The work plan establishes a phased approach to characterize contaminants, assess current risks, and determine whether or not there is a need for any cleanup actions. Field investigation activities began in October 2008 and are anticipated to continue into Fall 2009 over a 120 mile stretch of the Columbia River. Information gained from performing this remedial investigation will ultimately be used to help make final regulatory decisions for cleaning up Hanford Site contamination that exists in and along the Columbia River. (authors)

  16. Bioactive substances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.

    Chemistry related to certain bioactive molecules, from Indian Ocean Region, developed into drugs or which served as models for the synthesis of more effective bioactive substances or in use in fundamental studies of physiological and biochemical...

  17. A five-year history of hazardous materials incidents in Chester County, PA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorten, C.V.; McNamara, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986 established Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) to oversee emergency response planning at the community level. In Pennsylvania, each county was assigned its own LEPC, and Chester County held its first LEPC meeting on October 15, 1987. From the data of that meeting through September 1992, 300 hazardous materials incidents have been reported. The majority of these incidents were met with fire department response, but several warranted response by hazardous materials teams. This report presents an analysis of the database of reported hazardous materials incidents in Chester County, including chemical identification, amount released, type of response, location, and trends. Over 235 of the reported spills were either gasoline, diesel fuel, home heating oil, or kerosene, often in five to 50 gallon amounts from transportation accidents. A number of extremely hazardous substance (EHS) incidents were reported, however, including sulfuric acid, chlorine, ammonia, phosphorus, formaldehyde, bromine, methyl mercaptan, and hydrofluoric acid. The most commonly released EHS's were ammonia and chlorine. The number of hazardous materials incidents reported in Chester County increased from only 14 in 1988 to 95 in 1991, with 67 in 1992 through September. This dramatic increase is attributable to both increased reporting and an increased number of incidents. This database clearly indicates both the success of EPCRA reporting system and the magnitude of hazardous materials incidents in this part of Pennsylvania

  18. Psychotoxic Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-11-16

    halluci- nations , disturbances of body perception, depersonalization symptoms, and a "psychotic" status. Also with the derivatives, the individual...the substance had also local anesthetic properties. After clinical testing, ibogaine was then used as stimulans for neurasthenics and convalescents1 1 3...con- siderably disturbed by this group of substances. The optic halluci- nations consist to a small extent in scenic proceedings of actions, more

  19. Radiological hazards of alpha-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The radiological hazards of alpha-contaminated wastes are discussed in this overview in terms of two components of hazard: radiobiological hazard, and radioecological hazard. Radiobiological hazard refers to human uptake of alpha-emitters by inhalation and ingestion, and the resultant dose to critical organs of the body. Radioecological hazard refers to the processes of release from buried wastes, transport in the environment, and translocation to man through the food chain. Besides detailing the sources and magnitude of hazards, this brief review identifies the uncertainties in their estimation, and implications for the regulatory process

  20. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  1. Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency

  2. Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.

    2005-06-01

    This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being

  3. Radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, L.

    1979-01-01

    On a scientific basis and with the aid of realistic examples, the author gives a popular introduction to an understanding and judgment of the public discussion over radiation hazards: Uses and hazards of X-ray examinations, biological radiation effects, civilisation risks in comparison, origins and explanation of radiation protection regulations. (orig.) [de

  4. 40 CFR 68.50 - Hazard review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 2 Prevention Program § 68.50 Hazard review. (a) The owner or operator shall conduct a review of the hazards associated with the regulated substances, process, and...

  5. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  6. Increasing worker and community awareness of toxic hazards in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    In November 1984, the Governing Council of the American Public Health Association (APHA) released this position paper on disclosure of occupational health hazards. The Council's action was prompted by the Occupational Health and Safety Administration's (OSHA's) promulgation of a national right-to-know standard that would pre-empt stronger state and local laws protecting an employee's right to be told about hazardous materials in the workplace. The APHA document outlines the dimensions of the toxic substances problem in the United States; argues the need for right-to-know laws; defines the roles of OSHA, unions, and local coalitions for workplace safety; and criticizes the Federal Hazard Communication Standard. Lists of ten essential components of a national right-to-know policy and of four actions the APHA will take to further the worker's right-to-know conclude the paper.

  7. Written instructions for the transport of hazardous materials: Accident management instruction sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridder, K.

    1988-01-01

    In spite of the regulations and the safety provisions taken, accidents are not entirely avoidable in the transport of hazardous materials. For managing an accident and preventing further hazards after release of dangerous substances, the vehicle drivers must carry with them the accident management instruction sheets, which give instructions on immediate counter measures to be taken by the driver, and on information to be given to the police and the fire brigades. The article in hand discusses the purpose, the contents, and practice-based improvement of this collection of instruction sheets. Particular reference is given to the newly revised version of June 15, 1988 (Verkehrsblatt 1/88) of the 'Directives for setting up accident management instruction sheets - written instructions - for road transport of hazardous materials', as issued by the Federal Ministry of Transport. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Waste Issues Associated with the Safe Movement of Hazardous Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dare, J. H.; Cournoyer, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    Moving hazardous chemicals presents the risk of exposure for workers engaged in the activity and others that might be in the immediate area. Adverse affects are specific to the chemicals and can range from minor skin, eye, or mucous membrane irritation, to burns, respiratory distress, nervous system dysfunction, or even death. A case study is presented where in the interest of waste minimization; original shipping packaging was removed from a glass bottle of nitric acid, while moving corrosive liquid through a security protocol into a Radiological Control Area (RCA). During the transfer, the glass bottle broke. The resulting release of nitric acid possibly exposed 12 employees with one employee being admitted overnight at a hospital for observation. This is a clear example of administrative controls to reduce the generation of suspect radioactive waste being implemented at the expense of employee health. As a result of this event, material handling procedures that assure the safe movement of hazardous chemicals through a security protocol into a radiological control area were developed. Specifically, hazardous material must be transferred using original shipping containers and packaging. While this represents the potential to increase the generation of suspect radioactive waste in a radiological controlled area, arguments are presented that justify this change. Security protocols for accidental releases are also discussed. In summary, the 12th rule of ''Green Chemistry'' (Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention) should be followed: the form of a substance used in a chemical process (Movement of Hazardous Chemicals) should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases

  9. Waste Issues Associated with the Safe Movement of Hazardous Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dare, J. H.; Cournoyer, M. E.

    2002-02-26

    Moving hazardous chemicals presents the risk of exposure for workers engaged in the activity and others that might be in the immediate area. Adverse affects are specific to the chemicals and can range from minor skin, eye, or mucous membrane irritation, to burns, respiratory distress, nervous system dysfunction, or even death. A case study is presented where in the interest of waste minimization; original shipping packaging was removed from a glass bottle of nitric acid, while moving corrosive liquid through a security protocol into a Radiological Control Area (RCA). During the transfer, the glass bottle broke. The resulting release of nitric acid possibly exposed 12 employees with one employee being admitted overnight at a hospital for observation. This is a clear example of administrative controls to reduce the generation of suspect radioactive waste being implemented at the expense of employee health. As a result of this event, material handling procedures that assure the safe movement of hazardous chemicals through a security protocol into a radiological control area were developed. Specifically, hazardous material must be transferred using original shipping containers and packaging. While this represents the potential to increase the generation of suspect radioactive waste in a radiological controlled area, arguments are presented that justify this change. Security protocols for accidental releases are also discussed. In summary, the 12th rule of ''Green Chemistry'' (Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention) should be followed: the form of a substance used in a chemical process (Movement of Hazardous Chemicals) should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases.

  10. Shared Substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerlufsen, Tony; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Eagan, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel middleware for developing flexible interactive multi-surface applications. Using a scenario-based approach, we identify the requirements for this type of applications. We then introduce Substance, a data- oriented framework that decouples functionality from data, and S...

  11. A review and perspective of existing research on the release of nanomaterials from solid nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froggett, Stephan J; Clancy, Shaun F; Boverhof, Darrell R; Canady, Richard A

    2014-04-07

    Advances in adding nanomaterials to various matrices have occurred in tandem with the identification of potential hazards associated with exposure to pure forms of nanomaterials. We searched multiple research publication databases and found that, relative to data generated on potential nanomaterial hazards or exposures, very little attention has focused on understanding the potential and conditions for release of nanomaterials from nanocomposites. However, as a prerequisite to exposure studying release is necessary to inform risk assessments. We identified fifty-four studies that specifically investigated the release of nanomaterials, and review them in the following release scenario groupings: machining, weathering, washing, contact and incineration. While all of the identified studies provided useful information, only half were controlled experiments. Based on these data, the debris released from solid, non-food nanocomposites contains in varying frequencies, a mixture of four types of debris. Most frequently identified are (1) particles of matrix alone, and slightly less often, the (2) matrix particles exhibit the nanomaterial partially or fully embedded; far less frequently is (3) the added nanomaterial entirely dissociated from the matrix identified: and most rare are (4) dissolved ionic forms of the added nanomaterial. The occurrence of specific debris types appeared to be dependent on the specific release scenario and environment. These data highlight that release from nanocomposites can take multiple forms and that additional research and guidance would be beneficial, allowing for more consistent characterization of the release potential of nanomaterials. In addition, these data support calls for method validation and standardization, as well as understanding how laboratory release scenarios relate to real-world conditions. Importantly, as risk is considered to be a function of the inherent hazards of a substance and the actual potential for exposure, data

  12. INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-02-17

    The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified.

  13. INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified

  14. Determination of substances by radiothermometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolgyessy, J.; Lesny, J.

    1976-01-01

    For determination, nitrogen is bubbled through a solution containing radioactive Kr, Xe, Rn or another aerogen in addition to the substance determined. A continuous or intermittent addition of the titrating solution results in the release of reaction heat, thus increasing the temperature of the reaction mixture, which releases a radioactive gas. Upon reaching the equivalence point, the cold titrating reagent cools the reaction mixture, thus reducing the radioactive substance release. The equivalence point lies at the point of intersection of the extended linear parts of the curve of the dependence of released radioactivity on the volume of the titrating solution added. (M.K.)

  15. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.

  16. Welding hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Welding technology is advancing rapidly in the developed countries and has converted into a science. Welding involving the use of electricity include resistance welding. Welding shops are opened in residential area, which was causing safety hazards, particularly the teenagers and children who eagerly see the welding arc with their naked eyes. There are radiation hazards from ultra violet rays which irritate the skin, eye irritation. Welding arc light of such intensity could damage the eyes. (Orig./A.B.)

  17. Safety Precautions for Total Release Foggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total release foggers, also known as bug bombs, are pesticide products containing aerosol propellants that release their contents at once to fumigate an area. They can pose a hazard if used incorrectly. Find safety information and videos on this page.

  18. Incidents with hazardous radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhacker, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Incidents with hazardous radiation sources can occur in any country, even those without nuclear facilities. Preparedness for such incidents is supposed to fulfill globally agreed minimum standards. Incidents are categorized in incidents with licensed handling of radiation sources as for material testing, transport accidents of hazardous radiation sources, incidents with radionuclide batteries, incidents with satellites containing radioactive inventory, incidents wit not licensed handling of illegally acquired hazardous radiation sources. The emergency planning in Austria includes a differentiation according to the consequences: incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in restricted contamination, incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in local contamination, and incidents with the hazard of e@nhanced exposure due to the radiation source.

  19. Chemical process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  20. National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-03

    This podcast gives an overview of the three components of the National Toxic Substance Incidents Program: state surveillance, national database, and response teams.  Created: 2/3/2011 by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.   Date Released: 2/3/2011.

  1. Building 894 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banda, Z.; Williams, M.

    1996-07-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 894. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which 9 chemicals were kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 130 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal 130 meter area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

  2. Building 6630 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.; Banda, Z.

    1996-10-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 6630. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which one chemical was kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the chemical release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 76 meters. The highest emergency classification is an Alert. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal 100 meter area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

  3. Hazardous-materials waste disposal: Land, January 1988-July 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 88-Jul 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the disposal of hazardous industrial and municipal wastes, chemical agents, and a variety of other dangerous substances into and from the land. Topics include restoration operations, contamination abatement studies, appropriate regulation and legislation, and remedial response strategies. Considerable attention is given to waste disposal sites at military installations and to incineration operations. Citations pertaining specifically to radioactive waste disposal, state by state toxic release inventories, Best Demonstrated Available Technology as defined by Environmental Protection Agency, Health Assessments for individual companies sponsored by the Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA., and the Superfund Record of Decisions are excluded. (The bibliography contains 153 citations with a subject index.)

  4. Hazardous materials waste disposal: Water, January 1988-July 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 88-Jul 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the disposal of hazardous industrial and municipal wastes, chemical agents, and a variety of other dangerous substances into and from the water. Topics include restoration operations, contamination abatement studies, appropriate regulation and legislation, and remedial response strategies. Considerable attention is given to waste disposal sites at military installations and to incineration operations. Citations pertaining specifically to radioactive waste disposal, state by state toxic release inventories, Best Demonstrated Available Technology as defined by Environmental Protection Agency, Health Assessments for individual companies sponsored by the Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA., and the Superfund Record of Decisions are excluded. (The bibliography contains 153 citations with a subject index.)

  5. Toxicology primer: understanding workplace hazards and protecting worker health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arble, Janice

    2004-06-01

    Hazardous substances are ubiquitous in the environment and common in industrialized societies. Serious harm can occur with sufficient exposures under certain conditions. However, much harm can be avoided if hazardous substances are handled with respect and appreciation for their use and potential. Occupational health nurses must be aware of potential hazards to employees in the work environment and apply scientific principles to their practice of promoting worker safety and health.

  6. Historical analysis of US pipeline accidents triggered by natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, or lightning, can initiate accidents in oil and gas pipelines with potentially major consequences on the population or the environment due to toxic releases, fires and explosions. Accidents of this type are also referred to as Natech events. Many major accidents highlight the risk associated with natural-hazard impact on pipelines transporting dangerous substances. For instance, in the USA in 1994, flooding of the San Jacinto River caused the rupture of 8 and the undermining of 29 pipelines by the floodwaters. About 5.5 million litres of petroleum and related products were spilled into the river and ignited. As a results, 547 people were injured and significant environmental damage occurred. Post-incident analysis is a valuable tool for better understanding the causes, dynamics and impacts of pipeline Natech accidents in support of future accident prevention and mitigation. Therefore, data on onshore hazardous-liquid pipeline accidents collected by the US Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) was analysed. For this purpose, a database-driven incident data analysis system was developed to aid the rapid review and categorization of PHMSA incident reports. Using an automated data-mining process followed by a peer review of the incident records and supported by natural hazard databases and external information sources, the pipeline Natechs were identified. As a by-product of the data-collection process, the database now includes over 800,000 incidents from all causes in industrial and transportation activities, which are automatically classified in the same way as the PHMSA record. This presentation describes the data collection and reviewing steps conducted during the study, provides information on the developed database and data analysis tools, and reports the findings of a statistical analysis of the identified hazardous liquid pipeline incidents in terms of accident dynamics and

  7. Tank farms hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ''Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001'' as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process

  8. Exploring Environmental Inequity in South Korea: An Analysis of the Distribution of Toxic Release Inventory (TRI Facilities and Toxic Releases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Yoon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, location data regarding the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI in South Korea was released to the public. This study investigated the spatial patterns of TRIs and releases of toxic substances in all 230 local governments in South Korea to determine whether spatial clusters relevant to the siting of noxious facilities occur. In addition, we employed spatial regression modeling to determine whether the number of TRI facilities and the volume of toxic releases in a given community were correlated with the community’s socioeconomic, racial, political, and land use characteristics. We found that the TRI facilities and their toxic releases were disproportionately distributed with clustered spatial patterning. Spatial regression modeling indicated that jurisdictions with smaller percentages of minorities, stronger political activity, less industrial land use, and more commercial land use had smaller numbers of toxic releases, as well as smaller numbers of TRI facilities. However, the economic status of the community did not affect the siting of hazardous facilities. These results indicate that the siting of TRI facilities in Korea is more affected by sociopolitical factors than by economic status. Racial issues are thus crucial for consideration in environmental justice as the population of Korea becomes more racially and ethnically diverse.

  9. 77 FR 60935 - Hazardous Materials: Minor Editorial Corrections and Clarifications (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... flammable cryogenic liquid is not received by the consignee within 20 days from the date of shipment.... * * * * * Container ship * * * * * * * * Hazardous material means a substance or material that the Secretary of... transportation law (49 U.S.C. 5103). The term includes hazardous substances, hazardous wastes, marine pollutants...

  10. Industrial Accidents Triggered by Natural Hazards: an Emerging Risk Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Basco, Anna; Salzano, Ernesto; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-05-01

    Natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding or hurricanes have recently and dramatically hit several countries worldwide. Both direct and indirect consequences involved the population, causing on the one hand a high number of fatalities and on the other hand so relevant economical losses that the national gross product may be affected for many years. Loss of critical industrial infrastructures (electricity generation and distribution, gas pipelines, oil refineries, etc.) also occurred, causing further indirect damage to the population. In several cases, accident scenarios with large releases of hazardous materials were triggered by these natural events, causing so-called "Natech events", in which the overall damage resulted from the simultaneous consequences of the natural event and of the release of hazardous substances. Toxic releases, large fires and explosions, as well as possible long-term environmental pollution, economical losses, and overloading of emergency systems were recognised by post-event studies as the main issues of these Natech scenarios. In recent years the increasing frequency and severity of some natural hazards due to climate change has slowly increased the awareness of Natech risk as an emerging risk among the stakeholders. Indeed, the iNTeg-Risk project, co-funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Program specifically addresses these scenarios among new technological issues on public safety. The present study, in part carried out within the iNTeg-Risk project, was aimed at the analysis and further development of methods and tools for the assessment and mitigation of Natech accidents. Available tools and knowledge gaps in the assessment of Natech scenarios were highlighted. The analysis mainly addressed the potential impact of flood, lightning and earthquake events on industrial installations where hazardous substances are present. Preliminary screening methodologies and more detailed methods based on

  11. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) U.S. Hazards Outlook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center releases a US Hazards Outlook daily, Monday through Friday. The product highlights regions of anticipated hazardous weather during the...

  12. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-12

    Hazard analyses were performed to evaluate the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment process was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. The analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public. The following selected hazardous scenarios received increased attention: •Scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy, controls were identified in the What-If analysis table that prevent the occurrence or mitigate the effects of the release. •Scenarios with significant consequences that could impact personnel outside the immediate operations area, quantitative analyses were performed to determine the potential magnitude of the scenario. The set of “critical controls” were identified for these scenarios (see Section 4) which prevent the occurrence or mitigate the effects of the release of events with significant consequences.

  13. 40 CFR 721.90 - Release to water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release to water. 721.90 Section 721... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Certain Significant New Uses § 721.90 Release to water. Whenever a... predict the surface water concentration which will result from the intended release of the substance, if...

  14. Radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, G.C.; Hyslop, C.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to show how to assess the detriment resulting from the release of radioactive materials to the environment. The minimum information required for the assessments is given for seven radionuclides of interest from the point of view of environmental contamination. The seven radionuclides are tritium, krypton-85, strontium-90, iodine-131, cesium-137, radium-226 and plutonium-239. Information is given on the radiation doses and the radiation effects on man due to these radioisotopes. (AN)

  15. 21 CFR 178.3860 - Release agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Release agents. 178.3860 Section 178.3860 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3860 Release agents. Substances listed in paragraph (b) of this section may be safely used as release agents in petroleum wax complying with § 178.3710 and in polymeric resins...

  16. 21 CFR 181.28 - Release agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Release agents. 181.28 Section 181.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Release agents. Substances classified as release agents, when migrating from food-packaging material shall...

  17. 78 FR 60755 - Hazardous Materials: Enhanced Enforcement Procedures-Resumption of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... material,'' we envisioned etiological agents, such as biological products, infectious substances, medical... accidents or incidents involving the transportation of hazardous material. In order to achieve a uniform... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part...

  18. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwell, R.; Keifer, J.; Goodin, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  19. Environmental and health hazard ranking and assessment of plastic polymers based on chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lithner, Delilah, E-mail: delilah.lithner@gmail.com; Larsson, Ake; Dave, Goeran

    2011-08-15

    Plastics constitute a large material group with a global annual production that has doubled in 15 years (245 million tonnes in 2008). Plastics are present everywhere in society and the environment, especially the marine environment, where large amounts of plastic waste accumulate. The knowledge of human and environmental hazards and risks from chemicals associated with the diversity of plastic products is very limited. Most chemicals used for producing plastic polymers are derived from non-renewable crude oil, and several are hazardous. These may be released during the production, use and disposal of the plastic product. In this study the environmental and health hazards of chemicals used in 55 thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers were identified and compiled. A hazard ranking model was developed for the hazard classes and categories in the EU classification and labelling (CLP) regulation which is based on the UN Globally Harmonized System. The polymers were ranked based on monomer hazard classifications, and initial assessments were made. The polymers that ranked as most hazardous are made of monomers classified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic (category 1A or 1B). These belong to the polymer families of polyurethanes, polyacrylonitriles, polyvinyl chloride, epoxy resins, and styrenic copolymers. All have a large global annual production (1-37 million tonnes). A considerable number of polymers (31 out of 55) are made of monomers that belong to the two worst of the ranking model's five hazard levels, i.e. levels IV-V. The polymers that are made of level IV monomers and have a large global annual production (1-5 million tonnes) are phenol formaldehyde resins, unsaturated polyesters, polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, and urea-formaldehyde resins. This study has identified hazardous substances used in polymer production for which the risks should be evaluated for decisions on the need for risk reduction measures, substitution, or even phase out

  20. Substance Identification Information from EPA's Substance Registry

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the authoritative resource for basic information about substances of interest to the U.S. EPA and its state and tribal...

  1. Tsunami hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  2. Tsunami hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  3. Hazardous air pollutants; Yugai taiki osen busshitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, A

    2000-02-14

    Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) are chemical substances listed up since those have a fear of increasing carcinogenic danger even in a small quantity by a long-term exposure. In Europe and Japan, approximately 200 names of substances are known. Concretely, they are particulate substnaces such as floating dusts, gaseous inorganics such as fluorine compound and chroline gas, volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Among those, especially, 22 substances are cited as those that Japan tackles in priority. HAPs explained in this paper mean mostly VOCs such as benzene, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene among those. (NEDO)

  4. Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant women in Uyo, ... Reasons for using these substances range from protection from witches and ... shows that self-medication is common among pregnant women in our environment.

  5. Substance use in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Suzanne; Ordean, Alice; Kahan, Meldon

    2011-04-01

    health care and assistance with appropriate addiction care leads to reduced health care costs and decreased maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. 1. All pregnant women and women of childbearing age should be screened periodically for alcohol, tobacco, and prescription and illicit drug use. (III-A) 2. When testing for substance use is clinically indicated, urine drug screening is the preferred method. (II-2A) Informed consent should be obtained from the woman before maternal drug toxicology testing is ordered. (III-B) 3. Policies and legal requirements with respect to drug testing of newborns may vary by jurisdiction, and caregivers should be familiar with the regulations in their region. (III-A) 4. Health care providers should employ a flexible approach to the care of women who have substance use problems, and they should encourage the use of all available community resources. (II-2B) 5. Women should be counselled about the risks of periconception, antepartum, and postpartum drug use. (III-B) 6. Smoking cessation counselling should be considered as a first-line intervention for pregnant smokers. (I-A) Nicotine replacement therapy and/or pharmacotherapy can be considered if counselling is not successful. (I-A) 7. Methadone maintenance treatment should be standard of care for opioid-dependent women during pregnancy. (II-IA) Other slow-release opioid preparations may be considered if methadone is not available. (II-2B) 8. Opioid detoxification should be reserved for selected women because of the high risk of relapse to opioids. (II-2B) 9. Opiate-dependent women should be informed that neonates exposed to heroin, prescription opioids, methadone, or buprenorphine during pregnancy are monitored closely for symptoms and signs of neonatal withdrawal (neonatal abstinence syndrome). (II-2B) Hospitals providing obstetric care should develop a protocol for assessment and management of neonates exposed to opiates during pregnancy. (III-B) 10. Antenatal planning for

  6. Laser Processing of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics - Release of Carbon Fiber Segments During Short-pulsed Laser Processing of CFRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Juergen; Brodesser, Alexander; Hustedt, Michael; Bluemel, Sven; Jaeschke, Peter; Kaierle, Stefan

    Cutting and ablation using short-pulsed laser radiation are promising technologies to produce or repair CFRP components with outstanding mechanical properties e.g. for automotive and aircraft industry. Using sophisticated laser processing strategies and avoiding excessive heating of the workpiece, a high processing quality can be achieved. However, the interaction of laser radiation and composite material causes a notable release of hazardous substances from the process zone, amongst others carbon fiber segments or fibrous particles. In this work, amounts and geometries of the released fiber segments are analyzed and discussed in terms of their hazardous potential. Moreover, it is investigated to what extent gaseous organic process emissions are adsorbed at the fiber segments, similar to an adsorption of volatile organic compounds at activated carbon, which is typically used as filter material.

  7. Electrostatic hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Luttgens, Günter; Luttgens, Gnter; Luttgens, G Nter

    1997-01-01

    In the US, UK and Europe there is in excess of one notifiable dust or electrostatic explosion every day of the year. This clearly makes the hazards associated with the handling of materials subject to either cause or react to electrostatic discharge of vital importance to anyone associated with their handling or industrial bulk use. This book provides a comprehensive guide to the dangers of static electricity and how to avoid them. It will prove invaluable to safety managers and professionals, as well as all personnel involved in the activities concerned, in the chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and petrochemical process industries. The book makes extended use of case studies to illustrate the principles being expounded, thereby making it far more open, accessible and attractive to the practitioner in industry than the highly theoretical texts which are also available. The authors have many years' experience in the area behind them, including the professional teaching of the content provided here. Günte...

  8. Human hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpla, M.; Vignes, S.; Wolber, G.

    1976-01-01

    Among health hazards from ionizing radiations, a distinction is made of observed, likely and theoretical risks. Theoretical risks, derived from extrapolation of observations on sublethal exposures to low doses may frighten. However, they have nothing in common with reality as shown for instance, by the study of carcinogenesis risks at Nagasaki. By extrapolation to low doses, theoretical mutation risks are derived by geneticians from the observation of some characters especially deleterious in the progeny of parents exposed to sublethal doses. One cannot agree when by calculation they express a population exposure by a shift of its genetic balance with an increase of the proportion of disabled individuals. As a matter of fact, experimental exposure of successive generations of laboratory animals shows no accumulation of deleterious genes, sublethal doses excepted. Large nuclear plants should not be overwhelmed by horrible charges on sanitary grounds, whereas small sources have but too often shown they may originate mortal risks [fr

  9. Numerical Simulations as Tool to Predict Chemical and Radiological Hazardous Diffusion in Case of Nonconventional Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Ciparisse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations are widely used nowadays to predict the behaviour of fluids in pure research and in industrial applications. This approach makes it possible to get quantitatively meaningful results, often in good agreement with the experimental ones. The aim of this paper is to show how CFD calculations can help to understand the time evolution of two possible CBRNe (Chemical-Biological-Radiological-Nuclear-explosive events: (1 hazardous dust mobilization due to the interaction between a jet of air and a metallic powder in case of a LOVA (Loss Of Vacuum Accidents that is one of the possible accidents that can occur in experimental nuclear fusion plants; (2 toxic gas release in atmosphere. The scenario analysed in the paper has consequences similar to those expected in case of a release of dangerous substances (chemical or radioactive in enclosed or open environment during nonconventional events (like accidents or man-made or natural disasters.

  10. A survey on hazardous materials accidents during road transport in China from 2000 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jie; Li Fengying; Zhou Jingbo; Zhang Ling; Huang Lei; Bi Jun

    2010-01-01

    A study of 322 accidents that occurred during the road transport of hazardous materials (hazmat) in China from 2000 to 2008 was carried out. The results showed an increase in the frequency of accidents from 2000 to 2007 and a decline in 2008. More than 63% of the accidents occurred in the eastern coastal areas, 25.5% in the central inland areas, and only 10.9% in the western remote areas. The most frequent types of accident were releases (84.5%), followed by gas clouds (13.0%), fires (10.2%), no substance released due to timely measures (9.9%), and explosions (5.9%). The spatial distribution, the causes and consequences of the accidents related to the population (e.g., number of people killed, injured, evacuated, or poisoned), and environment elements were analyzed. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning the need to improve certain safety measures in the road transport of hazmat in China.

  11. 75 FR 5261 - Waybill Data Reporting for Toxic Inhalation Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... monitor traffic flows and rate trends in the industry, and to develop evidence in Board proceedings. The... humans as to pose a hazard to health in the event of a release during transportation. These materials... so toxic to humans as to pose a hazard to health in the event of a release during transportation...

  12. Device with Complex System for Heat Utilization and Reduction of Hazardous Air Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kascheeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations concern heat utilization and reduction of hazardous emissions occurring in residential buildings and accompanying operation of a great number of industrial enterprises in particular heat and power objects, and firstly, heat-generating units of small power located in densely populated residential areas without centralized heat supply.The investigation target is to reduce cost of heat produced by independent system of building heat supply, reduction of air pollution  due to hazardous gas emissions and reduction of heat pollution of the environment as a result of building ventilation system operation, ventilation of their internal and external sewerage network and higher reliability of their operation.The target is achieved because the device with complex system for heat utilization and reduction of hazardous air emissions has additionally an assembly tank for mixing flue gases, ventilation emissions and atmospheric air, heat pump. Evaporation zone of the pump is a condensator of the gas mixture and its condensate zone contains a heat supply line for a heat consumer. The line is equipped with assembling  and distributing collectors, pipeline connecting the heat supply line with the system of direct and return delivery water from a boiler house, a separator for division of liquid and gaseous mixture phases, neutralizing devices for separate reduction of concentrations of hazardous and odorous substances being released in gaseous and liquid portions of the mixture, a pipeline for periodic supply of air with higher concentration of hazardous and odorous substances in the boiler furnace. The supplied air is obtained as a result of its passing through gas filters at their regeneration when their exchange capacity is exhausted.

  13. 75 FR 17111 - Hazardous Materials Regulations: Combustible Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... the probability and quantity of a hazardous material release. Under the HMR, hazardous materials are... present during transportation. The HMR specify appropriate packaging and handling requirements for... hazardous materials in commerce. During our regulatory review process, we look for opportunities that may...

  14. Industrial ecology: Environmental chemistry and hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-01-01

    Industrial ecology may be a relatively new concept -- yet it`s already proven instrumental for solving a wide variety of problems involving pollution and hazardous waste, especially where available material resources have been limited. By treating industrial systems in a manner that parallels ecological systems in nature, industrial ecology provides a substantial addition to the technologies of environmental chemistry. Stanley E. Manahan, bestselling author of many environmental chemistry books for Lewis Publishers, now examines Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste. His study of this innovative technology uses an overall framework of industrial ecology to cover hazardous wastes from an environmental chemistry perspective. Chapters one to seven focus on how industrial ecology relates to environmental science and technology, with consideration of the anthrosphere as one of five major environmental spheres. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with hazardous substances and hazardous waste, as they relate to industrial ecology and environmental chemistry.

  15. Environmental releases for calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1998-01-01

    This report fulfills the annual environmental release reporting requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1. This report provides supplemental information to the Hanford Site Environmental Report (PNNL-11795). The Hanford Site Environmental Report provides an update on the environmental status of the Hanford Site. The sitewide annual report summarizes the degree of compliance with applicable environmental regulations and informs the public concerning the impact of Hanford Site operations on the surrounding environment. Like the Hanford Site Environmental Report, this annual report presents a summary of the environmental releases from facilities and activities managed by the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated (FDH), and Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI). In addition to the summary data, this report also includes detailed data on air emissions, liquid effluents, and hazardous substances released to the environment during calendar year 1997. Comprehensive data summaries of air emissions and liquid effluents in 1997 are displayed in Tables ES-1 through ES-5. These tables represent the following: Table ES-1--Radionuclide air emissions data (detailed data on emissions are presented in Section 2.0); Table ES-2--Data on radioactive liquid effluents discharged to the soil (detailed data are presented in Section 3.0); Table ES-3--Radionuclides discharged to the Columbia River (detailed data are presented in Section 3.0); Table ES-4--Nonradioactive air emissions data (detailed data are presented in Section 2.0); Table ES-5--Total Volumes and Flow Rates of 200/600 Area Radioactive Liquid Effluents (detailed data are presented in Section 3.0)

  16. Quick Release of Internal Water Storage in a Glacier Leads to Underestimation of the Hazard Potential of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods From Lake Merzbacher in Central Tian Shan Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Donghui; Ding, Yongjian; Liu, Shiyin; Xie, Zunyi; Pieczonka, Tino; Xu, Junli; Moldobekov, Bolot

    2017-10-01

    Glacial meltwater and ice calving contribute to the flood volume of glacial lakes such as Lake Merzbacher in the Tian Shan Mountains of central Asia. In this study, we simulated the lake's volume by constructing an empirical relationship between the area of Lake Merzbacher, determined from satellite images, and the lake's water storage, derived from digital elevation models. Results showed that the lake water supply rate before Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) generally agreed well with those during the GLOFs from 2009 to 2012 but not in 2008 and 2015. Furthermore, we found that the combination of glacial meltwater and ice calving is not enough to fully explain the supply rate during GLOFs in 1996 and 1999, suggesting other factors affect the supply rate during GLOFs as well. To examine this further, we compared the water supply rate before and during GLOF events in 1999 and 2008. We inferred that quickly released short-term and intermediate-term water storage by glaciers have likely contributed to both flood events in those years. This study highlights the need to improve our understanding of the supply component of outburst floods, such as irregularly released stored water may lead to GLOF events with generally three different types: case I (singular event-triggered englacial water release), case II (glacier melt due to temperature changes), and case III (englacial water release mixed with glacier melt).

  17. Psychotropic substances in indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Romagnoli, Paola; Perilli, Mattia; Patriarca, Claudia; Balducci, Catia

    2014-10-01

    The presence of drugs in outdoor air has been established, but few investigations have been conducted indoors. This study focused on psychotropic substances (PSs) at three schools, four homes and one office in Rome, Italy. The indoor drug concentrations and the relationships with the outdoor atmosphere were investigated. The optimised monitoring procedure allowed for the determination of cocaine, cannabinoids and particulate fractions of nicotine and caffeine. In-field experiments were performed during the winter, spring and summer seasons. Psychotropic substances were observed in all indoor locations. The indoor concentrations often exceeded those recorded both outdoors at the same sites and at the atmospheric pollution control network stations, indicating that the drugs were released into the air at the inside sites or were more persistent. During winter, the relative concentrations of cannabinol, cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol depended on site and indoor/outdoor location at the site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relative consequences of transporting hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Rhyne, W.R.; Simmons, J.A.; Reese, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss methods under study at Transportation Technology Center to develop a perspective on how technical measures of hazard and risk relate to perception of hazards, harm, and risks associated with transporting hazardous materials. This paper is concerned with two major aspects of the relative hazards problem. The first aspect is the analyses of the possible effects associated with exposure to hazardous materials as contained in the following two parts: outlines of possible problems and controversies that could be encountered in the evaluation and comparisons of hazards and risks; and description of the various measures of harm (hazards or dangers) and subsequent comparisons thereof. The second aspect of this paper leads into a presentation of the results of a study which had the following purposes: to develop analytical techniques for a consistent treatment of the phenomenology of the consequences of a release of hazardous materials; to reduce the number of variables in the consequence analyses by development of transportation accident scenarios which have the same meteorological conditions, demography, traffic and population densities, geographical features and other appropriate conditions and to develop consistent methods for presenting the results of studies and analyses that describe the phenomenology and compare hazards. The results of the study are intended to provide a bridge between analytical certainty and perception of the hazards involved. Understanding the differences in perception of hazards resulting from transport of various hazardous materials is fraught with difficulties in isolating the qualitative and quantitative features of the problem. By relating the quantitative impacts of material hazards under identical conditions, it is hoped that the perceived differences in material hazards can be delineated and evaluated

  19. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  20. Accidental Release of Chlorine from a Storage Facility and an On-Site Emergency Mock Drill: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambalathumpara Raman Soman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current industrial scenario there is a serious need for formulating strategies to handle hazardous substances in the safest way. Manufacture, storage, and use of hazardous substances pose a serious risk to industry, people, and the environment. Accidental release of toxic chemicals can lead to emergencies. An emergency response plan (ERP is inevitable to minimize the adverse effects of such releases. The on-site emergency plan is an integral component of any process safety and risk management system. This paper deals with an on-site emergency response plan for a chlorine manufacturing industry. It was developed on the basis of a previous study on chlorine release and a full scale mock drill has been conducted for testing the plan. Results indicated that properly trained personnel can effectively handle each level of incidents occurring in the process plant. As an extensive guideline to the district level government authorities for off-site emergency planning, risk zone has also been estimated with reference to a chlorine exposure threshold of 3 ppm.

  1. Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment.

  2. Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment

  3. Civil nuclear: which hazards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document briefly indicates and describes the various hazards of exposure to radioactivity in relationship with the different stages of exploitation of nuclear energy: mining, exploitation, fuel reprocessing and waste management. It briefly presents and describes the scenarios associated with major risks in the exploitation phase: core fusion (description, possible origins, consequences in terms of possible releases), formation of hydrogen (chemical reaction, risk of explosion with releases, failure modes for the containment enclosure). It proposes a brief overview of consequences for mankind and for the environment due to irradiation and contamination. A brief assessment of major nuclear accidents is given, with an indication of their severity INES classification (Kyshtym, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Fukushima). It evokes incidents which occurred in France, and outlines the main challenges and stakes in terms of risk prevention, of plant control, of nuclear material and waste management, of public information, and of struggle against nuclear weapon proliferation. Actors and their roles are indicated: operator (EDF in France), control authority (ASN), actors in charge of waste management (ANDRA), research and information institutions (CEA, IRSN, CRIIRAD), international scientific bodies (UNSCEAR)

  4. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Advanced Materials Laboratory hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, B.; Banda, Z.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy Order 55OO.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the AML. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 23 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets.

  6. TSCA Chemical Substance Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Section 8 (b) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires EPA to compile, keep current, and publish a list of each chemical substance that is manufactured or processed in the United States for TSCA uses.

  7. Onshore preparedness for hazardous chemical marine vessel accidents: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisel T. Illiyas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous and noxious substances (HNS are widely transported in marine vessels to reach every part of the world. Bulk transportation of hazardous chemicals is carried out in tank container–carrying cargo ships or in designed vessels. Ensuring the safety of HNS containers during maritime transportation is critically important as the accidental release of any substance may be lethal to the on-board crew and marine environment. A general assumption in maritime accidents in open ocean is that it will not create any danger to the coastal population. The case study discussed in this article throws light on the dangers latent in maritime HNS accidents. An accident involving an HNS-carrying marine vessel in the Arabian Sea near the coast of Yemen became a safety issue to the coastal people of Kasargod District of Kerala, India. The ship carried more than 4000 containers, which were lost to the sea in the accident. Six HNS tank containers were carried by the waves and shored at the populated coast of Kasargod, more than 650 nautical miles east from the accident spot. The unanticipated sighting of tank containers in the coast and the response of the administration to the incident, the hurdles faced by the district administration in handling the case, the need for engaging national agencies and lessons learned from the incident are discussed in the article. This case study has proven that accidents in the open ocean have the potential to put the coastal areas at risk if the on-board cargo contains hazardous chemicals. Littoral nations, especially those close to the international waterlines, must include hazardous chemical spills to their oil spill contingency plans.

  8. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  9. Radioiodination of humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, K.; Kupsch, H. [Inst. of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The known IODO-GEN trademark -method was adapted for radiolabeling of humic and fulvic acids with {sup 131}I. The water insoluble oxidizing agent 1,3,4,6tetrachloro-3{alpha},6{alpha}-diphenylglycoluril (IODO-GEN trademark) forms an iodous ion species (I{sup +}), which undergoes an electrophilic I/H-substitution on aromatic moieties of the humic and fulvic acids. This method offers mild conditions with a lesser extent of oxidative alterations of the target molecule, accompanied by an easy handling due to the virtual water-insolubility of the oxidizing agent. The method was optimized and different techniques were tested for the purification of the radioiodinated humic material. The yield of the labeling procedure varies between 45 and 75% depending on the provenance of the humic material and the applied purification method. A specific activity up to 40 MBq/mg was achieved. Furthermore, the known inherent photo-susceptibility of the iodinated humic substance and the influence of reducing agents were verified. An additional release of {sup 131}I up to 20% and up to 35%, respectively were observed. (orig.)

  10. Journal of NIRE, Vol. 5, No. 1, January 1996. Special issue: Behavior in the environment and countermeasure technology of hazardous chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Contents: Technique for Management of Hazardous Chemical Substances --Risk Assessment; Behaviors of Chemicals in the Aquatic Environment; Numerical Model of Chemical Fate in an Environment; Source Characterization and Chemical Processes of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere; Development of Sensor for Hazardous Substances; Removal of Chemical Substances from the Atmosphere by Photocatalysis; Microbial Degradation of Organic Xenobiotics in Environment.

  11. Classification of radiation-hazardous objects by the ecological risk rate, based on the concept of the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetrov, V.A.

    2003-01-01

    The principal categories of the radiation-hazardous objects (RHO) (nuclear fuel cycle plants (NFC including NPP); ships with nuclear engine units and appropriate service facilities; units related with nuclear weapons (design, manufacture, storage, etc.); contaminated territories in the result nuclear accidents and nuclear facilities tests; civil enterprises using the radioactive sources) with real accident risk from radioactive substances (RS) release into environment are considered. For assessment of the ecological risk rate from RHO the International Nuclear Event Scale implemented by IAEA for NPP use is suggested. By opinion of the specialists the INES criteria could be used for radiation events assessment to other RHO that gives possibility for RHO arrangement by the potential hazard rate for environment in the case of accident. For RHO qualitative classification the main parameters assessment influencing on radioactive release risk (amount (total activity) of radioactive substances; possibility of chain reaction development; strength of technological parameters, etc.) was suggested. On the base of the INES all above-listed RHO kinds in the case of accident could be conditionally separated into three categories: 1. most radiation dangerous objects, on which could be severe and serious radiation accidents (corresponding to 4-7 INES levels); 2. RHO on which there is risk for accidents accompanying with RS release (accidents up to 4 INES level). 3. RHO without practical possibility for event (incidents - not higher 3 INES level). Introduction of suggested classification gives possibility for RHO safety control requirements rationalizing to radiation monitoring purposes for both RHO and the local systems

  12. Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominick, J.

    2008-01-01

    This document details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) criteria and processes for determining if potentially volumetrically contaminated or potentially surface contaminated wastes are to be managed as material containing residual radioactivity or as non-radioactive. This document updates and replaces UCRL-AR-109662, Criteria and Procedures for the Certification of Nonradioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 1), also known as 'The Moratorium', and follows the guidance found in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) document, Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 2). The 1992 Moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) is three volumes and 703 pages. The first volume provides an overview of the certification process and lists the key radioanalytical methods and their associated Limits of Sensitivities. Volumes Two and Three contain supporting documents and include over 30 operating procedures, QA plans, training documents and organizational charts that describe the hazardous and radioactive waste management system in place in 1992. This current document is intended to update the previous Moratorium documents and to serve as the top-tier LLNL institutional Moratorium document. The 1992 Moratorium document was restricted to certification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), State and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste from Radioactive Material Management Areas (RMMA). This still remains the primary focus of the Moratorium; however, this document increases the scope to allow use of this methodology to certify other LLNL wastes and materials destined for off-site disposal, transfer, and re-use including non-hazardous wastes and wastes generated outside of RMMAs with the potential for DOE added radioactivity. The LLNL organization that authorizes off-site transfer/disposal of a material or waste stream is responsible for implementing the requirements of this document. The LLNL Radioactive and

  13. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, L.; Vogel, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Studies from the natural hazards literature indicate that many natural processes, including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow and earthquakes, show evidence of nonstationary behavior such as trends in magnitudes through time. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on partial duration series (PDS) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e. that the probability of exceedance is constant through time. Given evidence of trends and the consequent expected growth in devastating impacts from natural hazards across the world, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (x) with its failure time series (t), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose PDS magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied Poisson-GP model. We derive a 2-parameter Generalized Pareto hazard model and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard event series x, with corresponding failure time series t, should have application to a wide class of natural hazards.

  14. 40 CFR 302.4 - Designation of hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 7803-55-6 4 P119 1000 (454) Amyl acetate 628-63-7 1 5000 (2270) iso-Amyl acetate 123-92-2 sec-Amyl... N.A. 2,3 ** Antimony Compounds N.A. 2,3 ** Antimony pentachloride 7647-18-9 1 1000 (454) Antimony... 5000 (2270) iso-Butyl acetate 110-19-0 sec-Butyl acetate 105-46-4 tert-Butyl acetate 540-88-5 n-Butyl...

  15. 16 CFR 1500.17 - Banned hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...)(2); and part 1507). (4) Liquid drain cleaners containing 10 percent or more by weight of sodium and/or potassium hydroxide; except that this subparagraph shall not apply to such liquid drain cleaners... and U.S. importers from sales losses, production changes, and inventory retrofitting, and slightly...

  16. Sustainability Management Beyond the Corporate Boundaries Focus on hazardous substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, A.; Ustailieva, E.

    2012-01-01

    The need for government, business and society to address the global sustainability challenges is becoming increasingly urgent. Companies function and compete progressively more on a supply chain level, in specific networks with their suppliers and service providers. So a focus on supply chains is a

  17. Chemical Safety Alert: Lightning Hazard to Facilities Handling Flammable Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raises awareness about lightning strikes, which cause more death/injury and damage than all other environmental elements combined, so industry can take proper precautions to protect equipment and storage or process vessels containing flammable materials.

  18. 40 CFR 116.4 - Designation of hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... acetic acid, vinegar acid Acetic anhydride 108247 Acetic oxide, acetyl oxide Acetone cyanohydrin 75865 2... Allyl alcohol 107186 2-propen-1-ol, 1-propenol-3, vinyl carbinol Allyl chloride 107051 3-chloropropene..., mercaptomethane, methyl sulfhydrate, thiomethyl alcohol Methyl methacrylate 80626 Methacrylic acid methyl ester...

  19. Reactive chemicals and process hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surianarayanan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Exothermic chemical reactions are often accompanied by significant heat release, and therefore, need a thorough investigation before they are taken to a plant scale. Sudden thermal energy releases from exothermic decompositions and runaway reactions have contributed to serious fire and explosions in several chemical process plants. Similarly, thermal runaway had also occurred in storage and transportation of reactive chemicals. The secondary events of thermal runaway reactions can be rupture of process vessel, toxic spills and release of explosive vapor clouds or combination of these also. The explosion hazards are governed by the system thermodynamics and kinetics of the thermal process. Theoretical prediction of limiting temperature is difficult due to process complexities. Further, the kinetic data obtained through classical techniques, at conditions far away from runaway situation, is often not valid for assessing the runaway behavior of exothermic processes. The main focus of this lecture is to discuss the causes and several contributing factors for thermal runaway and instability and present analyses of the methodologies of the new instrumental techniques for assessing the thermal hazards of reactive chemicals during processing, storage and transportation. (author)

  20. The underground diposal of hazardous wastes - necessity, possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A.G.; Brumsack, H.J.; Heinrichs, H.

    1985-01-01

    The natural geochemical cycles of many elements in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and pedosphere have been changed during the past decades by anthropogenic activities. To put a stop to this development, a drastic reduction of the uncontrolled dispersal of potentially hazardous substances into our environment is necessary, compelling the need for the safe disposal of radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous wastes far away from the biosphere. The amount of potentially hazardous waste produced annually in West Germany is larger by a factor of at least 20 than the volume of hazardous material for which suitable underground disposal sites are planned and available at present. (orig.)

  1. Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2004-01-01

    Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today's waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous long-term management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by external intrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the long-term success of the prescribed system. In fact

  2. The transport of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goemmel, F.

    1987-01-01

    The rapid development of all kinds of transports has been leading to a continuously increasing number of accidents involving the release and escape of hazardous materials. The risks involved for men and the environment have to be realized and reduced to a minimum. Efforts in this field have meanwhile been accumulating an enormous quantity of rules, recommendations and regulations. They comprise, among others, both national and international rail transport, maritime transport, inland shipping, air and road transport regulations adding up to a total of about 5000 pages. The publication discusses the necessity and justification of the existing quantity of regulations, it deals with their possible simplification and modified user-oriented arrangement as well as with a possible international harmonization of regulations. Apart from giving a general survey of the transport of hazardous materials the author reviews the intensive efforts which are going into the safety of the transport of hazardous materials and points out technical and legal problems which have remained unsolved so far. The publication essentially contributes to clearing up the background, perspectives and prospects of the complex regulations controlling the transport of hazardous materials. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Testing of TSCA [Toxic Substances Control Act] incinerator for destruction of PCBs in uranium contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    A Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator for environmentally safe destruction of PCBs and hazardous organic materials contaminated with low level radioactive wastes from seven DOE facilities has been constructed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and has undergone performance testing with PCB surrogates. The system incorporates state-of-the-art off-gas treatment, a highly instrumented kiln and secondary combustion chamber, and an inert atmosphere solids handling feed system. Release of organic during an upset event, which triggers opening of the secondary combustion chamber relief vent, will be prevented by maintaining excess oxygen in the kiln and a high temperature in the secondary combustion chamber with an operating burner. Mixtures of chlorinated benzenes used in performance testing to simulate destruction of PCB, worst case studies to satisfy regulatory concerns, and implications of performance test results will be discussed. 4 refs

  4. Screening for prenatal substance use: development of the Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonkers, Kimberly A; Gotman, Nathan; Kershaw, Trace; Forray, Ariadna; Howell, Heather B; Rounsaville, Bruce J

    2010-10-01

    To report on the development of a questionnaire to screen for hazardous substance use in pregnant women and to compare the performance of the questionnaire with other drug and alcohol measures. Pregnant women were administered a modified TWEAK (Tolerance, Worried, Eye-openers, Amnesia, K[C] Cut Down) questionnaire, the 4Ps Plus questionnaire, items from the Addiction Severity Index, and two questions about domestic violence (N=2,684). The sample was divided into "training" (n=1,610) and "validation" (n=1,074) subsamples. We applied recursive partitioning class analysis to the responses from individuals in the training subsample that resulted in a three-item Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale. We examined sensitivity, specificity, and the fit of logistic regression models in the validation subsample to compare the performance of the Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale with the modified TWEAK and various scoring algorithms of the 4Ps. The Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale is comprised of three informative questions that can be scored for high- or low-risk populations. The Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale algorithm for low-risk populations was mostly highly predictive of substance use in the validation subsample (Akaike's Information Criterion=579.75, Nagelkerke R=0.27) with high sensitivity (91%) and adequate specificity (67%). The high-risk algorithm had lower sensitivity (57%) but higher specificity (88%). The Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale is simple and flexible with good sensitivity and specificity. The Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale can potentially detect a range of substances that may be abused. Clinicians need to further assess women with a positive screen to identify those who require treatment for alcohol or illicit substance use in pregnancy. III.

  5. [Airport security check of medical substances used during patient repatriation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkai, Péter

    2012-09-16

    During airport security check of passenger luggage, hazardous items and substances are prohibited to be taken into the restricted safety zone of the airport and the aircraft. Among equipment of the medical staff escorting the patient, there are several devices and materials which are considered hazardous for security reasons. However, medical equipment and substances are indispensable for treating patients during the flight. The aim of the author was to present his experience obtained with the use of an instrument developed for testing liquids, aerosols and gels for security reasons. An instrument based on Raman spectroscopy was used for the identification of medical substances. The results confirmed that the instrument was able to recognize the tested medical substances. The non-destructive testing maintained sample integrity and asepsis. The data indicate that the instrument has a promising utility for the identification of medical substances. It seems important that during repatriation medical substances should be selected not only on the ground of their medical necessity, but their packaging should be also taken into consideration. It is necessary to perform more tests on different medical substances used in emergency care in order to make the database of medical substances stored in the library of instrument more complete.

  6. Emergency preparedness hazards assessment for selected 100 Area Bechtel Hanford, Inc. facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The emergency preparedness hazards assessment for Bechtel Hanford Inc. (BHI) facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. The purpose of a hazards assessment is to identify the hazardous material at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. The hazards assessment is the technical basis for the facility emergency plans and procedures. There are many other buildings and past- practice burial grounds, trenches, cribs, etc., in the 100 Areas that may contain hazardous materials. Undisturbed buried waste sites that are not near the Columbia River are outside the scope of emergency preparedness hazards assessments because there is no mechanism for acute release to the air or ground water. The sites near the Columbia River are considered in a separate flood hazards assessment. This hazards assessment includes only the near-term soil remediation projects that involve intrusive activities

  7. Hazardous materials management and compliance training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, T.F.

    1991-01-01

    OSHA training for hazardous waste site workers is required by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). In December 1986, a series of regulations was promulgated by OSHA on an interim basis calling for the training of workers engaged in hazardous waste operations. Subsequent to these interim regulations, final rules were promulgated and these final rules on hazardous waste operations and emergency response became effective on March 6, 1990. OSHA has conducted hearings on the accreditation of training programs. OSHA would like to follow the accreditation process under the AHERA regulations for asbestos, in which the model plan for accreditation of asbestos abatement training was included in Section 206 of Title 11 of the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA). OSHA proposed on January 26, 1990, to perform the accreditation of training programs for hazardous waste operations and that proposal suggested that they follow the model plan similar to the one used for AHERA. They did not propose to accredited training programs for workers engaged in emergency response. These new regulations pose a significant problem to the various contractors and emergency responders who deal with hazardous materials spill response, cleanup and site remediation since these programs have expanded so quickly that many people are not familiar with what particular segment of the training they are required to have and whether or not programs that have yet to be accredited are satisfactory for this type of training. Title III of SARA stipulates a training program for first responders which includes local emergency response organizations such as firemen and policemen. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the needs of workers at hazardous waste site remediation projects and workers who are dealing with hazardous substances, spill response and cleanup

  8. Recent developments in health risks modeling techniques applied to hazardous waste site assessment and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, W.M. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Remediation of hazardous an mixed waste sites is often driven by assessments of human health risks posed by the exposures to hazardous substances released from these sites. The methods used to assess potential health risk involve, either implicitly or explicitly, models for pollutant releases, transport, human exposure and intake, and for characterizing health effects. Because knowledge about pollutant fate transport processes at most waste sites is quite limited, and data cost are quite high, most of the models currently used to assess risk, and endorsed by regulatory agencies, are quite simple. The models employ many simplifying assumptions about pollutant fate and distribution in the environment about human pollutant intake, and toxicologic responses to pollutant exposures. An important consequence of data scarcity and model simplification is that risk estimates are quite uncertain and estimates of the magnitude uncertainty associated with risk assessment has been very difficult. A number of methods have been developed to address the issue of uncertainty in risk assessments in a manner that realistically reflects uncertainty in model specification and data limitations. These methods include definition of multiple exposure scenarios, sensitivity analyses, and explicit probabilistic modeling of uncertainty. Recent developments in this area will be discussed, along with their possible impacts on remediation programs, and remaining obstacles to their wider use and acceptance by the scientific and regulatory communities

  9. 29 CFR 1917.23 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... menhaden and similar species of fish; § 1917.152 Welding, cutting, and heating (hot work); and § 1917.153...-contained breathing apparatus, which shall be utilized. (4) To prevent inadvertent employee entry into...

  10. Radon -- an environmental hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faheem, M.; Rahman, R.; Rahman, S.; Matiullah

    2005-01-01

    Humans have always been exposed throughout its period of experience to naturally occurring sources of ionizing radiation or natural background radiation, It is an established fact that even these low background doses are harmful to man and cause increased cancer risk. About half of our radiation comes from radon, a radioactive gas coming from normal materials in the ground. Several building materials such as granite, bricks, sand, cement etc., contain uranium in various amounts. The radioactive gas /sup 222/Rn produced in these materials due to decay of 226Ra is transported to indoor air through diffusion and convective flow. It seeps out of soil and rocks, well water, building materials and other sources at a varied rate. Amongst the naturally occurring radioisotopes, radon is the most harmful one that can be a cause of lung cancer. Radon isotopes are born by the decay of radium and radium production in turns comes from uranium or thorium decay. For humans the greatest importance among Radon isotopes is attributed to /sup 222/Rn because it is the longest lived of the three naturally produced isotopes. Drinking water also poses a threat. Radon gas is dissolved in water and is released into the air via water faucets, showerheads, etc. the lack of understanding has so far lead to speculative estimates of pollutant related health hazards. (author)

  11. Substance use - cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance abuse - cocaine; Drug abuse - cocaine; Drug use - cocaine ... thinking clearly Mood and emotional problems, such as aggressive or violent behavior Restlessness and tremors Sleep problems ...

  12. Substance use - phencyclidine (PCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PCP; Substance abuse - phencyclidine; Drug abuse - phencyclidine; Drug use - phencyclidine ... a result, you may act strangely or become aggressive and violent. PCP's other harmful effects include: It ...

  13. Surveillance of Washington OSHA exposure data to identify uncharacterized or emerging occupational health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Don J; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Adams, Darrin

    2010-07-01

    Chemical substance exposure data from the Washington State Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) program were reviewed to determine if inspections conducted as a result of a report of a hazard from a complainant or referent may alert the agency to uncharacterized or emerging health hazards. Exposure and other electronically stored data from 6890 health inspection reports conducted between April 2003 and August 2008 were extracted from agency records. A total of 515 (7%) inspections with one or more personal airborne chemical substance samples were identified for further study. Inspections by report of a hazard and by targeting were compared for the following: number of inspections, number and percentage of inspections with workers exposed to substances above an agency's permissible exposure limit, types of industries inspected, and number and type of chemical substances assessed. Report of a hazard inspections documented work sites with worker overexposure at the same rate as agency targeted inspections (approximately 35% of the time), suggesting that complainants and referents are a credible pool of observers capable of directing the agency to airborne chemical substance hazards. Report of a hazard inspections were associated with significantly broader distribution of industries as well as a greater variety of chemical substance exposures than were targeted inspections. Narrative text that described business type and processes inspected was more useful than NAICS codes alone and critical in identifying processes and industries that may be associated with new hazards. Finally, previously identified emerging hazards were found among the report of a hazard data. These findings indicate that surveillance of OSHA inspection data can be a valid tool to identify uncharacterized and emerging health hazards. Additional research is needed to develop criteria for objective review and prioritization of the data for intervention. Federal OSHA and other state

  14. Determination and calculation of hazardous incident scenarios in accordance with the 3rd hazardous incident administrative instruction. Vol. 2; Ermittlung und Berechnung von Stoerfallablaufszenarien nach Massgabe der 3. Stoerfallverwaltungsvorschrift. Bd. 2: Berechnungsmethoden, aktuelle Modelle und Modellgleichungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, W; Rogazewski, P; Schindler, M [TUeV Anlagentechnik GmbH, Berlin-Schoeneberg (Germany). Unternehmensgruppe TUeV Rheinland/Berlin-Brandenburg; Acikalin, A; Albrecht, M; Lambert, M; Steinbach, J [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    At present there are used various of procedures, calculation methods, models and model equations for hazardous incident scenarios. The procedure on principle is varying often. This guideline explains in one main part and six appendixes the methodical procedure to select specifications and assumptions on hazardous incident scenarios and their processing. Hazardous incident scenarios lead to information on emergency preparedness planning. Both general viewpoints and possibilities are shown, how to find necessary basic assumptions on a hazardous incident scenario from information on hazardous substances, on comparable hazardous incidents and on conditions of the site and the plant. Appendixes deal with precise instructions distinguished between substance release, explosion and fire (app. 1: Assessment of source terms, app. 2: Assessment of dispersion, app. 3: Assessment of effects). Appendix 4 gives explanations to appendixes 1, 2 and 3. Appendix 5 contains a collection of 15 examples of hazardous incident scenarios, which illustrate and comment the methodical procedure. Appendix 6 describes and comments software available on German market which assists the calculating of hazardous incidents. Volume 2 determines procedures with regard to methods of calculation, current models and model equations from scientists point of view. (orig.) [German] Derzeit wird eine Vielzahl von Vorgehensweisen, Berechnungsmethoden, Modellen und Modellgleichungen fuer Stoerfallablaufszenarien verwendet. Das prinzipielle Vorgehen ist haeufig unterschiedlich. Dieser Leitfaden enthaelt in einem Hauptteil und sechs Anhaengen das methodische Vorgehen zur Auswahl von Angaben und Annahmen fuer Stoerfallablaufszenarien sowie deren Bearbeitung. Stoerfallablaufszenarien fuehren zu Angaben fuer die Gefahrenabwehrplanung. Fuer das Ableiten von Stoerfallablaufszenarien sind sowohl allgemeine Gesichtspunkte als auch Moeglichkeiten dargelegt, wie man aus Angaben zu Gefahrstoffen, zu vergleichbaren

  15. Determination and calculation of hazardous incident scenarios in accordance with the 3rd hazardous incident administrative instruction. Vol. 1; Ermittlung und Berechnung von Stoerfallablaufszenarien nach Massgabe der 3. Stoerfallverwaltungsvorschrift. Bd. 1: Methodischer Teil zum Erarbeiten von Stoerfallablaufszenarien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, W.; Rogazewski, P.; Schindler, M. [TUeV Anlagentechnik GmbH, Berlin-Schoeneberg (Germany). Unternehmensgruppe TUeV Rheinland/Berlin-Brandenburg; Acikalin, A.; Albrecht, M.; Lambert, M.; Steinbach, J. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    At present there are used various procedures, calculation methods, models and model equations for hazardous incident scenarios. The procedure on principle is varying often. This guideline explains in one main part and six appendixes the methodical procedure to select specifications and assumptions on hazardous incident scenarios and their processing. Hazardous incident scenarios lead to information on emergency preparedness planning. Both general viewpoints and possibilities are shown, how to find necessary basic assumptions on a hazardous incident scenario from information on hazardous substances, on comparable hazardous incidents and on conditions of the site and the plant. Appendixes deal with precise instructions distinguished between substance release, explosion and fire (App. 1: Assessment of source terms, App. 2: Assessment of dispersion, App. 3: Assessment of effects). Appendix 4 gives explanations to appendixes 1, 2 and 3. Appendix 5 contains a collection of 15 examples of hazardous incident scenarios, which illustrate and comment the methodical procedure. Appendix 6 describes and comments software available on German market which assists the calculating of hazardous incidents. Volume 2 determines procedures with regard to methods of calculation, current models and model equations from scientists' point of view. (orig.) [German] Derzeit wird eine Vielzahl von Vorgehensweisen, Berechnungsmethoden, Modellen und Modellgleichungen fuer Stoerfallablaufszenarien verwendet. Das prinzipielle Vorgehen ist haeufig unterschiedlich. Dieser Leitfaden enthaelt in einem Hauptteil und sechs Anhaengen das methodische Vorgehen zur Auswahl von Angaben und Annahmen fuer Stoerfallablaufszenarien sowie deren Bearbeitung. Stoerfallablaufszenarien fuehren zu Angaben fuer die Gefahrenabwehrplanung. Fuer das Ableiten von Stoerfallablaufszenarien sind sowohl allgemeine Gesichtspunkte als auch Moeglichkeiten dargelegt, wie man aus Angaben zu Gefahrstoffen, zu vergleichbaren

  16. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    CERN Document Server

    Grams, W H

    2000-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from t...

  17. Global Landslide Hazard Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Hazard Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide and snow avalanche hazards based upon work of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute...

  18. Job Hazard Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Establishing proper job procedures is one of the benefits of conducting a job hazard analysis carefully studying and recording each step of a job, identifying existing or potential job hazards...

  19. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-04-01

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.

  20. Robotics and artificial intelligence for hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spelt, P.F.

    1993-01-01

    In our technological society, hazardous materials including toxic chemicals, flammable, explosive, and radioactive substances, and biological agents, are used and handled routinely. Each year, many workers who handle these substances are accidently contaminated, in some cases resulting in injury, death, or chronic disabilities. If these hazardous materials could be handled remotely, either with a teleoperated robot (operated by a worker in a safe location) or by an autonomous robot, then human suffering and economic costs of accidental exposures could be dramatically reduced. At present, it is still difficult for commercial robotic technology to completely replace humans involved in performing complex work tasks in hazardous environments. The robotics efforts at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research represent a significant effort at contributing to the advancement of robotics for use in hazardous environments. While this effort is very broad-based, ranging from dextrous manipulation to mobility and integrated sensing, the technical portion of this paper will focus on machine learning and the high-level decision making needed for autonomous robotics

  1. Radioactive Substances Act 1948

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1948-01-01

    This Act regulates the use of radioactive substances and radiation producing devices in the United Kingdom. It provides for the control of import, export, sale, supply etc. of such substances and devices and lays down the safety regulations to be complied with when dealing with them. (NEA) [fr

  2. Transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  3. The transportation of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, J.C.

    1981-04-01

    The increasing use of dangerous chemicals and petroleum products by S.A. industry makes it necessary for some form of control to be introduced to regulate the transport of these materials before a major disaster occurs, such as has occurred overseas. This report examines all the aspects that could increase the likelihood of such a disaster occurring, including the preparedness of emergency services. It also recommends the improvements or changes required to minimize this possibility. It is apparent that the training and ability of vehicle drivers are key areas in this respect and they are discussed at length. Forthcoming regulations under the Hazardous Substances Act No. 15 of 1973 are examined and the effects of over-restrictive legislation considered. The report concludes that legislation promulgated gradually to reinforce voluntary industrial practices will ultimately restrict this type of transport to the safety-conscious and competent operator, therefore minimizing the risk as much as possible

  4. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Richard C.

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  5. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment. (3) Vital US. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  6. Stimulant ADHD medication and risk for substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Halldner, Linda; D'Onofrio, Brian; Serlachius, Eva; Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik

    2014-08-01

    There are persistent concerns of long-term effects of stimulant ADHD medication on the development of substance abuse. Using Swedish national registers, we studied all individuals born between 1960 and 1998 and diagnosed with ADHD (26,249 men and 12,504 women). We investigated the association between stimulant ADHD medication in 2006 and substance abuse during 2009. Substance abuse was indexed by substance-related death, crime, or hospital visits. ADHD medication was not associated with increased rate of substance abuse. Actually, the rate during 2009 was 31% lower among those prescribed ADHD medication in 2006, even after controlling for medication in 2009 and other covariates (hazard ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.84). Also, the longer the duration of medication, the lower the rate of substance abuse. Similar risk reductions were suggested among children and when investigating the association between stimulant ADHD medication and concomitant short-term abuse. We found no indication of increased risks of substance abuse among individuals prescribed stimulant ADHD medication; if anything, the data suggested a long-term protective effect on substance abuse. Although stimulant ADHD medication does not seem to increase the risk for substance abuse, clinicians should remain alert to the potential problem of stimulant misuse and diversion in ADHD patients. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  7. Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtsson, G

    1988-07-01

    Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances involve trade-offs between various incomparable factors such as risks to human health and other environmental risks, public perceptions, costs and uncertainties. Two different approaches towards these trade-offs are discussed. In one approach, all relevant factors are defined and trade-offs are considered using a general and very elaborate analysis. Cost-benefit analysis is an exponent of this approach. An illustration is given for the regulation of transboundary releases of radioactive materials. The other approach considers what is politically feasible for the time being and seeks a decision with much room for later corrections. Incrementalism is a philosophy in this vein. It is illustrated by reference to the regulation of transboundary air pollution. Weaknesses and strengths of the two approaches are discussed. (author)

  8. Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1988-01-01

    Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances involve trade-offs between various incomparable factors such as risks to human health and other environmental risks, public perceptions, costs and uncertainties. Two different approaches towards these trade-offs are discussed. In one approach, all relevant factors are defined and trade-offs are considered using a general and very elaborate analysis. Cost-benefit analysis is an exponent of this approach. An illustration is given for the regulation of transboundary releases of radioactive materials. The other approach considers what is politically feasible for the time being and seeks a decision with much room for later corrections. Incrementalism is a philosophy in this vein. It is illustrated by reference to the regulation of transboundary air pollution. Weaknesses and strengths of the two approaches are discussed. (author)

  9. Hazardous Material Packaging and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-04

    This is a student training course. Some course objectives are to: recognize and use standard international and US customary units to describe activities and exposure rates associated with radioactive material; determine whether a quantity of a single radionuclide meets the definition of a class 7 (radioactive) material; determine, for a given single radionuclide, the shipping quantity activity limits per 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 173.435; determine the appropriate radioactive material hazard class proper shipping name for a given material; determine when a single radionuclide meets the DOT definition of a hazardous substance; determine the appropriate packaging required for a given radioactive material; identify the markings to be placed on a package of radioactive material; determine the label(s) to apply to a given radioactive material package; identify the entry requirements for radioactive material labels; determine the proper placement for radioactive material label(s); identify the shipping paper entry requirements for radioactive material; select the appropriate placards for a given radioactive material shipment or vehicle load; and identify allowable transport limits and unacceptable transport conditions for radioactive material.

  10. Emergency planning for industrial hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gow, H.B.F.; Kay, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The European Communities have produced a Directive on the Major Accident Hazards of Certain Industrial Activities which sets out standards for the control and mitigation of the hazards presented by sites and storages which contain significant quantities of dangerous substances. An essential element of these controls is the provision of effective on-and off-site emergency plans. This conference explores the considerable research effort which is going on throughout the world in the improvement of systems for emergency planning. Attention was also drawn to areas where difficulties still exist, for example in predicting the consequences of an accident, the complexities of communication problems and the difficulties arising from involvement of the public. The proceedings are in six parts which deal with organizations implementing emergency planning: on- and off-site emergency planning and design; techniques for emergency plans; expenses and auditing of emergency plans; lessons learnt from the emergency management of major accidents; information to the public to and during emergencies. (author)

  11. New Class of Hybrid Materials for Detection, Capture, and "On-Demand" Release of Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Lupan, Alexandru; Ellingford, Christopher; Attia, Amr A A; Barry, Nicolas P E

    2018-04-25

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is both a substance hazardous to health and a side product of a number of industrial processes, such as methanol steam reforming and large-scale oxidation reactions. The separation of CO from nitrogen (N 2 ) in industrial processes is considered to be difficult because of the similarities of their electronic structures, sizes, and physicochemical properties (e.g., boiling points). Carbon monoxide is also a major poison in fuel cells because of its adsorption onto the active sites of the catalysts. It is therefore of the utmost economic importance to discover new materials that enable effective CO capture and release under mild conditions. However, methods to specifically absorb and easily release CO in the presence of contaminants, such as water, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and oxygen, at ambient temperature are not available. Here, we report the simple and versatile fabrication of a new class of hybrid materials that allows capture and release of carbon monoxide under mild conditions. We found that carborane-containing metal complexes encapsulated in networks made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) react with CO, even when immersed in water, leading to dramatic color and infrared signature changes. Furthermore, we found that the CO can be easily released from the materials by simply dipping the networks into an organic solvent for less than 1 min, at ambient temperature and pressure, which not only offers a straightforward recycling method, but also a new method for the "on-demand" release of carbon monoxide. We illustrated the utilization of the on-demand release of CO from the networks by carrying out a carbonylation reaction on an electron-deficient metal complex that led to the formation of the CO-adduct, with concomitant recycling of the gel. We anticipate that our sponge-like materials and scalable methodology will open up new avenues for the storage, transport, and controlled release of CO, the silent killer and a major industrial poison.

  12. Methane release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  13. Biochemical and Medical Information for Marine Hazardous Substances. Volume 3. Marine Hazardous Chemical Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    and respiratory tract; CNS depression .. at high concentrations. chronic: Dermatitis BIOL. FATE/METABOLITES: N/A . 1 MEDICAL MONITORIG : Medical exam...accidental: N/A chronic: Silicosis, pulmonary fibrosis, normally years of exposure are required, but in very heavy dust clouds disease developes in less time

  14. [Immunotoxicity and environmental substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    A well functioning immune system is essential in maintaining integrity of the organism, and malfunction may have severe health consequences. Environmental substances may pose direct toxicity to components of the immune system, often leading to immunosuppression and resulting reduced resistance to infections and tumors. Alternatively, such substances may be recognized by the immune system in a specific fashion, which may result in allergy and autoimmunity. A proper risk assessment of environmental substances in terms of immunotoxicity is necessary. In this manuscript, I reviewed recent three topics about immunotoxicity: (1) IPCS/WHO Guidance for immunotoxicity risk assessment for chemicals, (2) Intestinal immunotoxicity, and (3) Epicutaneous sensitization of food proteins.

  15. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GAULT, G.W.

    1999-10-13

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved TWRS Authorization Basis (AB). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the TWRS FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The TWRS Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The database supports the preparation of Chapters 3,4, and 5 of the TWRS FSAR and the USQ process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Evaluation Database--Data from the results of the hazard evaluations; and (2) Hazard Topography Database--Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  16. Accidental release of chlorine in Chicago: Coupling of an exposure model with a Computational Fluid Dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, E. Y.; Colman Lerner, J. E.; Porta, A.; Jacovkis, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The adverse health effects of the release of hazardous substances into the atmosphere continue being a matter of concern, especially in densely populated urban regions. Emergency responders need to have estimates of these adverse health effects in the local population to aid planning, emergency response, and recovery efforts. For this purpose, models that predict the transport and dispersion of hazardous materials are as necessary as those that estimate the adverse health effects in the population. In this paper, we present the results obtained by coupling a Computational Fluid Dynamics model, FLACS (FLame ACceleration Simulator), with an exposure model, DDC (Damage Differential Coupling). This coupled model system is applied to a scenario of hypothetical release of chlorine with obstacles, such as buildings, and the results show how it is capable of predicting the atmospheric dispersion of hazardous chemicals, and the adverse health effects in the exposed population, to support decision makers both in charge of emergency planning and in charge of real-time response. The results obtained show how knowing the influence of obstacles in the trajectory of the toxic cloud and in the diffusion of the pollutants transported, and obtaining dynamic information of the potentially affected population and of associated symptoms, contribute to improve the planning of the protection and response measures.

  17. The Problems of implementation of the European Union directives for electrical and electronic equipment hazardousness

    OpenAIRE

    Vaišvila, Anicetas; Vaičikonis, Eduardas

    2006-01-01

    The problems of implementation of two new EU Directives is discussed in this article. It is so called WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) and RoHS (Restriction of use of certain Hazardous Substances in electrical and electronic equipment), as well as influence of these directives to quality and environmental management systems. The RoHS directive requires a number of potentially hazardous substances (lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated byphenyls (PBB) and ...

  18. Presence of selected priority and personal care substances in an onsite bathroom greywater treatment facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Donner, E.; Ledin, Anna

    2010-01-01

    -out Priority/Priority Hazardous Substances (PS/PHS) is growing, and it is vital to know their sources and flows in order to generate sustainable emission control strategies. The main objective of this study was to quantify the concentrations and loads of PS/PHS and personal care substances in bathroom...

  19. 29 CFR 570.57 - Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations (Order 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.57 Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations... radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations are particularly hazardous and detrimental to health for... involves exposure to ionizing radiations in excess of 0.5 rem per year. (b) Definitions. As used in this...

  20. EFFECT OF SUBSTANCE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OF HEALTH OFFICER AND MEDICAL STUDENTS OF JIMMA. UNIVERSITY ... cannabis or marihuana and khat (2, 3). Reports showed that these substances ... mainly through cancer especially lung cancer, of which about 90% of cases are ...

  1. Toxic substances handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

  2. Toxic substances alert program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    A toxicity profile is provided, of 187 toxic substances procured by NASA Lewis Research Center during a 3 1/2 year period, including 27 known or suspected carcinogens. The goal of the program is to assure that the center's health and safety personnel are aware of the procurement and use of toxic substances and to alert and inform the users of these materials as to the toxic characteristics and the control measures needed to ensure their safe use. The program also provides a continuing record of the toxic substances procured, who procured them, what other toxic substances the user has obtained in the past, and where similar materials have been used elsewhere at the center.

  3. Software safety hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper

  4. DOE Hazardous Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.; Craig, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of the DOE Hazardous Waste Program is to support the implementation and improvement of hazardous-chemical and mixed-radioactive-waste management such that public health, safety, and the environment are protected and DOE missions are effectively accomplished. The strategy for accomplishing this goal is to define the character and magnitude of hazardous wastes emanating from DOE facilities, determine what DOE resources are available to address these problems, define the regulatory and operational constraints, and develop programs and plans to resolve hazardous waste issues. Over the longer term the program will support the adaptation and application of technologies to meet hazardous waste management needs and to implement an integrated, DOE-wide hazardous waste management strategy. 1 reference, 1 figure

  5. Hazardous waste shipment data collection from DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, L.A.; Kirkpatrick, T.D.; Stevens, L.

    1992-01-01

    Past practices at the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites for offsite release of hazardous waste are being reviewed to determine if radioactively contaminated hazardous wastes were released to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Records indicating the presence of radioactivity in waste shipped to and treated at a commercial incineration facility led to a ban on offsite hazardous waste shipments and investigation of past practices for offsite release of hazardous waste from the DOE sites. A House of Representatives Interior and Insular Affairs Committee oversight hearing on potentially contaminated waste shipments to commercial facilities concluded that the main issue was the lack of a uniform national standard to govern disposal of mixed waste

  6. Problems of substance abuse: exploitation and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, L

    1985-01-01

    The notion of substance abuse is highly problematic. There is considerable disagreement amongst 'experts' as to the relative hazards and addictive properties of both legally and illegally available substances. There are also widely divergent sub-cultural attitudes to the harmfulness or benefit of drug use. One can assume no social consensus as to the nature of the contemporary 'drug problem', nor about the most appropriate means of dealing with it. There is, however, considerable evidence that criminalization of drug use, and harsh penalties against users and suppliers, are ineffective and counter-productive. Other models of control need to be considered, and in particular the merits and de-merits of the medicalization of drug abuse require examination. However, this is only one aspect of the problem. On the other side are the national and international corporations and syndicates, both legitimate and criminal, that earn vast profits from trade in toxic substances. Tobacco is legally available in every country in the world, and the industry is rarely subject to strict control. Thus the issue of substance abuse and control should be seen in a global context, in which account is taken of both legitimate and underworld operations. In attempts to control international trade in toxic substances, the limited success and the problems of already existing legal controls should be acknowledged. Local awareness and regulation of trade in substances is essential, but not sufficient. Amongst other avenues to be explored is the possibility of diverting presently illicitly grown narcotics into indigenous pharmaceutical industries in the Third World. Some problems with this strategy are noted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Radon and its hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Guilan

    2002-01-01

    The author describes basic physical and chemical properties of radon and the emanation, introduces methods of radon measurement, expounds the hazards of non-mine radon accumulation to the health of human being and the protection, as well as the history how the human being recognizes the hazards of radon through the specific data and examples, and finally proposes protecting measures to avoid the hazards of radon to the health of human being, and to do ecologic evaluation of environments

  8. Transport of hazardous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The course 'Transport of hazardous goods' was held in Berlin in November 1988 in cooperation with the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung. From all lecturs, two are recorded separately: 'Safety of tank trucks - requirements on the tank, development possibiities of active and passive safety' and 'Requirements on the transport of radioactive materials - possible derivations for other hazardous goods'. The other lectures deal with hazardous goods law, requirements on packinging, risk assessment, railroad transport, hazardous goods road network, insurance matters, EC regulations, and waste tourism. (HSCH) [de

  9. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  10. 75 FR 60632 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Direct Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Direct Final Rule AGENCY... management and treatment of several F- and K-waste codes. These waste codes are F037, F038, K048, K049, K051... released from the waste, plausible and specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the quantities...

  11. Nanoformulation and antibiotic releasing property of cefotaxime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to design nano-antibiotic to enhance their release from biomaterial agents. Cefotaxime was used as a model antibiotic substance in this carrier system. These nanoparticles were preformulated using different concentrations of polycaprolactone (PCL) and poly (vinyl alcohol) as coating material ...

  12. Proceedings of the scientific meeting on 'behavior and distributions of trace substances in the environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, M.; Matsuzuru, H.

    1998-02-01

    The scientific meeting was held at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University on December 11-12, 1997. This single report covers all aspects concerning association of trace substances such as pesticides/herbicides, organic chemicals and radionuclides in the environment. The reason for having this meeting is to describe the distribution and behavior of trace substances in which the emphasis is directed towards the dynamic interaction between the soil-sediment-water system and the contaminants. The Chernobyl accident raised the attention on the fate of radionuclides released in the environment and stimulated many scientists, who carry out large scale 'field experiments' without using a tracer in a laboratory. Of course, fundamental laboratory studies are necessary to give direction to and to understand observations from field studies. These activities have brought a lot of knowledge and understanding towards revealing a part of the complexity of the transport processes. It is hoped that the assembled experts, will not only dwell on distinct scientific issues, but also be able to draw firm conclusions with respect to the effective environmental management of the ecological aspects of hazardous materials. The 25 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  13. Applicability of concentration factors for the heavy metals hazard identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzi, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    The bioconcentration factor (BCF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) used as criteria for heavy metals hazards identification are inadequate. These considerations is based on the argument that the BCF-BAF model was developed and validated for xenobiotic synthetic organic substances and that does not recognize the complex internal metal dynamic of uptake, the internal sequestration, and the essentially of some heavy metals [it

  14. 40 CFR 721.72 - Hazard communication program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., processed, or used in the employer's workplace, the employer must add the new information to the MSDS before... implement a written hazard communication program for the substance in each workplace. The written program... the workplace or for individual work areas. (2) The methods the employer will use to inform employees...

  15. 16 July 1985: Royal Order amending the Royal Order of 24 April 1964 on approval of a certain type of apparatus containing radioactive substances, made in implementation of Section 3.1.d/2 of the Royal Order of 28 February 1963 enacting General Regulations for Protection of the Population and Workers against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The amendments made by this Order mainly concern additional information to be supplied in the context of the approval procedure for certain types of devices containing radioactive substances which are in current use. (NEA) [fr

  16. The initial phase of sudden releases of superheated liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidli, J.

    1994-04-01

    The catastrophic failure of a pressure vessel containing a liquefied substance, leading to an instantaneous release of its whole contents is considered as one of the major technological hazards. Due to the rapid depressurization caused by vessel failure, the fluid becomes superheated and unstable. Part of the fluid will evaporate using its internal energy and the two-phase mixture forming will be accelerated. This flashing process can be very violent, as experiments and incidents actually happened have shown. In the past, a number of dispersion models were developed to predict the history of an instantaneous release. In most of these models the source term is considered to be a gas volume at rest and not a rapidly expanding aerosol, as could be observed. Furthermore, it is usually assumed that all of the remaining fluid is entrained into the expanding cloud and nothing is deposited on the ground to form a pool. This work concentrates on the initial phase of the sudden release of superheated liquids with the aim to gain a better understanding of the flashing process and of the physical mechanisms involved, leading to a reliable prediction of the source term. Therefore, more than 400 experiments with propane, butane, refrigerant 12 and 114 were conducted. The experiments were initiated by shattering spherical glass flasks of different sizes. The main parameters varied were the liquid superheat and the filling level of the vessel. Using high-speed video and movie recordings and very fast responding measurement devices, it was possible to study the initial phase of such releases during which gravity plays no role. For sufficiently large released internal energy, the initial evolution of the release was always spherical with a constant radial expansion velocity during he first milliseconds until instabilities appeared at the surface of the droplet/vapor cloud that was formed. For all the experimental conditions, the fraction of the initial liquid falling on the ground

  17. A comprehensive approach to managing hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, A.

    1990-01-01

    An increased emphasis on the need for environmental protection indicates that engineers must now consider the disposition of unused hazardous materials as waste. Before specifying and ordering materials, the engineer must consider the impact of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Hazard Communication Standard. Many commonly used materials such as paint, solvents, glues, and sealants fall under the requirements of these regulations. This paper presents a plant to manage hazardous materials at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is managed and operated by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The basic elements of the plan are training, hazard communication, storage and handling, tracking, and disposal. Steps to be taken to develop the plan are outlined, problems and successes are addressed, and interactions among all affected departments are identified. The benefits of an organized and comprehensive approach to managing hazardous materials are decreased worker injuries, reduction of accidental releases, minimization of waste, and compliance with federal, state, and local safety and environmental laws. In summary, the benefits of an organized program for the management of hazardous materials include compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) requirements, demonstration of Westinghouse's role as a responsible corporate entity, and reduction of waste management costs

  18. Avoiding the Hazards of Hazardous Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Under a 1980 law, colleges and universities can be liable for cleanup of hazardous waste on properties, in companies, and related to stocks they invest in or are given. College planners should establish clear policy concerning gifts, investigate gifts, distance university from business purposes, sell real estate gifts quickly, consult a risk…

  19. Handbook of hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metry, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The contents of this work are arranged so as to give the reader a detailed understanding of the elements of hazardous waste management. Generalized management concepts are covered in Chapters 1 through 5 which are entitled: Introduction, Regulations Affecting Hazardous Waste Management, Comprehensive Hazardous Waste Management, Control of Hazardous Waste Transportation, and Emergency Hazardous Waste Management. Chapters 6 through 11 deal with treatment concepts and are entitled: General Considerations for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities, Physical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Chemical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Biological Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Incineration of Hazardous Wastes, and Hazardous Waste Management of Selected Industries. Chapters 12 through 15 are devoted to ultimate disposal concepts and are entitled: Land Disposal Facilities, Ocean Dumping of Hazardous Wastes, Disposal of Extremely Hazardous Wastes, and Generalized Criteria for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities

  20. Effects of major depression on remission and relapse of substance dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Deborah; Liu, Xinhua; Nunes, Edward; McCloud, Steven; Samet, Sharon; Endicott, Jean

    2002-04-01

    The effects of major depressive disorder (MDD) on the course of substance dependence may differ depending on the temporal relationship of depression to dependence. We investigated the effects of MDD on the outcome of substance dependence under 3 circumstances: (1) lifetime onset of MDD prior to lifetime onset of dependence onset, (2) current MDD occurring during a period of abstinence, and (3) current MDD during substance use that exceeded the expected effects of intoxication or withdrawal. A sample of 250 inpatients with DSM-IV cocaine, heroin, and/or alcohol dependence were followed up at 6, 12, and 18 months. The Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders (PRISM) was used to make DSM-IV diagnoses. Using Cox proportional hazards models, stable remissions (those lasting at least 26 weeks) from DSM-IV cocaine, heroin, and/or alcohol dependence and from use were studied, as well as subsequent relapses of dependence and use. Patients with current substance-induced MDD were less likely to remit from dependence (adjusted hazards ratio, 0.11) than patients with no baseline MDD. A history of MDD prior to lifetime onset of substance dependence also reduced the likelihood of remission relative to the absence of such a history (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.49). Major depressive disorder during sustained abstinence predicted dependence relapse (adjusted hazards ratio, 3.07) and substance use after hospital discharge compared with those without abstinence MDD (adjusted hazards ratio, 1.45). The timing of depressive episodes relative to substance dependence served as an important factor in the remission and relapse of substance dependence and substance use.

  1. Substance Misuse in the Psychiatric Emergency Service; A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chaput

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance misuse is frequently encountered in the psychiatric emergency service (PES and may take many forms, ranging from formal DSM-IV diagnoses to less obvious entities such as hazardous consumption. Detecting such patients using traditional screening instruments has proved problematic. We therefore undertook this study to more fully characterize substance misuse in the PES and to determine whether certain variables might help better screen these patients. We used a prospectively acquired database of over 18,000 visits made to four PESs during a 2-year period in the province of Quebec, Canada. One of the variables acquired was a subjective rating by the nursing staff as to whether substance misuse was a contributing factor to the visit (graded as direct, indirect, or not at all. Substance misuse accounted for 21% of all diagnoses and alcohol was the most frequent substance used. Patients were divided into those with primary (PSM, comorbid (CSM or no substance misuse (NSM. Depressive disorders were the most frequent primary diagnoses in CSM, whereas personality and substance misuse disorders were frequent secondary diagnoses in PSM. Although many variables significantly differentiated the three groups, few were sufficiently detailed to be used as potential screening tools. Those situations that did have sufficient details included those with a previous history of substance misuse, substance misuse within 48 hours of the visit, and visits graded by the nursing staff as being directly and/or indirectly related to substance misuse. Variables related to substance misuse itself were the primary predictors of PSM and, less significantly, CSM. The nursing staff rating, although promising, was obtained in less than 30% of all visits, rendering its practical use difficult to assess.

  2. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  3. Hazardous solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article is an overview of efforts at INEL to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes through the elimination of hazardous solvents. To aid in their efforts, a number of databases have been developed and will become a part of an Integrated Solvent Substitution Data System. This latter data system will be accessible through Internet

  4. Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DL Strenge; MK White; RD Stenner; WB Andrews

    1999-01-01

    The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation)

  5. Hazardous Waste Manifest System

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s hazardous waste manifest system is designed to track hazardous waste from the time it leaves the generator facility where it was produced, until it reaches the off-site waste management facility that will store, treat, or dispose of the waste.

  6. Hazards of chemical weapons release during war: new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, S

    1999-01-01

    The two major threat classes of chemical weapons are mustard gas and the nerve agents, and this has not changed in over 50 years. Both types are commonly called gases, but they are actually liquids that are not remarkably volatile. These agents were designed specifically to harm people by any route of exposure and to be effective at low doses. Mustard gas was used in World War I, and the nerve agents were developed shortly before, during, and after World War II. Our perception of the potency of chemical weapons has changed, as well as our concern over potential effects of prolonged exposures to low doses and potential target populations that include women and children. Many of the toxicologic studies and human toxicity estimates for both mustard and nerve agents were designed for the purpose of quickly developing maximal casualties in the least sensitive male soldier. The "toxicity" of the chemical weapons has not changed, but our perception of "toxicity" has. PMID:10585902

  7. Offsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the offsite transportation of hazardous material from the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 151.1. Offsite transportation accidents are categorized using the DOE system to assist communication within the DOE and assure that appropriate assistance is provided to the people in charge at the scene. The assistance will initially include information about the load and the potential hazards. Local authorities will use the information to protect the public following a transportation accident. This Hazards Assessment will focus on the material being transported from the Hanford Site. Shipments coming to Hanford are the responsibility of the shipper and the carrier and, therefore, are not included in this Hazards Assessment, unless the DOE elects to be the shipper of record

  8. 75 FR 28227 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ...-AP48 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production... published a proposed rule for mercury emissions from the gold mine ore processing and production area source... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Hazardous substances, Incorporations by reference, Reporting...

  9. Hazard reduction for the application of titania nanoparticles in environmental technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2008-01-01

    Photocatalytically active titania (TiO2) nanoparticles are applied, and considered for application, in the degradation of hazardous substances. However, these nanoparticles are also hazardous by themselves. High efficiency immobilization of TiO2 nanoparticles on large inorganic supports that are not

  10. Preliminary Hazard Classification of the 1714-N, Lead Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, N. R.

    1999-01-01

    The 1714-N, -NA and -NB is a building segment that was deactivated under the N Area Deactivation Project. During the deactivation the building was designated as an area to store recycled or reused lead products. This document presents the Preliminary Hazard Classification (PHC) for the continued storage of lead products by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI). Two types of hazardous substances are the focus of this PHC: lead and residual radiological contamination. An evaluation contained in this PHC concludes that there is little risk from the remaining hazardous substances. It was further concluded that standard institutional controls that are implemented under the BHI contract provide adequate protection to people and the environment. No further safety analysis documentation is required for the continued lead storage

  11. Substance abuse in anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Guasch, Roser; Roigé, Jaume; Padrós, Jaume

    2012-04-01

    Anaesthesiologists have a significantly higher frequency of substance abuse by a factor of nearly 3 when compared with other physicians. This is still a current problem that must be reviewed. Many hypotheses have been formulated to explain why anaesthesiologists appear to be more susceptible to substance abuse than other medical professionals (genetic differences in sensitivity to opioids, stress, the association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology or the second-hand exposure hypothesis). Environmental exposure and sensitization may be an important risk factor in physician addiction. There is a long debate about returning to work for an anaesthetist who has been depending on opioid drugs, and recent debates are discussed. Institutional efforts have been made in many countries and physician health programmes have been developed. As drug abuse among anaesthesiologists has continued, new studies have been conducted to know the theories about susceptibility. Written substance abuse policies and controls must be taken in place and in all countries.

  12. Detection of diffusible substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warembourg, M [Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France)

    1976-12-01

    The different steps of a radioautographic technique for the detection of diffusible substances are described. Using this radioautographic method, the topographic distribution of estradiol-concentrating neurons was studied in the nervous system and pituitary of the ovariectomized mouse and guinea-pig. A relatively good morphological preservation of structures can be ascertained on sections from unfixed, unembedded tissues prepared at low temperatures and kept-under relatively low humidity. The translocation or extraction of diffusible substances is avoided by directly mounting of frozen sections on dried photographic emulsion. Since no solvent is used, this technique excludes the major sources of diffusion artifacts and permits to be in favourable conditions for the localization of diffusible substances.

  13. A review of implicit and explicit substance self-concept as a predictor of alcohol and tobacco use and misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Neighbors, Clayton; Gasser, Melissa L; Ramirez, Jason J; Cvencek, Dario

    2017-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the self-concept as it relates to substance use. Self-concept has a long history in psychological theory and research; however, substance self-concept (e.g., viewing one's self as a drinker or smoker) is an understudied area of research with the potential to expand existing conceptualizations of substance use, addiction, and prevention and treatment efforts, and should receive greater research attention. First, we review and provide a theoretical framework of substance self-concept that draws from dual process models and distinguishes between implicit and explicit self-concept. Next, we summarize key findings related to substance use in the extant literature, focusing on alcohol and tobacco (smoking). Across both substances, there is converging evidence that substance self-concept is associated with substance use outcomes, including quantity and frequency of use and problems associated with use, and that change in substance self-concept is associated with recovery from substance misuse. Recommendations for the substance self-concept research agenda include routine assessment of substance self-concept, expanded use of implicit measures, investigation of moderators of substance self-concept, and targeting substance self-concept directly in prevention and intervention efforts. Ultimately, we suggest that substance self-concept is a promising, but understudied, construct. Greater research attention to substance self-concept could clarify its potential as an important risk factor for hazardous use and addiction as well as its utility as a prevention and treatment target.

  14. Natural hazards science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research—founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes—can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events.To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science.In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H–SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory

  15. Analysis of the utilization of existing test data for phase-in substance registration under the Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of Chemical Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong-In; Kwak, Yeong-Don; Jung, Yu-Mi; Ryu, Byung-Taek; Kim, Chang Gyun

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 2000 phase-in substances are subject to registration according to the Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of Chemical Substances (KREACH), and the expected testing cost is 2.06 trillion Korean won assuming all the test data required for registration are acquired. The extent to which these enormous test costs can be reduced depends on the availability of existing data that can be used to meet the requirements of the K-REACH we examined the current availability of test data that can be used for chemical substance registration. We analyzed the possibility of utilizing the existing test data obtained from 16 reference databases for 369 of 518 kinds of phase-in substances subject to registration that were reported in last October 2014. The physical and chemical properties were available for 57.1% of substances, whereas data regarding human hazards and environmental hazards were available at considerably lower rates, 8.5% and 11.8%, respectively. Physical and chemical properties were available for a fairly high proportion, whereas human hazards and environmental hazards were reported for considerably fewer substances.

  16. Leaching behaviour of hazardous waste under the impact of different ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorini, Isabella; Baldi, Francesco; Bacchi, Donata; Carnevale, Ennio Antonio; Corti, Andrea

    2017-05-01

    The overall objective of this study is to provide an improved basis for the assessment of the leaching behaviour of waste marked as hazardous partly stabilised (European waste catalogue code 19 03 04 ∗ ). Four samples of hazardous partly stabilised waste were subjected to two leaching tests: up-flow column tests and batch equilibrium tests. The research was carried out in two directions: the first aims at comparing the results of the two experimental setups while the second aims at assessing the impact of different ambient conditions on the leaching behaviour of waste. Concerning this latter objective the effect of mesophilic temperature, mechanical constraints and acid environment were tested through column percolation tests. Results showed no significant differences between batch and column leaching test outcomes when comparing average concentrations calculated at a liquid to solid ratio of 10:1 l kg -1  TS. Among the tested ambient conditions, the presence of an acid environment (pH=4.5) accelerated the leaching process resulting in a higher cumulative released quantity measured on the majority of the investigated polluting substances. On the contrary, the effect of temperature and mechanical constraints seemed to not affect the process showing final contents even lower than values found for the standard test. This result was furthermore confirmed by the application of the principal component analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Substance abuse and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussas, G I; Papadopoulou, A G

    2017-01-01

    Substance abuse is a health problem with serious psychological and psychiatric dimensions and multiple social and economic consequences. Cancer is a disease that threatens not only life and physical integrity but mental health as well. Oncology patients suffer from mental disorders in high rates, especially from depression and anxiety. The role of substance abuse in the pathogenesis of cancer is studied systematically, since there are research data supporting the mutagenic effects of certain substances. It has been supported that a possible dysregulation of the immune system is linked to the oncogenic processes induced by substances of abuse. Specifically, opioids are the first addictive substances that have been identified as oncogenic factors. However, conflicting results have been offered by experimental animal studies, which showed that opioids, such as morphine, depending on the dosage administered, may not only enhance the process of tumor growth, but also inhibit it. Additionally, research data indicate that the use of cannabis may be associated with cancer, either as an independent factor or in relation to other mutagenics, although it is not yet clear to which extent these effects may be connected to the disease, especially once the consumption of tobacco and alcohol by these patients are taken into account. However, it has been argued that certain cannabinoids may have biological -anticancer- activities which could be used therapeutically without being accompanied by the corresponding 9-tetrahydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is well known that alcohol is a risk factor for developing head and neck cancer, and epidemiological studies indicate that the higher the consumption of alcohol, the more mortality due to cancer increases. In addition, it is suggested that there is no safety level for alcohol consumption regarding the risk of developing cancer; that is even a minimum daily consumption is associated with the occurrence of certain types of cancer

  18. Hazard screening application guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The basic purpose of hazard screening is to group precesses, facilities, and proposed modifications according to the magnitude of their hazards so as to determine the need for and extent of follow on safety analysis. A hazard is defined as a material, energy source, or operation that has the potential to cause injury or illness in human beings. The purpose of this document is to give guidance and provide standard methods for performing hazard screening. Hazard screening is applied to new and existing facilities and processes as well as to proposed modifications to existing facilities and processes. The hazard screening process evaluates an identified hazards in terms of the effects on people, both on-site and off-site. The process uses bounding analyses with no credit given for mitigation of an accident with the exception of certain containers meeting DOT specifications. The process is restricted to human safety issues only. Environmental effects are addressed by the environmental program. Interfaces with environmental organizations will be established in order to share information

  19. Kauai Test Facility hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swihart, A

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Energy Order 55003A requires facility-specific hazards assessment be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Kauai Test Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. The Kauai Test Facility`s chemical and radiological inventories were screened according to potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance to the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 4.2 kilometers. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency at the {open_quotes}Main Complex{close_quotes} and a Site Area Emergency at the Kokole Point Launch Site. The Emergency Planning Zone for the {open_quotes}Main Complex{close_quotes} is 5 kilometers. The Emergency Planning Zone for the Kokole Point Launch Site is the Pacific Missile Range Facility`s site boundary.

  20. Kauai Test Facility hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swihart, A.

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Energy Order 55003A requires facility-specific hazards assessment be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Kauai Test Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. The Kauai Test Facility's chemical and radiological inventories were screened according to potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance to the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 4.2 kilometers. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency at the open-quotes Main Complexclose quotes and a Site Area Emergency at the Kokole Point Launch Site. The Emergency Planning Zone for the open-quotes Main Complexclose quotes is 5 kilometers. The Emergency Planning Zone for the Kokole Point Launch Site is the Pacific Missile Range Facility's site boundary

  1. Evaluating and Addressing Potential Hazards of Fuel Tanks Surviving Atmospheric Reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Robert L.; Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2011-01-01

    In order to ensure reentering spacecraft do not pose an undue risk to the Earth's population it is important to design satellites and rocket bodies with end of life considerations in mind. In addition to considering the possible consequences of deorbiting a vehicle, consideration must also be given to the possible risks associated with a vehicle failing to become operational or reach its intended orbit. Based on recovered space debris and numerous reentry survivability analyses, fuel tanks are of particular concern in both of these considerations. Most spacecraft utilize some type of fuel tank as part of their propulsion system. These fuel tanks are most often constructed using stainless steel or titanium and are filled with potentially hazardous substances such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. For a vehicle which has reached its scheduled end of mission the contents of the tanks are typically depleted. In this scenario the use of stainless steel and titanium results in the tanks posing a risk to people and property do to the high melting point and large heat of ablation of these materials leading to likely survival of the tank during reentry. If a large portion of the fuel is not depleted prior to reentry, there is the added risk of hazardous substance being released when the tank impact the ground. This paper presents a discussion of proactive methods which have been utilized by NASA satellite projects to address the risks associated with fuel tanks reentering the atmosphere. In particular it will address the design of a demiseable fuel tank as well as the evaluation of off the shelf designs which are selected to burst during reentry.

  2. Yellow substance (gelbstoff)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, A.

    1988-04-01

    The different values of the mean slope (S) of the absorption coefficient a(λ) of gelbstoff (yellow substance) for each region under the same hydrological conditions and the correlation between the quantity of absorption (CA) of gelbstoff and sea water parameter is discussed. 12 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  4. RAPID-N: Assessing and mapping the risk of natural-hazard impact at industrial installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazard-triggered technological accidents (so-called Natech accidents) at hazardous installations can have major consequences due to the potential for release of hazardous materials, fires and explosions. Effective Natech risk reduction requires the identification of areas where this risk is high. However, recent studies have shown that there are hardly any methodologies and tools that would allow authorities to identify these areas. To work towards closing this gap, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre has developed the rapid Natech risk assessment and mapping framework RAPID-N. The tool, which is implemented in an online web-based environment, is unique in that it contains all functionalities required for running a full Natech risk analysis simulation (natural hazards severity estimation, equipment damage probability and severity calculation, modeling of the consequences of loss of containment scenarios) and for visualizing its results. The output of RAPID-N are risk summary reports and interactive risk maps which can be used for decision making. Currently, the tool focuses on Natech risk due to earthquakes at industrial installations. However, it will be extended to also analyse and map Natech risk due to floods in the near future. RAPID-N is available at http://rapidn.jrc.ec.europa.eu. This presentation will discuss the results of case-study calculations performed for selected flammable and toxic substances to test the capabilities of RAPID-N both for single- and multi-site earthquake Natech risk assessment. For this purpose, an Istanbul earthquake scenario provided by the Turkish government was used. The results of the exercise show that RAPID-N is a valuable decision-support tool that assesses the Natech risk and maps the consequence end-point distances. These end-point distances are currently defined by 7 kPa overpressure for Vapour Cloud Explosions, 2nd degree burns for pool fire (which is equivalent to a heat radiation of 5 kW/m2 for 40s

  5. Flood Hazard Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  6. Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  7. Introduction: Hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.; Miyagi, Toyohiko; Lee, Saro; Trofymchuk, Oleksandr M

    2014-01-01

    Twenty papers were accepted into the session on landslide hazard mapping for oral presentation. The papers presented susceptibility and hazard analysis based on approaches ranging from field-based assessments to statistically based models to assessments that combined hydromechanical and probabilistic components. Many of the studies have taken advantage of increasing availability of remotely sensed data and nearly all relied on Geographic Information Systems to organize and analyze spatial data. The studies used a range of methods for assessing performance and validating hazard and susceptibility models. A few of the studies presented in this session also included some element of landslide risk assessment. This collection of papers clearly demonstrates that a wide range of approaches can lead to useful assessments of landslide susceptibility and hazard.

  8. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... regulate toxic air pollutants, also known as air toxics, from categories of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants ...

  9. Natural Hazards Image Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photographs and other visual media provide valuable pre- and post-event data for natural hazards. Research, mitigation, and forecasting rely on visual data for...

  10. Hazardous Waste Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is playing a major role in development of technologies for cleanup of toxic and hazardous waste in military...

  11. Health Hazard Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 1, 2018 Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluation, and Field Studies ... Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 ...

  12. What Are Volcano Hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheet 002-97 Revised March 2008 What Are Volcano Hazards? Volcanoes give rise to numerous geologic and ... as far as 15 miles from the volcano. Volcano Landslides A landslide or debris avalanche is a ...

  13. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, H. K.; Ichinose, G. A.; Somerville, P. G.; Polet, J.

    2006-12-01

    The recent tsunami disaster caused by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake has focused our attention to the hazard posed by large earthquakes that occur under water, in particular subduction zone earthquakes, and the tsunamis that they generate. Even though these kinds of events are rare, the very large loss of life and material destruction caused by this earthquake warrant a significant effort towards the mitigation of the tsunami hazard. For ground motion hazard, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has become a standard practice in the evaluation and mitigation of seismic hazard to populations in particular with respect to structures, infrastructure and lifelines. Its ability to condense the complexities and variability of seismic activity into a manageable set of parameters greatly facilitates the design of effective seismic resistant buildings but also the planning of infrastructure projects. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) achieves the same goal for hazards posed by tsunami. There are great advantages of implementing such a method to evaluate the total risk (seismic and tsunami) to coastal communities. The method that we have developed is based on the traditional PSHA and therefore completely consistent with standard seismic practice. Because of the strong dependence of tsunami wave heights on bathymetry, we use a full waveform tsunami waveform computation in lieu of attenuation relations that are common in PSHA. By pre-computing and storing the tsunami waveforms at points along the coast generated for sets of subfaults that comprise larger earthquake faults, we can efficiently synthesize tsunami waveforms for any slip distribution on those faults by summing the individual subfault tsunami waveforms (weighted by their slip). This efficiency make it feasible to use Green's function summation in lieu of attenuation relations to provide very accurate estimates of tsunami height for probabilistic calculations, where one typically computes

  14. Nitrous Oxide Explosive Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    concentrations of N2O. A test program is suggested that could answer questions about decomposition propagation control in large N2O systems and hazards...accident. OSHA fined Scaled Composites for not training their workers informing them about N2O hazards, instructing them on safe procedures, and...seemed present that could produce temperatures in excess of the autogeneous ignition temperature (AIT) for the polymers? Autogeneous ignition

  15. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  16. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  17. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  18. HAZARD ANALYSIS SOFTWARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, S; Tinh Tran, T.

    2008-01-01

    Washington Safety Management Solutions, LLC developed web-based software to improve the efficiency and consistency of hazard identification and analysis, control selection and classification, and to standardize analysis reporting at Savannah River Site. In the new nuclear age, information technology provides methods to improve the efficiency of the documented safety analysis development process which includes hazard analysis activities. This software provides a web interface that interacts with a relational database to support analysis, record data, and to ensure reporting consistency. A team of subject matter experts participated in a series of meetings to review the associated processes and procedures for requirements and standard practices. Through these meetings, a set of software requirements were developed and compiled into a requirements traceability matrix from which software could be developed. The software was tested to ensure compliance with the requirements. Training was provided to the hazard analysis leads. Hazard analysis teams using the software have verified its operability. The software has been classified as NQA-1, Level D, as it supports the analysis team but does not perform the analysis. The software can be transported to other sites with alternate risk schemes. The software is being used to support the development of 14 hazard analyses. User responses have been positive with a number of suggestions for improvement which are being incorporated as time permits. The software has enforced a uniform implementation of the site procedures. The software has significantly improved the efficiency and standardization of the hazard analysis process

  19. Carbon Structure Hazard Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Tommy; Greene, Ben; Porter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Carbon composite structures are widely used in virtually all advanced technology industries for a multitude of applications. The high strength-to-weight ratio and resistance to aggressive service environments make them highly desirable. Automotive, aerospace, and petroleum industries extensively use, and will continue to use, this enabling technology. As a result of this broad range of use, field and test personnel are increasingly exposed to hazards associated with these structures. No single published document exists to address the hazards and make recommendations for the hazard controls required for the different exposure possibilities from damaged structures including airborne fibers, fly, and dust. The potential for personnel exposure varies depending on the application or manipulation of the structure. The effect of exposure to carbon hazards is not limited to personnel, protection of electronics and mechanical equipment must be considered as well. The various exposure opportunities defined in this document include pre-manufacturing fly and dust, the cured structure, manufacturing/machining, post-event cleanup, and post-event test and/or evaluation. Hazard control is defined as it is applicable or applied for the specific exposure opportunity. The carbon exposure hazard includes fly, dust, fiber (cured/uncured), and matrix vapor/thermal decomposition products. By using the recommendations in this document, a high level of confidence can be assured for the protection of personnel and equipment.

  20. Controlled release studies of calcium alginate hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendevski, S.; Andonovski, A.; Mahmudi, N.

    2012-01-01

    Controlled release of substances in many cases may be achieved from calcium alginate hydrogels. In this research, the time dependence of the mass of released model substance bovine serum albumin (BSA) from calcium alginate spherical hydrogels of three different types (G/M ratio) have been investigated. The hydrogels were prepared with the drop-wise method of sodium alginate aqueous solutions with concentration of 0.02 g/cm 3 with 0.01 g/cm 3 BSA and a gelling water bath of chitosan in 0.2 M CH 3 COOH/0.4 M CH 3 COONa with added 0.2 M CaCl 2 .The hydrogel structures were characterized by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. The controlled release studies were conducted by UV-Vis spectrophotometry of the released medium with p H=7 at 37 °C. The results showed that the model of osmotic pumping is the dominant mechanism of the release. Also, large dependences of the release profile on the homogeneity of the hydrogels were found. (Author)